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Sample records for suzorite mica filler

  1. Fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, Leslie; Ingle, Danny

    The American Heritage dictionary defines filler as ‘something added to augment weight or size or fill space'. Historically, commercial papermakers have used a variety of inexpensive, minimally beneficiated minerals as fillers for economic extension of more costly wood fibre. As such, these fillers played a relatively inconsequential role in contributing specific quality characteristics to the final sheet. However, as paper grades have evolved, the role of mineral fillers has dramatically expanded to contribute specific functionality to final paper grades. In general, this has resulted in a broader offering of mineral products to the papermaker delivering a range of optical and physical properties. Additionally, the use of mineral fillers may significantly impact dynamics on the paper machine itself. For example, the type and level of filler can dramatically affect chemical demand, drainage, speed and drying rates. A basic understanding of the fundamental characteristics of fillers and their resulting impact, both within the paper matrix and on the paper machine, is a critical requirement for cost-effective grade optimization.

  2. Synergistic effects of mica and wollastonite fillers on thermal performance of intumescent fire retardant coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia-ul-Mustafa, M.; Ahmad, Faiz; Megat-Yusoff, Puteri S. M.; Aziz, Hammad

    2015-07-01

    In this study, intumescent fire retardant coatings (IFRC) were developed to investigate the synergistic effects of reinforced mica and wollastonite fillers based IFRC towards heat shielding, char expansion, char composition and char morphology. Ammonium poly-phosphate (APP) was used as acid source, expandable graphite (EG) as carbon source, melamine as blowing agent, boric acid as additive and Hardener H-2310 polyamide amine in bisphenol A epoxy resin BE-188(BPA) was used as curing agent. Bunsen burner fire test was used for thermal performance according to UL-94 for 1 h. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) was used to observe char microstructure. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyse char composition. The results showed that addition of clay filler in IFRC enhanced the fire protection performance of intumescent coating. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed the presence of boron phosphate, silicon phosphate oxide, aluminium borate in the char that improved the thermal performance of intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC). Resultantly, the presence of these developed compounds enhanced the Integrity of structural steel upto 500°C.

  3. Synergistic effects of mica and wollastonite fillers on thermal performance of intumescent fire retardant coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zia-ul-Mustafa, M., E-mail: engr.ziamustafa@gmail.com; Ahmad, Faiz; Megat-Yusoff, Puteri S. M.; Aziz, Hammad [Mechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    In this study, intumescent fire retardant coatings (IFRC) were developed to investigate the synergistic effects of reinforced mica and wollastonite fillers based IFRC towards heat shielding, char expansion, char composition and char morphology. Ammonium poly-phosphate (APP) was used as acid source, expandable graphite (EG) as carbon source, melamine as blowing agent, boric acid as additive and Hardener H-2310 polyamide amine in bisphenol A epoxy resin BE-188(BPA) was used as curing agent. Bunsen burner fire test was used for thermal performance according to UL-94 for 1 h. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) was used to observe char microstructure. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyse char composition. The results showed that addition of clay filler in IFRC enhanced the fire protection performance of intumescent coating. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed the presence of boron phosphate, silicon phosphate oxide, aluminium borate in the char that improved the thermal performance of intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC). Resultantly, the presence of these developed compounds enhanced the Integrity of structural steel upto 500°C.

  4. Wrinkle Fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known as injectable implants, soft tissue fillers, or wrinkle fillers are medical device implants approved by the ... for the correction of moderate to severe facial wrinkles and skin folds, such as nasolabial folds, which ...

  5. Research progress of composite fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixuan ZHAO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Using composite filler is a very potential way to braze dissimilar material, especially braze metals with ceramics. The composite filler which is added varieties of high temperature alloy, carbon fiber and ceramic particles has a suitable coefficient of thermal expansion. The application of composite filler can release the residual stress caused by mismatch of thermal expansion coefficient in the brazing joints and improve the overall performance significantly. According to the traditional classification method of composite materials, the composite filler is divided into micron-reinforced composite filler and nano-reinforced composite filler, of which the feature and research status are discussed in this text. According to the influence of different size reinforced phases on microstructure and mechanical property of the brazing joints, nano-reinforced composite filler has more uniform and better structure compared with micron-reinforced composite filler, and higher joint strengh can be obtained by using it. However, the reinforced mechanism is still an open question, and will become the key area of the future research work.

  6. Cannulas for facial filler placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJoseph, Louis M

    2012-05-01

    With more physicians performing injections to the face in increasingly sophisticated ways, techniques must evolve accordingly. Injectables are no longer mere wrinkle fillers but true panfacial volumizers that are placed in many different planes and tissues of the face, in contrast to fillers of the past used for the dermis. This development is providing better results previously not achievable with off-the-shelf fillers. Microcannulas represent a step forward in enhancing surgeons' ability to fill the face with less discomfort, edema, and ecchymosis, with faster recovery. Microcannulas will probably play a role in volume replacement for many years to come. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermal Degradation of Filler/PP Composite and Its Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Hiroshi; Funami, Fumiyasu; Yasuda, Naoki; Nomura, Manabu; Yui, Hiroshi; Ikuta, Nobuo

    To examine thermal degradation accelerated by filling inorganic particles in polypropylene (PP), the composites were made with three types of inorganic powders : talc, magnesium hydroxide, and mica. They were easily degraded with the fillers in this order in the thermal aging test. A commercial heat resistance agent, ‘Plenlizer MK-400’, was added while making the composites. The degradation resistance of the agent remarkably appeared in the reverse order. That is, thermal degradation was most depressed in talc-filled composite with the agent. In another experience, soxhlet extraction was carried out to the filler with an organic solvent, o-xylene, that was able to dissolve PP. A lot of inorganic ions were detected in the extractant. In particular, the detected amount of aluminum ion increased in the order of talc, magnesium hydroxide, and mica. This order was the same as the fillers indicated by the degree of degradation. Infrared analysis of the agent with inorganic ions in chloroform showed that the peaks due to the agent were much stronger with aluminum ion than those with iron ion. These results suggested that a cause of degradation was aluminum ion dispersed from particles to PP matrix during the molding.

  8. Avaliação das propriedades mecânicas de juntas cerâmicas usando fitas amorfas como metal de adição Evaluation of the mechanical properties of ceramic joint using amorphous ribbons as filler metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielton Gomes dos Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar os melhores parâmetros para brasagem de juntas cerâmicas de Al2O3 pré-metalizadas com Ti por processo a plasma utilizando fitas amorfas de ligas Cu49Ag45Cx e como metal de adição. As ligas foram preparadas em forno a arco, e, posteriormente processadas por melt-spinning, variando conteúdo Ce de 4-6. %. A brasagem foi realizada em forno à vácuo e as seguintes variáveis analisadas: tempo de deposição do filme de Ti e temperatura e tempo de brasagem , que foram relacionados com a resistência à flexão em 3 pontos da junta brazada. A equação de regressão linear foi obtida, e verificou-se a interação entre estes fatores. As superfícies cerâmicas metalizadas apresentaram excelente uniformidade e as juntas brasadas muito boa adesão atingindo valores de resistência à flexão de até 176,8 MPa.This work had as objective to establish de best brazing parameter to joint Al2O3 pre-metalized with Ti by plasma process using amorphous ribbons of Cu49g45Ce x alloys as filler metals. The alloys were prepared in arc furnace and processed by melt-spinning process varying the Ce percentiles from 4 to 6. % . The brazing was accomplished in vacuum furnace and the following variables analyzed: deposition time of Ti film, brazing temperature and brazing times which were related to the brazed joint 3-point bending resistance. The interaction between those factors was obtained by linear regression equation. The metalized ceramic surfaces presented an good uniformity and the joint a very good adhesion reaching bending resistance up to 176,8 MPa.

  9. 7 CFR 58.914 - Fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... evaporated milk fillers having brass parts may be approved if free from corroded surfaces and kept in good... Standards for Plastic, and Rubber and Rubber-Like Materials. Fillers shall be designed so that they in no...

  10. Joint Workplan on Filler Investigations for DPCs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This workplan addresses filler attributes (i.e., possible requirements), assumptions needed for analysis, selection of filler materials, testing needs, and a long-range perspective on R&D activities leading to filler demonstration and a safety basis for implementation.

  11. Silica Fillers for elastomer Reinforement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohls, D.J.; Schaefer, D.W. (UCIN)

    2012-09-10

    This article summarizes recent work on the structure of precipitated silica used in the reinforcement of elastomers. Silica has a unique morphology, consisting of multiple structural levels that can be controlled through processing. The ability to control and characterize the multiple structures of precipitated silica is an example of morphological engineering for reinforcement applications. In this summary of some recent research efforts using precipitated silica, small-angle scattering techniques are described and their usefulness for determining the morphology of silica in terms of primary particles, aggregates, and agglomerates are discussed. The structure of several different precipitated silica powders is shown as well as the mechanical properties of elastomers reinforced with these silica particles. The study of the mechanical properties of filled elastomer systems is a challenging and exciting topic for both fundamental science and industrial application. It is known that the addition of hard particulates to a soft elastomer matrix results in properties that do not follow a straightforward rule of mixtures. Research efforts in this area have shown that the properties of filled elastomers are influenced by the nature of both the filler and the matrix, as well as the interactions between them. Several articles have reviewed the influence of fillers like silica and carbon black on the reinforcement of elastomers. In general, the structure-property relationships developed for filled elastomers have evolved into the following major areas: Filler structure, hydrodynamic reinforcement, and interactions between fillers and elastomers.

  12. Silica Fillers for elastomer Reinforement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohls, D.J.; Schaefer, D.W. (UCIN)

    2009-08-26

    This article summarizes recent work on the structure of precipitated silica used in the reinforcement of elastomers. Silica has a unique morphology, consisting of multiple structural levels that can be controlled through processing. The ability to control and characterize the multiple structures of precipitated silica is an example of morphological engineering for reinforcement applications. In this summary of some recent research efforts using precipitated silica, small-angle scattering techniques are described and their usefulness for determining the morphology of silica in terms of primary particles, aggregates, and agglomerates are discussed. The structure of several different precipitated silica powders is shown as well as the mechanical properties of elastomers reinforced with these silica particles. The study of the mechanical properties of filled elastomer systems is a challenging and exciting topic for both fundamental science and industrial application. It is known that the addition of hard particulates to a soft elastomer matrix results in properties that do not follow a straightforward rule of mixtures. Research efforts in this area have shown that the properties of filled elastomers are influenced by the nature of both the filler and the matrix, as well as the interactions between them. Several articles have reviewed the influence of fillers like silica and carbon black on the reinforcement of elastomers. In general, the structure-property relationships developed for filled elastomers have evolved into the following major areas: Filler structure, hydrodynamic reinforcement, and interactions between fillers and elastomers.

  13. Fillers in dermatology: from past to present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Anna H

    2015-11-01

    Injectable fillers were introduced in dermatology as a method for reconstructing facial deformities and restoring the aging face. Although fillers have become a popular option among cosmetic patients, clinical experience has shown that fillers must be used with caution, as complications can occur. This article provides a brief review of the history of filler agents currently available for soft tissue augmentation. Although no single filler is ideal for all patients, indications, and situations, residents should be aware of the properties and characteristics that make each product unique.

  14. Influência da adição e da modificação química de uma carga mineral nanoparticulada nas propriedades mecânicas e no envelhecimento térmico de compósitos poliuretano/sisal Influence of a nanoparticulate mineral filler addition and chemical modification of the mechanical properties and thermal aging of PU/Sisal composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Roberta O. Pinto

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata do efeito da hibridização do reforço, através da adição de uma carga mineral (bentonita nanoparticulada, no desempenho mecânico de compósitos poliuretano/sisal contendo 25% em massa de fibras de sisal e moldados por compressão. As propriedades mecânicas, de tração e impacto, dos sistemas compósitos estudados foram avaliadas em função do teor (0-10% em massa e de modificações químicas da carga mineral. Os efeitos do envelhecimento térmico nas propriedades tênseis (sigma, E, épsilon de compósitos selecionados também foram investigados. O reforço mineral (Bentonita sódica Brasgel-PA foi empregado em quatro formas, a saber: a como fornecido (sem tratamento, b tratado com ácido clorídrico (0,6N, c modificado com cloreto de dodecil dimetil benzil amônio (Dodigen e d modificado com brometo de cetil trimetil amônio (Cetremide. Os resultados indicam que a incorporação da bentonita eleva as propriedades mecânicas dos compósitos e que melhores propriedades foram obtidas quando a bentonita foi tratada com o ácido clorídrico. O envelhecimento térmico em tempos curtos (até 4 dias provocou elevação no módulo elástico e resistência na ruptura dos compósitos, o que foi atribuído à pós-cura da matriz. Em tempos longos (32 dias a exposição térmica causou decréscimo nas propriedades tênseis (sigma, E, épsilon dos compósitos investigados, o que foi atribuído à degradação oxidativa da matriz e dos reforços. O compósito mais resistente ao envelhecimento térmico foi o híbrido cuja carga mineral foi organofilizada com o sal Cetremide. Anáslies por DRX e MEV indicam que a estrutura dos compósitos híbridos é um misto de micro e nanocompósito.This work deals with filler hybridization effects, by the addition of a nanoparticulate mineral filler (bentonite, on the mechanical performance of compression molded Polyurethane/sisal composites with 25 wt % fiber content. Composite tensile and

  15. Elucidation of filler-to-filler and filler-to-rubber interactions in silica-reinforced natural rubber by TEM Network Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkawi, S.S.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Filler-to-rubber interaction is a key parameter in the reinforcement of rubber. This paper presents an investigation into filler-to-filler and filler-to-rubber interactions in silica-reinforced natural rubber (NR) in the presence and absence of a silane coupling agent. Using a special network

  16. Skin rejuvenation without a scalpel. I. Fillers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneke, E.

    2006-01-01

    Fillers are an important tool in the armamentarium of the physician combating aging phenomena. A wide variety of filler substances are now available that meet many, but by far not all, needs in aesthetic medicine. The most commonly used substances now are hyaluronic acid and collagen preparations

  17. Filler functionality in edible solid foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sman, R G M

    2016-05-01

    We review the functionality of particulate ingredients in edible brittle foams, such as expanded starchy snacks. In food science and industry there is not a complete awareness of the full functionality of these filler ingredients, which can be fibers, proteins, starch granules and whole grains. But, we show that much can be learned about that from the field of synthetic polymeric foams with (nano)fillers. For edible brittle foams the enhancement of mechanical strength by filler ingredients is less relevant compared to the additional functionalities such as 1) the promotion of bubble nucleation and 2) cell opening-which are much more relevant for the snack texture. The survey of particulate ingredients added to snack formulations shows that they cannot be viewed as inert fillers, because of their strong hygroscopic properties. Hence, these fillers will compete with starch for water, and that will modify the glass transition and boiling point, which are important factors for snack expansion. Filler properties can be modified via extrusion, but it is better if that processing step is decoupled from the subsequent processing steps as mixing and expansion. Several filler ingredients are also added because of their nutritional value, but can have adverse effect on snack expansion. These adverse effects can be reduced if the increase of nutritional value is decoupled from other filler functionality via compartmentalization using micropellets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Self Compacting Concrete with Chalk Filler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    2007-01-01

    Utilisation of Danish chalk filler has been investigated as a means to produce self compacting concrete (SCC) at lower strength levels for service in non aggressive environments. Stable SCC mixtures were prepared at chalk filler contents up to 60% by volume of binder to yield compressive strengths...

  19. Adverse reactions to injectable soft tissue fillers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Requena, Luis; Requena, Celia; Christensen, Lise

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, injections with filler agents are often used for wrinkle-treatment and soft tissue augmentation by dermatologists and plastic surgeons. Unfortunately, the ideal filler has not yet been discovered and all of them may induce adverse reactions. Quickly biodegradable or resorbable ag...

  20. [Cutaneous ultrasound and dermal fillers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas Fernández, C; Burón Álvarez, I; Fernández-Tresguerres Centeno, A; Alfageme Roldán, F; de Cabo Francés, F

    2015-11-01

    Requests for fillers or dermatological implants have dramatically increased in dermatology consultations in the last few years, either for the correction of superficial age-related wrinkles and cutaneous creases or to increase the volume of specific areas (cheeks, lips...). Dermatologists are often the first professionals to provide these treatments. Nevertheless, in other situations, the patients have already been treated, and many of them do not know the type of material that has been implanted or may even deny previous treatment, even when evident on clinical examination. In these occasions, cutaneous ultrasound is an effective and reliable tool for the real-time diagnosis of the kind of implant that has been used, its location, and the study of its possible complications. Copyright © 2015 Academia Española de Dermatología y Venereología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Xanthelasma-Like Reaction to Filler Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Lior; Eviatar, Joseph A; Massry, Guy G; Bernardini, Francesco P; Hartstein, Morris E

    The purpose of this study is to describe a new complication of a xanthelasma-like reaction which appeared after dermal filler injection in the lower eyelid region. A retrospective case analysis was performed on 7 patients presenting with xanthelasma-like reaction after filler injection to the lower eyelids. Seven female subjects with no history of xanthelasma presented with xanthelasma-like reaction in the lower eyelids post filler injection. Fillers included hyaluronic acid (2 patients), synthetic calcium hydroxyapatite (4 patients), and polycaprolactone microspheres (one patient). Average time interval between filler injection and development of xanthelasma-like reaction was 12 months (range: 6-18 months). Treatment included steroid injections, 5FU injections, ablative or fractionated CO2 laser, and direct excision. Pathology confirmed the lesion was a true xanthelasma in one patient. In treated patients, there was subtotal resolution after laser. Xanthelasma-like reaction resolved completely after direct excision. Three patients elected to have no treatment. Previously there has been one reported case of xanthelasma after filler injection. This case series is the largest to date. Furthermore, this series is notable because xanthelasma-like reactions appeared after injection with 3 different types of fillers. None of the patients had evidence of xanthelasma prefiller injection. The precise mechanism by which filler injection can lead to the formation of xanthelasma-like reaction is unclear. A possible mechanism may be related to binding of low-density lipoprotein and internalization by macrophages. Further investigation is required. Nevertheless, physicians performing filler injections should be aware of this new complication and treatment options.

  2. Thermal Analysis of Filler Reinforced Polymeric Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadge, Mahesh Devidas

    Improving heat dissipating property of composite materials is becoming increasingly important in domains ranging from the automotive industry, electronic devices to aeronautical industry. Effective heat dissipation is required especially in aircraft and racing tires to guarantee high performance and good service life [1]. The present study is focused on improving the thermal conductivity of Emulsion-styrene butadiene rubber (ESBR) which is a cheap alternative to other rubber composites. The disadvantages of ESBR are low thermal conductivity and high heat generation. Adding fillers with high thermal conductivity to ESBR is proposed as a technique for improving the thermal conductivity of ESBR. The purpose of the research is to predict the thermal conductivity of ESBR when filled with fillers of much higher thermal conductivity and also to find out to what extent the filler properties affect the heat transfer capabilities of the composite matrix. The influence of different filler shapes i.e. spherical, cylindrical and platelets on the overall thermal capability of composite matrix is studied, the finite element modelings are conducted using Abaqus. Three-dimensional and two-dimensional models are created in Abaqus to simulate the microstructure of the composite matrix filled with fillers. Results indicate that the overall thermal conductivity increases with increasing filler loading i.e. for a filler volume fraction of 0.27, the conductivity increased by around 50%. Filler shapes, orientation angle, and aspect ratio of the fillers significantly influences the thermal conductivity. Conductivity increases with increasing aspect ratio (length/diameter) of the cylindrical fillers since longer conductive chains are able to form at the same volume percentage as compared to spherical fillers. The composite matrix reaches maximum thermal conductivity when the cylindrical fillers are oriented in the direction of heat flow. The heat conductivity predicted by FEM for ESBR is

  3. Cosmetic Fillers: Perspectives on the Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Steven L

    2015-11-01

    The cosmetic filler industry has evolved substantially over the last 30 years. The market is characterized by multiple fillers and a competitive dynamic among major aesthetics companies. Marketing in the United States and Europe has been different owing to regulatory constraints. Differences have led to more rapid growth in the European market. The US market has evolved owing to growth of major companies with multiple product portfolios and leverage in consumer promotion and aesthetics office marketing owing to scale. The evolution of the filler market will include new materials, injection techniques, and facilitation devices, and new areas of injection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fillers for the improvement in acne scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollina U

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Uwe Wollina,1 Alberto Goldman2 1Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital, Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Clinica Goldman, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Abstract: Acne is a common inflammatory disease. Scarring is an unwanted end point of acne. Both atrophic and hypertrophic scar types occur. Soft-tissue augmentation aims to improve atrophic scars. In this review, we will focus on the use of dermal fillers for acne scar improvement. Therefore, various filler types are characterized, and available data on their use in acne scar improvement are analyzed. Keywords: acne, scars, dermal fillers, injection, extracellular matrix

  5. Use of bottom ash from thermal power plant and lime as filler in bituminous mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-López, E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the characterization of bottom ash (PCC-BA and determining the mechanical characteristics of hot mix asphalt (HMA using PCC-BA and hydrated lime (HL as filler. Physical and chemical characterization of the bottom ash was carried out to evaluate its eventual reutilization as filler substitute. The materials tested in this study were made using 0%, 25%, 50%, 70% and 100% of PCC-BA combined with HL. HMA mixes were evaluated in terms of their engineering properties, namely: air voids in the mixes, water sensitivity, stiffness modulus, performance in wheel tracking test and fatigue resistance. The results obtained indicate that HMA mixes with a filler blend of 70% PCC-BA and 30% HL fulfil European standards and are suitable for light traffic or small infrastructures.Este estudio se centra en la caracterización de las cenizas de fondo (PCC-BA y la determinación de las características mecánicas de mezclas bituminosas en caliente (HMA, utilizando cenizas de fondo y la cal hidratada (HL como filler. Se realizó la caracterización física y química de las cenizas de fondo para evaluar su empleo como sustituto de filler. Las mezclas ensayadas en este estudio se realizaron utilizando 0%, 25%, 50%, 70% y 100% de cenizas de fondo combinadas con cal hidratada. Se evaluaron propiedades ingenieriles de las mezclas bituminosas, tales como los huecos de aire en las mezclas, la sensibilidad al agua, el módulo de rigidez, el ensayo de pista y la resistencia a la fatiga. Los resultados obtenidos indican que las mezclas bituminosas fabricadas con una combinación de filler del 70% de cenizas de fondo y el 30% cal hidratada, cumplen con las normas europeas y son adecuados para su aplicación con tráficos ligeros o en pequeñas infraestructuras.

  6. Current Applications of Facial Volumization with Fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anthony J; Taglienti, Anthony J; Chang, Catherine S; Low, David W; Percec, Ivona

    2016-05-01

    After reading this article and watching the accompanying videos, the participant should be able to: 1. Assess patients seeking facial volumization and correlate volume deficiencies anatomically. 2. Identify appropriate fillers based on rheologic properties and anatomical needs. 3. Recognize poor candidates for facial volumization. 4. Recognize and treat filler-related side effects and complications. Facial volumization is widely applied for minimally invasive facial rejuvenation both as a solitary means and in conjunction with surgical correction. Appropriate facial volumization is dependent on patient characteristics, consistent longitudinal anatomical changes, and qualities of fillers available. In this article, anatomical changes seen with aging are illustrated, appropriate techniques for facial volumization are described in the setting of correct filler selection, and potential complications are addressed.

  7. Emerging permanent filler technologies: focus on Aquamid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamauchi PS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paul S Yamauchi1,2 1Dermatology Institute and Skin Care Center, Santa Monica, CA, USA; 2Division of Dermatology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: A plethora of soft tissue fillers have been developed within the past decade to correct the cutaneous changes that occur with photoaging. Such fillers, whether nonpermanent, semipermanent, or permanent, are widely used to fill undesired facial rhytides. In addition, fillers are employed to correct atrophy of the face as well as other parts of the body such as the dorsum of the hands through volumization and contouring. The extensive long-term safety outcomes reported with fillers and the ease with which they are administered make them an ideal choice to correct rhytides and to contour the face. However, as with any cosmetic procedure, in order to ensure high patient satisfaction and a safe outcome, proper training in injection techniques, the choice of the proper candidate, and awareness of potential adverse events are essential. This review article focuses on the permanent filler, Aquamid, which is composed of polyacrylamide hydrogel. Keywords: Aquamid, rejuvenation, skin aging, soft tissue fillers, polyacrylamide

  8. The effects of fillers on polyurethane resin-based electrical insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altafim Ruy Alberto Corrêa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly widespread use of polymeric insulators in vehicle distributors and transmission systems has led to an ongoing quest for quality and low costs. This quest has, in turn, resulted in improved performance and cost benefits, brought about by the use of new polymeric and composite resins. Occasionally, however, while some properties are improved, others may show a loss of optimal performance. Therefore, to understand the behavior of fillers, such as carbon black, silica and mica added to castor oil-derived polyurethane resins, several thermal, mechanical and electrical tests were conducted on samples and insulators produced specifically for this purpose, using these new materials. The results of these tests clearly demonstrated that this type of resin and its composites can be used to manufacture indoor electrical insulators and that the fillers analyzed in this study improve or maintain the characteristics of the pure resins.

  9. A strategy of precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) fillers for enhancing the mechanical properties of polypropylene polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thenepalli, Thriveni; Ahn, Ji Whan [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Young Jun; Han, Choon [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ramakrishna, Chilakala [Hanil Cement, Danyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    A wide variety of fillers are currently used in more than twenty types of polymer resins, although four of them alone (polypropylene, polyamides, thermoplastic polyesters, and polyvinyl chloride) account for 90% of the market of mineral fillers in plastics. Polypropylene (PP) and PVC dominate the market for calcium carbonate. PP is a versatile reinforcement material that can meet engineering and structural specifications and is widely used for automotive components, home appliances, and industrial applications. Talc, mica, clay, kaolin, wollastonite, calcium carbonates, feldspar, aluminum hydroxide, glass fibers, and natural fibers are commonly used in fillers. Among these, calcium carbonate (both natural and synthetic) is the mos abundant and affords the possibility of improved surface finishing, control over the manufacture of products, and increased electric resistance and impact resistance. Meeting the global challenge to reduce the weight of vehicles by using plastics is a significant issue. The current the global plastic and automobile industry cannot survive without fillers, additives, and reinforcements. Polypropylene is a major component of the modern plastic industry, and currently is used in dashboards, wheel covers, and some engine parts in automobiles. This article reports that the use of calcium carbonate fillers with polypropylene is the best choice to enhance the mechanical properties of plastic parts used in automobiles.

  10. Thermal Properties of Asphalt Mixtures Modified with Conductive Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byong Chol Bai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the thermal properties of asphalt mixtures modified with conductive fillers used for snow melting and solar harvesting pavements. Two different mixing processes were adopted to mold asphalt mixtures, dry- and wet-mixing, and two conductive fillers were used in this study, graphite and carbon black. The thermal conductivity was compared to investigate the effects of asphalt mixture preparing methods, the quantity, and the distribution of conductive filler on thermal properties. The combination of conductive filler with carbon fiber in asphalt mixture was evaluated. Also, rheological properties of modified asphalt binders with conductive fillers were measured using dynamic shear rheometer and bending beam rheometer at grade-specific temperatures. Based on rheological testing, the conductive fillers improve rutting resistance and decrease thermal cracking resistance. Thermal testing indicated that graphite and carbon black improve the thermal properties of asphalt mixes and the combined conductive fillers are more effective than the single filler.

  11. 46 CFR 56.75-5 - Filler metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filler metal. 56.75-5 Section 56.75-5 Shipping COAST... Brazing § 56.75-5 Filler metal. (a) The filler metal used in brazing must be a nonferrous metal or alloy having a melting point above 1,000 °F. and below that of the metal being joined. The filler metal must...

  12. 46 CFR 57.02-5 - Filler metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filler metals. 57.02-5 Section 57.02-5 Shipping COAST... Requirements § 57.02-5 Filler metals. (a) Except as provided for in paragraph (b) of this section, when filler metal is used in a welded fabrication that is required to meet the requirements of this part the filler...

  13. Hybrid filler composition optimization for tensile strength of jute fibre ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of weight content of bagasse fibre, carbon black and calcium carbonate on tensile strength of pultruded GFRP composite is evaluated and the optimum hybrid filler composition for maximizing the tensile strength is determined. Different compositions of hybrid filler are prepared by mixing three fillers using Taguchi ...

  14. Waste-wood-derived fillers for plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent English; Craig M. Clemons; Nicole Stark; James P. Schneider

    1996-01-01

    Filled thermoplastic composites are stiffer, stronger, and more dimensionally stable than their unfilled counterparts. Such thermoplastics are usually provided to the end-user as a precompounded, pelletized feedstock. Typical reinforcing fillers are inorganic materials like talc or fiberglass, but materials derived from waste wood, such as wood flour and recycled paper...

  15. Filler functionality in edible solid foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    We review the functionality of particulate ingredients in edible brittle foams, such as expanded starchy snacks. In food science and industry there is not a complete awareness of the full functionality of these filler ingredients, which can be fibers, proteins, starch granules and whole grains.

  16. Bioactive glass particulate filler composite: Effect of coupling of fillers and filler loading on some physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Onur; Lassila, Lippo V; Kumbuloglu, Ovul; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of silanization of biostable and bioactive glass fillers in a polymer matrix on some of the physical properties of the composite. The water absorption, solubility, flexural strength, flexural modulus and toughness of different particulate filler composite resins were studied in vitro. Five different specimen groups were analyzed: A glass-free control, a non-silanized bioactive glass, a silanized bioactive glass, a non-silanized biostable glass and a silanized biostable glass groups. All of these five groups were further divided into sub-groups of dry and water-stored materials, both of them containing groups with 3wt%, 6wt%, 9wt% or 12wt% of glass particles (n=8 per group). The silanization of the glass particles was carried out with 2% of gamma-3-methacryloxyproyltrimethoxysilane (MPS). For the water absorption and solubility tests, the test specimens were stored in water for 60 days, and the percentages of weight change were statistically analyzed. Flexural strength, flexural modulus and toughness values were tested with a three-point bending test and statistically analyzed. Higher solubility values were observed in non-silanized glass in proportion to the percentage of glass particles. Silanization, on the other hand, decreased the solubility values of both types of glass particles and polymer. While 12wt% non-silanized bioactive glass specimens showed -0.98wt% solubility, 12wt% silanized biostable glass specimens were observed to have only -0.34wt% solubility. The three-point bending results of the dry specimens showed that flexural strength, toughness and flexural modulus decreased in proportion to the increase of glass fillers. The control group presented the highest results (106.6MPa for flexural strength, 335.7kPA for toughness, 3.23GPa for flexural modulus), whereas for flexural strength and toughness, 12wt% of non-silanized biostable glass filler groups presented the lowest (70.3MPa for flexural strength

  17. Effect of porous glass-ceramic fillers on mechanical properties of light-cured dental resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Tan, Yanni; Lei, Ting; Xiang, Qijun; Han, Yunjuan; Huang, Baiyun

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of porous particles on the mechanical properties of dental resin composites. Two kinds of glass-ceramic powders with different calcium-mica to fluorapatite ratio were used as inorganic fillers for light-cured dental resin composites. The glass-ceramic particles were etched to introduce porous structures. The microstructures of particles and the fractography of dental composites were observed using SEM/EDS. The crystalline phases in the fillers were determined by XRD. The specific surface areas (SBET) of porous fillers were tested to show the degree of porosity. 6 samples were prepared for each bending strength test, which was conducted in a Mechanical Testing System. The results show that the bending strength does not vary monotonically with the porosity of the particles. For the glass-ceramics with a high nominal calcium-mica to fluorapatite ratio, the dental resin filled with porous particles has a higher strength than that filled with dense particles; however, for the glass-ceramics with a low nominal calcium-mica to fluorapatite ratio, the dental resin filled with porous particles has a lower strength. The study indicates that the porosity itself is not a decisive factor for strengthening of dental resin composites. The composition of the glass-ceramic particles and the porous structure are also essential factors influencing the mechanical strength. The investigation on the effect of porous glass-ceramic fillers will provide more understanding on the mechanical properties of dental resin composites and will help with the design of new dental restorative materials.

  18. Mechanical properties and filler distribution as a function filler content in silica filled PDMS samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, M. E. (Marilyn E.); Wrobleski, Debra A.; Orler, E. B. (E. Bruce); Houlton, R. J. (Robert J.); Chitanvis, K. E. (Kiran E.); Brown, G. W. (Geoffrey W.); Hanson, D. E. (David E.)

    2004-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) phase imaging and tensile stress-strain measurements are used to study a series of model compression molded fumed silica filled polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) samples with filler content of zero, 20, 35, and 50 parts per hundred (phr) to determine the relationship between filler content and stress-strain properties. AFM phase imaging was used to determine filler size, degree of aggregation, and distribution within the soft PDMS matrix. A small tensile stage was used to measure mechanical properties. Samples were not pulled to break in order to study Mullins and aging effects. Several identical 35 phr samples were subjected to an initial stress, and then one each was reevaluated over intervals up to 26 weeks to determine the degree to which these samples recovered their initial stress-strain behavior as a function of time. One sample was tested before and after heat treatment to determine if heating accelerated recovery of the stress-strain behavior. The effect of filler surface treatment on mechanical properties was examined for two samples containing 35 phr filler treated or untreated with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDZ), respectively. Fiduciary marks were used on several samples to determine permanent set. 35 phr filler samples were found to give the optimum mechanical properties. A clear Mullins effect was seen. Within experimental error, no change was seen in mechanical behavior as a function of time or heat-treatment. The mechanical properties of the sample containing the HDMZ treated silica were adversely affected. AFM phase images revealed aggregation and nonuniform distribution of the filler for all samples. Finally, a permanent set of about 3 to 6 percent was observed for the 35 phr samples.

  19. Fillers in the skin of color population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Candrice R; Taylor, Susan C

    2011-05-01

    The skin of color population in the United States is rapidly growing and the cosmetic industry is responding to the demand for skin of color targeted treatments. The aging face in skin of color patients has a unique pattern that can be successfully augmented by dermal fillers. Though many subjects with skin of color were not included in the pre-market dermal filler clinical trials, some post-market studies have examined the safety and risks of adverse events in this population. The safety data from a selection of these studies was examined. Though pigmentary changes occurred, there have been no reports of keloid development. Developing a patient-specific care plan and instituting close follow up is emphasized.

  20. Volumizing the brow with hyaluronic acid fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambros, Val

    2009-01-01

    Aging eyes often are treated by excision of apparent excess skin and fat and, in some instances, by elevation of the brow. The result of these traditional approaches is increased definition of the orbit, which is not of benefit for all patients. In some cases, the addition of volume in the periorbital area may provide a better-looking result than traditional surgical alternatives. The author describes the use of hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers for improvement of the periorbital region. Using local anesthetic, patients are provided with a preview of the aesthetic result of treatment with HA fillers to add volume to the brow. Most treatments are performed using HA fillers, which have the benefit of results that are both reversible and long-lasting. The author uses a fanning technique to inject small quantities of material. The use of these techniques results in a high degree of patient satisfaction. Occasional minor irregularities may occur, but these can be smoothed out by massage or blended by further injection. Results lasting two years are common and we have observed longevity of three years or more in some patients. Some brow configurations that falsely project emotional states, such as anxiety, may also be corrected. As in other types of cosmetic surgery, patient selection is key. In properly selected patients, increased fullness of the upper lids is preferable to the greater definition of the lids resulting from traditional surgical techniques. The longevity of treatment and reversibility of changes to the upper lids with HA fillers render this approach both cost-effective and safe.

  1. Hyaluronic Acid Fillers: Science and Clinical Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, Karol A

    2016-07-01

    Hyaluronic acid soft tissue fillers include a range of products (Juvederm Ultra, Juvederm Ultra Plus, Voluma, Restylane Silk, Restylane, Restylane Lyft, and Belotero Balance) that are used commonly for facial rejuvenation and enhancement of facial features. Although these products are similar in many ways, they are not interchangeable and have unique characteristics that need to be considered. Injection sites and techniques for facial rejuvenation are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fillers for the improvement in acne scars

    OpenAIRE

    Wollina U; Goldman A

    2015-01-01

    Uwe Wollina,1 Alberto Goldman2 1Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital, Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Clinica Goldman, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Abstract: Acne is a common inflammatory disease. Scarring is an unwanted end point of acne. Both atrophic and hypertrophic scar types occur. Soft-tissue augmentation aims to improve atrophic scars. In this review, we will focus on the use of dermal fillers for acne scar improvement. Therefore...

  3. Nano-fillers to tune Young's modulus of silicone matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lijin; Xu, Zhonghua; Sun, Leming; Caveney, Patrick M.; Zhang, Mingjun

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we investigated nanoparticles, nanofibers, and nanoclays for their filler effects on tuning the Young's modulus of silicone matrix, a material with broad in vivo applications. Nano-fillers with different shapes, sizes, and surface properties were added into silicone matrix, and then their filler effects were evaluated through experimental studies. It was found that spherical nanoparticles could clearly improve Young's modulus of the silicone matrix, while nanoclays and carbon nanofibers had limited effects. Smaller spherical nanoparticles were better in performance compared to larger nanoparticles. In addition, enhanced distribution of the nanoparticles in the matrix has been observed to improve the filler effect. In order to minimize toxicity of the nanoparticles for in vivo applications, spherical nanoparticles coated with amine, acid, or hydroxide groups were also investigated, but they were found only to diminish the filler effect of nanoparticles. This study demonstrated that spherical nanoparticles could serve as fillers to tune Young's modulus of silicone matrix for potential applications in medicine.

  4. Degradation of Aliphatic Polyesters in the Presence of Inorganic Fillers

    OpenAIRE

    Chouzouri, G.; Xanthos, M.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Aliphatic polyesters are melt mixed with bioactive fillers and converted into sheets in order to compare their degradation behavior in a phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution as a function of processing method, polymer type, and crystallinity and type of filler. The samples are tested for weight changes, pH, intrinsic viscosity (IV), and thermal and mechanical property changes as a function of time. The study establishes that although the fillers appear to enhance the pol...

  5. Filler wire for aluminum alloys and method of welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkman, Jr., Gerald W. O. (Inventor); Cho, Alex (Inventor); Russell, Carolyn K. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A weld filler wire chemistry has been developed for fusion welding 2195 aluminum-lithium. The weld filler wire chemistry is an aluminum-copper based alloy containing high additions of titanium and zirconium. The additions of titanium and zirconium reduce the crack susceptibility of aluminum alloy welds while producing good weld mechanical properties. The addition of silver further improves the weld properties of the weld filler wire. The reduced weld crack susceptibility enhances the repair weldability, including when planishing is required.

  6. Hybrid Composites from Wheat Straw, Inorganic Filler, and Recycled Polypropylene: Morphology and Mechanical and Thermal Expansion Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Min; Huang, Runzhou; He, Chunxia; Wu, Qinglin; Zhao, Xueni

    2016-01-01

    .... The effects of individual filler (WS) and combined fillers (WS and inorganic filler) on morphological, mechanical, and thermal expansion and water absorption properties of hybrid composites were investigated...

  7. Polyvinyl alcohol battery separator containing inert filler. [alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Hsu, L. C.; Manzo, M. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol battery separator is disclosed. A particulate filler, inert to alkaline electrolyte of an alkaline battery, is incorporated in the separator in an amount of 1-20% by weight, based on the weight of the polyvinyl alcohol, and is dispersed throughout the product. Incorporation of the filler enhances performance and increases cycle life of alkaline batteries when compared with batteries containing a similar separator not containing filler. Suitable fillers include titanates, silicates, zirconates, aluminates, wood floor, lignin, and titania. Particle size is not greater than about 50 microns.

  8. Evaluation of Different Mineral Filler Aggregates for Asphalt Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, Marta; Małaszkiewicz, Dorota; Ignatiuk, Natalia

    2017-10-01

    Mineral filler aggregates play an important role in asphalt mixtures because they fill voids in paving mix and improve the cohesion of asphalt binder. Limestone powder containing over 90% of CaCO3 is the most frequently used type of filler. Waste material from the production of coarse aggregate can be successfully used as a mineral filler aggregate for hot asphalt concrete mixtures as the limestone powder replacement. This paper presents the experimental results of selected properties of filler aggregates which were obtained from rocks with different mineral composition and origin. Five types of rocks were used as a source of the mineral filler aggregate: granite, gabbro, trachybasalt, quartz sandstone and rocks from postglacial deposits. Limestone filler was used in this study as the reference material. The following tests were performed: grading (air jet sieving), quality of fines according to methylene blue test, water content by drying in a ventilated oven, particle density using pyknometer method, Delta ring and ball test, Bitumen Number, fineness determined as Blaine specific surface area. Mineral filler aggregates showed significant differences when they were mixed with bitumen and stiffening effect in Delta ring and ball test was evaluated. The highest values were achieved when gabbro and granite fillers were used. Additionally, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis of grain shape and size was carried out. Significant differences in grain size and shape were observed. The highest non-homogeneity in size was determined for quartz sandstone, gabbro and granite filler. Their Blaine specific surface area was lower than 2800 cm2/g, while for limestone and postglacial fillers with regular and round grains it exceeded 3000 cm2/g. All examined mineral filler aggregates met requirements of Polish National Specification WT-1: 2014 and could be used in asphalt mixtures.

  9. Standard guidelines for the use of dermal fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedamurthy Maya

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently used fillers vary greatly in their sources, efficacy duration and site of deposition; detailed knowledge of these properties is essential for administering them. Indications for fillers include facial lines (wrinkles, folds, lip enhancement, facial deformities, depressed scars, periocular melanoses, sunken eyes, dermatological diseases-angular cheilitis, scleroderma, AIDS lipoatrophy, earlobe plumping, earring ptosis, hand, neck, dιcolletι rejuvenation. Physicians′ qualifications : Any qualified dermatologist may use fillers after receiving adequate training in the field. This may be obtained either during postgraduation or at any workshop dedicated to the subject of fillers. The physicians should have a thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the area designated to receive an injection of fillers and the aesthetic principles involved. They should also have a thorough knowledge of the chemical nature of the material of the filler, its longevity, injection techniques, and any possible side effects. Facility: Fillers can be administered in the dermatologist′s minor procedure room. Preoperative counseling and informed consent: Detailed counseling with respect to the treatment, desired effects, and longevity of the filler should be discussed with the patient. Patients should be given brochures to study and adequate opportunity to seek information. Detailed consent forms need to be completed by the patients. A consent form should include the type of filler, longevity expected and possible postoperative complications. Preoperative photography should be carried out. Choice of the filler depends on the site, type of defect, results needed, and the physician′s experience. Injection technique and volume depend on the filler and the physician′s preference, as outlined in these guidelines.

  10. Filler-wire positioner for electron beam welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaupre, W. M.; Fueg, L. B.; Phillips, J. A.

    1970-01-01

    Miniaturized positioner is installed in any electron beam vacuum chamber for use with wire feed applications requiring filler wire. Horizontal and vertical control of the positioner is maintained from a console while chamber is under vacuum. Device permits more positive positioning of welding filler wire.

  11. Dermal fillers in the Netherlands : A market surveillance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizers P; van Drongelen A; Geertsma R; Hodemaekers H; de Jong W; Lamme E; Oostlander A; Roszek B; Schwillens P; Venhuis B; Janssen R; PRS; GZB

    2017-01-01

    Dermal fillers, or just fillers, are products that are injected into or under the skin for medical or cosmetic purposes. This could be to restore the natural contours of the body after an operation for example, but also to mask the visible effects of ageing. The National Institute for Public

  12. Biocomposites from polyhydroxybutyrate and bio-fillers by solvent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biocomposites from polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and some bio-fillers such as lignin (L), alpha cellulose (AC) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) were prepared to investigate the effect of the bio-fillers on the properties of PHB by a solvent casting method. The thermal properties by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA–DTG and ...

  13. Bio-based fillers for environmentally friendly composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokhothu, Thabang H

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of bio-based fillers as alternative replacement for synthetic fillers has been dictated by increasing ecological concerns as well as depleting petroleum resources. The other aspect is a growing need for eco-friendly, renewable...

  14. Use of nut shells as fillers in polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The three nutshell fillers including walnut, almond and pistachio nutshell were added to PLA. All the physical properties of samples deteriorated relative to PLA. When subjected to heat pre-treatment, although the physical properties of PLA-filler samples still deteriorated, the extent of deteriorat...

  15. Effect of Natural Fillers on Mechanical Properties of GFRP Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Dhawan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs have replaced conventional engineering materials in many areas, especially in the field of automobiles and household applications. With the increasing demand, various modifications are being incorporated in the conventional FRPs for specific applications in order to reduce costs and achieve the quality standards. The present research endeavor is an attempt to study the effect of natural fillers on the mechanical characteristics of FRPs. Rice husk, wheat husk, and coconut coir have been used as natural fillers in glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs. In order to study the effect of matrix on the properties of GFRPs, polyester and epoxy resins have been used. It has been found that natural fillers provide better results in polyester-based composites. Amongst the natural fillers, in general, the composites with coconut coir have better mechanical properties as compared to the other fillers in glass/epoxy composites.

  16. Hyaluronic acid gel fillers in the management of facial aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredric S Brandt

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fredric S Brandt1, Alex Cazzaniga21Private Practice in Coral Gables, Florida, USA and Manhattan, NY, USA, and Dermatology Research Institute, Coral Gables, FL, USA; 2Dermatology Research Institute, Coral Gables, Florida, USAAbstract: Time affects facial aging by producing cellular and anatomical changes resulting in the consequential loss of soft tissue volume. With the advent of new technologies, the physician has the opportunity of addressing these changes with the utilization of dermal fillers. Hyaluronic acid (HA dermal fillers are the most popular, non-permanent injectable materials available to physicians today for the correction of soft tissue defects of the face. This material provides an effective, non invasive, non surgical alternative for correction of the contour defects of the face due to its enormous ability to bind water and easiness of implantation. HA dermal fillers are safe and effective. The baby-boomer generation, and their desire of turning back the clock while enjoying an active lifestyle, has expanded the popularity of these fillers. In the US, there are currently eight HA dermal fillers approved for commercialization by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA. This article reviews the innate properties of FDA-approved HA fillers and provides an insight on future HA products and their utilization for the management of the aging face.Keywords: hyaluronic acid, aging face, dermal filler, wrinkles, Restylane, Perlane, Juvéderm

  17. Ultrasound detection and identification of cosmetic fillers in the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wortsman, X.; Wortsman, J.; Orlandi, C.

    2012-01-01

    with the presence of those agents. Methods We used ultrasound in a porcine skin model to determine the sonographic characteristics of commonly available filler agents, and subsequently applied the analysis to detect and identify cosmetic fillers among patients referred for skin disorders. Results Fillers...... throughout the subcutaneous tissue, with occasional infiltration of local muscles and loco-regional lymph nodes. Accompanying dermatopathies were represented by highly localized inflammatory processes unresponsive to conventional treatment, morphea-like reactions, necrosis of fatty tissue and epidermal cysts...

  18. Dielectric properties of inorganic fillers filled epoxy thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norshamira, A., E-mail: myra.arshad@gmail.com; Mariatti, M., E-mail: mariatti@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    The demand on the small size and high performance electronics has driven changes in the electronic packaging requirements from discrete capacitor to embedded capacitor. Embedded capacitor can improve electrical performance compared with discrete capacitor. This study aimed to achieve high dielectric of epoxy thin film composite that were targeted for application as embedded capacitor. In this study, inorganic fillers such as Calcium Copper Titanate (CCTO), Iron(III) Oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and Titanium Dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) were loaded in epoxy system at 5 and 20vol%. Morphology and dielectric properties were investigated to identify the effect of fillers loading and types of fillers on the properties of epoxy thin film composite. Based on the study, CCTO with 20vol% loading was found to have good dielectric properties compared to other type of fillers.

  19. (Methacrylic Acid-Co-Divinylbenzene) Resin as Filler

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    divinylbenzene) resin (PMD) as a new filler-binder for direct compression tablets. Methods: Powder properties of PMD and MCC were characterized. Tablets made from PMD and MCC with and without propranolol hydrochloride were evaluated for ...

  20. (Methacrylic Acid-Co-Divinylbenzene) Resin as Filler- Binder for

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    divinylbenzene) resin (PMD) as a new filler-binder for direct compression tablets. Methods: Powder properties of PMD and MCC were characterized. Tablets made from PMD and MCC with and without propranolol hydrochloride were evaluated for ...

  1. Use of Cellulose-Containing Fillers in Composites with Polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna LAKA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The composites, containing recycled polypropylene and fillers, obtained from different lignocellulosics by the thermocatalytic destruction method, were investigated. Birch sawdust, newsprint wastes, cotton residues and wood bleached sulphate pulp were used as raw materials for obtaining fillers. The indices of mechanical properties (tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, deformation at break, shear modulus, toughness, twisting moment of the composites' samples were determined. It has been found that the obtained composites have relatively good mechanical properties. Better results were obtained, using fillers from sawdust and wood pulp. After treating the fillers with rapeseed oil, their water vapour sorption and water retention value (WRV decreased. In this case, the strength of the composites was higher.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.2.484

  2. Complications of hyaluronic acid fillers and their managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Abduljabbar

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Injection related side effects are the most commonly seen, which are usually transient. Vascular occlusion is the most severe complication associated with hyaluronic acid filler injection. A thorough understanding of the facial vascular anatomy reduces the risk of vascular occlusion. Early identification of a vascular occlusion and a prompt intervention can significantly decrease the risk of long term sequelae. Guidelines to avoid, identify and manage different hyaluronic acid filler complications have been suggested.

  3. Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Nano Filler Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnia Noor Najmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is focusing on mechanical and morphological properties of unsaturated polyester (UP reinforced with two different types of filler which is nano size clay Cloisite 30B (C30B and Carbon Black (CB. Samples were fabricated via hand lay-up and open molding technique. Percentages of Cloisite 30B & Carbon Black (CB used vary from 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 wt%. The mechanical properties were evaluated by impact, flexural and hardness testing. Result shows that the mechanical strength of C30B was better compare to CB filled composite. The combination of UP with C30B helps to improve the properties due to the high surface area of nanosize filler in the matrix. The result shows that increasing of filler content had increased mechanical properties of composites. Optimum percentage represent good mechanical properties are 4% for both fillers. SEM images showed that rough surface image indicate to agglomeration of filler in the matrix for CB sample and smooth surface image on C30B sample indicate to homogenous blending between filler and matrix polyester. SEM images proved that mechanical properties result indicate that C30B polyester composite is a good reinforcement compare to CB polyester composite.

  4. Microstructural and rheological analysis of fillers and asphalt mastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, R.; Simon, A.; Kocserha, I.; Buzimov, A.

    2017-01-01

    Pavements are made of different grades of mineral aggregates and organic binder. The aggregates are sorted in different sizes and different amount which are mixed together with bitumen. The finest mineral fraction (dfiller. This component has an important role in asphalt mixture - it fills the gaps between the aggregates and if mixed with bitumen (which is called asphalt mastics) it sticks the larger particles together. Particle size, microstructure and surface properties of fillers highly affect the cohesion with bitumen, therefore the aim of our research was to investigate the microstructure of mineral fillers (limestone, dolomite) which are used in Hungarian road constructions with the use of different techniques (particle size distribution, scanning electronmicroscopy tests, mercury intrusion porosimetry, BET specific surface tests, determination of hydrophobicity). After the tests of fillers, asphalt mastics were prepared and rheological examinations were obtained. These examinations served to observe the interaction and the effect of fillers. The stiffening effect of fillers and the causes of rutting were also investigated. Based on our results, it can be stated that particle size, hydrophobic properties and the amount of fillers highly affect the rheological properties of mastics.

  5. Analysis of filler particle levels and sizes in dental alginates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Lemes Carlo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the inorganic filler fractions and sizes of commercially alginates. The inorganic particles volumetric fractions of five alginates - Jeltrate(J, Jeltrate Plus(JP, Jeltrate Chromatic Ortho(JC, Hydrogum(H and Ezact Krom(E were accessed by weighing a previously determined mass of each material in water before and after burning samples at 450 °C for 3 hours. Unsettled materials were soaked in acetone and chloroform and sputter-coated with gold for SEM evaluation of fillers' morphology and size. The results for the volumetric inorganic particle content were (%: J - 48.33, JP - 48.33, JC - 33.79, H - 37.55 and E - 40.55. The fillers presented a circular appearance with helical form and various perforations. Hydrogum fillers looked like cylindrical, perforated sticks. The mean values for fillers size were (μm: J - 12.91, JP - 13.67, JC - 13.44, E - 14.59 and H - 9 (diameter, 8.81 (length. The results of this study revealed differences in filler characteristics that could lead to different results when testing mechanical properties.

  6. Pengaruh partikel filler terhadap modulus elastisitas resin komposit Effect of filler particles on the elastic moduli of resin composites

    OpenAIRE

    Veni Takarini; Nina Djustiana; Renny Febrida

    2012-01-01

    Modulus of elasticity is one of the mechanical properties of composite resins affects the resistance to deformation, the strength of bonding with tooth structure and wear resistance. Modulus of elasticity is determined by the volume fraction of filler particles as the inorganic phase composite resin. This literature study aims to evaluate the size, shape and type of filler particles that affect the modulus of elasticity for composite resin. In a constant volume fraction, the large...

  7. [Ideas about registration for sodium hyaluronate facial derma fillers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Shi, Xinli; Liu, Wenbo; Lu, Hong

    2012-09-01

    To review the registration and technical data for sodium hyaluronate facial derma fillers. Recent literature concerning registration for sodium hyaluronate facial derma fillers was reviewed and analyzed. The aspects on registration for sodium hyaluronate facial derma fillers include nominating the product, dividing registration unit, filling in a registration application form, preparing the technical data, developing the standard, and developing a registration specification. The main difficulty in registration is how to prepare the research data of that product, so the manufacturers need to enhance their basic research ability and work out a scientific technique routing which could ensure the safety and effectiveness of the product, also help to set up the supportive documents to medical device registration.

  8. Carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber/hybrid filler composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mousa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The surface properties of the OSW and NLS are measured with the dynamic contact-angle technique. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS of the OSW reveals that the OSW possesses various reactive functional groups namely hydroxyl groups (OH. Hybrid filler from NLS and OSW were incorporated into carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR to produce XNBR hybrid composites. The reaction of OH groups from the OSW with COOH of the XNBR is checked by attenuated total reflectance spectra (ATR-IR of the composites. The degree of curing ΔM (maximum torque-minimum torque as a function of hybrid filler as derived from moving die rheometer (MDR is reported. The stress-strain behavior of the hybrid composites as well as the dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA is studied. Bonding quality and dispersion of the hybrid filler with and in XNBR are examined using scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM in SEM.

  9. Advanced Laser Techniques for Filler-Induced Complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassuto, D.; Marangoni, O.; Santis, G. De

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The increasing use of injectable fillers has been increasing the occurrence of disfiguring anaerobic infection or granulomas. This study presents two types of laser-assisted evacuation of filler material and inflammatory and necrotic tissue that were used to treat disfiguring facial...... nodules after different types of gel fillers. MATERIALS AND METHODS Infectious lesions after hydrogels were drained using a lithium triborate laser at 532 nm, with subsequent removal of infected gel and pus (laser assisted evacuation). Granuloma after gels containing microparticles were treated using...... an 808-nm diode laser using intralesional laser technique. The latter melted and liquefied the organic and synthetic components of the granulomas, facilitating subsequent evacuation. Both lasers had an easily controllable thin laser beam, which enabled the physician to control tissue damage and minimize...

  10. Towards completely miscible PMMA nanocomposites reinforced by shear-stiff, nano-mica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziadeh, Mazen; Weiss, Stephan; Fischer, Bianca; Förster, Stephan; Altstädt, Volker; Müller, Axel H E; Breu, Josef

    2014-07-01

    Optimizing the reinforcement of polymers with nanoplatelets requires optimization of the aspect ratio and the moduli of the filler while providing a complete stress transfer. Employing a novel shear-stiff, nano-mica with large aspect ratio, we focus on maximizing the interfacial interaction between filler and matrix. External surfaces of the nano-mica were selectively modified by a polycationic macro-initiator and two PMMA-polymer brushes of length below and above critical entanglement length, respectively, and the mechanical properties of the three PMMA nanocomposites were measured. The multiple electrostatic anchoring groups of the macro-initiator not only provide reliable adhesion but at the same time allow the variation of the degree of protonation providing a local match between the charge densities of the clay surface and the adsorbed macro-initiator. PMMA coating of the nano-mica via surface initiated polymerization yielded long-term stable suspensions in THF that showed birefringence of a nematic phase. Solution blending of the PMMA coated nano-mica allows for dispersing single clay tactoids in the translucent PMMA nanocomposites at 5 wt% clay loading as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Although significantly improved mechanical properties could be achieved as compared to nanocomposites made with conventional clay fillers, the full potential - as expressed by Halpin-Tsai equations - of the PMMA coated nano-mica can still not be completely utilized. This is attributed to the non-wetting character of the densely packed PMMA brushes attached to planar nanoplatelets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Aerodinámica

    OpenAIRE

    Da Riva de la Cavada, Ignacio

    1991-01-01

    La Aerodinámica estudia las fuerzas que un viento relativo ejerce sobre un obstáculo sumergido en él. Desde este punto de vista tan general las aplicaciones de la Aerodinámica no se reducen exclusivamente al estudio de las fuerzas sobre aviones más o menos clásicos sino que trascienden a otros muchos campos por el efecto de arrastre que es característico de ciencias y técnicas avanzadas. La conferencia, dentro de un ciclo sobre Ingeniería Aeroespacial, se centra en la aerodinámica de...

  12. Dermal filler injection: a novel approach for limiting infarct expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Liam P; Matsuzaki, Kanji; Noma, Mio; Jackson, Benjamin M; Eperjesi, Thomas J; Plappert, Theodore J; St John-Sutton, Martin G; Gorman, Joseph H; Gorman, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    Early infarct expansion after coronary occlusion compromises contractile function in perfused myocardial regions and promotes adverse long-term left ventricular (LV) remodeling. We hypothesized that injection of a tissue-expanding dermal filler material into a myocardial infarction (MI) would attenuate infarct expansion and limit LV remodeling. Fifteen sheep were subjected to an anteroapical MI involving approximately 20% of the LV followed by the injection of 1.3 mL of a calcium hydroxyapatite-based dermal filler into the infarct. Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography was performed at baseline, 30 minutes after MI, and 15 minutes after injection to assess infarct expansion. Sixteen additional sheep were subjected to the same infarction and followed echocardiographically and hemodynamically for 4 weeks after MI to assess chronic remodeling. Eight animals had injection with dermal filler as described above immediately after MI, and 8 animals were injected with an equal amount of saline solution. All animals exhibited infarct expansion soon after coronary occlusion. The regional ejection fraction of the apex became negative after infarction, consistent with systolic dyskinesia. Injection of the dermal filler converted the apical wall motion from dyskinetic to akinetic and resulted immediately in significant decreases in global, regional, and segmental LV volumes. Chronically, relative to saline control, dermal filler injection significantly reduced LV end-systolic volume (62.2 +/- 3.6 mL versus 44.5 +/- 3.9 mL; p < 0.05) and improved global ejection fraction (0.295 +/- 0.016 versus 0.373 +/- 0.017; p < 0.05) at 4 weeks after infarction. Injection of an acellular dermal filler into an MI immediately after coronary occlusion reduces early infarct expansion and limits chronic LV remodeling.

  13. Alternatives to Ni-base filler metals; Alternativen zu Nickelbasisloten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielage, B.; Hoyer, I. [Technische Univ. Chemnitz (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    In the amendment of the Freshwater Ordinance of 1 January 2003, the maximum permissible concentration of nickel ions in freshwater was reduced from 50 to 20 {mu}g/l. This resulted in problems in heat eschanger construction, and alternatives to Ni-base filler metals had to be found. Iron base filler metals are a promising alternative. Development activities focus on corrosion resistance, lower melting points to below 1100 degC operating temperature and sufficient strength for the various applications intended. Based on the known investigations of iron base alloys, new findings are presented. (orig.)

  14. Effect of biobased fillers nature on biodeterioration of hybrid polyethylene composites by mold fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalygina, E. E.; Popov, A. A.; Pantyukhov, P. V.

    2017-06-01

    The paper is devoted to investigation of deterioration of natural fillers and polyethylene composites on their basis (polyethylene/filler=70/30) due to the action of mold fungi. The fillers chemical composition, dimensional parameters and biodegradability have been analyzed as factors exert a considerable impact on composite materials biodeterioration. It has been found that the principal factor determining the biodeterioration of polyethylene/filler composites by mold fungi is chemical composition of a filler and, in turn, its biodegradability. The excess of holocellulose content over lignin content and high protein content in a filler are able to induce biofouling of the polymeric composite materials. The presence of soluble and easy hydrolysed fraction in a filler increases its availability in a polymeric matrix. According to the study results, most effective natural fillers as additives stimulating polyethylene composites biodegradability are milled straw of seed flax and hydrolyzed keratin of bird’s feather.

  15. Influence of limestone filler and of the size of the aggregates on DEF

    OpenAIRE

    Shamaa, M. Al; Lavaud, S.; Divet, L; Colliat, JB; Nahas, G; Torrenti, JM

    2016-01-01

    This experimental study aims to determine the effect of limestone filler on concrete expansion due to delayed ettringite formation (DEF). Different mortars made with different sizes and percentages of limestone filler and Portland cement CEM I 52.5N are conserved in water. The expansion of the specimens is measured. Results show that DEF is not inhibited by limestone filler. The kinetics and the amplitude of the swelling depend on the size of the limestone filler. The volume fraction of aggre...

  16. 21 CFR 888.3045 - Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device. 888.3045 Section 888.3045 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... salt bone void filler device. (a) Identification. A resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device is...

