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Sample records for suzanne evans morris

  1. Morris Carpets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arscott, Caroline

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available William Morris's carpet designs have been discussed in terms of design scheme, historical sources, naturalism and abstraction. This essay revisits some of these aspects in order to consider Morris's intimations of action. Action was associated by Morris with the pictorial and considered by him to be one of the great resources of oriental carpet design. The article considers the specific historical carpets with which Morris was familiar and discusses the terms used by Morris in assessing the intellectual and aesthetic value of historical carpets. It discusses the way that the knot in the fabric of the carpet might have been understood by Morris as analogous to knots and interlacements in the design. It goes on to propose that the knot was also understood in relation to linkages, contests, cultural exchange and forms of interconnection in human history. There is a discussion of common ground between Morris's discussion of ornament (in terms of cultural transmission and ideas set out by Alois Riegl. The carpet Clouds,made by Morris & Co. in 1885 for Clouds, East Knoyle, Wiltshire is the central example.

  2. Philip Morris premeerib tantsukunsti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Rahvusvahelisel tantsupäeval annab Philip Morris välja järjekordsed kaasaegse tantsu auhinnad. Teist aastat järjest saavad need nn sõltumatud ehk väljaspool riiklikke institutsioone viljeletava tantsu esindajad. Nimetatud tantsuauhindade nominandid

  3. Morris Young, pioneer physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadouny, Vartan Manoug

    2017-02-01

    This concise biography of Morris Young shows how he developed the medical services of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company in the first three decades of the twentieth century, and ended his career working with Sir Alexander Fleming at St Mary's Hospital in London. Young is an important figure in the history of medicine in Persia, and this biography introduces the achievements of this modest man who devoted his life to medicine.

  4. [Evans syndrome in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Montes, Olivia Alejandra; Escobar-Orduño, Martha Cecilia; Lozano-Garcidueñas, Mónica; Valle-Leal, Jaime Guadalupe

    Evans syndrome is characterized by the reduction of at least two blood cell lineages in the absence of other diagnoses; it was previously described as the simultaneous or sequential development of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia with unknown etiology. An incidence of 37% and mortality rate of 10% were reported for Evans syndrome. We report the clinical presentation and evolution of Evans syndrome in two infants who were initially diagnosed with immune thrombocytopenia. The clinical diagnosis was supported on complementary studies, where hematological disorders were corroborated. Both cases received treatment with steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin. For the management of children with thrombocytopenia, the pediatrician must analyze for other cell lineage disorders. In the cases that we report here, we found the presence of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and monocytosis. Therefore, infectious and immunological studies must be included. The first-line treatment of choice are steroids, and intravenous immunoglobulin can be considered if severe immune thrombocytopenia is associated, as observed in these cases. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. The Influence of Emerging Nursing Strategy and Policy Leaders: An Interview With Dr Suzanne Miyamoto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Suzanne; Adams, Jeffrey M

    2015-09-01

    This department highlights emerging nursing leaders who have demonstrated great potential in advancing innovation and patient care leadership in practice, policy, research, education, and theory. This interview profiles Suzanne Miyamoto, PhD, RN, Senior Director of Government Affairs and Health Policy at the American Association of Colleges of Nursing.

  6. Lyn Evans decelerates!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    After more than 40 years at CERN, 15 of which were dedicated to ensuring that the LHC comes to completion, Lyn Evans is retiring. The Imperial College Professor and recently-elected Fellow of the British Royal Society has set himself new challenges, but plans to keep strong links with CERN. His big thank you goes to the many hundreds of people who built one of the most complex scientific instruments ever conceived by mankind. Note from the Editor: It is unusual for the Bulletin to adopt a question-and-answer style. However, we recognise that, with someone of Lyn’s stature, the appropriate thing to do is simply to give him the floor. Bulletin: Lyn, are you really leaving CERN? I am retiring but I will not completely lose contacts with CERN and the LHC. It’s time to slow down for me now but I will join the CMS Collaboration. I will help with the link between the experiment and the machine. Bulletin: After many years as LHC Project Manager...

  7. Meediaterrorist Chris Morris / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    Briti raadio- ja telesatiirik Christopher Morris ja tema (tele)tegemised seoses kinos Sõprus linastuva islamiäärmuslastest kõneleva komöödiafilmiga "Neli lõvi" (Suurbritannia 2010). Lisaks M. T. "Napid detailid eraelust"

  8. Recreation conflicts on Mt. Evans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry J. Vaske; Karin Wittmann; Susan Laidlaw; Maureen P. Donnelly

    1995-01-01

    This study examines recreation conflict at Mt. Evans, Colorado; a high visibility area that attracts both hunters and non-hunters. Two types of conflict were distinguished: goal interference and conflict of values. Data were obtained from a series of on-site and mailed surveys. For hunting related events (e.g. seeing an animal being shot, hearing...

  9. Carbon Stars T. Lloyd Evans

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. Lloyd Evans. SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews,. Fife KY16 9SS, UK. ...... magnitude of the parent galaxy. The carbon stars are of two types, the ..... individual stars by different techniques and disagreements continued into more recent times. Lambert et al. (1986) ...

  10. The Morris Nathanson Design Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Muller

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For more than a half century, Morris Nathanson has been at the forefront of creative interior design for the hospitality industry. He has nurtured, trained, and mentored scores of designers and project managers, while helping to launch the concept and brand development for dozens of landmark restaurant companies. Several images are reproduced from a vast collection of original drawings that have been donated to Boston University.

  11. The Last Battle: With "Mockingjay" on Its Way, Suzanne Collins Weighs in on Katniss and the Capitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Rick

    2010-01-01

    Ever since Katniss Everdeen, the arrow-slinging heroine of Suzanne Collins's "Hunger Games" trilogy, was snatched from the cruel clutches of a ruthless government, one can't stop thinking about the feisty 16-year-old from District 12. What sort of flesh-devouring, mutant killing machine awaits her next? How can she possibly lead a successful…

  12. Metrology at Philip Morris Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualandris R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the metrology function at Philip Morris Europe (PME, a multinational organisation producing at over 40 sites in the European, Middle Eastern and African Regions is presented. Standardisation of test methods and equipment as well as the traceability of calibration gauges to the same reference gauge are essential in order to obtain comparable results among the various production centers. The metrology function as well as the qualification of instruments and the drafting of test and calibration operating procedures for this region are conducted or co-ordinated by the Research and Development Department in Neuchatel, Switzerland. In this paper the metrology function within PME is presented based on the measurement of the resistance to draw for which the PME R&D laboratory is accredited (ISO/CEI 17025, as both a calibration and a testing laboratory. The following topics are addressed in this paper: traceability of calibration standards to national standards; comparison of results among manufacturing centres; the choice, the budget as well as the computation of uncertainties. Furthermore, some practical aspects related to the calibration and use of the glass multicapillary gauges are discussed.

  13. Sustainable socialism: William Morris on waste

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, EC

    2011-01-01

    While William Morris has long been recognized for his radical approach to the problem of labor, which built on the ideas of John Ruskin and informed his contributions to the Arts and Crafts philosophy, his ideas about waste have received much less attention. This article suggests that the Kelmscott Press, which Morris founded in 1891, was designed to embody the values of durability and sustainability in sharp contrast to the neophilia, disposability, and planned obsolescence of capitalist pro...

  14. Age-dependent effects of developmental lead exposure on performance in the Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, D A; Kuhlmann, A C; Farmer, S J; Guilarte, T R

    1997-01-01

    The neurobehavioral toxicity of developmental exposure to lead (Pb) was investigated by conducting tests of spatial learning in the Morris water maze. Female Long-Evans rats were exposed to 0 or 250 ppm Pb acetate in the diet beginning 10 days prior to breeding and continued throughout gestation and lactation. Pups were weaned onto the same diets as the dams at postnatal day 20 (PN20). Increased levels of Pb were detected in the hippocampus of the 250 ppm Pb acetate group relative to controls. The highest concentration of Pb measured in the hippocampus was at PN21 with decreasing levels at older ages. In the Morris Water Maze, a statistically significant (p water maze at any age. These initial studies indicate an impairment of performance in the swim task in PN21 rats exposed to Pb during development. The age-dependent effect of Pb in this learning paradigm is consistent with previous studies in experimental animals and with the observation that children are more susceptible to Pb-induced cognitive deficits than adults. The Morris water maze may be useful for studying the effects of Pb on learning and memory, and their neurochemical basis.

  15. Awards for Lyn Evans and Philippe Lebrun

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Lyn Evans has received the American Physical Society’s Robert R. Wilson Prize, while Philippe Lebrun has been awarded an honorary doctorate by the Wrocław University of Technology in Poland. Lyn Evans in front of an LHC dipole magnet. Philippe Lebrun (centre) with the Dean of the Faculty of mechanical and power engineering of the Wrocław University during the ceremony (courtesy of Laurent Tavian).Numerous honours are going to the LHC and those behind it even before this exceptional machine begins operation. The LHC Project Leader, Lyn Evans, has recently been awarded the "Robert R. Wilson Prize for Achievement in the Physics of Particle Accelerators" by the American Physical Society (APS). According to the citation, the prize was awarded "for a sustained career of technical innovation and leadership in the SPS proton-antiproton collider, culminating in the construction and commissioning of the LHC&am...

  16. Altria means tobacco: Philip Morris's identity crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E

    2003-04-01

    Philip Morris Companies, the world's largest and most profitable tobacco seller, has changed its corporate name to The Altria Group. The company has also embarked on a plan to improve its corporate image. Examination of internal company documents reveals that these changes have been planned for over a decade and that the company expects to reap specific and substantial rewards from them. Tobacco control advocates should be alert to the threat Philip Morris's plans pose to industry focused tobacco control campaigns. Company documents also suggest what the vulnerabilities of those plans are and how advocates might best exploit them.

  17. Portrait of Evan Parker (Silver and Gold)

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Neil

    2009-01-01

    This film explores the musical technique of Evan Parker and the effect it has on his soprano saxophone. The camera is placed below the instrument so it can catch the light entering the instrument as it is played. There is a direct correlation between what we see and what we hear, each light has its counterpart in sound.

  18. Síndrome de Evans en lactantes

    OpenAIRE

    Olivia Alejandra Flores-Montes; Martha Cecilia Escobar-Orduño; Mónica Lozano-Garcidueñas; Jaime Guadalupe Valle-Leal

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de Evans se caracteriza por la disminución de, al menos, dos líneas celulares en ausencia de otros diagnósticos. Anteriormente, se definía como el desarrollo simultáneo o secuencial de trombocitopenia inmune primaria y anemia hemolítica autoinmune sin etiología específica. Se ha reportado una incidencia del 37% y una mortalidad del 10% de este síndrome. Casos clínicos: Se presenta la información clínica y la evolución del síndrome de Evans en dos pacientes lactant...

  19. Cambiar el arte para cambiar el mundo (Una perspectiva feminista Diálogo abierto con Suzanne Lacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena García-Oliveros

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo ahonda en la perspectiva activista y transformadora de las artistas feministas que surgieron en la década de los años 70, indagando en su particular visión acerca de la capacidad del arte para crear nuevos modelos sociales integradores. A partir del caso de la artista norteamericana Suzanne Lacy, con quien las autoras han mantenido diversos encuentros de carácter público en el Centro de Arte Contemporáneo Matadero de Madrid, se pormenorizan las estrategias que el feminismo ha trabado en torno al arte público y se busca una redefinición de los ejes principales que sustentan el medio artístico actual: la autoría, la obra y su difusión y el valor final de la pieza. La investigación continúa con los estudios de caso de la artista ciberfeminista Shu Lea Cheang, la artista de origen paraguayo Faith Wilding y el colectivo madrileño Toxic Lesbian.

  20. Obituary: David Stanley Evans, 1916-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bash, Frank N.

    2005-12-01

    David Stanley Evans died on 14 November 2004 in Austin, Texas. He was a noted observational astronomer whose career was divided between South Africa and Texas. He also used the extensive historical collections at the University of Texas to write several books on the history of astronomy. He was born in Cardiff, Wales on 28 January 1916. David received his BA degree in mathematics in 1937 from Kings College, Cambridge. He became a PhD student at Cambridge Observatory in 1937, and was one of Sir Arthur Eddington's last surviving students. He received his PhD degree in 1941 with a dissertation entitled, "The Formation of the Balmer Series of Hydrogen in Stellar Atmospheres." He was a conscientious objector to war and, thus, spent the war years at Oxford working with physicist Kurt Mendelssohn on medical problems, involving cadavers, relating to the war. During these years, David was scientific editor of "Discovery", and he was editor of "The Observatory". David left England in 1946 in order to take up the position of Second Assistant at the Radcliffe Observatory, Pretoria, South Africa. He and H. Knox Shaw were the entire staff after R. O. Redman left, and they aluminized and installed the mirrors in the 74-inch telescope. His notable scientific contribution was to use lunar occultations to measure stellar angular diameters during the 1950s. He succeeded in determining the angular diameter of Antares and determined that Arcturus was not circular but had an elliptical shape. The elliptical shape was later shown to be an instrumental artifact, but the utility of using lunar occultations to measure stellar diameters and stellar multiplicity was conclusively demonstrated. T. Gold presented David's paper on lunar occultation angular diameters at the January 1953 meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society. For the rest of his life, David resented Gold's remarks, because he felt that he had been ridiculed. By 1953, David Evans was Chief Assistant at the Royal Observatory

  1. Portrait of a Contender: Corey Morris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Morris

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available “Language at Work – Bridging Theory and Practice” caught up with busy Corey Morris on a cold and rainy November day in Denmark. We had two main reasons for looking up Corey at his work. First, we knew that his work takes him to the four corners of the world of branding on a daily basis. Second, we were well aware that Corey would be the right person to ask questions as to where branding is going these days.

  2. Sensory awareness and social work [Michelle Evans and Andrew Whittaker

    OpenAIRE

    Watling, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Sensory Awareness and Social Work by Michelle Evans and Andrew Whittaker; Book Review for Practice: Social Work in Action Journal, Sensory Awareness and Social Work M. Evans and A. Whittaker Exeter: Learning Matters, 2010 144 pp. £17.99 (pb), ISBN: 978 1 84445 291 0

  3. Dermatomyositis associated with generalized subcutaneous edema and Evans syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyu Dong; Kim, Pyoung Su; Park, Hae Young; Kim, Cho Rok; Byun, Ji Yeon; Lee, Dong Youn; Lee, Joo Heung; Yang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Eil-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Although periorbital edema is a common manifestation of dermatomyositis (DM), generalized subcutaneous edema associated with DM is extremely rare. Evans syndrome is an autoimmune disease in which an individual's antibodies attack one's own red blood cells and platelets. Evans syndrome is rarely a presenting feature of DM. DM has been rarely reported to be associated with either generalized edema or Evans syndrome. We report the case of a 52-year-old Korean woman who presented with generalized subcutaneous edema, an erythematous rash, dysphagia, and proximal muscle weakness, and subsequently developed features of Evans syndrome. Treatment with high-dose glucocorticoids and an immunosuppressive agent controlled the DM, the generalized subcutaneous edema, and the Evans syndrome. Copyright © 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A review: search visualization with Knuth Morris Pratt algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Robbi; Zulkarnain, Iskandar; Jaya, Hendra

    2017-09-01

    In this research modeled a search process of the Knuth-Morris-Pratt algorithm in the form of easy-to-understand visualization, Knuth-Morris-Pratt algorithm selection because this algorithm is easy to learn and easy to implement into many programming languages.

  5. Understanding Philip Morris's pursuit of US government regulation of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, P A; Malone, R E

    2005-06-01

    To investigate Philip Morris's support of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation of tobacco products and analyse its relationship to the company's image enhancement strategies. Internal Philip Morris documents released as part of the Master Settlement Agreement. Searches of the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) beginning with such terms as "FDA" and "regulatory strategy" and expanding to include relevant new terms. Philip Morris's support for government regulation of tobacco is part of a broader effort to address its negative public image, which has a damaging impact on the company's stock price, political influence, and employee morale. Through regulation, the company seeks to enhance its legitimacy, redefine itself as socially responsible, and alter the litigation environment. Whereas health advocates frame tobacco use as a public health policy issue, Philip Morris's regulatory efforts focus on framing tobacco use as an individual choice by informed adults to use a risky product. This framing allows Philip Morris to portray itself as a reasonable and responsible manufacturer and marketer of risky products. Philip Morris's ability to improve its image through support of FDA regulation may undermine tobacco control efforts aimed at delegitimising the tobacco industry. It may also create the impression that Philip Morris's products are being made safer and ultimately protect the company from litigation. While strong regulation of tobacco products and promotion remain critical public health goals, previous experiences with tobacco regulation show that caution may be warranted.

  6. Soul / Randy Becker, Bill Evans, Evelin Samuel ; interv. Sven Sapelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Becker, Randy

    2007-01-01

    The Soulbop Bandi rajajad Randy Becker ja Bill Evans ning meie Evelin Samuel gospeli ja rhytmblues'i juurtega soulist. Lk. 72-73 Inessa Josingu ja Ande Kaalepi souliteemaline fotolavastusega ruumikujundus

  7. Morris Wetland Management District : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Morris Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  8. Morris Wetland Management District : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Morris Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  9. Morris Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Fiscal year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Morris Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2000 fiscal year. The report begins with an...

  10. Morris Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Morris Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  11. Morris Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Morris Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  12. Morris Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Fiscal year 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Morris Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2007 fiscal year. The report begins with an...

  13. Morris Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Morris WMD outlines accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights and...

  14. Morris Wetland Management District : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Morris Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  15. Morris Wetland Management District : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Morris Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  16. Morris Wetland Management District : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Morris Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  17. Morris Wetland Management District : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Morris Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  18. Morris Wetland Management District: Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Morris Wetland Management District for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  19. Morris Wetland Management District : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Morris Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  20. Morris Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Morris Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  1. Morris Wetland Management District : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Morris Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  2. William Morris, cultural leadership, and the dynamics of taste

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Charles; Press, Jon; Maclean, Mairi

    2011-01-01

    This examination of the social processes that inform cultural production asks how tastes are formed, transmitted, embedded, and reproduced across generations. These questions are explored through a study of William Morris, his working methods and products, and their impact on the decorative arts in Victorian Britain and beyond. Through the exercise of cultural leadership, Morris gave physical expression to the ideals and sentiments of Romanticism, and this in turn gave rise to a community of ...

  3. Fonds Suzanne et Edmond Bernus - 224 APOM/1-160 (1947-2003) : répertoire numérique détaillé

    OpenAIRE

    Bordelès, Fabien; Lépaulard, Sarah (collab.)

    2015-01-01

    L'ethnologue Suzanne (dite Suzy) Bernus, née Vianès (1928-1990) et le géographe Edmond Bernus (1929-2004) ont compté parmi les meilleurs spécialistes des Touaregs, notamment du Niger. Leur fonds d'archives comprend des notes de cours, de conférences, des dossiers de travail, un fonds filmique (numérisé), un fonds sonore (numérisé), un herbier (numérisé), un fonds photographique (en partie numérisé) et un fonds documentaire (cartes géographiques, tirés à part, revues et rapports). Les thèmes a...

  4. Judge for yourself: reply to Evans and Buehner (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareev, Yaakov; Fiedler, Klaus

    2011-11-01

    In their comment, Evans and Buehner (2011) maintained that Fiedler and Kareev's (2006) conclusion that decision quality does not always increase with the size of information sample is wrong in every respect. They claimed, first, that the decision model proposed by Fiedler and Kareev is normatively incorrect and is not supported by earlier findings; second, that Fiedler and Kareev misinterpreted or misrepresented their own data, which show in fact a large-sample advantage; and third, that it is not true that small samples lead to clear data; rather, when clear data are observed people make do with small samples. In this rebuttal, we refute all these claims. First, the issue is whether the model is descriptively, not normatively, correct. Furthermore, earlier data are commensurate with our, not Evans and Buehner's, model. Second, our data do support our conclusion; it is Evans and Buehner's dismissal of some of our data that led them to their conclusions. Finally, Evans and Buehner's third point is discussed explicitly and at length in the original article. However, whereas Evans and Buehner only reiterate this point (and present it as novel), we continue from there and show that small samples are likely to result in clear data.

  5. Pregnancy and Evans´ syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Artucio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evans´ syndrome is the coexistence of autoimmune thrombocytopenia with autoimmune hemolytic anemia. It is rarely found during the course of a pregnancy. This makes treatment options more difficult, since some therapeutic drugs are teratogenic. The effects of Evans´ syndrome in the fetus and newborn are unknown given the low number of reported cases. We report the case of a patient with preconceptional diagnosis of Evans´ syndrome, who develops a hemolytic crisis during the course of a pregnancy, and diagnosis of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, treated at Clínica Ginecotocológica “A” at the Pereira Rossell Hospital Center, in Montevideo, Uruguay. Treatment options and evolution are analyzed, as well as previous reports.

  6. Managing missing scores on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    2011-01-01

    Study Design: Analysis of Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) and Oswestry Disability Index (Oswestry) responses.Objectives: To determine the prevalence of unanswered questions on the RMDQ23 (23-item RMDQ version) and Oswestry questionnaires. To determine if managing RMDQ23 missing data...

  7. Biosafety regulations in South Africa | Morris | African Crop Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biosafety regulations in South Africa. EJ Morris. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/acsj.v3i3.54531 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  8. William Morris and John Dewey: Imagining Utopian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman-Moir, John

    2012-01-01

    With strikingly resonance William Morris and John Dewey independently imagined what utopian education might plausibly be. Neither remotely thought of utopia as a perfectly ordered society, but rather as a process. Each understood education functionally in terms of how it fits with art, work, and democracy within a holistic conception of utopia.…

  9. Thinking the "unthinkable": why Philip Morris considered quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E A; Malone, R E

    2003-06-01

    To investigate the genesis and development of tobacco company Philip Morris's recent image enhancement strategies and analyse their significance. Internal Philip Morris documents, made available by the terms of the Master Settlement Agreement between the tobacco companies and the attorneys general of 46 states, and secondary newspaper sources. Searches of the Philip Morris documents website (www.pmdocs.com) beginning with terms such as "image management" and "identity" and expanding as relevant new terms (consultant names, project names, and dates), were identified, using a "snowball" sampling strategy. In the early 1990s, Philip Morris, faced with increasing pressures generated both externally, from the non-smokers' rights and public health communities, and internally, from the conflicts among its varied operating companies, seriously considered leaving the tobacco business. Discussions of this option, which occurred at the highest levels of management, focused on the changing social climate regarding tobacco and smoking that the tobacco control movement had effected. However, this option was rejected in favour of the image enhancement strategy that culminated with the recent "Altria" name change. This analysis suggests that advocacy efforts have the potential to significantly denormalise tobacco as a corporate enterprise.

  10. Spent fuel receipt and storage at the Morris Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrom, K A; Eger, K J

    1978-06-01

    Operating and maintenance activities in an independent spent fuel storage facility are described, and current regulations governing such activities are summarized. This report is based on activities at General Electric's licensed storage facility located near Morris, Illinois, and includes photographs of cask and fuel handling equipment used during routine operations.

  11. 20 Tributes Van Wyk Morris WEB 02.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    2015-01-28

    Jan 28, 2015 ... would light up at each and every story, even though she'd heard them numerous times before. He and Kathy were so generous with their time and so warm and humorous in their interactions. Chris always gave advice and time willingly to young. 20 Tributes Van Wyk Morris WEB 02.pmd. 1/28/2015, 11:48 ...

  12. Translation, adaptation and validation of the Roland-Morris questionnaire - Brazil Roland-Morris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusbaum L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate the Roland-Morris (RM questionnaire into Brazilian-Portuguese and adapt and validate it. First 3 English teachers independently translated the original questionnaire into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Later, 3 other translators, blind to the original questionnaire, performed a back translation. This version was then compared with the original English questionnaire. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel of 3 rheumatologists and the final Brazilian version was established (Brazil-RM. This version was then pretested on 30 chronic low back pain patients consecutively selected from the spine disorders outpatient clinic. In addition to the traditional clinical outcome measures, the Brazil-RM, a 6-point pain scale (from no pain to unbearable pain, and its numerical pain rating scale (PS (0 to 5 and a visual analog scale (VAS (0 to 10 were administered twice by one interviewer (1 week apart and once by one independent interviewer. Spearman's correlation coefficient (SCC and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC were computed to assess test-retest and interobserver reliability. Cross-sectional construct validity was evaluated using the SCC. In the pretesting session, all questions were well understood by the patients. The mean time of questionnaire administration was 4 min and 53 s. The SCC and ICC were 0.88 (P<0.01 and 0.94, respectively, for the test-retest reliability and 0.86 (P<0.01 and 0.95, respectively, for interobserver reliability. The correlation coefficient was 0.80 (P<0.01 between the PS and Brazil-RM score and 0.79 (P<0.01 between the VAS and Brazil-RM score. We conclude that the Brazil-RM was successfully translated and adapted for application to Brazilian patients, with satisfactory reliability and cross-sectional construct validity.

  13. Morris County Improvement Authority, Morris County, New Jersey Renewable Energy Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanni, John [Chair, Morris County Improvement Authority

    2013-05-01

    The Morris County Improvement Authority (Authority), a public body corporate and politic of the State of New Jersey and created and controlled by the County, at the direction of the County and through the Program guaranteed by the County, financed 3.2 MW of solar projects (Solar Projects) at fifteen (15) sites for seven (7) local government units (Local Units) in and including the County. The Program uses a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) structure, where the Solar Developer constructs, operates and maintains all of the Solar Projects, for the benefit of the Local Units and the Authority, for the maximum State law allowable PPA period of fifteen (15) years. Although all fifteen (15) sites were funded by the Authority, only the Mennen Arena site was considered for the purposes of the required local match funding for this grant. Specifically at the Mennen Arena site, the Authority financed 1.6 MW of solar panels. On October 18, 2013, the DOE Grant was drawn down following completion of the necessary application documents and final execution of an agreement memorializing the contemplated transaction by the Local Units, the County, The Authority and the solar developer. The proceeds of the DOE Grant were then applied to reduce the PPA price to all Local Units across the program and increase the savings from approximately 1/3 to almost half off the existing and forecasted utility pricing over the fifteen (15) year term, without adversely affecting all of the other benefits. With the application of the rate buy down, the price of electricity purchased under the PPA dropped from 10.9 to 7.7 cents/kWh. This made acquisition of renewable energy much more affordable for the Local Units, and it enhanced the success of the program, which will encourage other counties and local units to develop similar programs.

  14. Diplodia natalensis , Pole Evans: a causal agent of citrus gummosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolations were made from the barks of gummosis-infected citrus trees from orchards of the University of Ghana Agricultural Research Station at Kade. The isolation media used were 1.5% water agar, 1.5% water agar + nystatin and 1.5% water agar + benomyl. Four isolates including Diplodia natalensis Pole Evans, ...

  15. Posthumous Pardons, the Home Office and the Timothy Evans Case

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Gerry

    2007-01-01

    Examines the legal issues surrounding the exercise of the prerogative of mercy to grant posthumous pardons either to those convicted of a capital offence or those executed for offences under military law, specifically during the First World War. Focuses on the policy considerations leading to the Home Secretary’s decision to recommend the grant of a posthumous pardon for Timothy Evans in 1966.

  16. Diplodia natalensis Pole Evans, the causal agent of citrus gummosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four isolates including Diplodia natalensis Pole Evans, Fusarium solani Appel + Wr., and two other identified fungi were obtained. The two fungi were unidentified on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA). When the isolates were tested for pathogenicity, only D. natalensis induced the disease symptoms in the inoculated ...

  17. Managing missing scores on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    MANAGING MISSING SCORES ON THE ROLAND MORRIS DISABILITY QUESTIONNAIRE Peter Kenta and Henrik Hein Lauridsenb aBack Research Centre and bInstitute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark Background There is no standard method to calculate Roland Morris Disability......, such as the Oswestry Disability Index (Oswestry) convert their raw score into a standardized score out of 100. An advantage of this method is that it allows missing data to be accommodated by proportional recalculation. For example, if 17 questions had been answered ’yes’ on a RMDQ questionnaire containing 23 yes...... of the measurement error introduced when using this method would allow determination of whether it is a valid strategy. The aim of this study was to quantify the measurement error in RMDQ (standardized) scores when one or more questions were unanswered and to compare this with the measurement error present when...