  17. [Benefits of volumetric to facial rejuvenation. Part 2: Dermal fillers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, P; Pons Guiraud, A; Lepage, C

    2017-09-11

    Injectable substances known as fillers are used to palliate age-related atrophy and ptosis, and for their so-called "pseudo-lifting" action. They do not replace face and neck lift, but allow it to be postponed or, when injected after surgical lifting, make the result durable. Hyaluronic acid has a predominant and unchallenged place among fillers, well ahead of poly-L-lactic acid or calcium hydroxyapatite. Approaches and injection methods are the same for all fillers, corresponding to those for autologous fat injection, the reference substance, with a few particularities. The substance used, the level of hyaluronic acid reticulation, and the depth of the injection depend on the injection site and intended effect. Effects range from smoothing superficial wrinkles to remodeling whole parts of the face. Complications related to such fillers are well known, especially in the case of hyaluronic acid, where overcorrection is the most frequent. To limit the risk of complications and also to offer each patient the most individually adapted corrections, before any procedure, the plastic surgeon needs to question the patient and perform precise medical examination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of fillers on the alkali activated chamotte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembovska, L.; Bumanis, G.; Vitola, L.; Bajare, D.

    2017-10-01

    Alkali-activated materials (AAM) exhibit remarkable high-temperature resistance which makes them perspective materials for high-temperature applications, for instance as fire protecting and insulating materials in industrial furnaces. Series of experiments were carried out to develop optimum mix proportions of AAM based on chamotte with quartz sand (Q), olivine sand (OL) and firebrick sawing residues (K26) as fillers. Aluminium scrap recycling waste was considered as a pore forming agent and 6M NaOH alkali activation solution has been used. Lightweight porous AAM have been obtained with density in range from 600 to 880 kg/m3 and compressive strength from 0.8 to 2.7 MPa. The XRD and high temperature optical microscopy was used to characterize the performance of AAM. The mechanical, physical and structural properties of the AAM were determined after the exposure to elevated temperatures at 800 and 1000°C. The results indicate that most promising results for AAM were with K26 filler where strength increase was observed while Q and OL filler reduced mechanical properties due to structure deterioration caused by expansive nature of selected filler.

  19. Effect of waste rubber powder as filler for plywood application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Huei Ruey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the suitability of waste rubber powder (WRP use as filler in adhesive formulation for plywood application. Melamine Urea Formaldehyde (MUF was employed as resin for formulating the wood adhesive. To improve chemical properties and bonding quality of adhesive, WRP was treated by different chemicals like 20% nitric acid, 30% hydrogen peroxide and acetone solution. The treated WRP were analysed by XRD and it showed that inorganic compounds were removed and carbon was remained as major component under the treatment of 20% HNO3. The treatment improved the mechanical properties like shear strength and formaldehyde emission of plywood (high shear strength and low formaldehyde emission. The physico-chemical interaction between the wood, resin and filler was investigated using fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR technique and the interactions among N-H of MUF and C=O of wood and WRP were identified. The morphology of wood-adhesive interface was studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM and light microscope (LM. It showed that the penetration of adhesives and fillers through the wood pores was responsible for mechanical interlocking. Therefore, chemically treated WRP proved its potential use as filler in MUF based adhesive for making plywood.

  20. Preparation of fibrin networks on polymers containing nano-filler

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozlowska, A.; Piegat, A.; Skrobot, J.; Strzalkowska, D.; El Fray, M.; Kubies, Dana; Riedel, Tomáš; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Rypáček, František

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 92, - (2010), s. 8-10 ISSN 1429-7248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk MEB050833 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : fibrin networks * nano-filler Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry http://www.biomat.krakow.pl/gazeta/archiwum/92.pdf

  1. Fibrous Fillers to Manufacture Ultra High Ash/Performance Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. VIjay K. Mathur

    2009-04-30

    The paper industry is one of the largest users of energy and emitters of CO2 in the US manufacturing industry. In addition to that, it is facing tremendous financial pressure due to lower cost imports. The fine paper industry has shrunk from 15 million tons per year production to 10 million tons per year in the last 5 years. This has resulted in mill closures and job loses. The AF&PA and the DOE formed a program called Agenda 2020 to help in funding to develop breakthrough technologies to provide help in meeting these challenges. The objectives of this project were to optimize and scale-up Fibrous Fillers technology, ready for commercial deployment and to develop ultra high ash/high performance paper using Fibrous Fillers. The goal was to reduce energy consumption, carbon footprint, and cost of manufacturing paper and related industries. GRI International (GRI) has been able to demonstrate the techno - economic feasibility and economic advantages of using its various products in both handsheets as well as in commercial paper mills. GRI has also been able to develop sophisticated models that demonstrate the effect of combinations of GRI's fillers at multiple filler levels. GRI has also been able to develop, optimize, and successfully scale-up new products for use in commercial paper mills.

  2. Induction heating of mastic containing conductive fibers and fillers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, Á.; Schlangen, E.; Ven, M. van de; Vliet, D. van

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the induction heating of mastic through the addition of electrically conductive fillers and fibers (graphite and steel wool), and to prove that this material can be healed with induction energy. The effect of fibers content, sand-bitumen ratio and the

  3. Induction heating of mastic containing conductive fibers and fillers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, Á.; Schlangen, E.; Van de Ven, M.; Van Vliet, D.

    The objective of this research is to examine the induction heating of mastic through the addition of electrically conductive fillers and fibers (graphite and steel wool), and to prove that this material can be healed with induction energy. The effect of fibers content, sand–bitumen ratio and the

  4. Hybrid filler composition optimization for tensile strength of jute fibre ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to be very cost-effective materials particularly, for building and construction industry, packaging, railway coach .... and maintenance. A protective surface of 25 μm thick hard chrome plating is done to avoid abrasion of die due to the pultrusion of hard filler particles. For heating the die, an electric heater is provided with ...

  5. Influence of Quartz Fillers in Dielectric Composites on Electrostrictive Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Shivamurthy

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation E-glass epoxy composite filled with different amount of quartz powder were prepared by compression moulding and hot curing. Plain waived E-glass cloth with density 200gm / meter square was used as reinforcement. Epoxy resin LY556 mixed with Hardener HT907 and accelerator DY063 in the ratio 100:80:2 was used as matrix. The quartz powder of 30 microns particle size was used as fillers. Four types of composites were prepared with different amount of quartz fillers like 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% with unchanged reinforcement. For all the samples, dielectric dissipation factor (tan δ, dielectric constant and a. c. conductivity and electrostriction have been measured by using a LCR meter at 1 KHz frequency. The phenomenon of electrostriction was examined for all samples (of different percentage of quartz filled composites. It is observed that the percentage of filler influences the electrostriction phenomena in the composites. The 6 % filler content composites samples exhibits the improved electrostriction phenomenon required for sensors compared to other types of composites.

  6. More About Brazing Or Welding NiAl Without Filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas J.; Kalinowski, Joseph M.

    1996-01-01

    Two reports present additional information about two processes for joining, brazing, or welding workpieces made of nickel aluminide alloys, without use of filler metal. Joining processes involve uniform heating in vacuum-controlled furnace. Eliminates internal thermal gradients in workpieces joined and greatly reduces tendency toward cracking.

  7. Hydrophobic chalk as a filler for paints and varnishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Niftaliev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the properties of the chemically precipitated chalk and the development of activities, which enable us to get from the secondary product of the manufacture different fertilizers, high-quality carbonate fillers for paints and varnishes, primers and putty.

  8. Photosensitive filler minimizes internal stresses in epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, J. N.

    1967-01-01

    Photosensitive filler is added to curable epoxy resins to minimize stress from internal shrinkage during curing or polymerization. Cinnamic acid resins and cinnamal ketones may be added in the amount of 1 to 3 percent by weight of the resin mixture.

  9. Biocomposites from polyhydroxybutyrate and bio-fillers by solvent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Polyhydroxybutyrate; solvent casting; bio-fillers; biocomposites; biopolymer. 1. Introduction. Plastics, which are derived from petroleum and not readily biodegradable, are used to produce many materials, and the plastic waste disposal has particularly increased in the pack- aging applications from day to day [1].

  10. New Manufacturing Method for Paper Filler and Fiber Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doelle, Klaus [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

    2013-08-25

    The use of fillers in printing and writing papers has become a prerequisite for competing in a global market to reduce the cost of materials. Use of calcium carbonates (ranging from 18% to 30%) as filler is a common practice in the paper industry but the choices of fillers for each type of papers vary widely according to its use. The market for uncoated digital printing paper is one that continues to introduce exciting growth projections. and it is important to understand the effect that new manufacturing methods of calcium carbonates have on the energy efficiency and paper production. Research conducted under this award showed that the new fiber filler composite material has the potential to increase the paper filler content by up to 5% without losing mechanical properties. Benefits of the technology can be summarized as follows for a 1% filler increase per metric ton of paper produced: (i) production cost savings over $12, (ii) Energy savings of 100,900 btu, (iii) CO{sub 2} emission savings of 33 lbs, and additional savings for wood preparation, pulping, recovery of 203593 btu with a 46lbs of CO{sub 2} emission savings per 1% filler increase. In addition the technology has the potential to save: (i) additional $3 per ton of bleached pulp produced, (ii) bleaching energy savings of 170,000 btu, (iii) bleaching CO{sub 2} emission savings of 39 lbs, and (iv) additional savings for replacing conventional bleaching chemicals with a sustainable bleaching chemical is estimated to be 900,000 btu with a 205 lbs of CO{sub 2} emission savings per ton of bleached pulp produced. All the above translates to a estimated annual savings for a 12% filler increase of 296 trillion buts or 51 million barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) or 13.7% of the industries energy demand. This can lead to a increase of renewable energy usage from 56% to close to 70% for the industry sector. CO{sub 2} emission of the industry at a 12% filler increase could be lowered by over 39 million tons annually

  11. Hardness of model dental composites - the effect of filler volume fraction and silanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, J F; Wassell, R W

    1999-05-01

    The relationship between structure and mechanical properties for dental composites has often proved difficult to determine due to the use of commercially available materials having a number of differences in composition i.e. different type of resin, different type of filler, etc. This makes a scientific study of any one variable such as filler content difficult if not impossible. In the current study it was the aim to test the hypothesis that hardness measurements of dental composites could be used to monitor the status of the resin-filler interface and to determine the efficacy of any particle silanation process. Ten model composites formulated from a single batch of resin and containing a common type of glass filler were formulated to contain varying amounts of filler. Some materials contained silanated filler, others contained unsilanated filler. Specimens were prepared and stored in water and hardness (Vickers') was determined at 24 h using loads of 50, 100, 200 and 300 g. Composites containing silanated fillers were significantly harder than materials containing unsilanated fillers. For unsilanated products hardness was independent of applied load and in this respect they behaved like homogeneous materials. For composites containing silanated fillers there was a marked increase in measured hardness as applied load was increased. This suggests that the hardness-load profile could be used to monitor the status of the resin-filler interface. Copyright 1999 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  12. Vacuum Brazing Diamond Grits with Cu-based or Ni-based Filler Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wenchun; Lu, Jinbin; Li, Yang; Xu, Shuai; Zhong, Sujuan; Wang, Bangfu; Qiu, Xinkai

    2017-08-01

    Diamond grits were brazed using Cu-Sn-Cr and Ni-Cr-B-Si filler metals, and the brazed grits were examined for microstructure (SEM, EDS, XRD), microhardness, and compression strength. Results showed that the microstructure of the Cu-based filler metal was uniform and consisted of α-Cu + (α-Cu + δ). Its wettability to the diamond was better than Ni-based filler due to the formation of a thin carbide reaction layer that improved the bond strength between the diamond and steel. The Cu-based filler led to reduced thermal damage to the diamond. The Cr in the filler metal diffused to the steel substrate to form a reaction layer at the filler/steel substrate interface. The microhardness of the Ni filler metal (810-830 HV0.3) was significantly higher than that of Cu filler metal (170-230 HV0.3). The compressive load values of the diamond grits brazed with Cu-based or Ni-based filler metal were 93.7 and 49.2% of the original diamond, and the TI values were 83.7 and 59.8% of the original diamond. Grinding experiments for failure mode in monolayer tools revealed that the tools brazed with Cu-based filler metal had a lower macro-fracture ratio than those brazed using the Ni-based filler.

  13. Optical coherence tomography for image-guided dermal filler injection and biomechanical evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manmohan; Wang, Shang; Yee, Richard W.; Han, Zhaolong; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2017-02-01

    Dermal fillers are a very popular anti-ag ing treatment with estimated sales in the billions of dollars and millions of procedures performed. As the aging population continues to grow, these figures are only e xpected to increase. Dermal fillers have various compositions depending on their intended applicati on. Reactions to dermal fillers can be severe, such as ischemic events and filler migration to the eyes. Howe ver, these adverse reactions are rare. Nevertheless, the capability to perform imag e-guided filler injections would minimize th e risk of such reacti ons. In addition, the biomechanical properties of various fillers have been evalua ted, but there has been no investigation on the effects of filler on the biomechanical properties of skin. In this work, we utilize optical cohe rence tomography (OCT) for visualizing dermal filler injections with micrometer-scale sp atial resolution. In addition, we utilize noncontact optical coherence elastography (OCE) to quantify the changes in the biomechan ical properties of pig skin after the dermal filler injections. OCT was successfully able to visualize the dermal filler injecti on process, and OCE showed that the viscoelasticity of the pig skin was increased locally at the filler injection sites. OCT may be able to provide real-time image guidance in 3D, and when combined with functional OCT techniques such as optical microangiography, could be used to avoid blood vessels during the injection.

  14. The duration of hyaluronidase and optimal timing of hyaluronic acid (HA) filler reinjection after hyaluronidase injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H J; Kwon, S B; Whang, K U; Lee, J S; Park, Y L; Lee, S Y

    2018-02-01

    Hyaluronidase injection is a commonly performed treatment for overcorrection or misplacement of hyaluronic acid (HA) filler. Many patients often wants the HA filler reinjection after the use of hyaluronidase, though the optimal timing of reinjection of HA filler still remains unknown. To provide the optimal time interval between hyaluronidase injections and HA filler reinjections. 6 Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with single monophasic HA filler. 1 week after injection, the injected sites were treated with hyaluronidase. Then, HA fillers were reinjected sequentially with differing time intervals from 30 minutes to 14 days. 1 hour after the reinjection of the last HA filler, all injection sites were excised for histologic evaluation. 3 hours after reinjection of HA filler, the appearance of filler material became evident again, retaining its shape and volume. 6 hours after reinjection, the filler materials restored almost its original volume and there were no significant differences from the positive control. Our data suggest that the hyaluronidase loses its effect in dermis and subcutaneous tissue within 3-6 hours after the injection and successful engraftment of reinjected HA filler can be accomplished 6 hours after the injection.

  15. Study on a novel Sn-electroplated silver brazing filler metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingxing; Peng, Jin; Cui, Datian

    2017-08-01

    Novel Sn-electroplated Ag brazing filler metal with a high tin content was prepared by combining the plating and thermal diffusion method. The BAg45CuZn alloy was used as a base filler metal, and a Sn layer was electroplated on it. Then the H62 brass was brazed with the Sn-plated brazing filler metal containing 6.2 wt% of Sn. The results showed that the microstructure of the brazed joints with the Sn-plated filler mainly consisted of the Ag phase, Cu phase, CuZn phase and Cu5Zn8 phase. The tensile strength of the joints brazed with the Sn-plated filler metal was 326 MPa, which was higher than that of the joints with the base filler metal. Fracture analysis showed that the fractures of the joints brazed by the Sn-plated filler metal was mainly ductile fracture mixed with a small quantity of brittle fracture.

  16. Cosmetic Adolescent Filler: An Innovative Treatment of the "Selfie" Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berros, Philipe; Armstrong, Blair K; Foti, Pauline; Mancini, Ronald

    2017-11-27

    "Selfie" photography is increasing among teenagers, accentuates congenital anomalies, and impacts self-confidence. Tear trough deformity is most commonly due to aging, but also occurs as a congenital anomaly and can be a major source of insecurity and embarrassment. The purpose of this study is to show the efficacy and safety of hyaluronic acid gel filler in a teenage patient with congenital tear trough deformity. We describe the case of a teenager who underwent hyaluronic acid gel filling to the tear trough deformity at age 14 years. Prospective follow up was assessed for 5 years. The patient improved clinical appearance and self confidence. Her satisfaction level was high, and no complication occurred during entire follow up. In this case, hyaluronic gel acid filler was safe and effective for augmentation of congenital tear trough. The patient was satisfied and experienced increased self-esteem.

  17. Epoxy Resin Composite Based on Functional Hybrid Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Oleksy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out involving the filling of epoxy resin (EP with bentonites and silica modified with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS. The method of homogenization and the type of filler affect the functional and canceling properties of the composites was determined. The filler content ranged from 1.5% to 4.5% by mass. The basic mechanical properties of the hybrid composites were found to improve, and, in particular, there was an increase in tensile strength by 44%, and in Charpy impact strength by 93%. The developed hybrid composites had characteristics typical of polymer nanocomposites modified by clays, with a fine plate morphology of brittle fractures observed by SEM, absence of a plate separation peak in Wide Angles X-ray Scattering (WAXS curves, and an exfoliated structure observed by TEM.

  18. Treatment of the ageing hand with dermal fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Kühne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the trend in facial cosmetic procedures, patients are now increasingly requesting hand rejuvenation treatments. Intrinsic ageing of the hands is characterized by loss of dermal elasticity and atrophy of the subcutaneous tissue. Thus, veins, tendons and bony structures become apparent. Among the available procedures, intrinsic ageing of the hands is best improved by restoring the volume of soft tissue. Volume restoration can be achieved with a number of long-lasting dermal fillers with varying degrees of improvement and treatment longevity. The dermal fillers used in hand rejuvenation include autologous fat, collagen, hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite and poly-L-lactic acid. Here, we describe our preferred injection method for hand rejuvenation using calcium hydroxylapatite and a single-bolus injection.

  19. Chitosan nanocomposites based on distinct inorganic fillers for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Duarte; Mano, João F; Paiva, Maria C; Alves, Natália M

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan (CHI), a biocompatible and biodegradable polysaccharide with the ability to provide a non-protein matrix for tissue growth, is considered to be an ideal material in the biomedical field. However, the lack of good mechanical properties limits its applications. In order to overcome this drawback, CHI has been combined with different polymers and fillers, leading to a variety of chitosan-based nanocomposites. The extensive research on CHI nanocomposites as well as their main biomedical applications are reviewed in this paper. An overview of the different fillers and assembly techniques available to produce CHI nanocomposites is presented. Finally, the properties of such nanocomposites are discussed with particular focus on bone regeneration, drug delivery, wound healing and biosensing applications.

  20. The Aging Face: Global Approach With Fillers and Neuromodulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solish, Nowell

    2016-06-01

    The goal of treating the aging face is to restore facial balance and modify shadows. A facial evaluation should focus on areas of volume loss and opportunities to use neuromodulators (eg, botulinum toxin A) and the use of fillers. A thorough understanding of facial anatomy, including muscles, nerves, bone, and fat pads, is essential for effective and safe treatment. Semin Cutan Med Surg 35(supp6):S120-S121. 2016 published by Frontline Medical Communications.

  1. Complications caused by injection of dermal filler in Danish patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth, Charlotte Caspara; Elberg, Jens Jørgen; Zachariae, Claus

    2016-01-01

    and complications was 2 years (range 1 day–8 years). The most common reported complications were edema (81 %), noduli (67.7 %), infections (54.1 %), discoloration (51.4 %), and granuloma formation (48.6 %). Surgical removal of the filler material was attempted in four patients.  Conclusions: With the increased use...

  2. Lymphedema Fat Graft: An Ideal Filler for Facial Rejuvenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Nicoli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lymphedema is a chronic disorder characterized by lymph stasis in the subcutaneous tissue. Lymphatic fluid contains several components including hyaluronic acid and has many important properties. Over the past few years, significant research has been performed to identify an ideal tissue to implant as a filler. Because of its unique composition, fat harvested from the lymphedema tissue is an interesting topic for investigation and has significant potential for application as a filler, particularly in facial rejuvenation. Over a 36-month period, we treated and assessed 8 patients with lymphedematous limbs who concurrently underwent facial rejuvenation with lymphedema fat (LF. We conducted a pre- and post-operative satisfaction questionnaire survey and a histological assessment of the harvested LF fat. The overall mean general appearance score at an average of 6 months after the procedure was 7.2±0.5, demonstrating great improvement. Patients reported significant improvement in their skin texture with a reading of 8.5±0.7 and an improvement in their self-esteem. This study demonstrates that LF as an ideal autologous injectable filler is clinically applicable and easily available in patients with lymphedema. We recommend the further study and clinical use of this tissue as it exhibits important properties and qualities for future applications and research.

  3. Calcium polyphosphate particulates for bone void filler applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliar, Robert M; Kandel, Rita A; Grynpas, Marc D; Theodoropoulos, John; Hu, Youxin; Allo, Bedilu; Changoor, Adele

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of porous calcium polyphosphate particulates (CPPp) formed using two different processing treatments as bone void fillers in non- or minimally load-bearing sites. The two calcium polyphosphate particulate variants (grades) were formed using different annealing conditions during particulate preparation to yield either more slowly degrading calcium polyphosphate particulates (SD-CPPp) or faster degrading particulates (FD-CPPp) as suggested by a previous degradation study conducted in vitro (Hu et al., Submitted for publication 2016). The two CPPp grades were compared as bone void fillers in vivo by implanting particulates in defects created in rabbit femoral condyle sites (critical size defects). The SD-CPPp and FD-CPPp were implanted for 4- and 16-week periods. The in vivo study indicated a significant difference in amount of new bone formed in the prepared sites with SD-CPPp resulting in more new bone formation compared with FD-CPPp. The lower bone formation characteristic of the FD-CPPp was attributed to its faster degradation rate and resulting higher local concentration of released polyphosphate degradation products. The study results indicate the importance of processing conditions on preparing calcium polyphosphate particulates for potential use as bone void fillers in nonload-bearing sites. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 874-884, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Injectable fillers for volume replacement in the aging face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Timothy M; Antunes, Marcelo B; Yellin, Seth A

    2012-02-01

    In recent years, there has been a better understanding of the aging process. In addition to changes occurring in the skin envelope, significant changes occur in the subcutaneous fat and craniofacial skeleton. This has led to a paradigm shift in the therapeutic approach to facial rejuvenation. Along with soft tissue repositioning, volumizing the aging face has been found to optimize the result and achieve a more natural appearance. Early in the aging process, when there has not been a significant change to the face requiring surgical intervention, fillers alone can provide minimally invasive facial rejuvenation through volumizing. Multiple injectable soft tissue fillers and biostimulators are currently available to provide facial volume such as hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite, poly-L-lactic acid, polymethyl methacrylate, and silicone. A discussion of the morphological changes seen in the aging face, the properties of these products, and key technical concepts will be highlighted to permit optimum results when performing facial volumizing of the upper, middle, and lower thirds of the face. These fillers can act as a dress rehearsal for these patients considering structural fat grafting. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. Braze welding of cobalt with a silver–copper filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everett M. Criss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method of joining cobalt by braze-welding it with a silver–copper filler was developed in order to better understand the residual stresses in beryllium–aluminum/silicon weldments which are problematic to investigate because of the high toxicity of Be. The base and filler metals of this new welding system were selected to replicate the physical properties, crystal structures, and chemical behavior of the Be–AlSi welds. Welding parameters of this surrogate Co–AgCu system were determined by experimentation combining 4-point bending tests and microscopy. Final welds are 5 pass manual TIG (tungsten inert gas, with He top gas and Ar back gas. Control of the welding process produces welds with full penetration melting of the cobalt base. Microscopy indicates that cracking is minimal, and not through thickness, whereas 4-point bending shows failure is not by base-filler delamination. These welds improve upon the original Be–AlSi welds, which do not possess full penetration, and have considerable porosity. We propose that utilization of our welding methods will increase the strength of the Be–AlSi weldments. The specialized welding techniques developed for this study may be applicable not only for the parent Be–AlSi welds, but to braze welds and welds utilizing brittle materials in general. This concept of surrogacy may prove useful in the study of many different types of exotic welds.

  6. Patient factors influencing dermal filler complications: prevention, assessment, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Boulle K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Koenraad De Boulle,1 Izolda Heydenrych2 On behalf of the Consensus Group 1Aalst Dermatology Group, Aalst, Belgium; 2Cape Town Cosmetic Dermatology Centre, Century City, South Africa Abstract: While rare, complications do occur with the esthetic use of dermal fillers. Careful attention to patient factors and technique can do much to avoid these complications, and a well-informed practitioner can mitigate problems when they do occur. Since cosmetic surgery is usually an elective process, requested by the patient, clinical trials are complex to organize and run. For this reason, an international group of practicing physicians in the field of esthetics came together to share knowledge and to try and produce some informed guidance for their colleagues, considering the literature and also pooling their own extensive clinical experience. This manuscript aims to summarize the crucial aspects of patient selection, including absolute contraindications as well as situations that warrant caution, and also covers important considerations for the pre- and posttreatment periods as well as during the procedure itself. Guidance is given on both immediate and long-term management of adverse reactions. The majority of complications are related to accepting patients inappropriate for treatment or issues of sterility, placement, volume, and injection technique. It is clear that esthetic practitioners need an in-depth knowledge of all aspects of treatment with dermal fillers to achieve optimal outcomes for their patients. Keywords: dermal fillers, complications, prevention, assessment, treatment, patient factors

  7. Evaluation of rice husk ash as filler in tread compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, M. R. S., E-mail: monica.fernandes@lanxess.com [Lanxess Elastômeros do Brasil S.A., Brasil and Instituto de Química, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Furtado, C. R. G., E-mail: russi@globo.com, E-mail: ana.furtado.sousa@gmail.com; Sousa, A. M. F. de, E-mail: russi@globo.com, E-mail: ana.furtado.sousa@gmail.com [Instituto de Química, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    Rice which is one of the largest agriculture crops produces around 22% of rice rusk during its milling process. This material is mainly used as fuel for energy generation, which results in an ash, which disposal represents an environmental issue. The rice husk ash (RHA) contains over than 70% of silica in an amorphous form and a lot of applications is being developed for it all over the world. The use of silica as a filler in the tire industry is growing since it contributes significantly to the reduction of fuel consumption of the automobiles, allowing at the same time better traction (safety). This paper presents an evaluation of the use of RHA as filler in rubber tread compounds prepared in lab scale and compares its performance with compounds prepared with commercial silica and carbon black, the fillers normally used in tire industry. Mechanical and rheological properties are evaluated, with emphasis for tan delta as an indicator of tread performance related with rolling resistance (fuel consumption) and wet grip/traction (safety)

  8. NANOSCALE BOEHMITE FILLER FOR CORROSION AND WEAR RESISTANT POLYPHENYLENESULFIDE COATINGS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2003-06-26

    The authors evaluated the usefulness of nanoscale boehmite crystals as a filler for anti-wear and anti-corrosion polyphenylenesulfide (PPS) coatings exposed to a very harsh, 300 C corrosive geothermal environment. The boehmite fillers dispersed uniformly into the PPS coating, conferring two advanced properties: First, they reduced markedly the rate of blasting wear; second, they increased the PPS's glass transition temperature and thermal decomposition temperature. The wear rate of PPS surfaces was reduced three times when 5wt% boehmite was incorporated into the PPS. During exposure for 15 days at 300 C, the PPS underwent hydrothermal oxidation, leading to the substitution of sulfide linkages by the sulfite linkages. However, such molecular alteration did not significantly diminish the ability of the coating to protect carbon steel against corrosion. In fact, PPS coating filled with boehmite of {le} 5wt% adequately mitigated its corrosion in brine at 300 C. One concern in using this filler was that it absorbs brine. Thus, adding an excess amount of boehmite was detrimental to achieving the maximum protection afforded by the coatings.

  9. The effect of filler on the protein content and interferences in rubber latices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhida, A. R.; Hassan, Aziz

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that the application of commercial fillers like calcium carbonate has widely been used in natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves as well as other dipped products such as balloons, condom and catheters. The main reason of adding the fillers into the rubber compound was as cheapening aid and to improve the end-product properties. Due to its functional benefit, many studies have been conducted on the application and beneficial usage of fillers in natural rubber (NR) compounds and natural rubber latex (NRL) dipped goods namely gloves. However most of the studies were basically emphasizing on the effect of fillers on the physical properties and surface morphology of rubber. Not many studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of filler on the protein content in NRL products. Earlier work by other workers has only been concentrating on the effect of nano-sized calcium carbonate fillers in NR latex gloves. Because of the concern on the issue of latex protein allergy; it is thus important to study the effect of filler on protein content and its interferences in the rubber lattices. This paper will seek to elaborate on the effect of filler content on the total protein and extractable protein (EP) content of NR latex films at various filler loadings before and after ageing. The effect of interferences by filler that was mixed into the NR latex on the total nitrogen and EP content were also measured and shown.

  10. Injectable facial fillers: imaging features, complications, and diagnostic pitfalls at MRI and PET CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundada, Pravin; Kohler, Romain; Boudabbous, Sana; Toutous Trellu, Laurence; Platon, Alexandra; Becker, Minerva

    2017-12-01

    Injectable fillers are widely used for facial rejuvenation, correction of disabling volumetric fat loss in HIV-associated facial lipoatrophy, Romberg disease, and post-traumatic facial disfiguring. The purpose of this article is to acquaint the reader with the anatomy of facial fat compartments, as well as with the properties and key imaging features of commonly used facial fillers, filler-related complications, interpretation pitfalls, and dermatologic conditions mimicking filler-related complications. The distribution of facial fillers is characteristic and depends on the anatomy of the superficial fat compartments. Silicone has signature MRI features, calcium hydroxyapatite has characteristic calcifications, whereas other injectable fillers have overlapping imaging features. Most fillers (hyaluronic acid, collagen, and polyalkylimide-polyacrylamide hydrogels) have signal intensity patterns compatible with high water content. On PET-CT, most fillers show physiologic high FDG uptake, which should not be confounded with pathology. Abscess, cellulitis, non-inflammatory nodules, and foreign body granulomas are the most common filler-related complications, and imaging can help in the differential diagnosis. Diffusion weighted imaging helps in detecting a malignant lesion masked by injected facial fillers. Awareness of imaging features of facial fillers and their complications helps to avoid misinterpretation of MRI, and PET-CT scans and facilitates therapeutic decisions in unclear clinical cases. • Facial fillers are common incidental findings on MRI and PET-CT scans. • They have a characteristic appearance and typical anatomic distribution • Although considered as safe, facial filler injections are associated with several complications • As they may mask malignancy, knowledge of typical imaging features is mandatory. • MRI is a problem-solving tool for unclear cases.

  11. Brazing diamond grits onto a steel substrate using copper alloys as the filler metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.-M.; Lin, S.-T.

    1996-12-01

    Surface-set diamond tools were fabricated by an active metal brazing process, using bronze (Cu-8.9Sn) powder and 316L stainless steel powder mixed to various ratios as the braze filler metals. The diamond grits were brazed onto a steel substrate at 1050 °C for 30 min in a dry hydrogen atmosphere. After brazing practice, an intermediate layer rich in chromium formed between the braze filler metal and diamond. A braze filler metal composed of 70 wt % bronze powder and 30 wt % stainless steel powder was found to be optimum in that the diamond grits were strongly impregnated in the filler metal by both mechanical and chemical types of holding. The diamond tools thus fabricated performed better than conventional nickel-plated diamond tools. In service, the braze filler metal wore at almost the same rate as the diamond grits, and no pullout of diamond grits or peeling of the filler metal layer took place.

  12. Effect of filler type and polishing on the discoloration of composite resin artificial teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Soichiro; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Hayakawa, Iwao; Loyaga-Rendon, Paola G; Minakuchi, Shunsuke

    2008-11-01

    In this study, the effects of filler type and polishing on the discoloration of composite resin artificial teeth were examined. Four types of experimental resins were prepared: one was a matrix resin, while the others were composite resins containing three different types of fillers (nano-sized silica filler with or without silanization, and prepolymerized filler). Specimens were immersed in distilled water, coffee, red wine, or curry. Color change after immersion was measured using a colorimeter. Color difference values (delta E) and changes in translucency parameter (delta TP) were statistically analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Tukey's comparison. On the influence of the polishing factor, statistically significant differences were neither observed in delta E nor delta TP between polished and non-polished tooth surfaces. On the contrary, the influences of filler type and discoloration medium, and their interaction thereof, were significant. With unsilanized filler, the delta E value of composite resin artificial teeth was significantly increased.

  13. Investigation of Using Waste Welded Tuff Material as Mineral Filler in Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebnem KARAHANCER

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the welded tuff waste- known as koyke in Isparta region - was used in the hot mix asphalt (HMA as mineral filler for reduction of the moisture susceptibility of HMA. Optimum binder content was assessed with Marshall Design Method. First of all, welded tuff was substituted as filler with limestone filler in proportion of 50% and 100%. After that Marshall Stability test was performed on specimens. The results showed that the 50% substitution was more effective than the 100% substitution. Therefore, welded tuff was substituted with limestone filler in proportion of 25%, 50%, 65% and 75%. Next, Indirect Tensile Strength test was practiced on the fabricated specimens and the results were assessed. According to the Indirect Tensile Strength results, welded tuff with 65% was given higher strength than the limestone filler. As a result, it has come up that welded tuff can be used as mineral filler in the hot mix asphalt.

  14. Characteristics of The Fillers Used for Realizing the Asphalt Mixtures in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Mihaela Dămiean

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the lab results for four types of filler used in producing the asphalt mixture in Romania, as well as other physical-chemical characteristics of a new type of filler, derivate of the grinding of the bituminous shists through a ball mill/crusher. Knowing these physical-chemical characteristics is crucial for asphalt mixtures due to the complex purpose of the filler.

  15. Novel high chromium containing braze filler metals for heat exchanger applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangaswamy, S.; Fortuna, D. [Sulzer Metco, Troy (United States)

    2007-07-01

    A new family of boron-free, high chromium containing braze filler metal compositions were developed (Amdry 105, Amdry 108, Amdry 805). Filler metal properties including metallurgical phases, melting range, flow, corrosion resistance and high temperature oxidation resistance are reported. Additionally, the technical and economical advantages of using these new filler metals in fabricating flat plate type of heat exchangers and metallic catalytic converters is discussed. (orig.)

  16. Investigation of Using Waste Welded Tuff Material as Mineral Filler in Asphalt Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    KARAHANCER, Sebnem; ERISKIN, Ekinhan; CAPALI, Buket; SALTAN, Mehmet; TERZI, Serdal

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the welded tuff waste- known as koyke in Isparta region - was used in the hot mix asphalt (HMA) as mineral filler for reduction of the moisture susceptibility of HMA. Optimum binder content was assessed with Marshall Design Method. First of all, welded tuff was substituted as filler with limestone filler in proportion of 50% and 100%. After that Marshall Stability test was performed on specimens. The results showed that the 50% substitution was more effective than the 100% subs...

  17. Effects of W/P ratio and limestone filler on permeability of cement pastes

    OpenAIRE

    Tri Phung, Quoc; Maes, Norbert; Jacques, Diederik; De Schutter, Geert; Ye, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Because of environmental and economic benefits, a fraction of cement is increasingly replaced by limestone fillers raising a question on to what extent limestone fillers affect the durability of cementitious materials. This work aims at understanding the effects of water/powder (w/p) ratio and limestone filler replacement on water permeability of cement pastes. A newly proposed technique using a controlled constant flow concept was applied to measure permeability of hardened ce...

  18. Modifikasi Permukaan Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (Pcc) dengan Coating Agents Asam Stearat dan Gama Mercaptosilane sebagai Reinforcing Filler pada Pembuatan Kompon Karet

    OpenAIRE

    Hasyim, Ummul Habibah

    2015-01-01

    Precipitated Calcium Carbonat (PCC) merupakan salah satu bahan pengisi (filler) karet bukan berwarna hitam. PCC yang telah dikembangkan merupakan filler semi reinforcing. Agar PCC dapat ditingkatkan menjadi PCC Reinforcing Filler maka diperlukan perlakuan terhadap permukaan filler PCC dengan memberikan coating agents. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mendapatkan berbagai informasi mengenai kondisi proses terbaik dalam modifikasi permukaan filler PCC dari PCC sebagai semi reinforci...

  19. Use of fillers as adjunct therapy for the treatment of lower face hemifacial spasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodic, Gary E

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of hemifacial spasm with periorbital injections of higher doses of botulinum toxin can create disfiguring and undesirable weakness in the lower face during active facial movements. The use of asymmetric hyaluronidate filler injections to the lower face provides a refinement allowing for a lowered neurotoxin dose. The filler creates a ballasting effect and involuntary facial movement. The conventional filler effect also further reduces asymmetric nasolabial folds and marionette lines. Fifteen of 18 patients with lower facial spasms found the filler toxin combination an improvement over neurotoxin alone.

  20. Effect of resin-composite filler particle size and shape on shrinkage-stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, Julian D; Maisuria, Amit; Vogel, Karin; Watts, David C

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of variations in filler particle size and shape on the polymerization shrinkage-stress kinetics of resin-composites. A model series of 12 VLC resin-composites were studied. The particulate dispersed phase volume fraction was 56.7%: these filler particles were systematically graded in size, and further were either spherical or irregular. A Bioman instrument (cantilever beam method) was employed to determine the shrinkage-stress kinetics following 40s irradiation (600 mW/cm(2)) at 23°C (n=3). All data were captured for 60 min and the final shrinkage-stress calculated. Shrinkage-stress varied between 3.86 MPa (SD 0.14) for S3 (spherical filler particles of 500 nm) and 8.44 MPa (SD 0.41) for I1 (irregular filler particles of 450 nm). The shrinkage-stress values were generally lower for those composites with spherical filler particles than those with irregular filler particles. The differences in shrinkage-stress with filler particle size and shape were statistically significant (pparticles exhibit lower shrinkage-stress values compared to those with irregular filler particles. Shrinkage-stress and shrinkage-stress rate vary in a complex manner with variations in the size of the dispersed phase particles: a hypothesized explanation for the effect of filler particle size and shape is presented. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The utility of high-frequency ultrasound in dermal filler evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippaudo, Francesca Romana; Mattei, Mauro

    2011-11-01

    Aim of this study is to describe the use of high-frequency ultrasound to ascertain the site, quantity, and type of filler injected in the soft tissue of the face, with respect to reliability of the procedure and the analysis costs. Between December 2006 and August 2010, 80 subjects aged 25 to 65 years, who underwent facial filler augmentation, were submitted to high-frequency sonography. Of total, 42 patients (22 after temporary filler and 20 after permanent filler) were healthy and satisfied of the treatment, and 38 patients sought consultation for filler-related problems. The nature of the injected filler was known in 86.25% of the patients, whereas it was unknown in 13.75% of the patients. Besides 4 patients, previously treated with temporary products, in which no foreign material was detected, high-frequency sonography was able to identify and quantify the presence of filler in the soft tissue of 97% of patients. Moreover, it was possible to detect inflammatory reaction (that were often silent), granulomas, and recognize the presence of diverse fillers in the same area. Ultrasonography has proved to be a useful, inexpensive, noninvasive tool for the identification of the site, quantity, and often even nature of the filler injected.

  2. The Microstructural Evolution of Vacuum Brazed 1Cr18Ni9Ti Using Various Filler Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxia Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The microstructures and weldability of a brazed joint of 1Cr18Ni9Ti austenitic stainless steel with BNi-2, BNi82CrSiBFe and BMn50NiCuCrCo filler metals in vacuum were investigated. It can be observed that an interdiffusion region existed between the filler metal and the base metal for the brazed joint of Ni-based filler metals. The width of the interdiffusion region was about 10 μm, and the microstructure of the brazed joint of BNi-2 filler metal was dense and free of obvious defects. In the case of the brazed joint of BMn50NiCuCrCo filler metal, there were pits, pores and crack defects in the brazing joint due to insufficient wettability of the filler metal. Crack defects can also be observed in the brazed joint of BNi82CrSiBFe filler metal. Compared with BMn50NiCuCrCo and BNi82CrSiBFe filler metals, BNi-2 filler metal is the best material for 1Cr18Ni9Ti austenitic stainless steel vacuum brazing because of its distinct weldability.

  3. PIM-1 mixed matrix membranes for gas separations using cost-effective hypercrosslinked nanoparticle fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Tamoghna; Bhavsar, Rupesh S; Adams, Dave J; Budd, Peter M; Cooper, Andrew I

    2016-04-25

    High-free-volume glassy polymers, such as polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and poly(trimethylsilylpropyne), have attracted attention as membrane materials due to their high permeability. However, loss of free volume over time, or aging, limits their applicability. Introduction of a secondary filler phase can reduce this aging but either cost or instability rules out scale up for many fillers. Here, we report a cheap, acid-tolerant, nanoparticulate hypercrosslinked polymer 'sponge' as an alternative filler. On adding the filler, permeability is enhanced and aging is strongly retarded. This is accompanied by a CO2/N2 selectivity that increases over time, surpassing the Robeson upper bound.

  4. Acceleration of percolation for cementitious sensors using conductive paint filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Irvin Jude Joseph

    Structural health monitoring has emerged as an important branch of civil engineering in recent times, with the need to automatically monitor structural performance over time to ensure structural integrity. More recently, the advent of smart sensing materials has given this field a major boost. Research has shown that smart sensing materials fabricated with conductive filler at a concentration close to the percolation threshold results in high sensitivity to strain due to the piezoresistive effect. Of particular interest to this research are cementitious sensors fabricated using carbon black fillers. Carbon black is considered because of its widespread availability and low cost over other conductive fillers such as carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers. A challenge in the fabrication of these sensors is that cementitious materials require a significant amount of carbon black to percolate, resulting in a loss in mechanical properties. This research investigates a new method to accelerate percolation of the materials, enabling cementitious sensors with fewer carbon black particles. A carbon black-based conductive paint that allows earlier percolation by facilitating conducting networks in cementitious sensors is used. The conductive paint consists of a block copolymer, SEBS (styrene-co-ethylene-co-butylene-co-styrene), filled with carbon black particles. The percolation thresholds of sensors fabricated both with and without conductive paint are, as well as their strain sensing characteristics and compressive strength. The study found that SEBS could successfully reduce the percolation threshold by 42%, and that samples with SEBS showed better electrical responses in dynamic conditions. Despite showing lower compressive strength, cementitious sensors fabricated with this novel conductive paint show promise for real time health monitoring applications.

  5. Soft tissue augmentation - Use of hyaluronic acid as dermal filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedamurthy Maya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue augmentation has revolutionized the treatment of the aging face. It is a technique in which a substance is injected under the skin. The concept of utilizing materials for soft tissue augmentation actually began around 1950 with the use of fluid silicone. Today we have a large armamentarium of implant materials to delay the tell tale signs of aging. Filling has replaced conventional surgery in facial rejuvenation. In this article, the emphasis will be on hyaluronic acid as this substance is easily available in India and ranks among the most widely used dermal fillers.

  6. Effect of three filler types on mechanical properties of dental composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pahlavan A.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Despite the improvements achieved in the field of dental composites, their strength, longevity, and service life specially in high stress areas is not confirmed. Finding better fillers can be a promising step in this task. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the filler type on the mechanical properties of a new experimental dental composite and compare these with the properties of composite containing conventional glass filler. Materials and Methods: Experimental composites were prepared by mixing silane-treated fillers with monomers, composed of 70% Bis-GMA and 30% TEGDMA by weight. Fillers were different among the groups. Glass, leucite ceramic and lithium disilicate were prepared as different filler types. All three groups contained 73% wt filler. Comphorquinone and amines were chosen as photo initiator system. Post curing was done for all groups. Diametral tensile strength (DTS, flexural strength and flexural modulus were measured and compared among groups. Data were analyzed with SPSS package using one-way ANOVA test with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: The results showed that the stronger ceramic fillers have positive effect on the flexural strength. Ceramic fillers increased the flexural strength significantly. No significant differences could be determined in DTS among the groups. Flexural modulus can be affected and increased by using ceramic fillers. Conclusion: Flexural strength is one of the most significant properties of restorative dental materials. The higher flexural strength and flexural modulus can be achieved by stronger ceramic fillers. Any further investigation in this field would be beneficial in the development of restorative dental materials.

  7. Effect of Copper-based Fillers Composition On Spreading and Wetting Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hissyam, W. N. W. M. N.; Halil, A. M.; Kurniawan, T.; Ishak, M.; Ariga, T.

    2017-09-01

    Wetting and spreading of molten brazing filler material are important factors that influence the brazing ability of a joint to be brazed. Several investigations into the wetting ability of a brazing filler alloy and its spreading area in the molten state, in addition to effects of brazing temperature on the contact angle, have been carried out. Generally, the composition of copper-based filler and temperature affect spreading of molten brazing filler material during brazing. Wetting by and interfacial reactions of the molten brazing filler material with the metallic substrate, especially, affect strongly the spreading of the filler material. In this study, the effects of filler composition and brazing temperature on the spreading of molten brazing filler metallic alloys were investigated. MBF 2005 (Cu, 5.7wt.%Ni, 9.7wt.%Sn, 7.0wt.%P), MBF 2002 (Cu, 9.9wt.%Ni, 4.0wt.%Sn, 7.8wt.%P) and VZ 2250 (Cu, 7.0wt.%Ni, 9.3wt.%Sn, 6.3wt.%P) alloys were used as brazing filler materials. Pure copper block and a rectangular plate were employed as the base metal. Brazing filler material and metallic base plate were first washed with acetone. Brazing was performed at 750°C and 800°C under Ar gas for 30 minutes using an electrically heated furnace, after which, the original spreading area, defined as the sessile drop area, and the apparent spreading area were both evaluated. It was observed that the spreading area and wetting angle influenced by the composition of copper-based filler.

  8. Congestion control for low-priority filler traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Brian A.; Warnky, Timothy; Liberatore, Vincenzo

    2003-08-01

    As the cost of Internet access rises and the amount of deployed bandwidth increases, a way to make efficient use of the oft-unused bandwidth is desired. Simply providing a lower priority for traffic than best effort allows this bandwidth to be used without noticeable interference with regular traffic. Because bursts of normal traffic are given priority over this background, or filler, traffic, a more aggressive congestion control protocol is called for in the filler traffic. In our paper, we compare numerous versions of TCP-like congestion control of our own design, over which to implement low-priority traffic, by using the unused bandwidth at any given time. These protocols are divided into six "classes," which differ by the core congestion control algorithm and use different constants. Using the ns-2 network simulator, we collected network traces using each of our protocols in different network configurations, with multiple parameters for each configuration. These configurations simulated high- and low-bandwidth and latency networks. We compared the resulting throughput and sharing - the cumulative variation of throughput over each stream, normalized by the total throughput over the link - to our chosen baseline, TCP Sack. Most of the basic algorithms performed as well as or better than Sack in a background traffic environment, especially in terms of throughput. Using features from multiple classes, we also designed a more complex protocol that performed better than Sack in almost every environment, and performed better than the other algorithms in general.

  9. Facial rejuvenation with fillers: The dual plane technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Salti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Facial aging is characterized by skin changes, sagging and volume loss. Volume is frequently addressed with reabsorbable fillers like hyaluronic acid gels. Materials and Methods: From an anatomical point of view, the deep and superficial fat compartments evolve differently with aging in a rather predictable manner. Volume can therefore be restored following a technique based on restoring first the deep volumes and there after the superficial volumes. We called this strategy "dual plane". A series of 147 consecutive patients have been treated with fillers using the dual plane technique in the last five years. Results: An average of 4.25 session per patient has been carried out for a total of 625 treatment sessions. The average total amount of products used has been 12 ml per patient with an average amount per session of 3.75 ml. We had few and limited adverse events with this technique. Conclusion: The dual plane technique is an injection technique based on anatomical logics. Different types of products can be used according to the plane of injection and their rheology in order to obtain a natural result and few side effects.

  10. Technical Note: Filler and superplasticizer usage on high strength concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sümer, M.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects of filler (rock-dust usage on high strength concrete have been investigated through lab experiments and some results have been obtained. The experiments involved three series of concrete with different cement proportions of 375 kg/m3, 400 kg/m3, and 425 kg/m3. For each series of concrete, three different groups of samples have been prepared, the first one being the reference concrete which contained 0% chemical admixture and 0% filler, the second one contained 1.5% chemical admixture and 0% filler and finally the last group contained 1.5% chemical admixture and 5% filler to the weight of cement used. The chemical admixture used was a type of Super plasticizer with a brand name of “DARACEM 190”, and the cement used was Ordinary Portland Cement of target compressive strength 42.5 N/mm2, obtained from Nuh Cement Plant. For each batch, Slump Tests and Unit Weight Tests were performed. For each stage and group, two 15 cm cubic samples have been tested for Compressive Strength after being cured in water at 20 ± 2 °C for ages of 3 days, 7 days, 28 and 60 days. The total number of samples was 72. As a result, filler usage was found to reduce the porosity of Concrete, increase the Unit Weight of Concrete, increase the need for water and improve the Compressive Strength Properties of Concrete.En el presente trabajo se estudia la influencia de la utilización de un “filler” (polvo mineral en el comportamiento del hormigón de altas prestaciones. Para ello, se realizan ensayos de laboratorio en los que se emplean tres series de hormigón, cada una con una dosificación de cemento distinta, de 375, 400 y 425 kg/m3. Se preparan tres grupos de probetas de cada serie, el primero o de referencia con 0% de aditivo químico y 0% de “filler”, el segundo con un 1,5% del aditivo químico y 0% de “filler” y el tercero con un 1,5% del aditivo químico y un 5% de “filler” en peso del cemento. Como aditivo se

  11. ZnO as a cheap and effective filler for high breakdown strength elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    . In this article, we explore the use of a cheap and abundant metal oxide filler, namely ZnO, as a filler in silicone-based dielectric elastomers. The electro-mechanical properties of the elastomer composites are investigated, and their performance is evaluated by means of figures of merit. Various commercial...

  12. 22-Year clinical evaluation of the performance of two posterior composites with different filler characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Rosa Rodolpho, P.A.; Donassollo, T.A.; Cenci, M.S.; Loguercio, A.D.; Moraes, R.R.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Demarco, F.F.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This retrospective longitudinal study investigated the longevity of posterior restorations placed in a single general practice using 2 different composites in filler characteristics and material properties: P-50 APC (3M ESPE) with 70vol.% inorganic filler loading (midfilled) and

  13. Alternative Fillers for the Production of Bituminous Mixtures: A Screening Investigation on Waste Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Sangiorgi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a significant increase in the demand for using recycled materials in construction because of the lack and limitation of available natural resources. A number of industrial and domestic waste products are being used in the replacement of traditional materials for road construction, and many studies have been carried out in recent years on the use of different recycled materials in substitution of conventional fillers in Asphalt Concretes (AC. The aim of this laboratory research is to analyze the physical characteristics of three different recycled fillers and compare them with those of a traditional limestone filler. The alternative fillers presented in this paper are: a waste bleaching clay that comes from two consecutive stages in the industrial process for decolouring vegetable oils and producing biogas (Ud filler, a dried mud waste from a tungsten mine (MW filler and a recycled glass powder (Gl filler. Results show significant differences between the fillers, and, in particular, Rigden Voids (RV seem to have the largest potential influence on the rheology of ACs.

  14. Effect of filler addition on the compressive and impact properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Flyash is incorporated in glass fibre reinforced epoxies to study their response to the filler addition. Low cost of flyash can reduce the overall cost of the component. Only very low volume fractions of filler are investigated in the present study. To obtain further clarification of the observed phenomenon, another.

  15. Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Resin Mortar with Sand Washing Waste as Filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemam, Dinberu Molla; Kim, Baek-Joong; Moon, Ji-Yeon; Yi, Chongku

    2017-02-28

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential use of sand washing waste as filler for epoxy resin mortar. The mechanical properties of four series of mortars containing epoxy binder at 10, 15, 20, and 25 wt. % mixed with sand blended with sand washing waste filler in the range of 0-20 wt. % were examined. The compressive and flexural strength increased with the increase in epoxy and filler content; however, above epoxy 20 wt. %, slight change was seen in strength due to increase in epoxy and filler content. Modulus of elasticity also linearly increased with the increase in filler content, but the use of epoxy content beyond 20 wt. % decreased the modulus of elasticity of the mortar. For epoxy content at 10 wt. %, poor bond strength lower than 0.8 MPa was observed, and adding filler at 20 wt. % adversely affected the bond strength, in contrast to the mortars containing epoxy at 15, 20, 25 wt. %. The results indicate that the sand washing waste can be used as potential filler for epoxy resin mortar to obtain better mechanical properties by adding the optimum level of sand washing waste filler.

  16. The Kinetics of Reversible Hyaluronic Acid Filler Injection Treated With Hyaluronidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Margit L W; Levin, Melissa K; Marmur, Ellen S

    2017-06-01

    Hyaluronidase is an enzyme capable of dissolution of hyaluronic acid (HA). There is a lack of evidence-based research defining time- and concentration-dependent reversal of HA filler using hyaluronidase. To explore the efficacy of different concentrations of hyaluronidase in digesting commercially available HA-based reversible fillers-Belotero Balance (BEL), Juvederm Ultra XC (JUVXC), Juvederm Ultra Plus (JUVX+), Juvederm Voluma XC (JUVV), Restylane-L (RESL), Restylane Silk (RESS), and Perlane/Restylane Lyft (RESLYFT). This was a blinded randomized study involving 15 participants. Participants received HA filler injection into their back, followed by no secondary injection, or injection with normal saline, 20 or 40 units of hyaluronidase. Using a 5-point palpation scale, the degradation of HA filler was monitored over 14 days. In the authors' study, there is a significant decrease in HA filler degradation using 20 and 40 units of hyaluronidase compared with no secondary injection or normal saline. There is no significant difference in HA filler dissolution when comparing 20 to 40 units of hyaluronidase. Lower concentrations of hyaluronidase may be just as effective as higher concentrations to degrade HA filler in situations where the reversal of cutaneous augmentation with HA filler arises.

  17. Effect of inorganic fillers in paper on the adhesion of pressure-sensitive adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weixu Chen; Xiaoyan Tang; John Considine; Kevin T. Turner

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic fillers are inexpensive materials used to increase the density, smoothness and other properties of paper that are important for printing. In the current study, the adhesion of pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs), a common type of adhesive used in labels and tapes, to papers containing varying amounts and types of fillers is investigated. Papers with three...

  18. Complications After Facial Injections With Permanent Fillers: Important Limitations and Considerations of MRI Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadouch, J.A.; Nolthenius, C.J.T.; Kadouch, D.J.; van der Woude, H.J.; Karim, R.B.; Hoekzema, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Soft-tissue fillers have become more prevalent for facial augmentation in the last 2 decades, even though complications of permanent fillers can be challenging to treat. An investigative imaging tool could aid in assessing the nature and extent of these complications when clinical

  19. Insights into the mechanisms of nucleation and growth of C–S–H on fillers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, X.; Koleva, D.A.; Ye, G.; van Breugel, K.

    2017-01-01

    A complete understanding of the mechanisms upon which a filler acts in a cement-based material, e.g. as a C–S–H nucleation and/or growth-inducing factor, is of high importance. Although various studies report on accelerated cement hydration in the presence of fillers, the reason behind these

  20. Improved natural rubber composites reinforced with a complex filler network of biobased nanoparticles and ionomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biobased rubber composites are renewable and sustainable. Significant improvement in modulus of rubber composite reinforced with hydrophilic filler was achieved with the inclusion of ionomers. Soy particles aided with ionomer, carboxylated styrene-butadiene (CSB), formed a strong complex filler netw...

  1. Effects of fillers on the properties of liquid silicone rubbers (LSRs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Zakaria, Shamsul Bin

    low viscosities, which is favorable for loading of inorganic fillers [5]. In this study, commercially available fillers, such as fumed silica (SiO2), titanium dioxide (TiO2), barium titanate (BaTiO3), copper calcium titanate (CaCu3Ti4O12, CCTO), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were added...

  2. The mechanical properties of nanofilled resin-based composites: characterizing discrete filler particles and agglomerates using a micromanipulation technique.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Curtis, Andrew R

    2009-02-01

    To assess the mechanical properties of discrete filler particles representative of several inorganic fillers in modern dental resin-based composites (RBCs) and to assess the validity of a novel micromanipulation technique.

  3. Fracture resistance of rubbers with MWCNT, organoclay, silica and carbon black fillers as assessed by the J-integral: Effects of rubber type and filler concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ricco

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The fracture resistance of different rubbers containing various nanofillers, such as multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT, organoclay, silica and carbon black (CB, was determined by the J-integral making use of the single edge notched tensile loaded (SEN-T single specimen approach. The elastomeric matrices were natural (NR, ethylene propylene diene (EPDM and hydrogenated nitrile rubbers (HNBR. Moreover, the strain softening (Payne effect of selected rubbers with 30 part per hundred rubber (phr filler content was also investigated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA in shear mode. DMTA results indicated that the Payne effect follows the ranking: MWCNT(fibrous > organoclay(platy > silica(spherical. J-resistance (JR curves were constructed by plotting the J value as a function of the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD*, monitored during loading. CTOD* = 0.1 mm was considered as crack initiation threshold and thus assigned to the critical value JIc. JIc increased with increasing filler loading, whereby MWCNT outperformed both silica and CB. On the other hand, JIc did not change with filler loading for the NR/organoclay systems that was traced to straininduced crystallization effect in NR. The tearing modulus (TJ also increased with increasing filler loading. The related increase strongly depended on both rubber and filler types. Nonetheless, the most prominent improvement in TJ among the fillers studied was noticed for the fibrous MWCNT.

  4. Quantitative characterization of brazing performance for Sn-plated silver alloy fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingxing; Peng, Jin; Cui, Datian

    2017-12-01

    Two types of AgCuZnSn fillers were prepared based on BAg50CuZn and BAg34CuZnSn alloy through a combinative process of electroplating and thermal diffusion. The models of wetting entropy and joint strength entropy of AgCuZnSn filler metals were established. The wetting entropy of the Sn-plated silver brazing alloys are lower than the traditional fillers, and its joint strength entropy value is slightly higher than the latter. The wetting entropy value of the Sn-plated brazing alloys and traditional filler metal are similar to the change trend of the wetting area. The trend of the joint strength entropy value with those fillers are consisted with the tensile strength of the stainless steel joints with the increase of Sn content.

  5. Improved TIG weld joint strength in aluminum alloy 2219-T87 by filler metal substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorman, R. M.; Lovoy, C. V.

    1972-01-01

    The results of an investigation on weld joint characteristics of aluminum alloy 2219-T87 are given. Five different alloys were utilized as filler material. The mechanical properties of the joints were determined at ambient and cryogenic temperatures for weldments in the as-welded condition and also, for weldments after elevated temperature exposures. Other evaluations included hardness surveys, stress corrosion susceptibility, and to a limited extent, the internal metallurgical weld structures. The overall results indicate that M-943 filler weldments are superior in strength to weldments containing either the standard 2319 filler or fillers 2014, 2020, and a dual wire feed consisting of three parts 2319 and one part 5652. In addition, no deficiencies were evident in M-934 filler weldments with regard to ductility, joint strength after elevated temperature exposure, weld hardness, metallographic structures, or stress corrosion susceptibility.

  6. Silica-filled elastomers polymer chain and filler characterization by a SANS-SAXS approach

    CERN Document Server

    Botti, A; Richter, D; Urban, V; Ipns, A 6 4; Kohlbrecher, J; Straube, E

    2002-01-01

    A study of composites based upon commercially available silica fillers and networks of blends of protonated and deuterated anionically prepared polyisoprene is presented. The extraction of the single chain structure factor for SANS in the polymeric soft phase in isotropic and deformed state has been performed for the first time. The quasi three-component system could not be compositionally matched due to the internal structures of the activated fillers. For this, a parallel SAXS investigation provided the neccessary information on the filler structure which was lacking in the SANS analysis. Whereas mechanically clear reinforcement at low strains and filler-networking can be observed, the microscopic characterization of the chain deformation in the framework of the network tube model agrees with the estimates for hydrodynamic reinforcement of fractal fillers. (orig.)

  7. Paleogenòmica

    OpenAIRE

    Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2009-01-01

    Des que es va recuperar per primer cop DNA d'una espècie extingida, l'any 1984, la paleogenòmica ha experimentat una autèntica revolució, gràcies a les tècniques d'ultraseqüenciació desenvolupades en els dos darrers anys. Això ha permès per primer cop assolir projectes genòmics d'espècies extingides com els mamuts i els neandertals. Aquest treball fa un repàs històric dels principals estudis paleogenòmics i es discuteixen les possibles aplicacions, així com les problemàtiques m...

  8. macroeconômica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurilton Alves Araújo Júnior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio estuda políticas monetárias discricionárias otimizadas como extensão do novo modelo básico Keynesiano, o qual incorpora tributação da receita de juros, focando no efeito das mudanças na alíquota da receita de juros sobre volatilidade macroeconômica. Simulações mostram que altos níveis de tributação aumentam a volatilidade da inflação, do gap de produção, e a expectativas incondicionais da função de perda do banco central.

  9. Behaviour of cellular structures with fluid fillers under impact loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Vesenjak

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the behaviour of closed- and open-cell cellular structures under uniaxial impact loading by means of computational simulations using the explicit nonlinear finite element code LS-DYNA. Simulations also consider the influence of pore fillers and the base material strain rate sensitivity. The behaviour of closed-cell cellular structure has been evaluated with use of the representative volume element, where the influence of residual gas inside the closed pores has been studied. Open- cell cellular structure was modelled as a whole to properly account for considered fluid flow through the cells, which significantly influences macroscopic behaviour of the cellular structure. The fluid has been modelled by applying a meshless Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH method. Parametric computational simulations provide grounds for optimization of cellular structures to satisfy different requirements, which makes them very attractive for use in general engineering applications.

  10. The Development of Filler Structure in Colloidal Silica -- Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meth, Jeffrey

    2012-02-01

    The realization of the full potential for polymeric nanocomposites to manifest their entitled property improvements relies, for some properties, on the ability to achieve maximum particle-matrix interfacial area. Well-dispersed nanocomposites incorporating colloidal silica as the filler can be realized in both polystyrene and poly(methylmethacrylate) matrices by exploiting the charge stabilized nature of silica in nonaqueous solvents which act as Bronsted bases. We demonstrate that dispersions of colloidal silica in dimethylformamide are charge stabilized, regardless of organosilyl surface functionalization. When formulated with polymer solutions, the charge stabilized structure is maintained during drying until the charged double layer collapses. Although particles are free to diffuse and cluster after this neutralization, increased matrix viscosity retards the kinetics. We demonstrate how high molecular weight polymers assist in immobilizing the structure of the silica to produce well-dispersed composites. The glass transition temperatures of these composites do not vary, even at loadings up to 50 v%.

  11. Sugarcane bagasse ash: new filler to natural rubber composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renivaldo José dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste recycling has been the subject of numerous scientific researches regarding the environmental care. This paper reports the redirecting of sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA as new filler to natural rubber (NR/SBA. The NR/SBA composites were prepared using an opened cylinder mixer to incorporate the vulcanization agents and different proportions of residue (SBA. The ash contains about 70-90% of inorganic compounds, with silica (SiO2 being the main compound. The SBA incorporation improved the mechanical properties of the vulcanized rubber. Based on these results, a new use is proposed for the agro-industry organic waste to be implemented in the rubber vulcanization process, aimed at improving the rubber physical properties as well as decreasing the prices of natural rubber composites.

  12. Penile Girth Enhancement With Polymethylmethacrylate-Based Soft Tissue Fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casavantes, Luis; Lemperle, Gottfried; Morales, Palmira

    2016-09-01

    An unknown percentage of men will take every risk to develop a larger penis. Thus far, most injectables have caused serious problems. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microspheres have been injected as a wrinkle filler and volumizer with increasing safety since 1989. To report on a safe and permanently effective method to enhance penile girth and length with an approved dermal filler (ie, PMMA). Since 2007, the senior author has performed penile augmentation in 752 men mainly with Metacrill, a suspension of PMMA microspheres in carboxymethyl-cellulose. The data of 729 patients and 203 completed questionnaires were evaluated statistically. The overall satisfaction rate was 8.7 on a scale of 1 to 10. After one to three injection sessions, average girth increased by 3.5 cm, or 134% (10.2 to 13.7 cm = 134.31%). Penile length also increased by weight and stretching force of the implant from an average of 9.8 to 10.5 cm. Approximately half the patients perceived some irregularities of the implant, which caused no problems. Complications occurred in 0.4%, when PMMA nodules had to be surgically removed in three of the 24% of patients who had a non-circumcised penis. After 5 years of development, penile augmentation with PMMA microspheres appears to be a natural, safe, and permanently effective method. The only complication of nodule formation and other irregularities can be overcome by an improved injection technique and better postimplantation care. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Wh-filler-gap dependency formation guides reflexive antecedent search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Michael; Ackerman, Lauren; Baumann, Peter; Potter, David; Yoshida, Masaya

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies on online sentence processing have shown that the parser can resolve non-local dependencies rapidly and accurately. This study investigates the interaction between the processing of two such non-local dependencies: wh-filler-gap dependencies (WhFGD) and reflexive-antecedent dependencies. We show that reflexive-antecedent dependency resolution is sensitive to the presence of a WhFGD, and argue that the filler-gap dependency established by WhFGD resolution is selected online as the antecedent of a reflexive dependency. We investigate the processing of constructions like (1), where two NPs might be possible antecedents for the reflexive, namely which cowgirl and Mary. Even though Mary is linearly closer to the reflexive, the only grammatically licit antecedent for the reflexive is the more distant wh-NP, which cowgirl. (1). Which cowgirl did Mary expect to have injured herself due to negligence? Four eye-tracking text-reading experiments were conducted on examples like (1), differing in whether the embedded clause was non-finite (1 and 3) or finite (2 and 4), and in whether the tail of the wh-dependency intervened between the reflexive and its closest overt antecedent (1 and 2) or the wh-dependency was associated with a position earlier in the sentence (3 and 4). The results of Experiments 1 and 2 indicate the parser accesses the result of WhFGD formation during reflexive antecedent search. The resolution of a wh-dependency alters the representation that reflexive antecedent search operates over, allowing the grammatical but linearly distant antecedent to be accessed rapidly. In the absence of a long-distance WhFGD (Experiments 3 and 4), wh-NPs were not found to impact reading times of the reflexive, indicating that the parser's ability to select distant wh-NPs as reflexive antecedents crucially involves syntactic structure.

  14. Wh-filler-gap dependency formation guides reflexive antecedent search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eFrazier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies on online sentence processing have shown that the parser can resolve non-local dependencies rapidly and accurately. This study investigates the interaction between the processing of two such non-local dependencies: wh-filler-gap dependencies (WhFGD and reflexive-antecedent dependencies. We show that reflexive-antecedent dependency resolution is sensitive to the presence of a WhFGD, and argue that the filler-gap dependency established by WhFGD resolution is selected online as the antecedent of a reflexive dependency. We investigate the processing of constructions like (1, where two NPs might be possible antecedents for the reflexive, namely which cowgirl and Mary. Even though Mary is linearly closer to the reflexive, the only grammatically licit antecedent for the reflexive is the more distant wh-NP, which cowgirl. 1. Which cowgirl did Mary expect to have injured herself due to negligence?Four eye-tracking text-reading experiments were conducted on examples like (1, differing in whether the embedded clause was non-finite (1 and 3 or finite (2 and 4, and in whether the tail of the wh-dependency intervened between the reflexive and its closest overt antecedent (1 and 2 or the wh-dependency was associated with a position earlier in the sentence (3 and 4.The results of Experiments 1 and 2 indicate the parser accesses the result of WhFGD formation during reflexive antecedent search. The resolution of a wh-dependency alters the representation that reflexive antecedent search operates over, allowing the grammatical but linearly distant antecedent to be accessed rapidly. In the absence of a long-distance WhFGD (Exp. 3 and 4, wh-NPs were not found to impact reading times of the reflexive, indicating that the parser's ability to select distant wh-NPs as reflexive antecedents crucially involves syntactic structure.

  15. Effect of Coconut Fillers on Hybrid Coconut Kevlar Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Jani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This project focuses on the conversion of naturally available coconut fibers and shells into a useful composite. In addition to it, some mechanical properties of the resultant composite is determined and also the effect of coconut shell fillers on the composite is also investigated. The few portion of the composite is incorporated with synthetic Kevlar fiber, thus the coconut fiber is hybridized to enhance the mechanical properties of coconut. In this work two types of composite is fabricate, kevelar coconut fibre (kc composite and kevelarcoco nut fibre coconut shell filler (kccsf composite. Coconut fibers have low weight and considerable properties among the natural fibers, while coconut fillers have a good ductile and impact property. The natural fibers and fillers are treated with Na-OH to make it free of organic impurities. Epoxy resin is used as the polymer matrix. Two composite are produced one with fillers and the other without the fillers using compression molding method. Mechanical properties like tensile strength, flexural strength and water absorption tests are done with ASTM standard. It is observed that that the addition of filler materials improves the adhesiveness of the fibers leading to the increase in the above mentioned properties. The density of the composite is also low hence the strength to weight ratio is very high. The water absorption test also showed that the resultant composite had a small adhesion to water and absorption of water.

  16. Influence of silane content and filler distribution on chemical-mechanical properties of resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathy Aparecida XAVIER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of silane concentration and filler size distribution on the chemical-mechanical properties of experimental composites. Experimental composites with silane contents of 0%, 1% and 3% (in relation to filler mass and composites with mixtures of barium glass particles (median size = 0.4, 1 and 2 μm and nanometric silica were prepared for silane and filler analyses, respectively. The degree of conversion (DC was analyzed by FTIR. Biaxial flexural strength (BFS was tested after 24-h or 90-d storage in water, and fracture toughness, after 24 h. The data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p = 0.05. The DC was not significantly affected by the silane content or filler distribution. The 0% silane group had the lowest immediate BFS, and the 90-d storage time reduced the strength of the 0% and 3% groups. BFS was not affected by filler distribution, and aging decreased the BFS of all the groups. Silanization increased the fracture toughness of both the 1% and 3% groups, similarly. Significantly higher fracture toughness was observed for mixtures with 2 μm glass particles. Based on the results, 3% silane content boosted the initial strength, but was more prone to degradation after water storage. Variations in the filler distribution did not affect BFS, but fracture toughness was significantly improved by increasing the filler size.

  17. Shape Effect of Crushed Sand Filler on Rheology: A Preliminary Experimental and Numerical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangenberg, Jon; Cepuritis, Rolands; Hovad, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Two types of filler from crushed sand were mixed with cement paste with constant superplasticizer dosage per mass of cement to investigate how their shape affects the rheology. The fillers were mylonitic quartz diorite and limestone produced using Vertical Shaft Impact (VSI) crusher and air class...... for the two filler types. Subsequently, a discrete element model was utilized to simulate the experimental data, thereby providing an initial step toward a numerical tool that can assist when proportioning self-compacting concrete with high volumes of crushed sand fines.......Two types of filler from crushed sand were mixed with cement paste with constant superplasticizer dosage per mass of cement to investigate how their shape affects the rheology. The fillers were mylonitic quartz diorite and limestone produced using Vertical Shaft Impact (VSI) crusher and air...... to 0.1 mm. The two filler types were tested with a range of chi-values (volume of cement divided by total volume of solids). The flowability of the matrix increased with decreasing aspect ratios of the filler. However, the chi-value at which the maximum volume fraction threshold was obtained varied...

  18. Effect of Geopolymer filler in Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) Pipe for Piping Application: Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus Abu Hashim, Mohammad; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Mohd Ruzaidi Ghazali, Che; Hussin, Kamarudin; Binhussain, Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    The present work is aimed to carry out the effect of geopolymer material which is fly ash as filler in the glass reinforced epoxy pipe on the micro structure of fly ash geopolymer, compression properties, and bulk density using the filament winding method. Conventional glass reinforced epoxy pipes has its own disadvantages such as high corrosion resistance at acidic environment and low strength which can be replaced by the composite pipes. Geopolymer is a type of amorphous alumino-silicate and can be synthesized by geopolymerization process. A series of glass reinforced epoxy pipe and glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled with 10 - 40 weight percentage geopolymer filler which is fly ash with 4 Molarity were prepared. Morphology of the raw material fly ash and fly ash based-geopolymer surface was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the additions of fly ash at the beginning with 10 wt% are showing higher compressive strength than glass reinforced epoxy pipe without fly ash geopolymer filler. The compressive test of these series of samples was determined using Instron Universal Testing under compression mode. It was found that compressive strength for samples fly ash based-geopolymer filler are higher as compared to glass reinforced epoxy pipe without geopolymer filler. However, the compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with fly ash geopolymer filler continues to decline when added to 20 wt% - 40 wt% of geopolymer filler loading. The results showed that the mixing of geopolymer materials in epoxy system can be obtained in this study.

  19. Degradation kinetics of ethylene-octene copolymer/wood flour biocomposites in dependence to filler content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zykova, A. K.; Pantyukhov, P. V.; Monakhova, T. V.; Popov, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    This article is focused on thermal oxidative degradation and biodegradation in soil of biocomposites based on ethylene-octene copolymer (EOC), filled by wood flour (from 30 to 70% wt.), in dependence to the filler content. The study of oxidative degradation of composites was carried out at two temperatures (80 and 130°C respectively). The induction period and the rates of oxidation were determined. It was concluded that as filler content raises, the induction period increases. It can be explained by the higher specific area of composites in comparison with pure EOC. However, high filled composites (60 and 70 % of the filler) are oxidized with a huge induction period because polyphenols in the filler inhibit the oxidation process. Biodegradation test under laboratory conditions was carried out to investigate the biodegradability of the material. Composites with lower filler content have lower weight loss rate. Small particles are capsulated by polymer and are isolated from moisture and microorganisms. On the other hand, at a high filling of the composite small particles stick together and act as large ones. Such filler agglomerates are connected with each other and allow microorganisms to penetrate into the composite. It was concluded as filler content raises the mass loss increases.

  20. Fluoride release, recharge and flexural properties of polymethylmethacrylate containing fluoridated glass fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bakri, I A; Swain, M V; Naoum, S J; Al-Omari, W M; Martin, E; Ellakwa, A

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fluoridated glass fillers on fluoride release, recharge and the flexural properties of modified polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Specimens of PMMA denture base material with various loading of fluoridated glass fillers (0%, 1%, 2.5%, 5% and 10% by weight) were prepared. Flexural properties were evaluated on rectangular specimens (n = 10) aged in deionized water after 24 hours, 1 and 3 months. Disc specimens (n = 10) were aged for 43 days in deionized water and lactic acid (pH 4.0) and fluoride release was measured at numerous intervals. After ageing, specimens were recharged and fluoride re-release was recorded at 1, 3 and 7 days after recharge. Samples containing 2.5%, 5% and 10% glass fillers showed significantly (p glass fillers specimens. All experimental specimens exhibited fluoride release in both media. The flexural strength of specimens decreased in proportion to the percentage filler inclusion with the modulus of elasticity values remaining within ISO Standard 1567. The modified PMMA with fluoridated glass fillers has the ability to release and re-release fluoride ion. Flexural strength decreased as glass filler uploading increased. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  1. Effect of filler types on physical, mechanical and microstructure of self compacting concrete and Flow-able concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Elyamany, Hafez E.; Abd Elmoaty, Abd Elmoaty M.; Mohamed, Basma

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of various filler types on the fresh and hardened properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) and Flow-able concrete. For this purpose, two groups of fillers were selected. The first group was pozzolanic fillers (silica fume and metakaolin) while the second group was non-pozzolanic fillers (limestone powder, granite dust and marble dust). Cement contents of 400 kg/m3 and 500 kg/m3 were considered while the used filler material was 7.5%, 1...

  2. Aluminum Lithium Alloy 2195 Fusion Welding Improvements with New Filler Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the B218 weld filler wire for Super Lightweight External Tank production, which could improve current production welding and repair productivity. We took the following approaches: (1) Perform a repair weld quick look evaluation between 4043/B218 and B218/B218 weld filler wire combinations and evaluation tensile properties for planished and unplanished conditions; and (2) Perform repair weld evaluation on structural simulation panel using 4043-B218 and B218/B218 weld filler wire combinations and evaluation tensile and simulated service fracture properties for planished and unplanished conditions.

  3. Development of Pd-Ni Brazing Filler Metals for SUS316L Stainless Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi, IZUI; Yoshifumi, SUEZAWA; College of Science and Technology, Nihon Univ.

    1993-01-01

    Several braze alloys containing palladium have been newly developed for use in high temperature brazing of stainless steel SUS 316 L. Palladium filler metals have excellent high-temperature strength, corrosion and oxidation resistance, ductility, and relatively high melting points and are of lower cost than gold-based filler metals. In this research, two types of palladium-containing brazing filler metals were considered, 40 Pd-50 Ni-10 Co and 30 Pd-50 Ni-10 Cu-10 Co (all in wt-%). Commercial...

  4. Pengaruh Penambahan Filler Semen Dan Lama Perendaman Air Terhadap Durabilitas Lapis Aspal Beton (Laston)

    OpenAIRE

    Kosim, Kosim; Muchtar, Zainuddin

    2013-01-01

    In this research, researcher tested material of Asphalt Concrete (AC) with coarse aggregate from Lahat and fine aggregate from Tanjung Raja South Sumatera, asphalt from Pertamina with Pen. 60/70, while the filler material to be used is from Cement Baturaja. Proportion of filler to be used are 0%; 1,0%; 2,5%; and 4,0%. Marshall test results for each proportion of filler 0%, 1,0%, 2,5%, and 4,0% to the value of the KAO obtained 6,00%, 6,40%, 6,50% and 6,60%. Stability values respectively: 1225...

  5. Observation of Filler Dynamics in Rubber with X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, Yuya; Maejima, Taketo; Nishikawa, Hisashi; Takata, Masakazu; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki [Department of Advanced Materials Science, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Kishimoto, Hiroyuki, E-mail: yuya@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Sumitomo Rubber Industries Co. Ltd., Kobe, Hyogo 651-0071 (Japan)

    2011-09-19

    Understanding of the microscopic dynamics of fillers in rubber is a key to understand the property of macroscopic response of filled rubber. In the present study, we observe microscopic dynamics of silica and carbon black nanoparticles in unvulcanized rubber by using X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS). Dependence of dynamics on the temperature of sample, the volume fraction of particles and the interface between filler particles and rubber chains is observed. The results clearly show the usefulness of XPCS to investigate the filler dynamics in rubber.

  6. Shape Effect of Crushed Sand Filler on Rheology: A Preliminary Experimental and Numerical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangenberg, Jon; Cepuritis, Rolands; Hovad, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Two types of filler from crushed sand were mixed with cement paste with constant superplasticizer dosage per mass of cement to investigate how their shape affects the rheology. The fillers were mylonitic quartz diorite and limestone produced using Vertical Shaft Impact (VSI) crusher and air...... for the two filler types. Subsequently, a discrete element model was utilized to simulate the experimental data, thereby providing an initial step toward a numerical tool that can assist when proportioning self-compacting concrete with high volumes of crushed sand fines....

  7. Effect of Filler Concentration on Thermal Stability of Vinyl Copolymer Elastomer (VCE) Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dali [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hubbard, Kevin Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Devlin, David James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Henderson, Kevin C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pacheco, Robin Montoya [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-06

    To study the thermal stability of vinyl copolymer elastomer (VCE) in its composite form, systematic TGA characterizations were conducted in both nonisothermal and isothermal modes. The effects of filler concentration on the aging behaviors of the VCE/filler composites were investigated under nitroplasticizer (NP) environment. FTIR characterization was used to probe the structural changes in the VCE polymer before and after the thermal treatments. This study suggests that the filler concentration significantly deteriorates the thermal stability of NP at a moderate temperature (< 70 °C). The degradation of NP, in turn, accelerates the aging process of the VCE polymer in its composite form.

  8. IMNUNOHISTOQUÍMICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Barbosa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de diagnosticar en Colombia la bacteria conocida como Lawsonia intracellularis en cerdos se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de los casos diagnosticados por el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA desde el año 1998 hasta el primer semestre del año 2004. Se evaluaron las lesiones con la coloración de H&E y se detectó la bacteria empleando las técnicas de coloración de plata e inmunohistoquímica. Adicionalmente, se realizó un estudio en plantas de sacrificio, tomando muestras de íleon, y se evaluó macroscópicamente la apariencia de los tejidos y el grado de engrosamiento de la pared intestinal por medio de la palpación, e histopatológicamente por medio de las técnicas mencionadas en el estudio retrospectivo. En los dos estudios se detectó la bacteria, con una alta presencia en la industria porcina desarrollada. También se observaron lesiones similares a las reportadas en la literatura, en su mayoría lesiones de tipo agudo y en menor grado de tipo crónico y subclínico.

  9. Transparent Pullulan/Mica Nanocomposite Coatings with Outstanding Oxygen Barrier Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilke Uysal Unalan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new bionanocomposite coating on poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET made of pullulan and synthetic mica. Mica nanolayers have a very high aspect ratio (α, at levels much greater than that of conventional exfoliated clay layers (e.g., montmorillonite. A very small amount of mica (0.02 wt %, which is ϕ ≈ 0.00008 in pullulan coatings dramatically improved the oxygen barrier performance of the nanocomposite films under dry conditions, however, this performance was partly lost as the environmental relative humidity (RH increased. This outcome was explained in terms of the perturbation of the spatial ordering of mica sheets within the main pullulan phase, because of RH fluctuations. This was confirmed by modelling of the experimental oxygen transmission rate (OTR data according to Cussler’s model. The presence of the synthetic nanobuilding block (NBB led to a decrease in both static and kinetic coefficients of friction, compared with neat PET (≈12% and 23%, respectively and PET coated with unloaded pullulan (≈26% reduction in both coefficients. In spite of the presence of the filler, all of the coating formulations did not significantly impair the overall optical properties of the final material, which exhibited haze values below 3% and transmittance above 85%. The only exception to this was represented by the formulation with the highest loading of mica (1.5 wt %, which is ϕ ≈ 0.01. These findings revealed, for the first time, the potential of the NBB mica to produce nanocomposite coatings in combination with biopolymers for the generation of new functional features, such as transparent high oxygen barrier materials.

  10. SIFAT MEKANIK KOMPOSIT COKELAT BATANG DENGAN FILLER BIJI METE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P A Wiguna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bahan komposit yang banyak dijumpai di masyarakat umumnya terbuat dari material berat seperti, logam, keramik, atau polimer. Pada bahan pangan terdapat pula yang termasuk ke dalam kategori material komposit, diantaranya adalah cracker, cookie, kue pie, chasew chocolate, dan lain sebagianya. Diantara komposit bahan pangan tersebut yang paling banyak digemari sebagai makanan camilan adalah  cokelat. Hal menarik yang dikaji pada studi ini berkaitan dengan sifat mekanik komposit cokelat yaitu kekuatan tekan dari komposit tersebut. Komposit ini terbuat dari bahan makanan cokelat dengan variasi  fraksi massa mete sebagai filler yaitu 13 %, 17%, 20%, 23%, 26 %, dan 29%. Matriks yang digunakan adalah cokelat jenis dark chocolate. Sifat mekanik yang dikaji adalah kuat tekan pada komposit cokelat batang. Parameter ini diukur untuk mengetahui ukuran maksimum beban yang dapat diterima komposit tersebut. Komposit yang memiliki kekuatan tekan terbesar ada pada cokelat batang dengan fraksi massa mete 29 % yaitu sebesar 2,81 MPa. Hal ini menunjukkan  bahwa variasi fraksi massa mete berpengaruh pada sifat mekanik material komposit karena berkaitan dengan perilaku distribusi partikel. Kuat tekan komposit cokelat teramati meningkat dengan kenaikan jumlah biji mete pada cokelat batang.Generally, the composite materials found in the civilization are made from heavy materials, e.g. metals, ceramics, and polymers. In fact, the composite material also found in food, such as crackers, cookies, pies, and cashew chocolates. Cashew chocolates usually consumed as the most favourite snack. The most interesting object from this study is related with the mechanical composite characteristic of the chocolate, i.e. compressive strength. Chocolate composite is made from chocolate with variety of cashew mass fraction as the filler, i.e. 13 %, 17%, 20%, 23%, 26 %, and 29%. In this study, the composite matrix was a dark chocolate, whereas the mechanical characteristic determined

  11. Mechanical behavior of glass fiber polyester hybrid composite filled with natural fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G.; Gupta, A.; Dhanola, A.; Raturi, A.

    2016-09-01

    Now-a-days, the natural fibers and fillers from renewable natural resources offer the potential to act as a reinforcing material for polymer composite material alternative to the use of synthetic fiber like as; glass, carbon and other man-made fibers. Among various natural fibers and fillers like banana, wheat straw, rice husk, wood powder, sisal, jute, hemp etc. are the most widely used natural fibers and fillers due to its advantages like easy availability, low density, low production cost and reasonable physical and mechanical properties This research work presents the effect of natural fillers loading with 5%, 10% and 15% on mechanical behavior of polyester based hybrid composites. The result of test depicted that hybrid composite has far better properties than single fibre glass reinforced composite under impact and flexural loads. However it is found that the hybrid composite have better strength as compared to single glass fibre composites.

  12. Foreign Body Granulomas after the Use of Dermal Fillers: Pathophysiology, Clinical Appearance, Histologic Features, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Min Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A foreign body granuloma is a non-allergic chronic inflammatory reaction that is mainly composed of multinucleated giant cells. Foreign body granulomas may occur after the administration of any dermal filler. Factors such as the volume of the injection, impurities present in the fillers, and the physical properties of fillers affect granuloma formation. The formation of granulomas involves five phases: protein adsorption, macrophage adhesion, macrophage fusion, and crosstalk. The clinical and pathologic features of granulomas vary depending on the type of filler that causes them. Foreign body granulomas can be treated effectively with intralesional corticosteroid injections. Surgical excisions of granulomas tend to be incomplete because granulomas have ill-defined borders and moreover, surgical excisions may leave scars and deformities.

  13. Characterization of granite and limestone powders for use as fillers in bituminous mastics dosage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRENO BARRA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the importance of studies on materials known as fillers from different mineral origins, used in asphalt mixes, specifically in the formulation of mastics. The research was carried out on samples of limestone and granite rock filler and asphalt binder (50/70. The samples were evaluated through semiquantitative chemical analyses by X-ray fluorescence, granulometry by low angle laser emission, scanning electron microscopy, softening point tests, penetration tests, and aggregate-asphalt binder and aggregate-mastic adhesion tests. The results highlighted convergent trends, indicating that the active behavior of the fillers in the mastic formulation is not related to the size of the particles, but rather to their form, surface texture, specific surface area and mineralogical nature, allowing the filler activity concept to be divided into two components: physical (hardening and chemical (adhesion.

  14. Improved Electrical Properties of Epoxy Resin With Nanometer-Sized Inorganic Fillers (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horwath, John C; Schweickart, Daniel L; Garcia, Guido; Klosterman, Donald; Galaska, Mary; Schrand, Amanda; Walko, Lawrence C

    2006-01-01

    .... Improvements in mechanical modulus or heat deflection temperature are often realized. These fillers may also improve some electrical properties such as corona endurance or dielectric breakdown voltage in polymers...

  15. Behavior of limestone filler cement mortars exposed to magnesium sulfate attack

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Senhadji, Y; Mouli, M; Escadeillas, G; Khelafi, A; Bennosman, A. S; Chihaoui, R

    2014-01-01

    .... The objective of this paper is to study the effects of the incorporation of limestone fillers on the mechanical properties and durability of mortars prepared in different combinations based on this admixture material...

  16. Effects of fillers on the properties of liquid silicone rubbers (LSRs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Zakaria, Shamsul Bin

    Dielectric electro active polymers (DEAPs) change their shape and size under a high voltage or reversibly generate a high voltage when deformed. To make their performances more efficient, certain properties of the polymers like their dielectric permittivity, electrical breakdown and Young’s modulus...... have to be modified according to the specifications of their respective applications. One such prominent method of modifying the properties is by adding suitable fillers. Liquid silicone rubbers (LSRs) have relatively low viscosities when compared with thermoplastics, which is favorable for loading...... of inorganic fillers. The property improvement of the filled LSRs depends on filler concentration, filler morphology, such as particle size and structure, the degree of dispersion and orientation in the matrix, and also the degree of adhesion with the polymer chains, as well as the properties of the inorganic...

  17. Preparation and properties of all cellulose green composites with Napier grass short fibers as filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Muthu Kumar, T; Obi Reddy, K; Rajini, N; Varada Rajulu, A; Siengchin, Suchart; Ayrilmis, Nadir

    2018-02-02

    All cellulose green composites with cellulose as matrix and 5 wt% to 25 wt% Napier grass short fibers (NGSFs) as fillers were prepared. The matrix, filler and the green composites with randomly oriented NGSFs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), polarized optical microscopy (POM) and tensile tests. The FTIR spectra indicated the presence of minute amounts of hemicelluloses and lignin in the filler and the composites. The crystallinity of the composites was found to be lower than that of the cellulose. The thermal stability of the composites was found to be higher than that of the matrix and increased with filler content. The tensile strength of the composites though was lower than that of the matrix was still higher than for conventional polymers high density polyethylene and polypropylene. The cellulose/NGSFs composites can be considered for biodegradable package applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Synthesis of mesh-shaped calcia partially stabilized zirconia using eggshell membrane template as filler composite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gema Gempita; Zulia Hasratiningsih; Gantini Subrata; Bambang Sunendar Purwasasmita

    2017-01-01

    ...) by sol-gel method using eggshell membrane template as a composite filler. The eggshell membrane was used to produce a mesh shaped structure, which hopefully can improve the mechanical properties of the composite...

  19. Modulation of physical properties of polyvinylsiloxane impression materials by filler type combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Hun; Kim, Min-Kang; Woo, Hee-Gweon; Song, Ho-Jun; Park, Yeong-Joon

    2011-02-01

    Polyvinylsiloxanes (PVS), used as dental impression materials, were formulated with the variation of loading combination of six types of fillers including nano-sized fumed silica. The fillers were blended with three types of silicone polymers together with cross-linker and inhibitor in base paste and with plasticizer and platinum catalyst in catalyst paste. By replacing parts of crystalline quartz with other fillers, the setting time became much faster. The test group in which quarter of quartz was replaced with fumed silica showed the most ideal working and setting time for clinical use. There was a negative correlation between pH and setting time (p < 0.05). Combining the fumed silica was effective in increasing the viscosity, tensile strength and maximum% strain. Combining the diatomaceous earth reduced the setting time and maximum% strain, and dramatically increased the viscosity and tensile strength. The best modulation of physical properties of PVS material was possible by combining fillers during the formulation.

  20. Experimental dermatological surgery: an animal model for developing skills with dermal fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boza, Juliana Catucci; Cunha, Vanessa Santos; de Andrade, Claudia Dickel; Palma Kuhl, Isabel Cristina

    2011-05-01

    The importance of laboratory experiments in the formation of physicians is well recognized since they facilitate scientific development and enhance technical skills. Dermal filling procedures are performed for the correction of wrinkles, rhytids, scars, and lipodystrophy. Till date, experimental models for the training of dermal filling techniques have not been studied. To demonstrate an experimental laboratory model for the training of dermal filling techniques in an animal model. The heads of pigs were used for this purpose, together with Carbopol gel at different densities, which was used to simulate the fillers available in the market. Needles and specific cannulas were used to apply the fillers into the creases and other areas of the pig skin. The pig head appears to be a suitable model for this training. Carbopol gel is a good choice for simulating fillers. This model of laboratory experiment requires a minimum of infrastructure; it is a low-cost alternative and facilitates practical training in the application of dermal fillers.

  1. Investigation of Thermostability of a Composite Resistive Material with Nanodimensional Carbon Fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovskaya, T. D.; Vlasov, V. A.; Volokitin, G. G.; Melentyev, S. V.

    2014-06-01

    Thermostability of resistive materials based on polyurethane used as heat-liberating elements in the design of heating elements of thermoactive formworks is investigated. The application of polyurethane as a binder provides solid contact of polymer molecules with nanodimensional carbon fillers and their uniform distribution in a composite material. The influence of thermal treatment and dispersed fillers on the stability of electrophysical and thermophysical properties of carbon-filled polyurethane coatings is established.

  2. Some possible filler alloys with low vapor pressures for refractory-metal brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    A compilation of eutectics and melting-point minima for binary combinations of metals having vapor pressures below 10 to the minus 10th power torr at 1500 degrees K and .00005 torr at 2000 degree K is presented. These compositions and others near them on their phase diagrams are potential special brazing fillers for refractory metals. Some possible problems and advantages for fusion bonds of such mixtures are indicated. Evaluations of brazing fillers containing refractory metals are reported.

  3. Use of Almond Shells and Rice Husk as Fillers of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA) Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Sabbatini; Silvia Lanari; Carlo Santulli; Claudio Pettinari

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, wood fibres have often been applied as the reinforcement of thermoplastic materials, such as polypropylene, whereas their use in combination with thermosetting resin has been less widespread. This study concerns the production of PMMA-based composites by partly replacing alumina trihydrate (ATH) with wood waste fillers, namely rice husks and almond shells, which would otherwise be disposed by incineration. The amount of filler introduced was limited to 10% as regards rice hus...

  4. Alkali-reactive and inert Fillers in Concrete. Rheology of fresh Mixtures and expansive Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Bård Magne

    2004-01-01

    Due to the rather limited obtainable resources of natural aggregates suitable for concrete purposes, the technology of crushed aggregates becomes more important. The production of crushed aggregates generates large amounts of fines of fillers, presently to some extent considered to be leftovers. From an environmental point of view, as well as from an economic point of view, it is important to be able to utilize these fines. Because of the large surface area of the filler fraction of the aggre...

  5. Brazing of zirconia to titanium using Ag-Cu and Au-Ni filler alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean S. Pimenta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced ceramic is usually joined to metal by the well-known direct brazing process, where costly active filler alloys can be considered a limitation. Brazing using active-metal-free filler alloy as insert between the joint components is an attempt to overcome it. The active metal diffusion from the titanium member through the bulk of molten filler to the ceramic was responsible to produce an active filler alloy in loco and promote reduction of the zirconium oxide to improve wetting on the ceramic surface. Unalloyed titanium was joined in a high-vacuum furnace (<3x10-5 mbar to yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycristals (Y-TZP and zirconia partially stabilized with magnesia (Mg-PSZ, where commercial fillers Ag-28Cu and Au-18Ni with respective thermal cycles were evaluated. Helium gas leak detection test was performed at the ceramic/metal interface at room temperature; samples from reliable vacuum tight joints were examined by microstructural analysis techniques and energy dispersive X-ray analysis at the joint cross-section. Tight joints were produced with eutectic Ag-Cu filler, revealing an intermetallic layer and a dark reaction layer near the ceramic surface; titanium diffusion was efficient for superficial chemical interactions between individual components. Brazing joints were also tested using three-point flexure testing.

  6. Nano-fillers to tune Young's modulus of silicone matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Lijin; Xu Zhonghua; Sun Leming; Caveney, Patrick M.; Zhang Mingjun, E-mail: mjzhang@utk.edu [University of Tennessee, Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering (United States)

    2013-04-15

    In this study, we investigated nanoparticles, nanofibers, and nanoclays for their filler effects on tuning the Young's modulus of silicone matrix, a material with broad in vivo applications. Nano-fillers with different shapes, sizes, and surface properties were added into silicone matrix, and then their filler effects were evaluated through experimental studies. It was found that spherical nanoparticles could clearly improve Young's modulus of the silicone matrix, while nanoclays and carbon nanofibers had limited effects. Smaller spherical nanoparticles were better in performance compared to larger nanoparticles. In addition, enhanced distribution of the nanoparticles in the matrix has been observed to improve the filler effect. In order to minimize toxicity of the nanoparticles for in vivo applications, spherical nanoparticles coated with amine, acid, or hydroxide groups were also investigated, but they were found only to diminish the filler effect of nanoparticles. This study demonstrated that spherical nanoparticles could serve as fillers to tune Young's modulus of silicone matrix for potential applications in medicine.

  7. Dermal fillers in aesthetics: an overview of adverse events and treatment approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funt, David; Pavicic, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    The ever-expanding range of dermal filler products for aesthetic soft tissue augmentation is of benefit for patients and physicians, but as indications and the number of procedures performed increase, the number of complications will likely also increase. To describe potential adverse events associated with dermal fillers and to provide structured and clear guidance on their treatment and avoidance. Reports of dermal filler complications in the medical literature were reviewed and, based on the publications retrieved and the authors' extensive experience, recommendations for avoiding and managing complications are provided. Different dermal fillers have widely varying properties, associated risks, and injection requirements. All dermal fillers have the potential to cause complications. Most are related to volume and technique, though some are associated with the material itself. The majority of adverse reactions are mild and transient, such as bruising and trauma-related edema. Serious adverse events are rare, and most are avoidable with proper planning and technique. For optimum outcomes, aesthetic physicians should have a detailed understanding of facial anatomy; the individual characteristics of available fillers; their indications, contraindications, benefits, and drawbacks; and ways to prevent and avoid potential complications.

  8. Wetting and spreading behavior of Ti-based brazing filler on Ti64 substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolafe, Bolarinwa; Mostafa, Ahmad

    2017-06-01

    In this work, wetting behavior of Ti-20Zr-20Cu-20Ni brazing filler on Ti-6Al-4V substrate was studied using sessile drop technique. Effects of the substrate surface roughness, R a of ~0.40 and 0.08 µm, and heating scheme on wetting and spreading of the filler metal were evaluated. The wetting mechanism was investigated by the combination of cooling technique, thermal, compositional, and microstructural analysis. This was performed using a heat-flux DSC and an SEM equipped with EDS. The degree of wetting was evaluated by measuring the apparent dynamic contact angle between the filler drop and substrate surface and by calculating the drop spread ratio. The surface roughness of the substrate was found to have little or no effect on the final apparent contact angle. The wetting behavior of this system showed a reactive nature, because it involves dissolution of the substrate and formation of interfacial layers. Three heating schemes were used in the current study. While the high heating rate of 6.8 °C s-1 was found to limit the metallurgical reaction between the substrate and the brazing filler, in the low heating rate scheme of 1.7 °C s-1, more intense metallurgical reaction occurred between the brazing filler and the substrate. The high heating rate with soaking scheme is recommended for brazing, because it entails extensive spreading and limited metallurgical reaction between the brazing filler and the substrate.

  9. Effect of Limestone Fillers the Physic-Mechanical Properties of Limestone Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    bederina, Madani; makhloufi, Zoubir; bouziani, Tayeb

    This work focuses on the exploitation of local industrial wastes and their use in the formulation of new concretes which can be used in local constructions. The valorised materials are limestone crushing sand (0/5 mm) and limestone fillers (80 μm). The two materials are extracted from local aggregate crushing wastes. Thus, and since the used gravels are also of limestone nature, the formulated composite is a limestone concrete. So this study constitutes an experimental work that aims at the study of the effect of the addition of limestone fillers on the physico-mechanical behaviour of limestone concrete. To carry out this study, different proportions of fillers ranging from 0 to 40% were considered. Very important results have been achieved on the workability and strength. By increasing the amount of limestone filler in concrete, the first one improves, but the second one increases then decreases passing by an optimal content of fillers which gives a maximum mechanical strength. Finally, and concerning the dimensional variations, it is noteworthy that they decrease at the beginning till an optimal value of fillers content, but beyond this optimum, they start increasing without exceeding recommended values.

  10. Diffusivity and Transient Localization of Filler Particles in Polymer Melts and Crosslinked Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Zachary E.; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2013-03-01

    Building on recent progress in describing the microscopic equilibrium structure of polymer nanocomposites (PRISM theory), as well as the naïve mode coupling and nonlinear Langevin equation approaches for predicting localization and activated barrier hopping, we have initiated the study of dynamical phenomena in nanocomposites at finite filler loading. A colloidal suspension perspective is adopted whereby the polymer dynamics are assumed to remain unperturbed by fillers. Both entangled polymer melts and crosslinked systems are studied. The long time behavior of a tagged nanoparticle (localization and diffusivity) is calculated for various melt (tube diameter, polymer radius of gyration) and nanoparticle (filler size and volume fraction, polymer-filler attraction strength) parameters. For transiently localized particles, a dynamic free energy is constructed and employed to compute the nanoparticle localization length, mean barrier hopping time, and self-diffusion constant. The influence of filler-filler interactions on the Stokes-Einstein violation phenomenon in entangled melts is established. In addition, the influence of nanocomposite statistical structure (e.g., in the depletion, steric stabilization, or bridging regimes) on slow dynamics and localization is investigated.

  11. Optimization of cement composites with the use of fillers from the Chechen Republic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balatkhanova Elita Mahmudovna

    Full Text Available The fillers together with binders take part in microstructure formation of matrix basis and contact zones of a composite. The advantage of cement matrix structure with a filler is that inner defects are localized in it - microcracks, macropores and capillary pores, as well as that their quantity, their sizes and stress concentration decrease. Structure formation of filled cement composites is based on the processes taking place in the contact of liquid and stiff phases, which means, it depends on the quantitative relation of the cement, fillers and water, and also dispersivity and physical and chemical activity of the fillers. In the article the authors offer research results of the processes of hydration and physical-mechanical properties of cement composites with fillers from the fields of the Chechen Republic. Research results of heat cement systems are presented, modified by fine fillers. Optimal composition of cement composites filled with powders of quartz, sandstone, river and a mountain limestone of different particle size composition, characterized by a high strength, are obtained.

  12. Dermal fillers in aesthetics: an overview of adverse events and treatment approaches

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    Funt D

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available David Funt,1 Tatjana Pavicic21Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Plastic Surgery, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Ludwig-Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, GermanyBackground: The ever-expanding range of dermal filler products for aesthetic soft tissue augmentation is of benefit for patients and physicians, but as indications and the number of procedures performed increase, the number of complications will likely also increase.Objective: To describe potential adverse events associated with dermal fillers and to provide structured and clear guidance on their treatment and avoidance.Methods: Reports of dermal filler complications in the medical literature were reviewed and, based on the publications retrieved and the authors' extensive experience, recommendations for avoiding and managing complications are provided.Results: Different dermal fillers have widely varying properties, associated risks, and injection requirements. All dermal fillers have the potential to cause complications. Most are related to volume and technique, though some are associated with the material itself. The majority of adverse reactions are mild and transient, such as bruising and trauma-related edema. Serious adverse events are rare, and most are avoidable with proper planning and technique.Conclusion: For optimum outcomes, aesthetic physicians should have a detailed understanding of facial anatomy; the individual characteristics of available fillers; their indications, contraindications, benefits, and drawbacks; and ways to prevent and avoid potential complications.Keywords: aesthetic medicine, complications

  13. The Influence of Ultrafine Filler Materials on Mechanical and Durability Characteristics of Concrete

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    Hesam Madani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating the influence of partial replacement of Portland cement with ultrafine fillers compared to limestone powder on the durability and mechanical characteristics of concrete. For this purpose, ultrafine calcium carbonate materials with different specific surface areas of 9.7 and 15.1 m2/g and limestone powder (0.72 m2/g were used. The results indicate that the ultrafine fillers enhanced the durability properties compared to the mixtures containing limestone. For instance, ultrafine fillers provided up to 20% higher concrete surface resistivity and 20% lower rapid chloride migration test (RCMT coefficient, while limestone mixes showed equal or even lower durability levels compared to the plain mixture with 0% supplementary cementitious materials. The influence of filler materials on the compressive strength was not significant. However, regardless of the surface area, incorporating filler materials at levels up to 5% led to somewhat higher compressive strengths compared to the plain mixture. Generally, it seems that using finer fillers may lead to more durable concrete mixes.

  14. Correlations among plasticity, mechanical strength, water/cement ratios and limestone filler content in cement mortars

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    Menéndez, Ignacio

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Limestone filler addition to Portland cement does not only have an impact on the mechanical strength of mortars, but its action also alters their rheological values. Taking a Portland cement as the basic material and incorporating different calcareous filler portions from 0 to 50 %, standard mortars were prepared, determining drainage and setting (rheological values and establishing the correlations between these values and the respective limestone filler content. In addition, the hardened mortars were studied by X-ray diffraction and their mechanical strength was determined (1,(2, (9, (10, (11.

    La adición del "filler" calizo al cemento portland, no sólo tiene influencia sobre las resistencias mecánicas de los morteros, sino que también actúa alterando los valores reológicos de los mismos. Partiendo de un cemento portland al que se le añade "filler" calizo, en proporciones del O al 50%, se han preparado morteros normalizados y se ha determinado su escurrimiento y fraguado (valores reológicos, estableciéndose la correlación entre éstos y el correspondiente contenido en "filler" calizo del cemento. Asimismo, sobre los morteros endurecidos se realizó un estudio por difracción de rayos X y resistencias mecánicas. (1, (2, (9, (10, (11.

  15. Surface Treated Natural Fibres as Filler in Biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzova, I.; Stevulova, N.; Singovszka, E.; Terpakova, E.

    2015-11-01

    Biocomposites based on natural fibres as organic filler have been studied for several years because traditional building materials such as concrete are increasingly being replaced by advanced composite materials. Natural fibres are a potential replacement of glass fibres in composite materials. Inherent advantages such as low density, biodegradability and comparable specific mechanical properties make natural fibres an attractive option. However, limitations such as poor thermal stability, moisture absorption and poor compatibility with matrix are challenges that need to be resolved. The primary objective of this research was to study the effect of surface treatment on properties of hemp hurds like a natural lignocellulosic material and composites made thereof. Industrial hemp fibre is the one of the most suitable fibres for use in composite materials because of its good specific properties, as well as it being biologically degradable and CO2 neutral. Improving interfacial bonding between fibres and matrix is an important factor in using hemp fibres as reinforcement in composites. In order to improve interfacial bonding, modifications can be made to the hemp fibres to remove non- cellulosic compounds, separate hemp fibres from their bundles, and modify the fibre surface. This paper contains the comparison of FTIR spectra caused by combination of physical and chemical treatment of hemp material with unmodified sample. Modification of hemp hurds was carried out by NaOH solution and by ultrasonic treatment (deionized water and NaOH solution were used as the cleaning mediums).

  16. [What's new in aesthetic dermatology: filler and laser treatments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, C

    2009-05-01

    In esthetic dermatology, filling and laser treatments are two essential techniques. Several recent studies on calcium hydroxyapatite in filling treatments and facial volumetry, in esthetics, but also in HIV patients, have been published. It was also tested in accentuated melomental folds where it is superior to hyaluronic acid. In aging of the skin of the dorsal aspect of the hands, hyaluronic acid provides slightly better results than collagen. Filler rhinoplasty can correct minor deformations of the nose. Lipofilling is advantageous for linear scleroderma of the face, at least in the forehead region, and adipocyte stem cells may be a future solution for facial aging or lipoatrophy. The risk of local and/or general sarcoid reactions related to interferon in patients having undergone filling injections has been reported. In the field of laser treatment, fractionated photothermolysis has motivated much more research and seem particularly valuable in treating acne scars, aging of the dorsal aspect of the hands, and, more anecdotally, in colloid milium and pearly penile papules. Laser is also useful in preventing surgical scars where a mini-diode can also be used. For axillary hyperhidrosis, subdermic Nd-YAG laser competes with botulinum toxin, with longer-lasting results. Solutions are appearing for treatment of red or white striae cutis distensae. Intense pulsed light is the reference technique for poikiloderma of Civatte, and seems effective, with new devices, for melasma. However, inappropriately used by nonphysicians, IPL can cause serious ocular accidents; one case of uveitis has been reported.

  17. Effect of Mineral Filler Type and Particle Size on the Engineering Properties of Stone Mastic Asphalt Pavements

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    R Muniandy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines four types of industrial and by-product waste fillers, namely limestone dust (LSD, which was the reference filler; ceramic waste dust (CWD; coal fly ash (CFA, and steel slag mixture (SSD. The filler consisted of an aggregate (10% of total weight with three proportions: 100% passing 75μm, 50% passing 75μm/20μm, and 100% passing 20μm. Comprehensive laboratory tests were performed to determine the impact of different types and particle sizes of fillers on the engineering and mechanical properties of fine mastics and stone mastic asphalt mixture. The results indicate that the application of industrial by-products used as fillers improves the engineering properties of stone mastic asphalt mixtures. The increased stiffness due to the addition of the filler is represented by an increase in the softening point, viscosity, stability, and resilient modulus, as well as a decrease in penetration. The optimum asphalt content increased with the decrease in filler particle size for LSD and SSD, and decreased for CWD and CFA. It was also determined that the filler type and particle size has a significant effect on the mixture properties. Among these three proportions, the samples prepared with the filler size proportion of 50/50 gave the best value in terms of stability, Marshall quotient, and resilient modulus than the other filler size proportions.

  18. Mineral resource of the month: mica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Humans have been using mica for millennia. Mica was first mined in India about 4,000 years ago, where it was used primarily in medicines, and some Hindu physicians still incorporate biotite mica into medicines today. Early civilizations also used mica for decorations, as windows and as surfaces on which to draw or paint. Maya temples were decorated with mica pigments, which were incorporated into the stucco to make it sparkle in the sun. In North America, ancient inhabitants adorned gravesites and burial mounds with animal figures made of mica.

  19. Novel manufacturing process of nanoparticle/Al composite filler metals of tungsten inert gas welding by accumulative roll bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattahi, M., E-mail: fattahi.put@gmail.com [Technical Inspection Engineering Department, Petroleum University of Technology, Abadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Noei Aghaei, V. [Aerospace Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dabiri, A.R. [Technical Inspection Engineering Department, Petroleum University of Technology, Abadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amirkhanlou, S. [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhavan, S.; Fattahi, Y. [Materials Engineering Department, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-11

    In the present work, accumulative roll bonding (ARB) was used as an effective method for manufacturing nanoparticle/Al composite filler metals of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding. After welding, the distribution of ceramic nanoparticles and mechanical properties of welds were investigated. By applying ARB, ceramic nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed in the composite filler metals. Consequently, the welds produced by these filler metals had a uniform dispersion of ceramic nanoparticles in their compositions. The test results showed that the yield strength of welds was greatly increased when using the nanoparticle/Al composite filler metals. The improvement in the yield strength was attributed to the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch and Orowan strengthening mechanisms. Therefore, according to the results presented in this paper, it can be concluded that the nanoparticle/Al composite filler metals can serve as a novel filler metal for TIG welding of aluminum and its alloys.

  20. Low temperature method for the production of calcium phosphate fillers

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    Nastro Alfonso

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcium phosphate manufactured samples, prepared with hydroxyapatite, are used as either spacers or fillers in orthopedic surgery, but these implants have never been used under conditions of mechanical stress. Similar conditions also apply with cements. Many authors have postulated that cements are a useful substitute material when implanted in vivo. The aim of this research is to develop a low cristalline material similar to bone in porosity and cristallinity. Methods Commercial hydroxyapatite (HAp and monetite (M powders are mixed with water and compacted to produce cylindrical samples. The material is processed at a temperature of 37–120 degrees C in saturated steam to obtain samples that are osteoconductive. The samples are studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, Vickers hardness test (HV, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and porosity evaluation. Results The X-ray diffractions of powders from the samples show patterns typical of HAp and M powders. After thermal treatment, no new crystal phase is formed and no increase of the relative intensity of the peaks is obtained. Vicker hardness data do not show any relationship with treatment temperature. The total porosity decreases by 50–60% according to the specific thermal treatment. Scanning electron microscopy of the surfaces of the samples with either HAp 80%-M 20% (c or Hap 50%-M 50% (f, show cohesion of the powder grains. Conclusions The dissolution-reprecipitation process is more intesive in manufactured samples (c and (f, according to Vickers hardness data. The process occurs in a steam saturated environment between 37 degrees and 120 degrees C. (c (f manufactured samples show pore dimension distributions useful to cellular repopulation in living tissues.

  1. Influence of mineral fillers on the rheological response of polymer-modified bitumens and mastics

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    F. Cardone

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of the bituminous components (bitumen and bituminous mastic within asphalt mixtures contribute significantly to the major distresses of flexible pavements (i.e. rutting, fatigue and low temperature cracking. Asphalt mixtures are usually composed of mastic-coated aggregates rather than pure bitumen-coated aggregates. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of mineral fillers on the rheological behaviour of several polymer-modified bitumens (PMBs through laboratory mixing. A neat bitumen and two types of polymers (elastomeric and plastomeric were used to produce PMBs, and two fillers with different minerals (limestone and basalt were selected to obtain mastics. The dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and bending beam rheometer (BBR were used to characterize the rheological properties of PMBs and mastics. In particular, multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR tests were performed to evaluate the rutting potential at high temperatures, whereas BBR tests were carried out to investigate the low temperature behaviour of these materials. BBR results for unmodified mastics show that the increase of stiffness is similar regardless of the filler type, whereas results for polymer-modified mastics indicate that the degree of stiffening depends on the combination of filler/polymer types. MSCR results show that adding filler leads to a reduced susceptibility of permanent deformation and an enhanced elastic response, depending on the combination of filler/polymer types. Overall results suggest that a physical–chemical interaction between the filler and bitumen occurs, and that the interaction level is highly dependent on the type of polymer modification.

  2. Influence of different fillers on the properties of an experimental vinyl polysiloxane

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    Débora Könzgen MEINCKE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of different fillers on an experimental vinyl polysiloxane (VPS at two different concentrations, 20% and 40%. Different fillers were added to an experimental VPS. The study was developed in two stages: (i incorporation of fillers in different concentrations: (a 20 wt% fillers, and (b 40 wt%. The fillers were added to experimental VPS and mixed with a speed mixer; (ii characterization of experimental VPS; after the base paste and catalyst paste were mixed, the experimental VPS was used to make specimens specifically for each test, which were stored at 23°C for 24 hours. The tests were designed according to the specific standardization for the analysis of tensile strength, detail reproduction, Shore A hardness, and elastic recovery. For analysis of filler size pattern, scanning electron microscopy at 1500× magnification was used. The aerosil OX-50 40% (AE, and pure aluminum hydroxide 40% (PAH groups presented the highest tensile strength and Shore A hardness values. However, those were the only groups that did not present continuous detail reproduction of an intersection of 20 μm line. The elastic recovery was not statistically significant. The undesirable characteristics of VPS (lowest Shore A hardness and tensile strength were observed when it was added to the composition of acrylic polymer (AP and fiberglass (FG in both concentrations, 20% and 40%. In groups AE and PAH, agglomerates of nanofillers were shown in SEM micrography, while the other groups presented different shapes and fillers sizes.

  3. Filler Content, Surface Microhardness, and Rheological Properties of Various Flowable Resin Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, S; Balthazard, R; Dahoun, A; Mortier, E

    The objectives of this study were to determine the filler content, the surface microhardness (at baseline and after immersion in water for 2 years), and the rheological properties of various flowable resin composites. Three flowable resin composites (Grandioso Heavy Flow [GHF], Grandio Flow [GRF], Filtek Supreme XTE Flow [XTE]), one pit and fissure sealant resin composite (ClinPro [CLI]), and three experimental flowable resin composites with the same matrix and a variable filler content (EXPA, EXPB, EXPC) were tested. The filler content was determined by calcination. The Vickers surface microhardness was determined after polymerization and then after immersion in distilled water at 37°C for 7, 60, 180, 360, and 720 days. The rheological measurements were performed using a dynamic shear rheometer. The determined filler contents differed from the manufacturers' data for all the materials. The materials with the highest filler content presented the highest microhardness, but filler content did not appear to be the only influencing parameter. With respect to the values recorded after photopolymerization, the values were maintained or increased after 720 days compared with the initial microhardness values, except for GHF. For the values measured after immersion for 7 days, an increase in microhardness was observed for all the materials over time. All the materials were non-Newtonian, with shear-thinning behavior. At all the shear speeds, GRF presented a lower viscosity to GHF and XTE. GRF presented a low viscosity before photopolymerization, associated with high filler content, thereby providing a good compromise between spreadability and mechanical properties after photopolymerization.

  4. Inactive Mineral Filler as a Stiffness Modulus Regulator in Foamed Bitumen-Modified Recycled Base Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczyński, Przemyslaw; Iwański, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the results of a cold recycled mix test with a foam bitumen including the addition of the inactive mineral filler as a dust of basalt. Basalt dust was derived from dedusting system by extraction of aggregates in the mine. Assessment of the impact of a basalt dust on the properties of a recycled base layer was carried out in terms of the amount of mineral filler (basalt) in the composition of the mineral mixture. This experiment involved a dosing of mineral filler in range from 5 to 20% with steps of 7.5% in the mineral mixture composition. The foamed bitumen was performed at optimum foaming process settings (ie. bitumen temperature, air pressure) and at 2.5% of the water content. The amount of a hydraulic binder as a Portland cement was 2.0%. The evaluation of rheological properties allowed to determine whether the addition of inactive mineral fillers can act as a stiffness modulus controller in the recycled base layer. The analysis of the rheological properties of a recycled base layer in terms of the amount of inactive fillers was performed in accordance with given standard EN 12697-26 Annex D. The study was carried out according to the direct tension-compression test methodology on cylindrical samples. The sample was subjected to the oscillatory sinusoidal strain ε0 allow to conclude that the use of an inactive filler can reduce the stiffness of an appropriate designed mixes of the cold recycled foundation. In addition, the analysis of the relation E‧-E″ showed a similar behaviour of a recycled base, regardless of the amount of inactive fillers in the mix composition, at high temperatures/high frequency of induced load.

  5. Effect of filler types on physical, mechanical and microstructure of self compacting concrete and Flow-able concrete

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    Hafez E. Elyamany

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of various filler types on the fresh and hardened properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC and Flow-able concrete. For this purpose, two groups of fillers were selected. The first group was pozzolanic fillers (silica fume and metakaolin while the second group was non-pozzolanic fillers (limestone powder, granite dust and marble dust. Cement contents of 400 kg/m3 and 500 kg/m3 were considered while the used filler material was 7.5%, 10% and 15%. Slump and slump flow, T50, sieve stability and bleeding tests were performed on fresh concrete. The studied hardened properties included unit weight, voids ratio, porosity, and water absorption and cube compressive strength. In addition, thermo-gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electronic microscope were performed. The test results showed that filler type and content have significant effect on fresh concrete properties where non-pozzolanic fillers improve segregation and bleeding resistance. Generally, filler type and content have significant effect on unit weight, water absorption and voids ratio. In addition, non-pozzolanic fillers have insignificant negative effect on concrete compressive strength. Finally, there was a good correlation between fresh concrete properties and hardened concrete properties for SCC and Flow-able concrete.

  6. Steam Cured Self-Consolidating Concrete and the Effects of Limestone Filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqel, Mohammad A.

    The purpose of this thesis is to determine the effect and the mechanisms associated with replacing 15% of the cement by limestone filler on the mechanical properties and durability performance of self-consolidating concrete designed and cured for precast/prestressed applications. This study investigates the role of limestone filler on the hydration kinetics, mechanical properties (12 hours to 300 days), microstructural and durability performance (rapid chloride permeability, linear shrinkage, sulfate resistance, freeze-thaw resistance and salt scaling resistance) of various self-consolidating concrete mix designs containing 5% silica fume and steam cured at a maximum holding temperature of 55°C. This research also examines the resistance to delayed ettringite formation when the concrete is steam cured at 70°C and 82°C and its secondary consequences on the freeze-thaw resistance. The effect of several experimental variables related to the concrete mix design and also the curing conditions are examined, namely: limestone filler fineness, limestone filler content, cement type, steam curing duration and steam curing temperature. In general, the results reveal that self-consolidating concrete containing 15% limestone filler, steam cured at 55°C, 70°C and 82°C, exhibited similar or superior mechanical and transport properties as well as long term durability performance compared to similar concrete without limestone filler. When the concrete is steam cured at 55°C, the chemical reactivity of limestone filler has an important role in enhancing the mechanical properties at 16 hours (compared to the concrete without limestone filler) and compensating for the dilution effect at 28 days. Although, at 300 days, the expansion of all concrete mixes are below 0.05%, the corresponding freeze-thaw durability factors vary widely and are controlled by the steam curing temperature and the chemical composition of the cement. Overall, the material properties indicate that the use

  7. The role of bone void fillers in medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevin, Omer; Ayeni, Olufemi R; Hinterwimmer, Stefan; Tischer, Thomas; Feucht, Matthias J; Hirschmann, Michael T

    2016-11-01

    A variety of bone void filling materials and methods are available in opening medial wedge HTO (OWHTO). The pertinent question revolves around if and when bone void fillers are needed. The primary purpose of this study was to systematically review outcomes and complications after OWHTO with and without the use of bone void fillers. The EMBASE, PubMed\\MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify articles that reported OWHTO results using different bone void fillers until March 2016. Only articles reporting the exact bone void filler type, the opening gap size and the fixation method were included. The extracted data included the study design, demographic data, the radiological and clinical results and complication rates. Outcomes were analysed with regard to bone void filler type, and comparison was made between the groups (allograft, autograft, synthetic bone void filler and OWHTO without bone void filling). Twenty-two articles reporting the results of 1421 OWHTO met the inclusion criteria. In total, 647 osteotomies were completed with allogeneic graft as bone void filler, 367 with synthetic materials, 199 with autograft and 208 without any bone void filling material. The maximum opening gap size was similar in all groups with mean of 9.8 mm (range 4-17.5 mm). Locking plate fixation was used in 90 % of the osteotomies that were completed without bone void filler, while all allograft cases and more then 90 % of the autograft cases were done with non-locking systems. The highest rates of non-union (1.1 %) were seen in the synthetic group, compared to 0.5 % in the all the other groups. This systematic review showed no definitive advantages for OWHTO with any bone void filler in terms of union rates and loss of correction. Moreover, the use of autografts or allografts showed more favourable outcomes than synthetic bone substitutes. OWHTO with gaps smaller then 10 mm and rigid fixation might be successfully managed without

  8. Mica polytypes: Systematic description and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M.; Takeda, H.; Wones, D.R.

    1966-01-01

    X-ray studies of mica specimens from a variety of geological localities show that biotite and certain lithium-rich mica samples are composed of a mixture of different polytypes. Many of the biotite structures are new complex polytypes not before reported. A new method of designating mica polytypes is proposed. Techniques are described for the systematic generation of all the possible layer-stacking sequences of mica polytypes and for the verification of the stacking sequences in newly discovered forms.

  9. Effects of Inorganic Fillers on the Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly(lactic acid

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    Xingxun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Addition of filler to polylactic acid (PLA may affect its crystallization behavior and mechanical properties. The effects of talc and hydroxyapatite (HA on the thermal and mechanical properties of two types of PLA (one amorphous and one semicrystalline have been investigated. The composites were prepared by melt blending followed by injection molding. The molecular weight, morphology, mechanical properties, and thermal properties have been characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC, scanning electron microscope (SEM, instron tensile tester, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. It was found that the melting blending led to homogeneous distribution of the inorganic filler within the PLA matrix but decreased the molecular weight of PLA. Regarding the filler, addition of talc increased the crystallinity of PLA, but HA decreased the crystallinity of PLA. The tensile strength of the composites depended on the crystallinity of PLA and the interfacial properties between PLA and the filler, but both talc and HA filler increased the toughness of PLA.

  10. Elaboration and characterization of composite material based on epoxy resin and clay fillers

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    Dalila Laouchedi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims at investigating the effect of locally produced clay (Algeria, along with the effect of their size and rate on physical and mechanical properties of the composite material. This study is divided into two parts: The first one is devoted to the study of the composite material based on epoxy resin with kaolin, using different size fractions at rates ranging from 2% to 20%. The second part examines epoxy resin-based composite with calcined kaolin (metakaolin with regard to the influence of the structure, the particle size and the charge rate on the properties of the material. It is shown that the clay fillers give the epoxy resin different properties compared to the epoxy resin alone and, additionally, reduce the cost of materials. It was also observed that the fillers enhance the mechanical properties by increasing the rigidity of the material. There is a maximum value of 2.4 GPa to 18% kaolin, or more than 325% increase in the modulus of elasticity with respect to unfilled resin for the finer particle size. It was also found that the modulus of elasticity increases with increasing the loading rate. Indeed, the rigidity increases with increasing the filler rate. Moreover, for both fillers, lower fraction yields better results. Moreover, for both types of added fillers, lower fraction yields better results.