  18. Bulgarian Standardization of Morris Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margarita Dilova; Eva Papazova; Metodi Koralov

    2017-01-01

    ...Research Articles БЪЛГАРСКА СТАНДАРТИЗАЦИЯ НА СКАЛАТА ЗА СЕБЕОЦЕНКА НА МОРИС РОЗЕНБЕРГ Bulgarian Standardization of Morris Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale...

  19. Natural Pineapple Leaf Fibre Extraction On Josapine And Morris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazalan Muhammad Firdaus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pineapple’s leaf plant contains approximately 2.5% to 3.5% of strong white silky fibres. These fibres are useful and can be extracted from the leaves. There are a few ways to extract the fibre such as hand scrapping and by extraction machine. The objective of this research is to study the quality of fibre extraction by using different age of pineapple leaf. Next, the study aims to compare the quality of Josapine and Morris pineapple leaf with tensile test. Fibre yield percentage are calculated to determine which type of pineapple leaf produce high production of dry fibre. The mechanical properties of the fibres are analysed by Tensile Test under American Standard Testing Methods (ASTM C1577-03 and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. The result of the fibre yield percentage show the Josapine type on 12 month ages are the highest value fibre yield percentage which is 7.89%. Based on fibre yield percentages, it showed the Josapine type produce better dry fibre production compare to Morris type. Based on mechanical test, it showed Josapine type on 12 months ages are the strongest fibre compare to Morris type since it can withstand on 67.6 N of load.

  20. Experience with Evans syndrome in an academic referral center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Jaime-Pérez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To document the experience of one referral service with patients diagnosed with Evans syndrome, the treatment and response and to briefly review current treatment strategies and results.METHODS: Patients enrolled in this study fulfilled criteria for Evans syndrome. Data were retrieved from the clinical files and electronic databases of the Department of Hematology, Hospital Universitario "Dr. José Eleuterio González". Treatment modalities and response and the use of additional therapies were evaluated. The literature was reviewed in the context of the clinical course of the studied patients.RESULTS: Six patients were diagnosed with Evans syndrome in the study period. Patient 1 was treated with steroids, relapsed twice and was again treated with steroids. Patient 2 treated initially with steroids plus intravenous immunoglobulin was subsequently lost to follow-up. A good response was achieved in Patients 3 and 4, who were treated with steroids plus rituximab; patient 4 also received danazol as a second-line therapy. However both relapsed and subsequently underwent splenectomy at ten and nine months, respectively. One patient, number 5, treated with steroids, danazol and rituximab did not relapse within four years of follow-up and Patient 6, who received steroids plus danazol did not relapse within three years of follow-up.CONCLUSION: Evans syndrome is an uncommon hematologic condition rarely diagnosed and not widely studied. Clinicians must have it in mind when evaluating a patient with a positive direct antiglobulin test, anemia and thrombocytopenia, since prognosis depends on its early recognition and opportune therapy, but even this leads to variable results.

  1. Quantitative evaluation of vascular permeability in the gerbil brain after transient ischemia using Evans blue fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyama, O; Okamura, N; Yanase, M; Narita, M; Kawabata, K; Sugita, M

    1988-04-01

    Mongolian gerbils were used to evaluate brain edema during restoration of flow following bilateral carotid occlusion for 1 h. We have modified the method for fluorometric measurement of Evans blue to monitor vascular protein leakage (vasogenic edema). The extraction of extravasated Evans blue was performed by homogenizing the whole brain in 50% trichloroacetic acid. The supernatant was diluted fourfold with ethanol and the Evans blue fluorescence was measured. The tissue blank was negligible. Evans blue content of the plasma was similarly determined and the ratio of tissue to plasma Evans blue content was calculated. Furthermore, Evans blue fluorescence was used for microscopic investigation. It is suggested that Evans blue fluorescence can be applied for quantification of protein leakage with much more sensitivity and accuracy than the colorimetric absorbance method, as well as for tissue localization of protein leakage.

  2. Managing missing scores on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    Background and purpose: It is likely that the most common method for calculating a Roland Morris Disability Index (RMDQ) sum score is to simply ignore any unanswered questions. In contrast, the raw sum score on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is converted to a 0-100 scale, with the advantage...... of allowing missing data to be accommodated by proportional recalculation. The aim of this study was to quantify the calculation error in RMDQ scores when one or more questions were unanswered and compare this with the error present when the ODI was scored in the same way. Methods and results: The prevalence...

  3. Isolation of rat alpha-fetoprotein from Morris hepatoma 7777.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereta, J; Koj, A

    1982-01-01

    1. Tissue slices from Morris hepatoma 7777 were incubated for 3 hr in Krebs-Ringer-bicarbonate solution and the cell-free supernatants were used for isolating alpha-fetoprotein. 2. Purification procedure included salting out with ammonium sulphate, affinity chromatography (either Concanavalin A-Sepharose or Cibacron-Blue-Sepharose), hydrophobic chromatography and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). 3.alpha-Fetoprotein was obtained with a yield of approx. 10% and in pure form, as judged from crossed immunoelectrophoresis and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE).

  4. THE HISTORY OF DESIGN EDUCATION AND WILLIAM MORRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz DILMAC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Industrial revolution had an impact on art as well as other fields of society in the years 1760-1860. The machines came to the front in together with bringing out production line to supply growing demand, and so the importance the art had diminished. The machines having some features like standard production, scales based on rules and geometric form having unnatural appearance caused the artists such as William Morris and John Ruskin to believe that the machine harmed the art. The artists such as Morris and Ruskin took a leading role in development of design idea by resisting the form of machine production devoid of art in the light of this ideas. The problem of design keeps as a current issue nowadays. That’s why, we could create a solution by having different perspectives based on previous experience and problems encountered nowadays. The problem of design keeps on up-to-date issue with the technology developing very fast today. So, this study was made with the aim to help us present right approaches towards today’s problems. This research, review of the literature obtained from architecture, history of art and industrial design on books- magazines the subject of the dissertation thesis Higher Education Center was formed with descriptive narratives. Another aim of the research carried out in this context the handmade, machine design is to examine the emerging issues in the transition to production.

  5. Re-development of the Mount Evans Womble Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stencel, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Mount Evans in the Colorado Front Range hosts one of the highest altitude observatories in the USA, at an elevation of 14,148 ft (4,312 m). The observatory is operated under a Forest Service use permit, recently renewed for another 30 years. At times, observing conditions (seeing, water vapor column, etc.) can be as good as anywhere. The existing twin 0.72 m f/21 R-C telescopes are solar powered and internet connected. However, jet stream winds in 2012 destroyed the 15 year old, 22.5 ft diameter Ash dome. The replacement, custom dome design/install was rushed, and suffers from a number of flaws. Given that, plus the aging telescope and operating system, we are planning, and seeking partners and investor funds, to re-develop the facility. Facets of this may include replacing the twin apertures with a single full-aperture telescope for remote operations and sky monitoring, replacing the flawed dome with an innovative dome design, renewable power upgrades, and outreach programs for the many thousands of mountain visitors seasonally. As elsewhere, we are grappling with increases in atmospheric water vapor and out-of-control regional light pollution growth, but believe that the site continues to hold great potential. Interested parties are invited to contact the first author for further information. Website: http://www.du.edu/~rstencel/MtEvans .

  6. Philanthropy, politics and promotion: Philip Morris' "charitable contributions" in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross; Collin, Jeff

    2008-08-01

    The efforts of members of the tobacco industry to portray themselves as responsible corporations via ostensible commitment to improved labour practices and public philanthropy have attracted growing criticism. This is particularly true of corporate social responsibility (CSR) schemes undertaken in emerging nations that are designed to rehabilitate the tobacco industry's image among public, government and market opinions in North America and western Europe. In the case of Thailand, sponsorship of arts events and community groups has been one avenue of promoting the industry in a regulatory environment that severely curtails promotion and advertising. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Art Award, sponsored by Philip Morris (PM) has provided one such outlet for 10 years. Analysis of PM funding announcements since the end of the ASEAN art programme in Thailand reveals that recent donations to tobacco-related community organisations reinforces the extent to which seemingly generous acts are driven by corporate self-interest rather than social responsibility.

  7. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 80.712 Section 80.712 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.712 Morris Island...

  8. Pacemaker dynamics in the full Morris-Lecar model

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Miranda, J. M.

    2014-09-01

    This article reports the finding of pacemaker dynamics in certain region of the parameter space of the three-dimensional version of the Morris-Lecar model for the voltage oscillations of a muscle cell. This means that the cell membrane potential displays sustained oscillations in the absence of an external electrical stimulation. The development of this dynamic behavior is shown to be tied to the strength of the leak current contained in the model. The approach followed is mostly based on the use of linear stability analysis and numerical continuation techniques. In this way it is shown that the oscillatory dynamics is associated to the existence of two Hopf bifurcations, one subcritical and other supercritical. Moreover, it is explained that in the region of parameter values most commonly studied for this model such pacemaker dynamics is not displayed because of the development of two fold bifurcations, with the increase of the strength of the leak current, whose interaction with the Hopf bifurcations destroys the oscillatory dynamics.

  9. Embarazo y Síndrome de Evans: a propósito de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Artucio, Santiago; Silva Ledesma, Rosina; Ben, Sebastián; Fiol, Verónica; Cóppola, Francisco; Clínica Ginecotocológica "A" Prof. Dr. Briozzo, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República. Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell, Montevideo, Uruguay.

    2015-01-01

    El síndrome de Evans es la coexistencia de trombocitopenia autoinmune con anemia hemolítica autoinmune. Raramente se presenta durante el curso de un embarazo. Esto dificulta las opciones terapéuticas, dado que algunos de los agentes utilizados para el tratamiento son teratogénicos. Los efectos del síndrome de Evans en el feto y recién nacido se desconocen dado el escaso número de casos publicados.Presentamos el caso de una paciente con diagnóstico preconcepcional de síndrome de Evans, que pre...

  10. Systematics of the genus Zinaida Evans, 1937 (Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae: Baorini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Huang, Zhenfu; Chiba, Hideyuki; Han, Yuke; Wang, Min; Fan, Xiaoling

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, species of the genus Zinaida were assigned to the genus Polytremis, until molecular evidence revealed that the former is a distinct genus. Nine species in Polytremis sensu Evans have since been removed and assigned to Zinaida; however, there is still uncertainty as to the taxonomic status of an additional seven Polytremis species. Moreover, the interspecific relationships within Zinaida have remained unresolved. To further investigate the taxonomic statuses and interspecific relationships within Zinaida, a molecular phylogeny of most species of Zinaida and its allies was inferred based on regions of the mitochondrial COI-COII and 16S and nuclear EF-1α genes (3006 bp). The results revealed that Zinaida is monophyletic and consists of four intra-generic clades that correspond to morphological characteristics. Clade A (Z. suprema group) consists of P. kiraizana, Z. suprema, and P. gigantea, with the latter two as sister species. Clade B (Z. nascens group) consists of seven species, and is the sister group of Clade C (Z. pellucida group), which comprises sister species Z. pellucida and Z. zina. In Clade B, Z. caerulescens and Z. gotama, and Z. theca and Z. fukia are sister species, respectively. On the basis of our molecular evidence and morphological features, we have moved P. gigantea, P. kiraizana, P. jigongi, and P. micropunctata to the genus Zinaida as new combinations. We review morphological characteristics and discuss the distribution of each of these groups in the light of our phylogenetic hypothesis, and provide a comprehensive taxonomic checklist.

  11. Síndrome de Evans de aparición súbita en el embarazo Evans Syndrome of Sudden onset in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Barboza-Retana; Pilar Bogantes-Ledezma; William Carballo-Gutiérrez; Jorge Díaz-Camacho

    2011-01-01

    La trombocitopenia complica hasta el 10% de los embarazos. El síndrome de Evans es la coexistencia de la trombocitopenia inmune con anemia hemolítica autoinmune. Se presenta un caso de síndrome de Evans durante el embarazo, complicado por preclampsia y neutropenia fetal. Una mujer de 20 años de edad, previamente sana, primigesta, que presentó a las 34 semanas de gestación dolor epigástrico, trombocitopenia y pre eclampsia. Se le realizó parto por cesárea, por presentar síndrome de HELLP. A lo...

  12. Lateral hindfoot instability treated with the Evans tenodesis: a biomechanical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard-Andersen, P.; Madsen, F.; Frich, Lars Henrik

    1990-01-01

    The stabilizing effect of the Evans tenodesis on movements in the tibiotalocalcaneal joint complex was studied in 10 amputation specimens, using a kinesiologic testing device. The tenodesis was tested following solitary lesion of the anterior talofibular ligament and after combined lesions...... in the neutral position, the Evans tenodesis cannot reconstruct normal hindfoot kinematics, irrespective of the extent of ligamentous damage. However, severe instability in adduction and internal rotation, both part of clinical supination, were effectively prevented by the tenodesis....

  13. Revisão de Elbella Evans e gêneros afins (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae, Pyrrhopyginae Revision of Elbella Evans and related genera (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae, Pyrrhopyginae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf H. H Mielke

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study of the genera Microceris Watson, 1893, Elbella Evans, 1951, Parelbella. gen.n. (type species: Hesperia polyzona [Latreille, 1824], Pseudocroniades. gen.n. (type species: Ericides (sic machaon Westwood, [1852] and Protelbella, gen.n. (type species: Pyrrhopyga (sic alburna Mabille, 1891, a natural group of the Pyrrhopyginae, here called "Elbella Complex", is presented. The following are spp.n. and sspp.n.: Elbella intersecta paraensis, Brazil: Pará; Elbella intersecta rufitegula, Brazil: Pernambuco, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro State; Elbella viriditas boliviana, Bolivia: La Paz; Elbella lampra albociliata, Brazil: São Paulo, Paraná and Santa Catarina: Elbella azeta giffordi, Brazil: Distrito Federal and São Paulo; Elbella patrobas mexicana, Mexico: Chiapas and Quintana Roo; Elbella patrobas evansi, Colombia: Cauca, Caldas and Boyaca; Elbella patrobas tingo, Brazil: Rondonia and Peru: Huanuco and Madre de Dios; Elbella patrobas amazonica, Brazil: Amazonas; Parelbella peruana, Peru: Junin; Pseudocroniades machaon seabrai, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro State; Protelbella alburna brasiliensis, Brazil: Amazonas, Rondonia and Mato Grosso, and French Guiana: Montagne aux Cheveaux. The following genus is a syn.n.: Hegesippe Evans, 1951 of Elbella Evans, 1951. The following species and subspecies are syn.n.: Pyrrhopyga (sic semidentata Mabille, 1877 and Elbella intersecta ilona Evans, 1951 of Elbella intersecta intersecta (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869: Pyrrhopyge carriae Bell, 1931 of Elbella viriditas viriditas (Skinner, 1920; Pyrrhopyga (sic menecrates Mabille, 1878 and Pyrrhopyge margimmiscus Hayward, 1935 of Elbella lampra lampra (Hopffer, 1874; Elbella etna moda Evans, 1951 of Elbella etna Evans, 1951; Jemadia umbrata Mabille & Boullet, 1908 of Elbella patroclus patroclus (Plötz, 1879; Pyrrhopyga (sic jamina Butler, 1870 and Pyrrhopyga (sic zimra Hewitson, 1871 of Parelbella ahira ahira (Hewitson, 1857; Elbella

  14. Responsiveness of the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire : consequences of using different external criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijer, W; Brouwer, S; Dijkstra, PU; Jorritsma, W; Groothoff, JW; Geertzen, JHB

    Objective: To determine the consequences of using different external criteria on responsiveness of the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) in patients with chronic low back pain. Design: Questionnaire measures before and after rehabilitation treatment. Setting: Rehabilitation centre.

  15. Jung, Evans-Wentz and various other gurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, William

    2003-09-01

    How did Jung become deeply concerned with Asian religions and particularly with the Tibetan Buddhism of a Welshman from Trenton, New Jersey? Could that man be considered one of Jung's gurus? This essay begins six years after Jung, at twenty, was admitted to the medical school of Basel University and became a member of the Zofingiaverein, a student society. The next year he gave the first of a series of lectures on the interpretation of Christ as the model of the 'god-man', like the Apostle Paul, Confucius, Zoroaster and the Buddha, who was 'drummed into the Hindu boy'. (Jung's Zofingia Lectures were discovered only after his death, in 1961, and were published in English in 1983). The present essay discusses Jung's early Buddhist interest as displayed in The Psychology of the Unconscious (finally, in a revision, entitled Symbols of Transformation), in Psychological Types and later in his foreword of the Wilhelm translation of the I Ching. Jung was influenced by the gurus Richard Wilhelm and his son Hellmut, the scholar J. W. Hauer (with whom he later broke off relations because of Hauer's Nazi politics), the indologist Heinrich Zimmer, and the Zen master D. T. Suzuki. Walter Yeeling Wentz was born in Trenton in 1878 and brought up in his family's theosophist faith. The Wentzes moved to San Diego in 1900, and Walter added his mother's Celtic surname, Evans, to the German Wentz. He was educated at Stanford University and travelled in Europe, studying Celtic folklore, and widely in the Near East, Tibet, India, and Oxford--studying religions everywhere and editing Tibetan books. He lived his last decades in San Diego and conducted a correspondence with Jung, while living in a cheap hotel, or in an ashram.

  16. Evans syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus: clinical presentation and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costallat, Guilherme Lavras; Appenzeller, Simone; Costallat, Lilian Tereza Lavras

    2012-07-01

    To review the clinical, laboratory and outcome features of Evans syndrome (ES) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. We reviewed the charts of 953 SLE patients followed up regularly at our service. ES was defined as the presence of hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia concomitantly or sequentially. Clinical and laboratory manifestations occurring during the disease course, as well as concomitant diseases and survival was carefully reviewed. We identified ES in 26 of 953 (2.7%) SLE patients. Twenty-three were women with mean age at SLE diagnosis of 25.7 years. Four (15%) patients had disease onset before the age of 16. In the majority of patients (92%), immune thrombocytopenia and AIHA appeared simultaneously at the beginning of SLE. Active features of SLE were a frequent finding concomitant to ES, especially arthritis (77%), malar rash (61.5%), photosensitivity (57.6%), oral ulcers (34.6%), nephritis (73%), serositis (54%), neuropsychiatric (19%) and pulmonary (15%) manifestations. In addition to this multisystemic disease, 34.6% of our patients had an association with another autoimmune disease such as antiphospholipid syndrome. Recurrence of ES was observed in only four (15%) patients. After follow-up time of 8.72 years, 19 patients (73%) were in remission and seven (27%) patients died. ES is a rare manifestation in SLE, occurring in patients with severe multisystemic SLE manifestations. Treatment strategies frequently used in SLE contribute to longer disease remission and less frequent exacerbation than observed in the general population with ES. Copyright © 2011 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. From adversary to target market: the ACT-UP boycott of Philip Morris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offen, N; Smith, E A; Malone, R E

    2003-06-01

    In 1990, the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT-UP) sparked a year long boycott of Philip Morris's Marlboro cigarettes and Miller beer. The boycott protested the company's support of Senator Jesse Helms (R-North Carolina), a leading opponent of AIDS funding and civil rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people. ACT-UP demanded that Philip Morris sever its ties with Helms and acknowledge its responsibility to the LGBT community and to people with AIDS. To assess the impact of the boycott on the LGBT community, the tobacco industry, and the tobacco control movement; and to determine what lessons tobacco control advocates can extract from this case. Internal tobacco industry documents and newspaper archives. Search of tobacco industry documents websites using "boycott", "ACT-UP", "gay", and other terms. Philip Morris used the boycott to its own advantage. It exploited differences within the community and settled the boycott by pledging large donations to combat AIDS. Through corporate philanthropy, Philip Morris gained entrée to the LGBT market without appearing gay friendly. Many LGBT organisations, thirsty for recognition and funding from mainstream corporations, welcomed Philip Morris's overtures without considering the health hazards of tobacco. Unless the goal of a boycott is to convince the tobacco industry to abandon tobacco altogether, such actions invite the industry to expand its marketing under the guise of philanthropy. Tobacco control advocates should be clear about goals and acceptable settlement terms before participating in a boycott of a tobacco company.

  18. Using the Morris water maze to assess spatial learning and memory in weanling mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Christopher D; Yang, Dongren; Lein, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models have been indispensable for elucidating normal and pathological processes that influence learning and memory. A widely used method for assessing these cognitive processes in mice is the Morris water maze, a classic test for examining spatial learning and memory. However, Morris water maze studies with mice have principally been performed using adult animals, which preclude studies of critical neurodevelopmental periods when the cellular and molecular substrates of learning and memory are formed. While weanling rats have been successfully trained in the Morris water maze, there have been few attempts to test weanling mice in this behavioral paradigm even though mice offer significant experimental advantages because of the availability of many genetically modified strains. Here, we present experimental evidence that weanling mice can be trained in the Morris water maze beginning on postnatal day 24. Maze-trained weanling mice exhibit significant improvements in spatial learning over the training period and results of the probe trial indicate the development of spatial memory. There were no sex differences in the animals' performance in these tasks. In addition, molecular biomarkers of synaptic plasticity are upregulated in maze-trained mice at the transcript level. These findings demonstrate that the Morris water maze can be used to assess spatial learning and memory in weanling mice, providing a potentially powerful experimental approach for examining the influence of genes, environmental factors and their interactions on the development of learning and memory.

  19. Síndrome de Evans: Um Caso Refractário à Terapêutica

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Sofia; Ferrão, Anabela; Morais, Anabela

    2014-01-01

    O síndrome de Evans é uma doença rara, caracterizada por anemia hemolítica e trombocitopenia imunes sem outra doença de base identificada. Tem um curso clínico crónico, com múltiplas recidivas, sendo muitas vezes refractário à terapêutica.Descreve-se um caso clínico de uma criança de 10 anos de idade com síndrome de Evans, refractário à terapêutica convencional com corticosteroides e imunoglobulina e com boa resposta à terapêutica com ciclosporina.

  20. Effectiveness of cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil in a child with refractory evans syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Farruggia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Evans Syndrome is a rare autoimmune disease consisting of hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and/or neutropenia. It may be associated with other autoimmune or lymphoproliferative diseases. Its course can be extremely serious and, rarely, even life-threatening; thus it represents a excellent treatment challenge for the pediatric hematologist. First line treatment consists of steroids and/or immunoglobulin; further therapy with rituximab, vincristine, cyclophosphamide and other immunosuppressive drugs can be considered in unresponsive patients. We describe a baby with refractory Evans Syndrome that was cured by prolonged administration of mycophenolate mofetil and remained disease-free for 4 years after the discontinuation of treatment.

  1. Comics Activism: An Interview with Comics Artist and Activist Kate Evans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Davies

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This is an interview with comics artist Kate Evans, author of 'Red Rosa' (2015 and 'Threads: From the Refugee Experience' (2017, as well as a number of other comics, about her recent work, which operates at the intersection of several of the most exciting genre developments in comics in recent years. In the interview Evans reflects on recent shifts in comics journalism, as well as other trends in the field such as the rise of graphic memoir, through examples taken from Evans’s own work as well as that of Joe Sacco, Lynda Barry, Alison Bechdel and others.

  2. Síndrome de Evans de aparición súbita en el embarazo

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Barboza-Retana; Pilar Bogantes-Ledezma; William Carballo-Gutiérrez; Jorge Díaz-Camacho

    2011-01-01

    La trombocitopenia complica hasta el 10% de los embarazos. El síndrome de Evans es la coexistencia de la trombocitopenia inmune con anemia hemolítica autoinmune. Se presenta un caso de síndrome de Evans durante el embarazo, complicado por preclampsia y neutropenia fetal. Una mujer de 20 años de edad, previamente sana, primigesta, que presentó a las 34 semanas de gestación dolor epigástrico, trombocitopenia y pre eclampsia. Se le realizó parto por cesárea, por presentar síndrome de HELLP. A lo...

  3. Creating the "desired mindset": Philip Morris's efforts to improve its corporate image among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2009-01-01

    Through analysis of tobacco company documents, we explored how and why Philip Morris sought to enhance its corporate image among American women. Philip Morris regarded women as an influential political group. To improve its image among women, while keeping tobacco off their organizational agendas, the company sponsored women's groups and programs. It also sought to appeal to women it defined as "active moms" by advertising its commitment to domestic violence victims. It was more successful in securing women's organizations as allies than active moms. Increasing tobacco's visibility as a global women's health issue may require addressing industry influence.

  4. Predatory Odor Disrupts Social Novelty Preference in Long-Evans Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew J.; Layton, William B.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of predatory odor (cat urine) on social novelty preference in Long-Evans rats. Adult male subjects encountered a juvenile conspecific at training, were exposed to either clean cat litter (control) or litter soiled with cat urine (predatory odor), and were tested for social novelty preference. While the…

  5. Perturbations to the Lower Ionosphere by Tropical Cyclone Evan in the South Pacific Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Sushil; Amor, Samir Nait; Chanrion, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    ) observed during tropical cyclone (TC) Evan, 9-16 December 2012 when TC was in the proximity of the transmitter-receiver links. We observed a maximum amplitude perturbation of 5.7dB on JJI transmitter during 16 December event. From Long Wave Propagation Capability model applied to three selected events we...

  6. Enantioselective Evans-Tishchenko Reduction of b-Hydroxyketone Catalyzed by Lithium Binaphtholate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Nakajima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithium diphenylbinaphtholate catalyzed the enantioselective Evans-Tishchenko reduction of achiral b-hydroxyketones to afford monoacyl-protected 1,3-diols with high stereoselectivities. In the reaction of racemic b-hydroxyketones, kinetic optical resolution occurred in a highly stereoselective manner.

  7. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, as part of Evans' syndrome, caused by cold reactive IgG autoantibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, AS; Muis, N; DeGraaf, SSN

    1996-01-01

    We describe a boy with Evans' syndrome, consisting of immune thrombocytopenic purpura at age 2 and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) at age 4. AIHA was caused by cold Ige autoantibodies. This is unusual because AIHA is generally associated with either warm IgG antibodies or cold IgM antibodies.

  8. On the behavior of Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi relations for transition metal oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Vallejo, Federico Calle; Guo, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Versatile Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relations are found from density functional theory for a wide range of transition metal oxides including rutiles and perovskites. For oxides, the relation depends on the type of oxide, the active site, and the dissociating molecule. The slope of the BEP...

  9. BROMATE-INDUCED TRANSCRIPTIONAL CHANGES IN LONG-EVANS RAT KIDNEYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromate-Induced Transcriptional Changes in Long-Evans Rat Kidneys.Ozone disinfection of surface waters containing bromide ion (Br-) results in the oxidation of bromide to bromate, which can be found in finished drinking water as a by-product. Potassium bromate (KBrO3)...

  10. 76 FR 40237 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Illinois Waterway, Near Morris, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ..., Eighth Coast Guard District, has issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Illinois Waterway, Near Morris, IL... inspection or copying at the Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of Transportation, West...

  11. Place Learning in the Morris Water Task: Making the Memory Stick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolding, Kevin; Rudy, Jerry W.

    2006-01-01

    Although the Morris water task has been used in hundreds of studies of place learning, there have been no systematic studies of retention of the place memory. We report that retention, as measured by selective search behavior on a probe trial, is excellent when the retention interval is short (5-10 min). However, performance rapidly deteriorates,…

  12. Reducing the Carbon Footprint of the USDA-ARS "Soils" Lab in Morris, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Soils Lab in Morris adopted energy goals originally set forth by Executive Order 13423, which in short, called for a 30% reduction in energy use in federal facilities by 2015 and a 16% reduction in water use in the same time frame. Executive Order 13514 "Federal Leadership in Environmental, Ener...

  13. "The Big WHY": Philip Morris's failed search for corporate social value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2012-10-01

    We examined Philip Morris USA's exploration of corporate social responsibility practices and principles and its outcome. We analyzed archival internal tobacco industry documents, generated in 2000 to 2002, related to discussions of corporate social responsibility among a Corporate Responsibility Taskforce and senior management at Philip Morris. In exploring corporate social responsibility, Philip Morris executives sought to identify the company's social value-its positive contribution to society. Struggling to find an answer, they considered dramatically changing the way the company marketed its products, apologizing for past actions, and committing the company to providing benefits for future generations. These ideas were eventually abandoned. Despite an initial call to distinguish between social and economic value, Philip Morris ultimately equated social value with providing shareholder returns. When even tobacco executives struggle to define their company's social value, it signals an opening to advocate for endgame scenarios that would encourage supply-side changes appropriate to the scale of the tobacco disease epidemic and consistent with authentic social value.

  14. Working to make an image: an analysis of three Philip Morris corporate image media campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczypka, Glen; Wakefield, Melanie A; Emery, Sherry; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; Flay, Brian R; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2007-10-01

    To describe the nature and timing of, and population exposure to, Philip Morris USA's three explicit corporate image television advertising campaigns and explore the motivations behind each campaign. Analysis of television ratings from the largest 75 media markets in the United States, which measure the reach and frequency of population exposure to advertising; copies of all televised commercials produced by Philip Morris; and tobacco industry documents, which provide insights into the specific goals of each campaign. Household exposure to the "Working to Make a Difference: the People of Philip Morris" averaged 5.37 ads/month for 27 months from 1999-2001; the "Tobacco Settlement" campaign averaged 10.05 ads/month for three months in 2000; and "PMUSA" averaged 3.11 ads/month for the last six months in 2003. The percentage of advertising exposure that was purchased in news programming in order to reach opinion leaders increased over the three campaigns from 20%, 39% and 60%, respectively. These public relations campaigns were designed to counter negative images, increase brand recognition, and improve the financial viability of the company. Only one early media campaign focused on issues other than tobacco, whereas subsequent campaigns have been specifically concerned with tobacco issues, and more targeted to opinion leaders. The size and timing of the advertising buys appeared to be strategically crafted to maximise advertising exposure for these population subgroups during critical threats to Philip Morris's public image.

  15. 78 FR 2251 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 44; Morris County, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 44; Morris County, NJ Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) adopts the following Order: Whereas, the New Jersey...

  16. 76 FR 80885 - Foreign-Trade Zone 44-Morris County, NJ; Application for Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 44--Morris County, NJ; Application for Expansion An...., Jersey City; and, Site 6 (275 acres, sunset 04/30/13)--Norfolk Southern Rail Yard, County Rd., Jersey City and Secaucus. The applicant is now requesting authority to expand the zone to include the...

  17. Application of the Morris method for screening the influential parameters of fuzzy controllers applied to WWTPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruano, M.V.; Ribes, J.; Ferrer, J,

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,we evaluate the application of a sensitivity analysis to help fine-tuning a fuzzy controller for a biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal (BNPR) plant. The Morris Screeningmethod is proposed and evaluated as a prior step to obtain the parameter significance ranking. First, an it...

  18. The Forty-Third Amy Morris Homans Commemorative Lecture 2009: It's All about the -ing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintala, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Edith Betts (1983) presented an Amy Morris Homans lecture entitled "Keepers of the Crown Jewels." During her lecture, Betts told a story of a queen who had some beautiful crown jewels. There were four that were particularly precious to her--a ruby, a pearl, a sapphire, and an emerald. As the story evolved, the queen noticed that after she left the…

  19. The Twenty-First Amy Morris Homans Lecture. The Consummate Professor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundegren, Herberta M.

    1988-01-01

    The text of the 21st Amy Morris Hormans lecture is reproduced. The qualities which make for an excellent professor, based on his work as a teacher, researcher or scholar, and mentor, are described. Various sources, including Carnegie Foundation reports, student surveys, and books about teaching, are cited. (JL)

  20. Centuries of Change: Movement's Many Faces. The Thirtieth Amy Morris Homans Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Joan

    1996-01-01

    This Amy Morris Homans Lecture illustrates and interprets the philosophical meanings behind changing movement patterns in the field of physical education, examining the foreign gymnastic or formal era (1820s to the early 20th century), the natural movement era (1900 through the 1930s), and the present period of change, also called the discipline…

  1. The Thirty-Eighth Amy Morris Homans Commemorative Lecture 2004: A Sense of Connection and Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, Susan K.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the importance of physical education teachers' link to their past and to their sense of connection with their professional family, National Association for Physical Education in Higher Education (NAPEHE). She relates how she traces her physical lineage directly back to Amy Morris Homans through her…

  2. Building for Today and Tomorrow. (The Sixteenth Amy Morris Homans Lecture.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Betty

    1982-01-01

    In the face of widespread belief that women were unsuitable for physical education, Amy Morris Homans and Mary Hemenway founded the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics in 1889 to train female physical education teachers. Later, the school affiliated with Wellesley College and established a graduate program directed by Homans. (PP)

  3. 75 FR 39042 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement: The Norval Morris Project Implementation Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... Norval Morris and other NIC sponsored projects on organizational culture and performance, implementing...) participate in NIC's evaluation of the project to measure the effectiveness of the implementation phase of the... should be able to demonstrate that they have the organizational capacity to carry out all the goals of...

  4. Campaign to counter a deteriorating consumer market: Philip Morris's Project Sunrise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givel, M

    2013-02-01

    From 1997 to 2000, Philip Morris implemented Project Sunrise. This paper discusses the impact of this project on national and Philip Morris's cigarette unit sales, public opinion about smoking and secondhand tobacco smoke, and national prevalence trends for tobacco use. A qualitative archival content analysis of Project Sunrise from 1997 to 2000, and a descriptive statistical analysis of cigarette unit sales and operating profits, acceptability of smoking and secondhand tobacco smoke, and national prevalence trends for tobacco use from 1996 to 2006. Qualitative data sources related to Project Sunrise found on WebCat, Pubmed.com, LexisNexis Academic and Philip Morris's website, and archived tobacco industry documents were analysed using NVivo Version 9.0. A descriptive statistical analysis of cigarette unit sales, public opinion about smoking and secondhand tobacco smoke, and national prevalence trends for tobacco use was undertaken. Project Sunrise was a high-level strategic corporate plan to maintain profits that included four possible scenarios resulting in seven interwoven strategies. However, national prevalence rates for tobacco use declined, sales of national and Philip Morris cigarettes declined, operating profits remained at substantially lower levels after 2000 from 2001 to 2006, and a large majority of Americans agreed that there were significant health dangers associated with smoking and secondhand tobacco smoke. The impact of Project Sunrise, including countering the anti-tobacco movement, was less than successful in the USA. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Grasping the Unimaginable: Recent Holocaust Novels for Children by Morris Gleitzman and John Boyne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    This discussion explores the role that storytelling and stories might have in leading children towards an awareness of uncertainty and ambiguity in relation to Holocaust representation. It focuses on Morris Gleitzman's "Once" ("2006"), its sequel "Then" ("2008"), and John Boyne's "The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas" ("2006") to consider the narrative…

  6. Good Work and Aesthetic Education: William Morris, the Arts and Crafts Movement, and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petts, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    A notion of "good work," derived from William Morris and the Arts and Crafts Movement but also part of a wider tradition in philosophy (associated with pragmatism and Everyday Aesthetics) understanding the global significance of, and opportunities for, aesthetic experience, grounds both art making and appreciation in the organization of labor…

  7. The manipulation of egg size and egg quality | Morris | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 3 (1985) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. The manipulation of egg size and egg quality. TR Morris. Abstract.

  8. Automated method to compute Evans index for diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus on brain CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Noriyuki; Kinoshita, Toshibumi; Ohmura, Tomomi; Matsuyama, Eri; Toyoshima, Hideto

    2017-03-01

    The early diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) considered as a treatable dementia is important. The iNPH causes enlargement of lateral ventricles (LVs). The degree of the enlargement of the LVs on CT or MR images is evaluated by using a diagnostic imaging criterion, Evans index. Evans index is defined as the ratio of the maximal width of frontal horns (FH) of the LVs to the maximal width of the inner skull (IS). Evans index is the most commonly used parameter for the evaluation of ventricular enlargement. However, manual measurement of Evans index is a time-consuming process. In this study, we present an automated method to compute Evans index on brain CT images. The algorithm of the method consisted of five major steps: standardization of CT data to an atlas, extraction of FH and IS regions, the search for the outmost points of bilateral FH regions, determination of the maximal widths of both the FH and the IS, and calculation of Evans index. The standardization to the atlas was performed by using linear affine transformation and non-linear wrapping techniques. The FH regions were segmented by using a three dimensional region growing technique. This scheme was applied to CT scans from 44 subjects, including 13 iNPH patients. The average difference in Evans index between the proposed method and manual measurement was 0.01 (1.6%), and the correlation coefficient of these data for the Evans index was 0.98. Therefore, this computerized method may have the potential to accurately compute Evans index for the diagnosis of iNPH on CT images.

  9. Lives in Exchange: The Collaborative Video Tapes of Lynda Benglis and Robert Morris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Boaden

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1972 the artists Lynda Benglis and Robert Morris swapped videotapes made collaboratively in each other’s studios to create new works that negotiate their personal and professional relationship. This article argues that, taken together, these works question the common tropes of early video art, especially what art historian Rosalind Krauss called the ‘aesthetics of narcissism’, and point to the emergence of a form of fractured subjectivity borne from technological mediation.

  10. Special tribute on Morris F. Collen: charismatic leader of medical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Marion; Lindberg, Donald; Masic, Izet

    2014-02-01

    This editorial is dedicated in honor of Morris F. Collen, MD, a pioneer in the field of medical informatics. During his remarkable career, Dr. Collen's has made many important contributions not only to the field of medical informatics, but also to the public health and the creation of new models of payment and prevention. His endeavors and ideas found fertile ground and left a mark not only in the national, but also in the international setting.

  11. Obesity in the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty Rat: Mechanisms and Discoveries

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng Bi; Moran, Timothy H.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the neural systems underlying the controls of energy balance has been greatly advanced by identifying the deficits and underlying mechanisms in rodent obesity models. The current review focuses on the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat obesity model. Since its recognition in the 1990’s significant progress has been made in identifying the causes and consequences of obesity in this model. Fundamental is a deficit in the cholecystokinin (CCK) 1 receptor gene resultin...

  12. Sotsiaalne ettevõtlus lahendab murekohti / Mervi Raudsaar, Roger Evans ; intervjueerinud Merilyn Merisalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsaar, Mervi, 1975-

    2012-01-01

    TÜ ettevõtluskeskuse kaasabil loetakse kevadsemestril Tartu ülikoolis, Eesti maaülikoolis, Tallinna ülikoolis ja EBS-is inglise- ja eestikeelset õppeainet "Sotsiaalse ettevõtluse alused". Loenguid loevad TÜ majandusteaduskonna ettevõtluse assistent Mervi Raudsaar, külalisprofessor Roger Evans Šotimaalt ning Margarita Sokolova Heateo Sihtasutusest. Ainekursus valmib koostöös Heateo Sihtasutuse ja EASiga

  13. ‘Wot larx!’: William Morris, Charles Dickens, and Fatherly Feelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Parkins

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the significance of William Morris’s reading of Dickens for Morris’s articulation of fatherly feelings. Recent scholarship on Victorian fatherhood has begun to overturn the stereotype of the dour, emotionally distant paterfamilias as providing only a partial understanding of forms of middle-class fatherhood and William Morris may serve as an example of a Victorian father whose parenting style eschewed detached authoritarianism, and instead combined nurture, play, and creativity. While Morris referred to Dickens’s works and characters in letters to a range of correspondents, his repeated usage of Joe Gargery’s catchphrase ‘Wot larx!’ (variously spelled occurs exclusively in letters to his wife and daughters, especially the latter. I will consider how the character of Joe Gargery, who combines nurturing tenderness with manly labour, was deployed by Morris to perform a playful and affectionate paternal persona. While Morris’s use of Joe’s catchphrase seems to express a spontaneous overflow of powerful feeling its status as a quotation also works to mark (and mask a disavowal of powerfully ambivalent feelings concerning his own emotional agency as husband and father.

  14. Fractal dimensions: A new paradigm to assess spatial memory and learning using Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surjeet; Kaur, Harpreet; Sandhir, Rajat

    2016-02-15

    Morris water maze has been widely used for analysis of cognitive functions and relies on the time taken by animal to find the platform i.e. escape latency as a parameter to quantify spatial memory and learning. However, escape latency is confounded by swimming speed which is not necessarily a cognitive factor. Rather, path length may be a more appropriate and reliable parameter to assess spatial learning. This paper presents fractal dimension as a new paradigm to assess spatial memory and learning in animals. Male wistar rats were administrated with pentylenetetrazole and scopolamine to induce chronic epilepsy and dementia respectively. Fractal dimension of the random path followed by the animals on Morris water maze was analyzed and statistically compared among different experimental groups; the results suggest that fractal dimension is more reliable and accurate parameter to assess cognitive deficits compared to escape latency. Thus, the present study suggests that fractal dimensions could be used as an independent parameter to assess spatial memory and learning in animals using Morris water maze. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Philip Morris Asia Ltd. v. Australia – abuse of rights in investor-state arbitration / Ulf Linderfalk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linderfalk, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    Kohtulahendist Philip Morris Asia Ltd. vs Australia. Õiguste kuritarvitamise doktriinist rahvusvahelises õiguses. Austraalia tubakaseadusest, seadusest tulenevatest piirangutest tubakatoodete pakendamisele, kaubamärgi kasutamise piiramisest tubakatoodete pakendil

  16. How Philip Morris built Marlboro into a global brand for young adults: implications for international tobacco control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    N Hafez; P M Ling

    2005-01-01

    ...: Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Results: Philip Morris pursued standardised market research and strategic marketing plans in different regions throughout the world using research on young adults with three principle foci...

  17. Vascular Aldosterone Production at the Pre-Diabetic Stage of Young Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF Rats, Compared with Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Matsuzawa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined the ability of aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMC prepared from spontaneously diabetic rats to produce aldosterone (Aldo and the regulatory mechanism that controls their Aldo production. AoSMC of 6 week-old Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO: the control group and 6 week-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF: the type 2 diabetes group rats were used in the present experiments. CYP11B2 (Aldo synthetase mRNA expression was detected in both the LETO and OLETF AoSMC. Basal Aldo production was significantly greater (4–5 fold higher in the OLETF AoSMC culture medium than in the LETO AoSMC culture medium. When AoSMC were co-incubated with high-density lipoproteins (HDL, supplying cholesterol as a substrate for steroidogenesis in rats, angiotensin II (AII significantly increased greater Aldo production in the OLETF AoSMC than in the LETO AoSMC. The present data suggested that future onset of diabetic vascular dysfunction is partly caused by excess Aldo production by AoSMC in young OLETF rats. Concomitant stimulation by HDL and AII resulted in elevated Aldo production in the OLETF and the LETO AoSMC, and also demonstrated that AII-induced Aldo production is greatly enhanced by HDL in OLETF, rather than in LETO. In conclusion, our data clearly demonstrated that Aldo production in the OLETF AoSMC was significantly higher than in the LETO AoSMC, suggesting possible future onset of vascular dysfunction in diabetes, induced by local Aldo production in the AoSMC.

  18. Long-term treatment of aged Long Evans rats with a dietary supplement containing neuroprotective peptides (N-PEP-12) to prevent brain aging: effects of three months daily treatment by oral gavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter-Paier, B; Reininger-Gutmann, B; Wronski, R; Doppler, E; Moessler, H

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with morphological and functional changes in the brain, resulting in the deterioration of cognitive performance. Growth factors like BDNF are suggested to be involved in the regulation of age-related processes in the brain. A novel dietary supplement produced from purified nerve cell proteins, N-PEP-12, has shown to share properties with naturally occurring peptide growth factors by stimulating neurite outgrowth and beneficial effects on neuronal survival and protection against metabolic stress in cell cultures. The current study investigates the effects of long-term intake on age-dependent memory decline by assessing cognitive performance and synaptic density. All the experiments were performed in aged Long Evans rats randomly assigned to saline or N-PEP-12 once daily by gavage over a period of three months. Behavioral tests were performed in the Morris Water Maze after one, two and three months of treatment. Histological examinations were performed in the hippocampal formation and in the entorhinal cortex by measuring the synaptic density. This study shows that the oral intake of N-PEP-12 has beneficial effects on the cognitive performance of aged animals and that these effects go along with an increase in the synaptic density. Thus, N-PEP-12 may help maintain memory and learning performance during the aging process.

  19. Electrical coupled Morris-Lecar neurons: From design to pattern analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binczak, S.; Behdad, R.; Rossé, M.; Bilbault, J. M. [Laboratoire LE2I CNRS UMR 6306, Université de Bourgogne, 9 avenue Alain Savary, 21078 Dijon (France); Nekorkin, V. I.; Dmitrichev, A. S. [Institute of Applied Physics of RAS, 603950, Ulyanova Str 46, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-08

    In this study, an experimental electronic neuron based on Morris-Lecar model is presented, able to become an experimental unit tool to study collective association of robust coupled neurons. The circuit design is given according to the ionic currents of this model. A weak coupling of such neurons under Multisim Software can generate clusters based on the boundary conditions of the neurons and their initial conditions. For this study, we work in the region close to the fold bifurcation of limit cycles. In this region two limit cycles exist, one of the cycles is stable and another one is unstable.

  20. Intrahippocampal administration of lead (Pb) impairs performance of rats in the Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, D A; Kuhlmann, A C; Guilarte, T R

    1997-01-01

    We examined spatial learning in the Morris water maze after daily acute bilateral micro-injection of 13.9 ng sodium acetate (NaAc) or 37.9 ng lead acetate (PbAc) in 1 microliter volumes into the dorsal hippocampus of normal adult rats. After six days of injections and water maze training, rats injected with NaAc were able to find a hidden platform in 8.3 s, and those injected with PbAc were significantly slower (15.2 s; p water maze.

  1. The Metaphysics of Morris R. Cohen: From Realism to Objective Relativism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoone, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    Morris Cohen is mainly remembered as a philosopher of history and law, a friend of jurists (Oliver Wendell Holmes, Felix Frankfurter), and a teacher of more prominent philosophers (e.g., Ernest Nagel, Paul Weiss, Morton White). But his unique position as a student of the work of Russell and Peirce led him to make a distinctive contribution to the debate over realism in in the 1910s. Largely ignored and completely uncited, his early papers formulated what would later be called "objective relativism," influencing the later work of Columbia naturalism, hence American philosophy, from the 1940s to the 1960s.

  2. RANA POVIJEST PLESA MORRIS U ENGLESKOJ: PRIMJER ZA ISTRAŽIVANJE EUROPSKOGA FOLKLORNOG PLESA

    OpenAIRE

    Forrest, John

    2001-01-01

    Pišući o povijesti morris plesanja u Engleskoj i različitih oblika moreški u Europi od 15. do 18. st., autor ističe da je ruralno stanovništvo prema vlastitoj kreativnosti oblikovalo i mijenjalo plesove, pa i onda kad su te plesove prihvatili iz viših društvenih slojeva. Engleski primjer pokazuje da se, prihvate li se polazišta da plesovi nisu statični nego da se s vremenom razvijaju, te da su različiti slojevi plesali i da se plesalo za različite slojeve u raznim razdobl...

  3. Differential modulation of AMPA receptor mediated currents by Evans Blue in postnatal rat hippocampal neurones

    OpenAIRE

    Schürmann, Britta; Wu, Xueqing; Dietzel, Irmgard D; Leßmann, Volkmar

    1997-01-01

    The modulation of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated whole cell currents and of glutamatergic synaptic transmission by purified Evans Blue (EB) was investigated in rat cultured postnatal hippocampal neurones by use of patch clamp recordings and a fast drug application system.Three different groups of neurones could be distinguished with respect to the type of modulation obtained with 10 μM EB: EB was either a predominant inhibitor of desensitization (13% of the neurones), a pre...

  4. Koronis Family Member (3032) Evans: Photometric Reconnaissance and Lightcurves in 2008, 2009, and 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slivan, Stephen M.; Neugent, Kathryn F.; Melton, Casey; Beck, Madeleine

    2018-01-01

    We observed rotation lightcurves of (3032) Evans during three apparitions using the 0.6-m telescope at Whitin Observatory. The lightcurve amplitude was consistently rather low ( 0.15 mag.) during all three apparitions, and although we can construct credible doubly-periodic composite lightcurves from our data, we discuss why we favor a rotation period of 3.3970 ± 0.0002 h even though the resulting composite lightcurves are quadruply periodic. The observations from 2008 are calibrated to a standard system, enabling us to measure the absolute magnitude HR, slope parameter GR, and V–R color, from which we calculate H = 11.75 ± 0.05.

  5. Margiad Evans (1909-1958): a history of epilepsy in a creative writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, A J

    2009-12-01

    The author Margiad Evans (1909-1958), a celebrated Anglo-Welsh writer of the 1930s and 1940s, developed epilepsy in 1950, and subsequently wrote accounts of her experiences of seizures, their diagnosis, and their management. These documents are among the first patient accounts of epilepsy, and remain of value today, not least because they prefigure ongoing problems in epilepsy management such as pregnancy and the adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs. They also give some insights into the consequences of epilepsy for a creative writer.

  6. Moniliophthora roreri (Cif y Par Evans et al. in the crop of cocoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando David Sánchez Mora

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available More than a century, cacao (Theobroma cacao L. in Ecuador has been an important source of income for farmers and currency for the country, becoming one of the biggest exporters worldwide. Then, gradually lost that status due to the attack of diseases, including moniliasis caused by [Moniliophthora roreri (Cif and Par Evans et al.]. It can cause damage of up to 80% in production. Currently there is little scientific date information on its occurrence, symptoms, etiology, epidemiology, life cycle management or control strategies of that disease, by performing this review both these important topics, bringing with it to this area of knowledge.

  7. Memory-Enhancing Activity of Palmatine in Mice Using Elevated Plus Maze and Morris Water Maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Dhingra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of palmatine on memory of Swiss young male albino mice. Palmatine (0.1, 0.5, 1 mg/kg, i.p. and physostigmine (0.1 mg/kg, i.p. per se were administered for 10 successive days to separate groups of mice. Effect of drugs on learning and memory of mice was evaluated using elevated plus maze and Morris water maze. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was also estimated. Effect of palmatine on scopolamine- and diazepam-induced amnesia was also investigated. Palmatine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg and physostigmine significantly improved learning and memory of mice, as indicated by decrease in transfer latency using elevated plus maze, and decrease in escape latency during training and increase in time spent in target quadrant during retrieval using Morris water maze. The drugs did not show any significant effect on locomotor activity of the mice. Memory-enhancing activity of palmatine (1 mg/kg was comparable to physostigmine. Palmatine (1 mg/kg significantly reversed scopolamine- and diazepam-induced amnesia in mice. Palmatine and physostigmine also significantly reduced brain acetylcholinesterase activity of mice. Thus, palmatine showed memory-enhancing activity in mice probably by inhibiting brain acetylcholinesterase activity, through involvement of GABA-benzodiazepine pathway, and due to its antioxidant activity.

  8. How Philip Morris unlocked the Japanese cigarette market: lessons for global tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, A; Sargent, J D; Glantz, S A; Ling, P M

    2004-12-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control includes tobacco advertising restrictions that are strongly opposed by the tobacco industry. Marketing strategies used by transnational tobacco companies to open the Japanese market in the absence of such restrictions are described. Analysis of internal company documents. Between 1982 and 1987 transnational tobacco companies influenced the Japanese government through the US Trade Representative to open distribution networks and eliminate advertising restrictions. US cigarette exports to Japan increased 10-fold between 1985 and 1996. Television advertising was central to opening the market by projecting a popular image (despite a small actual market share) to attract existing smokers, combined with hero-centred advertisements to attract new smokers. Philip Morris's campaigns featured Hollywood movie personalities popular with young men, including James Coburn, Pierce Brosnan, Roger Moore, and Charlie Sheen. Event sponsorships allowed television access despite restrictions. When reinstatement of television restrictions was threatened in the late 1980s, Philip Morris more than doubled its television advertising budget and increased sponsorship of televised events. By adopting voluntary advertising standards, transnational companies delayed a television advertising ban for over a decade. Television image advertising was important to establish a market, and it has been enhanced using Hollywood personalities. Television advertising bans are essential measures to prevent industry penetration of new markets, and are less effective without concurrent limits on sponsorship and promotion. Comprehensive advertising restrictions, as included in the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, are vital for countries where transnational tobacco companies have yet to penetrate the market.

  9. Variants of the Morris water maze task to comparatively assess human and rodent place navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Robby; Schiffelholz, Thomas; Beyer, Christian; Leplow, Bernd; Foreman, Nigel

    2017-03-01

    Performance in the Morris water maze has been widely used in routine behavioural studies of rodents. Since the advent of computer-based virtual environments, adaptations of the water maze have become available for human research. Despite decades of comparative neuroscience, formal comparisons of human and animal place navigation performance are rare. We studied 36 subjects, 18 young male mice in a Morris water maze and 18 male students in a virtual version. Quantitative measures (escape latencies, distances and platform crossings) indicated no discernable differences between human and rodent performance, reinforcing the task's general validity and its implied cross-species comparability. However, we extracted, using an a priori free classification method, qualitatively different movement patterns for mice and humans, patterns that reflect the probable strategy that individuals might have been using to solve the task. Our results indicated young male students to have most likely solved the maze by means of spatial strategies whereas mice were observed more often to have adopted non-spatial strategies. These differences could be attributed to differences in our maze setups (spatial cues, task instruction, training protocol, motivation) and gave further hints that maze learning depends on many factors. In summary performance on both spatial tasks was equivalent in humans and mice but the kind of maze learning that was used to achieve maximum performance was different. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hepatocyte transplantation in the Long Evans Cinnamon rat model of Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon Mee; Vo, Kim; Lallier, Michel; Cloutier, Alexis-Simon; Brochu, Pierre; Alvarez, Fernando; Martin, Steven R

    2006-01-01

    Wilson's disease (WD), caused by a mutation in the P-type copper transporting ATPase (Atp7b) gene, results in excessive accumulation of copper in the liver. Long Evans Cinnamon rats (LEC) bear a mutation in the atp7b gene and share clinical characteristics of human WD. To explore hepatocyte transplantation (HT) as therapy for metabolic liver diseases, 8-week-old LEC rats (n = 12) were transplanted by intrasplenic injection of hepatocytes from donor Long Evans (LE) rats. Immunosuppression was maintained with intraperitoneal tacrolimus. The success of HT was monitored at 24 weeks of life. Serum aminotransferases and bilirubin peaked at 14-21 weeks in both HT rats and nontransplanted controls, but at 24 weeks, survival was 97% in LEC-HT versus 63% in controls. All transplanted rats showed restored biliary copper excretion and reduced liver iron concentration associated with increased ceruloplasmin oxidase activity. Liver tissue expressed atp7b mRNA (11.9 +/- 13.6%) indicative of engraftment of normal cells in 7 of 12 HT rats, associated with a reduced liver copper concentration compared to untreated LEC rats. Periportal islets of normal appearing hepatocytes, recognized by atp7b antibody, were observed in transplanted livers while lobular host cells showed persistent pleomorphic changes and inflammatory infiltrates. In conclusion, transplantation of normal hepatocytes prevented fulminant hepatitis, reduces chronic inflammation, and improved 6-month survival in LEC rats. Engraftment of transplanted cells, which express atp7b mRNA, repopulated the recipient liver with normal functional capacity.

  11. ARTIST (Asian regional tobacco industry scientist team): Philip Morris' attempt to exert a scientific and regulatory agenda on Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, E K; Glantz, S A

    2004-12-01

    To describe how the transnational tobacco industry has collaborated with local Asian tobacco monopolies and companies to promote a scientific and regulatory agenda. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Transnational tobacco companies began aggressively entering the Asia market in the 1980s, and the current tobacco industry in Asia is a mix of transnational and local monopolies or private companies. Tobacco industry documents demonstrate that, in 1996, Philip Morris led an organisation of scientific representatives from different tobacco companies called the Asian Regional Tobacco Industry Science Team (ARTIST), whose membership grew to include monopolies from Korea, China, Thailand, and Taiwan and a company from Indonesia. ARTIST was initially a vehicle for PM's strategies against anticipated calls for global smoke-free areas from a World Health Organization secondhand smoke study. ARTIST evolved through 2001 into a forum to present scientific and regulatory issues faced primarily by Philip Morris and other transnational tobacco companies. Philip Morris' goal for the organisation became to reach the external scientific and public health community and regulators in Asia. The Asian tobacco industry has changed from an environment of invasion by transnational tobacco companies to an environment of participation with Philip Morris' initiated activities. With this participation, tobacco control efforts in Asia face new challenges as Philip Morris promotes and integrates its scientific and regulatory agenda into the local Asian tobacco industry. As the local Asian tobacco monopolies and companies can have direct links with their governments, future implementation of effective tobacco control may be at odds with national priorities.