  11. MWCNT/TiO2 hybrid nano filler toward high-performance epoxy composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Kumar, Kaushal; Ghosh, P K; Yadav, K L

    2018-03-01

    In this work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are decorated by TiO2 nanoparticles and formed a new hybrid structure of filler (MWCNT/TiO2 hybrid filler). The MWCNT/TiO2 hybrid filler is reinforced in epoxy matrix and studied the mechanical and anti-corrosion properties of epoxy. The morphology of newly formed MWCNT/TiO2 hybrid nano filler has been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) images of tensile fracture surface confirmed the superior dispersion of MWCNT/TiO2 in the epoxy matrix. The resultant MWCNT/TiO2 hybrid-epoxy nanocomposite exhibits superior anti-corrosion and mechanical performance than the nanocomposite produced by loading of only MWCNTs or TiO2 nanoparticles as well as neat epoxy. For example, tensile strength and storage modulus of epoxy increased by 61% and 43% respectively on loading of MWCNT/TiO2 hybrid nano filler. Furthermore, the coating of MWCNT/TiO2 hybrid-epoxy nanocomposite on mild steel reduces the corrosion rate upto 0.87×10-3MPY from 16.81MPY. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. MRI in the evaluation of facial dermal fillers in normal and complicated cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Girolamo, Marco [Rome Univ. (Italy). Radiology Unit; Rome Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Radiology - Sant' Andrea Hospital; Mattei, Mauro [Rome Univ. (Italy). Radiology Unit; Signore, Alberto [Rome Univ. (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Grippaudo, Francesca Romana [Rome Univ. (Italy). Plastic Surgery Unit

    2015-05-01

    To ascertain by MRI the presence of filler injected into facial soft tissue and characterize complications by contrast enhancement. Nineteen volunteers without complications were initially investigated to study the MRI features of facial fillers. We then studied another 26 patients with clinically diagnosed filler-related complications using contrast-enhanced MRI. TSE-T1-weighted, TSE-T2-weighted, fat-saturated TSE-T2-weighted, and TIRM axial and coronal scans were performed in all patients, and contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed TSE-T1-weighted scans were performed in complicated patients, who were then treated with antibiotics. Patients with soft-tissue enhancement and those without enhancement but who did not respond to therapy underwent skin biopsy. Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis. MRI identified and quantified the extent of fillers. Contrast enhancement was detected in 9/26 patients, and skin biopsy consistently showed inflammatory granulomatous reaction, whereas in 5/17 patients without contrast enhancement, biopsy showed no granulomas. Fisher's exact test showed significant correlation (p < 0.001) between subcutaneous contrast enhancement and granulomatous reaction. Cervical lymph node enlargement (longitudinal axis >10 mm) was found in 16 complicated patients (65 %; levels IA/IB/IIA/IIB). MRI is a useful non-invasive tool for anatomical localization of facial dermal filler; IV gadolinium administration is advised in complicated cases for characterization of granulomatous reaction. (orig.)

  13. Study of piezoelectric filler on the properties of PZT-PVDF composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Alina; Å¢ucureanu, Vasilica; Vlǎzan, Paulina; Cernica, Ileana; Popescu, Marian; RomaniÅ£an, Cosmin

    2017-12-01

    The ability to obtain composites with desired functionalities is based on advanced knowledge of the processes synthesis and of the structure of piezoceramic materials, as well the incorporation of different fillers in selected polymer matrix. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is a fluorinated polymer with excellent mechanical and electric properties, which it was chosen as matrix due to their applications in a wide range of industrial fields [1-4]. The present paper focuses on the development of composites based on PZT particles as filler obtained by conventional methods and PVDF as polymer matrix. The synthesis of PVDF-PZT composites was obtained by dispersing the ceramic powders in a solution of PVDF in N-methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP) under mechanical mixing and ultrasonication, until a homogenous mixture is obtained. The properties of the piezoceramic fillers before and after embedding into the polymeric matrix were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. In the FTIR spectra, appear a large number of absorption bands which are exclusive of the phases from PVDF matrix confirming the total embedding of PZT filler into matrix. Also, the XRD pattern of the composites has confirmed the presence of crystalline phases of PVDF and the ceramic phase of PZT. The SEM results showed a good distribution of fillers in the matrix.

  14. THE USE OF VEGETABLE FILLERS AS REINFORCEMENT MATERIAL IN SBR BASED BIO-COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARAVANA Hüseyin Ata

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural fillers as reinforcement material in the production of composite materials has gained extra attention in recent years from the environmental point of view. For this purpose, the use of vegetable fillers as a potential reinforcement material in elastomeric composites was investigated for the production of footwear sole material. In this study the acorn cups and the waste of acorn obtained after the tannin extraction was used as the reinforcement materials for styrene-butadiene rubber based composites. Acorn cups and pulps (acorn wastes with different ratio (2, 4 and 6 wt% were compounded with SBR by Banbury and the preparation of the composites with different filler loadings was performed via compression molding. The thermal characteristics of the bio-composites produced for the footwear sole were investigated in terms of Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC, and Thermogravimetric (TGA analyses. The results revealed that different concentrations of vegetable fillers had no significant effect on DSC results and the highest TGA results were obtained by the use of 2% acorn cups as a reinforcement material. Besides, the homogenous dispersion of vegetable fillers within the elastomer matrix was achieved successfully and the obtained bio-composite materials were found to be a good candidate to be a bio based sole material in footwear production.

  15. "Comparing efficacy and costs of four facial fillers in HIV-associated lipodystrophy: a clinical trial."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Alfonso; Garcia-Ruano, Angela A; Pinilla, Carmen; Castellano, Michele; Deleyto, Esther; Perez-Cano, Rosa

    2017-11-08

    The objective was to evaluate and compare safety and effectiveness of four different dermal fillers in the treatment of facial lipoatrophy secondary to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). We conducted a clinical trial including 147 patients suffering from HIV-induced lipoatrophy treated with Sculptra® (poly-L-lactic acid), Radiesse® (calcium hydroxylapatite), Aquamid® (polyacrylamide) or autologous fat. Objective and subjective changes were evaluated during a 24-monthfollow-up. Number of sessions, total injected volume and overall costs of treatment were also analyzed. A comparative cost-effectiveness analysis of the treatment options was performed. Objective improvement in facial lipoatrophy, assessed by the surgeon in terms of changes from baseline using the published classification of Fontdevila, was reported in 53% of the cases. Patient self-evaluation showed a general improvement after the use of facial fillers. Patients referred to be satisfied with the treatment and with the reduced impact of lipodystrophy on their quality of life. Despite the non-significant differences observed in number of sessions and volume, autologous fat showed significantly lower costs than all synthetic fillers (p<0.05). Surgical treatment of HIV-associated facial lipoatrophy using dermal fillers is a safe and effective procedure that improves the aesthetic appearance and the quality of life of patients. Permanent fillers and autologous fat achieve the most consistent results over time, being lipofilling the most cost-effective procedure.

  16. Viscoelasticity and structure of polystyrene/fumed silica nanocomposites: filler network and hydrodynamic contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Giovanni; Romeo, Giovanni; Acierno, Domenico

    2010-02-16

    We investigate the relationships between structure and linear viscoelasticity of a model polymer nanocomposite system based on a mixture of fumed silica nanoparticles and polystyrene. Alterations in the viscoelastic behavior are attributed to the structuring of primary silica aggregates. Above a critical filler volume fraction, a space-filling network builds up as the result of cluster aggregation, and the complex frequency-dependence of the moduli is simplified by splitting the viscoelasticity of the composites into the independent responses of the suspending polymer melt and the filler network. Specifically, we present a refinement of a two-component model recently proposed for attractive colloidal suspensions, in which hydrodynamic effects related to the presence of the filler are properly taken into account using the concept of shear stress equivalent deformation. Our approach, validated through the building of a master curve of the elastic modulus for samples of different composition, allows the estimation of the elasticity of samples in which the filler network is too tenuous to be appreciated through a simple frequency scan. In addition, the structure of the filler network is studied using both the percolation and fractal approaches, and the reliability of the critical parameters is discussed. We expect that our analysis may be useful for understanding the behavior of a wide variety of complex fluids where the elasticity of the components may be superimposed.

  17. A systematic review of filler agents for aesthetic treatment of HIV facial lipoatrophy (FLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagdeo, Jared; Ho, Derek; Lo, Alex; Carruthers, Alastair

    2015-12-01

    HIV facial lipoatrophy (FLA) is characterized by facial volume loss. HIV FLA affects the facial contours of the cheeks, temples, and orbits, and is associated with social stigma. Although new highly active antiretroviral therapy medications are associated with less severe FLA, the prevalence of HIV FLA among treated individuals exceeds 50%. The goal of our systematic review is to examine published clinical studies involving the use of filler agents for aesthetic treatment of HIV FLA and to provide evidence-based recommendations based on published efficacy and safety data. A systematic review of the published literature was performed on July 1, 2015, on filler agents for aesthetic treatment of HIV FLA. Based on published studies, poly-L-lactic acid is the only filler agent with grade of recommendation: B. Other reviewed filler agents received grade of recommendation: C or D. Poly-L-lactic acid may be best for treatment over temples and cheeks, whereas calcium hydroxylapatite, with a Food and Drug Administration indication of subdermal implantation, may be best used deeply over bone for focal enhancement. Additional long-term randomized controlled trials are necessary to elucidate the advantages and disadvantages of fillers that have different biophysical properties, in conjunction with cost-effectiveness analysis, for treatment of HIV FLA. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Use of Almond Shells and Rice Husk as Fillers of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA) Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, Alessandra; Lanari, Silvia; Santulli, Carlo; Pettinari, Claudio

    2017-07-28

    In recent years, wood fibres have often been applied as the reinforcement of thermoplastic materials, such as polypropylene, whereas their use in combination with thermosetting resin has been less widespread. This study concerns the production of PMMA-based composites by partly replacing alumina trihydrate (ATH) with wood waste fillers, namely rice husks and almond shells, which would otherwise be disposed by incineration. The amount of filler introduced was limited to 10% as regards rice husks and 10 or 15% almond shells, since indications provided by reactivity tests and viscosity measurements did not suggest the feasibility of total replacement of ATH. As a matter of fact, the introduction of these contents of wood waste filler in PMMA-based composite did not result in any significant deterioration of its mechanical properties (Charpy impact, Rockwell M hardness and flexural performance). Some reduction of these properties was only observed in the case of introduction of 15% almond shells. A further issue concerned the yellowing of the organic filler under exposure to UV light. On the other hand, a very limited amount of water was absorbed, never exceeding values around 0.6%, despite the significant porosity revealed by the filler's microscopic evaluation. These results are particularly interesting in view of the application envisaged for these composites, i.e., wood replacement boards.

  19. Electrical Properties of Composite Materials with Electric Field-Assisted Alignment of Nanocarbon Fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenko, Olena; Matzui, Ludmila; Danylova, Ganna; Zadorozhnii, Victor; Vovchenko, Ludmila; Perets, Yulia; Lazarenko, Oleksandra

    2017-07-01

    The article reports about electric field-induced alignment of the carbon nanoparticles embedded in epoxy matrix. Optical microscopy was performed to consider the effect of the electric field magnitude and configuration, filler morphology, and aspect ratio on alignment process. Characteristic time of aligned network formation was compared with modeling predictions. Carbon nanotube and graphite nanoplatelet rotation time was estimated using an analytical model based on effective medium approach. Different depolarization factor was applied according to the geometries of the particle and electric field. Solid nanocomposites were fabricated by using AC electric field. We have investigated concentration dependence of electrical conductivity of graphite nanoplatelets/epoxy composites using two-probe technique. It was established that the electrical properties of composites with random and aligned filler distribution are differ by conductivity value at certain filler content and distinguish by a form of concentration dependence of conductivity for fillers with different morphology. These differences were explained in terms of the dynamic percolation and formation of various conductive networks: chained in case of graphite nanoplatelets and crossed framework in case of carbon nanotubes filler.

  20. Physical, structural and thermomechanical properties of oil palm nano filler/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, N., E-mail: naheedchem@gmail.com [Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products(INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Paridah, M.T. [Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products(INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdan, K. [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang Selangor (Malaysia); Ibrahim, N.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-12-01

    The present research study deals with the fabrication of kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites by the incorporation of oil palm nano filler, montmorillonite (MMT) and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) at 3% loading, through hand lay-up technique. Effect of adding different nano fillers on the physical (density), structural [X-ray diffraction (XRD)] and thermomechanical analysis (TMA) of kenaf/epoxy composites were carried out. Density results revealed that the incorporation of nano filler in the kenaf/epoxy composites increases the density which in turn increases the hardness of the hybrid nanocomposites. XRD analysis confirmed the presence of nano fillers in the structure of their respective fabricated hybrid nanocomposites. All hybrid nanocomposites displayed lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) with respect to kenaf/epoxy composites. Overall results predicted that the properties improvement in nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy was quite comparable to MMT/kenaf/epoxy but relatively lesser to OMMT/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites and higher with respect to kenaf/epoxy composites. The improvement ascribed due to improved interfacial bonding or cross linking between kenaf fibers and epoxy matrix by addition of nano filler. - Highlights: • Nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites were fabricated by hand lay-up. • Effect of nano OPEFB on density & structure of kenaf/epoxy were investigated. • Thermal expansion coefficients of kenaf/epoxy and hybrid nanocomposites evaluated. • Comparative studies were made with MMT and OMMT kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites.

  1. High-performance field emission of carbon nanotube paste emitters fabricated using graphite nanopowder filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuning; Yun, Ki Nam; Leti, Guillaume; Lee, Sang Heon; Song, Yoon-Ho; Lee, Cheol Jin

    2017-02-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) paste emitters were fabricated using graphite nanopowder filler. The CNT paste emitters consist of CNTs as the emitting material, graphite nanopowder as the filler and a graphite rod as the cathode. Rather than metal or inorganic materials, graphite nanopowder was adapted as a filler material to make the CNT paste emitters. After fabricating the emitters, sandpaper treatment was applied to increase the density of emission sites. The CNT paste emitters showed a high field emission performance, for example a high emission current of 8.5 mA from a cylindrical emitter with a diameter of 0.7 mm (corresponding to a current density of 2.2 A cm-2) and an extremely stable emission current at 1 mA (260 mA cm-2 for 20 h). Interestingly, after a number of electrical arcing events, the emitters still showed a high emission current of 5-8 mA (higher than 1 A cm-2). In addition to the sound electrical and thermal properties of the graphite filler, effective mechanical adhesion of the CNTs onto the graphite cathode induced by the use of the graphite nanopowder filler contributed the excellent field emission properties of the CNT paste emitters.

  2. Effect of Filler and Heat Treatment on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of the Brazed Joint between Carbide Tip and Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winardi, Y.; Triyono; Wijayanta, A. T.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the effect of filler and heat treatment on the physical and mechanical properties of the brazed joint carbide tip and steel was investigated. Tip carbide YG6 and low carbon steel (SS400) is joining by torch brazing with two filler metals, silver, and copper filler. Heat treatment was performed in induction furnace. Microstructure and shear strength of the brazed joint have been investigated. Many silver filler layer are formed on the surface of the base metal rather then using copper filler. The highest shear strength is achieved using a silver filler metal at temperatur 725°C. The highest shear load is 18.62 kN.

  3. Recent trend in the choice of fillers and injection techniques in Asia: a questionnaire study based on expert opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Keun; Kim, Hei Sung

    2014-01-01

    With recognition of the value of volume enhancement in achieving a more youthful appearance, there has been concomitant explosion in the soft tissue filler market. Given the vast array of filler products and techniques currently available, choosing the right product and technique can be overwhelming to those with little experience. To evaluate the recent trend in the choice of fillers and injection techniques among leading dermatologists in Asia and offer guidance to those who practice facial fillers. A panel of dermatologists, who are recognized as filler experts and key speakers in Korea were asked to fill out an in-depth questionnaire on fillers in 2012. The results of the 2012 questionnaire are presented and compared with the questionnaire results of the exact same group of doctors in 2011. Those who participated in the questionnaire study practiced fillers for an average of 10.6 years with an average of 32.8 filler cases per week. Common indications for filler injection were midface augmentation and nose augmentation. Indications that most drastically increased between 2011 and 2012 were midface and forehead augmentation. For the nasolabial folds, the most preferred choice of filler product, needle, injection technique and injection depth was Radiesse®, 27G short needle, Layering technique and the Upper subcutaneous fat layer. For filler rhinoplasty, the preferred choices were Radiesse®, 27G short needle, Linear threading technique and the Mid-deep fatty layer. For dark circles, the favored choices were Esthelis Basic®, 30G short needle, Vertical technique and the SOOF (suborbicularis oculi fat) layer. For forehead augmentation, the most favored choices were Juvederm Voluma®, 23G cannula, Linear threading technique and Fanning and the Supraperiosteal layer. The physicians' satisfaction score for the nasolabial folds, filler rhinoplasty, dark circles and forehead augmentation was 71.5, 90, 84.5 and 87 respectively. On general, filler experts preferred

  4. Shape Effect of Crushed Sand Filler on Rheology: A Preliminary Experimental and Numerical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangenberg, Jon; Cepuritis, Rolands; Hovad, Emil

    2016-01-01

    classification, and had length/thickness (L/T) aspect ratios of 2.00 and 1.82, respectively. The particles were characterized with X-ray micro-computed tomography, coupled with spherical harmonic analysis to mathematically describe the full 3-D shape of the particles, while the rheological performance...... was quantified with the slump flow test (i.e. mini cone). The shape effect was isolated in the experiments by the use of non overlapping bimodal particle distributions of cement particles with a number average diameter of approximate to 0.01 mm and filler particles with a number average diameter of approximate......Two types of filler from crushed sand were mixed with cement paste with constant superplasticizer dosage per mass of cement to investigate how their shape affects the rheology. The fillers were mylonitic quartz diorite and limestone produced using Vertical Shaft Impact (VSI) crusher and air...

  5. Peanut Husk Filled Polyethylene Composites: Effects of Filler Content and Compatibilizer on Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry C. Obasi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agrowaste biocomposites were obtained using peanut husk filler and LDPE. The effects of agrofiller content and compatibilizer on the mechanical and biodegradable properties of the composites have been discussed. Mechanical and biodegradable behaviour of LDPE became noticeably worse when it was blended with agrofiller, due to poor compatibility between the two phases. The presence of MAPE in the composites and its compatibility with the agrofiller, led to much better dispersion and homogeneity of agrofiller in the matrix and consequently to improved properties. Water absorption and thickness swelling indices increased with increasing filler content and were reduced on addition of MAPE. Furthermore, weight loss of composites via enzymatic degradation showed that both composites were biodegradable even at high levels of filler addition. However, composites with MAPE exhibited lower weight loss.

  6. Optical characterization of one dental composite resin using bovine enamel as reinforcing filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribioli, J. T.; Jacomassi, D.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Pratavieira, S.; Bagnato, V. S.; Kurachi, C.

    2012-01-01

    The use of composite resins for restorative procedure in anterior and posterior cavities is highly common in Dentistry due to its mechanical and aesthetic properties that are compatible with the remaining dental structure. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the optical characterization of one dental composite resin using bovine enamel as reinforcing filler. The same organic matrix of the commercially available resins was used for this experimental resin. The reinforcing filler was obtained after the gridding of bovine enamel fragments and a superficial treatment was performed to allow the adhesion of the filler particles with the organic matrix. Different optical images as fluorescence and reflectance were performed to compare the experimental composite with the human teeth. The present experimental resin shows similar optical properties compared with human teeth.

  7. The Effect of Particle Size of Wollastonite Filler on Thermal Performance of Intumescent Fire Retardant Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia-ul-Mustafa M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intumescent Fire retardant coatings (IFRC’s are one of the simplest ways to protect substrates exposed to fire. In this study, Wollastonite (W filler of two different particle sizes were used to determine the fire performance of intumescent fire retardant coating. The basic ingredients of the coating were ammonium poly-phosphate (APP as acid source, expandable graphite (EG as carbon source, melamine (MEL as blowing agent in epoxy binder, boric acid as additive and hardener as curing agent. A series of coating formulations were developed by using different weight percentages of both sized Wollastonite fillers. The coated steel substrate samples were tested for fire performance using Bunsen burner and char expansion was measured using furnace fire test. A Comparison of the coatings thermal performance was determined. Wollastonite containing filler particle size 10 μm showed better thermal performance than formulations containing filler’s particle size 44 μm.

  8. An Unusual Delayed Type Reaction Following Periorbital Filler Injection With Hyaluronic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigul Guduk, Sukran

    2018-02-06

    Hyaluronic acid fillers have been increasingly popular for soft tissue augmentation. Although generally considered safe, early and delayed types of adverse events were reported. We describe an unusual delayed type reaction observed with hyaluronic acid filler in a series of three patients treated for tear trough and periorbital hollow. Patients presented with a unilateral lower eyelid swelling without palpable nodules or tenderness developing months after injection and disappearing in few days. Reaction was triggered by infection in two patients. Temporary lower eyelid swelling is another late complication of periorbital filler injection that was not reported previously. © 2018 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Novel encapsulation technique for incorporation of high permittivity fillers into silicone elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw; Hvilsted, Søren; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2014-01-01

    The research on soft elastomers with high dielectric permittivity for the use as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP) has grown substantially within the last decade. The approaches to enhance the dielectric permittivity can be categorized into three main classes: 1) Mixing or blending in high...... permittivity fillers, 2) Grafting of high permittivity molecules onto the polymer backbone in the elastomer, and 3) Encapsulation of high permittivity fillers. The approach investigated here is a new type of encapsulation which does not interfere with the mechanical properties to the same content...... as for the traditionally applied thermoplastic encapsulation. The properties of the elastomers are investigated as function of the filler content and type. The dielectric permittivity, dielectric loss, conductivity, storage modulus as well as viscous loss are compared to elastomers with the same amounts of high...

  10. Thermal stress analysis of STS VOD ladle according to the reinforcement of back filler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. W.; Bae, S. I.; Song, J. I. [Changwon National Univ., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Ham, K. C. [Inha Technical College, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    We analyzed thermal stress of the STS VOD ladle by the variation of material property of refractory, and determined the location of back filler using FE analysis. Thermal distribution of refractory of ladle between hot face and back face were decreased by the increasing the thermal conductivity, and thermal stress of refractory were decreased about 2 to 4 times with the decreasing the young's modulus coefficients. Back filler, which is constructed to absorb the thermal expansion of dolomite refractory, has relatively low thermal conductivity. Inner side of refractory of ladle maintained high temperature, but temperature of outer side of ladle decreased low. Consequently, inner expansion and outer contraction were appeared, and thermal stress were increased, so thermal stress by the construction of back filler were increased.

  11. The effect of nanoclay filler loading on the flexural strength of fiber-reinforced composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihesadat Mortazavi

    2012-01-01

    Results: For groups with the same concentration of nanoparticles, PMMA-grafted filler-loaded group showed significantly higher flexural strength, except for 0.2% wt. For groups that contain PMMA-grafted nanoclay fillers, the 2% wt had the highest flexural strength value with significant difference to other subgroups. 1% wt and 2% wt showed significantly higher values compared to control (P 0.05. Flexural modulus of 2%, 5% wt PMMA-grafted and 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5% wt unmodified nanoclay particles-loaded subgroups decreased significantly compared to control group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: PMMA-grafted nanoclay filler loading may enhance the flexural strength of FRCs. Addition of unmodified nanoparticles cannot significantly improve the flexural strength of FRCs. Addition of both unmodified and PMMA-grafted nanoclay particles in some concentrations decreased the flexural modulus.

  12. High-temperature performance of a new nickel-based filler metal for power generation application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shingledecker, J.; Coleman, K. [Electric Power Research Institute, Charlotte, NC (United States); Siefert, J.; Tanzosh, J. [Babcok and Wilcox Research Center, Barberton, OH (United States); Newell, W. [Euroweld, Mooresville, NC (United States)

    2010-07-01

    A new nickel-based weld filler metal, EPRI P87, has been developed as a superior alternative to ERNiCr-3 for use in dissimilar metal welds (DMW) between ferritic and austenitic materials. EPRI P87 has a low coefficient of thermal expansion more closely matching alloys such as Grade 91 and 92 than other available filler metals. Additionally, the size of the carbon denuded region adjacent to the weld in the heat-affected-zone is minimized/eliminated by proper control of weld metal composition. In this work the high-temperature mechanical behavior of DMWs utilizing EPRI P87 (GTAW and GMAW processes) was characterized through tensile and long-term creep-rupture testing. Microstructure analysis was also conducted on tested specimens to evaluate the HAZ regions and failure modes. Performance of the weld metal and welded joints is discussed and compared with ERNiCr-3 and typical 9%Cr-MoV filler metals. (orig.)

  13. Rheological properties of styrene-butadiene rubber filled with electron beam modified surface treated dual phase fillers[Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR); Electron beam; Filler; Rheology; Die swell; Activation energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugharaj, A.M.; Bhowmick, A.K. E-mail: anilkb@rtc.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2004-01-01

    The rheological properties of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) loaded with dual phase filler were measured using Monsanto Processability Tester (MPT) at three different temperatures (100 deg. C, 110 deg. C and 130 deg. C) and four different shear rates (61.3, 306.3, 613, and 1004.5 s{sup -1}). The effect of electron beam modification of dual phase filler in absence and presence of trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) or triethoxysilylpropyltetrasulphide (Si-69) on melt flow properties of SBR was also studied. The viscosity of all the systems decreases with shear rate indicating their pseudoplastic or shear thinning nature. The higher shear viscosity for the SBR loaded with the electron beam modified filler is explained in terms of variation in structure of the filler upon electron beam irradiation. Die swell of the modified filler loaded SBR is slightly higher than that of the unmodified filler loaded rubber, which is explained by calculating normal stress difference for the systems. Activation energy of the modified filler loaded SBR systems is also slightly higher than that of the control filler loaded SBR system.

  14. Pembuatan Papan Komposit dari Plastik Daur Ulang dan Serbuk Kayu serta Jerami Sebagai Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Mulana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Production of composites was done by mixing the filler and matrix. The common matrix used to produce composite is plastic ore with types of poly propylene, poly ethylene and others. To know the characteristics of composite boards made from recycled plastic type poly ethylene so this research was conducted. This research aims to create a composite board made of solid waste sawdust and straw as a filler and recycled plastics as the matrix and to find out more details of the influence of variable solid waste types and ratio of solid waste weight and plastic toward the quality of the composite board product. Composite board manufacturing process was carried out by hot press method at a temperature of 145 oC for 20 minutes. The composite board products are tested on value of hardness, tensile strength, and thermal value. The results showed that the use of sawdust as a filler resulted the composite hardness value that is better (R79,5 compared with straw (R67 at a ratio of filler composition: matrix of 80:20 respectively. The use of sawdust also gives the value of tensile strength of 6.86 MPa that is better than the using a straw that valued of 3.62 MPa at composition ratio of filler: to matrix (60:40. Largest amount of heat needed to melt the composite boards are 31.19 J/g and 14.02 J/g at composition ratio sawdust: recycled plastics of 80:20 and at composition ratio straw: recycled plastics of 80:20, respectively. Visually composite board with a composition of sawdust:plastic HDPE 50:50 looks better with bright colors and shiny. Keywords: Composite, Solid waste, Plastic, Matrix, Filler,  Poly ethylene

  15. Influencia del filler calizo en las propiedades de los morteros a resistencia constante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández, Francisco

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the effects produced by the lime filler on the Portugal cement used with additions in the production of mortars. The starting point is a Portland cement to which different ratios of lime filler, ranging from 0-50%, are added. The next step consists of preparing mortar specimens using standardized sand as aggregate, curing them up to the age of 28 days when they are put to flexo-tensile and compression tests. The mortar strength is fixed at the age of 28 days, making it coincide with the strength of a pattern cement mortar (cement without additions of the same age. Then the effects of the filler on the slump and the water cement relation are observed for fixed strength.

    En este artículo se estudian los efectos producidos por el "filler" calizo en el cemento portland al utilizar este cemento con adiciones, en la fabricación de morteros. Se parte de un cemento portland al que se le añaden proporciones de "filler" calizo desde O hasta el 50%, y se preparan probetas de mortero utilizando como árido arena normalizada, curándose a continuación hasta la edad de 28 días, fecha en la que se someten a rotura por flexotracción y compresión. La resistencia de los morteros se fija a la edad de 28 días, haciéndola coincidir con la de un mortero de cemento patrón (cemento sin adiciones a la misma edad, y se observan, a resistencia fija, los efectos del "filler" sobre el escurrimiento y relación agua/cemento.

  16. The effect of nanoclay filler loading on the flexural strength of fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Vajihesadat; Atai, Mohammad; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Keshavarzi, Solmaz; Khalighinejad, Navid; Badrian, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Background: Flexural strength of prosthesis made with dental composite resin materials plays an important role in their survival. The aim of this study was investigating the effect of nanoclay fillers and Poly (methyl methacrylate)-grafted (PMMA-grafted) nanoclay fillers loading on the flexural strength of fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs). Materials and Methods: Standard FRC bars (2 × 2 × 25 mm) for flexural strength testing were prepared with E-glass fibers and a synthetic resin loaded with different quantities of unmodified nanoclay and PMMA-grafted nanoclay filler particles (0% as control group, 0.2%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5%). Flexural strength and flexural modulus were determined. The data were analyzed using 2-way, 1-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The fracture surfaces were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Results: For groups with the same concentration of nanoparticles, PMMA-grafted filler-loaded group showed significantly higher flexural strength, except for 0.2% wt. For groups that contain PMMA-grafted nanoclay fillers, the 2% wt had the highest flexural strength value with significant difference to other subgroups. 1% wt and 2% wt showed significantly higher values compared to control (P 0.05). Flexural modulus of 2%, 5% wt PMMA-grafted and 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5% wt unmodified nanoclay particles-loaded subgroups decreased significantly compared to control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: PMMA-grafted nanoclay filler loading may enhance the flexural strength of FRCs. Addition of unmodified nanoparticles cannot significantly improve the flexural strength of FRCs. Addition of both unmodified and PMMA-grafted nanoclay particles in some concentrations decreased the flexural modulus. PMID:23087731

  17. Effects of PMMA and Cross-Linked Dextran Filler for Soft Tissue Augmentation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Bo Huh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for evaluation of the ability to maintain efficacy and biocompatibility of cross-linked dextran in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (DiHM and cross-linked dextran mixed with PMMA in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (PDiHM, compared with hyaluronic acid (HA filler. Saline and HA solution was administered in the negative and positive control groups, and DiHM and PDiHM were administered in the test groups (n = 10 in each group. The site of cranial subcutaneous injection was the mid-point of the interpupillary line, and the site of intraoral submucosal injection was the ridge crest 2 mm below the cervical line of the mandibular left incisor. Before and immediately after filler injection, intraoral photos and lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken for analysis and comparison of the effect of the filler on the injection sites. The filler injected areas were converted into sequential size changes (% of the baseline. Histomorphologic examination was performed after 12 weeks. The smallest value in the filler injected area was observed during the experimental period in the normal saline group (p < 0.001, which was almost absorbed at 4 weeks (7.19% ± 12.72%. The HA group exhibited a steady decrease in sequential size and showed a lower value than the DiHM and PDiHM groups (saline < HA < DHiM, PDHiM, p < 0.001. DiHM and PDiHM tended to increase for the first 4 weeks and later decreased until 12 weeks. In this study on DiHM and PDiHM, there was no histological abnormality in cranial skin and oral mucosa. DiHM and PDiHM filler materials with injection system provide an excellent alternative surgical method for use in oral and craniofacial fields.

  18. Synthesis of nanodispersed filler for polymer composite materials of thermostatic purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVLENKO Vyacheslav Ivanovich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the synthesis of nanosized filler for nonpolar polymer matrix. Aqueous solution of sodium methylsiliconate with empirical formula CH3–Si(OH2ONa was used as the base component for the synthesis of nanosized filler. The production process of filler consists of several stages, these are the main ones: synthesizing of gel that was obtained in gel formation from sol colloidal solution – transformation of free-dispersed system (sol into connected-dispersed one; gel precipitation by centrifugation and washing from ion Na+; gel drying at temperature of 100оC to obtain a powder filler; dispersion in the mill to the particle size of 0,1–1 microns. To destroy globules and diminish particle size to nanoscale level the obtained material was exposed to dispersion in planetary mill with further sonication (22 Hz. To study the obtained filler X-ray, differential thermal and microscopic methods have been used. For quantification of colloidal component (nanoparticles in the suspension the centrifugation method was used at high speeds. It has been determined that the content of nanoparticles (up to 200 nm in the obtained substance is about 10%. Damping edge angle of the obtained material is 110–120оC, that shows high hydrophobic properties of the synthesized powder. The obtained material possesses high dispersiveness, hydrophobicity and silicone frame resistant to the temperature range up to 531оC (there are no significant chemical transformations except dealkylation and dehydration reactions. Thermal degradation of the synthesized filler distinctly observed at the temperaturemore than 531оC.

  19. Hybrid waste filler filled bio-polymer foam composites for sound absorbent materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Azahari, M. Shafiq M.; Kormin, Shaharuddin; Soon, Leong Bong; Zaliran, M. Taufiq; Ahraz Sadrina M. F., L.

    2017-09-01

    Sound absorption materials are one of the major requirements in many industries with regards to the sound insulation developed should be efficient to reduce sound. This is also important to contribute in economically ways of producing sound absorbing materials which is cheaper and user friendly. Thus, in this research, the sound absorbent properties of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers of wood dust and waste tire rubber has been investigated. Waste cooking oil from crisp industries was converted into bio-monomer, filled with different proportion ratio of fillers and fabricated into bio-polymer foam composite. Two fabrication methods is applied which is the Close Mold Method (CMM) and Open Mold Method (OMM). A total of four bio-polymer foam composite samples were produce for each method used. The percentage of hybrid fillers; mixture of wood dust and waste tire rubber of 2.5 %, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10% weight to weight ration with bio-monomer. The sound absorption of the bio-polymer foam composites samples were tested by using the impedance tube test according to the ASTM E-1050 and Scanning Electron Microscope to determine the morphology and porosity of the samples. The sound absorption coefficient (α) at different frequency range revealed that the polymer foam of 10.0 % hybrid fillers shows highest α of 0.963. The highest hybrid filler loading contributing to smallest pore sizes but highest interconnected pores. This also revealed that when highly porous material is exposed to incident sound waves, the air molecules at the surface of the material and within the pores of the material are forced to vibrate and loses some of their original energy. This is concluded that the suitability of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers to be used in acoustic application of automotive components such as dashboards, door panels, cushion and etc.

  20. Effect of silanation of fillers on their dispersability by monomer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, N M; Craig, R G

    1995-03-01

    The effect of silanation on the dispersion of quartz and zirconia-silica fillers by monomers used to formulate composites was studied. Sixteen silane coupling agents and three methods were used, and the amounts of the monomers needed to reach wet and flow point values were determined. The silanes were selected to have a variety of organofunctional and hydrolysable groups. Silanation was done from an ethanol-water solution of the silanes and by adding the silanes directly to the filler at room temperature (24 degrees C) and at the boiling temperature of the silanes. The amount of silane used was either that required to produce minimum uniform coverage on the fillers or three times the minimum coverage. All silanes and all methods of treatment decreased the flow values for both fillers compared to the unsilanated controls. Generalizations were that the effectiveness of silanation on the dispersion of the filler particles was greater (i) when silanation from ethanol solution was used compared to direct addition; (ii) when three times the minimum uniform coverage was used; (iii) when the silane contained methoxy rather than ethoxy groups; (iv) when the silanes were trialkoxy rather than dialkoxy compounds; (v) when the length and bulkiness of the organic functional group was smaller; and (vi) when the organic functional group was methacrylate rather than acrylic. The strength of composites prepared from one of the monomer systems and quartz silanated with methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane was higher than those silanated with acryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, which supports the use of the wet and flow point values as screening tests for estimating the dispersability of fillers.

  1. Effect Assessment the Impact of Filler Types on the Input Design Parameter of Flexible Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar S. Neham

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To meet the requirements of flexible pavements (safety, economy, limited the stresses on the natural subgrade and a smooth ride, good quality material of surface course must be used so to prevent pavement distresses caused by the different types of loadings (structural and environmental loadings, while the resilient modulus is important input data when flexible pavement was designed, it is selected to show its effect by different types of mineral filler as a partial replacement. In this paving mix, to improve the quality of the mix material and to represent the effect of these replacements materials on the elastic characterization by measuring the resilient modulus of hot mix asphalt (HMA: Fly Ash (FA, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC, Hydrated Lime (HL and Silica Fume (SF are used as a partial percent of filler (Limestone Dust (LSD replacement, where these materials are locally available including (40-50 penetration grade asphalt binder. To achieve the goal of study; asphalt concrete mixes are prepared at their optimum asphalt content using Marshall Method of mix design. Four replacement percent’s were used; 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 percent by total weight of aggregate for each filler types. According to ASTM D4123 criteria (Resilient Modulus was tested by UTM¬25. Mixes modified with (FA, (OPC, (HL and (SF were found to have average improvement in the value of Resilient Modulus by (13.37, 9.63, 11.14, 24.00 % at 1.5 percent of filler replacement and by (24.54, 16.63, 18.73, 38.31 % at 3.0 percent of filler replacement also the percent of improvement is: (39.55, 26.36, 29.82, 58.30 at 4.5percent of filler replacement sequentially.

  2. Assessment of the Resistance to External Factors of Low-Density Polyethylene Modified with Natural Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Głogowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study reports the results of investigation of basic processing and thermal properties of low-density polyethylene modified with two types of natural filler: wheat bran and pumpkin seed hulls, their content ranging from 5% to 15% relative to the matrix. In addition, the physical properties of the produced granulates are determined, i.e. the relationship between their density and the applied contents of the tested fillers. Furthermore, the study reports the results concerning the longitudinal shrinkage, abrasion resistance and cold water absorption of injection molded tensile specimens.

  3. Understanding How to Prevent and Treat Adverse Events of Fillers and Neuromodulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablon, Glynis

    2016-12-01

    Experience teaches cosmetic surgeons to become good, but avoiding and treating adverse events make them great. In no area is this more true than in cosmetic procedures involving fillers and neuromodulators. By utilizing knowledge of materials and anatomy involved, specialists seek to avoid complications. A well-trained physician is able to reduce the sequelae from an adverse event by acting promptly using algorithms and a methodical approach to treatments. In this article I discuss the difference between perceived and true complications from fillers and neuromodulators, how to avoid, what to look for and how to treat to provide patients with the best possible outcomes, and make the physicians life less stressful.

  4. Host Tissue Interaction, Fate, and Risks of Degradable and Nondegradable Gel Fillers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lise

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND A constantly increasing number of gel fillers for aesthetic and reconstructive purposes have been introduced during the last 20 years. Most of the new ones are modified versions of the original collagen and hyaluronic acid gels. They have been reconstructed, often by adding cross......-bindings to the polymer in order to obtain a more dense molecular structure, which will prolong degradation and filling effect of the gel. Other gel fillers contain particles of organic (poly-lactic acid) or inorganic (calcium hydroxylapatite) material, which have been used in human tissue for other purposes (degradable...

  5. Thermally stable polymer composites with improved transparency by using colloidal mesoporous silica nanoparticles as inorganic fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Norihiro; Zakaria, Mohamed B; Chiang, Ya-Dong; Wu, Kevin C-W; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2012-05-28

    The colloidal mesoporous silica nanoparticles with small particle sizes (namely, CMS) are used as inorganic fillers of polymers (i.e. epoxy and silicone). From simple calculation, almost all polymers are estimated to be confined in the mesopores. To clarify the superiority of CMS over nonporous silica particles and mesoporous silica particles with much larger size (TMPS-4) as inorganic fillers, a systematic study on mechanical strength and transparency of polymer-silica nanocomposites was conducted. Compared with nonporous silica particles, similar to TMPS-4, CMS shows a greater effect on lowering the CTE. In addition, obtained polymer-CMS nanocomposites show improved transparency than polymer-TMPS-4 nanocomposites.

  6. Synthesis of mesh-shaped calcia partially stabilized zirconia using eggshell membrane template as filler composite

    OpenAIRE

    Gema Gempita; Zulia Hasratiningsih; Gantini Subrata; Bambang Sunendar Purwasasmita

    2017-01-01

    This experiment was conducted experimentally to synthesize Calcia Partially Stabilized Zirconia (Ca-PSZ) by sol-gel method using eggshell membrane template as a composite filler. The eggshell membrane was used to produce a mesh shaped structure, which hopefully can improve the mechanical properties of the composite. Ca-PSZ filler was synthesized from ZrOCl2 precursor and Ca(NO3)2 stabilizer with a 24 hours immersion time. Ca-PSZ of synthesis then mixed with the resin matrix to test its compos...

  7. The Role of Bacterial Biofilm in Adverse Soft-Tissue Filler Reactions: A Combined Laboratory and Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saththianathan, Mayuran; Johani, Khalid; Taylor, Alaina; Hu, Hongua; Vickery, Karen; Callan, Peter; Deva, Anand K

    2017-03-01

    The development of chronic nodules and granulomatous inflammation after filler injections has been attributed to bacterial biofilm infection. The authors aimed to investigate the relationship between filler and bacterial biofilm using a combined in vitro and in vivo study. In vitro assays to investigate the ability of filler materials to support the growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm and the effect of multiple needle passes through a biofilm-contaminated surface were designed. Analysis of clinical biopsy specimens from patients presenting with chronic granulomas following filler administration using a number of laboratory tests for biofilm was performed. All fillers (i.e., hyaluronic acid, polyacrylamide gel, and poly-L-lactic acid) supported the growth of S. epidermidis biofilm in vitro. Multiple needle passes through a biofilm-contaminated surface resulted in significantly increased contamination of filler material by a factor of 10,000 (p bacterial biofilm. The mean number of bacteria was found to be 2.2 × 10 bacteria/mg tissue (range, 5.6 × 10 to 3.7 × 10 bacteria/mg tissue). Microbiome analysis detected a predominance of Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, and Propionibacterium as present in these samples. Filler material can support the growth of bacterial biofilm in vitro. Multiple needle passes can significantly increase the risk of filler contamination. Biofilm appears to be associated with high numbers in clinical samples of patients presenting with chronic granulomatous inflammation. Strategies to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination need to be further studied and translated into clinical practice. Therapeutic, V.

  8. Hybrid Composites from Wheat Straw, Inorganic Filler, and Recycled Polypropylene: Morphology and Mechanical and Thermal Expansion Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcing effect of hybrid filler including wheat straw (WS and inorganic filler (heavy calcium carbonate, silicon dioxide, and fly ash in recycled polypropylene (R-PP has been investigated. The effects of individual filler (WS and combined fillers (WS and inorganic filler on morphological, mechanical, and thermal expansion and water absorption properties of hybrid composites were investigated. The flexural modulus and flexural strength were both reduced when reinforced with three kinds of inorganic fillers, respectively, which was possibly due to the poor interphase adhesion as observed in SEM. The high surface energy of heavy calcium carbonate due to its high acidic character provides an opportunity of better PP-heavy calcium carbonate interfacial interactions compared to PP-straw, PP-fly ash, and PP-SiO2 interface. The water absorption at saturation increased markedly by introduction of WS in it. The hybrid composites from WS and inorganic fillers showed better water absorption compared to those WS/PP composites. The thermal expansion of composites decreased with the increase of WS loading. Heavy calcium and SiO2 can obviously reduce the LCTE value of composite. At the 25% inorganic filler content, composites had the smallest LCTE values.

  9. Effect of the piezoelectric ceramic filler dielectric constant on the piezoelectric properties of PZT-epoxy composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaliq, J.; Deutz, D.B.; Frescas, J.A.C.; Vollenberg, P.; Hoeks, T.; Zwaag, S. van der; Groen, P.

    2017-01-01

    Piezoelectric composites made from soft and hard lead zirconium titanate (PZT) particles as filler and an epoxy as the matrix were prepared by dielectrophoresis and studied for their piezoelectric properties. It was found that the dielectric constant of the piezoelectric filler plays a significant

  10. Electromagnetic interference shielding performance of epoxy composites filled with multiwalled carbon nanotubes/manganese zinc ferrite hybrid fillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phan, C.H. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Mariatti, M., E-mail: mariatti@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Koh, Y.H [Motorola Solutions Malaysia Sdn. Bhd., Plot 2, Bayan Lepas Technoplex Industrial Park, Mukim 12, S.W.D., 11900 Penang (Malaysia)

    2016-03-01

    An effective electromagnetic-interference (EMI) shielding epoxy composite has been fabricated with a combination of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and manganese zinc ferrite (MnZn ferrite) fillers. MWCNTs were functionalized to improve dispersibility while manganese zinc ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized via the citrate gel method. The EMI-shielding performance of the fabricated composites was examined. It was found that the composite with a filler ratio of MWNCTs to MnZn ferrite=3:1 obtained the highest EMI shielding effectiveness (SE), with the shielding mechanism dominated by absorption. In addition, the EMI shielding performance of composites was improved by increases in the filler loading and thickness of composites. Composites with a filler loading of 4.0 vol% and thickness of 2.0 mm achieved an SE of 44 dB at 10 GHz with the assistance of conductive silver backing. This EMI SE is better than that of composites filled with single conductive filler and comparable with that of commercial EMI absorber. - Highlights: • The hybrid fillers filled epoxy composites was successfully fabricated. • New EMI shielding strategy was implemented to give an effective EMI absorption composites. • Filler ratio of (MWCNTs: MnZn ferrite=3:1) obtained the highest EMI SE. • The EMI shielding performance enhanced with filler loading and composites thickness. • Conductive backing improved EMI-shielding performance of composite.

  11. Effect on mechanical properties of glass reinforced epoxy (GRE) pipe filled with different geopolymer filler molarity for piping application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, M. F. Abu; Abdullah, M. M. A.; Ghazali, C. M. R.; Hussin, K.; Binhussain, M.

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the use of a novel white clay geopolymer as a filler to produce high strength glass reinforced epoxy pipe. It was found that using white clay geopolymer as filler gives better compressive strength to the glass reinforced epoxy pipe. The disadvantages of current glass reinforced epoxy pipes such low compressive strength which can be replaced by the composite pipes. Geopolymerization is an innovative technology that can transform several aluminosilicate materials into useful products called geopolymers or inorganic polymers. A series of glass reinforced epoxy pipe and glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled with 10 - 40 weight percentages white clay geopolymer filler with 4 Molarity and 8 Molarity were prepared. Morphology of white clay geopolymer filler surface was indicates using scanning electron microscopy. The additions of white clay geopolymer filler for both 4 Molarity and 8 Molarity show higher compressive strength than glass reinforced epoxy pipe without any geopolymer filler. The compressive test of these epoxy geopolymer pipe samples was determined using Instron Universal Testing under compression mode. Nonetheless, the compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with white clay geopolymer filler continues to drop when added to 40 wt% of the geopolymer filler loading for both 4 Molarity and 8 Molarity. These outcomes showed that the mixing of geopolymer materials in epoxy system can be attained in this research.

  12. Quick Maintenance for High Voltage Equipment with the New Not Toxic Boron Nitride Powder (BN100) Superior Thermal Conductive and Lightweight Filler

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boer, Fabrizio

    2005-01-01

    .... The BN100 superior thermal conductive and lightweight filler technology is a new filler technology, that not only lets Users a full access for maintenance because cure-free being compounded by loose...

  13. Investigation of the corrosion performance of different braze fillers fused onto stainless steel type 1.4401 (UNS S31600)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, C.; Eklund, T.; Persson, O. [Alfa Laval Corporate AB, Tumba (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    Corrosion measurements were performed on a new iron based braze filler, AlfaNova{sup 1} developed by Alfa Laval. The braze filler was fused onto stainless steel type EN 1.4401 (UNS S31600). The susceptibility to general corrosion, intergranular corrosion and pitting corrosion was evaluated by gravimetrical and electrochemical methods as well as metallographical examination of the samples. Different sample configurations were utilised, which simulate the geometry of a braze joint in a plate heat exchange. The results were compared with a selection of commercial nickel-based braze fillers. It was shown that the newly developed iron-based braze filler had similar corrosion resistance as the commercially available nickel-based fillers. It was seen that the precipitation of intermetallic phases due to melting point depressants had a governing effect on the corrosion resistance of the braze joint. (orig.)

  14. Filler-hydrates Adhesion Properties in Cement Paste System : Development of Sustainable Building Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, X.

    2017-01-01

    Fillers, such as limestone or quartz powder, are used as a replacement of Portland cement. Their application can make concrete more environment friendly and possibly cheaper. Additions of limestone or quartz powder have been reported to exert a limited chemical effect on cement hydration. The main

  15. Effect of nano-clay fillers on mechanical and morphological properties of Napier/epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K. H.; Majid, M. S. A.; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Basaruddin, K. S.; Afendi, M.

    2017-10-01

    The effect of nano clay filler on the mechanical and morphological properties of Napier/epoxy composites was investigated. Neat, 2 wt%, 3 wt%, 4 wt% and 5 wt% of Montmorillonite (MMT) nano clay filled Napier/epoxy composites were fabricated by vacuum infusion technique. These specimens were tested in the three points bending according to the ASTM D790. The flexural stress-strain curve, flexural strength, flexural modulus and strain to failure were then discovered based on the flexural test results. The results revealed that flexural strength and flexural modulus increased when a particular amount of nano clay was added to the epoxy matrix. 3 wt% of nano clay filler yielded the highest flexural strength with an improvement of 163% when compared to the neat Napier/epoxy composites. Moreover, a maximum of 180% increases in flexural modulus was registered at 5 wt% of nano clay filler. The enhanced properties of nano clay filled composites were highly achieved due to better dispersion and distribution of nano clay in the epoxy resin as well as an increase on the interfacial bonding. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), morphological analysis was conducted to observe the fracture surfaces of the specimens after the flexural test. Overall, the presence of nano clay filler loading with a range of 3 wt% to 5 wt% in the Napier/epoxy composites shows the significant improvement in mechanical and morphological properties.

  16. Detection of Bacteria by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization in Culture-Negative Soft Tissue Filler Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adverse reactions to polyacrylamide gel occur as swellings or nodules, and controversy exists whether these are due to bacterial infection or an autoimmune reaction to the filler. OBJECTIVES Biopsies from culture-negative long-lasting nodules after injection with different types of pol...

  17. Bacterial Infection as a Likely Cause of Adverse Reactions to Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Fillers in Cosmetic Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, Lise; Breiting, Vibeke; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Eickhardt, Steffen; Høgdall, Estrid; Janssen, Martin; Pallua, Norbert; Zaat, Sebastian A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The etiology of long-lasting adverse reactions to gel fillers used in cosmetic surgery is not known. Bacterial infection and immunological reaction to the product have been suggested. Methods. We performed a case-control study, with 77 biopsies and 30 cytology specimens originating from

  18. Influence of filler alignment in the mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes/epoxy nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felisberto, M. [LPyMC, FCEyN-UBA and IFIBA-CONICET, Pab I Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); INQUIMAE-CONICET-UBA, Pab II Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Arias-Duran, A. [LPyMC, FCEyN-UBA and IFIBA-CONICET, Pab I Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Ramos, J.A.; Mondragon, I. [Dep. Ingenieria Quimica y M. Ambiente. Esc. Politecnica. UPV/EHU, Pza. Europa 1, Donostia-San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); Candal, R. [INQUIMAE-CONICET-UBA, Pab II Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia-UNSAM, San Martin, Prov. De Buenos Aires (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [LPyMC, FCEyN-UBA and IFIBA-CONICET, Pab I Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Rubiolo, G.H., E-mail: rubiolo@cnea.gov.ar [LPyMC, FCEyN-UBA and IFIBA-CONICET, Pab I Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Dep. Materiales, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA-CAC), Avda Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    In this work, we report the mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes/epoxy composites prepared with aligned and randomly oriented nanotubes as filler. The samples are disks of 30 mm in diameter and 3 mm in thickness. To obtain the carbon nanotubes alignment, an external electric field (250 VAC; 50 Hz) was applied through the thickness of the sample during all the cure process. The AC electrical current was measured, during the cure, as a strategy to determine the optimum time in which the alignment reaches the maximum value. DC conductivity measured after the cure shows a percolation threshold in the filler content one order of magnitude smaller for composites with aligned nanotubes than for composites with randomly oriented filler (from 0.06 to 0.5 wt%). In the percolation threshold, the achieved conductivity was 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Sm{sup -1}. In both cases, aligned and randomly distributed carbon nanotube composites, the wear resistance increases with the addition of the filler while the Rockwell hardness decreases independently of the nanotubes alignment.

  19. Growth of Carbon Nanotubes on Clay: Unique Nanostructured Filler for High-Performance Polymer Nanocomposites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Wei-De; Phang, In Yee; Liu, Tianxi

    2006-01-01

    High-performance composites are produced using nanostructured clay-carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrids as a reinforcing filler. The intercalation of iron particles between the clay platelets serves as the catalyst for the growth of CNTs, while the platelets are exfoliated by the CNTs, forming the unique

  20. Potential use of clay from Burkina Faso as filler in rubber production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raw clay materials deposit in Burkina Faso have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical analysis to evaluate their potentialities to be used in rubber compounds production as filler. The samples are composed principally by aolinite, illite and quartz. The rubber ...

  1. Influence of filler existence on microleakage of a self-etch adhesive system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirmohammadi, H.; Khosravi, K.; Kashani, K.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluated the effect of filler existence in self-etch adhesive resin on the marginal leakage of a class V restoration. Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared and restored with a resin composite on the buccal surfaces of 48 premolars lined with unfilled or filled

  2. Automation of a dosing-disc capsule filler from the perspective of reliability and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Bernhard; Brinz, Thomas; Otterbach, Stephanie; Khinast, Johannes

    2017-11-24

    The aim of this paper is to explore the possibility to develop an automatically adjustable, reliable, and safe capsule filling operation. Process parameters that are critical for the tamping pin process were reviewed based on the literature and via experiment. Dosing disc height, powder bed height, machine speed, pressure on the tamping pin, and immersion depth were reviewed. Two investigations were performed on a GKF 702. In the first one, the powder feed rate onto the dosing disc was examined and modified. A distance sensor with a PID controller enabled a constant powder bed level with an online changeable set point. For a bad flowing product an improvement of the fill weight variation could be achieved by automatically adjusting the feed rate to the correct speed and matching the actual process conditions of the capsule filler. The second part of the study concerned the safety of the filler operation. Introducing a force transducer on the transfer station is a promising option for running the capsule filler safely within its process specifications. The tamping pin pressure was used to provoke different transfer forces. A deviation from a defined process specification led to a safe stop of the machine. In summary, the automated adjustment of several critical process parameters appears to be feasible and supports the rational development of efficient production processes using a dosing disc capsule filler. This is especially relevant for continuous production of pharmaceuticals.

  3. Piezoresistivity, mechanisms and model of cement-based materials with CNT/NCB composite fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqing; Ding, Siqi; Dong, Sufen; Li, Zhen; Ouyang, Jian; Yu, Xun; Han, Baoguo

    2017-12-01

    The use of conductive cement-based materials as sensors has attracted intense interest over past decades. In this paper, carbon nanotube (CNT)/nano carbon black (NCB) composite fillers made by electrostatic self-assembly are used to fabricate conductive cement-based materials. Electrical and piezoresistive properties of the fabricated cement-based materials are investigated. Effect of filler content, load amplitudes and rate on piezoresistive property within elastic regime and piezoresistive behaviors during compressive loading to destruction are explored. Finally, a model describing piezoresistive property of cement-based materials with CNT/NCB composite fillers is established based on the effective conductive path and tunneling effect theory. The research results demonstrate that filler content and load amplitudes have obvious effect on piezoresistive property of the composites materials, while load rate has little influence on piezoresistive property. During compressive loading to destruction, the composites also show sensitive piezoresistive property. Therefore, the cement-based composites can be used to monitor the health state of structures during their whole life. The built model can well describe the piezoresistive property of the composites during compressive loading to destruction. The good match between the model and experiment data indicates that tunneling effect actually contributes to piezoresistive phenomenon.

  4. Micro and nanocomposites of polybutadienebased polyurethane liners with mineral fillers and nanoclay: thermal and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Pablo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Micro and nanocomposites of hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB-based polyurethanes (NPU were obtained using five mineral fillers and Cloisite 20A nanoclay, respectively. Samples were prepared by the reaction of HTPB polyol and toluene diisocyanate (TDI, and the chain was further extended with glyceryl monoricinoleate to produce the final elastomeric polyurethanes. Mechanical and thermal properties were studied, showing that mineral fillers (20%w/w significantly increased tensile strength, in particular nanoclay (at 5% w/w. When nanoclay-polymer dispersion was modified with a silane and hydantoin-bond promoter, elongation at break was significantly increased with respect to NPU with C20A. Thermal properties measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC were not significantly affected in any case. The molecular structure of prepared micro and nanocomposites was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Interaction of fillers with polymer chains is discussed, considering the role of silanes in compatibilization of hydrophilic mineral fillers and hydrophobic polymer. The functionalization of nanoclay with HMDS silane was confirmed using FTIR. Microstructure of NPU with C20A nanoclay was confirmed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM.

  5. Evaluation of sawdust ash as a partial replacement for mineral filler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bitumen, coarse aggregates, fine aggregates, and mineral filler were obtained from Espro Asphalt Plant, Ife- Ibadan Road, Osun state, Nigeria. The sawdust was burnt into ash using a furnace at a temperature of 800°C, allowed to cool and sieved through 75 μm BS sieve (No.200). The properties of the materials were ...

  6. Synthesis of mesh-shaped calcia partially stabilized zirconia using eggshell membrane template as filler composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Gempita

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted experimentally to synthesize Calcia Partially Stabilized Zirconia (Ca-PSZ by sol-gel method using eggshell membrane template as a composite filler. The eggshell membrane was used to produce a mesh shaped structure, which hopefully can improve the mechanical properties of the composite. Ca-PSZ filler was synthesized from ZrOCl2 precursor and Ca(NO32 stabilizer with a 24 hours immersion time. Ca-PSZ of synthesis then mixed with the resin matrix to test its composite hardness. The EDS characterization results suggested that the sample contained elements of zirconia, calcium, and oxygen. Whereas, the XRD characterization identified that crystal structures that formed in the sample were nano scale tetragonal. Characterization of SEM showed Ca-PSZ with mesh structured. The average composite hardness value was 15.79 VHN. The composites with Ca-PSZ-synthesized filler could be prepared and its hardness value was higher than the composite with Ca-PSZ filler in spherical particles, but the hardness was still below the composite on the market.

  7. Enhancement of Fracture Toughness of Epoxy Nanocomposites by Combining Nanotubes and Nanosheets as Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiim Domun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the fracture toughness of epoxy resin has been improved through the addition of low loading of single part and hybrid nanofiller materials. Functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs was used as single filler, increased the critical strain energy release rate, GIC, by 57% compared to the neat epoxy, at only 0.1 wt% filler content. Importantly, no degradation in the tensile or thermal properties of the nanocomposite was observed compared to the neat epoxy. When two-dimensional boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS were added along with the one-dimensional f-MWCNTs, the fracture toughness increased further to 71.6% higher than that of the neat epoxy. Interestingly, when functionalised graphene nanoplatelets (f-GNPs and boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs were used as hybrid filler, the fracture toughness of neat epoxy is improved by 91.9%. In neither of these hybrid filler systems the tensile properties were degraded, but the thermal properties of the nanocomposites containing boron nitride materials deteriorated slightly.

  8. DC Calcium lactate, a new filler-binder for direct compaction of tablets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, GK; Eissens, AC; Zoestbergen, E

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a directly compressible form of calcium lactate is introduced as a filler-binder for direct compaction of tablets. Calcium lactate is one of the most important calcium sources and has, in comparison with other organic calcium salts, a good solubility and bioavailability. Two different

  9. Gas Metal Arc Welding Using Novel CaO-Added Mg Alloy Filler Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjung Kang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Novel “ECO Mg” alloys, i.e., CaO-added Mg alloys, which exhibit oxidation resistance during melting and casting processes, even without the use of beryllium or toxic protection gases such as SF6, have recently been introduced. Research on ECO Mg alloys is still continuing, and their application as welding filler metals was investigated in this study. Mechanical and metallurgical aspects of the weldments were analysed after welding, and welding behaviours such as fume generation and droplet transfer were observed during welding. The tensile strength of welds was slightly increased by adding CaO to the filler metal, which resulted from the decreased grain size in the weld metal. When welding Mg alloys, fumes have been unavoidable so far because of the low boiling temperature of Mg. Fume reduction was successfully demonstrated with a wire composed of the novel ECO Mg filler. In addition, stable droplet transfer was observed and spatter suppression could be expected by using CaO-added Mg filler wire.

  10. Modification of Sorghum Starch-Cellulose Bioplastic with Sorghum Stalks Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Darni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the feasibility of bioplastics production by various ratio of sorghum starch and cellulose from red seaweed Eucheuma spinossum, and the use of glycerol as plasticizer and sorghum stalks as filler. Solid-liquid matrix transition should be far over the operating temperature of gelatinization and extracted at 95oC in order to avoid the loss of conductivity. The analyzed variables were starch and cellulose seaweed Eucheuma spinossum and the addition of variation of filler. Sorghum stalk could be expected to affect the mechanical and physical properties of bioplastics. A thin sheet of plastic (plastic film was obtained as a result that have been tested mechanically to obtain the best condition for the formulation of starch-cellulose 8.5:1.5 (g/g. From the result of morphological studies, the fillers in the mixture composites were more randomly in each product and the addition of filler can increase mechanical properties of bioplastics. Chemical modification had a major effect on the mechanical properties. The phenomena of degradation and thermoplasticization were visible at chemical changes that can be observed in FTIR spectrum test results.

  11. Novel Organically Modified Core-Shell Clay for Epoxy Composites—“SOBM Filler 1”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iheaturu, Nnamdi Chibuike; Madufor, Innocent Chimezie

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of a novel organically modified clay from spent oil base drilling mud (SOBM) that could serve as core-shell clay filler for polymers is herein reported. Due to the hydrophilic nature of clay, its compatibility with polymer matrix was made possible through modification of the surface of the core clay sample with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES) compound prior to its use. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to characterize clay surface modification. Electron dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to expose filler chemical composition and morphology, while electrophoresis measurement was used to examine level of filler dispersion. Results show an agglomerated core clay powder after high temperature treatment, while EDX analysis shows that the organically modified clay is composed of chemical inhomogeneities, wherein elemental compositions in weight percent vary from one point to the other in a probe of two points. Micrographs of the 3-APTES coupled SOBM core-shell clay filler clearly show cloudy appearance, while FT-IR indicates 25% and 5% increases in fundamental vibrations band at 1014 cm−1 and 1435 cm−1, respectively. Furthermore, 3-APTES coupled core-shell clay was used to prepare epoxy composites and tested for mechanical properties. PMID:27355022

  12. Detection of nonverbal vocalizations using Gaussian Mixture Models: looking for fillers and laughter in conversational speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikke, Teun F.; Truong, Khiet Phuong

    In this paper, we analyze acoustic profiles of fillers (i.e. filled pauses, FPs) and laughter with the aim to automatically localize these nonverbal vocalizations in a stream of audio. Among other features, we use voice quality features to capture the distinctive production modes of laughter and

  13. Influence of heat conductivity on the performance of RTV SIR coatings with different fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siderakis, K.; Agoris, D.; Gubanski, S.