  12. Intravenous injection of Evans Blue labels magnocellular neuroendocrine cells of the rat supraoptic nucleus in situ and after dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, M L; Cobbett, P

    1992-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that intravenous injection of neuronal tracers, e.g. horseradish peroxidase or Fast Blue, can retrogradely label neurons in brain areas that project outside the blood-brain barrier, e.g. magnocellular neuroendocrine neurons of the hypothalamus. Here we have shown that 24 h after intravenous injection of the fluorescent retrograde tracer Evans Blue, the same population of magnocellular neuroendocrine neurons is labeled in the paraventricular, supraoptic and accessory magnocellular nuclei. Parvicellular neuroendocrine cells in the paraventricular nuclei are also labeled. Most Evans Blue-labeled magnocellular neuroendocrine cells in the supraoptic nucleus could be stained immunocytochemically for neurophysins, suggesting that these neurons continue to produce their peptide hormones after taking up the fluorescent dye. Ultrastructural observation of supraoptic cells retrogradely labeled with Evans Blue shows that 95% of the neurons appeared healthy. There was no ultrastructural evidence of degeneration, hyperstimulation, or interruption of the axoplasmic flow. Labeling the neuroendocrine cells with Evans Blue did not alter the size of magnocellular cells, the animal's fluid balance or ingestive behavior. Following enzymatic/mechanical dissociation of the supraoptic nucleus from animals that had been injected with Evans Blue 24 h previously, phase-bright neurons that often contained fluorescent material were observed, thus identifying these neurons as neuroendocrine. Recording from identified neuroendocrine cells showed that these neurons generated spontaneous or current-evoked overshooting action potentials with an afterhyperpolarization and had negative resting membrane potentials. Action potential broadening, a feature of magnocellular neurons, was observed during bursts of action potentials elicited by depolarizing current injection. Taken together, this work would suggest that Evans Blue is non-toxic at the doses used and that it

  13. Stability analysis of a Morris-Thorne-Bronnikov-Ellis wormhole with pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, I. D., E-mail: novikov@asc.rssi.ru; Shatskiy, A. A., E-mail: shatskiy@asc.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Astrospace Center, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-15

    The model of a spherical Morris-Thorne-Bronnikov-Ellis wormhole is analyzed for stability. The matter of this wormhole is composed of a radial monopole magnetic field and a quasi-perfect phantom fluid. In the stationary case, the energy density of this fluid is negative and equal in magnitude to twice the energy density of the magnetic field. There is no pressure of this fluid in the stationary case (phantom dust), while in the case where the fluid energy density deviates from its stationary value, the pressure is proportional to the deviation of the energy density from its stationary value. An example of a wormhole stable against radial perturbations has been obtained.

  14. Rasch analysis of the 23-item version of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Grotle, Margreth; Dunn, Kate M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the psychometric properties of the 23-item version of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ-23) and to quantify their stability across 2 cultures/languages and 2 types of care-settings. METHODS: Rasch analysis of data from 1,000 patients with low back pain from...... clinical characteristics (such as age, gender, pain intensity, pain duration and care setting), depending on the country. CONCLUSION: As similar results have been found for the RMDQ-24, we believe it is timely to reconsider whether: (i) the RMDQ should be reconstructed using an item-response theory......-based approach that includes consideration of new items and response options; or (ii) the use of alternative questionnaires should be recommended, such as the Oswestry Disability Index, that have shown evidence of fitting the Rasch model; or (iii) a completely new condition-specific questionnaire should...

  15. Neuropsychology of aging, past, present and future: Contributions of Morris Moscovitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A; Cooke, Katherine A

    2016-09-01

    In this review we provide a broad overview of major trends in the cognitive neuroscience of aging and illustrate their roots in the pioneering ideas and discoveries of Morris Moscovitch and his close collaborators, especially Gordon Winocur. These trends include an on-going focus on the specific and dissociable contributions of medial temporal and frontal lobe processes to cognitive aging, especially in the memory domain, the role of individual variability stemming from different patterns of underlying neural decline, the possibility of compensatory neural and cognitive influences that alter the expression of neurobiological aging, and the investigation of lifestyle and psychosocial factors that affect plasticity and may contribute to the rate and level of neurocognitive decline. These prescient ideas, evident in the early work of Moscovitch and Winocur, continue to drive on-going research efforts in the cognitive neuroscience of aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Chilling Example? Uruguay, Philip Morris International, and WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Andrew; Wainwright, Megan; Mamudu, Hadii

    2015-06-01

    The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is the first international public health treaty to address the global spread of tobacco products. Ethnographic research at the fourth meeting of the FCTC's Conference of the Parties in Uruguay highlights the role of the FCTC in recalibrating the relationship between international trade and investment agreements and those of global public health. Specifically, we chart the origins and development of the Punta del Este Declaration, tabled by Uruguay at the conference, to counter a legal request by Philip Morris International, the world's largest tobacco transnational, for arbitration by the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes over Uruguay's alleged violations of several international trade and investment treaties. We argue that medical anthropologists should give greater consideration to global health governance and diplomacy as a potential counterweight to the 'politics of resignation' associated with corporate capitalism. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  17. Anomalous neural circuit function in schizophrenia during a virtual Morris water task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folley, Bradley S; Astur, Robert; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Calhoun, Vince D; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2010-02-15

    Previous studies have reported learning and navigation impairments in schizophrenia patients during virtual reality allocentric learning tasks. The neural bases of these deficits have not been explored using functional MRI despite well-explored anatomic characterization of these paradigms in non-human animals. Our objective was to characterize the differential distributed neural circuits involved in virtual Morris water task performance using independent component analysis (ICA) in schizophrenia patients and controls. Additionally, we present behavioral data in order to derive relationships between brain function and performance, and we have included a general linear model-based analysis in order to exemplify the incremental and differential results afforded by ICA. Thirty-four individuals with schizophrenia and twenty-eight healthy controls underwent fMRI scanning during a block design virtual Morris water task using hidden and visible platform conditions. Independent components analysis was used to deconstruct neural contributions to hidden and visible platform conditions for patients and controls. We also examined performance variables, voxel-based morphometry and hippocampal subparcellation, and regional BOLD signal variation. Independent component analysis identified five neural circuits. Mesial temporal lobe regions, including the hippocampus, were consistently task-related across conditions and groups. Frontal, striatal, and parietal circuits were recruited preferentially during the visible condition for patients, while frontal and temporal lobe regions were more saliently recruited by controls during the hidden platform condition. Gray matter concentrations and BOLD signal in hippocampal subregions were associated with task performance in controls but not patients. Patients exhibited impaired performance on the hidden and visible conditions of the task, related to negative symptom severity. While controls showed coupling between neural circuits, regional

  18. Reliability, validity, sensitivity and specificity of Guajarati version of the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambi, S Gopal

    2013-01-01

    The most common instruments developed to assess the functional status of patients with Non specific low back pain is the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). Clinical and epidemiological research related to low back pain in the Gujarati population would be facilitated by the availability of well-established outcome measures. To find the reliability, validity, sensitivity and specificity of the Gujarati version of the RMDQ for use in Non Specific Chronic low back pain. A reliability, validity, sensitivity and specificity study of Gujarati version of the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). Thirty out patients with Non Specific Chronic low back pain were assessed by the RMDQ. Reliability is assessed by using internal consistency and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Internal construct validity is assessed by RASCH Analysis and external construct validity is assessed by association with pain and spinal movement. Clinical calculator was used to determine the sensitivity and specificity. Internal consistency of the RMDQ is found to be adequate (> 0.65) at both times, with high ICC's also at both time points. Internal construct validity of the scale is good, indicating a single underlying construct. Expected associations with pain and spinal movement confirm external construct validity. The Sensitivity and Specificity at cut off point of 0.5 was 80% and 84% with respectively positive predictive value (PPV) of 83.33% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 80.76%. The Questionnaire is at the ordinal level. The RMDQ is a one-dimensional, ordinal measure, which works well in the Gujarati population.

  19. On the behavior of Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi Relations for Transition Metal Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojvodic, Aleksandra

    2011-08-22

    Versatile Broensted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relations are found from density functional theory for a wide range of transition metal oxides including rutiles and perovskites. For oxides, the relation depends on the type of oxide, the active site and the dissociating molecule. The slope of the BEP relation is strongly coupled to the adsorbate geometry in the transition state. If it is final state-like the dissociative chemisorption energy can be considered as a descriptor for the dissociation. If it is initial state-like, on the other hand, the dissociative chemisorption energy is not suitable as descriptor for the dissociation. Dissociation of molecules with strong intramolecular bonds belong to the former and molecules with weak intramolecular bonds to the latter group. We show, for the prototype system La-perovskites, that there is a 'cyclic' behavior in the transition state characteristics upon change of the active transition metal of the oxide.

  20. Taxonomic review of Gallio Evans, 1955 (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae, Hesperiinae: one less monotypic genus of Moncini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carneiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Moncini is the tribe of Hesperiidae that comprises the greatest diversity of small, brown, hard to identify skippers. The group is peculiarly classified as having many monotypic genera, thus offering low informative value to its systematics. This study presents a review of the genus Gallio Evans, 1955, a genus formerly recognized as monotypic, and describes three new species, Gallio imperatriz sp. nov. from Maranhão, Brazil, Gallio furtadoi sp. nov. from Mato Grosso, Brazil and Gallio eti sp. nov. from Madre de Díos, Peru and Acre, Brazil (type locality. A lectotype for Vehilius carasta Schaus, 1902 is designated. Gallio is therefore redescribed and illustrations and diagnosis to its species are provided.

  1. First Light Achieved at the new Mt.Evans High Altitude Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stencel, R. E.

    1997-12-01

    During August 1997, first light images were obtained with the new Meyer Binocular Telescope, a twin 0.72 meter RC system, located at the Meyer- Womble Observatory atop 14,268 ft Mt.Evans, Colorado. The site is along a treeless high ridge which frequently enjoys laminar airflow and good seeing. The telescope and building also include thermal and airflow management systems for seeing optimization. Finally, a 5 element adaptive optics system that is being tested at Yerkes Observatory, should be able to correct the native seeing to nearly the limit of optical performance. For details on all of the above, please refer to my website: www.du.edu/ rstencel. The high altitude of Mt.Evans makes it ideal for mid-infrared studies, and we anticipate pursuing mid-IR imaging and spectroscopy from this site. Mark 2 of our TNTCAM (Klebe et al.-this meeting) is now in design stage, thanks to an NSF MRI grant. The spectrometer, TGIRS (Creech-Eakman et al. 1996 BAAS 28: 1372) has also achieved first light in the lab. We plan to use both at the new mountaintop facility. Another interesting feature of the new observatory is its photovoltaic energy supply for continuous power, sponsored in part by the Renewable Energy Trust, National Renewable Energy Lab and the Colorado Office of Energy Conservation. Denver University is interested in forming partnerships with other programs in order to make best use of this new resource for educational research in astronomy and astrophysics. This can include REU-style student summer visits, instrument testing and/or observational studies. I am pleased to acknowledge sponsorship by the Estate of William Herschel Womble, and the Meyer Foundation.

  2. Alpha-lipoic acid attenuates cardiac fibrosis in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jung Eun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperglycemia leads to cardiac oxidative stress and an imbalance in glucose homeostasis. Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterised by cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. However, the underlying mechanisms of diabetic cardiomyopathy are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA on cardiac energy metabolism, antioxidant effect, and fibrosis in the hearts of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF rats. Methods Animals were separated into non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO rats and diabetes-prone OLETF rats with or without ALA (200 mg/kg/day administration for 16 weeks. Diabetic cardiomyopathy was assessed by staining with Sirius Red. The effect of ALA on AMPK signalling, antioxidant enzymes, and fibrosis-related genes in the heart of OLETF rats were performed by Western blot analysis or immunohistochemistry. Results Western blot analysis showed that cardiac adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK signalling was lower in OLETF rats than in LETO rats, and that ALA treatment increased the signalling in OLETF rats. Furthermore, the low antioxidant activity in OLETF rats was increased by ALA treatment. In addition to increased Sirius red staining of collagen deposits, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF were expressed at higher levels in OLETF rat hearts than in LETO rat hearts, and the levels of these factors were decreased by ALA. Conclusions ALA enhances AMPK signalling, antioxidant, and antifibrogenic effect. Theses findings suggest that ALA may have beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  3. Public Lecture | The long road to the LHC | Prof. Lyn Evans, Dr. Daniel Treille and Prof. Peter Jenni | 9 October

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    “The long road to the LHC” by Prof. Lyn Evans, Dr. Daniel Treille and Prof. Peter Jenni. Thursday 9 October, 7.30 p.m. in the Globe of Science and Innovation. Talk in English with simultaneous interpreting into French.  Entrance free. Limited number of seats. Reservation essential: +41 22 767 76 76 or cern.reception@cern.ch   Lyn Evans. Lecture by Lyn Evans Abstract The key to the discovery of the Higgs boson has been the development of particle accelerators at CERN over the years. I will explain how a particle accelerator works and will follow the path from the construction of the Proton Synchrotron in the 1950s to the world’s most powerful colliding beam machine, the Large Hadron Collider. Biography Born in 1945, Lyn Evans has spent his whole career in the field of high energy physics and particle accelerators, participating in all the great projects of CERN. From 1993 he led the team that designed, built and commissioned the LHC. He is currently ...

  4. Genre Analysis of Decision Letters from Editors of Scientific Journals: Building on Flowerdew and Dudley-Evans (2002)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Flowerdew and Dudley-Evans (2002) described a prototypical structure for decision letters based on a personal database of letters written by one editor for the journal "English for Specific Purposes." In this article, I analyse a publicly available corpus of 59 decision letters from 48 different editors of a wide range of scientific…

  5. Questioning expertise. (book review of Evan Selinger & Robert Crease (eds), 'The philosophy of expertise, and Roger Pielke, 'The honest broker'.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briggle, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    The Philosophy of Expertise / Evan Selinger & Robert P. Crease, (eds). - New York : Columbia University Press, 2006. - ISBN 0-231-13644-7 [and] The Honest Broker: Making Sense of Science in Policy and Politics / Roger A. Pielke. - New York : Cambridge University Press, 2007. - ISBN 05-218-7320-7

  6. Labyrinth – fragments. Robert Morris and his installation for ms² Łódź 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussakowska-Szyszko, Maria

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The installation by Robert Morris called Labyrinth, accompanying his monographic exhibition at the Museum of Art in Łódź, was one of his numerous works based on this theme. Besides the labyrinth itself, which belongs to forms most pregnant with meanings, at least two issues seem intriguing. The first is the dialogue of Minimalism with art of all eras, of which Morris is a brilliant exponent. The other issue is connected to the concept of site-specific art, developed by him in the 1960s and assuming a comprehensive analysis of a place, its history, its social, cultural and political environment, which justifies and anchors the work. The Łódź context forced the artist to change his strategy, but the work based on the (very rare in art history pattern of a triangular labyrinth may be interpreted as an important element of Morris's Threading through a labyrinth. Tracing the changes in the Minimalist discourse of the recent decades I focus on a few interpretative lines, connected with the functioning of the "labyrinth" as a structure, I find some analogies between pattern repetitions by writers from the Oulipo group and the activities of Robert Morris.

  7. How Philip Morris built Marlboro into a global brand for young adults: implications for international tobacco control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, N; Ling, P

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe Philip Morris' global market research and international promotional strategies targeting young adults. Methods: : Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Results: Philip Morris pursued standardised market research and strategic marketing plans in different regions throughout the world using research on young adults with three principle foci: lifestyle/psychographic research, brand studies, and advertising/communication effectiveness. Philip Morris identified core similarities in the lifestyles and needs of young consumers worldwide, such as independence, hedonism, freedom, and comfort. In the early 1990s Philip Morris adopted standardised global marketing efforts, creating a central advertising production bank and guidelines for brand images and promotions, but allowing regional managers to create regionally appropriate individual advertisements. Conclusions: Values and lifestyles play a central role in the global marketing of tobacco to young adults. Worldwide counter marketing initiatives, coupled with strong, coherent global marketing policies such as the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, are needed to break associations between young adult values and tobacco brands. As globalisation promotes the homogenisation of values and lifestyles, tobacco control messages that resonate with young adults in one part of the world may appeal to young adults in other countries. Successful tobacco control messages that appeal to young people, such as industry denormalisation, may be expanded globally with appropriate tailoring to appeal to regional values. PMID:16046690

  8. 75 FR 45623 - Morris Energy Group, LLC v.PSEG Energy Resources & Trade LLC; PSEG Fossil LLC; and PSEG Power LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Morris Energy Group, LLC v.PSEG Energy Resources & Trade LLC; PSEG Fossil... Energy Group, LLC (Morris Energy) (Complainant) filed a complaint against PSEG Energy Resources & Trade...

  9. Morris Water Maze Test: Optimization for Mouse Strain and Testing Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzner, Daniel S; Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Kotilinek, Linda A; Ashe, Karen Hsiao; Reed, Miranda Nicole

    2015-06-22

    The Morris water maze (MWM) is a commonly used task to assess hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory in transgenic mouse models of disease, including neurocognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. However, the background strain of the mouse model used can have a substantial effect on the observed behavioral phenotype, with some strains exhibiting superior learning ability relative to others. To ensure differences between transgene negative and transgene positive mice can be detected, identification of a training procedure sensitive to the background strain is essential. Failure to tailor the MWM protocol to the background strain of the mouse model may lead to under- or over- training, thereby masking group differences in probe trials. Here, a MWM protocol tailored for use with the F1 FVB/N x 129S6 background is described. This is a frequently used background strain to study the age-dependent effects of mutant P301L tau (rTg(TauP301L)4510 mice) on the memory deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. Also described is a strategy to re-optimize, as dictated by the particular testing environment utilized.

  10. Virtual Morris task responses in individuals in an abstinence phase from alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Coriale, Giovanna; Hamilton, Derek A; Carito, Valentina; Coccurello, Roberto; Scalese, Bruna; Ciafrè, Stefania; Codazzo, Claudia; Messina, Marisa Patrizia; Chaldakov, George N; Fiore, Marco

    2018-02-01

    The present study was aimed at examining spatial learning and memory, in 33 men and 12 women with alcohol use disorder (AUD) undergoing ethanol detoxification, by using a virtual Morris task. As controls, we recruited 29 men and 10 women among episodic drinkers without a history of alcohol addiction or alcohol-related diseases. Elevated latency to the first movement in all trials was observed only in AUD persons; furthermore, control women had longer latencies compared with control men. Increased time spent to reach the hidden platform in the learning phase was found for women of both groups compared with men, in particular during trial 3. As predicted, AUD persons (more evident in men) spent less time in the target quadrant during the probe trial; however, AUD women had longer latencies to reach the platform in the visible condition during trials 6 and 7 that resulted in a greater distance moved. As for the probe trial, men of both groups showed increased virtual locomotion compared with the women of both groups. The present investigation confirms and extends previous studies showing (i) different gender responses in spatial learning tasks, (ii) some alterations due to alcohol addiction in virtual spatial learning, and (iii) differences between AUD men and AUD women in spatial-behaviour-related paradigms.

  11. Fiscal versus social responsibility: how Philip Morris shaped the public funds divestment debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wander, N; Malone, R E

    2006-06-01

    Calls for institutional investors to divest (sell off) tobacco stocks threaten the industry's share values, publicise its bad behaviour, and label it as a politically unacceptable ally. US tobacco control advocates began urging government investment and pension funds to divest as a matter of responsible social policy in 1990. Following the initiation of Medicaid recovery lawsuits in 1994, advocates highlighted the contradictions between state justice departments suing the industry, and state health departments expanding tobacco control programmes, while state treasurers invested in tobacco companies. Philip Morris (PM), the most exposed US company, led the divestment opposition, consistently framing the issue as one of responsible fiscal policy. It insisted that funds had to be managed for the exclusive interest of beneficiaries, not the public at large, and for high share returns above all. This paper uses tobacco industry documents to show how PM sought to frame both the rhetorical contents and the legal contexts of the divestment debate. While tobacco stock divestment was eventually limited to only seven (but highly visible) states, US advocates focused public attention on the issue in at least 18 others plus various local jurisdictions. This added to ongoing, effective campaigns to denormalise and delegitimise the tobacco industry, dividing it from key allies. Divestment as a delegitimisation tool could have both advantages and disadvantages as a tobacco control strategy in other countries.

  12. Philip Morris's health information web site appears responsible but undermines public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-01-01

    Many people may search for information about tobacco use, the largest cause of preventable mortality in the United States, on the Internet. In 1999, Philip Morris U.S.A. (PM), the country's biggest cigarette manufacturer, posted a Web site and launched a campaign to encourage people to obtain information about tobacco and health issues there. The company asserted that its goal was to deliver the messages of the public health community about tobacco. However, internal tobacco company documents reveal that the site was a public relations effort intended to help the company avoid punishment and regulation. Examination of the language on the Web site reveals many contradictions and omissions that may undermine public health messages. Among these are vague and confusing information about addiction, tar, and nicotine, a lack of motivators to quit smoking, and silence about tobacco-related mortality. By appearing to join with public health organizations in disseminating "responsible" messages about tobacco, PM may improve its image, thus facilitating its ability to continue to sell its lethal products. Public health nurses should be prepared to examine health information on the Internet for subtle biases, to counter PM's specific language about smoking to patients, and to challenge PM's larger corporate goals.

  13. Prenatal toluene exposure impairs performance in the Morris Water Maze in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, S P; Hannigan, J H; Bowen, S E

    2017-02-07

    Volatile organic solvent abuse continues to be a worldwide health problem, including the neurobehavioral teratogenic sequelae of toluene abuse during pregnancy. Although abuse levels of prenatal toluene exposure can lead to a Fetal Solvent Syndrome, there is little research examining these effects on memory. Consumption of toluene can have detrimental effects on the developing hippocampus which could lead to specific spatial learning and memory deficits. This study used a rat model to determine how prenatal exposure to abuse levels of toluene would affect performance in a spatial learning and memory task, the Morris Water Maze (MWM). Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0, 8000 or 12,000ppm (ppm) of toluene for 15min twice daily from gestation day 8 (GD8) through GD20. Male and female offspring (N=104) were observed in the MWM for 5days beginning on postnatal day (PN) 28 and again on PN44. While prenatal toluene-exposed animals did not differ in initial acquisition in the MWM, rats prenatally exposed to 12,000ppm toluene displayed performance deficits during a probe trial and in reversal learning on PN44. Overall, this study indicates that prenatal exposure to repeated inhaled abuse patterns of high concentrations of toluene can impair spatial memory function that persists into adolescence. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Waiting for sequences: Morris Goodman, immunodiffusion experiments, and the origins of molecular anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Joel B

    2010-01-01

    During the early 1960s, Morris Goodman used a variety of immunological tests to demonstrate the very close genetic relationships among humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas. Molecular anthropologists often point to this early research as a critical step in establishing their new specialty. Based on his molecular results, Goodman challenged the widely accepted taxonomic classification that separated humans from chimpanzees and gorillas in two separate families. His claim that chimpanzees and gorillas should join humans in family Hominidae sparked a well-known conflict with George Gaylord Simpson, Ernst Mayr, and other prominent evolutionary biologists. Less well known, but equally significant, were a series of disagreements between Goodman and other prominent molecular evolutionists concerning both methodological and theoretical issues. These included qualitative versus quantitative data, the role of natural selection, rates of evolution, and the reality of molecular clocks. These controversies continued throughout Goodman's career, even as he moved from immunological techniques to protein and DNA sequence analysis. This episode highlights the diversity of methods used by molecular evolutionists and the conflicting conclusions drawn from the data that these methods generated.

  15. Modafinil and Memory: Effects of Modafinil on Morris Water Maze Learning and Pavlovian Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Tristan; Wood, Suzanne C.; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.

    2010-01-01

    Modafinil has been shown to promote wakefulness and some studies suggest the drug can improve cognitive function. Because of many similarities, the mechanism of action may be comparable to classical psychostimulants, although the exact mechanisms of modafinil’s actions in wakefulness and cognitive enhancement are unknown. The current study aims to further examine the effects of modafinil as a cognitive enhancer on hippocampus-dependent memory in mice. A high dose of modafinil (75 mg/kg, i.p.) given before training improved acquisition on a Morris water maze. When given only before testing, modafinil did not affect water maze performance. We also examined modafinil (0.075 – 75 mg/kg) on Pavlovian fear conditioning. A low dose of pre-training modafinil (0.75 mg/kg) enhanced memory of contextual fear conditioning (tested off-drug one week later) while a high dose (75 mg/kg) disrupted memory. Pre-training modafinil did not affect cued conditioning at any dose tested, and immediate post-training modafinil had no effect on either cued or contextual fear. These results suggest that modafinil’s effects of memory are more selective than amphetamine or cocaine, and specific to hippocampus-dependent memory. PMID:19331449

  16. Effects of caffeine on learning and memory in rats tested in the Morris water maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E.M. Angelucci

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied some of the characteristics of the improving effect of the non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist, caffeine, using an animal model of learning and memory. Groups of 12 adult male Wistar rats receiving caffeine (0.3-30 mg/kg, ip, in 0.1 ml/100 g body weight administered 30 min before training, immediately after training, or 30 min before the test session were tested in the spatial version of the Morris water maze task. Post-training administration of caffeine improved memory retention at the doses of 0.3-10 mg/kg (the rats swam up to 600 cm less to find the platform in the test session, P<=0.05 but not at the dose of 30 mg/kg. Pre-test caffeine administration also caused a small increase in memory retrieval (the escape path of the rats was up to 500 cm shorter, P<=0.05. In contrast, pre-training caffeine administration did not alter the performance of the animals either in the training or in the test session. These data provide evidence that caffeine improves memory retention but not memory acquisition, explaining some discrepancies among reports in the literature.

  17. Effects of caffeine on learning and memory in rats tested in the Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelucci, M E M; Cesário, C; Hiroi, R H; Rosalen, P L; Da Cunha, C

    2002-10-01

    We studied some of the characteristics of the improving effect of the non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist, caffeine, using an animal model of learning and memory. Groups of 12 adult male Wistar rats receiving caffeine (0.3-30 mg/kg, ip, in 0.1 ml/100 g body weight) administered 30 min before training, immediately after training, or 30 min before the test session were tested in the spatial version of the Morris water maze task. Post-training administration of caffeine improved memory retention at the doses of 0.3-10 mg/kg (the rats swam up to 600 cm less to find the platform in the test session, Pcaffeine administration also caused a small increase in memory retrieval (the escape path of the rats was up to 500 cm shorter, Pcaffeine administration did not alter the performance of the animals either in the training or in the test session. These data provide evidence that caffeine improves memory retention but not memory acquisition, explaining some discrepancies among reports in the literature.

  18. O fantasma de Evans-Pritchard: diálogos da antropologia com a sua história The ghost of Evans-Pritchard: anthropology’s dialogues with its own history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Delgado Rosa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomando como estudo de caso a monografia de Sharon Hutchinson sobre os nuer, o presente artigo explora os quiproquós do diálogo entre a antropologia contemporânea e os clássicos, procurando detetar certas genealogias invisíveis que remontam aos funcionalistas britânicos, e nomeadamente a Evans-Pritchard. Procede a um esbatimento de certas oposições explícitas entre o presente e o passado da antropologia, revelando que as noções clássicas perpassam de forma subterrânea o discurso daqueles que dizem rejeitá-las e que muitas das preocupações atuais já tinham expressão nas etnografias modernas. É demonstrado que as abordagens estáticas - como a de Evans-Pritchard - tinham uma componente histórica e que a antropologia social britânica teve as suas respostas teóricas e metodológicas para as transformações dos contextos africanos sob domínio colonial.Through the reading of Sharon Hutchinson’s monograph on the Nuer, this article explores the misunderstandings between contemporary anthropology and the modern classics. It tries to identify invisible genealogies that go back to the British functionalists, particularly to Evans-Pritchard, and minimizes the explicit oppositions between the present and the past of anthropology. It reveals that some classical notions are detectable in non-explicit ways among those who claim to reject them and, at the same time, that contemporary concerns have their roots in modern ethnographies. The author shows that static approaches - as the one by Evans-Pritchard on the Nuer - had a historical meaning and recalls that British social anthropology had its own theoretical and methodological answers to the transformations of African contexts under colonial rule.

  19. Challenging Expertise: Paul Feyerabend vs. Harry Collins & Robert Evans on democracy, public participation and scientific authority: Paul Feyerabend vs. Harry Collins & Robert Evans on scientific authority and public participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgner, Helene

    2016-06-01

    This paper compares Feyerabend's arguments in Science in a Free Society to the controversial theory of expertise proposed by Harry Collins and Robert Evans as a Third Wave of Science Studies. Is the legitimacy of democratic decisions threatened by the unquestioned authority of scientific advice? Or does, on the contrary, science need protection from too much democratic participation in technical decisions? Where Feyerabend's political relativism envisions democratic society as inherently pluralist and demands equal contribution of all traditions and worldviews to public decision-making, Collins and Evans hold a conception of elective modernism, defending the reality and value of technical expertise and arguing that science deserves a privileged status in modern democracies, because scientific values are also democratic values. I will argue that Feyerabend's political relativism provides a valuable framework for the evaluation of Collins' and Evans' theory of expertise. By constructing a dialog between Feyerabend and this more recent approach in Science and Technology Studies, the aim of this article is not only to show where the two positions differ and in what way they might be reconciled, but also how Feyerabend's philosophy provides substantial input to contemporary debate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Distinct patterns of cerebral extravasation by Evans blue and sodium fluorescein in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola Fenghuei Yen

    Full Text Available The Evans blue dye (EBD; 961 Da and the sodium fluorescein dye (NaF; 376 Da are commonly used inert tracers in blood-brain barrier (BBB research. They are both highly charged low molecular weight (LMW tracers with similar lipophobic profiles. Nevertheless, the EBD binds to serum albumin (69,000 Da to become a high molecular weight (HMW protein tracer when injected into the circulation, whereas the NaF remains an unbound small molecule in the circulation. In this study, rats were injected with equal doses of either EBD or NaF to monitor their blood and tissue distribution. The EBD was largely confined to the circulation with little accumulation in the peripheral organ and even less accumulation in the central tissue, whereas the NaF distributed more evenly between the blood and the peripheral organ but was also largely excluded from the central tissue. Importantly, the EBD crossed the BBB most effectively at the prefrontal cortex and the cerebellum, and most poorly at the striatum. In marked contrast, the NaF was evenly distributed throughout the brain. Finally, the EBD exhibited this same peculiar tissue distribution profile when administered by either bolus injection or slow infusion. Our study suggests that different regions of the brain are equally permeable to LMW inert dyes like the NaF, but are markedly different in permeability to HMW proteins such as EBD-labelled serum albumin.

  1. A Case Study: Dual-Process Theories of Higher Cognition-Commentary on Evans & Stanovich (2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Magda

    2013-05-01

    Dual-process theories of higher order cognition (DPTs) have been enjoying much success, particularly since Kahneman's 2002 Nobel prize address and recent book Thinking, Fast and Slow (2009). Historically, DPTs have attempted to provide a conceptual framework that helps classify and predict differences in patterns of behavior found under some circumstances and not others in a host of reasoning, judgment, and decision-making tasks. As evidence has changed and techniques for examining behavior have moved on, so too have DPTs. Killing two birds with one stone, Evans and Stanovich (2013, this issue) respond to five main criticisms of DPTs. Along with addressing each criticism in turn, they set out to clarify the essential defining characteristics that distinguish one form of higher order cognition from the other. The aim of this commentary is to consider the defining characteristics of Type 1 and Type 2 processing that have been proposed and to suggest that the evidence can be taken to support quantitative differences rather than qualitatively distinct processes. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Demonstrating Potential of Cell Therapy for Wilson's Disease with the Long-Evans Cinnamon Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Fadi Luc; Sharma, Yogeshwar; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2017-01-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) is characterized by the inability to excrete copper (Cu) from the body with progressive tissue injury, especially in liver and brain. The molecular defect in WD concerns mutations in ATP7B gene leading to loss of Cu transport from the hepatocyte to the bile canaliculus. While drugs, e.g., Cu chelators, have been available for several decades, these must be taken lifelong, which can be difficult due to issues of compliance or side effects. Many individuals may require liver transplantation, which can also be difficult due to donor organ shortages. Therefore, achieving permanent cures via cell or gene therapy are of great interest for WD. Cell therapy is feasible because transplanted hepatocytes can integrate in liver parenchyma and restore deficient functions, including transport of Cu into bile. The availability of authentic animal models that recapitulate hepatic WD, especially the Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat, has advanced cell transplantation research in WD. We describe requirements for cell therapy in animal models with several standardized methods for studies to test or refine cell therapy strategies in WD.

  3. [Ameliorative effect of propolis on insulin resistance in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamami, Yoshito; Fujiwara, Hiroki; Hosoda, Miho; Hino, Hayato; Hirai, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Kazuaki; Jin, Xin; Takatori, Shingo; Doi-Takaki, Shima; Kawasaki, Hiromu

    2010-06-01

    Propolis is known to have abundant bioactive constituents and a variety of biological activities. To investigate the effect of Brazilian propolis on insulin resistance, 10-week-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a non-insulin-dependent type 2 diabetic model, were treated for 4 weeks with propolis (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle (control). Propolis treatment significantly decreased the plasma levels of insulin and insulin resistance index (Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance; HOM-IR), without affecting blood glucose levels and tended to lower systolic blood pressure compared with the control. In isolated and perfused mesenteric vascular beds of OLETF rats, propolis treatment resulted in significant reduction of sympathetic nerve-mediated vasoconstrictor response to periarterial nerve stimulation (PNS) and tended to increase calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) nerve-mediated vasodilator response to PNS compared with in vehicle-treated OLETF rats. However, propolis treatment did not significantly affect the vasoconstrictor and vasodilator response to noradrenaline, CGRP, acetylcholine, and sodium nitroprusside. These results suggest that propolis could be an effective and functional food to prevent development of insulin resistance.

  4. Evans syndrome in children. Long-term outcome in a prospective French national observational cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie eAladjidi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Evans syndrome (ES is a rare autoimmune disorder whose long-term follow-up characteristics are unknown. Patients under 18 at the time of diagnosis of a first autoimmune cytopenia have been included since 2004 in a national prospective observational cohort. In 2014, 156 children diagnosed between 1981 and 2014 with ES, were analyzed. The median age at initial cytopenia was 5.4 (0.2-17.2 years old. For 85 sequential cases, the median delay between the episodes of AIHA and ITP was 2.4 years (0.1–16.3. The median follow-up since ES diagnosis was 6.5 years (0.1-28.8. ES revealed underlying diseases in 10% of children; in 60% of patients, various associated immune manifestations were observed, and ES remained primary in 30%. Five-year ITP and AIHA relapse-free survival were respectively 25% and 61%. In all, 69% of children required one or more than one second-line immune treatment and 15 patients (10% died at a median age of 14.3 years (1.7-28.1.This national work provides the first consistent clinical description for ES and underscores the high percentage of associated immune manifestations, the long-term complications, and treatment toxicities. Current challenges include the identification of underlying genetic immune dysregulations and better characterization of subgroups of patients and of second-line therapy strategies.

  5. Efficacy of zinc supplementation in preventing acute hepatitis in Long-Evans Cinnamon rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Valentina; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo; Santon, Alessandro; D'Incà, Renata; Bortolami, Marina; Cardin, Romilda; Basso, Daniela; Albergoni, Vincenzo; Irato, Paola

    2005-08-01

    Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats are characterized by an abnormal hepatic deposition of copper (Cu) due to a lack of the Cu-transporter P-type adenosine triphosphatase: accordingly, the strain is a good animal model of Wilson's disease. The effect of oral zinc (Zn) acetate treatment on the development of acute hepatitis and the biochemical parameters of Cu-induced liver damage was studied in 5-week-old LEC rats (n=52). Rats receiving 50 or 80 mg/ml/day Zn acetate by gavage and control rats receiving a daily dose of glucose solution 0.02 g/ml by gastric intubation were killed at 1, 2 or 8 weeks after the start of treatment. Treatment with Zn acetate resulted in the prevention of acute hepatitis: 10 of the 13 untreated rats developed signs and symptoms compatible with acute hepatitis between the 6th and 7th week of treatment. Tissue metallothionein (MT) significantly increased in the treated rats and positively correlated with Zn concentrations within the liver. Control rats had a significantly higher iron concentration in the liver and kidneys compared with supplemented rats, after both short- and long-term experiments. 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine amounts were significantly lower in untreated rats. Zn acetate prevents acute hepatitis, by increasing tissue MT concentrations, reducing Cu absorption and interfering with Fe metabolism.

  6. Perioral anesthesia disrupts maternal behavior during early lactation in Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J M; Kolunie, J M

    1989-07-01

    The role of perioral somatosensory stimulation from pups in maternal behavior was investigated in lactating Long-Evans rats (Rattus norvegicus) during early lactation by local anesthesia of the mystacial pads with lidocaine, which blocks conduction in the infraorbital nerve. It was concluded that (1) acute perioral anesthesia markedly inhibited pup retrieval when the subjects had no formal pretreatment retrieval experience. Further, these dams displayed little tolerance to the lidocaine treatment when they were tested repeatedly. (2) The severity of the effects of perioral anesthesia on retrieval was dependent upon prior experience and the testing situation. Following pretreatment retrieval experience, and in a test cage with dark and light compartments which provided a strong incentive to retrieve, 80% of lidocaine-injected dams did retrieve. However, retrieval efficiency was impaired by perioral anesthesia, largely due to increased time in contact with pups prior to each retrieval and to increased carrying time. (3) Perioral anesthesia also inhibited pup licking, but not self-grooming, suggesting that the former, but not the latter, is largely under peripheral stimulus control and that deficits in maternal oral activities cannot be due to impairment of mouth opening and use. (4) The onset of nursing behavior was delayed until after the recovery of snout sensations and retrieval. This suggests that a maternal behavior not directly involving the mouth is nonetheless dependent upon the dam's receipt of perioral tactile input from pups.

  7. Abnormal thyroid function test results in patients with Fisher-Evans syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lio, S; Albin, M; Girelli, G; Perrone, M P; Gandolfo, G; Conti, L; Mazzone, D; D'Armiento, M

    1993-03-01

    Thyroid function was evaluated in patients affected by Fisher-Evans syndrome (FES) and compared to that of patients affected only by autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and to that of patients affected only by idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The study population consisted of 20 patients with FES, 44 with AIHA and 20 with ITP. All patients were examined for thyroid function abnormalities and thyroid autoantibodies. Abnormal thyroid function test results were observed in 40, 25 and 10% of the patients, respectively. The prevalence of antithyroid antibodies (ATA) in FES was 25%; this is higher than the sum of the prevalences of ATA in patients affected only by AIHA (11.4%) or only by ITP (none). Subclinical primary hypothyroidism and hyperthyroxinemia with or without hypertriiodothyroninemia, with TSH serum levels below normal, were present in 20% and 10% of patients affected by FES, respectively. Of the former, 75% were positive for ATA. These results: i) confirm the high prevalence of abnormal thyroid test results in patients affected by AIHA, ITP and FES; ii) demonstrate the higher prevalence of autoimmune hypothyroidism in FES; iii) lead to the possibility of including FES as one of the multiple autoimmune syndromes.

  8. Reframing violence against women as a human rights violation: Evan Stark's Coercive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libal, Kathryn; Parekh, Serena

    2009-12-01

    Evan Stark claims that partner-perpetrated physical abuse and other forms of violence against women ought to be understood as a human rights violation. The authors engage Stark's rhetorically powerful political and analytical innovation by outlining one theoretical and one practical challenge to shifting the paradigm that researchers, advocates, and policy makers use to describe, explain, and remedy the harms of coercive control from misdemeanor assault to human rights violation. The theoretical challenge involves overcoming the public/ private dichotomy that underpins liberal conceptions of human rights.The practical challenge involves using the human rights framework in the United States, given public indifference to human rights rhetoric or law, reluctance of U.S. policy makers to submit to scrutiny or justice-oriented processes under international law on issues of human rights and especially war crimes, and the consequent U.S. legacy of refusal to participate meaningfully in the international human rights process. The authors conclude that employing a human rights framework holds potential in the United States, but the paradigm shift Stark advocates will not materialize without widespread mobilization of interest in and understanding of human rights among domestic violence advocates and the society in general.

  9. Tempol protects sleep-deprivation induced behavioral deficits in aggressive male Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Naimesh; Atrooz, Fatin; Asghar, Saman; Salim, Samina

    2016-01-26

    Earlier, we reported that elevated anxiety-like behavior and high aggression in aged retired breeder Long-Evans (L-E) rats was associated with increased plasma corticosterone and elevated oxidative stress levels. In the present study, we examined how this aged aggressive and anxious rat strain responds to acute sleep deprivation (24h) and whether their behaviors can be modulated via antioxidant tempol treatment. Four groups of L-E rats were utilized: naïve control (NC), tempol treated control (T+NC), sleep deprived (SD), tempol treated and sleep deprived (T+SD). Thus, two groups were treated with tempol (1mM in drinking water for 2 weeks) while the other two were not. Two groups were subjected to acute sleep deprivation (24h) using the columns-in-water model while the other two were not. Sleep deprivation induced anxiety-like behavior, led to significant depression-like behavior and short-term memory impairment in SD rats. And, decision-making behavior also was compromised in SD rats. These behavioral and cognitive impairments were prevented with tempol treatment in T+SD rats. Tempol treatment also reduced SD-induced increase in corticosterone and oxidative stress levels in T+SD rats. These results suggest potential involvement of oxidative stress mechanisms in regulation of sleep deprivation induced behavioral and cognitive deficits in male aged-aggressive rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Henri Cartier-Bresson / Walker Evans : Photographier l’Amérique (1929-1947

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Brunet

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Dans un mot adressé en 2001 à Peter Galassi, conservateur de la photographie au MOMA, Henri Cartier-Bresson, alors âgé de quatre-vingt-treize ans, écrivait plaisamment — mais non pas complaisamment : « If it had not been for the challenge of the work of Walker Evans, I don’t think I would have remained a fotographer » (« sans le défi constitué par le travail de Walker Evans, je ne crois pas que je serais resté fotographe ». Pour fêter le centenaire de Cartier-Bresson, c’est ce défi — plutôt ...

  11. Acute and subchronic toxicity of inhaled toluene in male Long Evans rats: oxidative stress markers in brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research interested in oxidative stress markers following exposure to VOCsThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Kodavanti , P., J. Royland , D.A. Moore-Smith, J. Beas, J. Richards , T. Beasley , P. Evansky , and P.J. Bushnell. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity of Inhaled Toluene in Male Long-Evans Rats: Oxidative Stress Markers in Brain. NEUROTOXICOLOGY. Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, NETHERLANDS, 51: 10-19, (2015).

  12. Midazolam impairs acquisition and retrieval, but not consolidation of reference memory in the Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timić, Tamara; Joksimović, Srđan; Milić, Marija; Divljaković, Jovana; Batinić, Bojan; Savić, Miroslav M

    2013-03-15

    Amnesia is one of the most discussed properties of the benzodiazepine class of drugs. The effects of benzodiazepines on human memory are usually anterograde, while changes in retrograde memory functions were seldom reported. Such inconsistent findings have prompted numerous animal studies investigating the influences of these positive modulators of inhibitory neurotransmission on different stages of memory. Among the benzodiazepines, memory effects of midazolam are of special interest due to its many and varied clinical applications. The present Morris water maze study in adult male Wistar rats was performed in three experiments in which midazolam was administered at doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg intraperitoneally, before or immediately after each of five daily learning sessions, with two trials in a session, as well as before the probe test. Midazolam impaired acquisition and subsequent retention of spatial learning of the position of the hidden platform even at a pre-training dose of 0.5 mg/kg. This low dose was not associated with impairment of the procedural component of learning, manifested by increased time spent in the periphery of the pool. The lack of midazolam effect on consolidation has not been confounded by the observed below-chance performance of the control group since our additional experiment using diazepam also administered immediately after each of five learning sessions has revealed a similar pattern of results. Finally, midazolam administered before the probe test impaired retrieval of reference memory at all tested doses. Hence, induction of retrograde, besides anterograde amnesia should be kept in mind as a possibility when midazolam is used in clinical settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Accretions of various types of dark energies onto Morris-Thorne wormhole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debnath, Ujjal [Bengal Engineering and Science University, Department of Mathematics, Shibpur, Howrah (India)

    2014-05-15

    In this work, we have studied the accretion of dark energies onto a Morris-Thorne wormhole. Previously, in ref. (Gonzalez-Diaz, arXiv:hep-th/0607137), it was shown that for quintessence like dark energy, the mass of the wormhole decreases, and for phantom like dark energy, the mass of the wormhole increases.We have assumed two types of dark energy: the variable modified Chaplygin gas and the generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas.We have found the expression of the wormhole mass in both cases. We have found the mass of the wormhole at late universe and this is finite. For our choices of the parameters and the function B(a), these models generate only quintessence dark energy (not phantom) and so the wormhole mass decreases during the evolution of the universe. Next we have assumed the five kinds of parametrizations of well-known dark-energy models. These models generate both quintessence and phantom scenarios i.e., phantom crossing models. So if these dark energies accrete onto the wormhole, then for the quintessence stage, the wormhole mass decreases up to a certain value (a finite value) and then again increases to an infinite value for the phantom stage during whole evolution of the universe. That means that if the five kinds of DE accrete onto a wormhole, the mass of the wormhole decreases up to a certain finite value and then increases in the late stage of the evolution of the universe. We have also shown these results graphically. (orig.)

  14. Mixed Mode Oscillations and Synchronous Activity in Noise Induced Modified Morris-Lecar Neural System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar; Mondal, Argha; Teka, Wondimu W.

    The modified three-dimensional (3D) Morris-Lecar (M-L) model is very useful to understand the spiking activities of neurons. The present article addresses the random dynamical behavior of a modified M-L model driven by a white Gaussian noise with mean zero and unit spectral density. The applied stimulus can be expressed as a random term. Such random perturbations are represented by a white Gaussian noise current added through the electrical potential of membrane of the excitatory principal cells. The properties of the stochastic system (perturbed one) and noise induced mixed mode oscillation are analyzed. The Lyapunov spectrum is computed to present the nature of the system dynamics. The noise intensity is varied while keeping fixed the predominant parameters of the model in their ranges and also observed the changes in the dynamical behavior of the system. The dynamical synchronization is studied in the coupled M-L systems interconnected by excitatory and inhibitory neurons with noisy electrical coupling and verified with similarity functions. This result suggests the potential benefits of noise and noise induced oscillations which have been observed in real neurons and how that affects the dynamics of the neural model as well as the coupled systems. The analysis reports that the modified M-L system which has the limit cycle behavior can show a type of phase locking behavior which follows either period adding (i.e. 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1) sequences or Farey sequences. For the coupled neural systems, complete synchronization is shown for sufficient noisy coupling strength.

  15. Philip Morris research on precursors to the modern e-cigarette since 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Grana, Rachel; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-12-01

    Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing rapidly. Chinese pharmacist Hon Lik is frequently cited as inventing the modern e-cigarette in 2003. However, tobacco companies have developed electronic nicotine delivery systems since at least 1963. We searched the University of California San Francisco Truth (formerly Legacy) Tobacco Industry Documents beginning with the terms 'electric cigarette' and 'electronic cigarettes', 'e-cigarette', 'smokeless cigarettes', 'nicotine aerosol', 'tobacco aerosol', and 'vaping' and then expanded the search using snowball sampling. We focused our analysis on Philip Morris (PM) documents discussing technology that aerosolised a nicotine solution because these devices resembled modern e-cigarettes. Over 1000 documents were reviewed; 40 were included in the final analysis. PM started developing a nicotine aerosol device in 1990 to address the health concerns and decreased social acceptability of smoking that were leading smokers to switch to nicotine replacement therapy. PM had developed a capillary aerosol generator that embodied basic e-cigarette technology in 1994, but in the mid-to-late 1990s focused on applying its aerosol technology to pharmaceutical applications because of uncertainty of how such products might affect potential Food and Drug Administration regulation of tobacco products. In 2001, PM resumed its work on a nicotine aerosol device, and in 2013, NuMark (a division of Altria, PM's parent company) released the MarkTen, a nicotine aerosol device. Rather than a disruptive technology, PM developed e-cigarette technology to complement, not compete with, conventional cigarettes and evade tobacco control regulations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Molecular mechanisms for the destabilization and restabilization of reactivated spatial memory in the Morris water maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ryang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Memory retrieval is not a passive process. Recent studies have shown that reactivated memory is destabilized and then restabilized through gene expression-dependent reconsolidation. Molecular studies on the regulation of memory stability after retrieval have focused almost exclusively on fear memory, especially on the restabilization process of the reactivated fear memory. We previously showed that, similarly with fear memories, reactivated spatial memory undergoes reconsolidation in the Morris water maze. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which reactivated spatial memory is destabilized and restabilized remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism that regulates the stability of the reactivated spatial memory. Results We first showed that pharmacological inactivation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR in the hippocampus or genetic inhibition of cAMP-responsible element binding protein (CREB-mediated transcription disrupted reactivated spatial memory. Finally, we showed that pharmacological inhibition of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 and L-type voltage gated calcium channels (LVGCCs in the hippocampus blocked the disruption of the reactivated spatial memory by the inhibition of protein synthesis. Conclusions Our findings indicated that the reactivated spatial memory is destabilized through the activation of CB1 and LVGCCs and then restabilized through the activation of NMDAR- and CREB-mediated transcription. We also suggest that the reactivated spatial memory undergoes destabilization and restabilization in the hippocampus, through similar molecular processes as those for reactivated contextual fear memories, which require CB1 and LVGCCs for destabilization and NMDAR and CREB for restabilization.

  17. Early visual deficits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic long evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Moe H; Kim, Moon K; Olson, Darin E; Thule, Peter M; Pardue, Machelle T

    2013-02-15

    Although diabetic retinopathy (DR) is clinically diagnosed based on vascular pathology, diabetic patients with angiographically normal retinas have been found to exhibit subtle defects in vision. This has led to the theory that diabetes-associated metabolic abnormalities directly impair neural retinal function before the development of vasculopathy, thereby resulting in visual deficits. In this study, we sought to delineate the temporal relationship between retinal dysfunction and visual deficits in a rat model of Type 1 diabetes. Moreover, we investigated the relative contribution of retinal dysfunction versus diabetes-induced lens opacity, to the visual deficits found in early-stage DR. Pigmented Long Evans rats were rendered diabetic with streptozotocin (STZ). Control and diabetic rats were assessed across 12 weeks of hyperglycemia for visual function with optokinetic tracking weekly visual acuity and monthly contrast sensitivity, retinal function with dark-adapted electroretinograms (monthly electroretinograms [ERGs]), and cataract formation with slit lamp exam (biweekly). Diabetic rats exhibited significantly reduced visual function and delayed ERG responses by 1 month post-STZ. Significant cataracts did not develop until 6 weeks post-STZ. Moreover, increases in lens opacity (r = -0.728) and ERG implicit times (r = -0.615 for rod-dominated response and r = -0.322 for rod/cone mixed response) showed significant correlations with reductions in visual acuity in diabetic rats. STZ-induced hyperglycemia reduces visual function, affecting both visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. The data suggest that visual defects found in early-stage DR may initially involve abnormalities of the neural retina and worsen with later development of cataracts.

  18. TURAN and EVAN mediate pollen tube reception in Arabidopsis Synergids through protein glycosylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Lindner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollen tube (PT reception in flowering plants describes the crosstalk between the male and female gametophytes upon PT arrival at the synergid cells of the ovule. It leads to PT growth arrest, rupture, and sperm cell release, and is thus essential to ensure double fertilization. Here, we describe TURAN (TUN and EVAN (EVN, two novel members of the PT reception pathway that is mediated by the FERONIA (FER receptor-like kinase (RLK. Like fer, mutations in these two genes lead to PT overgrowth inside the female gametophyte (FG without PT rupture. Mapping by next-generation sequencing, cytological analysis of reporter genes, and biochemical assays of glycoproteins in RNAi knockdown mutants revealed both genes to be involved in protein N-glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. TUN encodes a uridine diphosphate (UDP-glycosyltransferase superfamily protein and EVN a dolichol kinase. In addition to their common role during PT reception in the synergids, both genes have distinct functions in the pollen: whereas EVN is essential for pollen development, TUN is required for PT growth and integrity by affecting the stability of the pollen-specific FER homologs ANXUR1 (ANX1 and ANX2. ANX1- and ANX2-YFP reporters are not expressed in tun pollen grains, but ANX1-YFP is degraded via the ER-associated degradation (ERAD pathway, likely underlying the anx1/2-like premature PT rupture phenotype of tun mutants. Thus, as in animal sperm-egg interactions, protein glycosylation is essential for the interaction between the female and male gametophytes during PT reception to ensure fertilization and successful reproduction.

  19. Ethanol seeking by Long Evans rats is not always a goal-directed behavior.

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    Regina A Mangieri

    Full Text Available Two parallel and interacting processes are said to underlie animal behavior, whereby learning and performance of a behavior is at first via conscious and deliberate (goal-directed processes, but after initial acquisition, the behavior can become automatic and stimulus-elicited (habitual. With respect to instrumental behaviors, animal learning studies suggest that the duration of training and the action-outcome contingency are two factors involved in the emergence of habitual seeking of "natural" reinforcers (e.g., sweet solutions, food or sucrose pellets. To rigorously test whether behaviors reinforced by abused substances such as ethanol, in particular, similarly become habitual was the primary aim of this study.Male Long Evans rats underwent extended or limited operant lever press training with 10% sucrose/10% ethanol (10S10E reinforcement (variable interval (VI or (VR ratio schedule of reinforcement, or with 10% sucrose (10S reinforcement (VI schedule only. Once training and pretesting were complete, the impact of outcome devaluation on operant behavior was evaluated after lithium chloride injections were paired with the reinforcer, or unpaired 24 hours later. After limited, but not extended instrumental training, lever pressing by groups trained under VR with 10S10E and under VI with 10S was sensitive to outcome devaluation. In contrast, responding by both the extended and limited training 10S10E VI groups was not sensitive to ethanol devaluation during the test for habitual behavior.Operant behavior by rats trained to self-administer an ethanol-sucrose solution showed variable sensitivity to a change in the value of ethanol, with relative insensitivity developing sooner in animals that received time-variable ethanol reinforcement during training sessions. One important implication, with respect to substance abuse in humans, is that initial learning about the relationship between instrumental actions and the opportunity to consume ethanol

  20. "Nice guys finish last": influence of mate choice on reproductive success in Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winland, C; Bolton, J L; Ford, B; Jampana, S; Tinker, J; Frohardt, R J; Guarraci, F A; Zewail-Foote, M

    2012-02-01

    The present study was designed to determine if male physiology and male reproductive behavior predict reproductive success in Long-Evans rats. Mating behavior was observed in sexually naïve, naturally cycling female rats during behavioral estrous that were given the opportunity to mate with two males simultaneously. DNA analysis of offspring born following these mating encounters was used to identify the paternity of each pup. In order to assess the effect of mate choice during these mating encounters on reproductive success, one male rat in each pair was categorized as the preferred mate if the female spent more time (>50%) with him during the mating test of the present study. Furthermore, each male in the pairs was categorized as "attractive" or "non-attractive" by computing the number of females that preferred each male across many mating tests. Similar to results reported in Lovell et al. (2007), during 76% of these mating tests the same male rat in each pair was preferred by different female rats. Overall attractiveness of individual male rats predicted reproductive success in the present study. Interestingly, "attractive" males sired significantly FEWER pups than "non-attractive" males. Neither behavioral (e.g., latency to first sexual stimulation, number of sexual stimulations) nor physiological measures (e.g., body weight, urinary testosterone levels) of male rats predicted their reproductive success. In conclusion, the present results indicate that certain features of some males are more attractive to females, but attractive males are at a reproductive disadvantage (as measured by the number of pups sired). Although basal urinary testosterone levels did not differ between males that sired the majority of pups in a litter and males that sired few or none of the pups in a litter, aggression and/or other physiological measures of fertility (e.g., penile reflexes) may differ between males that are attractive to females and those that have a reproductive

  1. Perturbations to the lower ionosphere by tropical cyclone Evan in the South Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; NaitAmor, Samir; Chanrion, Olivier; Neubert, Torsten

    2017-08-01

    Very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic signals from navigational transmitters propagate worldwide in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide formed by the Earth and the electrically conducting lower ionosphere. Changes in the signal properties are signatures of variations in the conductivity of the reflecting boundary of the lower ionosphere which is located in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, and their analysis is, therefore, a way to study processes in these remote regions. Here we present a study on amplitude perturbations of local origin on the VLF transmitter signals (NPM, NLK, NAA, and JJI) observed during tropical cyclone (TC) Evan, 9-16 December 2012 when TC was in the proximity of the transmitter-receiver links. We observed a maximum amplitude perturbation of 5.7 dB on JJI transmitter during 16 December event. From Long Wave Propagation Capability model applied to three selected events we estimate a maximum decrease in the nighttime D region reference height (H') by 5.2 km (13 December, NPM) and maximum increase in the daytime D region H' by 6.1 km and 7.5 km (14 and 16 December, JJI). The results suggest that the TC caused the neutral densities of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere to lift and sink (bringing the lower ionosphere with it), an effect that may be mediated by gravity waves generated by the TC. The perturbations were observed before the storm was classified as a TC, at a time when it was a tropical depression, suggesting the broader conclusion that severe convective storms, in general, perturb the mesosphere and the stratosphere through which the perturbations propagate.