    2005-10-01

    Room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber (RTV SIR) coatings are employed in order to improve the pollution performance of high voltage ceramic insulators by imparting surface hydrophobicity. In this paper, the performance of three RTV SIR coatings containing different fillers is investigated in a salt-fog test. Alumina trihydrate (ATH) and silica are the fillers included in the formulation, aiming to increase the material endurance to the energy supplied by the surface electrical activity during periods of hydrophobicity loss. The primary action of these fillers is to increase the material heat conductivity, i.e. the amount of energy conducted to the substrate. In addition, in the case of ATH relief is also achieved due to particle decomposition. The results indicate that for the compositions commercially available, where low amounts of fillers are used, and under the conditions of the test, ATH filled coatings performed better than the silica filled ones. This is attributed to ATH decomposition which further relieves the material structure and therefore decelerates material aging.

  14. Use of Almond Shells and Rice Husk as Fillers of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Sabbatini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wood fibres have often been applied as the reinforcement of thermoplastic materials, such as polypropylene, whereas their use in combination with thermosetting resin has been less widespread. This study concerns the production of PMMA-based composites by partly replacing alumina trihydrate (ATH with wood waste fillers, namely rice husks and almond shells, which would otherwise be disposed by incineration. The amount of filler introduced was limited to 10% as regards rice husks and 10 or 15% almond shells, since indications provided by reactivity tests and viscosity measurements did not suggest the feasibility of total replacement of ATH. As a matter of fact, the introduction of these contents of wood waste filler in PMMA-based composite did not result in any significant deterioration of its mechanical properties (Charpy impact, Rockwell M hardness and flexural performance. Some reduction of these properties was only observed in the case of introduction of 15% almond shells. A further issue concerned the yellowing of the organic filler under exposure to UV light. On the other hand, a very limited amount of water was absorbed, never exceeding values around 0.6%, despite the significant porosity revealed by the filler’s microscopic evaluation. These results are particularly interesting in view of the application envisaged for these composites, i.e., wood replacement boards.

  15. Effect of Zn(NO3)2 filler on the dielectric permittivity and electrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of inorganic material or filler with organic polymer is an appropriate step for obtaining novel class of materials with enhanced properties. The polymeric materials are largely multifaceted in comparison to low-molecular-weight com- pounds. The importance of such materials is well appraised because of the reason that these ...

  16. Influence of limestone fillers on combustion characteristics of asphalt mortar for pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, Wu; Kai, Zhu; Wu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt materials will be ignited and release significant toxic fumes within tunnel fires. Thus, combustion characteristics of asphalt materials used in road tunnel should be studied in order to limit such an adverse effect. In the present work we study the influence of limestone fillers on combu...

  17. Influence of filler charge on gloss of composite materials before and after in vitro toothbrushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassé, Fernanda Ferreira; de Campos, Edson Alves; Lefever, Dorien; Di Bella, Enrico; Salomon, Jean Pierre; Krejci, Ivo; Ardu, Stefano

    2013-11-01

    This study evaluated the gloss behaviour of experimental resin composites loaded with different filler percentages, immediately after polishing and after toothbrushing simulation. Sixteen disc-shaped specimens were fabricated for each different-charged composite (40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 75%) and polished with SiC abrasive papers. Gloss measurements were made prior to simulated toothbrushing. The specimens were subjected to the simulation for 5, 15, 30 and 60 min using an electrical toothbrush with a standardized pressure while being immersed in a toothpaste/artificial saliva slurry. Baseline composite gloss values ranged from 69.7 (40%) to 81.3 (75%) GU (gloss units) and from 18.1 (40%) to 32.3 (75%) GU after 1h of brushing. Highest gloss values were obtained by 75%-charged resin, while the lowest values were obtained by the 40%-charged one. All tested materials showed a gloss decrease. However, the higher filler load a composite resin has, the higher gloss it can achieve. Gloss of resin composite materials is an important factor in determining aesthetic success of anterior restorations, and this property may vary according to the filler charge of the restorative material. Higher filler load of a composite resin results in higher gloss values. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Substrate Effects on the High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of a Gold-Based Braze Filler Metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, K. Scott; Rice, Joseph P.

    2005-06-01

    Oxidation testing was conducted on a commercial gold-based braze alloy, Gold ABA®, and on zirconia/stainless steel couples joined using this filler metal. Preliminary results reveal that both substrates play a significant role in determining the overall oxidation behavior of the brazed joint.

  19. Substrate Effects on the High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of a Gold-Based Braze Filler Metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, K. Scott; Rice, Joseph P.

    2005-06-30

    Oxidation testing was conducted on a commercial gold-based braze alloy, Gold ABA, and on zirconia and stainless steel joining couples prepared using this braze filler metal. Preliminary results reveal that both substrates play a significant role in determining the overall oxidation resistance of the brazed joint.

  20. Surface Modified Characteristics of the Tetracalcium Phosphate as Light-Cured Composite Resin Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Cheng Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to characterize the properties of light-cured composite resins that are reinforced with whisker surface-modified particles of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP and to investigate the influence of thermal cycling on the reinforced composites properties. The characteristics of ultimate diametral tensile strength (DTS, moduli, pH values, and fracture surfaces of the samples with different amounts of surface-modified TTCP (30%–60% were determined before and after thermal cycling between 5°C and 55°C in deionized water for 600 cycles. The trends of all groups were ductile prior to thermal cycling and the moduli of all groups increased after thermal cycling. The ductile property of the control group without filler was not significantly affected. Larger amounts of fillers caused the particles to aggregate, subsequently decreasing the resin’s ability to disperse external forces and leading to brittleness after thermal cycling. Therefore, the trend of composite resins with larger amounts of filler would become more brittle and exhibited higher moduli after thermal cycling. This developed composite resin with surface modified-TTCP fillers has the potential to be successful dental restorative materials.

  1. Enhanced Electrical Networks of Stretchable Conductors with Small Fraction of Carbon Nanotube/Graphene Hybrid Fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jae Young; Jun, Gwang Hoon; Jin, Sunghwan; Ryu, Ho Jin; Hong, Soon Hyung

    2016-02-10

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene are known to be good conductive fillers due to their favorable electrical properties and high aspect ratios and have been investigated for application as stretchable composite conductors. A stretchable conducting nanocomposite should have a small fraction of conductive filler material to maintain stretchability. Here we demonstrate enhanced electrical networks of nanocomposites via the use of a CNT-graphene hybrid system using a small mass fraction of conductive filler. The CNT-graphene hybrid system exhibits synergistic effects that prevent agglomeration of CNTs and graphene restacking and reduce contact resistance by formation of 1D(CNT)-2D(graphene) interconnection. These effects resulted in nanocomposite materials formed of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), thermally reduced graphene (TRG), and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which had a higher electrical conductivity compared with MWCNT/PDMS or TRG/PDMS nanocomposites until specific fraction that is sufficient to form electrical network among conductive fillers. These nanocomposite materials maintained their electrical conductivity when 60% strained.

  2. Efficacy of Retrobulbar Hyaluronidase Injection for Vision Loss Resulting from Hyaluronic Acid Filler Embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guo-Zhang; Sun, Zhong-Sheng; Liao, Wen-Xiong; Cai, Bing; Chen, Chun-Lin; Zheng, Hui-Hui; Zeng, Li; Luo, Sheng-Kang

    2017-12-13

    Vision loss is a rare but serious complication of facial hyaluronic acid (HA) filler injection, for which there is no proven rescue therapy. Retrobulbar hyaluronidase injection is advocated by many plastic surgeons as an emergency treatment, but has not been carefully assessed for its efficacy. To evaluate the efficacy of retrobulbar hyaluronidase injection as a rescue treatment for vision loss caused by HA filler embolization. Patients with vision loss caused by HA filler embolization were treated with retrobulbar hyaluronidase injection. Their visual acuity and fundoscopic images before and after treatment were analyzed for efficacy assessment. One patient with branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO), one patient with posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (PION), one patient with ophthalmic artery occlusion, and one patient with both BRAO and PION were treated with one or two retrobulbar injections of 1500 or 3000 units hyaluronidase. No patients demonstrated substantial retinal artery recanalization or vision acuity improvement after treatment. One or two retrobulbar injections of 1500 to 3000 IU hyaluronidase are unable to recanalize retinal artery occlusion or improve the visual outcome of patients who presented with vision loss caused by HA filler embolization at least four hours after onset. 4.

  3. Investigation of Properties of Asphalt Concrete Containing Boron Waste as Mineral Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahit GÜRER

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During the manufacture of compounds in the boron mining industry a large quantity of waste boron is produced which has detrimental effects on the environment. Large areas have to be allocated for the disposal of this waste. Today with an increase in infrastructure construction, more efficient use of the existing sources of raw materials has become an obligation and this involves the recycling of various waste materials. Road construction requires a significant amount of raw materials and it is possible that substantial amounts of boron-containing waste materials can be recycled in these applications. This study investigates the usability of boron wastes as filler in asphalt concrete. For this purpose, asphalt concrete samples were produced using mineral fillers containing 4%, 5%, 6%, 7% and 8% boron waste as well as a 6% limestone filler (6%L as the control sample. The Marshall Design, mechanical immersion and Marshall Stability test after a freeze-thaw cycle and indirect tensile stiffness modulus (ITSM test were performed for each of the series. The results of this experimental study showed that boron waste can be used in medium and low trafficked asphalt concrete pavements wearing courses as filler.

  4. A study on engineering characteristics of asphalt concrete using filler with recycled waste lime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung Do, Hwang; Hee Mun, Park; Suk keun, Rhee

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on determining the engineering characteristics of asphalt concrete using mineral fillers with recycled waste lime, which is a by-product of the production of soda ash (Na(2)CO(3)). The materials tested in this study were made using a 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% mixing ratio based on the conventional mineral filler ratio to analyze the possibility of using recycled waste lime. The asphalt concretes, made of recycled waste lime, hydrated lime, and conventional asphalt concrete, were evaluated through their fundamental engineering properties such as Marshall stability, indirect tensile strength, resilient modulus, permanent deformation characteristics, moisture susceptibility, and fatigue resistance. The results indicate that the application of recycled waste lime as mineral filler improves the permanent deformation characteristics, stiffness and fatigue endurance of asphalt concrete at the wide range of temperatures. It was also determined that the mixtures with recycled waste lime showed higher resistance against stripping than conventional asphalt concrete. It was concluded from various test results that a waste lime can be used as mineral filler and, especially, can greatly improve the resistance of asphalt concrete to permanent deformation at high temperatures.

  5. Treatment of a traumatic atrophic depressed scar with hyaluronic acid fillers: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain SN

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Syed Nazim Hussain,1 Greg J Goodman,2,3 Eqram Rahman4 1Royal Lush Skin Hair & Laser Clinic, Saket, New Delhi, India; 2Department of Primary Care, Monash University, Clayton, 3Skin and Cancer Foundation Inc, Carlton, VIC, Australia; 4Faculty of Medical Science, Postgraduate Medical Institute, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, UK Background: Hyaluronic acid filler has been documented in the treatment of atrophic depressed acne scars relatively frequently in the literature but rarely in chronic depressed traumatic atrophic facial scars.Methods: This case report discusses the use of hyaluronic acid fillers in the correction of a post-traumatic facial atrophic scar on the right cheek.Results: The right cheek scar was substantially corrected with one session of two different hyaluronic acids injected in a deep and superficial plane.Conclusion: Relatively accurate, simple and effective correction of this atrophic traumatic scar may suggest that fillers are a suitable alternative to surgery for such scars. Keywords: scarring, scar correction, filler, hyaluronic acid, facial scar

  6. Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Copper Nanofluids: The Effect of Filler Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanushali, Sushrut; Jason, Naveen Noah; Ghosh, Prakash; Ganesh, Anuradda; Simon, George P; Cheng, Wenlong

    2017-06-07

    Nanofluids are colloidal dispersions that exhibit enhanced thermal conductivity at low filler loadings and thus have been proposed for heat transfer applications. Here, we systematically investigate how particle shape determines the thermal conductivity of low-cost copper nanofluids using a range of distinct filler particle shapes: nanospheres, nanocubes, short nanowires, and long nanowires. To exclude the potential effects of surface capping ligands, all the filler particles are kept with uniform surface chemistry. We find that copper nanowires enhanced the thermal conductivity up to 40% at 0.25 vol % loadings; while the thermal conductivity was only 9.3% and 4.2% for the nanosphere- and nanocube-based nanofluids, respectively, at the same filler loading. This is consistent with a percolation mechanism in which a higher aspect ratio is beneficial for thermal conductivity enhancement. To overcome the surface oxidation of the copper nanomaterials and maintain the dispersion stability, we employed polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a dispersant and ascorbic acid as an antioxidant in the nanofluid formulations. The thermal performance of the optimized fluid formulations could be sustained for multiple heating-cooling cycles while retaining stability over 1000 h.

  7. Shrinkage reduction of dental composites by addition of expandable zirconia filler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, M.; Almdal, Kristoffer; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2011-01-01

    A problem with dental resin composites is the polymerization shrinkage, which makes the filling loosen from the tooth or induces crack formation. We have developed an expandable metastable tetragonal zirconia filler, which upon reaction with water, is able to counter the polymer shrinkage...

  8. Influence of nanoclay-carbon black hybrid fillers on cure and properties of natural rubber compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapkota, J.; Poikelispää, M.; Das, A.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Vuorinen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of organically modified nanoclay-carbon black (CB) hybrid filler on the curing behavior of natural rubber (NR) was explored in this investigation. Here an effort was paid to understand the curing kinetics of organomodified nanoclay filled rubber compounds. On the basis of two different

  9. Study of Volcanic-Ash-Impregnated-Bacteria Filler to the Compressive Strength of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwanto Hendry Anjar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology of concrete has been advanced recently to improve the properties of concrete. Utilization of ash as the substitute of cement or filler of concrete also indicates good result in compressive strength concrete in certain amount. Harnessing the bacteria for self-healing concrete has also been successfully performed in order to maintain the destruction of the concrete by itself. Past research indicated that bacteria can be beneficiary to improve the compressive strength, absorption, permeability, and so on. In this paper, Bacillus Altitudinis was extracted from the karst (source from the limestone mountain and bred through liquid media to be impregnated inside the volcanic ash. The impregnated bacteria in volcanic ash were used as the filler to the concrete mixture with the proportion of filler varied from 1%, 1.5% and 2% to the weight of cement. Mechanical properties of the concrete specimen showed that the compressive strength reached its best when the filler proportion was 1.5%. The absorption referred analogously to the increment of compressive strength due to the success of filling the void inside the concrete. Based on compression test to all the concrete specimens, there was enhancement about 18% and the average absorption can be abated around 23%. Future research due to some drawbacks turning up is the need of developing another media for bacteria to live and making sure the exact amount of bacteria impregnated to the media so that the desired advance of concrete compressive strength can be acquired.

  10. Effect of Fibers and Filler Types on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed K. Rejeb* , Majid Kh . N. Ayad A. M.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with studying the fresh and hardened properties of self-compacting concrete, by using three types of filler (silica fume, clinker powder & lime stone powder, and two types of fibers (steel & glass fibers with volume fractions of (0.5% and (0.1% respectively. For each type of fillers, the fresh properties are measured by using Slump test, J- ring and V- funnel, while hardened properties include the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength. The results show that adding fibers to the self-compacting concrete (SCC well reduces the workability and improves the hardened properties. Also, the study concluded that better workability is obtained by using (lime stone, silica fume and clinker powder as fillers, respectively. While the higher hardened properties are gained by using silica fume were rather than those of other types of fillers 

  11. Effect of Mineral Filler type on Strength of Roller Compacted Rubbercrete for Pavement Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamu, Musa; Mohammed, Bashar S.; Shafiq, Nasir

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigated the possibility of using crumb rubber as partial replacement to fine aggregate in roller compacted concrete for pavement applications where fine aggregate was replaced with crumb rubber at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% to produce roller compacted rubbercrete (RCR). In order to achieve a combined aggregate gradation similar to the one recommended by ACI 211.3R and US Army Corps of Engineers method, fly ash was used as mineral filler. Several trials were done to achieve the combined grading, and finally a combination of 55% fine aggregate, 40% coarse aggregate and 5% fly ash as mineral filler was used. Silica fume was then used as mineral filler instead of fly ash and the fresh density and compressive strength were compared. A target flexural strength of 4.5 MPa and the mix design was developed using the geotechnical concept according to ACI 211.3R/CRD-C161-92. The Results showed that fresh density and compressive strength decreases with increase in partial replacement of fine aggregate with crumb rubber. RCR containing silica fume showed lower fresh density and higher compressive strengths than that with fly ash. However, all the mixes achieved a strength higher than the design target strength at 28 days except for 30% crumb rubber containing fly ash mineral filler, while 10% crumb rubber achieved target strength even at 3 and 7 days for silica fume and fly ash.

  12. Effect of filler addition on the compressive and impact properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Compressive strength of the material is found to decrease, whereas steep increase in impact strength is observed by introduction of very small quantity of fillers. ... Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA; Baba Banda Singh Engineering College, Fateh Garh Saheb, ...

  13. Experimental dermatological surgery: An animal model for developing skills with dermal fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Catucci Boza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of laboratory experiments in the formation of physicians is well recognized since they facilitate scientific development and enhance technical skills. Dermal filling procedures are performed for the correction of wrinkles, rhytids, scars, and lipodystrophy. Till date, experimental models for the training of dermal filling techniques have not been studied. To demonstrate an experimental laboratory model for the training of dermal filling techniques in an animal model. The heads of pigs were used for this purpose, together with Carbopol gel at different densities, which was used to simulate the fillers available in the market. Needles and specific cannulas were used to apply the fillers into the creases and other areas of the pig skin. The pig head appears to be a suitable model for this training. Carbopol gel is a good choice for simulating fillers. This model of laboratory experiment requires a minimum of infrastructure; it is a low-cost alternative and facilitates practical training in the application of dermal fillers.

  14. Polyols as filler-binders for disintegrating tablets prepared by direct compaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, Gerad K.; Rexwinkel, Erik G.; Zuurman, Klaas

    Background: Although polyols are frequently used as tablet excipients in lozenges, chewing tablets, and orodisperse tablets, special directly compressible (DC) forms are recommended as filler-binder in common disintegrating tablets. Aim: In this article, DC types of isomalt, lactitol, mannitol,

  15. Mechanical, thermal, and moisture properties of plastics with bean as filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments on polymers using beans as fillers are reported herein. We are looking for desirable mechanical, thermal and moisture properties at economical costs. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is studied as the polymeric matrix because it is available and biodegradable. Although the physical properties are...

  16. Effect of filler type on 3-body abrasion of dental composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasini E.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The relatively poor wear resistance of dental composite in stress bearing posterior situations has restricted wider clinical application of this restorative material. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the three body abrasive wear of a dental composite based on a new filler (leucite: KAl Si2O6 and to compare it with the wear resistance of a composite based on commonly used Aluminium – Barium Silicate filler. Materials and Methods: This research was an interventional study done in Iran polymer institute. Five specimens were considered in each group. All ceramic IPS Empress® (Ivoclar- Vivadent ingots based on leucite crystals were ball milled, passed through an 800 sieve and used as filler. Experimental composites were prepared by mixing the silane- treated fillers with monomers (BisGMA and TEGDMA. Camphorquinone and amine were used as photoinitiator system. Degree of conversion of the light-cured and post-cured composites was measured using FTIR spectroscopy. The prepared pastes were inserted into plexy-glass mold and light cured (700 mw/cm2, 40 s. Then for maximum degree of conversion specimens were post- cured (120ºC, 5 hours. Three body abrasion wear testing was performed using a wear machine with 50 rpm rotational movement. In this machine, pumice (150 meshes was used as the third body. Weight loss of specimens in each group was measured by balance after each 50 hours. After wear testing SEM examination was made specimens in each group. The data were analyzed and compared using ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (P<0.05. Tetric Ceram was tested as commercial composite. Results: There were significantly differences between three body abrasive wear of composites. The ranking from lowest to highest was as follows: leucite composite (19% < Tetric Ceram (22% < glass composite (28%. leucite composite showed the highest wear resistance value, propably due to the crystalliniy and hardness of filler. Conclusion

  17. Effect of filler particles on surface roughness of experimental composite series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanadi Yousif Marghalani

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different filler sizes and shapes on the surface roughness of experimental resin-composite series. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-three disc-shaped specimens of the series (Spherical-RZD 102, 105, 106, 107, 114 and Irregular-RZD 103, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112 were prepared in a split Teflon mold and irradiated with an halogen light-curing unit (450 mW/cm² for 40 s at both top and bottom surfaces. The specimens were stored for 3 months in distilled water. The surface roughness values in form of surface finish-vertical parameter (Ra, maximum roughness depth (Rmax and horizontal roughness parameter (Sm were recorded using a contact profilometer. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and the means were compared by Scheffé post-hoc test (a=0.05. RESULTS: The lowest surface roughness (Ra was observed in S-100 (0.079±0.013, while the roughest surface was noted in I-450/700/1000 (0.125±0.011 and I-450/1000 (0.124±0.004. The spherical-shape series showed the smoothest surface finish compared to the irregular-shape ones with higher significant difference (p>0.05. The vertical surface roughness parameter (Ra values increased as the filler size increased yielding a linear relation (r²=0.82. On the contrary, the horizontal parameter (Sm was not significantly affected by the filler size (r²=0.24 as well as the filler shape. CONCLUSIONS: Filler particle's size and shape have a great effect on the surface roughness parameters of these composite series.

  18. Cohesion of Hyaluronic Acid Fillers: Correlation Between Cohesion and Other Physicochemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsman, Katarina L M; Öhrlund, Åke

    2017-10-20

    There are several published articles on characterization of fillers, describing methods for both chemical and physicochemical characterization. Recently a lot of focus has been on the development of methods for measuring cohesion of hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the drop-weight method and the correlation between cohesion and other physicochemical properties using a variety of HA fillers. HA fillers covering several product families and manufacturing techniques were used. The HA fillers also covered a range of HA concentrations from 12 to 24 mg/mL. Cohesion was determined using sensory evaluation and the drop-weight method. Other physicochemical properties evaluated were rheology and the swelling factor. In this study, it was verified that values obtained by the drop-weight method reflect the perceived cohesion very well. The correlation with rheology is affected by the HA concentration in the products. A remarkably good correlation between swelling factor and cohesion was found. Cohesion correlates with other physicochemical methods. It could be discussed whether there is a need for a separate cohesion method because other already established physicochemical methods such as rheology and swelling factor can describe the underlying properties that affect cohesion.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  19. Study of tetrapodal ZnO-PDMS composites: a comparison of fillers shapes in stiffness and hydrophobicity improvements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jin

    Full Text Available ZnO particles of different size and structures were used as fillers to modify the silicone rubber, in order to reveal the effect of the filler shape in the polymer composites. Tetrapodal shaped microparticles, short microfibers/whiskers, and nanosized spherical particles from ZnO have been used as fillers to fabricate the different ZnO-Silicone composites. The detailed microstructures of the fillers as well as synthesized composites using scanning electron microscopy have been presented here. The tensile elastic modulus and water contact angle, which are important parameters for bio-mimetic applications, of fabricated composites with different fillers have been measured and compared. Among all three types of fillers, tetrapodal shaped ZnO microparticles showed the best performance in terms of increase in hydrophobicity of material cross-section as well as the stiffness of the composites. It has been demonstrated that the tetrapodal shaped microparticles gain their advantage due to the special shape, which avoids agglomeration problems as in the case for nanoparticles, and the difficulty of achieving truly random distribution for whisker fillers.

  20. 21 CFR 73.1350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... heating to produce one of the following combinations: Titanium dioxide on mica; iron oxide on mica; titanium dioxide and iron oxide on mica. Mica used to manufacture the color additive shall conform in... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.1350 Section...

  1. Possible origin of life between mica sheets: does life imitate mica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansma, Helen Greenwood

    2013-01-01

    The mica hypothesis for the origin of life proposes that life originated between the sheets of muscovite mica. This paper elaborates on two ways that life resembles what might have originated between mica sheets. First, enzymes: The configurations and dynamics of enzymes, with their substrates, cofactors, and sometimes transition metal ions, often resemble mica sheets, with their open-and-shut motions, acting on small molecules between them, sometimes assisted by transition metal ions. Second, organisms: Mica world had the potential to be a community or ecosystem of prebiotic organisms in a way unlike other models for the origin of life.

  2. 21 CFR 73.2496 - Mica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica. 73.2496 Section 73.2496 Food and Drugs FOOD...) Uses and restrictions. Mica is safe for use in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics... color additive and any mixture prepared therefrom intended solely or in part for coloring purposes shall...

  3. Effect of filler loading and silane modification on the biodegradability of SBR composites reinforced with peanut shell powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaniba, V.; Balan, Aparna K.; Sreejith, M. P.; Jinitha, T. V.; Subair, N.; Purushothaman, E.

    2017-06-01

    The development of biocomposites and their applications are important in material science due to environmental and sustainability issues. The extent of degradation depends on the nature of reinforcing filler, particle size and their modification. In this article, we tried to focus on the biodegradation of composites of Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) reinforced with Peanut Shell Powder (PSP) by soil burial test. The composites of SBR with untreated PSP (UPSP) and silane modified PSP (SPSP) of 10 parts per hundred rubber (phr) and 20 phr filler loading in two particle size were buried in the garden soil for six months. The microbial degradation were assessed through the measurement of weight loss, tensile strength and hardness at definite period. The study shows that degradation increases with increase in filler loading and particle size. The chemical treatment of filler has been found to resist the degradation. The analysis of morphological properties by the SEM also confirmed biodegradation process by the microorganism in the soil.

  4. Effect of Al2O3 Nano-Filler on Properties of Alkali/Alkaline-Earth Borosilicate Glass Composite Sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Bok; Kim, Kwang-Joong; Yoo, Gahee; Park, Sung; Lee, Jae Chun

    2015-07-01

    The effect of adding Al2O3 nano-filler (5 and 10 vol%) to two different alkali/alkaline-earth borosilicate glass sealants, particularly on the viscosity and electrical characteristics of the glass composite sealants, was investigated to improve the cyclic sealing performance. The effects of the filler and base glass composition on the viscosities, electrical conductivities, and phase transformations of the sealants were investigated. The glass viscosity was decreased by replacing 20 mol% SrO with alkali and zirconium oxide in a base alkaline-earth glass. Alumina filler increased the high-temperature electrical conductivities, as well as the viscosities, of the heat-treated glass composite sealants. The replacement of 20 mol% SrO with alkali and zirconium oxide in the base alkaline-earth glass decreased the electrical conductivity of the heat-treated glass containing Al2O3 nano-filler.

  5. Effects of SiO 2 and TiO 2 fillers on thermal and dielectric properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2 and TiO2 fillers on thermal and dielectric properties of eco-friendly bismuth glass microcomposites of plasma display panels. Shiv Prakash Singh Karan Pal Anal Tarafder Mousumi Das Kalyandurg Annapurna Basudeb Karmakar. Composites ...

  6. Effect of film thickness and filler properties on sulphuric acid permeation in various commercially available epoxy mortar coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valix, M; Mineyama, H; Chen, C; Cheung, W H; Shi, J; Bustamante, H

    2011-01-01

    The performance of various commercially available epoxy mortar coatings was compared by measuring their sulphuric acid diffusivity. Apparent diffusivities, which were measured gravimetrically, were found to be dependent on coating tortuosity. In composite materials like epoxy mortars, the tortuosity was determined by filler properties and polymer alignment. Tortuosity was found to depend on the filler size, their dispersion, filler aspect ratio and concentration. The order and greater alignment of polymer aggregates, which characterises thinner coatings effects higher tortuosity and thus lower permeabilities. The result is that sulphuric acid diffusivities were observed to increase with coating thickness, which challenges the notion that greater coating thicknesses provide greater protection or environmental barrier. The effect of film thickness and filler properties observed in this study has significant implications to the current selection of coatings and sewer protection.

  7. Filler de grafito reciclado de EDM en pastas de yeso = EDM recycled graphite filler in gypsum pastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Flores

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available El grafito puede obtenerse de forma natural o sintética, pero este último se ha utilizado en carreteras debido a su dureza, así como en placas de cerámica fina. Se demuestran las posibilidades de la adición del polvo de grafito isostático procedente del fresado de moldes fabricados por Electroerosión de Penetración (EDM en compuestos a base de yeso. Para ello se prepararon mezclas de yeso industrial con adiciones en porcentajes diferentes de grafito EDM para evaluar las propiedades físicas y mecánicas, caracterizando previamente ambos materiales. El yeso fue sustituido por grafito en cinco fracciones diferentes, 5, 10, 15, 20 y 25%, en peso, en la preparación de las mezclas. En la designación Y-0.7G-0 y Y-0.6G-0 de las series de probetas prismáticas de 40x40x160mm, la letra Y se refiere al yeso y G significa grafito (G-0 probetas patrón sin grafito, con relaciones agua/yeso (a/y 0,7 y 0,6. Después del análisis de los resultados obtenidos, se realizó unas nuevas series con la adición de plastificante y también con mayor cantidad de grafito, 25 a 50% en peso y otras relaciones a/y basadas en su trabajabilidad, para verificar la incidencia en la resistencia a flexión y compresión. Abstract Graphite can be obtained naturally or synthetically, but the latter has been used on roads because of its hardness, as well as in thin ceramic plates. The possibilities of the addition of the isostatic graphite powder from the milling of molds made by EDM in gypsum-based compounds are demonstrated. For this purpose mixtures of industrial gypsum with additions in different percentages of EDM graphite were prepared to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties, previously characterizing both materials. The gypsum was replaced by graphite in five different fractions, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% by weight, in the preparation of the mixtures. In the designation Y-0.7G-0 and Y-0.6G-0 of the series of prismatic specimens of 40x40x160mm, the letter Y

  8. Hybrid 2D-3D modelling of GTA welding with filler wire addition

    KAUST Repository

    Traidia, Abderrazak

    2012-07-01

    A hybrid 2D-3D model for the numerical simulation of Gas Tungsten Arc welding is proposed in this paper. It offers the possibility to predict the temperature field as well as the shape of the solidified weld joint for different operating parameters, with relatively good accuracy and reasonable computational cost. Also, an original approach to simulate the effect of immersing a cold filler wire in the weld pool is presented. The simulation results reveal two important observations. First, the weld pool depth is locally decreased in the presence of filler metal, which is due to the energy absorption by the cold feeding wire from the hot molten pool. In addition, the weld shape, maximum temperature and thermal cycles in the workpiece are relatively well predicted even when a 2D model for the arc plasma region is used. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of the Mechanical and Morphology Properties of Recycled HDPE Composite Using Rice Husk Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ying Tong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available WPCs are being used in a large number of applications in the automotive, construction, electronic, and aerospace industries. There are an increasing number of research studies and developments in WPC technology involving rice husk as fillers. This study investigated the effects of different compositions of rice husk (RH filler on the mechanical and morphological properties of recycled HDPE (rHDPE composite. The composites were prepared with five different loading contents of RH fibers (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 wt% using the twin screw extrusion method. Maleic acid polyethylene (MAPE was added as a coupling agent. Results showed that tensile and flexural properties improved with increasing RH loading. However, the impact strength of the composites decreased as the RH loading increased. SEM micrographs revealed good interfacial bonding between the fiber and polymer matrix.

  10. The utilization of fillers and reinforcements to develop an optimal DAP (diallyl phthalate) molding compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, C.J.; Schneider, R.E.; Katz, H.S.; Milewski, J.V. (EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (USA); Utility Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Diallyl phthalate (DAP) resin-based compounds were formulated and tested. In these formulations, various types of fillers and fiberglass reinforcements were used in different concentrations while taking into consideration packing concepts, optimum aspect (L/D) ratios, resin content, rheology of the molding compound, and ultimately, the compound's performance. These formulations were required for transfer molding without restricting the melt flow through a gate size of less than 1 mm. The end products are very small parts that must conform to stringent dimensional tolerances (typically {plus minus}0.05 mm) and exhibit physical properties that exceed the requirements specified by MIL-M-14G without compromising excellent electrical characteristics. These objectives were achieved by changing from chopped glass roving to screened, milled fiberglass, by the use of microspherical fillers, and by improving micro packing which allowed an increase in the total

  11. Bacterial infection as a likely cause of adverse reactions to polyacrylamide hydrogel fillers in cosmetic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lise; Breiting, Vibeke; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    in the presence of polyacrylamide filler in cosmetic surgery, possibly due to a biofilm mode of growth. Adequate skin preparation and use of sterile technique in these procedures are mandatory, but antibiotic prophylaxis prior to injection of nondegradable gels like polyacrylamide should be explored as well.......Background. The etiology of long-lasting adverse reactions to gel fillers used in cosmetic surgery is not known. Bacterial infection and immunological reaction to the product have been suggested. Methods. We performed a case-control study, with 77 biopsies and 30 cytology specimens originating from...... patients and 24 controls were systematically examined for the presence of bacteria by culture, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Gram stain, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Results. Bacteria, mostly normal skin bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes, were identified...

  12. Friction and wear of HNBR with different fillers under dry rolling and sliding conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Peroxide cured hydrogenated acrylonitrile/butadiene rubber (HNBR compounds with 20 parts per hundred rubber (phr active fillers, such as carbon black (CB, multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT and silica were produced and their friction and wear properties under unlubricated rolling and sliding conditions were evaluated. The network-related properties of the HNBR compounds were deduced from dynamic-mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA. The coefficient of friction (COF and the specific wear rate (Ws were determined in different home-made test rigs. The CB and MWCNT containing HNBR compounds exhibited the best resistance to rolling and sliding wear, respectively, among the HNBR systems studied. The worn surfaces were inspected in scanning electron microscope (SEM and the wear mechanisms were analyzed and discussed in respect to the types of wear and fillers.

  13. Anomalous glass transition behavior of SBR-Al2O3 nanocomposites at small filler concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushko, Rymma; Filimon, Marlena; Dannert, Rick; Elens, Patrick; Sanctuary, Roland; Baller, Jörg

    2014-10-01

    Elastomers filled with hard nanoparticles are of great technical importance for the rubber industry. In general, fillers improve mechanical properties of polymer materials, e.g. elastic moduli, tensile strength etc. The smaller the size of the particles, the larger is the interface where interactions between polymer molecules and fillers can generate new properties. Using temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis, we investigated the properties of pure styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and SBR/alumina nanoparticles. Beside a reinforcement effect seen in the complex elastic moduli, small amounts of nanoparticles of about 2 wt% interestingly lead to an acceleration of the relaxation modes responsible for the thermal glass transition. This leads to a minimum in the glass transition temperature as a function of nanoparticle content in the vicinity of this critical concentration. The frequency dependent elastic moduli are used to discuss the possible reduction of the entanglement of rubber molecules as one cause for this unexpected behavior.

  14. Arcjet Tests of Different Gap-Filler Options for the Orion PICA Heatshield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokova, Kristina; Ellerby, Donald; Blosser, Max; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Bouslog, Stan; Reuther, James

    2009-01-01

    PICA (Phenolic Infiltrated Carbon Ablator) is one of the candidate thermal protection materials for the Orion vehicle. Because PICA is fabricated in blocks, gaps exist between the blocks, similar to the individual ceramic tiles of the Shuttle thermal protection system. The results of this work focus on arcjet test results of different gap-filler options for PICA, performed as part of the Orion TPS Advanced Development Project. The arcjet tests were performed at NASA Ames Research Center on stagnation models 4 inches in diameter at conditions representative of Orion flight conditions for both Lunar and Low Earth Orbit return. Performance of gap-filler options was evaluated based on the extent of backface temperature change, as compared to PICA without gaps, and on the extent of flow penetration into the gap, evident from the gap opening and widening.

  15. Effect of a zirconium tungstate filler on the cure behavior of a cyanate ester resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haman, K; Badrinarayanan, P; Kessler, M R

    2009-06-01

    In this work, the effect of a negative thermal expansion zirconium tungstate (ZrW2O8) filler on the cure behavior of a unique low-viscosity bisphenol E cyanate ester (BECy) is characterized by differential scanning calorimetry. The cure rate of BECy is found to increase upon the incorporation of ZrW2O8 particles, and the catalytic effect increases with increasing filler loading. The catalytic effect is primarily attributed to the presence and nature of hydroxyl groups on the ZrW2O8 particle surface. In comparison with BECy/ZrW2O8 composites of the same loading, silane-coated ZrW2O8 particles resulted in a higher value of the glass transition temperature (T(g)) and a delay in the onset of the cure. The ability of a phenomenological reaction model to describe the cure behavior of the composites is also examined.

  16. Enhanced breakdown strength of polymer composites by low filler loading and its mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shanjun; Yu, Shuhui; Zhu, Xiaodong; Xie, Shenghui; Sun, Rong; Liao, Wei-Hsin; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2017-10-01

    Dielectric polymer materials with high energy density and low dielectric loss are highly desired for applications in advanced electronic devices and electric power systems. Here, we report on flexible dielectric composites using semiconductor nanoparticles as fillers and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a matrix. The introduction of a small amount of ZnO filler results in significantly enhanced voltage breakdown strength and energy density in comparison with pure PVDF. Based on the multi-core model, combining the electric double layer theory and the interface contact theory, we investigate mechanisms and come out with that transportation of carriers under applied voltage is regulated by the charged interface, which delays the formation of the conduction path. Besides, the electric field imposed on the composites is alleviated by the internal micro-electric field.

  17. Enhancement of the dielectric response in polymer nanocomposites with low dielectric constant fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Yash; Zhang, Tian; Iacob, C; Yang, Tiannan; Bernholc, J; Chen, L Q; Runt, J; Zhang, Q M

    2017-08-10

    In order to increase the dielectric constants of polymer-based dielectrics, composite approaches, in which inorganic fillers with much higher dielectric constants are added to the polar polymer matrix, have been investigated. However, high dielectric constant fillers cause high local electric fields in the polymer, resulting in a large reduction of the electric breakdown strength. We show that a significant increase in the dielectric constant can be achieved in polyetherimide nanocomposites with nanofillers whose dielectric constant can be similar to that of the matrix. The presence of nanofillers reduces the constraints on the dipole response to the applied electric field, thus enhancing the dielectric constant. Our results demonstrate that through nanostructure engineering, the dielectric constant of nanocomposites can be enhanced markedly without using high dielectric constant nanofillers.

  18. Standard Guide for Identification of Fibers, Fillers, and Core Materials in Computerized Material Property Databases

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 This guide establishes the essential and desirable elements of data required for the identification in computerized material property databases of fibers, fillers, and core materials used in composite materials. A recommended format for entry of these fields into a computerized database is provided. Examples of the application of this guide are also included. 1.2 The recommended format described in this guide is suggested for use in recording data in a database, which is different from contractural reporting of actual test results. The latter type of information is described in materials specifications shown in business transactions and is subject to agreement between vendor and purchaser. 1.3 The materials covered by this guide include fibers, both continuous and discontinuous, and fillers of various geometries which are used as reinforcements in composite materials, as well as core materials used in sandwich composites. Cores may be foam, honeycomb, or naturally occurring materials such as balsa wood....

  19. Processing of oil palm empty fruit bunch as filler material of polymer recycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saepulloh, D. R.; Nikmatin, S.; Hardhienata, H.

    2017-05-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) is waste from crude palm oil (CPO) processing plants. This research aims to process OPEFB to be a reinforcement polymer recycle with the mechanical milling method and identify each establishment molecular with the orbital hybridization theory. OPEFB fibers were synthesized using a mechanical milling until the size shortfiber and microfiber. Then do the biocomposite granular synthesis with single screw extruder. TAPPI chemical test shows levels of α-cellulose fibers amounted 41.68%. Based on density, the most optimum composition contained in the filler amounted 15% with the size is the microfiber. The test results of morphology with SEM showed deployment of filler OPEFB fiber is fairly equitable distributed. Regarding the molecular interaction between matrix with OPEFB fiber, described by the theory of orbital hybridization. But the explanation establishment of the bond for more complex molecules likes this from the side of the molecular orbital theory is necessary complete information of the hybrid levels.

  20. Electrical properties of alkali-activated slag composite with combined graphite/CNT filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovnaník, P.; Míková, M.; Kusák, I.

    2017-10-01

    Alkali-activated industrial by-products such as blast furnace slag are known to possess properties which are comparable to or even better than those observed for ordinary Portland cement. The combination of alkali-activated slag matrix with conductive filler introduces new functionalities which are commonly known for self-sensing or self-heating concrete. The present paper discusses the effect of the mixture of two different conductive fillers, graphite powder and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), on the electrical properties of alkali-activated slag mortars. Prepared samples were also tested for their mechanical properties and microstructure was investigated by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The percolation threshold for the resistance was reached for the mixture containing 0.1% CNTs and 8% graphite powder.

  1. Anomalous glass transition behavior of SBR-Al₂O₃ nanocomposites at small filler concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushko, Rymma; Filimon, Marlena; Dannert, Rick; Elens, Patrick; Sanctuary, Roland; Baller, Jörg

    2014-10-24

    Elastomers filled with hard nanoparticles are of great technical importance for the rubber industry. In general, fillers improve mechanical properties of polymer materials, e.g. elastic moduli, tensile strength etc. The smaller the size of the particles, the larger is the interface where interactions between polymer molecules and fillers can generate new properties. Using temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis, we investigated the properties of pure styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and SBR/alumina nanoparticles. Beside a reinforcement effect seen in the complex elastic moduli, small amounts of nanoparticles of about 2 wt% interestingly lead to an acceleration of the relaxation modes responsible for the thermal glass transition. This leads to a minimum in the glass transition temperature as a function of nanoparticle content in the vicinity of this critical concentration. The frequency dependent elastic moduli are used to discuss the possible reduction of the entanglement of rubber molecules as one cause for this unexpected behavior.

  2. Using Raman spectroscopic imaging for non-destructive analysis of filler distribution in chalk filled polypropylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boros, Evelin; Porse, Peter Bak; Nielsen, Inga

    2016-01-01

    A feasibility study on using Raman spectral imaging for visualization and analysis of filler distribution in chalk filled poly-propylene samples has been carried out. The spectral images were acquired using a Raman spectrometer with 785 nm light source.Eight injection-molded samples with concentr......A feasibility study on using Raman spectral imaging for visualization and analysis of filler distribution in chalk filled poly-propylene samples has been carried out. The spectral images were acquired using a Raman spectrometer with 785 nm light source.Eight injection-molded samples...... with concentration of chalk 25% and 50% were used in the experiment. Two methods for spectralunmixing were applied to the images and both revealed almost identical distribution maps over the samples’ surface. The maps alsocorrelated with the ones obtained for several separated peaks, typical for the chalk...

  3. Review of Periorbital and Upper Face: Pertinent Anatomy, Aging, Injection Techniques, Prevention, and Management of Complications of Facial Fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Julie

    2016-12-01

    This paper aims to review articles related to facial fillers in the periorbital area, forehead, and temple. Anatomy, anatomical changes with aging, techniques of rejuvenation and facial harmonization with fillers are reviewed. Topics for complication prevention and management including knowledge of danger zones, timing of hyaluronidase injections, aspiration, definition a small aliquot, and thoughts about particle size are discussed. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(12):1524-1531.

  4. Utilization of bagasse and coconut fibers waste as fillers of sandwich composite for bridge railway sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehardjo, K. A.; Basuki, A.

    2017-07-01

    The bridge railway sleepers is an essential component in the construction of railways, as the foundation of the rail support in order to withstand the load a train that runs above it. Sleepers used in bridge construction are expected to have a longer service life, lighter weight and durable so that can be used more efficient. This research was carried out to create a model of bridges railway sleepers made of sandwich structured composite from fiber glass, epoxy resin with fillers waste of bagasse (sugar cane pulp mill) or coconut fiberboard (copra industry) that using polyurethane as an adhesive. The process of making was conditioned for small and medium industrial applications. Railway sleepers’ specifications adapted to meet the requirements of end user. The process steps in this research include; lay-up fiberglass combined with bagasse/coconut fiberboard (as fillers), gluing with epoxy resin, molded it with pressure to be solid, curing after solidification process. The specimens of composite, bagasse and coconut fiber board were tested for tensile and compressive strength. The prototype were tested of mechanical test: flexural moment test to the stand rail, flexural moment test to the middle of the sleepers and tensile strength test on one side of the sleepers, in accordance to SNI 11-3388-1994 Method testing of single block concrete sleepers and bearing single rail fastening systems. The results of mechanical testing all variations meet the technical specifications of end user such as test results for flexural moment on all prototypes, after load test, there is no visible crack. While in the tensile strength test, it seem the prototype with coconut fiberboard filler, shows better performance than bagasse fiberboard filler, the decisions is just depended on techno economic and lifetime.

  5. Effect of Coconut Fillers on Hybrid Coconut Kevlar Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Jani; Senthil Kumar, A.; A. Adamkhan; Nithin; Rajakumar

    2015-01-01

    This project focuses on the conversion of naturally available coconut fibers and shells into a useful composite. In addition to it, some mechanical properties of the resultant composite is determined and also the effect of coconut shell fillers on the composite is also investigated. The few portion of the composite is incorporated with synthetic Kevlar fiber, thus the coconut fiber is hybridized to enhance the mechanical properties of coconut. In this work two types of composite is fabricate,...

  6. Mechanical and wear behaviours of nano and microfilled polymeric composite: effect of filler fraction and size

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, P. V.; Ramalho, A; Carrilho, E. V. P.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of ceramic reinforced material, SiC particles, to resin matrices, results in the improvement of the overall performance of the composite, allowing the application of these materials as tribo-materials in industries such as: automotive, aeronautical and medical. Particle-reinforced polymeric composites are widely used as biomaterials, for example as dental filler materials and bone cements. These reinforced composites have improved mechanical and tribological performance and have ...

  7. Inflammatory, immune-mediated adverse reactions related to soft tissue dermal fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijotas-Reig, Jaume; Fernández-Figueras, Maria Teresa; Puig, Lluís

    2013-10-01

    An increasing number of persons seek medical solutions for esthetic indications and for diverse pathological conditions, such as malformations, trauma, or cancer. Despite manufacturers' and different authors' claims that fillers are non-immunogenic or that complications are uncommon, unwanted adverse reactions do occur. To review the literature regarding the multiple types of immune-mediated adverse reactions related to medical dermal filler injections/prosthesis. A comprehensive MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar electronic database search was performed (2000-January 2012). Selected articles published before 2000 referring to general concerns regarding the studied topic were also included. The search provided almost 300 articles. Finally, 235 studies were selected and included. All known fillers present in the market have been shown to be able to provoke early- and late-onset inflammatory adverse reactions. Their true prevalence is unknown but appears to be significant. The majority of the late-onset adverse effects are inflammatory and immune-mediated in nature. Edema, granulomas, sarcoid-like disorders, and panniculitis are the findings most commonly seen. Rarely, systemic granulomatous and autoimmune diseases, and to lesser extent acute hypersensitivity reactions can be seen. All implanted, injected, and blood-contact biomaterials trigger a wide variety of adverse reactions that may appear early or late and range from local to systemic. Most fillers act more as adjuvants than as direct T-cell activators, on a background of genetic predisposition. Their treatment has not been the subject of well-designed studies. Management of both acute and systemic reactions is often difficult and requires anti-inflammatory and occasionally immunosuppressive therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Research data supporting "Surface residual stresses in multipass welds produced using low transformation temperature filler alloys"

    OpenAIRE

    Ramjaun, TI; Stone, HJ; Karlsson, L.; Gharghouri, M; Dalaei, K; Moat, R.; Bhadeshia, HKDH

    2017-01-01

    Tensile residual stresses at the surface of welded components are known to compromise fatigue resistance through the accelerated initiation of microcracks, especially at the weld toe. Inducement of compression in these regions is a common technique employed to enhance fatigue performance. Transformation plasticity has been established as a viable method to generate such compressive residual stresses in steel welds and exploits the phase transformation in welding filler alloys, that transform ...

  9. Gas Metal Arc Welding Using Novel CaO-Added Mg Alloy Filler Wire

    OpenAIRE

    Minjung Kang; Youngnam Ahn; Cheolhee Kim

    2016-01-01

    Novel “ECO Mg” alloys, i.e., CaO-added Mg alloys, which exhibit oxidation resistance during melting and casting processes, even without the use of beryllium or toxic protection gases such as SF6, have recently been introduced. Research on ECO Mg alloys is still continuing, and their application as welding filler metals was investigated in this study. Mechanical and metallurgical aspects of the weldments were analysed after welding, and welding behaviours such as fume generation and droplet tr...

  10. X-band microwave absorbing characteristics of multicomponent composites with magnetodielectric fillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afghahi, Seyyed Salman Seyyed [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Imam Hossein University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafarian, Mojtaba, E-mail: m.jafarian@srbiau.ac.ir [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Stergiou, Charalampos A. [Lab. of Inorganic Materials, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 57001 Thermi (Greece)

    2016-12-01

    We have studied the microwave absorbing performance in the X-band (8–12.4 GHz) of epoxy composites filled with magnetic and dielectric oxides and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. To this end, pure cobalt-substituted Ba-hexaferrite and calcium titanate were synthesized with the hydrothermal method in the form of nanosized powder. Moreover, the produced powders were characterized in regard of their structural, morphological and static magnetic properties. For the electromagnetic investigation, composite samples were also prepared with various thicknesses up to 4 mm and two basic filler compositions; namely 30 wt% of BaCoFe{sub 11}O{sub 19} and 30 wt% of the mixture BaCoFe{sub 11}O{sub 19}/CaTiO{sub 3}/carbon nanotubes. The magnetic composites show strong but narrowband reflection losses up to 27.5 dB, whereas the magnetodielectric composites with maximum losses of 15.8 dB possess wider bandwidth of operation, due to improved impedance matching. Furthermore, the characteristic frequency of the maximum losses for these quarter-wavelength absorbers was verified to be in inverse proportion to the layer thickness. These findings are supported by reflectance measurements of the samples both in waveguide and free-space. - Highlights: • Single and multi-component composite absorbers with magnetodielectric fillers were synthesized. • The prepared absorbers are lightweight with 30 wt% filler content in epoxy matrix. • The microwave absorption characteristics of composites were measured by waveguide and free-space methods in the X-band. • Composites with a combination of magnetic and dielectric fillers exhibit wider reflection loss peaks. • Composite absorbers have a realistic potential as microwave absorbers in the X-band.

  11. Inhibition of enamel demineralization by buffering effect of S-PRG filler-containing dental sealant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaga, Masayuki; Kakuda, Shinichi; Ida, Yusuke; Toshima, Hirokazu; Hashimoto, Masanori; Endo, Kazuhiko; Sano, Hidehiko

    2014-02-01

    The buffering capacity and inhibitory effects on enamel demineralization of two commercially available dental sealants were evaluated in this study. The effects of filler particles were also examined. Disks of enamel and cured sealant materials of BeautiSealant (silica or S-PRG filler) or Teethmate F-1 were incubated in lactic acid solutions (pH 4.0) for 1-6 d. The pH changes and amounts of ions released in the solutions were assessed, and enamel surfaces were observed using a scanning electron microscope. The pH of the solution with BeautiSealant (S-PRG filler) was neutralized from pH 4.0 to pH 6.1 (after incubation for 1 d) and from pH 4.0 to pH 6.7 (after incubation for 6 d). In addition, no release of calcium ions was detected and the enamel surface was morphologically intact in scanning electron microscopy images. However, the pH of the solution with Teethmate F-1 remained below pH 4.0 during incubation from days 1 to 6. Calcium release was increased in solutions up to and after 6 d of incubation. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the structures of hydroxyapatite rods were exposed at the specimen surfaces as a result of demineralization. Ions released from S-PRG filler-containing dental sealant rapidly buffered the lactic acid solution and inhibited enamel demineralization. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  12. Towards Early Age Characterisation of Eco-Concrete Containing Blast-Furnace Slag and Limestone Filler

    OpenAIRE

    Carette, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that concrete represents 5% of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions, mainly originating from the production of cement, the most essential component of concrete. The recent awareness to the environmental challenges facing our civilization has led the cement industry to consider substituting cement by mineral additions, by-products of existing industries. In this work, a combination of limestone filler and blast furnace slag is used to design an “eco-concrete”, defined as a concrete ...

  13. Technical assistance for development of thermally conductive nitride filler for epoxy molding compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Ho Jin; Song, Kee Chan; Jung, In Ha

    2005-07-15

    Technical assistance was carried out to develop nitride filler for thermally conductive epoxy molding compounds. Carbothermal reduction method was used to fabricate silicon nitride powder from mixtures of silica and graphite powders. Microstructure and crystal structure were observed by using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction technique. Thermal properties of epoxy molding compounds containing silicon nitride were measured by using laser flash method. Fabrication process of silicon nitride nanowire was developed and was applied to a patent.

  14. Feasibility of using saltcedar as a filler in injection-molded polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Nicole M. Stark

    2009-01-01

    Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) was investigated for use as a filler in wood–plastic composites (WPCs). The mineral content, water-soluble extractive content, and thermal stability of saltcedar flour were compared with those of a commercial pine wood flour. The wood flours were compounded with plastic, and the viscosities of the composite melts containing the two...

  15. Alternative Fillers for the Production of Bituminous Mixtures: A Screening Investigation on Waste Powders

    OpenAIRE

    Cesare Sangiorgi; Piergiorgio Tataranni; Francesco Mazzotta; Andrea Simone; Valeria Vignali; Claudio Lantieri

    2017-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the demand for using recycled materials in construction because of the lack and limitation of available natural resources. A number of industrial and domestic waste products are being used in the replacement of traditional materials for road construction, and many studies have been carried out in recent years on the use of different recycled materials in substitution of conventional fillers in Asphalt Concretes (AC). The aim of this laboratory research...

  16. Design and Building of an Inexpensive and Sturdy Pipet Bulb Filler Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Neil D.; Danielson, Alex P.

    2015-01-01

    A pipet filler port has been constructed from a 1/4 in. NPT-1/4 in. or -3/8 in. barbed end Kynar plastic male connector fitting and a washer (cut from a latex rubber hose) inserted into the NPT end. The barbed end can secure reliably different sized rubber bulbs such as 1 oz (30 mL pipet capacity) and 2 oz (60 mL pipet capacity) types, and the 1/4…

  17. Garlic powder and wheat bran as fillers: Their effect on the physicochemical properties of edible biocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fama, Lucia [Physics Department, School of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires (UBA) and CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bittante, Ana Monica B.Q.; Sobral, Paulo J.A. [Food Engineering Department, FZEA, University of Sao Paulo, PO Box 23, 13635-900 Pirassununga (SP) (Brazil); Goyanes, Silvia [Physics Department, School of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires (UBA) and CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gerschenson, Lia N., E-mail: lia@di.fcen.uba.ar [Industry Department, School of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires (UBA) and CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-07-20

    Biocomposites with two different fillers, garlic and wheat bran, were studied. They were based on cassava starch and contained glycerol as a plasticizer and potassium sorbate as an antimicrobial agent and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The mechanical performance at room and lower temperatures was also studied. SEM micrographies of fractured surfaces of the wheat bran composite films showed some ruptured particles of fiber while fibrils of garlic on the order of nanometers were observed when garlic composite films were studied. Mechanical tests, at room temperature, showed that the addition of wheat bran led to an increment in the storage modulus (E') and hardening and a decrease in Tan {delta}, while the garlic composite showed a diminishing in the E' and hardening and did not produce significant changes in Tan {delta} values when compared with systems without fillers (matrix). In the range between -90 deg. C and 20 deg. C, all the materials studied presented two peaks in the Tan {delta} curve. In the case of the wheat bran composite, both relaxation peaks shifted slightly to higher temperatures, broadened and diminished their intensity when compared with those of the matrix; however garlic composite showed a similar behavior to the matrix. DSC thermograms of aqueous systems showed a slight shift of gelatinization temperature (T{sub gelatinization}) to higher values when the fillers were present. Thermograms of films showed that both, garlic and wheat bran composites, had a lower melting point than the matrix. IR data indicated that interaction between starch and fillers determined an increase in the availability of hydroxyl groups to be involved in a dynamic exchange with water.

  18. Blinded evaluation of the effects of hyaluronic acid filler injections on first impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Steven H; Arkins, John P; Gal, Thomas J

    2010-11-01

    Facial appearance has profound influence on the first impression that is projected to others. To determine the effects that complete correction of the nasolabial folds (NLFs) with hyaluronic acid (HA) filler has on the first impression one makes. Twenty-two subjects received injections of HA filler into the NLFs. Photographs of the face in a relaxed pose were taken at baseline, optimal correction visit, and 4 weeks after optimal correction. Three hundred four blinded evaluators completed a survey rating first impression on various measures of success for each photo. In total, 5,776 first impressions were recorded, totaling 46,208 individual assessments of first impression. Our findings indicate a significant improvement in mean first impression in the categories of dating success, attractiveness, financial success, relationship success, athletic success, and overall first impression at the optimal correction visit. At 4 weeks after the optimal correction visit, significance was observed in all categories measured: social skills, academic performance, dating success, occupational success, attractiveness, financial success, relationship success, athletic success, and overall first impression. Full correction of the NLFs with HA filler significantly and positively influences the first impression an individual projects. © 2010 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  19. Effect of Gum arabic on distribution behavior of nanocellulose fillers in starch film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneshwaran, Nadanathangam; Ammayappan, L.; Huang, Qingrong

    2011-09-01

    Uniform distribution of nanofillers in polymer matrix is posing a major challenge in exploiting the full potential of nanomaterials. Various fillers are being evaluated to improve the performance of biopolymer films like starch. In this work, nanocellulose is used as fillers to increase the performance characteristics of starch film. Due to high surface energy and hydrophilic nature of nanocellulose, they tend to aggregate during the film forming process. To circumvent this problem, Gum arabic (GA) was added to distribute the nanocellulose uniformly. GA helps in reduction of surface energy (as analyzed by contact angle) and thus facilitates the uniform distribution of nanocellulose (as demonstrated through polarized light microscopy). Nanocellulose as filler improved the tensile strength of starch film by 2.5 times while that of uniformly distributed nanocellulose by 3.5 times. Moreover, while nanocellulose as such could reduce the water vapor permeability of starch film by 1.4 times, uniformly distributed nanocellulose reduced it by 2 times proving the importance of GA. Starch film filled with nanocellulose and GA will be a 100% biopolymer-based system having potential demand in eco-friendly applications.

  20. Possibilities of Adhesives Filling With Micro-particle Fillers – Lap-shear Tensile Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Valášek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An adhesive bonding can be ranged among technologies of materials bonding which are used in all industrial branches. It plays its important role also in an area of the construction of agricultural machines, e.g. tractors, harvestors etc. Utility properties of adhesives can be extended by using various types of fillers. These fillers increase some mechanical characteristics of adhesives and not last they can decrease resultant price. The paper focuses on a possibility to fill the adhesives showing increased lap-shear tensile strength. These adhesives are used e.g. for adhesive bonding of coach bodies in an automotive industry so that is why it is possible to apply them also in the agricultural area. Laboratory experiments describe the lap-shear tensile strength of rigid adherents which were bonded with adhesives with a variable concentration of micro-particle filler – a glass powder. T-test used for a comparison of the shear strength of the bonds created with the adhesives with 5 vol.% of the glass powder did not evidence a statistically significant difference comparing with the unfilled adhesives. This priece of knowledge opens a possible way of a material usage of the glass powder in the area of the adhesive bonding.

  1. Mechanical and electrical properties of a polyester resin reinforced with clay-based fillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buncianu, Dorel; Jadaneant, Mihai [UPT Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania); Tessier-Doyen, Nicolas; Absi, Joseph [Centre Européen de la Céramique, Limoges Cedex (France); Courreges, Fabien [Laboratoire XLIM, 123, Limoges Cedex (France)

    2017-03-15

    In this study, composite polymer-based materials were fabricated, in which a significant proportion of polyester resin was substituted by low-cost and environmentally-friendly clay-based raw materials. The main objective is to improve mechanical properties while maintaining a reasonable electrical insulating behavior. A homogenized distribution of fillers within the matrix compatible with the processing parameters was obtained up to a maximum added fraction of 20 vol%. Mechanical characterization using uniaxial traction tests and Charpy impact pendulum machine showed that stress-to-rupture can be enhanced of approximately 25 %. In addition, fracture energy was doubled for the best formulation. Dielectric constant was decreased and loss factor was slightly increased when electrical resistivity remained almost constant. In general, the composite materials with metakaolin fillers exhibited higher mechanical properties and greater electrical insulating behavior. Microstructural observation showed the presence of decohesive agglomerates of particles at the interface with the matrix. The mechanical properties were found to be more sensitive than electrical properties to the homogeneity of filler dispersion in the matrix.

  2. Ablation properties of inorganic filler modified benzoxazine composite coating irradiated by high-intensity continuous laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Ma, Zhuang; Li, Hezhang; Gao, Lihong; Wang, Fuchi

    2017-05-01

    Benzoxazine resin with good heat resistance, low combustion heat release and high char yield is a promising thermosetting resin. Meanwhile, research shows that the inorganic filler can effectively improve the thermodynamic property of the resin. It makes that the inorganic filler modified benzoxazine may have a potential application in laser ablation. The benzoxazine coating with and without inorganic filler ammonium polyphosphate, melamine and pentaerythritol (P-BOZ and BOZ) were prepared by brush and thermal curing method. The ablation properties of these coatings irradiated by high-intensity laser were investigated. The scanning electron microscope, Raman spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis were used to characterize the micrographs, carbon layer structure and thermodynamic property of the sample. Results show that the composite coating has excellent thermal protective properties. The back temperature of 20 wt% P-BOZ coating under different parameter laser power (1000W/cm2, 5s; 1000W/cm2, 10s) are 40% lower than these of the BOZ coating and the 20 wt% P-BOZ has higher mass ablation rate. In the surface layer of the irradiated area, dense carbon layer is produced which reduces the absorb of the laser energy of the interior. In the interior of the sample, a large number of closed bell shaped holes are generated which are beneficial to obstruct the heat conduction.