  2. Contaminants in fish and sediments of the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Morris County, New Jersey: A 10-year follow-up investigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Located in Morris County, New Jersey about 25 miles west of New York City's Time Square, the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service's (Service) Great Swamp National...

  3. "A good personal scientific relationship": Philip Morris scientists and the Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Mackenzie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the efforts of consultants affiliated with Philip Morris (PM, the world's leading transnational tobacco corporation, to influence scientific research and training in Thailand via the Chulabhorn Research Institute (CRI. A leading Southeast Asian institute for environmental health science, the CRI is headed by Professor Dr. Her Royal Highness Princess Chulabhorn, the daughter of the King of Thailand, and it has assumed international significance via its designation as a World Health Organization (WHO Collaborating Centre in December 2005.This paper analyses previously confidential tobacco industry documents that were made publicly available following litigation in the United States. PM documents reveal that ostensibly independent overseas scientists, now identified as industry consultants, were able to gain access to the Thai scientific community. Most significantly, PM scientist Roger Walk has established close connections with the CRI. Documents indicate that Walk was able to use such links to influence the study and teaching of environmental toxicology in the institute and to develop relations with key officials and local scientists so as to advance the interests of PM within Thailand and across Asia. While sensitivities surrounding royal patronage of the CRI make public criticism extremely difficult, indications of ongoing involvement by tobacco industry consultants suggest the need for detailed scrutiny of such relationships.The establishment of close links with the CRI advances industry strategies to influence scientific research and debate around tobacco and health, particularly regarding secondhand smoke, to link with academic institutions, and to build relationships with national elites. Such strategies assume particular significance in the national and regional contexts presented here amid the globalisation of the tobacco pandemic. From an international perspective, particular concern is raised by the CRI's recently

  4. Distinct epigenetic and gene expression changes in rat hippocampal neurons after Morris water maze training

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    Sylvia D. eCarter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene transcription and translation in the hippocampus is of critical importance in hippocampus-dependent memory formation, including during Morris water maze (MWM learning. Previous work using gene deletion models has shown that the immediate-early genes (IEGs c-Fos, Egr-1 and Arc are crucial for such learning. Recently, we reported that induction of IEGs in sparse dentate gyrus neurons requires ERK MAPK signaling and downstream formation of a distinct epigenetic histone mark (i.e. phospho-acetylated histone H3. Until now, this signaling, epigenetic and gene transcriptional pathway has not been comprehensively studied in the MWM model. Therefore, we conducted a detailed study of the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and serine10 in histone H3 (H3S10p and induction of IEGs in the hippocampus of MWM trained rats and matched controls. MWM training evoked consecutive waves of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and H3S10 phosphorylation, as well as c-Fos, Egr-1 and Arc induction in sparse hippocampal neurons. The observed effects were most pronounced in the dentate gyrus. A positive correlation was found between the average latency to find the platform and the number of H3S10p-positive dentate gyrus neurons. Furthermore, chromatin immuno-precipitation (ChIP revealed a significantly increased association of phospho-acetylated histone H3 (H3K9ac-S10p with the gene promoters of c-Fos and Egr-1, but not Arc, after MWM exposure compared with controls. Surprisingly, however, we found very little difference between IEG responses (regarding both protein and mRNA in MWM-trained rats compared with matched swim controls. We conclude that exposure to the water maze evokes ERK MAPK activation, distinct epigenetic changes and IEG induction predominantly in sparse dentate gyrus neurons. It appears, however, that a specific role for IEGs in the learning aspect of MWM training may become apparent in downstream AP-1- and Egr-1-regulated (second wave genes and Arc-dependent effector

  5. Vitamin B12 and ketorolac on pain in Long Evans rats

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    Mizanur Rahman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effects of vitamin B12 on pain have been demonstrated in different animal and humanstudies. But comparison of these effects with similar effects of ketorolac tromethamine (KT and theircombination have not been established. Objective: To assess the effects of vitamin B12 on pain andalso to compare them with those of the combinations of vitamin B12 with KT in rat models. Methods:This experimental study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Bangabandhu Sheikh MujibMedical University (BSMMU, Dhaka, from March 2015 to February 2016. For this, 20 (twentyLong Evans rats (215±35 gm of both sexes were divided into control (A, with 5 ml/kg normal salineand experimental (B1, with 15 mg/kg B12; B2, with 10 mg/kg KT; B3, with B12+KT groups with 5rats in each group. All the drugs and vitamin were administered intraperitoneally in a single dose justone hour before formalin test. To evaluate the treatments’ effect on nociceptive pain, early phase (1st-5th minutes; on central analgesic system, interphase (6th-15th minutes; and on inflammatory pain,late phase (16th-60th minutes of the formalin test, were observed. In all phases, total frequency ofjerking and total duration of flexing and licking of the right hind paw were counted after administrationof subcutaneous formalin (50 μl, 2.5% injection. Statistical analysis was done by ANOVA, followedby Bonferroni post hoc test. In the interpretation of results, p≤0.05 was considered as significant.Results: B12 lowered only the jerking frequency and KT lowered both jerking frequency and flexinglicking duration significantly (p≤0.001 in the late phase of formalin test. On the other hand, combinationof B12 and KT significantly (p≤0.001 lowered both the study variables in all 3 phases of formalintest. Conclusion: From this study it may be concluded that, vitamin B12 possess analgesic effects andcombination of B12 with KT is more effective than those of their individual administration.

  6. Dietary isoflavones alter regulatory behaviors, metabolic hormones and neuroendocrine function in Long-Evans male rats

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    Bu Lihong

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytoestrogens derived from soy foods (or isoflavones have received prevalent usage due to their 'health benefits' of decreasing: a age-related diseases, b hormone-dependent cancers and c postmenopausal symptoms. However, little is known about the influence of dietary phytoestrogens on regulatory behaviors, such as food and water intake, metabolic hormones and neuroendocrine parameters. This study examined important hormonal and metabolic health issues by testing the hypotheses that dietary soy-derived isoflavones influence: 1 body weight and adipose deposition, 2 food and water intake, 3 metabolic hormones (i.e., leptin, insulin, T3 and glucose levels, 4 brain neuropeptide Y (NPY levels, 5 heat production [in brown adipose tissue (BAT quantifying uncoupling protein (UCP-1 mRNA levels] and 6 core body temperature. Methods This was accomplished by conducting longitudinal studies where male Long-Evans rats were exposed (from conception to time of testing or tissue collection to a diet rich in isoflavones (at 600 micrograms/gram of diet or 600 ppm vs. a diet low in isoflavones (at approximately 10–15 micrograms/gram of diet or 10–15 ppm. Body, white adipose tissue and food intake were measured in grams and water intake in milliliters. The hormones (leptin, insulin, T3, glucose and NPY were quantified by radioimmunoassays (RIA. BAT UCP-1 mRNA levels were quantified by PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis while core body temperatures were recorded by radio telemetry. The data were tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA (or where appropriate by repeated measures. Results Body and adipose tissue weights were decreased in Phyto-600 vs. Phyto-free fed rats. Food and water intake was greater in Phyto-600 animals, that displayed higher hypothalamic (NPY concentrations, but lower plasma leptin and insulin levels, vs. Phyto-free fed males. Higher thyroid levels (and a tendency for higher glucose levels and increased uncoupling

  7. Chronic social instability increases anxiety-like behavior and ethanol preference in male Long Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeckner, Alyssa R; Bowling, Alexandra; Butler, Tracy R

    2017-05-01

    Chronic stress during adolescence is related to increased prevalence of anxiety disorders and alcohol use disorders in humans. This phenotype has been consistently recapitulated in animal models with male subjects, but models using female subjects are fewer. The aim of these studies was to test the hypothesis that chronic social instability (CSI) during adolescence engenders increased anxiety-like behavior, increased corticosterone, and greater ethanol intake and/or preference than control groups in male and female rats. A chronic social instability (CSI) procedure was conducted in separate cohorts of female and male adolescent Long Evans rats. CSI included daily social isolation for 1h, and then pair housing with a novel cage mate for 23h until the next 1h isolation period from PND 30-46. Control groups included social stability (SS), chronic isolation (ISO), and acute social instability (aSI). At PND 49-50, anxiety-like behavior was assessed on the elevated plus maze, and on PND 51 tails bloods were obtained for determination of corticosterone (CORT) levels. This was followed by 4weeks of ethanol drinking in a home cage intermittent access ethanol drinking paradigm (PND 55-81 for males, PND 57-83 for females). Planned contrast testing showed that the male CSI group had greater anxiety-like behavior compared controls, but group differences were not apparent for CORT. CSI males had significantly higher levels of ethanol preference during drinking weeks 2-3 compared to all other groups and compared to SS and ISO groups in week 4. For the female cohort, we did not observe consistent group differences in anxiety-like behavior, CORT levels were unexpectedly lower in the ISO group only compared to the other groups, and group differences were not apparent for ethanol intake/preference. In conclusion, chronic stress during adolescence in the form of social instability increases anxiety-like behavior and ethanol preference in male rats, consistent with other models of

  8. Identifying the appropriate time for deep brain stimulation to achieve spatial memory improvement on the Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Jihyeon; Chang, Won Seok; Chang, Jin Woo

    2017-03-07

    The possibility of using deep brain stimulation (DBS) for memory enhancement has recently been reported, but the precise underlying mechanisms of its effects remain unknown. Our previous study suggested that spatial memory improvement by medial septum (MS)-DBS may be associated with cholinergic regulation and neurogenesis. However, the affected stage of memory could not be distinguished because the stimulation was delivered during the execution of all memory processes. Therefore, this study was performed to determine the stage of memory affected by MS-DBS. Rats were administered 192 IgG-saporin to lesion cholinergic neurons. Stimulation was delivered at different times in different groups of rats: 5 days before the Morris water maze test (pre-stimulation), 5 days during the training phase of the Morris water maze test (training-stimulation), and 2 h before the Morris water maze probe test (probe-stimulation). A fourth group of rats was lesioned but received no stimulation. These four groups were compared with a normal (control) group. The most effective memory restoration occurred in the pre-stimulation group. Moreover, the pre-stimulation group exhibited better recall of the platform position than the other stimulation groups. An increase in the level of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was observed in the pre-stimulation group; this increase was maintained for 1 week. However, acetylcholinesterase activity in the pre-stimulation group was not significantly different from the lesion group. Memory impairment due to cholinergic denervation can be improved by DBS. The improvement is significantly correlated with the up-regulation of BDNF expression and neurogenesis. Based on the results of this study, the use of MS-DBS during the early stage of disease may restore spatial memory impairment.

  9. Effects of dexamethasone and insulin on the acute phase response of Morris hepatoma cells and of rat hepatocytes in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magielska-Zero, D; Guzdek, A; Bereta, J; Kurdowska, A; Cieszka, K; Koj, A

    1988-01-01

    Dexamethasone and insulin stimulate production of several plasma proteins in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes but inhibit their production in primary cultures of Morris hepatoma cell line 7777W. The acute phase response elicited in cultured cells by crude cytokines from activated rat peritoneal macrophages is considerably higher in hepatocytes in the presence of hormones, and especially of dexamethasone. In hepatoma cells the hormones enhance the cytokine-induced formation of fibrinogen and cysteine proteinase inhibitor but are without significant effect on suppression of albumin and alpha-fetoprotein synthesis by macrophage supernatants.

  10. [Sleep deprivation effect upon spatial memory consolidation in rats after one-day learning in a Morris water maze].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorokhov, V B; Kozhedub, R G; Arsen'ev, G N; Kozhechkin, S N; Ukraintseva, Iu V; Kulikov, M A; Manolov, A I; Koval'zon, V M

    2011-01-01

    The effect of sleep deprivation by 'carousel' method on spatial memory consolidation in a Morris water maze was studied in Wistar male rats after one-day learning (in accordance to a protocol by Frick et al., 2000). It was found that after fast 3-hr learning the memory trace retains during 24-hr. Twenty four hour sleep deprivation followed learning impaired consolidation of spatial memory. So the rat model of a one-day learning is suitable for the studying of neurophysiological mechanisms of sleep deprivation effects on spatial memory consolidation.

  11. Modeling Ethanol Decomposition on Transition Metals: A Combined Application of Scaling and Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrin, P.; Simonetti, D.; Kandoi, S.

    2009-01-01

    calculations necessary to describe trends in activity and selectivity across metal and alloy surfaces, thus extending the reach of DFT to more complex systems. In-this work, the well-known family of Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) correlations, connecting minima with maxima in the potential energy surface...... on a subset of these surfaces are calculated. Experiments on supported catalysts verify that this simple model is reasonably accurate in describing reactivity trends across metals, suggesting that the combination of BEP and scaling relations may substantially reduce the cost of DFT calculations required...

  12. Comparison of the disposition behavior of organic anions in an animal model for Wilson's disease (Long-Evans Cinnamon rats) with that in normal Long-Evans Agouti rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itagaki, Shirou; Sugawara, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Michiya; Miyazaki, Katsumi; Hirano, Takeshi; Iseki, Ken

    2004-04-01

    Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats have an abnormality similar to that observed in Wilson's disease in humans and are therefore a good animal model for the study of Wilson's disease. LEC rats develop hereditary hepatitis and severe jaundice. Mutant animals with hyperbilirubinemia have been widely used as animal models for human diseases. Among these mutant animals, Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats (EHBR) have defective biliary excretion of organic anions. Thus, biliary excretion of sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and urinary excretion of phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP) in LEC rats were compared with those in Long-Evans Agouti (LEA) rats. In LEC rats, the excretion of BSP, a multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2/Abcc2) substrate, was significantly decreased compared to that in LEA rats. It has been reported that the transport function for organic anions on the kidney is maintained in EHBR. However, the urinary excretion of PSP is impaired in LEC rats. It is possible that organic anion transporters responsible for the urinary excretion of PSP in LEA rats and EHBR are impaired in LEC rats. It is important to elucidate the relationship between organic anion secretion and Wilson's disease.

  13. Comprehensive behavioural analysis of Long Evans and Sprague-Dawley rats reveals differential effects of housing conditions on tests relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karly M Turner

    Full Text Available Genetic (G and environmental (E manipulations are known to alter behavioural outcomes in rodents, however many animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders only use a restricted selection of strain and housing conditions. The aim of this study was to examine GxE interactions comparing two outbred rat strains, which were housed in either standard or enriched cages. The strains selected were the albino Sprague-Dawley rat, commonly used for animal models, and the other was the pigmented Long Evans rat, which is frequently used in cognitive studies. Rats were assessed using a comprehensive behavioural test battery and included well-established tests frequently employed to examine animal models of neuropsychiatric diseases, measuring aspects of anxiety, exploration, sensorimotor gating and cognition. Selective strain and housing effects were observed on a number of tests. These included increased locomotion and reduced pre-pulse inhibition in Long Evans rats compared to Sprague Dawley rats; and rats housed in enriched cages had reduced anxiety-like behaviour compared to standard housed rats. Long Evans rats required fewer sessions than Sprague Dawley rats to learn operant tasks, including a signal detection task and reversal learning. Furthermore, Long Evans rats housed in enriched cages acquired simple operant tasks faster than standard housed Long Evans rats. Cognitive phenotypes in animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders would benefit from using strain and housing conditions where there is greater potential for both enhancement and deficits in performance.

  14. “Working to shape what society's expectations of us should be”: Philip Morris' societal alignment strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J S; Malone, R E

    2009-01-01

    Background A key element of Philip Morris's (PM's) corporate social responsibility initiatives is “societal alignment”, defined as “strategies and programs to meet society's expectations of a responsible tobacco company”. This study explored the genesis and implementation of Philip Morris' (PM) societal alignment efforts. Methods The study retrieved and analysed approximately 375 previously undisclosed PM documents now available electronically. Using an iterative process, the study categorised themes and prepared a case analysis. Results Beginning in 1999, PM sought to become “societally aligned” by identifying expectations of a responsible tobacco company through public opinion research and developing and publicising programs to meet those expectations. Societal alignment was undertaken within the US and globally to ensure an environment favourable to PM's business objectives. Despite PM's claims to be “changing”, however, societal alignment in practice was highly selective. PM responded to public “expectations” largely by retooling existing positions and programs, while entirely ignoring other expectations that might have interfered with its business goals. It also appears that convincing employees of the value and authenticity of societal alignment was difficult. Conclusions As implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control proceeds, tobacco control advocates should closely monitor development of such “alignment” initiatives and expose the motivations and contradictions they reveal. PMID:18845623

  15. Crocin improves spatial learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze via attenuating cortical oxidative damage in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, M; Rajaei, Z; Hadjzadeh, M A; Nemati, H; Hosseini, M

    2017-03-06

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of crocin on improving spatial memory deficits and cerebral oxidative damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Crocin was administered intraperitoneally daily at doses of 15, 30 and 60mg/kg for 6 weeks. Spatial memory performance was measured in rats by the Morris water maze paradigm. Lipid peroxidation and total thiol levels as parameters of oxidative stress were assessed in the cerebral cortex at the end of week 6. Diabetic rats showed spatial learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze which was accompanied by increased lipid peroxidation levels in the cerebral cortex. By contrast, chronic treatment with crocin (15, 30 and 60mg/kg, ip, 6 weeks) improved cognitive performance and lowered hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. In conclusion, the results suggest that beneficial effects of crocin on streptozotocin-induced memory dysfunction may be attributed to its antidiabetic and antioxidant activity, which could find clinical use in treating cognitive dysfunction in diabetics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Carnitine palmitoyl transferase activity in Morris Hepatoma 7777 mitochondria and its sensitivity to malonyl CoA inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woldegiorgis, G.; Shrago, E.

    1986-05-01

    Earlier reports in the literature have indicated no detectable Carnitine Palymitoyl Transferase (CPT) activity in homogenates prepared from Morris Hepatoma 7777. In its study CPT activity in isolated mitochondria (mito) was measured by butanol extraction of the (/sup 3/H)palmitoyl carnitine formed as outlined by Bremer et al. Contrary to the earlier work where no appreciable activity of CPT was observed the authors find significant levels of CPT (2.6 nMol/min/mg protein) in isolated mito from Morris Hepatoma 7777 (MH 7777). The level of CPT activity observed in MH 7777 mito was, however, 36% lower compared to the host liver CPT activity (4.1 nMol/min/mg protein). The enzyme in MH 7777 mito showed 83% inhibition in the presence of 10 ..mu..M malonyl CoA, in agreement with the degree of sensitivity observed with the host liver isolated mito. On freeze thawing host mito, total CPT activity increased and the sensitivity of the enzyme to malonyl CoA decreased. Frozen thawed MH 7777 mito showed a similar response to malonyl CoA but no change in the total CPT level was observed. The authors results establish for the first time the presence of a malonyl CoA sensitive CPT in MH 7777 mito, which may have slightly different properties from normal due to the membrane environment of the enzyme.

  17. We favor formal models of heuristics rather than lists of loose dichotomies: a reply to Evans and Over

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    In their comment on Marewski et al. (good judgments do not require complex cognition, 2009) Evans and Over (heuristic thinking and human intelligence: a commentary on Marewski, Gaissmaier and Gigerenzer, 2009) conjectured that heuristics can often lead to biases and are not error free. This is a most surprising critique. The computational models of heuristics we have tested allow for quantitative predictions of how many errors a given heuristic will make, and we and others have measured the amount of error by analysis, computer simulation, and experiment. This is clear progress over simply giving heuristics labels, such as availability, that do not allow for quantitative comparisons of errors. Evans and Over argue that the reason people rely on heuristics is the accuracy-effort trade-off. However, the comparison between heuristics and more effortful strategies, such as multiple regression, has shown that there are many situations in which a heuristic is more accurate with less effort. Finally, we do not see how the fast and frugal heuristics program could benefit from a dual-process framework unless the dual-process framework is made more precise. Instead, the dual-process framework could benefit if its two “black boxes” (Type 1 and Type 2 processes) were substituted by computational models of both heuristics and other processes. PMID:19784854

  18. Absence of diurnal variation in visceromotor response to colorectal distention in normal Long Evans rats [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Botschuijver

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enhanced colorectal sensitivity (i.e. visceral hypersensitivity is thought to be a pathophysiological mechanism in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. In healthy men a circadian variation in rectal perception to colonic distention was described. Disturbed day and night rhythms, which occur in shift work and trans meridian flights, are associated with the prevalence of IBS. This raises the question whether disruptions of circadian control are responsible for the observed pathology in IBS. Prior to investigating altered rhythmicity in relation to visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model for IBS, it is relevant to establish whether normal rats display circadian variation similar to healthy men.  Methodology and findings: In rodents colorectal distension leads to reproducible contractions of abdominal musculature. We used quantification of this so called visceromotor response (VMR by electromyography (EMG to assess visceral sensitivity in rats. We assessed the VMR in normal male Long Evans rats at different time points of the light/dark cycle. Although a control experiment with male maternal separated rats confirmed that intentionally inflicted (i.e. stress induced changes in VMR can be detected, normal male Long Evans rats showed no variation in VMR along the light/dark cycle in response to colorectal distension. Conclusions: In the absence of a daily rhythm of colorectal sensitivity in normal control rats it is not possible to investigate possible aberrancies in our rat model for IBS.

  19. Effects of Moderate Alcohol Intake in the Bladder of the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Woong Jin; Choi, Yong Sun; Kim, Su Jin; Cho, Hyuk Jin; Hong, Sung Hoo; Kim, Sae Woong; Hwang, Tae-Kon; Kim, Dai Jin; Lee, Ji Youl

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes is related with a number of cystopathic complications. However, there have been no studies about the influence of alcohol consumption in the bladder of type 2 diabetes. Thus, we investigated the effect of moderate alcohol intake in the bladder of the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) diabetic rat. The non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO, n=14) and the OLETF control group (n=14) were fed an isocaloric diet; the LETO (n=14) and the OLETF ethanol group (n=14) were fed 36% ethanol 7 g/kg/day. After ten weeks, muscarinic receptors, RhoGEFs, myogenic change, and the level of oxidative stress were evaluated. Moderate alcohol intake significantly decreased excessive muscarinic receptor and Rho kinase expressions in the OLETF rats compared with the LETO rats. In addition, iNOS and collagen expression were not changed in the OLETF rats in spite of alcohol consumption. Superoxide dismutase levels, which is involved in antioxidant defense, in the LETO rats were significantly decreased after alcohol consumption, however those in the OLETF rats were similar. Moderate alcohol consumption reduces the oxidative stress, and may prevent molecular and pathologic changes of the bladder of rats with type 2 diabetes.

  20. Search strategy selection in the Morris water maze indicates allocentric map formation during learning that underpins spatial memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jake; Churilov, Leonid; Hannan, Anthony J; Renoir, Thibault

    2017-03-01

    Using a Matlab classification algorithm, we demonstrate that a highly salient distal cue array is required for significantly increased likelihoods of spatial search strategy selection during Morris water maze spatial learning. We hypothesized that increased spatial search strategy selection during spatial learning would be the key measure demonstrating the formation of an allocentric map to the escape location. Spatial memory, as indicated by quadrant preference for the area of the pool formally containing the hidden platform, was assessed as the main measure that this allocentric map had formed during spatial learning. Our C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice exhibit quadrant preference in the highly salient cue paradigm but not the low, corresponding with a 120% increase in the odds of a spatial search strategy selection during learning. In contrast, quadrant preference remains absent in serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT 1A R) knockout (KO) mice, who exhibit impaired search strategy selection during spatial learning. Additionally, we also aimed to assess the impact of the quality of the distal cue array on the spatial learning curves of both latency to platform and path length using mixed-effect regression models and found no significant associations or interactions. In contrast, we demonstrated that the spatial learning curve for search strategy selection was absent during training in the low saliency paradigm. Therefore, we propose that allocentric search strategy selection during spatial learning is the learning parameter in mice that robustly indicates the formation of a cognitive map for the escape goal location. These results also suggest that both latency to platform and path length spatial learning curves do not discriminate between allocentric and egocentric spatial learning and do not reliably predict spatial memory formation. We also show that spatial memory, as indicated by the absolute time in the quadrant formerly containing the hidden platform alone (without

  1. Hydrology, microbiology and carbon cycling at a high Arctic polythermal glacier, (John Evans Glacier, Ellesmere Island, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Mark Leslie

    Analysis of the hydrology, hydrochemistry and microbiology at polythermal John Evans Glacier and geochemical and isotopic data from Haut Glacier d'Arolla demonstrates that certain subglacial chemical weathering processes are microbially mediated. Subglacial drainage is likely an annual occurrence beneath John Evans Glacier and solute rich subglacial waters indicate over winter storage at the glacier bed. Subglacial microbial populations are also present, and are viable under simulated near in situ conditions at 0.3°C. This suggests that temperate subglacial environments at a polythermal glacier, which are isolated by cold ice above and around them, provide a viable habitat for life where basal water and organic carbon are present throughout the year. Thus, a subglacial microbial ecosystem based upon legacy carbon, (from old soils or surface inputs) rather than primary production may exist, where redox processes are a key component, and seasonal anoxia may occur. The existence of anoxic environments is supported by the presence of strictly anaerobic bacteria (sulphate reducing bacteria and methanogens) in the basal sediments---which are viable in culture at 4°C---and also argues that these bacteria are not washed in with oxygenated surface meltwaters, but are present in the subglacial environment. During the summer meltseason there is a large input of surficial waters to the subglacial system and water residence times are drastically reduced. Hence, kinetic weathering processes dominate, resulting in light delta 13C-DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon) in glacial runoff, as verified by experimental work on CaCO3 and John Evans Glacier sediments. The experiments demonstrate kinetic bedrock fractionation (KBF) during carbonate hydrolysis and that kinetic fractionation of CO2 (KFC) is proportional to the rate of CO2 draw down during the carbonation of carbonates. This results in significantly depleted delta13C-DIC values (≤-16 ‰) relative to the bedrock carbonate

  2. Mozart K.448 attenuates spontaneous absence seizure and related high-voltage rhythmic spike discharges in Long Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Juan, Chun-Ting; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Chiang, Ching-Tai; Wei, Ruey-Chang; Lee, Mei-Wen; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2013-05-01

    Recent research has revealed more evidence supporting the positive effects of music on humans and animals. However, evidence of music's effects on improving epilepsy in animals is sparse. This study aimed to clarify the influence of Mozart's music in Long Evans rats, which are characterized by spontaneous absence epilepsy (SAE) and high-voltage rhythmic spike (HVRS) discharges. Continuous electroencephalograms comprised of HVRS discharges, and behavioral performance were recorded in Long Evans rats (n=5) before, during, and after exposure to the Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major, K.448 (Mozart K.448). The same evaluation was repeated after they had been subjected to daily exposure of the music for 20 days. Seizure frequencies and spontaneous HVRS discharges were reduced in all of the SAE rats during and after music exposure compared with the pre-music stage. The average seizure frequencies were 79.8±24.6, 48±15.2, and 33±12.1/h before, during, and after music exposure, respectively. The average run of spike episodes were 84.6±18.4, 52±17.8, and 36.8±16.9/h before, during, and after music exposure, respectively. The seizure frequencies and related run of spike episodes decreased by 39.8% and 38.5% during, and 58.6% and 56.6% post music exposure, respectively. The average run of spike durations and spike numbers also showed significant decreases (reduction by 47.1%, 47.8% during music and 60.8%, 61.3% post music). After daily music exposure for 20 days, the number of HVRS discharges and seizure frequencies during and after music exposure, however, showed no further accumulative reduction or adaptation effect. These results suggest that Mozart K.448 had a positive short-term effect in attenuating the spontaneous HVRS discharges in Long Evans rats. However, the mechanism needs further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Small Morris-Lecar Neuron Network Gets Close to Critical Only in the Small-World Regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Cabrera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous emergence of neuronal activity avalanches characterized by power-law distributions is known to occur in different types of nervous tissues suggesting that nervous systems may operate at a critical regime. Here, we explore the possible relation of this dynamical state with the underlying topology in a small-size network of interconnected Morris-Lecar neurons. Studying numerically different topological configurations, we find that, very close to the efficient small-world situation, the system self-organizes near to a critical branching process with observable distributions in the proximity of a power law with exponents similar to those reported in the experimental literature. Therefore, we conclude that the observed scaling is intimately related only with the small-world topology.