  3. Variable Thermal-Force Bending of a Three-Layer Bar with a Compressible Filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starovoitov, E. I.; Leonenko, D. V.

    2017-11-01

    Deformation of a three-layer elastoplastic bar with a compressible filler in a temperature field is considered. To describe the kinematics of a pack asymmetric across its thickness, the hypothesis of broken line is accepted, according to which the Bernoulli hypothesis is true in thin bearing layers, and the Timoshenko hypothesis is valid for a filler compressible across the its thickness, with a linear approximation of displacements across the layer thickness. The work of filler in the tangential direction is taken into account. The physical stress-strain relations correspond to the theory of small elastoplastic deformations. Temperature variations are calculated from a formula obtained by averaging the thermophysical properties of layer materials across the bar thickness. Using the variational method, a system of differential equilibrium equations is derived. On the boundary, the kinematic conditions of simply supported ends of the bar are assumed. The solution of the boundary problem is reduced to the search for four functions, namely, deflections and longitudinal displacements of median surfaces of the bearing layers. An analytical solution is derived by the method of elastic solutions with the use of the Moskvitin theorem on variable loadings. Its numerical analysis is performed for the cases of continuous and local loads.

  4. Properties and osteoblast cytocompatibility of self-curing acrylic cements modified by glass fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, P; Garcia, M P; Fernandes, M H; Fernandes, M H V

    2013-11-01

    Materials filled with a silicate glass (MSi) and a borate glass (MB) were developed and compared in terms of their in vitro behavior. The effect of filler composition and concentration (0, 30, 40 and 50 wt%) on the curing parameters, residual monomer, water uptake, weight loss, bioactivity, mechanical properties (bending and compression) and osteoblast cytocompatibility was evaluated. The addition of bioactive glass filler significantly improved the cements curing parameters and the mechanical properties. The most relevant results were obtained for the lower filler concentration (30 t%) a maximum flexural strength of 40.4 Pa for MB3 and a maximum compressive strength of 95.7 MPa for MSi3. In vitro bioactivity in acellular media was enhanced by the higher glass contents in the cements. Regarding the biological assessment, the incorporation of the silicate glass significantly improved osteoblast cytocompatibility, whereas the presence of the borate glass resulted in a poor cell response. Nevertheless it was shown that the surviving cells on the MB surface were in a more differentiated stage compared to those growing over non-filled poly(methyl methacrylate). Results suggest that the developed formulations offer a high range of properties that might be interesting for their use as self-curing cements.

  5. Investigation on Using SBS and Active Carbon Filler to Reduce the VOC Emission from Bituminous Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peiqiang; Wu, Shaopeng; Li, Fuzhou; Xiao, Yue; Zhang, Honghua

    2014-08-26

    Bituminous materials are playing a vital role in pavement design and the roofing industry because of outstanding properties. Unfortunately, bituminous materials will release volatile organic compounds (VOC), making them non-environmentally friendly. Therefore, technologies that can be used to decrease the VOC emission are urgently required. In this research, the VOC emission and material behaviors were analyzed and compared to investigate the possibility of adding styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) and active carbon filler into bituminous materials to develop environmentally-friendly materials. Thermal gravimetric analysis-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy testing (UV-Vis) were employed to characterize the VOC emission process. Temperature sweep testing and frequency sweep testing were conducted to evaluate the rheological properties of bituminous materials. Research results indicated that the combined introduction of 4 wt% styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) and 4 wt% active carbon filler cannot only significantly lower the VOC emission speed and amount, but also improve the deformation resistance behavior at a higher temperature. SBS and active carbon filler can be used to reduce the VOC emission form bituminous materials.

  6. Effect of filler water absorption on water swelling properties of natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakuldee, J.; Boonkerd, K.

    2017-07-01

    The efficient water swelling rubber can be obtained by using high hydrophilic rubber such as chloroprene rubber. However, chloroprene rubber is synthetic rubber developed from the petroleum. Recently, many researches try to replace the usage of synthetic rubber with natural rubber. This is not only due to the concerning of environment but the cost reduction as well. However, natural rubber is hydrophobic, thus not absorbing water. To develop the water swelling rubber from natural rubber, the addition of water absorption filler is needed. The study was aimed to formulate water swelling rubber from natural rubber filled with sodium polyacrylate (SA)/sodium bentonite clay (SBC) hybrid filler used to water absorbent. The filler loading was kept constantly at 150 phr. The effect of SA/SBC ratio varied from 1:0, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 on the water absorption of the hybrid filled natural rubber was determined. The obtained result showed that the water adsorption proportionally increased with increasing SA loading but decreased with increasing SBC loading. The effect of glycidyl methacrylate (GM) and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) on the water absorption was studied later. The result from a scanning electron microscope depicted that the presence of GM can depress the falling out of SA from the rubber matrix while the presence of PEG increased water absorption.

  7. Perspectives in the selection of hyaluronic acid fillers for facial wrinkles and aging skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah E John, Richard D Price

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Hannah E John, Richard D PriceDepartment of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge University Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Cambridge, UKAbstract: Aesthetic surgery is, in the USA at least, no longer a taboo subject. Outside North America, public acceptance continues to grow as more procedures are performed each year. While there appears, anecdotally, to be a decrease in patients undergoing cosmetic treatments because of the global financial crisis, the overall trend remains upward. Although popular television programs espouse the benefits of surgery, it is nonsurgical procedures that account, numerically, for the majority of procedures performed; in the USA, there was a 48% growth from 2000 to 2008 in nonsurgical treatments undertaken by women, and 64% in men and while the average surgeon might perform 60 blepharoplasty operations in 2007, (she would also undertake 375 botulinum injections, and almost 200 filler injections of varying sorts. Clearly there is enthusiasm for nonsurgical treatments, and this trend appears to be rising. With this in mind, we present an overview of the commonest filler injection material, hyaluronic acid. We present the mechanism of action, the purported risks and benefits, and briefly discuss technique.Keywords: hyaluronic acid, filler injection, nonsurgical procedures, technique

  8. PARACENTRAL ACUTE MIDDLE MACULOPATHY ASSOCIATED WITH RETINAL ARTERY OCCLUSION AFTER COSMETIC FILLER INJECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Jayanth; Shahlaee, Abtin; Shieh, Wen-Shi; Rahimy, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    To report a single case of paracentral acute middle maculopathy in association with retinal artery occlusion in the setting of ipsilateral facial cosmetic filler injection. Case report. A 35-year-old woman presenting with sudden vision loss to finger count vision immediately after left nasal fat pad cosmetic filler injection. Dilated funduscopic examination revealed a swollen optic disc with multiple branch arterial occlusions with visible embolic material. Fluorescein angiography confirmed multiple branch arterial occlusions in addition to a focal choroidal infarction in the macula. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography revealed middle retinal hyperreflectivity in the superotemporal macula consistent with paracentral acute middle maculopathy. En face optical coherence tomography demonstrated a superotemporal area of whitening at the level of the deep capillary plexus corresponding to the paracentral acute middle maculopathy lesion seen on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. On twelve-month follow-up, final visual acuity was 20/100 due to optic neuropathy. Emboli from cosmetic facial filler injections may rarely result in ipsilateral arterial occlusions and now have a novel association with paracentral acute middle maculopathy likely due to deep capillary plexus feeder vessel occlusion.

  9. Tensile Residual Stress Mitigation Using Low Temperature Phase Transformation Filler Wire in Welded Armor Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Bunn, Jeffrey R [ORNL; Tzelepis, Demetrios A [ORNL; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; Yu, Xinghua [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) has been a persistent issue in welding of high-strength steels. Mitigating residual stresses is one of the most efficient ways to control HIC. The current study develops a proactive in-process weld residual stress mitigation technique, which manipulates the thermal expansion and contraction sequence in the weldments during welding process. When the steel weld is cooled after welding, martensitic transformation will occur at a temperature below 400 C. Volume expansion in the weld due to the martensitic transformation will reduce tensile stresses in the weld and heat affected zone and in some cases produce compressive residual stresses in the weld. Based on this concept, a customized filler wire which undergoes a martensitic phase transformation during cooling was developed. The new filler wire shows significant improvement in terms of reducing the tendency of HIC in high strength steels. Bulk residual stress mapping using neutron diffraction revealed reduced tensile and compressive residual stresses in the welds made by the new filler wire.

  10. Esthetic Reconstruction of Diastema with Adhesive Tooth-Colored Restorations and Hyaluronic Acid Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawadee Naorungroj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This report presents a comprehensive esthetic treatment with adhesive tooth-colored restorations in a combination with hyaluronic acid (HA fillers of diastema in an orthodontic patient with relapse. Case Report. A 36-year-old female patient consulted about 1.5–2 mm midline diastema after an orthodontic relapse of replacing missing central incisors with lateral incisors and dark-colored gingival tissue as a result of a metal post and core with porcelain fused to a metal (PFM crown at the left lateral incisor. Restorative treatments included replacing the PFM with all-ceramic material and placing a ceramic veneer on the right lateral incisor. To close the space, crown forms of both lateral incisors were altered. A direct resin composite was then used to reform right and left canines to a more ideal lateral incisor shape. An HA fillers injection was used to fill the remaining open gingival embrasure. Eighteen months after treatment, the interdental papilla remained stable and the patient was satisfied with the result. Conclusion. Esthetic reconstruction of diastema and open gingival embrasure in this case can be accomplished without orthodontic retreatment. Tooth-colored restorations and HA filler injection appear as a promising modality to address this patient’s esthetic concern.

  11. Influence of using nanoobjects as filler on functionality-based energy use of nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roes, A. L., E-mail: a.l.roes@uu.nl; Tabak, L. B.; Shen, L.; Nieuwlaar, E.; Patel, M. K. [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute, Department of Science, Technology and Society (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    The goal of our study was to investigate the potential benefits of reinforcing polymer matrices with nanoobjects for structural applications by looking at both the mechanical properties and environmental impacts. For determining the mechanical properties, we applied the material indices defined by Ashby for stiffness and strength. For the calculation of environmental impacts, we applied the life cycle assessment methodology, focusing on non-renewable energy use (NREU). NREU has shown to be a good indicator also for other environmental impacts. We then divided the NREU by the appropriate Ashby index to obtain the 'functionality-based NREU'. We studied 23 different nanocomposites, based on thermoplastic and thermosetting polymer matrices and organophilic montmorillonite, silica, carbon nanotubes (single-walled and multiwalled) and calcium carbonate as filler. For 17 of these, we saw a decrease of the functionality-based NREU with increasing filler content. We draw the conclusion that the use of nanoobjects as filler can have benefits from both an environmental point of view and with respect to mechanical properties.

  12. Pembuatan ban dalam sepeda motor dengan filler precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminiwati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the research was to investigated the utilization of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC as filler in production of motorcycle inner tube. Beside black filler, PCC is a white filler needed in producing rubber products. Four types of PCC have been used including two local PCC from Wonosari and East Java, and other two were imported from Japan and Taiwan. The amount of PCC added in inner tube rubber compound was varied 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 phr respectively. The compounding was carried – out by using two roll mills, and the compunds were measured their optimum vulcanization time by using rheometer. The compounds were then subjected to vulcanisates were compared to 100 phr, actiplast 8 0,1 phr, paraffinic oil 5 phr, N 550 black 30 phr, ZnO 4 phr, stearic acid 1 phr, antioxidant 1,5 phr, paraffin wax 1 phr, vulcacit DMC 1 phr, vulcacit Thiuram C 0,25 phr, and sulfur 1 phr with the content of PCC Diacal of 25 phr. The best formula meet the requirement of SNI and gave physical properties as follow : tensile strength 232,56 kg/cm2, elongation at break 570 %, permanent set 12,75 %, tensile strength during aging at 105 ± 2 0C, for 5 hours 4,89%. The local PCC form Wonosari and East motorcycle inner tube. However, particle size reduction and coating or surface treatment were needed for improving of the reinforcing effect of the local PCC.

  13. Microstructural and phase evolution in metakaolin geopolymers with different activators and added aluminosilicate fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Madhuchhanda; Dana, Kausik; Das, Sukhen

    2015-10-01

    This work aims to investigate the microstructural and phase evolution of alkali activated metakaolin products with different activators and added aluminosilicate filler phases. The added filler phases have different reactivity to the alkali activated metakaolin system. Microstructural evolution in the alkali activated products has been investigated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). Variation in strength development in alkali activated metakaolin products was followed by compressive strength measurement test. Microstructural study shows that in case of metakaolin with NaOH activator crystalline sodalite formed in all the product samples irrespective of the added filler phases. The microstructure of these NaOH activated products investigated by FESEM showed crystalline and inhomogeneous morphology. Mixed activator containing both NaOH and sodium silicate in a fixed mass ratio formed predominantly amorphous phase. Microstructure of these samples showed more homogeneity than that of NaOH activated metakaolin products. The study further shows that addition of α-Al2O3 powder, non reactive phase to the alkali activated metakaolin system when used in larger amount increased crystalline phase in the matrix. α-Al2O3 powder addition increased the compressive strength of the product samples for both the activator compositions. Added phase of colloidal silica, reactive to the alkali activated metakaolin system when used in larger amount was found to increase amorphous nature of the matrix. Addition of colloidal silica influenced the compressive strength property differently with different activator compositions.

  14. Selective-area laser deposition (SALD) Joining of silicon carbide with silicon carbide filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Shay Llewellyn

    Selective Area Laser Deposition (SALD) is a gas-phase, solid freeform fabrication (SFF) process that utilizes a laser-driven, pyrolytic gas reaction to form a desired solid product. This solid product only forms in the heated zone of the laser beam and thus can be selectively deposited by control of the laser position. SALD Joining employs the SALD method to accomplish 'welding' of ceramic structures together. The solid reaction product serves as a filler material to bond the two parts. The challenges involved with ceramic joining center around the lack of a liquid phase, little plastic deformation and diffusivity and poor surface wetting for many ceramic materials. Due to these properties, traditional metal welding procedures cannot be applied to ceramics. Most alternative ceramic welding techniques use some form of a metal addition to overcome these material limitations. However, the metal possesses a lower ultimate use temperature than the ceramic substrate and therefore it decreases the temperature range over which the joined part can be safely used. SALD Joining enjoys several advantages over these ceramic welding procedures. The solid filler material chemistry can be tailored to match the type of ceramic substrate and therefore fabricate monolithic joints. The SALD filler material bonds directly to the substrate and the joined structure is made in a one step process, without any post-processing. The research documented in this dissertation focused on SALD Joining of silicon carbide structures with silicon carbide filler material. A historical progression of gas-phase SFF research and a literature review of the most prominent ceramic joining techniques are provided. A variety of SiC substrates were examined, as were various conditions of gas precursor pressures and mixtures, laser beam scan speed and joint configuration. The SALD material was characterized for composition and structure by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nuclear magnetic

  15. The Effect of Fracture Filler Composition on the Parameters of Shear Deformation Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, D.; Ostapchuk, A.; Batuhtin, I.

    2015-12-01

    Geomechanical models of different slip mode nucleation and transformation can be developed basing on laboratory experiments, in which regularities of shear deformation of gouge-filled faults are studied. It's known that the spectrum of possible slip modes is defined by both macroscopic deformation characteristics of the fault and mesoscale structure of fault filler. Small variations of structural parameters of the filler may lead to a radical change of slip mode [1, 2]. This study presents results of laboratory experiments investigating regularities of shear deformation of discontinuities filled with multicomponent granular material. Qualitative correspondence between experimental results and natural phenomena is detected. The experiments were carried out in the classical "slider model" statement. A granite block slides under shear load on a granite substrate. The contact gap between rough surfaces was filled with a discrete material, which simulated the principal slip zone of a fault. The filler components were quartz sand, salt, glass beads, granite crumb, corundum, clay and pyrophyllite. An entire spectrum of possible slip modes was obtained - from stable slip to slow-slip events and to regular stick-slip with various coseismic displacements realized per one act of instability. Mixing several components in different proportions, it became possible to trace the gradual transition from stable slip to regular stick-slip, from slow-slip events to fast-slip events. Depending on specific filler component content, increasing the portion of one of the components may lead to both a linear and a non-linear change of slip event moment (a laboratory equivalent of the seismic moment). For different filler compositions durations of equal-moment events may differ by more than two orders of magnitude. The findings can be very useful for developing geomechnical models of nucleation and transformation of different slip modes observed at natural faults. The work was supported by

  16. Penggunaan precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC sebagai filler untuk sol karet sepatu olah raga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminiwati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the research was to investigate the utilization of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC as filler in producing sport shoe rubber soles. PCC is a white filler needed for production of nonblack colour rubber products. There are four types of PCC that have been used including two local PCC from Wonosari and East Java, and two imported PCC from Japan and Taiwan. The amount of PCC added into the sport shoe sole rubber compound was varied in 30,45,60,75 and 90 per hundred rubber (phr. The compounding was carried-out by using two roll mills machine, and the compound was subsequently measured their optimum vulcanization time by using rheometer. The produced compound was then subjected to vulcanistion process by using hydrolic press at temperature 1500C and pressure 150 kg/ cm2. The quality of shoes sole vulcanisates were compare to standard quality of SNI. 12-7075-2005 about cemented system sport shoes. The results indicated that the best formula of rubber compound for sport shoes sole were made by using NR 80 phr, NBR 20 phr, paraffinic oil 10 phr, aluminium silicate 30 phr, ZnO 5 phr, TiO2 10 phr, stearic acid 1 phr, vulkanox SP 1 phr, paraffin wax 1 phr, TMTD 0,5 phr, CBS 2 phr, sulphur 1,2 phr with the amount of PCC Actifort 700 of 45 phr. The best formula meet the requirement SNI 12-7075-2005 and they were characterized by tensile sterength 16,79 N/mm2, elongation at break 529,92% tear resistance 9,06 N/mm2, specific gravity 1,28 g/cm3, hardness 55 shore A, Grasselli absrassion resistancing filler. The local PCC from Wonosari can be used for substitution of the imported PCC as the white filler for the production of rubber compound sport shoes sole. However, particle size reduction and coating or surface treatment of local PCC were needed for improving the quality and the role of reinforcing filler.

  17. Drying shrinkage of mortars with limestone filler and blast-furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrasco, M. F.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 1990's the use of cements made with port land clinker and two mineral admixtures, called ternary or blended cements, has grown considerably. Nowadays, cements containing several combinations of fly ash and silica fume, blast-furnace slag and silica fume or blast-furnace slag and limestone filler are commonly used. There are numerous works on the influence of blended cements on the fresh state and mechanical properties of mortar and concrete, but the their deformations due to drying shrinkage are not so well described. Analysis of drying shrinkage is relevant because this property influences the possibility of cracking occurrence and, hence, the deterioration of mechanical and durable properties of concrete structures. This paper evaluates the influence on the drying shrinkage of mortars of variable contents of limestone filler and/or blast-furnace slag in Portland cement. Additionally, flexion strength and non evaporable water content were evaluated. Test results show that the inclusion of these mineral admixtures, Joint or separately, increments drying shrinkage of mortars at early ages. Despite this fact, mortars made with limestone filler cement are less susceptible to cracking than mortars made with cements incorporating blast-furnace slag or both admixtures.

    Durante los años 90 el uso de cementos fabricados con clínker Portland y dos adiciones suplementarias (cementos ternarios o compuestos se ha incrementado en forma considerable. En la práctica, es cada vez más común el empleo de estos cementos conteniendo combinaciones de ceniza volante y humo de sílice, escoria y humo de sílice o escoria y filler calcáreo. En la actualidad existen numerosos estudios sobre la influencia de los cementos compuestos en las características en estado fresco y las propiedades mecánicas de morteros y hormigones, pero las deformaciones que estos materiales sufren debido a la retracción por secado no son tan conocidas. El análisis de

  18. breve panorámica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M. Camelo Roa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde los terrenos de la psicoinmunología, la presente revisión se propone una mirada panorámica a sus principales postulados, líneas de investigación, resultados y perspectivas. Para ello, inicialmente se abordaron algunos aspectos históricos de la relación entre la vida psíquica y la salud; posteriormente, se revisaron aspectos como la fisiología del sistema inmune especificando los tipos de inmunidad adquirida e inmunidad natural. Temas como las interacciones entre el sistema inmune y cerebro fueron revisados desde la evidencia experimental y resumidos en cuatro grupos: condicionamiento de la respuesta inmune, lesiones cerebrales, estrés e inmunidad y emociones e inmunidad. Finalmente, se contemplaron algunos métodos para el estudio del sistema inmune como los ensayos in vitro, citometría de flujo y ensayos in vivo. Como observaciones finales, toda la literatura sugiere que existe relación entre el sistema inmune y diversos estados psíquicos. Pero aún surgen preguntas de esta indiscutible relación sin tener una respuesta satisfactoria.

  19. Ajout de phosphogypse à des mortiers à base de cendres volantes et filler calcaire Addition of phosphogypsum to blended mortars based on fly ash and limestone filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alami Talbi M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de ce travail est d’étudier la possibilité de la valorisation du phosphogypse dans les matériaux de construction vue sa grande disponibilité comme sous-produit de l’industrie des phosphates. Nous étudions l’effet de l’ajout du phosphogypse sur un mélange de clinker, cendres volantes et filler calcaire. Les échantillons sont préparés par l’ajout de 10% de phosphogypse et de 30% de cendres volantes aux mélanges constitués du clinker et du filler calcaire. Les mélanges sont hydratés et caractérisés par diffraction des rayons X et spectroscopie infrarouge. Des phases cristallines se développent dès le 3ème jour, et on remarque que les phases les plus fréquentes sont : la Portlandite Ca(OH2, la Calcite CaCO3, l’ettringite Ca6Al2(SO43(OH12 26H2O, Ca5(SiO42(OH2 et le gypse CaSO4, 2H2O mais leur pourcentages varient selon les mélanges. La mesure de la durée de prise des mortiers montre que le début et la fin de la prise sont généralement retardés proportionnellement à l’ajout des cendres volantes et du phosphogypse. La microstructure des matériaux a également été étudiée par la mesure de la perméabilité apparente, les résultats montrent que l’ajout du phosphogypse a contribué à une diminution de la perméabilité des échantillons par contre les cendres volantes ont un effet contraire. La résistance à la compression des mortiers montre des résultats concordants, les résistances augmentent avec la diminution de la perméabilité. The objective of this paper is to study the possibility of valorization of phosphogypsum in building materials because his large availability as a by-product of the phosphate industry. We study the effect of adding phosphogypsum on a mixture of clinker, fly ash and limestone filler. The samples were prepared by adding 10% of phosphogypsum and 30% of fly ash to mixtures consisting of clinker and limestone filler. The mixtures are hydrated and characterized by X

  20. [Synthesis of a nano-antibacterial inorganic filler containing a quaternary ammonium salt with long chain alkyl and its effect on dental resin composites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junling, Wu; Kaiyun, Zhou; Ting, Zhu; Chuanjian, Zhou

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to synthesize a novel nano-antibacterial inorganic filler that contains a quaternary ammonium salt with long chain alkyl and to report the antibacterial property of dental resin composites. A novel nano-antibacterial inorganic filler that contains a quaternary ammonium salt with long chain alkyl was synthesized based on previous research. The antibacterial property of the filler was measured. The surface of the novel nano-antibacterial inorganic filler was modified by a coupling agent to achieve a good interfacial bonding between the filler and the resin matrix. Infrared spectrum analysis was carried out. The modified novel nano-antibacterial inorganic fillers were then incorporated into the dental resin matrix. The dispersion of the fillers was observed and compared with those incorporated into Tetric N-Ceram, a commercial resin composite, under a scanning electron microscope. Streptococcus mutans was used in testing the antibacterial property of the dental resin composites. A quaternary ammonium salt with a long chain alkyl was successfully grafted onto the surface of nano-silica particles. The novel nano-antibacterial inorganic filler that contains quaternary ammonium salt with a long chain alkyl showed stronger antibacterial efficacy than the antibacterial inorganic filler that contains quaternary ammonium salt with a short chain alkyl. The modified novel antibacterial inorganic fillers displayed a homogeneous dispersion in the resin composite bulk and combined closely with the resin matrix, similar to the Tetric N-Ceram. The resin composites that contain novel antibacterial inorganic fillers showed stronger antibacterial effect on Streptococcus mutans compared with the control group. The novel nano-antibacterial inorganic filler that contains a quaternary ammonium salt with long chain alkyl showed a strong antibacterial property. It also exhibited good compatibility with the dental resin matrix after undergoing coupling treatment.

  1. Hydrolytic degradation of dental composites and effects of silane-treatment and filler fraction on compressive strength and thermal expansion of composites

    OpenAIRE

    Söderholm, Karl-Johan M.

    1984-01-01

    Some researchers have suggested that the weakest link of dental composites is thefiller-matrix bond. However, due to incompleteness of information dealing with this bond and its stability in a humid environment, it was considered desirable to investigate the effect of water on this region, as well as the influence of filler bonding and filler fraction on compressive strength and therm al expansion. Experimental composites containing different filler fractions of either silane-treatedor untrea...

  2. The influence of monomeric resin and filler characteristics on the performance of experimental resin-based composites (RBCs) derived from a commercial formulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hahnel, Sebastian

    2012-04-01

    To explore experimental RBCs derived from a successful commercially available RBC (Grandio) to investigate resin monomer blend and filler parameters (volume fraction, density and diameter) on RBC performance.

  3. Mesoporous Silica Gel–Based Mixed Matrix Membranes for Improving Mass Transfer in Forward Osmosis: Effect of Pore Size of Filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jian-Yuan; Wang, Yining; Tang, Chuyang Y.; Huo, Fengwei

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of forward osmosis (FO) process is generally limited by the internal concentration polarization (ICP) of solutes inside its porous substrate. In this study, mesoporous silica gel (SG) with nominal pore size ranging from 4–30 nm was used as fillers to prepare SG-based mixed matrix substrates. The resulting mixed matrix membranes had significantly reduced structural parameter and enhanced membrane water permeability as a result of the improved surface porosity of the substrates. An optimal filler pore size of ~9 nm was observed. This is in direct contrast to the case of thin film nanocomposite membranes, where microporous nanoparticle fillers are loaded to the membrane rejection layer and are designed in such a way that these fillers are able to retain solutes while allowing water to permeate through them. In the current study, the mesoporous fillers are designed as channels to both water and solute molecules. FO performance was enhanced at increasing filler pore size up to 9 nm due to the lower hydraulic resistance of the fillers. Nevertheless, further increasing filler pore size to 30 nm was accompanied with reduced FO efficiency, which can be attributed to the intrusion of polymer dope into the filler pores. PMID:26592565

  4. Remineralizing amorphous calcium phosphate based composite resins: the influence of inert fillers on monomer conversion, polymerization shrinkage, and microhardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marović, Danijela; Šariri, Kristina; Demoli, Nazif; Ristić, Mira; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Škrtić, Drago; Rosentritt, Martin; Schmalz, Gottfried; Tarle, Zrinka

    2016-01-01

    Aim To determine if the addition of inert fillers to a bioactive dental restorative composite material affects its degree of conversion (DC), polymerization shrinkage (PS), and microhardness (HV). Methods Three amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-based composite resins: without added fillers (0-ACP), with 10% of barium-glass fillers (Ba-ACP), and with 10% of silica fillers (Si-ACP), as well as commercial control (Ceram•X, Dentsply DeTrey) were tested in laboratory conditions. The amount of ACP (40%) and the composition of the resin mixture (based on ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate) was the same for all ACP materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the DC (n = 40), 20 min and 72 h after polymerization. Linear PS and Vickers microhardness (n = 40) were also evaluated. The results were analyzed by paired samples t test, ANOVA, and one-way repeated measures ANOVA with Student-Newman-Keuls or Tukey’s post-hoc test (P = 0.05). Results The addition of barium fillers significantly increased the DC (20 min) (75.84 ± 0.62%) in comparison to 0-ACP (73.92 ± 3.08%), but the addition of silica fillers lowered the DC (71.00 ± 0.57%). Ceram•X had the lowest DC (54.93 ± 1.00%) and linear PS (1.01 ± 0.24%) but the highest HV (20.73 ± 2.09). PS was significantly reduced (P < 0.010) in both Ba-ACP (1.13 ± 0.25%) and Si-ACP (1.17 ± 0.19%) compared to 0-ACP (1.43 ± 0.21%). HV was significantly higher in Si-ACP (12.82 ± 1.30) than in 0-ACP (10.54 ± 0.86) and Ba-ACP (10.75 ± 0.62) (P < 0.010). Conclusion Incorporation of inert fillers to bioactive remineralizing composites enhanced their physical-mechanical performance in laboratory conditions. Both added fillers reduced the PS while maintaining high levels of the DC. Silica fillers additionally moderately improved the HV of ACP composites. PMID:27815937

  5. PVC mixtures’ mechanical properties with the addition of modified calcite as filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Dušica R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study mechanical properties of PVC mixtures (PVC, stabilizer, lubricant, filler such as tensile strength, tensile elongation, breaking strength, and breaking elongation were investigated. Unmodified calcite, as well as calcite modified by stearic acid, were used as fillers in wet and dry processes. The PVC mixtures containing the calcite modified by wet procedure have better mechanical properties compared to those with the calcite modified by the dry process. Tensile and breaking strength of the PVC mixture containing the calcite modified with 1.5% stearic acid using wet process, are higher for 2.8% and 5.2%, respectively, compared to the PVC mixture containing the calcite modified with the same amount of acid used in the dry process. The tensile strength difference between the mixtures increases with the increase of the concentration of used stearic acid up to 3%. The strength of PVC mixture with the calcite modified by wet process is 3.1% higher compared to the mixture containing calcite modified by dry process. The results showed that the bonding strength between calcite and the adsorbed organic component affected tensile strength, tensile elongation and breaking strength of the PVC mixtures. The best filler was obtained by wet modification using 1.5% stearic acid solution that provided the formation of a stearate monolayer chemisorbed on calcite. The PVC mixtures containing the calcite modified by wet process using 1.5% stearic acid solution exhibited the best mechanical properties. This calcite was completely hydrophobic with dominant chemically adsorbed surfactant, which means that stearate chemisorbed on calcite provided stronger interaction in the calcite-stearic acid-PVC system.

  6. The evolving role of hyaluronic acid fillers for facial volume restoration and contouring: a Canadian overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhn C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Channy Muhn,1 Nathan Rosen,1 Nowell Solish,2 Vince Bertucci,2 Mark Lupin,3 Alain Dansereau,4 Fred Weksberg,5 B Kent Remington,6 Arthur Swift71Division of Dermatology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, 2Division of Dermatology, New Women's College Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, 3Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, 4Private Practice, Repentigny, Québec, 5Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, 6Private Practice, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; 7St Mary's Hospital, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, CanadaAbstract: Recent advancements, including more versatile facial fillers, refined injection techniques and the adoption of a global facial approach, have contributed to improved patient outcome and increased patient satisfaction. Nine Canadian specialists (eight dermatologists, one plastic surgeon collaborated to develop an overview on volume restoration and contouring based on published literature and their collective clinical experience. The specialists concurred that optimal results in volume restoration and contouring depend on correcting deficiencies at various layers of the facial envelope. This includes creating a foundation for deep structural support in the supraperiosteal or submuscular plane; volume repletion of subcutaneous fat compartments; and the reestablishment of dermal and subdermal support to minimize cutaneous rhytids, grooves and furrows. It was also agreed that volume restoration and contouring using a global facial approach is essential to create a natural, youthful appearance in facial aesthetics. A comprehensive non-surgical approach should therefore incorporate combining fillers such as high-viscosity, low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (LMWHA for structural support and hyaluronic acid (HA for lines, grooves and furrows with neuromodulators, lasers and energy devices.Keywords: hyaluronic acid filler, volumizing, facial

  7. An innovative method to quantitate tissue integration of hyaluronic acid-based dermal fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugaret, A S; Bertino, B; Gauthier, B; Gamboa, B; Motte, M; Rival, Y; Piwnica, D; Osman-Ponchet, H; Bourdès, V; Voegel, J J

    2018-02-02

    Following intradermal injection, hyaluronic acid (HA)-based fillers tend to spread within the reticular dermis and to distribute between the dermal fibers. This biointegration is commonly measured qualitatively using histological methods. We developed a "toolbox" consisting of a visual scoring and a semi-automatic image analysis method using internal developed algorithm to quantitate the biointegration of Restylane® in histological sections. Restylane ® was injected intradermally in the abdominal skin of 10 healthy human subjects scheduled for abdominoplasty. The injections were performed either in vivo before surgery or ex vivo on samples taken post-surgery at different time points. The samples were processed for histology by visual scoring and image analysis using algorithms developed in Definiens to assess biointegration. The image analysis segmentation was accurate with <5% manual changes. Furthermore, the results calculated with the semi-automatic method were consistent with the visual scores obtained on injected human skin samples by means of a 5-grade photographic scale. A modified hematoxylin-eosin staining was found adequate to visualize both, the filler and the general morphology, on the same section. An excellent correlation was observed between the integration results obtained with PAS/Alcian Blue and HE-stained slides, allowing for a single staining in future studies. We developed a modified HE staining histological method and a new histomorphometric image analysis tool to quantitate biointegration of HA-based fillers in human skin. The results obtained in this study confirmed the known intermediate biointegration properties of Restylane®, thus validating these innovative methods. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The influence of nano fillers on the dynamics of a PEP-silsesquioxane composite - a NSE study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nusser, Klaus [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Regensburg (Germany); Schneider, Gerald Johannes; Pyckhout-Hintzen, Wim; Wischnewski, Andreas; Willner, Lutz; Richter, Dieter [Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Elastomer-filler composite materials are technically very important and widely used, because the addition of active fillers to the polymers significantly enhances the properties of the resulting blend material and helps to optimize its employment in distinct applications. Up to now mainly a reinforcing effect of the filler was observed. New results by Mackay et al., however, report a decrease in viscosity by the addition of nano-particles of a characteristic size. The impact of this effect is investigated by means of a mixture of polyethylene-propylene (PEP) with silsesquioxane. The silsesquioxane nano-particles have a characteristic diameter, which can very well be compared to the tube diameter of the PEP melt within the reptation model. The changes of the dynamics after the addition of this nano-filler are investigated and supposed to give more insight into the mechanisms of interaction in polymer-filler nano composites. First results from neutron spin echo measurements at the ILL are presented.

  9. Effects of Mineral Filler to Polymer Modified Bitumen Ratio on the Design Properties of Hot Mix Asphalt and its Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Hafeez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Current development in the design of asphalt concrete especially in the upper layers of flexible pavements contains about acceptable proportion of mineral fillers passing 75?m (# 200 sieve, which contributes towards the mix cohesion, resistant to rutting and improves serviceability. Three filler to PMA (Polymer Modified Asphalt ratios (i.e. 2.4, 3.4. and 4.4% in Marshall Method of mix design were used in order to determine the optimum filler content at relatively low design asphalt contents (3.83%, for asphalt concrete having PMA and 100% lime stone dust. Designed mix was laid on Southbound Turnol Taxila National Highway Section (N-5, Pakistan as a trial in year 2003. The study reveals that filler to asphalt ratio affects the mix properties to a greater extent and mix laid at site have shown relatively better performance during its service life of initial four critical years. For coarse graded mixes with low asphalt contents, designed especially for heavy loading and high temperatures regions like Pakistan, filler to asphalt ratio less than equal to 1.0 yields better results.

  10. Inorganic/organic nanocomposites: Reaching a high filler content without increasing viscosity using core-shell structured nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhadjala, W., E-mail: warda.benhadjala@cea.fr [IMS Laboratory - UMR CNRS 5218, University of Bordeaux, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence (France); CEA, LETI, Minatec Campus, 38000 Grenoble (France); Gravoueille, M.; Weiss, M. [EDF, Centre d' Expertise et d' Inspection dans les Domaines de la Réalisation et de l' Exploitation (CEIDRE), Chinon, BP 80, 37420 Avoine (France); Bord-Majek, I.; Béchou, L.; Ousten, Y. [IMS Laboratory - UMR CNRS 5218, University of Bordeaux, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence (France); Suhir, E. [Maseeh College of Engineering and Computer Science, Portland State University, Oregon 97201 (United States); Buet, M.; Louarn, M.; Rougé, F.; Gaud, V. [Polyrise SAS, 16 Avenue Pey Berland, 33607 Pessac (France)

    2015-11-23

    Extensive research is being conducted on the development of inorganic/organic nanocomposites for a wide variety of applications in microelectronics, biotechnologies, photonics, adhesives, or optical coatings. High filler contents are usually required to fully optimize the nanocomposites properties. However, numerous studies demonstrated that traditional composite viscosity increases with increasing the filler concentration reducing therefore significantly the material processability. In this work, we synthesized inorganic/organic core-shell nanocomposites with different shell thicknesses. By reducing the shell thickness while maintaining a constant core size, the nanoparticle molecular mass decreases but the nanocomposite filler fraction is correlatively increased. We performed viscosity measurements, which clearly highlighted that intrinsic viscosity of hybrid nanoparticles decreases as the molecular mass decreases, and thus, as the filler fraction increases, as opposed to Einstein predictions about the viscosity of traditional inorganic/polymer two-phase mixtures. This exceptional behavior, modeled by Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation, proves to be a significant breakthrough for the development of industrializable nanocomposites with high filler contents.

  11. Fabrication and anti-microbial evaluation of drug loaded polylactide space filler intended for ridge preservation following tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebu George Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The preservation or reduction of alveolar ridge resorption following tooth extraction is important in patients especially for those intended for implants at a later stage. One way to achieve this is by using membranes, graft materials, and biodegradable space fillers to prevent alveolar bone resorption and promote regeneration. A major attraction for using biodegradable and biocompatible polymers as space fillers for ridge preservation is their safety profile in comparison to xenograft materials like lyophilized bone and collagen. Materials and Methods: Biocompatible polylactide space fillers were fabricated by fusing porous polylactide particles. The sponges were loaded with drugs by placing them in the respective solutions. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from a chronic periodontitis patient and in vitro anti-microbial evaluation was done with the drug loaded sponges. Results: Chlorhexidine loaded space filler showed significant anti microbial effect against multiple drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from a patient with chronic periodontitis. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that biodegradable drug releasing polylactide space fillers has the potential to be used for ridge preservation following tooth extraction. Release of drugs in the socket may prove useful in preventing development of alveolar osteitis post extraction which can interfere with normal healing of the socket. Synthetic biodegradable polymers also exhibit a controlled degradation rate to achieve complete resorption within the intended time.

  12. A Numerical Study on Electrical Percolation of Polymer-Matrix Composites with Hybrid Fillers of Carbon Nanotubes and Carbon Black

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical percolation of polymer-matrix composites (PMCs containing hybrid fillers of carbon nanotubes (CNTs and carbon black (CB is estimated by studying the connection possibility of the fillers using Monte Carlo simulation. The 3D simulation model of CB-CNT hybrid filler is established, in which CNTs are modeled by slender capped cylinders and CB groups are modeled by hypothetical spheres with interspaces because CB particles are always agglomerated. The observation on the effects of CB and CNT volume fractions and dimensions on the electrical percolation threshold of hybrid filled composites is then carried out. It is found that the composite electrical percolation threshold can be reduced by increasing CNT aspect ratio, as well as increasing the diameter ratio of CB groups to CNTs. And adding CB into CNT composites can decrease the CNT volume needed to convert the composite conductivity, especially when the CNT volume fraction is close to the threshold of PMCs with only CNT filler. Different from previous linear assumption, the nonlinear relation between CB and CNT volume fractions at composite percolation threshold is revealed, which is consistent with the synergistic effect observed in experiments. Based on the nonlinear relation, the estimating equation for the electrical percolation threshold of the PMCs containing CB-CNT hybrid fillers is established.

  13. Inorganic/organic nanocomposites: Reaching a high filler content without increasing viscosity using core-shell structured nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhadjala, W.; Gravoueille, M.; Bord-Majek, I.; Béchou, L.; Suhir, E.; Buet, M.; Louarn, M.; Weiss, M.; Rougé, F.; Gaud, V.; Ousten, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Extensive research is being conducted on the development of inorganic/organic nanocomposites for a wide variety of applications in microelectronics, biotechnologies, photonics, adhesives, or optical coatings. High filler contents are usually required to fully optimize the nanocomposites properties. However, numerous studies demonstrated that traditional composite viscosity increases with increasing the filler concentration reducing therefore significantly the material processability. In this work, we synthesized inorganic/organic core-shell nanocomposites with different shell thicknesses. By reducing the shell thickness while maintaining a constant core size, the nanoparticle molecular mass decreases but the nanocomposite filler fraction is correlatively increased. We performed viscosity measurements, which clearly highlighted that intrinsic viscosity of hybrid nanoparticles decreases as the molecular mass decreases, and thus, as the filler fraction increases, as opposed to Einstein predictions about the viscosity of traditional inorganic/polymer two-phase mixtures. This exceptional behavior, modeled by Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation, proves to be a significant breakthrough for the development of industrializable nanocomposites with high filler contents.

  14. Dataset for acrylate/silica nanoparticles formulations and photocured composites: Viscosity, filler dispersion and bulk Poisson׳s ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Gojzewski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available UV-curable polymer composites are of importance in industry, biomedical applications, scientific fields, and daily life. Outstanding physical properties of polymer composites were achieved with nanoparticles as filler, primarily in enhancing mechanical strength or barrier properties. Structure-property relationships of the resulting nanocomposites are dictated by the polymer-filler molecular architecture, i.e. interactions between polymer matrix and filler, and high surface area to volume ratio of the filler particles. Among monomers, acrylates and methacrylates attracted wide attention due to their ease of polymerization and excellent physicochemical and mechanical properties of the derived polymers. We prepared and photopolymerized two series of formulations containing hydrophobized silica nanofiller (Aerosil R7200 dispersed in 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA or polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA monomers. We compared selected physical properties of the formulations, both before and after photocuring; specifically the viscosity of formulations and dispersion of the filler in the polymer matrices. Additionally, we estimated the bulk Poisson׳s ratio of the investigated nanocomposites. This article contains data related to the research article entitled “Nanoscale Young׳s modulus and surface morphology in photocurable polyacrylate/nanosilica composites” (Gojzewski et al., 2017 [1].

  15. A new green methodology for surface modification of diatomite filler in elastomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamastra, F.R. [Italian Interuniversity Consortium on Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), Research Unit Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133, Rome (Italy); Mori, S.; Cherubini, V. [Italian Interuniversity Consortium on Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), Research Unit Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133, Rome (Italy); Department of Enterprise Engineering, University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Via del Politecnico 1, 00133, Rome (Italy); Scarselli, M. [Department of Physics, University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133, Rome (Italy); Nanni, F., E-mail: fnanni@ing.uniroma2.it [Italian Interuniversity Consortium on Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), Research Unit Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133, Rome (Italy); Department of Enterprise Engineering, University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Via del Politecnico 1, 00133, Rome (Italy)

    2017-06-15

    In this work a new, simple and green protocol to introduce a limited content of silanol groups on the surface of an hydrophobic diatomite, in order to be slightly hydrophilic and susceptible to be silanized by bifunctional, sulfur-containing organosilanes for rubber applications, is proposed. The chemical modification was carried out at 85 °C in a solution of H{sub 2}O:NaOH:H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The modified diatomite was then silanized with bis(triethoxysilylpropyl) disulfide by a procedure that does not involve toxic solvent. Morphological features and elemental composition of diatomite were investigated by Field emission scanning electron microscopy coupled with Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The surface modification and silanization process were assessed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Diatomite was composed by micrometric frustules from different diatom species with pore size ranging from 25 nm to 1 μm. The spectroscopic characterizations confirmed the surface modification of diatomite with some silanols that acted as sites for silanization reaction. The silanized diatomite and the untreated one were used as filler in unvulcanized solvent-cast SBR films in order to verify that the modification does not negatively affect the polymer/filler interface and as consequence the mechanical properties. Mechanical properties of the realized samples were assessed by uniaxial tensile tests. Films filled with 10 wt% of diatomite (untreated or silanized) showed an increase of Elastic Modulus about of 50% and a decrease of the strain at break with respect to SBR samples, while the tensile strength was not significantly affected by the diatomite addition. SEM images of fracture surfaces of tested specimens showed a fine dispersion of both untreated and silanized diatomite in the polymeric matrix and the achieving of a good interfacial adhesion SBR/fillers. The silanized diatomite, as it is potentially able to bind

  16. Influence of Ultraviolet/Ozonolysis Treatment of Nanocarbon Filler on the Electrical Resistivity of Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perets, Yulia; Matzui, Lyudmila; Vovchenko, Lyudmila; Ovsiienko, Irina; Yakovenko, Olena; Lazarenko, Oleksandra; Zhuravkov, Alexander; Brusylovets, Oleksii

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, we have investigated concentration and temperature dependences of electrical conductivity of graphite nanoplatelets/epoxy resin composites. The content of nanocarbon filler is varied from 0.01 to 0.05 volume fraction. Before incorporation into the epoxy resin, the graphite nanoplatelets were subjected to ultraviolet ozone treatment at 20-min ultraviolet exposure. The electric resistance of the samples was measured by two- or four-probe method and teraohmmeter E6-13. Several characterization techniques were employed to identify the mechanisms behind the improvements in the electrical properties, including SEM and FTIR spectrum analysis.

  17. Chrome-tanned leather shavings as a filler of butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przepiórkowska, A; Chrońska, K; Zaborski, M

    2007-03-06

    The noxious wastes from the tanning industry such as chrome-tanned leather shavings were used as the only filler of rubber mixes containing carboxylated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (XNBR) or butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), and a dispersing agent Limanol PEV (Schill & Seilacher). The best form addition of leather powder to the rubber mixes is mixed the waste protein with zinc oxide. The leather powder added to the rubber mixes improves the mechanical properties: tensile strength (T(s)), elongation at break (epsilon(b)) and increase the cross-linking density of carboxylated XNBR and NBR rubber mixes. Satisfactory results of these studies are presented in this work.

  18. Icebreakers, Fillers y Warmers: actividades breves para la clase de inglés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro DURÁN MARTÍNEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En el siguiente artículo vamos a presentar diversos tipos de ejercicios de carácter breve que hemos utilizado en la clase de inglés con el objetivo de facilitar a los alumnos la práctica de la destreza oral. Estas actividades tienen distintos nombres dependiendo de la función que desempeñen: icebreakers, fillers y warmers. Se denominan icebreakers los ejercicios diseñados para romper la tensión que normalmente rodea las primeras sesiones de cualquier nueva actividad, como, por ejemplo, la primera clase de un curso de inglés. Cuando se habla de fillers se enfatiza su función comodín: tareas independientes que normalmente sirven para completar los últimos minutos del horario establecido para la clase de idiomas. El término warmer se aplica a las actividades que se llevan a cabo después de un período vacacional con el propósito de favorecer el reencuentro del alumno con el idioma que está estudiando. El principal objetivo de estos ejercicios es el desarrollo de la capacidad de los alumnos para expresarse de forma oral utilizando la lengua inglesa, concentrándose más en la práctica de la fluidez (fluency que en la precisión (accuracy. Por otra parte, sirven para favorecer la creación de vínculos de unión entre un grupo de estudiantes.ABSTRACT: In this paper, we are going to present a number of short activities that have been used in the English class in order to give students extra speaking practice. These activities were given different names depending on the role they play in the class: icebreakers, fillers and warmers. Icebreakers are fluency practice exercises produced to defuse the tension that the first sessions of every new activity imply: i.e. the first lesson of English. When talking about fillers, we refer to short independent activities that are used when the projected exercises have taken less time than expected. Warmers are also fluency practice activities devised to put students back in touch with the

  19. Comparison Between Nano- and Micro-Sized Copper Particles as Fillers in NAO Friction Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Sharma,; Jayashree Bijwe; Mukesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the comparative role of nano‐ and micro‐sized Cu powder in exploring the influence on the tribo‐performance of friction materials in the form of brake‐pads is discussed. Two friction composites were developed by keeping allthe ingredients constant and varying the size of the selected filler (copper powder). The developed micro‐composite contained 10 % (wt) Cu (400 ‐ 600 μm) while in the nano‐composite only a part (2 %) of the micro‐powder was replaced by...

  20. Longitudinal guided waves confined in radius filler regions of composite joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manogharan, Prabhakaran; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2016-07-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of using ultrasonic guided waves for fast inspection of conformal deltoid radius filler or "Noodle" regions of joints in stringer composite structures. Semi-analytical finite element simulations, supported by experiments and three-dimensional finite element models, are used to demonstrate the existence of a longitudinal guided ultrasonic mode confined or trapped in the Noodle regions. Studies reveal that this mode has attractive properties for rapid screening of Noodle joints, including strong energy concentration, low dispersion, and attenuation. Discussing the physics of mode confinement in light of material differences and geometry, the phenomenon is shown to be related to feature-guiding effects noted in literature recently.

  1. A case-marking cue for filler-gap dependencies in children's relative clauses in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takaaki

    2011-11-01

    Object relative clauses have traditionally been thought to be more difficult than subject relative clauses in child English. However, recent studies as well as Japanese data show contradictory results. This study disclosed preschool children's superior performance on object relative clauses in Japanese; however, this dominance disappeared for the children who could use both the nominative and accusative case markers as cues for the comprehension of single-argument sentences. Assuming a filler-gap dependency for the relative clause formation, we suggest that there is no difference in the difficulty between subject and object relative clauses in the grammar of Japanese-speaking children.

  2. Potential of fire extinguisher powder as a filler in bituminous mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praticò, Filippo Giammaria; Moro, Antonino; Ammendola, Rachele

    2010-01-15

    Fire extinguishers must be maintained at regular intervals and many problems arise when fire-resistant dry powders need replacement. We analyze the potential of fire extinguisher powder (termed REP) as a filler in bituminous mixes. REP and REP-admixed bituminous mixes were subjected to chemical analysis, and the mechanical properties and environmental performances of the mixes were tested. Mixes with different REP contents were prepared. Mechanical performance was adequate and environmental compatibility was achieved. Practical applications and perspectives in rehabilitation, maintenance, and research are outlined.

  3. Do you know where your fillers go? An ultrastructural investigation of the lips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vent J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Julia Vent,1 Florian Lefarth,2 Thomas Massing,3 Wolfgang Angerstein2 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Heidelberg Medical Center at Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany; 2Department of Phoniatrics and Pedaudiology, University of Düsseldorf Medical Center, Düsseldorf, Germany; 3Research Laboratory for Medical Acoustics and Audiology, Department of Phoniatrics and Pedaudiology, University of Düsseldorf Medical Center, Düsseldorf, Germany Aim: To investigate the exact location and position of hyaluronic acid fillers in the perioral region by ultrasound and optical coherence tomography. Introduction: To date, there are few in vivo investigations in humans on the exact positioning of injectable hyaluronic acid fillers, and severe complications such as hematoma and thromboembolism are rarely addressed. Materials and methods: There were nine female patients investigated in this pilot study. All of them were periorally injected with hyaluronic acid. The exact product, amount, and locations, as well as the injection techniques, were recorded and compared. Before, immediately after, and 18 days after injection, photo documentation as well as high-resolution ultrasonography and optical coherence tomography of the lip surface were performed. Results: Minor bruising occurred, which resolved within 7 to 9 days. On day 18, no more hemorrhage could be detected. Injected material distributed well in the tissue, and no embolism or thrombosis occurred. However, the injected material came close (up to 1 mm to important structures such as blood vessels. Lip wrinkles improved, and the lip surface was smoother and more even. Conclusion: Hyaluronic acid injections can improve aesthetics and reduce fine wrinkles of the lips. In the patients investigated in this study, compression of structures such as vessels and nerve fibers did not occur, nor did any severe complications result from injection. However, one must be aware of serious

  4. La coyuntura económica nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Huerta González

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar los problemas de contracción económica que enfrenta nuestro país como resultado de la política económica predominante, que lo ha llevado a depender de la economía estadounidense. Cuando ésta enfrentó problemas de crecimiento también frenó el crecimiento de la economía nacional. El gobierno mexicano no instrumenta política fiscal anticíclica (expansión del gasto para contrarrestar la caída de exportaciones y recuperar la dinámica económica por considerar que ello originaría presiones sobre precios y el sector externo y pudiera llevar a un contexto de especulación y crisis. Es por esto que se opta por seguir priorizando políticas contraccionistas para evitar la inflación, como si éste fuese el principal problema del país. Asimismo, el gobierno insiste en las reformas estructurales (apertura eléctrica, petrolera, reforma fiscal y laboral para ampliar la esfera de influencia del sector privado nacional y extranjero y para consolidar el saneamiento fiscal y abaratar el costo de la fuerza de trabajo, impulsando así la dinámica económica. Sin embargo, tales reformas ya las hemos vivido —desde el gobierno de Salinas de Gortari a la fecha— y sus resultados han sido crecimientos espurios que han desembocado en crisis y en el actual estancamiento. Mientras prosiga la actual política económica seguirá deteriorándose la esfera productiva y aumentando el desempleo, sin que se logre un crecimiento sostenido y menos vulnerable de la economía

  5. Microstructure and mechanical properties of coal tar pitch-based 2D-C/C composites with a filler addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chollon, G.; Siron, O.; Takahashi, J.; Yamauchi, H.; Maeda, K.; Kosaka, K. [University of Bordeaux 1, Pessac (France)

    2001-07-01

    In order to improve the flexural and the inter-laminar shear strength of coal tar pitch-based 2D-C/C composites, fillers (carbon blacks and colloidal graphite) were introduced between the UD layers before the first infiltration of pitch. Matrix parts made of the filler/pitch-based cokes showed fine mosaic microtextures. They were found at the interface between the layers. Whereas the tensile strength is not affected, the flexural strength and the ILSS were significantly increased by the addition of fillers. The original structure of the inter-layer matrix parts and the decrease of the number of flaws were found to be responsible for the improvement of the shear strength of the 0/90 degrees UD layers.

  6. Matrix-filler interfaces and physical properties of metal matrix composites with negative thermal expansion manganese nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Koshi; Kuzuoka, Kota; Sugimoto, Norihiro

    2015-08-01

    Copper matrix composites containing antiperovskite manganese nitrides with negative thermal expansion (NTE) were formed using pulsed electric current sintering. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that the chemically reacted region extends over 10 μm around the matrix-filler interfaces. The small-size filler was chemically deteriorated during formation of composites and it lost the NTE property. Therefore, we produced the composites using only the nitride particles having diameter larger than 50 μm. The large-size filler effectively suppressed the thermal expansion of copper and improved the conductivity of the composites to the level of pure aluminum. The present composites, having high thermal conductivity and low thermal expansion, are suitable for practical applications such as a heat radiation substrate for semiconductor devices.

  7. Matrix-filler interfaces and physical properties of metal matrix composites with negative thermal expansion manganese nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takenaka, Koshi, E-mail: takenaka@nuap.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kuzuoka, Kota [Department of Applied Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Sugimoto, Norihiro [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-08-28

    Copper matrix composites containing antiperovskite manganese nitrides with negative thermal expansion (NTE) were formed using pulsed electric current sintering. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that the chemically reacted region extends over 10 μm around the matrix–filler interfaces. The small-size filler was chemically deteriorated during formation of composites and it lost the NTE property. Therefore, we produced the composites using only the nitride particles having diameter larger than 50 μm. The large-size filler effectively suppressed the thermal expansion of copper and improved the conductivity of the composites to the level of pure aluminum. The present composites, having high thermal conductivity and low thermal expansion, are suitable for practical applications such as a heat radiation substrate for semiconductor devices.

  8. Evaluation on the feasibility of using bamboo fillers in plastic gear manufacturing via the Taguchi optimization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehat, N. M.; Kamaruddin, S.

    2017-10-01

    An increase in demand for industrial gears has instigated the escalating uses of plastic-matrix composites, particularly carbon or glass fibre reinforced plastics as gear material to enhance the properties and limitation in plastic gears. However, the production of large quantity of these synthetic fibres reinforced composites has posed serious threat to ecosystem. Therefore, this work is conducted to study the applicability and practical ability of using bamboo fillers particularly in plastic gear manufacturing as opposed to synthetic fibres via the Taguchi optimization method. The results showed that no failure mechanism such as gear tooth root cracking and severe tooth wear were observed in gear tested made of 5-30 wt% of bamboo fillers in comparing with the unfilled PP gear. These results indicated that bamboo can be practically and economically used as an alternative filler in plastic material reinforcement as well as in minimizing the cost of raw material in general.

  9. Transparent Gap Filler Solution over a DVB-RCS2 Satellite Platform in a Railway Scenario: Performance Evaluation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peppino Fazio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a performance study of a system equipped with a transparent Gap Filler solution in a DVB-RCS2 satellite platform has been provided. In particular, a simulation model based on a 3-state Markov chain, overcoming the blockage status through the introduction of a transparent Gap Filler (using devices on both tunnel sides has been implemented. The handover time, due to switching mechanism between satellite and Gap Filler, has been taken into account. As reference scenario, the railway market has been considered, which is characterized by a N-LOS condition, due to service disruptions caused by tunnels, vegetation and buildings. The system performance, in terms of end-to-end delay, queue size and packet loss percentage, have been evaluated, in order to prove the goodness of communications in a real railroad path.

  10. TIG AISI-316 welds using an inert gas welding chamber and different filler metals: Changes in mechanical properties and microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascual, M.; Salas, F.; Carcel, F.J.; Perales, M.; Sanchez, A.

    2010-07-01

    This report analyses the influence of the use of an inert gas welding chamber with a totally inert atmosphere on the microstructure and mechanical properties of austenitic AISI 316L stainless steel TIG welds, using AISI ER316L, AISI 308L and Inconel 625 as filler metals. When compared with the typical TIG process, the use of the inert gas chamber induced changes in the microstructure, mainly an increase in the presence of vermicular ferrite and ferrite stringers, what resulted in higher yield strengths and lower values of hardness. Its effect on other characteristics of the joins, such as tensile strength, depended on the filler metal. The best combination of mechanical characteristics was obtained when welding in the inert gas chamber using Inconel 625 as filler metal. (Author). 12 refs.

  11. QUÍMICA VERDE: UN NUEVO RETO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerlis Paola Pájaro Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, existe un enorme deterioro del medio ambiente que ha generado la necesidad de buscar alternativas que conduzcan a la sostenibilidad ambiental. Una de estas herramientas es la ¿química verde¿, concepto que contempla el diseño de productos y procesos que reduzcan la generación de sustancias peligrosas y maximicen la eficiencia en la utilización de recursos materiales y energéticos. El empleo de tecnologías menos contaminantes, permitirá a las empresas químicas mitigar los efectos ambientales asociados a su actividad, reduciendo el consumo de materiales e incrementando la participación de recursos renovables. Para alcanzar estas metas, se han propuesto 12 principios básicos de química verde, aplicables en diferentes campos, tales como la medicina, la agricultura, la industria química y farmacéutica. Esta revisión detalla los principios y usos principales de la química verde, y su aplicación como una filosofía de trabajo para avanzar hacia un verdadero desarrollo sostenible.

  12. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HDPE PLASTIC FILM FOR HERBICIDE CONTAINER USING FLY ASH CLASS F AS FILLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatim Lailun Ni’mah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available High Density Polyethylene (HDPE plastic plays an important role in various applications, for example, it can be used as a container (bottle. Petrokimia Kayaku Company, a branch of Petrokimia Company of Gresik, produces herbicides using HDPE plastic bottles as their container. Those plastic bottles undergo degradation (kempot for certain period of time. The aim of this research is to characterize and to synthesize the HDPE plastic film with class F fly ash as filler. The results expected from this research are producing the plastic with a better properties and durability. This research was initiated by taking the sample of HDPE plastic bottle and herbicides (containing Gramakuat, on active material parakuat dichloride at Petrokimia Kayaku Company. Both the initial HDPE and the degraded bottles was analyzed their tensile strength and Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FTIR spectral. The next step was to synthesize the HDPE plastic film using class F fly ash as filler and a coupling agent. The filler concentrations were 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20wt %. The best result was 5% filler concentration with tensile strength of 27.7 lbs. This HDPE film was then subjected to degradation test using pyridine solution with various concentrations (1%, 3% and 5% for two weeks, thermal degradation at 100 °C for two weeks and chemical resistance by xylene with soak time variation of 24 h, 98 h and 168 h. The result of degradations test show that the value of tensile strength was decreased with the increase of filler consentration. The chemical resistance, however, was increased.   Keywords: degradation, filler, fly ash, HDPE, Herbicide

  13. The reconstructed skin model as a new tool for investigating in vitro dermal fillers: increased fibroblast activity by hyaluronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardeau-Hubert, Sarah; Teluob, Séverine; Pageon, Hervé; Asselineau, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies on dermal fillers have essentially focused upon visible improvement of skin quality and any eventual side effects, whereas very little is known about their detailed biological effects. New skin equivalent models were created to investigate the biological impact of hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers on the dermal compartment in vitro. Two different reconstructed skin models were developed to incorporate HA within the collagen fibers. In the mixed model, HA was distributed throughout the whole collagen gel whereas the HA was concentrated in the center of collagen gel in the inclusion model. A comparison of the addition of fillers in two models of reconstructed skin has permitted a better understanding of the biological impact of HA fillers. Protein profiling of supernatants from both models suggested a regulation of MMP-1 secretion by fibroblasts as a function of HA volume, distribution in the dermis and degree of cross-linking. Immunostaining of the inclusion model revealed increased production of type I and III procollagens close to the cross-linked HA. Fibroblasts located in this area showed a fusiform morphology as well as an increase in -smooth actin expression. The observed increase in collagen production may thus result in part from tension in fibroblasts surrounding the cross-linked HA. The inclusion reconstructed skin model, as compared to the mixed model, presented here, appears to be a useful tool for investigating the properties of various fillers in vitro and closer to the in vivo situation; our results show that HA fillers promote in vitro remodeling of the dermis by fibroblasts.