  4. Rabi oscillations of Morris-Shore transformed $N$-state systems by elliptically polarized ultrafast laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hyosub; Lee, Han-gyeol; Ahn, Jaewook

    2015-01-01

    We present an experimental investigation of ultrafast-laser driven Rabi oscillations of atomic rubidium. Since the broadband spectrum of an ultrafast laser pulse simultaneously couples all the electronic hyperfine transitions between the excited and ground states, the complex excitation linkages involved with the D1 or D2 transition are energy degenerate. Here, by applying the Morris-Shore transformation, it is shown that this multi-state system is reduced to a set of independent two-state systems and dark states. In experiments performed by ultrafast laser interactions of atomic rubidium in the strong interaction regime, we demonstrate that the ultrafast dynamics of the considered multi-state system is governed by a sum of at most two decoupled Rabi oscillations when this system interacts with ultrafast laser pulses of any polarization state. We further show the implication of this result to possible controls of photo-electron polarizations.

  5. Hippocampal proteoglycans brevican and versican are linked to spatial memory of Sprague-Dawley rats in the morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroja, Sivaprakasam R; Sase, Ajinkya; Kircher, Susanne G; Wan, Jia; Berger, Johannes; Höger, Harald; Pollak, Arnold; Lubec, Gert

    2014-09-01

    Proteoglycans (PGs) are major constituents of the extracellular matrix and have recently been proposed to contribute to synaptic plasticity. Hippocampal PGs have not yet been studied or linked to memory. The aim of the study, therefore, was to isolate and characterize rat hippocampal PGs and determine their possible role in spatial memory. PGs were extracted from rat hippocampi by anion-exchange chromatography and analyzed by nano LC-MS/MS. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested in the morris water maze. PGs agrin, amyloid beta A4 protein, brevican, glypican-1, neurocan, phosphacan, syndecan-4, and versican were identified in the hippocampi. Brevican and versican levels in the membrane fraction were higher in the trained group, correlating with the time spent in the target quadrant. α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor GluR1 was co-precipitated with brevican and versican. Levels for a receptor complex containing GluR1 was higher in trained while GluR2 and GluR3-containing complex levels were higher in yoked rats. The findings provide information about the PGs present in the rat hippocampus, demonstrating that versican and brevican are linked to memory retrieval in the morris water maze and that PGs interact with α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor GluR1, which is linked to memory retrieval. Proteoglycans (PGs) are major constituents of the extracellular matrix of the brain and were proposed to contribute to synaptic plasticity. This report addressed PGs in rat hippocampus and suggests that PGs brevican and versican are linked to spatial memory, and form a complex with the GluR1 subunit of the AMPA receptor, a key signaling molecule in memory mechanisms. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. An old test for new neurons: refining the Morris water maze to study the functional relevance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eGarthe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Morris water maze represents the de-facto standard for testing hippocampal function in laboratory rodents. In the field of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, however, using this paradigm to assess the functional relevance of the new neurons yielded surprisingly inconsistent results. While some authors found aspects of water maze performance to be linked to adult neurogenesis, others obtained different results or could not demonstrate any effect of manipulating adult neurogenesis.In this review we discuss evidence that the large diversity of protocols and setups used is an important aspect in interpreting the differences in the results that have been obtained. Even simple parameters such as pool size, number and configuration of visual landmarks, or number of trials can become highly relevant for getting the new neurons involved at all. Sets of parameters are often chosen with implicit or explicit concepts in mind and these might lead to different views on the function of adult-generated neurons.We propose that the classical parameters usually used to measure spatial learning performance in the water maze might not be particularly well suited to sensitively and specifically detect the supposedly highly specific functional changes elicited by the experimental modulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. As adult neurogenesis is supposed to affect specific aspects of information processing only in the hippocampus, any claim for a functional relevance of the new neurons has to be based on hippocampus-specific parameters. We also placed a special emphasis on the fact that the DG facilitates the differentiation between contexts as opposed to just differentiating places.In conclusion, while the Morris water maze has proven to be one of the most effective testing paradigms to assess hippocampus-dependent spatial learning, new and more specific questions ask for new parameters. Therefore, the full potential of the water maze task remains to be tapped.

  7. Majka, žena, učenica. Mjesto i uloga Isusove majke u Ivanovu evanđelju

    OpenAIRE

    DUGANDŽIĆ, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Četvrto evanđelje o Isusovoj majci Mariji govori na tri mjesta: u izvješću o prvom Isusovu znamenju na svadbi u Kani Galilejskoj (2,1-11); u raspravi Židova o Isusovu porijeklu (6,42) i u prizoru podno Isusova križa (19,25-27). U teološkom pogledu posebno se zanimljivim čine prvo i zadnje mjesto, jer u Kani Galilejskoj Isus prvi put javno nastupa kao Izraelov Mesija, a scena podno križa predstavlja zadnji čin njegova života prije konačne proslave. Čini se da oba mjesta daleko nadilaze povijes...

  8. Evans blue dye-enhanced imaging of the brain microvessels using spectral focusing coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Ram Lee

    Full Text Available We performed dye-enhanced imaging of mouse brain microvessels using spectral focusing coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (SF-CARS microscopy. The resonant signals from C-H stretching in forward CARS usually show high background intensity in tissues, which makes CARS imaging of microvessels difficult. In this study, epi-detection of back-scattered SF-CARS signals showed a negligible background, but the overall intensity of resonant CARS signals was too low to observe the network of brain microvessels. Therefore, Evans blue (EB dye was used as contrasting agent to enhance the back-scattered SF-CARS signals. Breakdown of brain microvessels by inducing hemorrhage in a mouse was clearly visualized using backward SF-CARS signals, following intravenous injection of EB. The improved visualization of brain microvessels with EB enhanced the sensitivity of SF-CARS, detecting not only the blood vessels themselves but their integrity as well in the brain vasculature.

  9. Correction of liver disease following transplantation of normal rat hepatocytes into Long-Evans Cinnamon rats modeling Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, A N; Malhi, H; Slehria, S; Gorla, G R; Volenberg, I; Schilsky, M L; Gupta, S

    2001-03-01

    To establish the efficacy of cell therapy in Wilson's disease, we used the Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat model with atp7b gene mutation and copper toxicosis. Several groups of LEC rats were established, including animals pretreated with retrorsine to exacerbate copper toxicosis and inhibit proliferation in native hepatocytes followed by partial hepatectomy to promote liver repopulation. Hepatocytes from normal, syngeneic LEA rats were transplanted intrasplenically. Animal survival, biliary copper excretion, and hepatic copper were determined. The magnitude of liver repopulation was demonstrated by measuring serum ceruloplasmin and hepatic atp7b mRNA. Long-term survival in LEC rats treated with retrorsine, partial hepatectomy, and cell transplantation was up to 90%, whereas fewer than 10% of animals pretreated with retrorsine, without cell therapy, survived, P Wilson's disease.

  10. Additional information for “TREMOR: A Wireless, MEMS Accelerograph for Dense Arrays” (Evans et al., 2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John R.; Hamstra, Robert H.; Spudich, Paul; Kundig, Christoph; Camina, Patrick; Rogers, John A.

    2003-01-01

    The length of Evans et al. (2003) necessitated transfer of several less germane sections to this alternate forum to meet that venue’s needs. These sections include a description of the development of Figure 1, the plot of spatial variability so critical to the argument for dense arrays of strong-motion instruments; the description of the rapid, integer, computational method for PGV used in the TREMOR instrument (the Oakland instrument, the commercial prototype, and the commercial instrument); siting methods and strategies used for Class B TREMOR instruments and those that can be used for Class C instruments to preserve the cost advantages of such systems; and some general discussion of MEMS accelerometers, including a comparative Table with representative examples of Class A, B and C MEMS devices. (“MEMS” means “Micro-ElectroMechanical” Systems—“micromachined” sensors, generally of silicon. Classes A, B, and C are defined in Table 1.)

  11. Chemical Conjugation of Evans Blue Derivative: A Strategy to Develop Long-Acting Therapeutics through Albumin Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haojun; Wang, Guohao; Lang, Lixin; Jacobson, Orit; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Liu, Yi; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Xianzhong; Wu, Hua; Zhu, Lei; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of therapeutic drugs is highly dependent on their optimal in vivo pharmacokinetics. Albumin conjugation is considered to be one of the most effective means of protracting the short lifespan of peptides and proteins. In this study, we proposed a novel platform for developing long lasting therapeutics by conjugating a small molecular albumin binding moiety, truncated Evans blue, to either peptides or proteins. Using the anti-diabetic peptide drug Exendin-4 as a model peptide, we synthesized a new long-acting Exendin-4 derivative (denoted as Abextide). Through complexation with albumin in situ, the biological half-life of Abextide was significantly extended. The hypoglycemic effect of Abextide was also improved remarkably over Exendin-4. Thus, Abextide has considerable potential to treat type 2 diabetes. This strategy as a general technology platform can be applied to other small molecules and biologics for the development of long-acting therapeutic drugs.

  12. Evolution of exchangeable copper and relative exchangeable copper through the course of Wilson's disease in the Long Evans Cinnamon rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Françoise; Podevin, Guillaume; Poupon, Joël; Roux, Jérôme; Legras, Pierre; Trocello, Jean-Marc; Woimant, France; Laprévote, Olivier; Nguyen, Tuan Huy; El Balkhi, Souleiman

    2013-01-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) is an inherited disorder of copper metabolism leading to liver failure and/or neurological impairment. Its diagnosis often remains difficult even with genetic testing. Relative exchangeable copper (REC) has recently been described as a reliable serum diagnostic marker for WD. The aim of this study was to validate the use of REC in the Long Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat, an animal model for WD, and to study its relevance under different conditions in comparison with conventional markers. Two groups of LEC rats and one group of Long-Evans (LE) rats were clinically and biologically monitored from 6 to 28 weeks of age. One group of LEC rats was given copper-free food. The other groups had normal food. Blood samples were collected each month and different serum markers for WD (namely ceruloplasmin oxidase activity, exchangeable copper (CuEXC), total serum copper and REC) and acute liver failure (serum transaminases and bilirubinemia) were tested. Every LEC rat under normal food developed acute liver failure (ALF), with 40% global mortality. Serum transaminases and bilirubinemia along with total serum copper and exchangeable copper levels increased with the onset of acute liver failure. A correlation was observed between CuEXC values and the severity of ALF. Cut-off values were different between young and adult rats and evolved because of age and/or liver failure. Only REC, with values >19%, was able to discriminate LEC groups from the LE control group at every time point in the study. REC sensitivity and specificity reached 100% in adults rats. REC appears to be independent of demographic or clinical data in LEC rats. It is a very simple and reliable blood test for the diagnosis of copper toxicosis owing to a lack of ATP7B function. CuEXC can be used as an accurate biomarker of copper overload.

  13. Impulsive choice predicts anxiety-like behavior, but not alcohol or sucrose consumption, in male Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jeffrey S; Renda, C Renee; Barker, Shayne M; Liston, Kennan J; Shahan, Timothy A; Madden, Gregory J

    2015-05-01

    Prior human research indicates robust, positive relations between impulsive choice (i.e., preference for smaller, immediate over larger, delayed rewards) and alcohol use disorders. However, varied findings in the nonhuman literature reveal a relatively ambiguous relation between impulsive choice and alcohol consumption in rodents. In addition, few rodent studies have investigated potential relations between impulsive choice and common covariates of alcohol consumption (e.g., avidity for sweet substances or anxiety-like behavior). Ninety-two male Long-Evans rats completed an impulsive-choice task. From this larger sample, extreme high- and low-impulsive groups (n = 30 each) were retained for further testing. In separate tests, subsequent open-field behavior and consumption of oral alcohol (12% w/v) and isocaloric sucrose were examined. Impulsive choice was then retested to examine whether behavior remained stable over the course of the experiment. No significant relations emerged between impulsive choice and either alcohol or sucrose consumption. However, impulsive choice predicted greater anxiety-like behavior (avoidance of the center field, defecation) in the open-field test. In turn, greater anxiety predicted lower alcohol and sucrose consumption. Finally, choice remained generally stable across the experiment, although high-impulsive rats tended toward less impulsive choice in the retest. Although impulsive choice and alcohol consumption appear to share some variance with anxiety-like behavior, the present data offer no support for a relation between impulsive choice and alcohol consumption in Long-Evans rats. Together with mixed rodent data from prior reports, these findings attenuate cross-species comparisons to human relations between impulsive choice and alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. The influence of maternal high fat diet on ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation in Long Evans male and female rat offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing interest in understanding how maternal diet can increase the sensitivity of offspring to environmental exposures. In this study, we examined the influence of high fat diet (HFD) during puberty, pregnancy and lactation in Long Evans rats on the susceptibility of...

  15. Influencing the nursing commitment to workforce satisfaction and the origins of magnet: an interview with Dr Michael Evans by Jeffrey M. Adams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael

    2013-10-01

    This department highlights nursing leaders who have demonstrated a commitment to patient care leadership. This interview profiles Michael Evans, PhD, RN, FAAN, dean of the Texas Tech University School of Nursing and president of the American Nurses Credentialing Center.

  16. Health, Crime and Society, Suzanne Fraser and David Moore

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    theoretical language of post-objectivism, constructionism or postmodernism can be tough to untangle without a patient guide. And, as attractive as density of meaning can be, it can also be overwhelming. Although the scholar might get bored, the reader with a less than comprehensive familiarity with Foucault, Freud, Latour, ...

  17. A prospective cohort study comparing the VAS spine score and Roland-Morris disability questionnaire in patients with a type A traumatic thoracolumbar spinal fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebenga, J.; Leferink, V.J.M.; Segers, M.J.M.; Elzinga, M.J.; Bakker, F.C.; Ten, D.H.J.; Rommens, P.M.; Patka, P.

    2008-01-01

    The Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ-24) and the VAS spine score have been regularly used to measure functional outcome in patients with back pain. The RMDQ-24 is primarily used in degenerative disease of the spine and the VAS Spine is used in trauma patients. The aim of this study is to

  18. Spatial and Reversal Learning in the Morris Water Maze Are Largely Resistant to Six Hours of REM Sleep Deprivation Following Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christine M.; Booth, Victoria; Poe, Gina R.

    2011-01-01

    This first test of the role of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep in reversal spatial learning is also the first attempt to replicate a much cited pair of papers reporting that REM sleep deprivation impairs the consolidation of initial spatial learning in the Morris water maze. We hypothesized that REM sleep deprivation following training would impair…

  19. A prospective cohort study comparing the VAS spine score and Roland-Morris disability questionnaire in patients with a type a traumatic thoracolumbar spinal fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Siebenga (Joukje); V.J.M. Leferink (Vincent); M.J.M. Segers (Michiel); M.J. Elzinga (Matthijs); F.C. Bakker (Fred); D.H.J. ten Duis; P.M. Rommens (Pol); P. Patka (Peter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ-24) and the VAS spine score have been regularly used to measure functional outcome in patients with back pain. The RMDQ-24 is primarily used in degenerative disease of the spine and the VAS Spine is used in trauma patients. The aim of this

  20. SHAPING the Future: Our Cause, 50 Million Strong. National Association of Kinesiology in Higher Education 50th Amy Morris Homans Commemorative Lecture 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambdin, Dolly

    2016-01-01

    Amy Morris Homans was an amazing leader in the early development of physical education. She believed that every individual must be educated academically and physically. Earlier this year, SHAPE America committed to making her vision a reality with the goal of empowering ALL students with the skills, knowledge, habits, and determination to make…

  1. The toxic effects of cigarette additives. Philip Morris' project mix reconsidered: an analysis of documents released through litigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia S Wertz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the promulgation of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA tobacco regulation focused attention on cigarette flavor additives. The tobacco industry had prepared for this eventuality by initiating a research program focusing on additive toxicity. The objective of this study was to analyze Philip Morris' Project MIX as a case study of tobacco industry scientific research being positioned strategically to prevent anticipated tobacco control regulations.We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents to identify internal strategies for research on cigarette additives and reanalyzed tobacco industry peer-reviewed published results of this research. We focused on the key group of studies conducted by Phillip Morris in a coordinated effort known as "Project MIX." Documents showed that Project MIX subsumed the study of various combinations of 333 cigarette additives. In addition to multiple internal reports, this work also led to four peer-reviewed publications (published in 2001. These papers concluded that there was no evidence of substantial toxicity attributable to the cigarette additives studied. Internal documents revealed post hoc changes in analytical protocols after initial statistical findings indicated an additive-associated increase in cigarette toxicity as well as increased total particulate matter (TPM concentrations in additive-modified cigarette smoke. By expressing the data adjusted by TPM concentration, the published papers obscured this underlying toxicity and particulate increase. The animal toxicology results were based on a small number of rats in each experiment, raising the possibility that the failure to detect statistically significant changes in the end points was due to underpowering the experiments rather than lack of a real effect.The case study of Project MIX shows tobacco industry scientific research on the use of cigarette additives cannot be taken at face value. The results demonstrate that toxins in

  2. Anti-obesity effects of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima fatty rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggu Lee

    Full Text Available Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF has molecular structures and intracellular signaling pathways that are similar to those of leptin and ciliary neurotropic factor (CNTF. It also has immune-modulatory properties. Given that leptin and CNTF play important roles in energy homeostasis and that obesity is an inflammatory condition in adipose tissue, we hypothesized that G-CSF could also play a role in energy homeostasis. We treated 12 38-week-old male Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima fatty rats (OLETF, diabetic and 12 age-matched male Long-Evans-Tokushima rats (LETO, healthy with 200 µg/day G-CSF or saline for 5 consecutive days. Body weight reduction was greater in G-CSF-treated OLETF (G-CSF/OLETF than saline-treated OLETF (saline/OLETF following 8 weeks of treatment (-6.9±1.6% vs. -3.1±2.2%, p<0.05. G-CSF treatment had no effect on body weight in LETO or on food intake in either OLETF or LETO. Body fat in G-CSF/OLETF was more reduced than in saline/OLETF (-32.2±3.1% vs. -20.8±6.2%, p<0.05. Energy expenditure was higher in G-CSF/OLETF from 4 weeks after the treatments than in saline/OLETF. Serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α were lower in G-CSF/OLETF than in saline/OLETF. Uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1 expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT was higher in G-CSF/OLETF than in saline/OLETF, but was unaffected in LETO. Immunofluorescence staining and PCR results revealed that G-CSF receptors were expressed in BAT. In vitro experiments using brown adipocyte primary culture revealed that G-CSF enhanced UCP-1 expression from mature brown adipocytes via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. In conclusion, G-CSF treatment reduced body weight and increased energy expenditure in a diabetic model, and enhanced UCP-1 expression and decreased inflammatory cytokine levels may be associated with the effects of G-CSF treatment.

  3. Interactive effects of a protein kinase AII inhibitor and testosterone on spatial learning in the Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshidahmad, Tina; Tabrizian, Kaveh; Vakilzadeh, Gelareh; Nikbin, Parmida; Moradi, Shahla; Hosseini-Sharifabad, Ali; Roghani, Ali; Naghdi, Nasser; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad

    2012-03-17

    Neurohormones such as testosterone (TE) are important in modulation of learning and memory. In the present study, we investigated the interactive effects of pre-training bilateral intra-hippocampal infusions of testosterone and H-89, a selective PKAII inhibitor, on spatial acquisition in the Morris water maze (MWM). Different doses of TE (20, 40 and 80 μg/side) and H-89 (5 and 10 μM/side) were administered 30 min before start of the training each day. Control animals received bilateral intra-hippocampal infusions of DMSO as vehicle for TE and H-89. Animals were trained for 4 days and each day included one block of four trials. The results of this study showed that bilateral infusion of TE (40 and 80 μg/side) or H-89 (10 μM/side) impaired spatial learning as indicated by significant increases in escape latency and traveled distance compared to the control group. Although pre-training bilateral infusions of a low concentration of either TE (20 μg/side) or H-89 (5 μM/side) into the CA1 region of the hippocampus did not affect learning capabilities, but the combination of the low doses of the drugs led to significant deficits in spatial acquisition. Overall, our data suggest that spatial acquisition was affected by PKAII inhibition or TE administration. Moreover, when co-administered, these drugs had a negative synergistic impact on acquisition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The beneficial effects of olibanum on memory deficit induced by hypothyroidism in adult rats tested in Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mahmoud; Hadjzadeh, Mosa Al-Reza; Derakhshan, Mohammad; Havakhah, Shahrzad; Rassouli, Fatemeh Behnam; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Saffarzadeh, Fatema

    2010-03-01

    Functional consequences of hypothyroidism include impaired learning and memory and inability to produce long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampus. Olibanum has been used for variety of therapeutic purposes. In traditional medicine, oilbanum is used to enhance learning and memory. In the present study the effect of olibanum on memory deficit in hypothyroid rats was investigated. Male wistar rats were divided into four groups and treated for 180 days. Group 1 received tap drinking water while in group 2, 0.03% methimazol was added to drinking water. Group 3 and 4 were treated with 0.03% methimazole as well as 100 and 500 mg/kg olibanum respectively. The animals were tested in Morris water maze. The swimming speed was significantly lower and the distance and time latency were higher in group 2 compared with group 1. In groups 3 and 4 the swimming speed was significantly higher while, the length of the swim path and time latency were significantly lower in comparison with group 2. It is concluded that methimazole-induced hypothyroidism impairs learning and memory in adult rats which could be prevented by using olibanum.

  5. Effects of ventral pallidal D1 dopamine receptor activation on memory consolidation in morris water maze test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péczely, László; Ollmann, Tamás; László, Kristóf; Kovács, Anita; Gálosi, Rita; Szabó, Adám; Karádi, Zoltán; Lénárd, László

    2014-11-01

    In the present experiments, in adult male Wistar rats, the effect of microinjection of the D1 dopamine receptor agonist SKF38393 into the ventral pallidum on memory consolidation, as well as on resistance of the resulting memory trace against extinction were investigated in Morris water maze test. SKF38393 was applied in three doses (0.1, 1.0 or 5.0μg in 0.4μl physiological saline, respectively). To clarify whether the effect of the agonist was specific, in a separate group of animals, the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390 (5.0μg in 0.4μl physiological saline) was administered 15min prior to 1.0μg agonist treatment. In another group of animals, the same dose of antagonist was applied by itself. The two lower doses (0.1 and 1.0μg) of the agonist accelerated memory consolidation relative to controls and increased the stability of the consolidated memory trace against extinction. Antagonist pretreatment eliminated the effects of the agonist, thus confirming that the effect was selectively specific to D1 dopamine receptors. Our findings indicate that the ventral pallidal D1 dopamine receptors are intimately involved in the control of the consolidation processes of spatial memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The psychometric properties of the Roland Morris disability questionnaire for patients with chronic mechanical low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Buchanan

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Functional status measures are currently not widelyused in South Africa to facilitate clinical decision-making or document treatment outcomes for patients with low back pain (LBP. This study investigated the internal consistency and clinical utility of a back-specific functional status measure, the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ, and determined its ability to confirm the need for spinal fusion surgery. Method: Aretrospective, descriptive design was used with 42 patients with chronic mechanical low back pain who consulted a private Orthopaedic surgeon in Cape Town over a one year  period. All patients completed the RMDQ prior to their consultation. On completion of the medical examination, a rating for surgery was determined for each patient. The completed questionnaires were analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. Results: The mean RMDQ score was 8.6 (N=42; median=9.0; range=2-21. Cronbach’s alpha showed a high internal consistency between items (.92. A categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA identified two distinct dimensions in the RMDQ. Item reduction improved the internal consistency and thus the construct validity of the RMDQ. There was a low correlation between the surgeon’s rating for surgery and RMDQ scores (r=.40; P<.01. Conclusion: The RMDQ shows some good psychometric properties but some adjustments could improve it. The RMDQ cannot be used to predict the need for spinal fusion surgery.

  7. Corporate image and public health: an analysis of the Philip Morris, Kraft, and Nestlé websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Companies need to maintain a good reputation to do business; however, companies in the infant formula, tobacco, and processed food industries have been identified as promoting disease. Such companies use their websites as a means of promulgating a positive public image, thereby potentially reducing the effectiveness of public health campaigns against the problems they perpetuate. The author examined documents from the websites of Philip Morris, Kraft, and Nestlé for issue framing and analyzed them using Benoit's typology of corporate image repair strategies. All three companies defined the problems they were addressing strategically, minimizing their own responsibility and the consequences of their actions. They proposed solutions that were actions to be taken by others. They also associated themselves with public health organizations. Health advocates should recognize industry attempts to use relationships with health organizations as strategic image repair and reject industry efforts to position themselves as stakeholders in public health problems. Denormalizing industries that are disease vectors, not just their products, may be critical in realizing positive change.

  8. Through tobacco industry eyes: civil society and the FCTC process from Philip Morris and British American Tobacco's perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Green, Lawrence W; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-07-01

    To analyse the models Philip Morris (PM) and British American Tobacco (BAT) used internally to understand tobacco control non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and their relationship to the global tobacco control policy-making process that resulted in the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents in the Legacy Tobacco Document Library. PM contracted with Mongoven, Biscoe, and Duchin, Inc. (MBD, a consulting firm specialising in NGO surveillance) as advisors. MBD argued that because NGOs are increasingly linked to epistemic communities, NGOs could insert themselves into the global policy-making process and influence the discourse surrounding the treaty-making process. MBD advised PM to insert itself into the policy-making process, mimicking NGO behaviour. BAT's Consumer and Regulatory Affairs (CORA) department argued that global regulation emerged from the perception (by NGOs and governments) that the industry could not regulate itself, leading to BAT advocating social alignment and self-regulation to minimise the impact of the FCTC. Most efforts to block or redirect the FCTC failed. PM and BAT articulated a global policy-making environment in which NGOs are key, non-state stakeholders, and as a result, internationalised some of their previous national-level strategies. After both companies failed to prevent the FCTC, their strategies began to align. Multinational corporations have continued to successfully employ some of the strategies outlined in this paper at the local and national level while being formally excluded from ongoing FCTC negotiations at the global level.