  14. Impact of thio-urethane additive and filler type on light-transmission and depth of polymerization of dental composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria-E-Silva, André Luis; Pfeifer, Carmem Silvia

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of filler type and the addition of thio-urethane oligomers on light-transmission, polymerization kinetics and depth of cure of resin composites. BisGMA:UDMA:TEGMA (5:3:2wt%) were mixed with 0 (control) or 20wt% thio-urethane. Fillers with various sizes and refractive indices were included and refractive index (RI) measured. Unfilled resins were used as controls. The RIs of materials were measured before and after polymerization. The irradiance reaching the bottom of 3-mm thick specimens was measured during the polymerization. Degree of conversion to a depth of 5mm was mapped. An optical bench was used to simultaneously follow conversion and light transmission. The addition of thio-urethane increased the RI for all composites. As expected, RI also increased with conversion for all materials. The one exception was for the material filled with OX-50, in which the RI of the composite decreased with conversion. In this case, the irradiance at the bottom of the 3mm specimen was also the lowest among all groups. The addition of thio-urethanes had only minimal effect on light transmission within a filler type, but led to increased conversion in depth for all groups. The filler type itself had a greater effect on light transmission, and that correlated well with the degree of conversion. The effect of the thio-urethane addition on degree of conversion in depth was dependent on filler type. The additive can be tailored to improve the RI match with the filler to optimize light transmission in dental composites. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid silica/PMMA nanoparticles and their use as filler in dental composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canché-Escamilla, G., E-mail: gcanche@cicy.mx [Unidad de Materiales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C. Calle 43 No. 130 Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo, Mérida, Yucatán 97200 (Mexico); Duarte-Aranda, S. [Unidad de Materiales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C. Calle 43 No. 130 Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo, Mérida, Yucatán 97200 (Mexico); Toledano, M. [Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Granada, Campus Universitario de Cartuja s/n, Granada 18071 (Spain)

    2014-09-01

    The effect of hybrid silica/poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) nanoparticles on the properties of composites for dental restoration was evaluated. Hybrid nanoparticles with silica as core and PMMA as shell were obtained by a seeded emulsion polymerization process. Fourier transform infrared spectrum of the hybrid nanoparticles shows an intense peak at 1730 cm{sup −1}, corresponding to carbonyl groups (C=O) of the ester. The thermal stability of the hybrid particles decreases with increasing amounts of PMMA and the residual mass at 700 °C corresponds to the silica content in the hybrid particles. Composites were obtained by dispersing nanoparticles (silica or hybrid), as fillers, in a resin—bis glycidyl dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA)/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) (40%/60% (w/w)). The paste was then placed in a mold and polymerized under light irradiation. During the preparation of the composites, with the hybrid nanoparticles, the monomers swell the PMMA shell and after photo-curing, a semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) is obtained around the silica core. The properties of the composites, obtained using the hybrid nanoparticles, depend on the filler content and the amount of PMMA in the semi-IPN matrix. For composites with similar inorganic filler contents, the composites with low amounts of PMMA shell had higher modulus than those in which silica was used as the filler. - Highlights: • Hybrid nanoparticles silica/PMMA were used as fillers in dental composites. • The properties of the hybrid nanoparticle depend on the silica/PMMA content ratio. • A higher content of inorganic filler was obtained using hybrid nanoparticle. • Composites with higher modulus were obtained using hybrid nanoparticles. • A semi-IPN matrix between the PMMA shell and the resin is obtained.

  16. [Facial injections of hyaluronic acid-based fillers for malformations. Preliminary study regarding scar tissue improvement and cosmetic betterment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, G; Neiva-Vaz, C; Picard, A; Vazquez, M-P

    2018-02-02

    Cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based fillers have gained rapid acceptance for treating facial wrinkles, deep tissue folds and sunken areas due to aging. This study evaluates, in addition to space-filling properties, their effects on softness and elasticity as a secondary effect, following injection of 3 commercially available cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based fillers (15mg/mL, 17,5mg/mL and 20mg/mL) in patients presenting with congenital or acquired facial malformations. We started injecting gels of cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based fillers in those cases in 2013; we performed 46 sessions of injections in 32 patients, aged from 13-32. Clinical assessment was performed by the patient himself and by a plastic surgeon, 15 days after injections and 6-18 months later. Cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based fillers offered very subtle cosmetic results and supplemented surgery with a very high level of satisfaction of the patients. When injected in fibrosis, the first session enhanced softness and elasticity; the second session enhanced the volume. Cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based fillers fill sunken areas and better softness and elasticity of scar tissues. In addition to their well-understood space-filling function, as a secondary effect, the authors demonstrate that cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based fillers improve softness and elasticity of scarring tissues. Many experimental studies support our observations, showing that cross-linked hyaluronic acid stimulates the production of several extra-cellular matrix components, including dermal collagen and elastin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Provision of micro-nano bacterial cellulose as bio plastic filler by sonication method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryam; Rahmad, D.; Yunizurwan; Kasim, A.; Novelina; Emriadi

    2017-07-01

    Research and development of bioplastic has increased recently as a solution for substitution of conventional plastic which have many negative impacts to environment. However, physical properties and mechanical properties of its still lower than conventional plastic. An alternative solution for that problem is by using fillers that can increase the strength. Bacterial cellulose is considered as potential source for filler, but still need to be explored more. The privileges of bacterial cellulose are easy to get and does not have lignin, pectin, and hemicelluloses which are impurities in other celluloses. This research focused on gaining bacterial cellulose in micro-nano particle form and its impact on increasing the strength of bio plastic. Ultrasonication has been used as method to form micro-nano particle from bacterial cellulose. The result showed this method may form the particle size of bacterial cellulose approximately ± 3μm. Next step, after getting ± 3μm particle of bacterial cellulose, is making bio plastic with casting method by adding 1% of bacterial cellulose, from the total material in making bio plastic. Physical characteristic of the bio plastic which are tensile strength 11.85 MPa, modulus young 3.13 MPa, elongation 4.11% and density 0.42 g/cm3. The numbers of physical properties showwthat, by adding 1% of bacterial cellulose, the strength of bio plastic was significantly increase, even value of tensile strength has complied the international standard for bio plastic.

  18. Influence of filler existence on microleakage of a self-etch adhesive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmohammadi, H; Khosravi, K; Kashani, K; Kleverlaan, Cj; Feilzer, Aj

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of filler existence in self-etch adhesive resin on the marginal leakage of a class V restoration. Class V cavities were prepared and restored with a resin composite on the buccal surfaces of 48 premolars lined with unfilled or filled adhesives (n = 24). After thermo cycling, teeth in each group were divided to two subgroups (n = 12), specimens of the first subgroup were incubated for 24 h in distilled water at 37°C, and for the second group three months in the same condition. Specimens were placed in 50% silver nitrate for 24 h at 37°C, and then were cut buccolingually 1 mm thick. Dye penetration was measured using a stereomicroscope and scaled from 0 to 5 in a blind method. SEM images were made to evaluate the dentin-adhesive interfaces. Collected data were analyzed using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests at a significant level of Padhesive at 24 h and 3 months (Padhesive (Padhesive infiltrate slightly better than filled adhesive. The application of filler particles in a self etch adhesive system had no influence on marginal leakage at both the enamel and dentin margins. While the unfilled adhesive infiltrate better than the filled adhesive, its long term performance is not promising.

  19. A case of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage associated with hyaluronic acid dermal fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basora, Jose F; Fernandez, Ricardo; Gonzalez, Modesto; Adorno, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Male, 25 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage Symptoms: Cough dry • short of breath - Clinical Procedure: - Specialty: - Unusual clinical course. Hyaluronic acid is a substance that is naturally present in the human body, especially in joints and eyes. Hyaluronic acid injectable gels have been available for the general market since 2003 as cosmetic dermal fillers and skin boosters. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is an acute event that threatens the life of the patient and can lead to pulmonary fibrosis. Alveolar hemorrhage associated with hyaluronic acid dermal fillers is an entity that to the best of our knowledge has never been described in the medical literature. We describe a patient who presented with dyspnea and cough after a subcutaneous injection of hyaluronic acid, with radiographic abnormalities including ground glass opacities and consolidation. The patient underwent flexible bronchoscopy and was diagnosed with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. This case emphasizes that this life threatening condition may occur with the use of this medication and physicians must be aware of this disorder, as early recognition and management can reduce morbidity.

  20. Coffee grounds as filler for pectin: Green composites with competitive performances dependent on the UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Vincenzo Alessandro; Cavallaro, Giuseppe; Lazzara, Giuseppe; Milioto, Stefana; Parisi, Filippo

    2017-08-15

    Novel composite bioplastics were successfully prepared by filling pectin matrix with treated coffee grounds. The amount of coffee dispersed into the pectin was changed within a wide filler range. The morphology of the pectin/coffee hybrid films was studied by microscopic techniques in order to investigate their mesoscopic structure as well as the sizes distribution of the particles dispersed into the matrix. The micrographs showed that the coffee grounds are uniformly dispersed within the polymeric matrix. The morphological characteristics of the biocomposite films were correlated to their properties, such as wettability, water uptake, thermal behavior and mechanical performances. Dynamic mechanical test were conducted as a function of the humidity conditions. As a general result, a worsening of the mechanical performances was induced by the addition of the coffee grounds into the pectin. An additional UV curing treatment was conducted on the pectin/coffee films with the aim to improve their tensile and viscoelastic features. The cured films showed promising and tunable properties that are dependent on both the filler content and the UV irradiation. In particular, the presence of single coffee particles into the pectin matrix renders the UV curing treatment effective in the enhancement of the elasticity as well as the traction resistance, whereas the cured composite films containing coffee clusters showed only more elastic characteristics. With this study, we fabricated pectin/coffee bioplastics with controlled behavior appealing for specific application within the food packaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Correlation between surface roughness and microhardness of experimental composites with varying filler concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munchow, Eliseu Aldrighi; Correa, Marcos Brito; Ogliari, Fabricio Aulo; Piva, Evandro; Zanchi, Cesar Henrique

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the surface roughness on the surface microhardness of experimental composites with varying filler concentration. Experimental resin composites were formulated by mixing Bis-GMA and TEGDMA in a 50/50% weight ratio and CQ/EDAB were added to make the material photosensitive. Silanized glass particles were incorporated in the resin blend in two concentrations: C50 with 50% and C75 with 75% in weight ratio. The surface roughness and the surface microhardness measurements were determined after every three finishing procedures with #280-, #600- and #1200-grit wet sandpapers, respectively. The data were analyzed statistically by Two Way ANOVA and Tukey's test, and comparisons were conducted using the Spearman's correlation test (p > 0.05). The surface roughness and surface microhardness were negatively associated (r = - 0.68) and the finishing procedures of both composites resulted in harder and smoother surfaces than the initial ones. Additionally, in a smooth circumstance, the higher content of fillers has not resulted in a composite with better microhardness and smoothness. Finishing procedures decreased the surface roughness and consequently improved the surface microhardness of the composites evaluated. Finishing and polishing procedures are effectives in reducing the surface roughness amplitude of composite materials and in improving their surface microhardness. Thus a microhardness test and any hardness evaluation must be conducted only after a properly finished and polished surface is achieved.

  2. Optimal Viscosity and Particle Shape of Hyaluronic Acid Filler as a Scaffold for Human Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deok-Yeol; Namgoong, Sik; Han, Seung-Kyu; Won, Chang-Hoon; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2015-07-01

    The authors previously reported that cultured human fibroblasts suspended in a hyaluronic acid filler can produce human dermal matrices with extended in vivo stability in animal and clinical studies. The present study was undertaken to determine the optimal viscosity and particle shape of hyaluronic acid filler as a scaffold for cultured human dermal fibroblasts to enhance the maximal viability of injected cells. The fibroblasts were suspended in either 1 of 3 hyaluronic acid viscosities at 2 different particle shapes. The viscosities used in this study were low (600,000-800,000 centipoises), moderate (2,000,000-4,000,000 centipoises), and high (8,000,000-12,000,000 centipoises). The particle shape was evaluated by testing round and irregular shapes. The fibroblast mixed bioimplants were injected into the back of individual athymic nude mice. The levels of type I collagen were measured using fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) and immunohistochemical staining at 16 weeks after the injections. Results of FACS demonstrated that the mean cell ratio with human collagens in the moderate viscosity group was greater than those of control, low, and high viscosity groups. An immunohistochemical study showed similar results. The moderate viscosity group demonstrated the highest positive staining of human collagens. However, there were no significant differences between groups of irregular and round shape particles. A hyaluronic acid bioimplant with moderate viscosity is superior to that with low or high viscosity in the viability for human fibroblasts. However, the particle shape does not influence the viability of the fibroblasts.

  3. A Review on Potentiality of Nano Filler/Natural Fiber Filled Polymer Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naheed Saba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for greener and biodegradable materials leading to the satisfaction of society requires a compelling towards the advancement of nano-materials science. The polymeric matrix materials with suitable and proper filler, better filler/matrix interaction together with advanced and new methods or approaches are able to develop polymeric composites which shows great prospective applications in constructions and buildings, automotive, aerospace and packaging industries. The biodegradability of the natural fibers is considered as the most important and interesting aspects of their utilization in polymeric materials. Nanocomposite shows considerable applications in different fields because of larger surface area, and greater aspect ratio, with fascinating properties. Being environmentally friendly, applications of nanocomposites offer new technology and business opportunities for several sectors, such as aerospace, automotive, electronics, and biotechnology industries. Hybrid bio-based composites that exploit the synergy between natural fibers in a nano-reinforced bio-based polymer can lead to improved properties along with maintaining environmental appeal. This review article intended to present information about diverse classes of natural fibers, nanofiller, cellulosic fiber based composite, nanocomposite, and natural fiber/nanofiller-based hybrid composite with specific concern to their applications. It will also provide summary of the emerging new aspects of nanotechnology for development of hybrid composites for the sustainable and greener environment.

  4. Numerical simulation of TIG welding with filler of steel pieces of high thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmigani, B.; Toselli, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The problem of numerical simulation of welding process with filler, in particular TIG (tungsten inert gas) with cold filler, has been approached with ABAQUS/S code. Reference has been made to some experimental models studied and prepared ad hoc in order to better know the physical phenomena involved in TIG welding technique and to validate the computation methodologies and results obtained. The results obtained, compared with the experimental ones, will be presented, analyzed and discussed. [Italian] Con il codice di analisi termo-strutturale non lineare agli EF, ABAQUS/S, viene affrontato per la prima volta il problema della simulazione numerica di un processo di saldatura con materiale d'apporto, in particolare il processo di saldatura TIG (tungsten inert gas). In questo lavoro sono presentati, analizzati e discussi e confrontati con le misure corrispondenti sperimentali i primi risultati ottenuto. Sono state descritte e discusse anche le difficolta' incontrate, le approssimazioni fatte e la ricerca di procedure di calcolo piu' semplificate.

  5. Malar region rejuvenation through non-invasive techniques: hyaluronic acid fillers and lipofilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascali, M; Quarato, D; Marianetti, T; Carinci, F

    2017-12-27

    Contour enhancements of the midface make up a dominant aspect of aesthetic surgery. The goal of midface rejuvenation is to decrease the prominence of grooves and creases as well as to provide volume to atrophied tissue. There are various options, including autologous tissue grafts, allogenic tissue grafts and alloplastic materials. In turn, patients’ needs have led to an increasing trend of less invasive treatments. In the present study, 82 implants were used for midface augmentation in 41 patients (38 women, 3 men) between January 2014 and January 2016. Twenty-five patients were treated with Hyaluronic acid implants while the remaining 16 patients were treated with lipofilling. For both groups and in all cases, good integration of the filled material was observed in the malar region, with no significant treatment complications and the last follow-up visit demonstrated good results and overall satisfaction. Hyaluronic acid fillers and lipofilling are therefore the ideal answer to patients who aim for a natural and immediate result with manageable complications, but, unlike Hyaluronic acid, autologous fat allows us to obtain a long-lasting effect over time, resulting the closest thing to an ideal facial filler.

  6. Measurement and Modeling of the Ability of Crack Fillers to Prevent Chloride Ingress into Mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Scott Z; Bentz, Dale P; Davis, Jeffrey M; Hussey, Daniel S; Jacobson, David L; Molloy, John L; Sieber, John R

    2017-09-01

    A common repair procedures applied to damaged concrete is to fill cracks with an organic polymer. This operation is performed to increase the service life of the concrete by removing a preferential pathway for the ingress of water, chlorides, and other deleterious species. To effectively fulfill its mission of preventing chloride ingress, the polymer must not only fully fill the macro-crack, but must also intrude the damage zone surrounding the crack perimeter. Here, the performance of two commonly employed crack fillers, one epoxy, and one methacrylate, are investigated using a combined experimental and computer modeling approach. Neutron tomography and microbeam X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μXRF) measurements are employed on pre-cracked and chloride-exposed specimens to quantify the crack filling and chloride ingress limiting abilities, respectively, of the two polymers. A two-dimensional model of chloride transport is derived from a mass balance and solved by the finite element method. Crack images provided by μXRF are used to generate the input microstructure for the simulations. When chloride binding and a time-dependent mortar diffusivity are both included in the computer model, good agreement with the experimental results is obtained. Both crack fillers significantly reduce chloride ingress during the 21 d period of the present experiments; however, the epoxy itself contains approximately 4 % by mass chlorine. Leaching studies were performed assess the epoxy as a source of deleterious ions for initiating corrosion of the steel reinforcement in concrete structures.

  7. 2D Single-Crystalline Copper Nanoplates as a Conductive Filler for Electronic Ink Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Won; Han, Jiyoon; Lee, Dong Su; Bae, Sukang; Lee, Sang Hyun; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Moon, Byung Joon; Choi, Chel-Jong; Wang, Gunuk; Kim, Tae-Wook

    2017-12-20

    Large-scale 2D single-crystalline copper nanoplates (Cu NPLs) are synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. The combination of a mild reductant, stabilizer, and shape modifier allows the dimensional control of the Cu nanocrystals from 1D nanowires (NWs) to 2D nanoplates. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) reveals that the prepared Cu NPLs have a single-crystalline structure. From the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, it is found that iodine plays an important role in the modification of the copper nanocrystals through the formation of an adlayer on the basal plane of the nanoplates. Cu NPLs with an average edge length of 10 μm are successfully synthesized, and these Cu NPLs are the largest copper 2D crystals synthesized by a solution-based process so far. The application of the metallic 2D crystals as a semitransparent electrode proves their feasibility as a conductive filler, exhibiting very low sheet resistance (0.4 Ω ▫-1 ) compared to Cu NWs and a transmittance near 75%. The efficient charge transport is due to the increased contact area between each Cu NPL, i.e., so-called plane contact (2D electrical contact). In addition, this type of contact enhances the current-carrying capability of the Cu NPL electrodes, implying that the large-size Cu NPLs are promising conductive fillers for printable electrode applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. FMR Study of the Porous Silicate Glasses with Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zapotoczny

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of research on new magnetic materials for biomedical applications are discussed. These materials are porous silicate glasses with magnetic fillers. To ensure the smallest number of components for subsequent removal from the body, the magnetic fillers are bare magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4. The magnetic properties of these materials have been investigated using the ferromagnetic resonance method (FMR. The FMR analysis has been complemented by scanning electron microscope (SEM measurements. In order to examine the effect of time degradation on filling the porous glass with bare magnetite nanoparticles the FMR measurement was repeated five months later. For the samples with high degree of pore filling, in contrast to the samples with low degree of pore filling, the FMR signal was still strong. The influence of different pH values of magnetite nanoparticles aqueous suspension on the degree of filling the pores of glasses is also discussed. The experimental results are supported by computer simulations of FMR experiment for a cluster of N magnetic nanoparticles locked in a porous medium based on a stochastic version of the Landau-Lifshitz equation for nanoparticle magnetization.

  9. Behavior of limestone filler cement mortars exposed to magnesium sulfate attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senhadji Y.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the cement production industry, looking for a less expensive binder using industrial waste and natural resources has become a major concern for the deficit level in the manufacture of Portland cement. However, despite the technical, economic and environmental benefits brought by the use of blended cements, they are associated with disadvantages. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of the incorporation of limestone fillers on the mechanical properties and durability of mortars prepared in different combinations based on this admixture material. The durability was evaluated after immersing the specimens in a 5% solution of magnesium sulfate for periods up to 360 days, and the penetration of chloride ions. The test results demonstrated that mortar and paste samples incorporating higher replacement levels of limestone filler were more susceptible to sulfate attack. According to microstructural analysis, such as DRX, the deterioration was significantly associated with formation of thaumasite, gypsum, and the brucite in the deteriorated parts of the specimens.

  10. Study of low weight percentage filler on dielectric properties of MCWNT-epoxy nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manindra Trihotri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An attempt is made to study the effect of low weight percentage multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT powder on dielectric properties of MWCNT reinforced epoxy composites. For that MWCNT (of different low weight percentage reinforced epoxy composite was prepared by dispersing the MWCNT in resin. Samples were prepared by solution casting process and characterized for their dielectric properties such as dielectric constant (ε′, dielectric dissipation factor (tan δ and AC conductivity (σac. The main objective is the investigation of the dielectric properties of the prepared samples at the low weight percentage of the filler at different temperatures and frequencies. From the two mechanisms of electrical conduction, first the leakage current obtained by the formation of a percolation network in the matrix and the other by tunneling of electrons formed among conductors nearby (tunneling current; here we are getting conduction by the second mechanism. Generally, leakage current makes more contribution to conductivity than tunneling current. Dielectric dissipation factor at 250Hz frequency is greater than all other frequencies and starts increasing from 60∘C. The peak height of the transition temperature decreases with increasing frequency. This study shows that the addition of a low weight percentage of MWCNT can modify considerably the electrical behavior of epoxy nanocomposites without chemical functionalization of filler.

  11. Silver sulfadiazine immobilized glass as antimicrobial fillers for dental restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rohit; Sun, Yuyu

    2017-06-01

    Bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on dental resin composites cause secondary caries that shortens the service life of dental restorative materials. In this study, commercial barium borosilicate based glass powders, fillers widely used in dental composites, were covalently immobilized with silver sulfadiazine to provide antimicrobial effects. The chemical reactions were followed by FT-IR study, elemental analysis, and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and the reaction pathway was confirmed by model compound studies. The resulting glass powders demonstrated potent antimicrobial effects against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). BisGMA (2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacrylyloxypropoxy)phenyl] propane)-based dental resins containing 2% to 10% of the new silver sulfadiazine glass powders exhibited powerful and durable antimicrobial efficacy against S. mutans. The mechanical properties of the antimicrobial resins were not negatively affected by the silver sulfadiazine glass powders, making them attractive candidates as antimicrobial fillers for dental composites and other related biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The structure of fillers, polymers and their interfaces in polymer composites using neutron scattering methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelm, R.P.

    1998-12-01

    The neutron scattering methods, small-angle neutron scattering and neutron reflectometry, provide information on the structure of polymer composite materials that is not available from other structural probes. The unique capabilities of these methods derive from three factors. First, the length scales probed correspond to polymer conformation, molecular and domain scales and to the characteristic sizes of many fillers. Second, neutrons are able to penetrate relatively thick samples, allowing bulk samples to be measured, and enabling buried interfaces to be studied. This characteristic also allows for the construction of special sample containment needed for studying materials under stress, extremes in pressure and temperature, etc. Third, neutrons readily distinguish between different light elements, and between different isotopes of the same element. The ability to distinguish between hydrogen and deuterium is particularly important in this regard. New ways of exploiting the capabilities of neutrons are opening up with the development of improved sources and instruments in the US and elsewhere. In this talk the author will discuss the basic concepts that give rise to the unique capabilities of neutron scattering, giving several examples of the uses of neutron scattering techniques in the study of polymer composites. The examples will include the morphology of fillers, polymer binders and matrices, interfaces and defect structures.

  13. Accelerated Aging Effect on Epoxy-polysiloxane Polymeric Insulator Material with Rice Husk Ash Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochmadi .

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The performances of outdoor polymeric insulators are influenced by environmental conditions. This paper presents the effect of artificial tropical climate on the hydrophobicity, equivalent salt deposit density (ESDD, surface leakage current, flashover voltage, and surface degradation on epoxy-polysiloxane polymeric insulator materials with rice husk ash (RHA. Test samples are made at room temperature vulcanized (RTV of various composition of epoxy-polysiloxane with rice husk ash as filler. The aging was carried out in test chamber at temperature from 50oC to 62oC, relative humidity of 60% to 80%, and ultraviolet (UV  radiation 21.28 w/cm2 in daylight conditions for 96 hours. The experiment results showed that the flashover voltage fluctuates from 34.13 kV up to 40.92 kV and tends to decrease on each variation of material composition. The surface leakage current fluctuates and tends to increase. Test samples with higher filler content result greater hydrophobicity, smaller equivalent salt deposit density, and smaller critical leakage current, which caused the increase of the flashover voltage. Insulator material (RTVEP3 showed the best performance in tropical climate environment. Artificial tropical aging for short duration gives less effect to the surface degradation of epoxy-polysiloxane insulator material.

  14. Use of waste from the marble industry as filler for the production of self-compacting concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdez, P.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the possibilities of using residual slurry from the cutting and superficial treatment of marble for the production of self-compacting concrete (SCC. The study considers the replacement of 30% of cement by the waste material, and assessed the effects on SCC properties in fresh and hardened states. Rheological characteristics were evaluated at the paste and concrete levels. Physical-mechanical characterization considers the rate of shrinkage and compressive strength gain. Pastes and concrete properties using waste marble as filler are compared with mixtures that include limestone filler, either added to the concrete or the cement. For the same dosage, an improvement in the flowability was observed in SCC with waste marble filler. The mechanical properties of the SCC adopting marble waste are equivalent to the SCC with limestone filler. The study shows that residual slurry from the processing of marble can represents an appropriate filler to be used in SCC.

    El presente estudio evalúa las posibilidades de utilización de lodos residuo de la industria del corte y tratamiento superficial del mármol para la producción de hormigón autocompactante (HAC. Se estudia el efecto del remplazo de un 30% del cemento por el residuo. Se valoran las características reológicas a nivel pasta y hormigón. La caracterización físico-mecánica contempla la evolución de la retracción y de la resistencia a compresión. Se comparan las prestaciones de pastas y hormigones empleando el residuo con mezclas que incorporan filler calizo, ya sea adicionado al hormigón o presente en el cemento. Se observa una mejora de la fluidez en el caso de los HAC que contienen el residuo estudiado; las propiedades mecánicas de éstos resultan equivalentes a las de los HAC con filler calizo. Se concluye que los lodos residuo del procesamiento del mármol pueden representan un filler adecuado para su uso en HAC.

  15. Ethanol production waste as rubber composite filler: examining the pyrolysis of dried distillers grains and other dry milling byproducts as potential rubber reinforcement materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current push for corn-based ethanol is creating a large surplus of affordable by-products that can potentially serve as filler material for rubber composites. Biomaterial fillers can help replace carbon black and reduce dependence on petroleum. This research examines the reinforcement behavior...

  16. Carbon dioxide selective mixed matrix composite membrane containing ZIF-7 nano-fillers

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Mixed matrix materials made from selective inorganic fillers and polymers are very attractive for the manufacturing of gas separation membranes. But only few of these materials could be manufactured into high-performance asymmetric or composite membranes. We report here the first mixed matrix composite membrane made of commercially available poly (amide-b-ethylene oxide) (Pebax®1657, Arkema) mixed with the nano-sized zeolitic imidazole framework ZIF-7. This hybrid material has been successfully deposited as a thin layer (less than 1μm) on a porous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) support. An intermediate gutter layer of PTMSP was applied to serve as a flat and smooth surface for coating to avoid polymer penetration into the porous support. Key features of this work are the preparation and use of ultra-small ZIF-7 nano-particles (around 30-35nm) and the membrane processability of Pebax®1657. SEM pictures show that excellent adhesion and almost ideal morphology between the two phases has been obtained simply by mixing the as-synthesized ZIF-7 suspension into the Pebax®1657 dope, and no voids or clusters can be observed. The performance of the composite membrane is characterized by single gas permeation measurement of CO2, N2 and CH4. Both, permeability (PCO2 up to 145barrer) and gas selectivity (CO2/N2 up to 97 and CO2/CH4 up to 30) can be increased at low ZIF- loading. The CO2/CH4 selectivity can be further increased to 44 with the filler loading of 34wt%, but the permeability is reduced compared to the pure Pebax®1657 membrane. Polymer chain rigidification at high filler loading is supposed to be a reason for the reduced permeability. The composite membranes prepared in this work show better performance in terms of permeance and selectivity when compared with asymmetric mixed matrix membranes described in the recent literature. Overall, the ZIF 7/Pebax mixed matrix membranes show a high performance for CO2 separation from methane and other gas streams. They are easy to

  17. A study of the role of fillers in silicone rubber compounds for outdoor insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Luiz Henrique

    Polymeric materials are being used as a housing material on high voltage outdoor insulation as an alternative to porcelain or glass in line insulators, surge arresters, station posts, and bushings. Among the polymeric materials in use, silicone rubber has proven to have good aging performance under polluted conditions by keeping low levels of leakage current by virtue of its hydrophobicity. However, the exposure of polymeric materials to contaminated and humid environments can lead to certain surface conditions that reduces hydrophobicity increasing leakage current levels, giving rise to dry band arcing. Dry band arcing produces heat, which can result in tracking or erosion of the housing material. Although this dry band arcing does not harm porcelain or glass housings, it will erode pure silicone rubber to such an extent that its application in outdoor environments is not, practical. Fillers are added to silicone rubber to improve tracking and erosion resistance. Among the filler choices, alumina trihydrate (ATH) and silica have been extensively adopted in the compounding of polymeric housings. ATH is a flame retardant that has a molecular water in its formulation. Whenever the surface temperature of an ATH filled polymer reaches approximately 220°C, the water of hydration is released from the ATH molecule, what is recognized as an efficient way to cool down the surface, for example, in the case of dry band arcing. Alternatively, silica has very good bonding with the polymer backbone, imparting mechanical strength to the composite matrix. In addition, fillers such as ATH or silica increase the thermal conductivity of silicone rubber composites, which facilitates moving the heat away from its source, that is, from the origin of dry band arcing. Although heat is considered to be the main degradation factor when dry band arcing occurs, very little information is available on the thermal performance of filled silicone rubber. The standard methods available to test

  18. Outer Circle Versus Inner Circle: Special Considerations While Rejuvenating an Indian Face Using Fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    An oval face, pronounced cheek bones, a defined jaw line and a smooth Ogee curve are global aesthetic beauty goals. Though criteria are similar the Indian face poses some unique challenges because of the innate differences in skeletal shape, size, and soft tissue disposition. Width of the malar prominences and mandibular angles along with height are smaller compared to the other Asian and Caucasian populations along with a much heavier soft tissue disposition. This creates unique deficits and places unique demands on aesthetic intervention. The evolution of practice patterns has lead to a variety of newer approaches; however, it is still common to target the nasolabial and mid-face volumizing as basic intervention for facial beautifying and rejuvenation. As aging progresses, Indian faces tend to get fuller and the tissue then descends downwards similar to other ethnic groups albeit more aggressive due to higher volumes of facial fat pad and smaller bone framework. Any excess correction in the inner circle zones will further add to the bulk along with cumulative remnants of previously administered fillers. In a younger face when the goal is beautification the attempt is to address the specific structural deficit on the outer bony framework along with the chin. This enhances the appearance immediately as well as holds up the tissue descent as they age. When the goal is youthful transition of an aging face, then again the bony changes further enhance the deficit in framework and the loss of fat pads along the periphery that is lateral forehead, temples and lateral cheek. Fat pad correction will give the most natural and best results as against working on the anterior mid cheek, nasolabials and angle of the mouth in a soft tissue heavy center zone of the face. Botulinum toxin and hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers remain the most popular facial injectables used for facial rejuvenation and structural enhancement. Naturally enhanced faces, and gracefully addressed aging

  19. High temperature silver-palladium-copper oxide air braze filler metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsell, Jens Tommy

    The Ag-CuO system is currently being investigated as the basis for an air braze filler metal alloy to be used in SOFC components. The system is of interest because unlike most braze alloys, it is capable of wetting a variety of ceramic materials while being applied in an air. This thesis work examined modification of Ag-CuO filler metal system by alloying with palladium to increase the use temperature of the resulting air braze alloy. Thermal analysis was performed to track changes in the solidus and liquidus temperatures for these alloys and determine equilibrium phase present as a function of temperature and composition. Sessile drop experiments were performed to investigate the effect of palladium addition on braze wetability. The influence of copper-oxide and palladium contents on brazed joint strength was characterized by a combination of four-point bend testing and fractography. From combined thermal analysis and quenched data it was found that both the liquidus and solidus increase with increasing palladium content, and the silver-rich miscibility gap boundary could be shifted by the addition of palladium. This was employed as a tool to study the effects of two-liquid phase formation on wetting behavior. In addition, a mass loss likely attributable to silver volatilization is observed in the Pd-modified filler metals when heated over ˜1100°C. As volatilization should be avoided, the ternary alloys should be limited to 15mol% Pd. It was found by sessile drop wetting experiments that there is a definitive change in wetting behavior that corresponds directly to the miscibility gap boundary for the Pd-Ag-CuO system. The first order transition tracks with changes in the miscibility gap boundary that can be induced by increasing palladium content. This is the first experimental evidence of critical point wetting behavior reported for a metal-oxide system and further confirms that critical point wetting theory is universal. Four-point bend testing and

  20. Outer circle versus inner circle: Special considerations while rejuvenating an Indian face using fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An oval face, pronounced cheek bones, a defined jaw line and a smooth Ogee curve are global aesthetic beauty goals. Though criteria are similar the Indian face poses some unique challenges because of the innate differences in skeletal shape, size, and soft tissue disposition. Width of the malar prominences and mandibular angles along with height are smaller compared to the other Asian and Caucasian populations along with a much heavier soft tissue disposition. This creates unique deficits and places unique demands on aesthetic intervention. Objectives: The evolution of practice patterns has lead to a variety of newer approaches; however, it is still common to target the nasolabial and mid-face volumizing as basic intervention for facial beautifying and rejuvenation. As aging progresses, Indian faces tend to get fuller and the tissue then descends downwards similar to other ethnic groups albeit more aggressive due to higher volumes of facial fat pad and smaller bone framework. Any excess correction in the inner circle zones will further add to the bulk along with cumulative remnants of previously administered fillers. Methods: In a younger face when the goal is beautification the attempt is to address the specific structural deficit on the outer bony framework along with the chin. This enhances the appearance immediately as well as holds up the tissue descent as they age. When the goal is youthful transition of an aging face, then again the bony changes further enhance the deficit in framework and the loss of fat pads along the periphery that is lateral forehead, temples and lateral cheek. Fat pad correction will give the most natural and best results as against working on the anterior mid cheek, nasolabials and angle of the mouth in a soft tissue heavy center zone of the face. Botulinum toxin and hyaluronic acid (HA fillers remain the most popular facial injectables used for facial rejuvenation and structural enhancement. Results

  1. APRENDIENDO ELECTROQUÍMICA. UN ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. Vera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un seguimiento del proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje de Electroquímica y se compararon los resultados obtenidos en evaluaciones parciales, con el objetivo de analizar si existen diferencias significativas en la apropiación de contenidos entre alumnos de carreras con diferentes perfiles. Se trabajó en los años 2009 y 2010 con dos grupos de alumnos en cada año, pertenecientes a carreras químicas y no químicas respectivamente. En ambos grupos se desarrollaron, con la misma carga horaria, contenidos conceptuales y procedimentales en clases teóricas con prácticas de resolución de problemas y de laboratorio. Para la evaluación se presentaron idénticas situaciones problemáticas, cuyos resultados muestran diferencias no significativas entre ambos grupos en la identificación del cátodo y del ánodo y cálculo de la fem estándar de la celda; en cambio en la aplicación de la Ecuación de Nernst y la identificación de especies químicas que reaccionan en los electrodos, hay diferencias significativas en las respuestas dadas.

  2. mica – music information center austria

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    1994 wurde das österreichische Musikinformationszentrum (mica) im Auftrag des österreichischen Bundesministers für Unterricht und Kunst (Rudolf Scholten) von den Bundeskuratoren für Musik (L. Knessl, Christian Scheib) gegründet (Geschäftsführer 1994–99 Matthias Finkentey, 1999–09 Peter Rantasa, ab 2009 Sabine Reiter).

  3. MeV fullerene impacts on mica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebeli, M.; Scandella, L. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Ames, F. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Hillock heights on mica irradiated with MeV C{sub 60} ions have been investigated systematically. Results show that the small range of secondary particles along the track plays a crucial role in defect production. (author) figs., tab., refs.

  4. Mechanical properties of 5083 aluminium welds after manual and automatic pulsed gas metal arc welding using E5356 filler

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutombo, K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Semi-automatic and automatic pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of aluminium alloy 5083 with ER5356 filler wire causes considerable softening in the weld. The tensile strength of dressed automatic welds approaches that of the base metal...

  5. Influence of magnetic field-aided filler orientation on structure and transport properties of ferrite filled composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goc, K.; Gaska, K.; Klimczyk, K.; Wujek, A.; Prendota, W.; Jarosinski, L.; Rybak, A.; Kmita, G.; Kapusta, Cz.

    2016-12-01

    Epoxy resins are materials commonly used for insulations and encapsulations due to their easy processing process and mechanical strength. For their applications in power industry and electronics the effective heat dissipation is essential, thus their thermal conductivity is one of the most important properties. Introduction of appropriate dielectric powders, preferably in an ordered way, can increase the thermal conductivity of the polymer while keeping its good electrical insulation properties. In this work we used strontium ferrite as a filler to study the evolution of the filler particles distribution in the fluid before curing. Magnetic ferrite particles were dispersed in liquid epoxy resin and formation of chain-like or more complex structures under applied external magnetic field was observed and investigated. Computer simulations made show that with increasing magnetic field these structures are characterized by longer chains, higher speed of particles displacement and stronger structural anisotropy. However, for highly-filled systems, stronger inter-particle interactions make the alignment process less effective. The effective thermal conductivity simulated with FEM methods increases with increasing filler content and the percolation threshold in aligned systems is achieved at lower filler concentrations than for reference isotropic samples. The results are compared with the experimental data and a good qualitative agreement is obtained.

  6. Hybrid nanostructured Ag/ZnO decorated powder cellulose fillers for medical plastics with enhanced surface antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazant, Pavel; Kuritka, Ivo; Munster, Lukas; Machovsky, Michal; Kozakova, Zuzana; Saha, Petr

    2014-11-01

    Hybrid inorganic-organic fillers based on nanostructured silver/zinc oxide decorations on micro-cellulose carrier particles were prepared by stepwise microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis using soluble salts as precursors of silver and zinc oxide. Hexamethylenetetramine was used as precipitating agent for zinc oxide and reducing agent for silver. The inorganics covered all available surfaces of the cellulose particles with a morphology resembling a coral reef. Prepared particulate fillers were compounded to medical grade poly(vinyl chloride) matrix. Scanning electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffractometry were used to investigate the morphology and crystalline phase structure of fillers. The scanning electron microscopy was used for morphological study of composites. With respect to prospective application, the composites were tested on electrical and antibacterial properties. A small effect of water absorption in polymer composites on their dielectric properties was observed but no adverse effect of water exposure on prepared materials was manifested. Electrical conductivity of fillers and composites was measured and no influence of water soaking of composites was found at all. The surface antibacterial activity of prepared composites was evaluated according to the standard ISO 22196. Excellent performance against Escherichia coli and very high against Staphylococcus aureus was achieved.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid silica/PMMA nanoparticles and their use as filler in dental composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canché-Escamilla, G; Duarte-Aranda, S; Toledano, M

    2014-09-01

    The effect of hybrid silica/poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) nanoparticles on the properties of composites for dental restoration was evaluated. Hybrid nanoparticles with silica as core and PMMA as shell were obtained by a seeded emulsion polymerization process. Fourier transform infrared spectrum of the hybrid nanoparticles shows an intense peak at 1,730 cm(-1), corresponding to carbonyl groups (CO) of the ester. The thermal stability of the hybrid particles decreases with increasing amounts of PMMA and the residual mass at 700°C corresponds to the silica content in the hybrid particles. Composites were obtained by dispersing nanoparticles (silica or hybrid), as fillers, in a resin-bis glycidyl dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA)/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) (40%/60% (w/w)). The paste was then placed in a mold and polymerized under light irradiation. During the preparation of the composites, with the hybrid nanoparticles, the monomers swell the PMMA shell and after photo-curing, a semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) is obtained around the silica core. The properties of the composites, obtained using the hybrid nanoparticles, depend on the filler content and the amount of PMMA in the semi-IPN matrix. For composites with similar inorganic filler contents, the composites with low amounts of PMMA shell had higher modulus than those in which silica was used as the filler. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Carbon hybrid fillers composed of carbon nanotubes directly grown on graphene nanoplatelets for effective thermal conductivity in epoxy composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lan; Park, Ji Sun; Lim, Yun-Soo; Lee, Churl Seung; Shin, Kwonwoo; Moon, Ho Jun; Yang, Cheol-Min; Lee, Young Sil; Han, Jong Hun

    2013-03-26

    Carbon nanomaterials are generally used to promote the thermal conductivity of polymer composites. However, individual graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) or carbon nanotubes (CNTs) limit the realization of the desirable thermal conductivity of the composite in both through- and in-plane directions. In this work, we present the thermal conductivity enhancement of the epoxy composite with carbon hybrid fillers composed of CNTs directly grown on the GNP support. The composite with 20 wt% hybrid filler loading showed 300% and 50% through-plane thermal conductivity improvements in comparison with the individual CNTs and GNPs, respectively. Moreover, it showed an enhanced thermal conductivity of up to 12% higher than that of the simply mixed GNP and CNT fillers. In more detail, hybrid fillers, whose CNTs were synthesized on the GNP support (Support C, Fe/Mo-MgO:GNP=1:0.456) for 60 min via chemical vapor deposition process, presented the highest through-plane thermal conductivity of 2.41 W m(-1) K(-1) in an epoxy composite.

  9. Influence of radiopaque fillers on physicochemical properties of a model epoxy resin-based root canal sealer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Mezzomo COLLARES

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the influence of radiopaque fillers on an epoxy resin-based sealer. Material and Methods: Experimental sealers were formulated by adding 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100% and 120% of calcium tungstate, ytterbium trifluoride or barium sulphate by weight to an epoxy-resin-base. Setting time, flow, film thickness, radiopacity, sorption, solubility, pH and push-out bond strength were evaluated. Results: The setting time ranged from 373 to 612.66 min, the flow varied from 13.81±0.49 to 22.49±0.37 mm, and the film thickness ranged from 16.67±5.77 to 33.33±11.54 µm. The lowest pH was 5.47±0.53, and the highest was 6.99±0.03. Radiopacity varied from 0.38±0.04 to 2.57±0.21 mmAl and increased with the amount of filler. Calcium tungstate sealers had a higher sorption and solubility than other sealers. There was no significant difference in the push-out bond strength among the fillers at the 120% concentration. CONCLUSION: The inorganic fillers evaluated and their concentrations affect the physicochemical properties of an epoxy resin-based root canal sealer.

  10. Influence of radiopaque fillers on physicochemical properties of a model epoxy resin-based root canal sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collares, Fabrício Mezzomo; Klein, Mariana; Santos, Paula Dapper; Portella, Fernando Freitas; Ogliari, Fabrício; Leitune, Vicente Castelo Branco; Samuel, Susana Maria Werner

    2013-01-01

    To verify the influence of radiopaque fillers on an epoxy resin-based sealer. Experimental sealers were formulated by adding 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100% and 120% of calcium tungstate, ytterbium trifluoride or barium sulphate by weight to an epoxy-resin-base. Setting time, flow, film thickness, radiopacity, sorption, solubility, pH and push-out bond strength were evaluated. The setting time ranged from 373 to 612.66 min, the flow varied from 13.81±0.49 to 22.49±0.37 mm, and the film thickness ranged from 16.67±5.77 to 33.33±11.54 µm. The lowest pH was 5.47±0.53, and the highest was 6.99±0.03. Radiopacity varied from 0.38±0.04 to 2.57±0.21 mmAl and increased with the amount of filler. Calcium tungstate sealers had a higher sorption and solubility than other sealers. There was no significant difference in the push-out bond strength among the fillers at the 120% concentration. The inorganic fillers evaluated and their concentrations affect the physicochemical properties of an epoxy resin-based root canal sealer.

  11. Simulation of Zr content in TiZrCuNi brazing filler metal for Ti6Al4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Xishan [Northwestern Polytechnical University, School of Astronautics, Xi' an (China); AVIC Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Aeronautical Key Laboratory for Welding and Joining Technology, Beijing (China); Xie, Zonghong [Northwestern Polytechnical University, School of Astronautics, Xi' an (China); Jing, Yongjuan [AVIC Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Aeronautical Key Laboratory for Welding and Joining Technology, Beijing (China)

    2017-07-15

    To optimize the Zr content in Ti-based filler metal, the covalent electron on the nearest atoms bond in unit cell (n{sub A}{sup u-v}) with Ti-based BCC structure was calculated, in which the brazing temperature was considered due to its influence on the lattice parameter. Based on EET theory (The Empirical Electron Theory for solid and molecules), n{sub A}{sup u-v} represents the strength of the unit cell with defined element composition and structure, which reflects the effect from solid solution strengthening on the strength of the unit cell. For Ti-Zr-15Cu-10Ni wt% filler metal, it kept constant as 0.3476 with Zr as 37.5 ∝ 45 wt% and decreased to 0.333 with Zr decreasing from 37.5 to 25 wt%. Finally, it increased up to 0.3406 with Zr as 2 ∝ 10 wt%. Thus, Ti-based filler metal with Zr content being 2 ∝ 10 wt% is suggested based on the simulation results. Moreover, the calculated covalent electron of n{sub A}{sup u-v} showed good agreement with the hardness of the joint by filler 37.5Zr and 10Zr. The composition of Ti-10Zr-15Cu-10Ni wt% was verified in this study with higher tensile strength of the brazing joint and uniform microstructure of the interface. (orig.)

  12. Dual-Component Gelatinous Peptide/Reactive Oligomer Formulations as Conduit Material and Luminal Filler for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn-Polster, Caroline; Bhatnagar, Divya; Woloszyn, Derek J; Richtmyer, Matthew; Starke, Annett; Springwald, Alexandra H; Franz, Sandra; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Kaplan, Hilton M; Kohn, Joachim; Hacker, Michael C

    2017-05-21

    Toward the next generation of nerve guidance conduits (NGCs), novel biomaterials and functionalization concepts are required to address clinical demands in peripheral nerve regeneration (PNR). As a biological polymer with bioactive motifs, gelatinous peptides are promising building blocks. In combination with an anhydride-containing oligomer, a dual-component hydrogel system (cGEL) was established. First, hollow cGEL tubes were fabricated by a continuous dosing and templating process. Conduits were characterized concerning their mechanical strength, in vitro and in vivo degradation and biocompatibility. Second, cGEL was reformulated as injectable shear thinning filler for established NGCs, here tyrosine-derived polycarbonate-based braided conduits. Thereby, the formulation contained the small molecule LM11A-31. The biofunctionalized cGEL filler was assessed regarding building block integration, mechanical properties, in vitro cytotoxicity, and growth permissive effects on human adipose tissue-derived stem cells. A positive in vitro evaluation motivated further application of the filler material in a sciatic nerve defect. Compared to the empty conduit and pristine cGEL, the functionalization performed superior, though the autologous nerve graft remains the gold standard. In conclusion, LM11A-31 functionalized cGEL filler with extracellular matrix (ECM)-like characteristics and specific biochemical cues holds great potential to support PNR.

  13. The Resolution and Recovery of Filler-Gap Dependencies in Aphasia: Evidence from On-Line Anomaly Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Michael Walsh; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the on-line processing of sentences with movement using an auditory anomaly detection task (after Boland, Tanenhaus, Garnsey, & Carlson, 1995). Eight agrammatic aphasic participants (four of whom had undergone treatment focused on comprehension and production of filler-gap sentences) and 24 young normal participants listened to…

  14. Injectable Cartilage Shaving: An Autologous and Long Lasting Filler Material for Correction of Minor Contour Deformities in Rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafi, Ali; Hamedi, Zahra Sadat; Manafi, Amir; Rajabiani, Afsaneh; Rajaee, Ahmadreza; Manafi, Farzad

    2015-07-01

    Filler materials are gaining popularity in nonsurgical rhinoplasty the major advantages are the ability to camouflage the surface deformities, and also the soft and malleable consistency; while the major drawback of the safe fillers such as hyaluronic acid is short durability. In this study, we evaluated the injectable cartilage shaving as an autologous filler material for correction of minor contour deformities in rhinoplasty. Injectable cartilage shaving was used for correction of surface irregularities in primary or secondary rhinoplasty, and long term results of 128 patients were evaluated. The source of cartilage was autologous septum, rib or less frequently, the ear concha. The material was injected with 14 to 18 gauge needles or blunted tip lipofilling cannulas with 1.3-1.7 mm internal diameters. It was performed whether during the septorhinoplasty or as a separate single procedure without elevation of the flap. Success was defined as the long term survival of the graft in the desired site and absence of recurrent deformity or complications such as extrusion, infection or displacement. Twenty seven males and 101 females underwent the procedure from May 2008 to January 2014. Mean follow up period was 31 (13-58) months. Ninety five percent of patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the results at the last follow up visits and touch up procedure was performed for the unsatisfied patients. Injectable cartilage shaving is a reliable filler to correct and camouflage the surface irregularities, and it is durable and predictable in long term follow ups.

  15. Dual-Component Gelatinous Peptide/Reactive Oligomer Formulations as Conduit Material and Luminal Filler for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Kohn-Polster

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Toward the next generation of nerve guidance conduits (NGCs, novel biomaterials and functionalization concepts are required to address clinical demands in peripheral nerve regeneration (PNR. As a biological polymer with bioactive motifs, gelatinous peptides are promising building blocks. In combination with an anhydride-containing oligomer, a dual-component hydrogel system (cGEL was established. First, hollow cGEL tubes were fabricated by a continuous dosing and templating process. Conduits were characterized concerning their mechanical strength, in vitro and in vivo degradation and biocompatibility. Second, cGEL was reformulated as injectable shear thinning filler for established NGCs, here tyrosine-derived polycarbonate-based braided conduits. Thereby, the formulation contained the small molecule LM11A-31. The biofunctionalized cGEL filler was assessed regarding building block integration, mechanical properties, in vitro cytotoxicity, and growth permissive effects on human adipose tissue-derived stem cells. A positive in vitro evaluation motivated further application of the filler material in a sciatic nerve defect. Compared to the empty conduit and pristine cGEL, the functionalization performed superior, though the autologous nerve graft remains the gold standard. In conclusion, LM11A-31 functionalized cGEL filler with extracellular matrix (ECM-like characteristics and specific biochemical cues holds great potential to support PNR.

  16. Polymer-filler interactions in poly(vinyl chloride) filled with glass beads : effect of grafted poly(methyl methacrylate)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Gert; Folkersma, Rudy; Challa, Ger; Schouten, Arend Jan; Bosma, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Adhesion between filler and matrix has been studied using a model system composed of glass bead filled poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). Stress-strain and volume-strain tests and scanning electron microscopy revealed that adhesion is improved by grafting poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), which is known to

  17. Simulation of Zr content in TiZrCuNi brazing filler metal for Ti6Al4V alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xishan; Xie, Zonghong; Jing, Yongjuan

    2017-07-01

    To optimize the Zr content in Ti-based filler metal, the covalent electron on the nearest atoms bond in unit cell ( n A u-v ) with Ti-based BCC structure was calculated, in which the brazing temperature was considered due to its influence on the lattice parameter. Based on EET theory (The Empirical Electron Theory for solid and molecules), n_{{A}}^{{u - v}} represents the strength of the unit cell with defined element composition and structure, which reflects the effect from solid solution strengthening on the strength of the unit cell. For Ti-Zr-15Cu-10Ni wt% filler metal, it kept constant as 0.3476 with Zr as 37.5˜45 wt% and decreased to 0.333 with Zr decreasing from 37.5 to 25 wt%. Finally, it increased up to 0.3406 with Zr as 2˜10 wt%. Thus, Ti-based filler metal with Zr content being 2˜10 wt% is suggested based on the simulation results. Moreover, the calculated covalent electron of n A u-v showed good agreement with the hardness of the joint by filler 37.5Zr and 10Zr. The composition of Ti-10Zr-15Cu-10Ni wt% was verified in this study with higher tensile strength of the brazing joint and uniform microstructure of the interface.

  18. Enhanced lithium battery with polyethylene oxide-based electrolyte containing silane-Al2 O3 ceramic filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewde, Berhanu W; Admassie, Shimelis; Zimmermann, Jutta; Isfort, Christian Schulze; Scrosati, Bruno; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-08-01

    A solid polymer electrolyte prepared by using a solvent-free, scalable technique is reported. The membrane is formed by low-energy ball milling followed by hot-pressing of dry powdered polyethylene oxide polymer, LiCF3 SO3 salt, and silane-treated Al2 O3 (Al2 O3 -ST) ceramic filler. The effects of the ceramic fillers on the properties of the ionically conducting solid electrolyte membrane are characterized by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, XRD, differential scanning calorimeter, SEM, and galvanostatic cycling in lithium cells with a LiFePO4 cathode. We demonstrate that the membrane containing Al2 O3 -ST ceramic filler performs well in terms of ionic conductivity, thermal properties, and lithium transference number. Furthermore, we show that the lithium cells, which use the new electrolyte together with the LiFePO4 electrode, operate within 65 and 90 °C with high efficiency and long cycle life. Hence, the Al2 O3 -ST ceramic can be efficiently used as a ceramic filler to enhance the performance of solid polymer electrolytes in lithium batteries. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The Relationship of Anti-MICA Antibodies and MICA Expression with Heart Allograft Rejection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suarez-Alvarez, B; Lopez-Vazquez, A; Gonzalez, M. Zapico; Fdez-Morera, J. L; Diaz-Molina, B; Blanco-Gelaz, M. A; Pascual, D; Martinez-Borra, J; Muro, M; Alvarez-Lopez, M. R; Lopez-Larrea, C

    2007-01-01

    The role of MICA antibodies in acute heart allograft rejection was examined utilizing 190 pre- and post-transplant serum samples from 44 patients collected during the first year after transplantation...

  20. Nitrogen determination in micas of metamorphic rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ager, F.J. [Depto. Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Universitaria Politecnica, Universidad de Sevilla, C. Virgen de Africa 7, E-41011 Sevilla (Spain) and Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Av. Thomas A. Edison, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)]. E-mail: fjager@us.es; Mata, M.P. [Depto. Geologia, Fac. Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus Rio San Pedro, s/n, E-11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Ynsa, M.D. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, IN2P3-CNRS, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Respaldiza, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Av. Thomas A. Edison, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Goffe, B. [UMR 8538, Lb. Geologie, ENS, 24, Rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Nieto, F. [Dpto. Mineralogia y Petrologia, Fac. Ciencias, Av. Fuentenueva s/n, E-18002 Granada (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    Micas are minerals that provide large amounts of information regarding geological processes, because of the sensitivity of their chemical composition to temperature, pressure and deformation of rocks in which they form. Rocks under analysis are formed of different minerals with variable grain size. Mica grain size may vary between 5 and 10 {mu}m and approximately correspond to the chemical formula (Si{sub 3.2}Al{sub 0.8})O{sub 10}(Al{sub 1.9}Fe{sub 0.05}Mg{sub 0.1})(OH){sub 2}(K{sub 0.75}Na{sub 0.05}), being distinguishable from other minerals because of their composition and their morphology in secondary electron images and specially backscattered electron (BSE) images. NH{sub 4}, when present, would partially substitute K in the previous formula. In some cases NH{sub 4}-rich micas (tobelites) have been described coexisting with the corresponding K-rich micas, but the actual NH{sub 4} content of normal K-rich micas is still unknown. Low N content makes necessary to use nuclear reactions such as {sup 14}N(d, p{gamma}){sup 15}N at 1.4 MeV and its cascade of intense {gamma}-rays. For the quantification and localization of nitrogen on the surface of the samples, PIGE analysis was carried out in the vacuum microprobe line of the CNA, together with simultaneous micro-RBS and micro-PIXE analyses, giving a more comprehensive picture of sample structure and composition.

  1. Cinética Química

    OpenAIRE

    Peirano, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Documento sobre los conceptos básicos acerca de la cinética química, que es una rama de la química que estudia las velocidades de las reacciones químicas y los factores que afectan a esas velocidades.

  2. Quaternary Polymer Electrolytes Containing an Ionic Liquid and a Ceramic Filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharova, Varvara; Kim, Guk-Tae; Giffin, Guinevere A; Lex-Balducci, Alexandra; Passerini, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the individual and combined effects of an ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide and ceramic filler silicon dioxide on the thermal and electrochemical properties of poly(ethylene oxide) electrolytes have been investigated. The electrolyte containing both components has the lowest glass transition (-60 °C) and melting temperatures (27 °C), the highest conductivity at any investigated temperature, and the highest limiting current density (at 40 °C). This solid polymer electrolyte also exhibits the best long-term cycling performance in Li/LiFePO4 cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Using cellulose nanofiber as filler of urea formaldehyde resin in plywood manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    samira barzali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, physical and mechanical properties of poplar (Populus nigra plywood made by urea-formaldehyde resin along with nano fiber cellulose were studied. For this reason, the nanofiber cellulose as filler at five levels 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7% based on oven dry weight of resin were used. Physical and mechanical properties of the samples, including water absorption and thickness swelling after 2 and 24 hours immersion in water, bending strength and modulus of elasticity (parallel and perpendicular to surface grain and bonding shear strength were measured. The results showed that increasing the amount of nano fiber cellulose improved the dimentional stability of the boards. Also increasing the amount of nano fiber cellulose increases the bending strength and modulus of elasticity parallel to surface grain. On the other hand, increasing the amount of nano fiber cellulose increases the bonding shear strength but no significant differences observed between the different treatments.

  4. Racial and ethnic differences in skin aging: implications for treatment with soft tissue fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexis, Andrew F; Alam, Murad

    2012-08-01

    Racial and ethnic differences in the age of onset, severity, and anatomical features of facial aging have been described. In addition, increased melanocyte lability and fibroblast reactivity are functional features that are characteristic of skin of color. These differences should be considered when treating patients with soft tissue fillers in order to achieve optimal results. Signs of facial aging in individuals with skin of color tend to be most pronounced in the periorbital and midface region with less prominent features of skin aging in the upper third of the face and a decreased tendency toward perioral rhytides and radial lip lines. As such, volumization of the midface while preserving individual and ethnic ideals of beauty is a key goal. Important treatment considerations include minimization of inflammation, epidermal injury, and bruising, which can lead to aesthetically displeasing sequelae.

  5. Filler-depletion layer adjacent to interface impacts performance of thermal interface material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Yada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When installing thermal interface material (TIM between heat source and sink to reduce contact thermal resistance, the interfacial thermal resistance (ITR between the TIM and heat source/sink may become important, especially when the TIM thickness becomes smaller in the next-generation device integration. To this end, we have investigated ITR between TIM and aluminum surface by using the time-domain thermoreflectance method. The measurements reveal large ITR attributed to the depletion of filler particles in TIM adjacent to the aluminum surface. The thickness of the depletion layer is estimated to be about 100 nm. As a consequence, the fraction of ITR to the total contact thermal resistance becomes about 20% when the TIM thickness is about 50 μm (current thickness, and it exceeds 50% when the thickness is smaller than 10 μm (next-generation thickness.

  6. Laser brazing of a steel/aluminium assembly with hot filler wire (88% Al, 12% Si)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Alexandre [Laboratoire Laser et Traitement des Materiaux (LTm), IUT Le Creusot, 12 rue de la Fonderie, 71200 Le Creusot (France)]. E-mail: a.mathieu@iutlecreusot.u-bourgogne.fr; Pontevicci, Sebastien [Laboratoire Multi-materiaux et Interfaces (LMI), Universite Claude Bernard, Lyon 1, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Viala, Jean-claude [Laboratoire Multi-materiaux et Interfaces (LMI), Universite Claude Bernard, Lyon 1, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Cicala, Eugen [Laboratoire Laser et Traitement des Materiaux (LTm), IUT Le Creusot, 12 rue de la Fonderie, 71200 Le Creusot (France); Universitatea ' Politehnica' din Timisoara, P-ta Victoriei, nr.2, 300222 Timisoara (Romania); Mattei, Simone [Laboratoire Laser et Traitement des Materiaux (LTm), IUT Le Creusot, 12 rue de la Fonderie, 71200 Le Creusot (France); Grevey, Dominique [Laboratoire Laser et Traitement des Materiaux (LTm), IUT Le Creusot, 12 rue de la Fonderie, 71200 Le Creusot (France)

    2006-11-05

    The main problem in joining steel to aluminium by a thermal process (e.g. TIG, MIG) is the formation of brittle intermetallic phases, that causes the mechanical performance of the assembly to be poor. A laser beam, however, can localize the fusion and inhibit the formation of these phases. This article presents a feasibility study for steel/aluminium assemblies with filler wire of 88% Al and 12% Si. Analysis of the resultant joints may show the causes of fracture. An experimental design study is conducted, to see how the mechanical performance of such joints could be improved. This method establishes what the best operational limits are and shows how different operational conditions influence the various ways in which fractures occur.

  7. The interaction between the permanent magnet and ceramic superconductor with organic filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźny, L.; Kisiel, A.; Garbera, A.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the phenomenon of magnetic levitation for YBaCuO superconducting samples in pure form and with epoxy resin content of 40%. Samples of superconductors were prepared by the standard reaction in the solid state. The forces of interaction between the superconductor and neodymium permanent magnet were measured. Samples with epoxy resin fillers had significantly smaller levitation force than the sample of the sintered superconductors. This is due to a much lower content of pure superconducting material in the sample volume (about 60% of the YBaCuO). However, the obvious advantage of such samples is the possibility of preparation superconductors with complicated shapes, eg. for use in a superconducting bearings or other devices.

  8. Effect of fillers Granulated slag on the durability of HPC in marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebbal Nadia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of fillers of silica fume and blast furnace slag on the durability of high performance concretes was studied .The storage media are: seawater and tap water as reference. This work focuses on the effect of the incorporation of different amounts of milk more silica fume on the mechanical strength of concretes with limestone cements and its influence on sustainability with respect to marine. The results show that the addition of quantity 10%slag and 5% silica fume offers the best protection in marine waters .One of the indicators of sustainability are selected and monitored from 1 day to 28 days are variations of unconfined compressive strengths . The PH of the solution, especially related to the frequency of renewal baths, appears as an important parameter of aggressiveness.

  9. Coconut coirdust flour as filler in phenolic resin adhesives for plywood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, J.R.; Villaflor, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    Veneers of red lauan (Shorea negrosensis) and toog (Petersianthus quadrialata (P. quadrialatuse) were glued into 3-ply boards with PF resins containing 10, 16, 22 and 28 parts by weight (PBW) of (a) coirdust flour and (b) coconut-shell flour, both of which passed a 140-mesh screen. Bond quality was tested by dry shear and cyclic-boil tests following Philippine Standard PS 51-71. Bond strength in red lauan was not within required limits with (a), but approached them at 16 PBW (equivalent to an effective resin solid content of 20.1%) and below; in toog, bond strength with (a) at 16 PBW and below was well within the required limits. With (b) strength was adequate at all filler contents for both species.

  10. Bamboo reinforced concrete slab with styrofoam lamina filler as solution of lightweight concrete application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibowo Ari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy resilience is becoming more important nowadays especially in the field of building sustainability. Some implementations can be carried out including using recycled materials instead of nonrenewable materials such as steel. Hence, one of the investigation conducted in this paper is replacing steel reinforcement with bamboo bars and using recycled materials such as Styrofoam with the aim of producing a concrete element structure that is lighter and more economical. In this research stage, flexural strength test on bamboo reinforced concrete slab with Styrofoam lamination filler was conducted. The results showed that the flexural strength of specimens decreased by 15% but with the weight advantage of 20% less compared with those of normal reinforced concrete slab with the same dimension. It is considered good performance in practical design context, since the nominal flexural capacity of RC slab when designed with minimum reinforcement are usually much higher than the required moment.

  11. Attempts to improve nitrogen utilization efficiency of aquaponics through nitrifies addition and filler gradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yina; Hu, Zhen; Zhang, Jian; Xie, Huijun; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Jinhe; Yan, Runxin

    2016-04-01

    Aquaponics has attracted worldwide attention in recent years and is considered as an alternative technology for conventional aquaculture. In this study, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and pakchoi (Brassica chinensis) were cultured in lab-scale aquaponics, and attempts were conducted to enhance its nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) through two optimization methods, i.e., nitrifies addition (NA) and filler gradation (FG). Results showed that NA and FG could improve the NUE of aquaponics by 8.8 and 16.0%, respectively, compared with control. The total ammonia (TAN) and nitrite (NO2(-)) concentrations in NA and FG systems were maintained at relatively low level (TAN aquaponics also contributed to global warming. Although the two proposed attempts in this study caused more N2O emission, they made new breakthrough in improving the NUE of aquaponics.

  12. Luminescent Polymer Electrolyte Composites Using Silica Coated-Y2O3:Eu as Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikrajuddin Abdullah

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Luminescent polymer electrolyte composites composed of silica coated Y2O3:Eu in polyethylene glycol (PEG matrix has been produced by initially synthesizing silica coated Y2O3:Eu and mixing with polyethylene glycol in a lithium salt solution. High luminescence intensity at round 600 nm contributed by electron transitions in Eu3+ (5D0 -> 7F0, 5D0 -> 7F1, and 5D0 -> 7F3 transitions were observed. The measured electrical conductivity was comparable to that reported for polymer electrolyte composites prepared using passive fillers (non luminescent. This approach is therefore promising for production of high intensity luminescent polymer electrolyte composites for use in development of hybrid battery/display.

  13. [Clinical application and observation of injectable modified sodium hyaluronate gel filler for facial cosmetic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H J; Yu, B; Niu, F; Liu, J F; Chen, Y; Jin, Q

    2017-03-09

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effect of injectable modified sodium hyaluronate gel filler in the treatment of facial profile modification and rejuvenation. Methods: A total of 125 patients who received facial injection of hyaluronate gel from October 2013 to October 2015 were collected. The patients included 62 cases for rhinoplasty, 28 for chin augmentation, 20 for nasolabial fold correction and 15 for lacrimal groove correction. The post-operation results, satisfaction survey and adverse reaction were observed. Results: All the injected positions improved immediately, and the instant average satisfaction score was 9.3±0.7, followed by 8.1±0.7 after 3 months, 6.9±0.8 after 6 month and 5.2±0.8 after 1 year. Thirty cases exhibited swelling, 5 cases bruised, and they all recovered within one week. Conclusions: Sodium hyaluronate is effective and stable in the treatment of facial contour modification and rejuvenation.

  14. Carbonate filler resources of the Bjelopavlići area, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Darko M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate filler is an important mineral commodity, with rather diverse industrial applications. The Bjelopavlići area in Montenegro is rich in chemically pure limestone, which was preliminary explored in the field, and further on mineralogical, petrographic, geochemical and technological properties were studied. The obtained results have proven the high quality of limestone from the studied deposits, as it can be used for paints&varnishes, rubber&plastics, metallurgy, foundry, sugar, fertilizers and animal feed industry. Several deposits have very pure limestone, that can be also used for paper, glass, pharmacy and soil neutralisation. The potential resources of high quality limestone are around 23 million tons. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI176016

  15. Surface functionalization of zirconium phosphate nanoplatelets for the design of polymer fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Brian M; Díaz, Agustín; Bakhmutov, Vladimir; Clearfield, Abraham

    2014-01-08

    Inorganic-organic hybrid materials were synthesized by covalent attachment of epoxides to the surface of zirconium phosphate (ZrP) nanoplatelets. X-ray powder diffraction, FTIR, and TGA were utilized to confirm the presence of the modifiers and exclusive functionalization of the ZrP surface. NMR experiments were conducted to confirm the formation of P-O-C bonds between surface phosphate groups and epoxide rings. The applicability of the organically modified products was demonstrated by their use as fillers in a polymer matrix. Subsequently, a two step intercalation and surface modification procedure was utilized to prepare polymer nanocomposites that were imparted with functionality through the encapsulation of molecules within the interlayer of surface modified ZrP.

  16. [Polyalkylimide filler in human immunodeficiency virus-associated facial lipodystrophy: ophthalmic complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pacheco, S A; Blanco-Rivas, R; Campos-García, S

    2014-10-01

    A 54 year old male, who consulted for acute inflammatory palpebral edema. The patient has HIV infection (on antiretroviral treatment) and an associated facial lipodystrophy that was filled with polyalkylimide in both frontotemporal regions one year before. MRI revealed subcutaneous abscesses in the filled areas, which led to preseptal cellulitis. Complete remission was achieved with antibiotic therapy and monitoring. Polyalkylimide is a hydrogel that is recently used as facial filler without FDA approval. Although it was believed to be safe and useful for treating HIV lipodystrophy, it is not exempt from adverse effects (infection, abscesses, granulomas) that can compromise the eye area. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Critical Filler Concentration in Sulfated Titania-Added Nafion™ Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Sgambetterra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this communication we present a detailed study of Nafion™ composite membranes containing different amounts of nanosized sulfated titania particles, synthesized through an optimized one-step synthesis procedure. Functional membrane properties, such as ionic exchange capacity and water uptake (WU ability will be described and discussed, together with thermal analysis, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy data. Also electrochemical properties such as proton conductivity and performances in hydrogen fuel cells will be presented. It has been demonstrated that a critical concentration of filler particles can boost the fuel cell performance at low humidification, exhibiting a significant improvement of the maximum power and current density delivered under 30% low-relative humidity (RH and 70 °C with respect to bare Nafion™-based systems.

  18. Polyetheretherketone Hybrid Composites with Bioactive Nanohydroxyapatite and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyetheretherketone (PEEK hybrid composites reinforced with inorganic nanohydroxyapatite (nHA and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT were prepared by melt-compounding and injection molding processes. The additions of nHA and MWNT to PEEK were aimed to increase its elastic modulus, tensile strength, and biocompatibility, rendering the hybrids suitable for load-bearing implant applications. The structural behavior, mechanical property, wettability, osteoblastic cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of the PEEK/nHA-MWNT hybrids were studied. X-ray diffraction and SEM observation showed that both nHA and MWNT fillers are incorporated into the polymer matrix of PEEK-based hybrids. Tensile tests indicated that the elastic modulus of PEEK can be increased from 3.87 to 7.13 GPa by adding 15 vol % nHA and 1.88 vol % MWNT fillers. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the PEEK/(15% nHA-(1.88% MWNT hybrid were 64.48 MPa and 1.74%, respectively. Thus the tensile properties of this hybrid were superior to those of human cortical bones. Water contact angle measurements revealed that the PEEK/(15% nHA-(1.88% MWNT hybrid is hydrophilic due to the presence of nHA. Accordingly, hydrophilic PEEK/(15% nHA-(1.88% MWNT hybrid promoted the adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts on its surface effectively on the basis of cell culture, fluorescence microscopy, MTT assay, WST-1 assay, alkaline phosphatase activity, and Alizarin red staining tests. Thus the PEEK/(15% nHA-(1.88% MWNT hybrid has the potential to be used for fabricating load-bearing bone implants.

  19. Glans Penis Augmentation Using Hyaluronic Acid Gel as an Injectable Filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Tae Il; Kim, Je Jong

    2015-01-01

    Glans penis augmentation (GPA) has received little attention from experts despite the existence of a subset of patients who may be dissatisfied with a small glans or poor tumescence of the glans during erection. Recently, GPA using an injectable filler or implantation of a graft or filler has been developed. Despite a demanding injection technique and inevitable uneven undulation of the glandular surface, GPA using injectable hyaluronic acid (HA) gel is a novel and useful therapy and an effective and safe procedure for soft tissue enhancement. For long-term presence of implants, timed supplementation can be used similar to that for fascial plasty. In complications such as mucosal necrosis of the glans penis, most cases occur from the use of non-HA gel or an unpurified form and misunderstanding of the management protocol for immediate side effects. Currently, GPA using injectable HA gel is not recommended in the International Society for Sexual Medicine guideline due to possible sensory loss. In a 5-year long-term follow-up of GPA by subcutaneous injection of HA gel, the residual volume of implants decreased by 15% of the maximal glandular circumference, but was still effective for alleviating the hypersensitivity of the glans penis in premature ejaculation patients. For efficacy in premature ejaculation, selection of appropriate candidates is the most important factor for success. GPA does not harm erectile function and is less invasive and irreversible compared to dorsal neurectomy. To refine the procedure, more interest and well-designed studies are required for the establishment of the procedure. PMID:26331121

  20. Development of dental composites with reactive fillers that promote precipitation of antibacterial-hydroxyapatite layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabo, Anas; Abou Neel, Ensanya A; Knowles, Jonathan C; Young, Anne M

    2016-03-01

    The study aim was to develop light-curable, high strength dental composites that would release calcium phosphate and chlorhexidine (CHX) but additionally promote surface hydroxyapatite/CHX co-precipitation in simulated body fluid (SBF). 80 wt.% urethane dimethacrylate based liquid was mixed with glass fillers containing 10 wt.% CHX and 0, 10, 20 or 40 wt.% reactive mono- and tricalcium phosphate (CaP). Surface hydroxyapatite layer thickness/coverage from SEM images, Ca/Si ratio from EDX and hydroxyapatite Raman peak intensities were all proportional to both time in SBF and CaP wt.% in the filler. Hydroxyapatite was, however, difficult to detect by XRD until 4 weeks. XRD peak width and SEM images suggested this was due to the very small size (~10 nm) of the hydroxyapatite crystallites. Precipitate mass at 12 weeks was 22 wt.% of the sample CaP total mass irrespective of CaP wt.% and up to 7 wt.% of the specimen. Early diffusion controlled CHX release, assessed by UV spectrometry, was proportional to CaP and twice as fast in water compared with SBF. After 1 week, CHX continued to diffuse into water but in SBF, became entrapped within the precipitating hydroxyapatite layer. At 12 weeks CHX formed 5 to 15% of the HA layer with 10 to 40 wt.% CaP respectively. Despite linear decline of strength and modulus in 4 weeks from 160 to 101 MPa and 4 to 2.4 GPa, respectively, upon raising CaP content, all values were still within the range expected for commercial composites. The high strength, hydroxyapatite precipitation and surface antibacterial accumulation should reduce tooth restoration failure due to fracture, aid demineralised dentine repair and prevent subsurface carious disease respectively. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Brazing of Be with CuCrZr-bronze using copper-based filler metal STEMET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Kalin

    2016-12-01

    Optimization of the composition of the Cu–Ni–Sn–P system filler metals and comparative tests of filler metals of various compositions have been carried out in this paper to reduce the brazing temperature of beryllium with CuCrZr. Alloys of the following compositions Cu–6.4Ni–9.2Sn–6.3P (STEMET 1105 and Cu–9.1Ni–3.6Sn–8.0P (STEMET 1101 were made in the form of rapidly quenched ribbons with a thickness of 50µm and a width of 50mm. They were used to perform furnace brazing by Joule heating (with a rate of 15K/min of beryllium with CuCrZr (Be/CuCrZr at temperatures of 650, 700 and 750°C for 15min. Metallographic investigations of the zone of brazing and mechanical shear tests of joints before and after the heat treatment at 350°C for 30h have been conducted. It was found that the joints of Be/CuCrZr brazed at 650°C using STEMET 1105 (τs=230MPa and at 750°C using STEMET 1101 (τs=260MPa had the best shear strength properties. However, there is a significant decrease of the microhardness of CuCrZr from 1570 to 1140MPa at 750°C, which indicates a significant loss of its strength. The results obtained suggest that the brazing of beryllium with CuCrZr using STEMET 1105 at 650–700°C will not adversely affect the CuCrZr.

  2. Characterize Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixtures Incorporated Ordinary Portland Cement Filler for Local Surface Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Amoori Kadhim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixtures have many environmental, logistical, and economic advantages over conventional Hot Mix Asphalt. Nevertheless, their inferior performance and high water sensitivity at early life attract little attentions. Moreover, it is impossible to apply CBEM as a structural surface layer if left without treatment or enhancement. The main aim of this study is to enhance the properties of CBEM for the hope of using it as a structural layer. Thus, a trial has been made to improve CBEM mechanical and durability properties by replacing the Ordinary Portland Cement by the Conventional Mineral Filler with 3 percentages; namely, 0, 50%, and 100%. CBEM mixtures mechanical properties were evaluated in term of Marshall Stability and Flow, Indirect Tensile Strength, and Wheel Track Test. While Moisture damage was evaluated in terms of Retained Marshall Stability. Test results showed that the addition of 100%OPC filler can improve CBEM mechanical and durability properties efficiently. In terms of mechanical properties results, CBEM comprised 100%OPC, can be used as a structural Surface layer based on local Iraqi specifications limits, where mixture enhanced about 1.9, 1.78, 9,4.85, and 2.6  times in term of MS, MF, rutting deformation resistance, resistance to tensile cracking, and moisture damage resistance, respectively as compared to untreated CBEM. Also, CBEM-100%OPC mix seemed comparable (and sometime superior to HMA, e.g., resistance to rutting of CBEM is about 6.2 times higher than that of HMA. It’s worth to say that OPC upgrades CBEM to a significant level that enables it to use as a structural layer in terms of the mechanical and the durability properties.

  3. Characterization of the effects of lignin and lignin complex particles as filler on a polystyrene film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Zawawy, Waleed K., E-mail: wkzawawy@yahoo.com [Cellulose and Paper Department, National Research Center, El-Tahrir St., Giza (Egypt); Ibrahim, Maha M. [Cellulose and Paper Department, National Research Center, El-Tahrir St., Giza (Egypt); Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur; Dufresne, Alain [Grenoble Institute of Technology (INP) - The International School of Paper, Print Media and Biomaterials (PAGORA), BP 65, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres cedex, Grenoble (France)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have studied the use of Co(II) to form a complex with the lignin. We use first vanillin as the lignin model and we observed a change in color for the produced complex depending on the light wavelength. The use of other transition metals does not give the same observation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of the transition metal with the lignin precipitated from the black liquor after pulping of agricultural residues, gave a fluorescent color under fluorescent microscope. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We applied the resulted lignin complex to prepare polymer film that can be used as special polymer packaging which can be color changed under different wavelengths. - Abstract: The work in this research outlines the use of lignin precipitated from lignocellulosic substrate as fillers after modified with transition metal cations, Fe(III), Ni(II) and Co(II), in the production of a polystyrene based composite for polymer packaging applications. Virgin polystyrene was compared with lignin and lignin complex filled composites with loading of 5% by weight prepared using twin screw extrusion. The lignin complexes were first characterized by the UV spectra to identify the new absorption bands occurred due to the complex formation. Moreover, lignin model, namely vanillin, was used to notify the geometric structure of the resulting complexes applying the GC mass spectra. Scanning electron microscopy was used to indicate the change in the morphological structure of the filler particles. On the other hand, the mechanical and thermal analysis for the resulting polymer composites was studied and it was noticed that the type of lignin or lignin complex plays a roll in the results. The inclusion of the Co(II)-lignin complex was observed to increase the tensile strength of the resulting polymer composite and a decrease of the glass transition temperature. Furthermore, light wave lengths and UV fluorescent microscope were used to identify

  4. The influence of irradiated wood filler on some properties of polypropylene - wood composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Điporović-Momčilović Milanka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of compatibility between the wood filler and thermoplastic matrix is of essential importance in composite production. Numerous methods have been developed for increasing this compatibility, which is still representing a challenging objective of composite research throughout the world. The research into these methods is primarily directed towards their efficiency from the viewpoint of the composite performance and their economical acceptability. The latter is of particular importance for the composite production in the developing countries with respect to the shortage of the corresponding funds. With this respect, the utilization of ionizing radiation might have considerable advantages. In this research, the beech wood flour was irradiated by a dose of 10 kGy of 60Co gamma rays for purpose of provoking the changes by the ionizing effect. The effects of ionizing radiation upon the properties of wood particles have been examined by IR spectroscopy and by determination of contents of hydroxyl groups in wood by acetylating as an indirect method. All these methods have been expected to reveal the chemical effects of the applied radiation treatment. The irradiated and the control wood flour were used in order to produce the samples of composite with polypropylene. The polypropylene-wood flour (PP-WF composites were produced with 40% of wood particles having fraction size 0.3 mm. The melt-blended composites were modified with amido-acrylic acid (AMACA as a new coupling agent synthesized for this propose in amount of 6 wt.% (based on wood filler and successively with 0.05 wt.% (based on PP of organic peroxide during mixing step. The composites containing coupling agents showed superior mechanical properties, compared to the untreated one. The highest extent of improvement of tensile was achieved in PP-WFl composites modified with AMACA coupling agent.

  5. Shear rheology of hard-sphere, dispersed, and aggregated suspensions, and filler-matrix composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Diego B

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the shear rheology of suspensions of microscopic particles. The nature of interparticle forces determines the microstructure, and hence the deformation and flow behavior of suspensions. Consequently, suspensions were classified according to the resulting microstructure: hard-spheres, stabilized, or aggregated particles. This study begins with the most simple case: flowing suspensions of inert, rigid, monomodal spherical particles (called hard-spheres), at low shear rates. Even for inert particles, we reviewed the effect of several factors that produce deviations from this ideal case, namely: shear rate, particle shape, particle size distribution, and particle deformability. Then we moved to suspensions of colloidal particles, where interparticle forces play a significant role. First we studied the case of dispersed or stabilized suspensions (colloidal dispersions), where long range repulsive forces keep particles separated, leading to a crystalline order. Second we studied the more common case of aggregated or flocculated suspensions, where net attractive forces lead to the formation of fractal clusters. Above the gelation concentration (which depends on the magnitude of the attractive forces), clusters are interconnected into a network, forming a gel. We differentiate between weak and strong aggregation, which may lead to weak or strong gels, respectively. Finally, we reviewed the case of filler/matrix composite suspensions or gels, where rigid or viscoelastic particles (fillers) are dispersed in a continuous viscoelastic material (matrix), usually a gel. For each type of suspension, predictive curves of fundamental rheological properties (viscosity, yield stress, elastic and complex moduli) vs. particle volume fraction and shear rate were obtained from theoretical or empirical models and sound experimental data, covering ranges of practical interest. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Halloysite nanotubes loaded with peppermint essential oil as filler for functional biopolymer film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddeci, G; Cavallaro, G; Di Blasi, F; Lazzara, G; Massaro, M; Milioto, S; Parisi, F; Riela, S; Spinelli, G

    2016-11-05

    The purpose of this paper is to show how a functional bionanocomposite film with both antioxidant and antimicrobial activities was successfully prepared by the filling of a pectin matrix with modified Halloysite nanotubes (HNT) containing the essential peppermint oil (PO). Firstly, HNT surfaces were functionalized with cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]) molecules with the aim to enhance the affinity of the nanofiller towards PO, which was estimated by means of HPLC experiments. The HNT/CB[6] hybrid was characterized by several methods (thermogravimetry, FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy) highlighting the influence of the supramolecular interactions on the composition, thermal behavior and morphology of the filler. Then, a pectin+HNT/CB[6] biofilm was prepared by the use of the casting method under specific experimental conditions in order to favor the entrapment of the volatile PO into the nanocomposite structure. Water contact angle measurements, thermogravimetry and tensile tests evidenced the effects of the modified filler on the thermo-mechanical and wettability properties of pectin, which were correlated to the microscopic structure of the biocomposite film. In addition, PO release in food simulant solvent was investigated at different temperatures (4 and 25°C), whereas the antioxidant activity of the nanocomposite film was estimated using the DPPH method. Finally, we studied the in vitro antibacterial activity of the biofilm against Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive), which were isolated by beef and cow milk, respectively. These experiments were carried out at specific temperatures (4, 37 and 65°C) that can be useful for a multi-step food conservation. This paper puts forwards an easy strategy to prepare a functional sustainable edible film with thermo-sensitive antioxidant/antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Numerical simulation of TIG welding with filler of steel pieces of high thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmignani, B.; Toselli, G. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The problem of the numerical simulation of welding process with filler, in particular TIG (tungsten inert gas) with cold filler, has been approached with ABAQUS/S code. Reference has been made to some experimental models studied and prepared ad hoc in order to better know the physical phenomena involved in the TIG welding technique and to validate the computation methodologies and results obtained. This numerical simulation has been required in order to assist the fabrication development and QA for TF (toroidal field) coil case, an important component of ITER (international thermonuclear experimental reactor) machine. [Italian] Con il codice di analisi termo-strutturale non lineare agli EF, ABAQUS/S, viene affrontato per la prima volta il problema della simulazione numerica di un processo di saldatura con materiale d'apporto, in particolare il processo di saldatura TIG (tungsten inert gas) a filo freddo. Si e' fatto riferimento ad alcuni modelli sperimentali studiati e preparati ad hoc per conoscere meglio e valutare le metodologie di calcolo adottate ed i corrispondenti risultati ottenuti. Questo tipo di simulazione e' stato richiesto per fornire alcune conoscenze preliminari, che potessero essere di aiuto e guida nelle scelte di saldatura da eseguire per la fabbricazione e la quality assurance delle casse che dovranno contenere le bobine per la creazione del campo magnetico toroidale nella macchina ITER (international thermonuclear experiemental reactor) per la fusione nucleare. In questo lavoro, sono presentati, analizzati, discussi e confrontati con le corrispondenti misure sperimentali i primi risultati ottenuti. Sono descritte e discusse anche le difficolta' incontrate, le approssimazioni fatte e la ricerca di procedure di calcolo piu' semplificate.

  8. Cassava as a non-conventional filler in comminuted meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annor-Frempong, I E; Annan-Prah, A; Wiredu, R

    1996-11-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) was used as an unconventional filler to produce affordable comminuted meat products that stored well under tropical conditions without refrigeration. The study involved two experiments. In experiment 1, five different emulsion-type pork sausages containing 5.4, 9.0 and 10.0% mould-free cassava flour, 5.4% crude full fat soy flour and a control without filler were assessed 0 and 7 days after preparation. A 40-member taste panel sensorily assessed the products in a 5 × 2 factorial (treatment × storage occasion) experiment based on the external appearance of the uncooked products and the external and internal colour, consistency, texture, aroma and taste of the cooked products. Although the panel judged products with 5.4% cassava flour as the best, the 9% inclusion level of cassava flour was found not to compromise the organoleptic qualities of the product. At this level 54 000 cedis (US$150) was saved on the cost of producing 1t of the product. In experiment 2, the sausages were pasteurised at 80 °C for 1 h and stored in a 4:1 vinegar-sugar solution or a 1:1:50 vinegar-sugar-water solution at 5 and 30 °C. Storage in 4:1 vinegar-sugar medium arrested bacterial growth over the 7-day monitoring period. It was concluded that 9% cassava flour could conveniently replace fat in comminuted meat products and a combination of pasteurisation and storage in vinegar-sugar solution is an effective method of storage of such products in the tropics.

  9. Hydrogen permeation characteristics of welded 316 stainless steel using nickel welding filler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, T.; Ikeshoji, T.T.; Suzumura, A.; Kobayashi, D.; Naito, T. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Low carbon stainless steel of 316L has been utilized for an ultra high vacuum chamber assembled by welding, and it contains 12-15% nickel. We investigate the work of nickel element with hydrogen atoms as the hydrogen catalysis near heat affected zone. Hydrogen permeation tests for welded specimens using nickel filler were performed to prevent from hydrogen embrittlement cracking in the heat affected zone. In this study, the hydrogen permeation technique using an orifice and a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) is utilized to measure the hydrogen gas flux in the stainless steel. A stationary hydrogen flux from the stainless steel surface was measured by using a system with an orifice. The hydrogen pressure difference which applied to the specimen was enabled us to maintain constant by constant gas flow rate from the orifice in low pressure vessel. The value of hydrogen permeability, K, at 620K for welded specimen using the nickel filler is 3.62 times 10{sup -12} m{sup 2}s{sup -1}Pa{sup 1/2}. It is 1.9 times grater than that of normal non-welded 316 stainless steel substrate. The value at 520 K for the welded specimen is 7.31 times 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}s{sup -1}Pa{sup 1/2}. It is as same as that of the non-welded substrate. It is considered that the role of nickel at high temperature near 620K is to release hydrogen atom, and the role of nickel at temperature below 520K is to trap hydrogen atoms, and that the weld metal become hydrogen diffusion path. (orig.)

  10. Influence of magnetic field-aided filler orientation on structure and transport properties of ferrite filled composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goc, K., E-mail: Kamil.Goc@fis.agh.edu.pl [Department of Solid State Physics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30 Mickiewicza Street, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Gaska, K.; Klimczyk, K.; Wujek, A.; Prendota, W.; Jarosinski, L. [Department of Solid State Physics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30 Mickiewicza Street, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Rybak, A.; Kmita, G. [ABB Corporate Research Center, 13A Starowislna Street, 31-038 Krakow (Poland); Kapusta, Cz. [Department of Solid State Physics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30 Mickiewicza Street, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2016-12-01

    Epoxy resins are materials commonly used for insulations and encapsulations due to their easy processing process and mechanical strength. For their applications in power industry and electronics the effective heat dissipation is essential, thus their thermal conductivity is one of the most important properties. Introduction of appropriate dielectric powders, preferably in an ordered way, can increase the thermal conductivity of the polymer while keeping its good electrical insulation properties. In this work we used strontium ferrite as a filler to study the evolution of the filler particles distribution in the fluid before curing. Magnetic ferrite particles were dispersed in liquid epoxy resin and formation of chain-like or more complex structures under applied external magnetic field was observed and investigated. Computer simulations made show that with increasing magnetic field these structures are characterized by longer chains, higher speed of particles displacement and stronger structural anisotropy. However, for highly-filled systems, stronger inter-particle interactions make the alignment process less effective. The effective thermal conductivity simulated with FEM methods increases with increasing filler content and the percolation threshold in aligned systems is achieved at lower filler concentrations than for reference isotropic samples. The results are compared with the experimental data and a good qualitative agreement is obtained. - Highlights: • Influence of magnetic field on the particle chains in epoxy composites is analysed. • Strontium ferrite fillers with good thermal and low electrical conductivity. • Influence of interparticle interactions for agglomeration efficiency. • The impact of chains formed on the heat transfer by creating conductive paths. • Connection between structural anisotropy and transport properties anisotropy.

  11. Biological Evaluation of Flexible Polyurethane/Poly l-Lactic Acid Composite Scaffold as a Potential Filler for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuk Fai Lui

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Degradable bone graft substitute for large-volume bone defects is a continuously developing field in orthopedics. With the advance in biomaterial in past decades, a wide range of new materials has been investigated for their potential in this application. When compared to common biopolymers within the field such as PLA or PCL, elastomers such as polyurethane offer some unique advantages in terms of flexibility. In cases of bone defect treatments, a flexible soft filler can help to establish an intimate contact with surrounding bones to provide a stable bone-material interface for cell proliferation and ingrowth of tissue. In this study, a porous filler based on segmented polyurethane incorporated with poly l-lactic acid was synthesized by a phase inverse salt leaching method. The filler was put through in vitro and in vivo tests to evaluate its potential in acting as a bone graft substitute for critical-sized bone defects. In vitro results indicated there was a major improvement in biological response, including cell attachment, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase expression for osteoblast-like cells when seeded on the composite material compared to unmodified polyurethane. In vivo evaluation on a critical-sized defect model of New Zealand White (NZW rabbit indicated there was bone ingrowth along the defect area with the introduction of the new filler. A tight interface formed between bone and filler, with osteogenic cells proliferating on the surface. The result suggested polyurethane/poly l-lactic acid composite is a material with the potential to act as a bone graft substitute for orthopedics application.

  12. Global Aesthetics Consensus: Avoidance and Management of Complications from Hyaluronic Acid Fillers-Evidence- and Opinion-Based Review and Consensus Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Massimo; Liew, Steven; Sundaram, Hema; De Boulle, Koenraad L; Goodman, Greg J; Monheit, Gary; Wu, Yan; Trindade de Almeida, Ada R; Swift, Arthur; Vieira Braz, André

    2016-06-01

    Although the safety profile of hyaluronic acid fillers is favorable, adverse reactions can occur. Clinicians and patients can benefit from ongoing guidance on adverse reactions to hyaluronic acid fillers and their management. A multinational, multidisciplinary group of experts in cosmetic medicine convened the Global Aesthetics Consensus Group to review the properties and clinical uses of Hylacross and Vycross hyaluronic acid products and develop updated consensus recommendations for early and late complications associated with hyaluronic acid fillers. The consensus panel provided specific recommendations focusing on early and late complications of hyaluronic acid fillers and their management. The impact of patient-, product-, and technique-related factors on such reactions was described. Most of these were noted to be mild and transient. Serious adverse events are rare. Early adverse reactions to hyaluronic acid fillers include vascular infarction and compromise; inflammatory reactions; injection-related events; and inappropriate placement of filler material. Among late reactions are nodules, granulomas, and skin discoloration. Most adverse events can be avoided with proper planning and technique. Detailed understanding of facial anatomy, proper patient and product selection, and appropriate technique can further reduce the risks. Should adverse reactions occur, the clinician must be prepared and have tools available for effective treatment. Adverse reactions with hyaluronic acid fillers are uncommon. Clinicians should take steps to further reduce the risk and be prepared to treat any complications that arise.

  13. Investigation of the degradation-retarding effect caused by the low swelling capacity of a novel hyaluronic Acid filler developed by solid-phase crosslinking technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunyoung; Park, Kui Young; Yeo, In Kwon; Cho, Sung Yeon; Ah, Young Chang; Koh, Hyun Ju; Park, Won Seok; Kim, Beom Joon

    2014-06-01

    A variety of hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers demonstrate unique physical characteristics, which affect the quality of the HA filler products. The critical factors that affect the degradation of HA gels have not yet been determined. Our objective was to determine the characteristics of HA gels that affect their resistance to the degradation caused by radicals and enzymes. Three types of HA fillers for repairing deep wrinkles, Juvederm Ultra Plus (J-U), Restylane Perlane (Perlane), and Cleviel, were tested in this study. The resistance of these HA fillers to enzymatic degradation was measured by carbazole and displacement assays using hyaluronidase as the enzyme. The resistance of these fillers to radical degradation was measured by the displacement assay using H2O2. Different tests for evaluating the degradation resistance of HA gels can yield different results. The filler most susceptible to enzymatic degradation was J-U, followed by Perlane and Cleviel. The HA filler showing the highest degree of degradation caused by H2O2 treatment was Perlane, followed by J-U, and then Cleviel. Cleviel showed higher enzymatic and radical resistances than J-U and Perlane did. Furthermore, it exhibited the highest resistance to heat and the lowest swelling ratio among all the fillers that were examined. The main factor determining the degradation of HA particles is the gel swelling ratio, which is related to the particle structure of the gel. Our in vitro assays suggest that the decrease in the swelling ratio will lead to a retarding effect on the degradation of HA fillers.

  14. Farmacogenómica: Aplicaciones cardiovasculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Quiñones S., PH.D.

    2015-03-01

    Este trabajo pretende dar una visión general acerca de farmacogenómica cardiovascular y la posibilidad de utilizar, en la consulta clínica, herramientas genéticas para apoyar la decisión farmacoterapéutica, con el objeto de mejorar la respuesta al tratamiento de enfermedades cardiovasculares, un paso hacia la medicina personalizada en Chile.

  15. Novel light-curable materials containing experimental bioactive micro-fillers remineralise mineral-depleted bonded-dentine interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Salvatore; Osorio, Raquel; Osorio, Estrella; Watson, Timothy F; Toledano, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the therapeutic remineralising effects of innovative light-curable materials (LCMs) containing two experimental calcium silicate-based micro-fillers (TCS) modified with β-TCP only or β-TCP, zinc oxide (ZnO)/polyacrylic acid (PAA) on mineral-depleted bonded-dentine interfaces in simulated body fluids (SBFS). Three experimental LCMs were formulated: (1) resin A, containing a β-TCP-modified TCS (βTCS) micro-filler; (2) resin B, containing a polycarboxylated β-TCP/ZnO-modified TCS (βZn-TCS) micro-filler; and 3) resin C, containing no filler (control). Acid-etched (35% H3PO4) dentine specimens were bonded using the three LCMs and submitted to atomic force microscope (AFM)/nano-indentation analysis to evaluate the modulus of elasticity (Ei) and hardness (Hi) across the interface after SBFS storage (24 h/1 m/3 m). The ultramorphology and micropermeability of the resin-dentine interface were evaluated using confocal laser microscopy. Resin-dentine sticks were created and submitted to microtensile bond strength (μTBS) test (SBFS: 24 h/3 m). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed after de-bonding. The LCMs containing the experimental bioactive micro-fillers reduced the micropermeability and induced a significant increase of the Ei and Hi along the bonding interface. The specimens created using the resin B (βZn-TCS) attained the highest μTBS values both after 24 h and 3 m of SBFS storage. In conclusion, the innovative bioactive light-curable materials tested in this study are able to induce a therapeutic remineralising effect on the nano-mechanical properties and on the sealing ability of mineral-depleted resin-dentine interfaces. The contemporary idea of minimally invasive operative treatment, where therapeutic restorations are performed to combat the carious process and remineralise the dental hard tissues, may be satisfied by using such resin-base systems, containing βTCS or βZn-TCS bioactive micro-fillers.

  16. Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of percolates and its evaporates from Technosols before and after limestone filler stabilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    The chemistry of waters is recognized as a relevant monitoring tool when assessing the adverse effects of acid mine drainage. The weathering of sulphide minerals produces a great variety of efflorescences of soluble sulphate salts. These minerals play an important role for environmental pollution, since they can be either a sink or a source for acidity and trace elements. This communication deals with the leachability of potentially toxic elements (PTE) eluting from technosols formed from soils affected by mining activities and limestone filler. A total of three contaminated soils affected by opencast mining were selected and mixed with limestone filler at three percentages: 10 %, 20 % and 30 %, providing nine stabilised samples. These samples were stored in containers and moistened simulating rainfall. The percolates obtained were collected, and the PTEs content (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) was determined. Evaporation-precipitation experiments were carried out in these waters, and the mineralogical composition of efflorescences was evaluated. The study area is heavily polluted as a result of historical mining and processing activities, producing large amount of wastes, characterised by high trace elements content and acidic pH. The results obtained for the percolates after the rain episode showed that, before the stabilization approach, waters had an acidic pH, high electrical conductivity and high PTEs content. When these soils were mixed with 10, 20 and 30 % of limestone filler, the pH was neutral and the soluble trace element content strongly decreased, being under the detection limit when limestone percentage was 20 % and 30 %. The mineralogical composition of efflorescences before the stabilisation approach showed that predominant minerals were copiapite, followed by gypsum and bilinite. Other soluble sulphates were determined in lower percentage, such as hexahydrite, halotriquite or pickeringite. After the mixing with 10 % of limestone filler, the evaporates

  17. Monitorization of technosols in old mining sites treated with calcareous fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sanchez, MJose; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Garcia-Lorenzo, MariLuz; Gonzalez, Eva; Perez-Espinosa, Victor; Martínez-Lopez, Salvadora; Hernandez, Carmen; Molina, Jose; Martínez, Lucia B.

    2014-05-01

    A large number of soils around the world are contaminated by heavy metals due to mining activities, generating adverse effects on human health and the environment. In response to these negative effects, a variety of technologies to remediate soils affected by heavy metals have been developed. Among them, in situ immobilization by means of soil amendment is a non-intrusive and cost effective alternative, that transforms the highly mobile toxic heavy metals to physico-chemically stable forms, reducing their mobility and environmental risks. Limestone filler is a good selection for such a purpose, because of its low permeability and low solubility, due to its high degree of physical-chemical stability and because is a non-toxic material with a high finely divided calcium carbonate content. In addition, the use of this amendment could revalorize the residues, reducing the costs of the process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of a immobilization technique in sediments contaminated by heavy metals as a results of mining activities. The study area was Portman bay, located close to the mining region of La Unión and subjected to mining from the time of the Roman Empire to 1991. Wastes from mining activities mainly consisted in ore materials (galena, pyrite and sphalerite), phyllosilicates, in addition to siderite, iron oxides and sometimes alteration products such as jarosite, alunite, kaolinite and greenalite. These materials have suffered a concentration process by floatation with sea water and, as a result of the discharge, the whole of the bay has filled up with wastes which also extend into the Mediterranean Sea. Two experimental areas, approximately 1 Ha each one, were selected and technosols were developed as follows: original sediments from the bay, sediments mixed with limestone filler in a 1:1 proportion, gravel to avoid capillary and natural soil to allow plant growth. After the remediation technique was applied, monitorization of

  18. Clinical Performance of a Dermal Filler Containing Natural Glycolic Acid and a Polylactic Acid Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchetto, Pedro Cervantes; Durán Páramo, Rosa Margarita

    2010-01-01

    Lipoatrophy is a condition that affects certain individuals, most commonly those who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.1–3 Injectable fillers are used for the treatment of these dermal contour deformities to smooth dermal depressions formed by the loss of volume. These dermal fillers (also known as soft tissue augmentation devices) can correct contour deformities caused by lipoatrophy in patients who are human immunodeficiency virus positive or negative. The product used in this study is a patented, second-generation, injectable, dermal collagen stimulator that combines glycolic acid and polylactic acid. The glycolic acid used is not a polymer, but rather an acid derived from sugar cane. Its chemical structure corresponds to that of an alpha-hydroxy acid. Glycolic acid is a well-characterized agent that is present in a number of cosmetic products. Polylactic acid is a synthetic, biocompatible, biodegradable, inert, synthetic polymer from the poly a-hydroxy-acid family that is believed to stimulate fibroblasts to produce more collagen, thus increasing facial volume. Together, polylactic acid and glycolic acid act in concert to 1) stimulate collagen production and 2) hydrate the outer layers of the skin. A multicenter, clinical investigation authorized by the Mexican Secretariat of Health was conducted between September 20, 2002, and September 19, 2004. This clinical study was conducted in male patients between 32 and 60 years of age with lipoatrophy as a result of highly active antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus infection. The study objective was to measure the improvement of contour deformities after the injection of a dermal collagen stimulator containing glycolic acid and polylactic acid. In addition to safety, this dermal filler was assessed when used to correct volume deformities caused by lipoatrophy in subjects who are human immunodeficiency virus positive. Thirty male subjects participated and were treated as follows

  19. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF CONCRETE FILLER INFLUENCE ON DYNAMIC RIGIDITY OF HEAVY MACHINE TOOL PORTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Vasilevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual testing of portal machine tool has been carried out with the help of finite elements method (FEM. Static, modal and harmonic analyses have been made for a heavy planer. The paper reveals influence of concrete filler on machine tool dynamic flexibility. A peculiar feature of the simulation is concrete filling of a high-level transverse beam. Such approach oes look a typical one for machine-tool industry. Concrete has been considered as generalized material in two variants. It has been established that concrete application provides approximately 3-fold increase in machine tool rigidity per each coordinate. In this regard it is necessary to arrange closure of rigidity contour by filling all the cavities inside of the portal. Modal FEA makes it possible to determine that concrete increases comparatively weakly (1.3–1.4-fold frequencies of resonance modes. Frequency of the lowest mode rises only from 30.25 to 42.86 Hz. The following most active whole-machine eigenmodes have been revealed in the paper: “Portal pecking”, “Parallelogram” and “Traverse pecking”. In order to restrain the last mode it is necessary to carry out concrete filling of the traverse, in particular. Frequency-response characteristics and curves of dynamic rigidity for a spindle have been plotted for 0–150 Hz interval while using harmonic FEM. It has been determined that concrete increases dynamic machine tool rigidity by 2.5–3.5-fold. The effect is obtained even in the case when weakly damping concrete (2 % is used. This is due to distribution of vibrational energy flow along concrete and along cast iron as well. Thus energy density and vibration amplitudes must decrease. The paper shows acceptability for internal reinforcement of high-level machine tool parts (for example, portal traverses and fillers are applied for this purpose. Traverse weighting is compensated by additional torsional, shear and bending rigidity. The machine tool obtains the

  20. Corrosion behavior in high-temperature pressurized water of Zircaloy-4 joints brazed with Zr-Cu-based amorphous filler alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Gu; Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Park, Jin-Ju; Lee, Min-Ku

    2017-05-01

    The compositional effects of ternary Zr-Cu-X (X: Al, Fe) amorphous filler alloys on galvanic corrosion susceptibility in high-temperature pressurized water were investigated for Zircaloy-4 brazed joints. Through an Al-induced microgalvanic reaction that deteriorated the overall nobility of the joint, application of the Zr-Cu-Al filler alloy caused galvanic coupling to develop readily between the Al-bearing joint and the Al-free base metal, finally leading to massive localized corrosion of the joint. Contrastingly, joints prepared with a Zr-Cu-Fe filler alloy showed excellent corrosion resistance comparable to that of the Zircaloy-4 base metal, since the Cu and Fe elements forming fine intermetallic particles with Zr did not influence the electrochemical stability of the resultant joints. The present results demonstrate that Fe is a more suitable alloying element than Al for brazing filler alloys subjected to high-temperature corrosive environments.

  1. A new technique for the strengthening of aluminum tungsten inert gas weld metals: using carbon nanotube/aluminum composite as a filler metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, M; Nabhani, N; Rashidkhani, E; Fattahi, Y; Akhavan, S; Arabian, N

    2013-01-01

    The effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) on the mechanical properties of aluminum multipass weld metal prepared by the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process was investigated. High energy ball milling was used to disperse MWCNT in the aluminum powder. Carbon nanotube/aluminum composite filler metal was fabricated for the first time by hot extrusion of ball-milled powders. After welding, the tensile strength, microhardness and MWCNT distribution in the weld metal were investigated. The test results showed that the tensile strength and microhardness of weld metal was greatly increased when using the filler metal containing 1.5 wt.% MWCNT. Therefore, according to the results presented in this paper, it can be concluded that the filler metal containing MWCNT can serve as a super filler metal to improve the mechanical properties of TIG welds of Al and its alloys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural analysis of strontium in human teeth treated with surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer filler eluate by using extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uo, Motohiro; Wada, Takahiro; Asakura, Kiyotaka

    2017-03-31

    The bioactive effects of strontium released from surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) fillers may aid in caries prevention. In this study, the local structure of strontium taken up by teeth was estimated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis. Immersing teeth into S-PRG filler eluate increased the strontium content in enamel and dentin by more than 100 times. The local structure of strontium in enamel and dentin stored in distilled water was the same as that in synthetic strontium-containing hydroxyapatite (SrHAP). Moreover, the local structure of strontium in enamel and dentin after immersion in the S-PRG filler eluate was also similar to that of SrHAP. After immersion in the S-PRG filler eluate, strontium was suggested to be incorporated into the hydroxyapatite (HAP) of enamel and dentin at the calcium site in HAP.

  3. Epoxy composites filled with high surface area-carbon fillers: Optimization of electromagnetic shielding, electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhir, P.; Paddubskaya, A.; Plyushch, A.; Volynets, N.; Maksimenko, S.; Macutkevic, J.; Kranauskaite, I.; Banys, J.; Ivanov, E.; Kotsilkova, R.; Celzard, A.; Fierro, V.; Zicans, J.; Ivanova, T.; Merijs Meri, R.; Bochkov, I.; Cataldo, A.; Micciulla, F.; Bellucci, S.; Lambin, Ph.

    2013-10-01

    A comprehensive analysis of electrical, electromagnetic (EM), mechanical, and thermal properties of epoxy resin composites filled with 0.25-2.0 wt. % of carbon additives characterized by high surface area, both nano-sized, like carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon black (CBH), and micro-sized exfoliated graphite (EG), was performed. We found that the physical properties of both CNTs- and CBH-based epoxy resin composites increased all together with filler content and even more clearly for CBH than for CNTs. In the case of EG-based composites, good correlation between properties and filler amount was observed for concentrations below 1.5 wt. %. We conclude that CBH and, to a lower extent, EG could replace expensive CNTs for producing effective EM materials in microwave and low-frequency ranges, which are, in addition, mechanically and thermally stable.

  4. Application of Hybrid Fillers for Improving the Through-Plane Heat Transport in Graphite Nanoplatelet-Based Thermal Interface Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaojuan; Itkis, Mikhail E; Haddon, Robert C

    2015-08-17

    The in-plane alignment of graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs) in thin thermal interface material (TIM) layers suppresses the though-plane heat transport thus limiting the performance of GNPs in the geometry normally required for thermal management applications. Here we report a disruption of the GNP in-plane alignment by addition of spherical microparticles. The degree of GNP alignment was monitored by measurement of the anisotropy of electrical conductivity which is extremely sensitive to the orientation of high aspect ratio filler particles. Scanning Electron Microscopy images of TIM layer cross-sections confirmed the suppression of the in-plane alignment. The hybrid filler formulations reported herein resulted in a synergistic enhancement of the through-plane thermal conductivity of GNP/Al2O3 and GNP/Al filled TIM layers confirming that the control of GNP alignment is an important parameter in the development of highly efficient GNP and graphene-based TIMs.

  5. The effect of filler on the temperature coefficient of the relative permittivity of PTFE/ceramic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, S.; Murali, K. P.; Jantunen, H.; Ratheesh, R.

    2011-11-01

    High permittivity and low-loss ceramic fillers have been prepared by means of the solid state ceramic route. Ceramic-filled composites were prepared by the Sigma Mixing, Extrusion, Calendering, which was followed by the Hot pressing (SMECH) process. The microwave dielectric properties of the composites were studied using X-band waveguide cavity perturbation technique. The temperature coefficient of the relative permittivity of the composites was investigated in the 0-100 °C temperature range using a hot and cold chamber coupled with an impedance analyzer. The temperature coefficient of the relative permittivity of the composites showed strong dependence on the temperature coefficient of the relative permittivity of the filler material. In the present study, a high-permittivity polymer/ceramic composite, having τεr ∼63 ppm/K, has been realized. This composite is suitable for outdoor wireless applications.

  6. Composite polymer electrolytes for fuel cell applications: filler-induced effect on water sorption and transport properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecheri, Barbara; Felice, Valeria; D'Epifanio, Alessandra; Tavares, Ana C; Licoccia, Silvia

    2013-11-11

    Nafion- and sulfonated polysulfone (SPS)- based composite membranes were prepared by incorporation of SnO2 nanoparticles in a wide range of loading (0${ \\div }$35 wt. %). The composites were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic vapor sorption and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the filler effect on water sorption, water mobility, and proton conductivity. A detrimental effect of the filler was observed on water mobility and proton conductivity of Nafion-based membranes. An increase in water mobility and proton conductivity was instead observed in SPS-based samples, particularly at low hydration degree. Analysis of the water sorption isotherms and states of water revealed that the presence of SnO2 in SPS enhances interconnectivity of hydrophilic domains, while not affecting the Nafion microstructure. These results enable the design of suitable electrolyte materials that operate in proton exchange membrane fuel cell conditions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Study of austenitic stainless steel welded with low alloy steel filler metal. [tensile and impact strength tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, F. A.; Dyke, R. A., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The tensile and impact strength properties of 316L stainless steel plate welded with low alloy steel filler metal were determined. Tests were conducted at room temperature and -100 F on standard test specimens machined from as-welded panels of various chemical compositions. No significant differences were found as the result of variations in percentage chemical composition on the impact and tensile test results. The weldments containing lower chromium and nickel as the result of dilution of parent metal from the use of the low alloy steel filler metal corroded more severely in a marine environment. The use of a protective finish, i.e., a nitrile-based paint containing aluminum powder, prevented the corrosive attack.

  8. Effect of filler metal composition on the strength of yttria stabilized zirconia joints brazed with Pd-Ag-CuOx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darsell, Jens T.; Weil, K. Scott

    2008-09-08

    The Ag-CuOx system is of interest to be used to be used as an air braze filler metal for joining high temperature electrochemical devices. Previous work has shown that the melting temperatures can be increased by adding palladium to Ag-CuOx and it is expected that this may aid high temperature stability. This work compares the room temperature bend strength of joints made between yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) air brazed using Ag-CuOx without palladium and with 5 and 15mol% palladium additions. It has been found that in general palladium decreases joint strength, especially in low copper oxide compositions filler metals. At high copper oxide contents, brittle fracture through both copper oxide rich phases and the YSZ limits joint strength.

  9. Optimization of high filler loading on tensile properties of recycled HDPE/PET blends filled with rice husk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruey Shan; Ahmad, Sahrim; Ghani, Mohd Hafizuddin Ab; Salleh, Mohd Nazry

    2014-09-01

    Biocomposites of recycled high density polyethylene / recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rHDPE/rPET) blend incorporated with rice husk flour (RHF) were prepared using a corotating twin screw extruder. Maleic anhydride polyethylene (MAPE) was added as a coupling agent to improve the fibre-matrix interface adhesion. The effect of high filler loadings (50-90 wt%) on morphology and tensile properties of compatibilized rHDPE/rPET blend was investigated. The results of our study shown that composite with 70 wt% exhibited the highest tensile strength and Young's modulus, which are 22 MPa and 1752 MPa, respectively. The elongation at break decreased with increasing percentage of RHF. SEM micrograph confirmed fillers dispersion, morphological interaction and enhanced interfacial bonding between recycled polymer blends and rice husk. It can be concluded that the optimum RHF content is 70 wt% with maximum tensile strength.

  10. Diffusion Brazing of Ti-6Al-4V and Stainless Steel 316L Using AgCuZn Filler Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Soltani Tashi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, vacuum brazing was applied to join Ti-6Al-4V and stainless steel using AgCuZn filler metal. The bonds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Mechanical strengths of the joints were evaluated by the shear test and microhardness. It has been shown that shear strength decreased with increasing the brazing temperature and time. The wettability of the filler alloy was increased by enhancing the wetting test temperature. By increasing the brazing temperature various intermetallic compounds were formed in the bond area. These intermetallic compounds were mainly a combination of CuTi and Fe-Cu-Ti. The shear test results verified the influence of the bonding temperature on the strength of the joints based on the formation of different intermetallics in the bond zone. The fracture analysis also revealed different fracture footpath and morphology for different brazing temperatures.

  11. Clinical Performance of a Dermal Filler Containing Natural Glycolic Acid and a Polylactic Acid Polymer: Results of a Clinical Trial in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Subjects with Facial Lipoatrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Tagle, Jorge M.; Macchetto, Pedro Cervantes; Durán Páramo, Rosa Margarita

    2010-01-01

    Lipoatrophy is a condition that affects certain individuals, most commonly those who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.1–3 Injectable fillers are used for the treatment of these dermal contour deformities to smooth dermal depressions formed by the loss of volume. These dermal fillers (also known as soft tissue augmentation devices) can correct contour deformities caused by lipoatrophy in patients who are human immunodeficiency virus positive or negative. The product used in t...

  12. Influence of adhesive thickness and filler content on the mechanical performance of aluminum single-lap joints bonded with aluminum powder filled epoxy adhesive

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, R.; M. Sunar; Yilbas, B.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop information on the influence of adhesive thickness and aluminum filler content on the mechanical performance of aluminum joints bonded by aluminum powder filled epoxy. The adhesive strength of the joints was determined by utilizing the single-lap shear test. The influence of adhesive thickness and aluminum filler content on stress distribution within the adhesive was also analyzed by finite element method (FEM). Both FEM analysis and the experimental...

  13. Analisis Sifat Kekuatan Tarik Dan Kekuatan Bending Komposit Hibryd Serat Lidah Mertua Dan Karung Goni Dengan Filler Abu Sekam Padi 5% Bermatrik Epoxy

    OpenAIRE

    Muslim, Jauhari; Sari, Nasmi Herlina; Sulistyowati, Emmy Dyah

    2013-01-01

    The use of composite materials is growing at over the development of manufacturing industry. Composites sansevieria and hibiscus canabinus with the addition of rice husk ash filler. The purpose of this study was to analyze the tensile strength and bending strength of hybrid composites sansevieria and hybiscus canabinus with rice husk ash filler epoxy bermatrik with random fiber direction. Variation of fiber volume fraction sansevieria and hybicus canabinus is 0%:35%,10%:25%, 15%:10%, 20%:1...

  14. Transverse-Weld Tensile Properties of a New Al-4Cu-2Si Alloy as Filler Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, K.

    2009-12-01

    AA2195, an Al-Cu-Li alloy in the T8P4 age-hardened condition, is a candidate aluminum armor for future combat vehicles, as this material offers higher static strength and ballistic protection than current aluminum armor alloys. However, certification of AA2195 alloy for armor applications requires initial qualification based on the ballistic performance of welded panels in the as-welded condition. Currently, combat vehicle manufacturers primarily use gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process to meet their fabrication needs. Unfortunately, a matching GMAW consumable electrode is currently not commercially available to allow effective joining of AA2195 alloy. This initial effort focused on an innovative, low-cost, low-risk approach to identify an alloy composition suitable for effective joining of AA2195 alloy, and evaluated transverse-weld tensile properties of groove butt joints produced using the identified alloy. Selected commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) aluminum alloy filler wires were twisted to form candidate twisted filler rods. Representative test weldments were produced using AA2195 alloy, candidate twisted filler rods and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. Selected GTA weldments produced using Al-4wt.%Cu-2wt.%Si alloy as filler metal consistently provided transverse-weld tensile properties in excess of 275 MPa (40 ksi) UTS and 8% El (over 25 mm gage length), thereby showing potential for acceptable ballistic performance of as-welded panels. Further developmental work is required to evaluate in detail GMAW consumable wire electrodes based on the Al-Cu-Si system containing 4.2-5.0 wt.% Cu and 1.6-2.0 wt.% Si.

  15. Effect Of Fly Ash Filler To Dielectric Properties Of The Insulator Material Of Silicone Rubber And Epoxy Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhlas Kitta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently many operated the coal fired power plant to meet the energy needs of the worlds electricity. But the coal fired power plant produces waste that can pollute the environment such as fly ash and bottom ash so requires management to not cause environmental problems because coal fly ash classified as a hazardous waste. Fly ash has a particle size that is very smooth and of some literature research done previously fly ash coal containing silica SiO2 alumina Al2O3 titanium dioxide TiO2 magnesium oxide MgO and zinc oxide ZnO are potentially as filler that are likely to be used as a mixture of silicone rubber and epoxy resin for electrical insulators. So this research theme was engineering insulation materials by utilizing waste coal fly ash. The purpose of this study was to obtain performance characteristics of waste coal fly ash as filler in silicon rubber and epoxy resin. To achieve these objectives the activities that have been done is examined the effects of the use of fly ash as filler in silicone rubber material and epoxy resin. Parameters measured were dielectric strength and relative permittivity. The result of this research is the dielectric strength of silicone rubber rose with increasing quantity of fly ash. Conversely in epoxy resin dielectric strength decreases with increasing quantity of fly ash. Furthermore the measurement results relative permittivity where the value of the relative permittivity of silicon rubber swell if it is filled with fly ash as well as epoxy resin which has a value of permittivity relative to the concentration of fly ash filler material is linear.

  16. Tobacco use, Body Mass Index, and Potentially Malignant Disorders Among petrol fillers in Pimpri-Pune (India: A descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatha G. S. Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since petrol is combustible and smoking is banned at the petrol pumps, it may be predicted that use of smokeless tobacco is more prevalent among the petrol fillers. Also, smokeless tobacco is a major risk factor for developing oral potentially malignant disorders. The present study was conducted to determine the tobacco use, body mass index (BMI, and potentially malignant disorders among a cohort of petrol fillers and also to evaluate the interaction of tobacco use and BMI with the presence of potentially malignant disorders. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at 45 petrol stations located at Pimpri-Pune, India. A descriptive study design was used. Materials and Method: Four hundred and ten petrol fillers aged 17-64 years participated in the study. General information and tobacco history was obtained by interview. Height and weight were recorded to obtain BMI. Oral examination was conducted to identify the potentially malignant disorders. Statistical analysis: Chi-square test, Z test, and logistic regression were used. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. Results and Conclusions: It was found that 242 (59.02% used tobacco in different forms. 77.68% were tobacco chewers, and 8.26% were smokers. Leukoplakia was prevalent among 68.47%, oral submucous fibrosis among 27.45%, and 5.08% had erythroplakia. Age (χ2 = 11.46, P < 0.05, duration (χ2 = 17.46, P < 0.05, and frequency of tobacco chewing (χ2 = 14.16, P < 0.05 were significantly associated with potentially malignant disorders. Tobacco chewing was more prevalent as compared to smoking. It can be concluded that the petrol fillers are at a high risk for developing oral potentially malignant disorders.

  17. Effect of fillers in epoxy coatings based on the ED-20 resin on the mechanical properties determined by instrumented microindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, S. V.; Veretennikova, I. A.; Smirnova, E. O.; Pestov, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Epoxy lacquer coatings based on the ED-20 epoxy-diane resin, filled with nanosized TiO2, SiO2 and ZnO oxides and applied on an aluminum-magnesium alloy base, are studied by instrumented indentation. The effect of the duration of loading and the duration of holding under a constant load of 1 N on Martens hardness and the normal elastic modulus, depending on the material of the epoxy lacquer filler, has been established.

  18. Fracture Toughness and Elastic Modulus of Epoxy-Based Nanocomposites with Dopamine-Modified Nano-Fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kwang Liang; Ji, Xianbai; Lu, Xuehong; Lau, Soo Khim; Chen, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of surface treatment and filler shape factor on the fracture toughness and elastic modulus of epoxy-based nanocomposite. Two forms of nanofillers, polydopamine-coated montmorillonite clay (D-clay) and polydopamine-coated carbon nanofibres (D-CNF) were investigated. It was found that Young’s modulus increases with increasing D-clay and D-CNF loading. However, the fracture toughness decreases with increased D-clay loading but increases with increased D-CNF loading. Explanations have been provided with the aid of fractographic analysis using electron microscope observations of the crack-filler interactions. Fractographic analysis suggests that although polydopamine provides a strong adhesion between the fillers and the matrix, leading to enhanced elastic stiffness, the enhancement prohibits energy release via secondary cracking, resulting in a decrease in fracture toughness. In contrast, 1D fibre is effective in increasing the energy dissipation during fracture through crack deflection, fibre debonding, fibre break, and pull-out. PMID:28773136

  19. [Advantages of combined therapies in cosmetic medicine for the treatment of face aging: botulinum toxin, fillers and mesotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braccini, F; Dohan Ehrenfest, D M

    2010-01-01

    Non surgical cosmetic medicine procedures for the face are developing considerably, as they deliver good results using simple, non invasive, atraumatic and reproducible techniques. Aesthetic mesotherapy, also known as anti-aging mesotherapy, uses intra-dermal injections of a nutritive and moisturizing solution to improve brightness, skin hydration and tonus, and also smooth out superficial wrinkles. Subcutaneous filler injections enable to fill wrinkles and folds; by using high density products it is also able to provide genuine facial volumetric reconstruction. Finally, botulinum toxin acts by reducing certain muscle contractions to smooth out expression lines and folds induced by facial dynamics. In this article, we explore the concept of combined therapy and describe our experience associating anti-aging mesotherapy (NCTF-135HA, Filorga, Paris, France), hyaluronic acid based fillers (X-HA3 and X-HA-Volume, Filorga, Paris, France) and botulinum toxin (Vistabel, Allergan, Irvine CA, USA). A therapy combining anti-aging mesotherapy, botulinum toxin and filler injections, offers full treatment of the 3 biological levels of the covering tissues. This non-invasive therapeutic strategy brings patient satisfaction through a global approach to facial aging.

  20. Hyaluronan dermal fillers via crosslinking with 1,4-butandiol diglycidyl ether: Exploitation of heterogeneous reaction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Gatta, Annalisa; Papa, Agata; Schiraldi, Chiara; De Rosa, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Most of hyaluronan (HA)-based dermal fillers currently available on the market are produced through biopolymer crosslinking with 1,4-butandiol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE). Chemical modification is usually performed on the biopolymer dissolved in a highly alkaline aqueous medium (homogeneous conditions). Heterogeneous conditions for HA reaction with BDDGE were exploited here to obtain competitive HA fillers and to assess potential improvements in production process. Optimal parameters for effective reaction accomplishment were evaluated (e.g., medium composition, temperature and time of reaction). HA was modified with increasing BDDGE/HA equivalents (7-14%) achieving 66-74% (w/w) biopolymer insolubility. Hydrogels exhibited high swelling extent and outstanding resistance to enzymatic degradation decreasing and improving according to crosslinking degree, respectively. Once suspended in physiological solution (20 mg/mL), these products directly formed easy-to-extrude gels through 27-29 G needles. Gel particle dimensions were in the range 10-1000 µm. Rheological analyses revealed decreasing viscosity with the shear rate and G' values in the range 1200-1700 Pa. Overall, results of the in vitro characterization demonstrated the attainment of crosslinked HA particles suitable for application as dermal fillers. These new gels proved superior to similar commercialized products in terms of stability to enzymatic hydrolysis. Further, the protocol assessed allowed interesting improvements over conventional manufacturing procedures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.