  9. Curcuma comosa improves learning and memory function on ovariectomized rats in a long-term Morris water maze test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian; Sripanidkulchai, Kittisak; Wyss, J. Michael; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the study Curcuma comosa extract and some purified compounds from this plant have been reported to have estrogenic-like effects, and estrogen improves learning in some animals and potentially in postmenopausal women; therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that Curcuma comosa and estrogen have similar beneficial effects on spatial learning and memory. Materials and methods Curcuma comosa hexane extract, containing 0.165 mg of (4E,6E)-1,7-diphenylhepta-4,6-dien-3-one per mg of the crude extract, was orally administered to ovariectomized Wistar rats at the doses of 250 or 500 mg/kg body weight. 17β-estradiol (10 μg/kg body weight, subcutaneously) was used as a positive control. Thirty days after the initiation of treatment, animals were tested in a Morris water maze for spatial learning and memory. They were re-tested every 30 days and a final probe trial was run on day 119. Results Compared to control rats, OVX rats displayed significant memory impairment for locating the platform in the water maze from day 67 after the surgery, onward. In contrast, OVX rats treated with either Curcuma comosa or estrogen were significantly protected from this decline in cognitive function. Further, the protection of cognitive effects by Curcuma comosa was larger at higher dose. Conclusions These results suggest that long-term treatment with Curcuma comosa has beneficial effects on learning and memory function in rats. PMID:20420894

  10. Post-acquisition hippocampal NMDA receptor blockade sustains retention of spatial reference memory in Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Keisuke; Hata, Toshimichi

    2014-02-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) are necessary for the acquisition but not the retention of spatial reference memory. In contrast, a few studies have shown that post-acquisition repetitive intraperitoneal injections of an NMDAR antagonist facilitate the retention of spatial reference memory in a radial maze task. In the present study, we investigated the role of hippocampal NMDARs in the retention of spatial reference memories in Morris water maze. In Experiment 1, 24 h after training (4 trials/day for 4 days), D-AP5 was chronically infused into the hippocampus of rats for 5 days. In the subsequent probe test (seven days after training), we found that rats infused with D-AP5 spent a significantly longer time in the target quadrant compared to chance level, whereas rats in the control group did not. In Experiment 2, D-AP5 was infused into the hippocampus 1 (immediate) or 7 (delayed) days after the training session. In the probe test, following the retention interval of 13 days, immediate infusion facilitated the performance in a manner similar to Experiment 1, whereas the delayed infusion did not. These findings suggest that hippocampal NMDARs play an important role in the deterioration of spatial reference memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Preliminary study on serum enzyme changes in Long Evans rats given parenteral ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B1 and their combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownie, C F; Brownie, C

    1988-06-01

    Long Evans rats of both sexes were each administered a total of 250 micrograms aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin-A (OCH-A) or 500 micrograms AFB1 + OCH-A (1:1 ratio) in corn oil over 5 equal daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of 50 micrograms/rat/day. Control rats were given a total of 1.25 ml corn oil over 5 equal daily IP injections of 0.25 ml/rat. All rats were observed daily for clinical signs of toxicity. Twenty-four hr following the last injection all rats were weighed, killed, examined for gross pathologic lesions and blood samples collected for routine hematologic and serum chemistry evaluation. All rats gained weight over the treatment period. Though not significantly different among the treatment groups, weight gain was significantly greater for males (54.0 g) than females (33.8 g). Routine hematology showed no difference among treatment groups. Serum enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST = SGOT) activities were indicative of hepatoxicity. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was significantly increased in the AFB1 and AFB1 + OCH-A treatment groups, signifying a possible interaction between these 2 mycotoxins. LDH isoenzyme fractionation studies would be helpful in delineating the organ system(s) involved and the possible diagnostic value of this interaction.

  12. Enantioselective syntheses of lignin models: an efficient synthesis of B-O-4 dimers and trimers by using the Evans chiral auxiliary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costyl N. Njiojob; Joseph J. Bozell; Brian K. Long; Thomas Elder; Rebecca E. Key; William T. Hartwig

    2016-01-01

    We describe an efficient five-step, enantioselective synthesis of (R,R)- and (S,S)-lignin dimer models possessing a B-O-4 linkage, by using the Evans chiral aldol reaction as a key step. Mitsunobu inversion of the (R,R)- or (S,S)-isomers generates the corresponding (R,S)- and (S,R)-diastereomers. We further extend this approach to the...

  13. Comment on papers by Evans et al. and Mekel-Bobrov et al. on Evidence for Positive Selection of MCPH1 and ASPM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpson, Nicholas; Heron, Jon; Smith, George Davey; Enard, Wolfgang

    2007-08-24

    Evans et al. and Mekel-Bobrov et al. (Reports, 9 September 2005, p. 1717 and 1720, respectively) reported that human genetic variants of Microcephalin (MCPH1) and abnormal spindle-like microcephaly associated (ASPM) are under strong positive selection. We genotyped these variants in 9000 children and find no meaningful associations with brain size and various cognitive measures, which indicates that contrary to previous speculations, ASPM and MCPH1 have not been selected for brain-related effects.

  14. Stable, Long-Term, Spatial Memory in Young and Aged Rats Achieved with a One Day Morris Water Maze Training Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Ruth M.; Kitt, Meagan M.; D'Angelo, Heather M.; Watkins, Linda R.; Rudy, Jerry W.; Maier, Steven F.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present data demonstrating that a 1 d Morris water maze training protocol is effective at producing stable, long-term spatial memory in both young (3 mo old) and aged (24 mo old) F344xBN rats. Four trials in each of four sessions separated by a 2.5 h ISI produced robust selective search for the platform 1 and 4 d after training, in both…

  15. On the occasion of the first interconnection, LHC Project Leader Lyn Evans tests out the co-activity principle in the tunnel, in other words the performance of several tasks in parallel for the installation of the LHC.

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    On the occasion of the first interconnection, LHC Project Leader Lyn Evans tests out the co-activity principle in the tunnel, in other words the performance of several tasks in parallel for the installation of the LHC.

  16. A within-subjects trial to test the equivalence of online and paper outcome measures: the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prentice Philippa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Augmenting validated paper versions of existing outcome measures with an equivalent online version may offer substantial research advantages (cost, rapidity and reliability. However, equivalence of online and paper questionnaires cannot be assumed, nor can acceptability to respondents. The aim was to test whether online and written versions of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ, a standard measure of functional disability in back pain, are equivalent at both group and individual levels to establish whether they can be used interchangeably. Methods This is a within-participants equivalence study. 167 participants with back pain fully completed both the paper and online versions of the RMDQ in random order. Participants were recruited from a chiropractic clinic and patient support groups in Southern England. Limits of equivalence were pre-defined as 0.5 RMDQ points, the Bland-Altman range was calculated, and participants' comments were examined using content analysis. Results The mean score difference was 0.03 (SD = 1.43, with the 95% Confidence Interval falling entirely within our limits of equivalence (-0.19 to 0.25. The Bland-Altman range was -2.77 to 2.83 RMDQ points. Participants identified unique advantages and disadvantages associated with each version of the RMDQ. Conclusions The group and individual level data suggest that online and paper versions of the RMDQ are equivalent and can be used interchangeably. The Bland-Altman range appears to reflect the known measurement properties of the RMDQ. Furthermore, participants' comments confirmed the potential value to be had from offering them the choice of completing the RMDQ online or on paper.

  17. Comparative studies using the Morris water maze to assess spatial memory deficits in two transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Stephen R; Hamlin, Adam S; Marks, Nicola; Coulson, Elizabeth J; Smith, Maree T

    2014-10-01

    Evaluation of the efficacy of novel therapeutics for potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires an animal model that develops age-related cognitive deficits reproducibly between independent groups of investigators. Herein we assessed comparative temporal changes in spatial memory function in two commercially available transgenic mouse models of AD using the Morris water maze (MWM), incorporating both visible and hidden platform training. Individual cohorts of cDNA-based 'line 85'-derived double-transgenic mice coexpressing the 'Swedish' mutation of amyloid precursor protein (APPSwe) and the presenillin 1 (PS1) 'dE9' mutation were assessed in the MWM at mean ages of 3.6, 9.3 and 14.8 months. We found significant deficits in spatial memory retention in APPSwe/PS1dE9 mice aged 3.6 months and robust deficits in spatial memory acquisition and retention in APPSwe/PS1dE9 mice aged 9.3 months, with a further significant decline by age 14.8 months. β-Amyloid deposits were present in brain sections by 7.25 months of age. In contrast, MWM studies with individual cohorts (aged 4-21 months) of single-transgenic genomic-based APPSwe mice expressing APPSwe on a yeast artificial chromosomal (YAC) construct showed no significant deficits in spatial memory acquisition until 21 months of age. There were no significant deficits in spatial memory retention up to 21 months of age and β-amyloid deposits were not present in brain sections up to 24 months of age. These data, generated using comprehensive study designs, show that APPSwe/PS1dE9 but not APPSwe YAC mice appear to provide a suitably robust model of AD for efficacy assessment of novel AD treatments in development. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Levodopa improves learning and memory ability on global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injured rats in the Morris water maze test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenzhu; Liu, Lixu; Jiang, Peng; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Tong

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that levodopa (L-dopa) for 1-7days improved the consciousness level of certain patients who suffered from ischemia-reperfusion injury and were comatose for a long time period after cerebral resuscitation treatment. It also has an awakening effect on patients with disorders of consciousness. This study aimed to investigate whether L-dopa, which is used clinically to treat Parkinson's disease, might also ameliorate the behavior of rats following global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Fifty-six healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: shamoperated, global cerebral ischemia mode, 25mg/kg/d L-dopa intervention, and 50mg/kg/d L-dopa intervention. The level of consciousness and modified neurological severity score (NSS) of the rats in each group were measured before reperfusion and 6, 24, and 72h and 1-4 weeks after reperfusion. The Morris water maze test was used to assess behavior of rats 1 week after reperfusion and 2 weeks after reperfusion in each group. The results showed that after global cerebral ischemiareperfusion injury, neurological deficits of rats are severe, and space exploration capacity and learning and memory capacity are significantly decreased. L-dopa can shorten the duration of coma in rats following global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and improve the symptoms of neurological deficits and advanced learning and memory. In the range of the selected doses, the relationship between L-dopa and improvement of the neurological behavior in rats was not dose-dependent. Dopamine may be useful for treating severe ischemia-reperfusion brain injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cross-cultural Adaptation, Reliability, and Validity of the Yoruba Version of the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbada, Chidozie Emmanuel; Idowu, Opeyemi Ayodiipo; Ogunjimi, Olawale Richard; Ayanniyi, Olusola; Orimolade, Elkanah Ayodele; Oladiran, Ajibola Babatunde; Johnson, Olubusola Esther; Akinsulore, Adesanmi; Oni, Temitope Olawale

    2017-04-01

    A translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and psychometric analysis. The aim of this study was to translate, cross-culturally adapt, and validate the Yoruba version of the RMDQ. The Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) is a valid outcome tool for low back pain (LBP) in clinical and research settings. There seems to be no valid and reliable version of the RMDQ in the Nigerian languages. Following the Guillemin criteria, the English version of the RMDQ was forward and back translated. Two Yoruba translated versions of the RMDQ were assessed for clarity, common language usage, and conceptual equivalence. Consequently, a harmonized Yoruba version was produced and was pilot-tested among 20 patients with nonspecific long-term LBP (NSLBP) for cognitive debriefing. The final version of the Yoruba RMDQ was tested for its construct validity and re-retest reliability among 120 and 87 patients with NSLBP, respectively. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r) of 0.82 was obtained for reliability of the Yoruba version of the RMDQ. The test-retest reliability of the Yoruba RMDQ yielded Cronbach alpha 0.932, while the intraclass correlation (ICC) ranged between 0.896 and 0.956. The analysis of the global scores of both the English and Yoruba versions of the RMDQ yielded ICC value of between 0.995 (95% confidence interval 0.996-0.997), with the item-by-item Kappa agreement ranging between 0.824 and 1.000. The external validity of RMDQ using Quadruple Visual Analogue Scale was r = -0.596 (P = 0.001). The Yoruba version of the RMDQ had no floor/ceiling effects, as no patient achieved either of the maximum or the minimum possible scores. The Yoruba version of the RMDQ has excellent reliability and validity and may be an appropriate outcome tool for clinical and research purposes among Yoruba-speaking patients with LBP. 3.

  20. Defending strong tobacco packaging and labelling regulations in Uruguay: transnational tobacco control network versus Philip Morris International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Eric; Sosa, Particia; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-03-23

    Describe the process of enacting and defending strong tobacco packaging and labelling regulations in Uruguay amid Philip Morris International's (PMI) legal threats and challenges. Triangulated government legislation, news sources and interviews with policy-makers and health advocates in Uruguay. In 2008 and 2009, the Uruguayan government enacted at the time the world's largest pictorial health warning labels (80% of front and back of package) and prohibited different packaging or presentations for cigarettes sold under a given brand. PMI threatened to sue Uruguay in international courts if these policies were implemented. The Vazquez administration maintained the regulations, but a week prior to President Vazquez's successor, President Mujica, took office on 1 March 2010 PMI announced its intention to file an investment arbitration dispute against Uruguay in the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes. Initially, the Mujica administration announced it would weaken the regulations to avoid litigation. In response, local public health groups in Uruguay enlisted former President Vazquez and international health groups and served as brokers to develop a collaboration with the Mujica administration to defend the regulations. This united front between the Uruguayan government and the transnational tobacco control network paid off when Uruguay defeated PMI's investment dispute in July 2016. To replicate Uruguay's success, other countries need to recognise that strong political support, an actively engaged local civil society and financial and technical support are important factors in overcoming tobacco industry's legal threats to defend strong public health regulations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Early protein malnutrition changes learning and memory in spaced but not in condensed trials in the Morris water-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadares, Camila Tavares; de Sousa Almeida, Sebastião

    2005-02-01

    Early protein malnutrition induces structural, neurochemical and functional changes in the central nervous system leading to alterations in cognitive and behavioral development of rats. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of protein malnutrition during lactation on acquisition and retention of spatial information using different training procedures (spaced x condensed trials). Rats treated with 16% (well-nourished) or 6% (malnourished) protein diets during the lactation phase and nutritionally recovered until 70 days of age were tested in the Morris water-maze in procedures of 1 trial/day (spaced trials), 4, 8, 12 trials/day (intermediate density) and 24 trials/day (condensed trials), completing 24 trials at the end of training. Seven and 28 days after the training the animals were tested again in just one trial to assess long-term memory. The results showed that protein malnutrition caused deficits on the spatial learning and memory in spaced but not in intermediate and condensed trials procedure. Seven and 28 days after the training there was an increase in the latency to find the platform but only malnourished animals submitted to 1 trial/day had significantly higher latency as compared with well-nourished controls. One of the possible hypotheses is that the effect protein malnutrition only in the procedure of spaced trials could be due to deficits in memory consolidation. It is suggested that these deficits can be the result of alterations produced by protein malnutrition in the hippocampal formation or in long-lasting emotional and/or motivational aspects of the rat's behavior.

  2. Morris Animal Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of AnimalNews is Available Now. Learn about osteoarthritis pain in cats and how your gifts make a difference. Read More » Spread the Joy With Holiday Cards. Send your friends & family a gift that gives back to the animals we love. Order Yours Today » Give the Gift ...

  3. Chronic ethanol exposure increases voluntary home cage intake in adult male, but not female, Long-Evans rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Melissa; McGinnis, Molly M.; McCool, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    The current experiment examined the effects of 10 days of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure on anxiety-like behavior and home cage ethanol intake using a 20% intermittent access (M, W, F) paradigm in male and female Long-Evans rats. Withdrawal from alcohol dependence contributes to relapse in humans and increases in anxiety-like behavior and voluntary ethanol consumption in preclinical models. Our laboratory has shown that 10 days of CIE exposure produces both behavioral and neurophysiological alterations associated with withdrawal in male rats; however, we have yet to examine the effects of this exposure regime on ethanol intake in females. During baseline, females consumed more ethanol than males but, unlike males, did not show escalations in intake. Rats were then exposed to CIE and were again given intermittent access to 20% ethanol. CIE males increased their intake compared to baseline, whereas air-exposed males did not. Ethanol intake in females was unaffected by CIE exposure. Notably, both sexes expressed significantly elevated withdrawal-associated anxiety-like behavior in the plus maze. Finally, rats were injected with the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716A (0, 1, 3, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) which reduced ethanol intake in both sexes. However, females appear to be more sensitive to lower doses of this CB1 receptor antagonist. Our results show that females consume more ethanol than males; however, they did not escalate their intake using the intermittent access paradigm. Unlike males, CIE exposure had no effect on drinking in females. It is possible that females may be less sensitive than males to ethanol-induced increases in drinking after a short CIE exposure. Lastly, our results demonstrate that males and females may have different pharmacological sensitivities to CB1 receptor blockade on ethanol intake, at least under the current conditions. PMID:26515190

  4. Clozapine N-Oxide Administration Produces Behavioral Effects in Long-Evans Rats: Implications for Designing DREADD Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, Duncan A A; Browne, Richard W; Shaw, Jessica K; Krishnan Radhakrishnan, Sandhya; Khare, Prachi; España, Rodrigo A; Clark, Stewart D

    2016-01-01

    Clozapine N-oxide (CNO) is a ligand for a powerful chemogenetic system that can selectively inhibit or activate neurons; the so-called Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADD) system. This system consists of synthetic G-protein-coupled receptors, which are not believed to be activated by any endogenous ligand, but are activated by the otherwise inert CNO. However, it has previously been shown that the administration of CNO in humans and rats leads to detectable levels of the bioactive compounds clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine (N-Des). As a follow-up, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of CNO in male Long-Evans rats. It was found that 1 mg/kg CNO reduced the acoustic startle reflex but had no effect on prepulse inhibition (PPI; a measure of sensorimotor gating). CNO (2 and 5 mg/kg) had no effect on the disruption to PPI induced by the NMDA antagonist phencyclidine or the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine. In locomotor studies, CNO alone (at 1, 2, and 5 mg/kg) had no effect on spontaneous locomotion, but 5 mg/kg CNO pretreatment significantly attenuated d-amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion. In line with the behavioral results, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry found that 5 mg/kg CNO significantly attenuated the d-amphetamine-induced increase in evoked dopamine. However, the effects seen after CNO administration cannot be definitively ascribed to CNO because biologically relevant levels of clozapine and N-Des were found in plasma after CNO injection. Our results show that CNO has multiple dose-dependent effects in vivo and is converted to clozapine and N-Des emphasizing the need for a CNO-only DREADD-free control group when designing DREADD-based experiments.

  5. Stress facilitates late reversal learning using a touchscreen-based visual discrimination procedure in male Long Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Courtney A; Howland, John G

    2015-02-01

    The stress response is essential to the survival of all species as it maintains internal equilibrium and allows organisms to respond to threats in the environment. Most stress research has focused on the detrimental impacts of stress on cognition and behavior. Reversal learning, which requires a change in response strategy based on one dimension of the stimuli, is one type of behavioral flexibility that is facilitated following some brief stress procedures. The current study investigated a potential mechanism underlying this facilitation by blocking glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) during stress. Thirty-seven male Long Evans rats learned to discriminate between two images on a touchscreen, one of which was rewarded. Once a criterion was reached, rats received stress (30 min of restraint stress or no stress) and drug (GR antagonist RU38486 or vehicle) administration prior to each of the first 3 days of reversal learning. We expected that stress would facilitate reversal learning and RU38486 (10 mg/kg) would prevent this facilitation in both early (50% correct in one session) stages of reversal learning. Results showed that stressed rats performed better than unstressed rats (fewer days for late reversal, fewer correction trials, and fewer errors) in the late but not early stage of reversal learning. RU38486 did not block the facilitation of RL by stress, although it dramatically increased response, but not reward, latencies. These results confirm the facilitation of late reversal by stress in a touchscreen-based operant task in rats and further our understanding of how stress affects higher level cognitive functioning and behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Coffee consumption delays the hepatitis and suppresses the inflammation related gene expression in the Long-Evans Cinnamon rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Masafumi; Donai, Kenichiro; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Ohtomo, Yukiko; Miyagawa, Makoto; Kuroda, Kengo; Kodama, Hiroko; Suzuki, Kazufumi; Kasai, Noriyuki; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Uchida, Takafumi; Watanabe, Kouichi; Aso, Hisashi; Isogai, Emiko; Sone, Hideko; Fukuda, Tomokazu

    2014-04-01

    Large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that drinking more than two cups of coffee per day reduces the risks of hepatitis and liver cancer. However, the heterogeneity of the human genome requires studies of experimental animal models with defined genetic backgrounds to evaluate the coffee effects on liver diseases. We evaluated the efficacy of coffee consumption with one of experimental animal models for human disease. We used the Long Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat, which onsets severe hepatitis and high incidence of liver cancer, due to the accumulation of copper and iron in livers caused by the genetic mutation in Atp7B gene, and leading to the continuous oxidative stress. We determined the expression of inflammation related genes, and amounts of copper and iron in livers, and incidence of the pre-neoplastic foci in the liver tissue of LEC rats. Coffee administration for 25 weeks delayed the occurrence of hepatitis by two weeks, significantly improved survival, reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines, and reduced the incidence of small pre-neoplastic liver foci in LEC rats. There was no significant difference in the accumulation of copper and iron in livers, indicating that coffee administration does not affect to the metabolism of these metals. These findings indicate that drinking coffee potentially prevents hepatitis and liver carcinogenesis through its anti-inflammatory effects. This study showed the efficacy of coffee in the prevention of hepatitis and liver carcinogenesis in the LEC model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Behavioral Phenotyping of Juvenile Long-Evans and Sprague-Dawley Rats: Implications for Preclinical Models of Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Ku

    Full Text Available The laboratory rat is emerging as an attractive preclinical animal model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD, allowing investigators to explore genetic, environmental and pharmacological manipulations in a species exhibiting complex, reciprocal social behavior. The present study was carried out to compare two commonly used strains of laboratory rats, Sprague-Dawley (SD and Long-Evans (LE, between the ages of postnatal day (PND 26-56 using high-throughput behavioral phenotyping tools commonly used in mouse models of ASD that we have adapted for use in rats. We detected few differences between young SD and LE strains on standard assays of exploration, sensorimotor gating, anxiety, repetitive behaviors, and learning. Both SD and LE strains also demonstrated sociability in the 3-chamber social approach test as indexed by spending more time in the social chamber with a constrained age/strain/sex matched novel partner than in an identical chamber without a partner. Pronounced differences between the two strains were, however, detected when the rats were allowed to freely interact with a novel partner in the social dyad paradigm. The SD rats in this particular testing paradigm engaged in play more frequently and for longer durations than the LE rats at both juvenile and young adult developmental time points. Results from this study that are particularly relevant for developing preclinical ASD models in rats are threefold: (i commonly utilized strains exhibit unique patterns of social interactions, including strain-specific play behaviors, (ii the testing environment may profoundly influence the expression of strain-specific social behavior and (iii simple, automated measures of sociability may not capture the complexities of rat social interactions.

  8. Cessation of daily exercise dramatically alters precursors of hepatic steatosis in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, R Scott; Thyfault, John P; Laye, Matthew J; Morris, R Tyler; Borengasser, Sarah J; Uptergrove, Grace M; Chakravarthy, Manu V; Booth, Frank W; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate potential mechanisms initiating the onset of hepatic steatosis following the cessation of daily physical activity. Four-week-old, hyperphagic/obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were given access to voluntary running wheels for 16 weeks to prevent the development of hepatic steatosis. The animals were then suddenly transitioned to a sedentary condition as wheels were locked (wheel lock; WL) for 5 h (WL5), 53 h (WL53) or 173 h (WL173). Importantly after the cessation of daily exercise (5-173 h), no changes occurred in body weight, fat pad mass (omental and retroperitoneal), food intake, serum insulin, hepatic triglycerides or in the exercise-suppressed hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma protein content. However, complete hepatic fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial enzyme activities were highest at WL5 and WL53 and dropped significantly to SED levels by WL173. In addition, cessation of daily exercise quickly increased the hepatic protein contents of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), reduced ACC phosphorylation status, and dramatically increased hepatic malonyl-CoA concentration. This study is the first to show that the sudden cessation of daily exercise in a hyperphagic/obese model activates a subgroup of precursors and processes known to initiate hepatic steatosis, including decreased hepatic mitochondrial oxidative capacity, increased hepatic expression of de novo lipogenesis proteins, and increased hepatic malonyl CoA levels; each probably increasing the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  9. Sex differences in alcohol self-administration and relapse-like behavior in Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Patrick A; Stewart, Robert T; Besheer, Joyce

    2017-05-01

    Alcohol use disorders are a costly public health dilemma. Complicating this issue is the general lack of basic research assessing sex differences in many aspects of alcohol seeking and taking behaviors. The current experiments sought to decrease this gap in our understanding of sex differences in alcohol use disorders by assessing both male and female Long-Evans rats in parallel on alcohol self-administration, relapse-like behavior following abstinence and extinction, and motivation to respond for the standard alcohol solution and a quinine-adulterated alcohol solution. Here, we show that while males tend to have greater alcohol-reinforced responses throughout self-administration training, females show similar or greater alcohol intake (g/kg). Additionally, when tested for reinstatement of alcohol seeking and self-administration, following abstinence or extinction, males consistently showed greater reinstatement responding than females, which may be related to their training history. However, when assessed using the progressive ratio, there were no sex differences in motivation to respond for alcohol. Further, the consistent patterns of responding across months of self-administration training in both males and females, lend support for the feasibility of conducting these studies in male and female rats in parallel without concerns about daily variability. Our data also suggest that males and females should not be pooled as differences in alcohol lever responses and differences in reinstatement, as observed in the current experiments, could affect the overall outcome and possibly confound data interpretation. These studies demonstrate the importance of assessing males and females in parallel and advance the body of preclinical research on sex differences in alcohol self-administration and relapse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Water pressure and ground vibrations induced by water guns at a backwater pond on the Illinois River near Morris, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebel, Carolyn M.; Egly, Rachel M.

    2016-09-27

    Three different geophysical sensor types were used to characterize the underwater pressure waves and ground velocities generated by the underwater firing of seismic water guns. These studies evaluated the use of water guns as a tool to alter the movement of Asian carp. Asian carp are aquatic invasive species that threaten to move into the Great Lakes Basin from the Mississippi River Basin. Previous studies have identified a threshold of approximately 5 pounds per square inch (lb/in2) for behavioral modification and for structural limitation of a water gun barrier.Two studies were completed during August 2014 and May 2015 in a backwater pond connected to the Illinois River at a sand and gravel quarry near Morris, Illinois. The August 2014 study evaluated the performance of two 80-cubic-inch (in3) water guns. Data from the 80-in3 water guns showed that the pressure field had the highest pressures and greatest extent of the 5-lb/in2 target value at a depth of 5 feet (ft). The maximum recorded pressure was 13.7 lb/in2, approximately 25 ft from the guns. The produced pressure field took the shape of a north-south-oriented elongated sphere with the 5-lb/in2 target value extending across the entire study area at a depth of 5 ft. Ground velocities were consistent over time, at 0.0067 inches per second (in/s) in the transverse direction, 0.031 in/s in the longitudinal direction, and 0.013 in/s in the vertical direction.The May 2015 study evaluated the performance of one and two 100-in3 water guns. Data from the 100-in3 water guns, fired both individually and simultaneously, showed that the pressure field had the highest pressures and greatest extent of the 5-lb/in2 target value at a depth of 5 ft. The maximum pressure was 57.4 lb/in2, recorded at the underwater blast sensor closest to the water guns (at a horizontal distance of approximately 3 ft), as two guns fired simultaneously. Pressures and extent of the 5-lb/in2 target value decrease above and below this 5-ft depth

  11. Antibiotic resistance in triclosan tolerant fecal coliforms isolated from surface waters near wastewater treatment plant outflows (Morris County, NJ, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, June H; Salierno, James D

    2013-02-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a common antimicrobial agent that has been detected in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent outflows. A link between TCS exposure and increased antibiotic resistance in microbes has been postulated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether fecal coliforms (FC) isolated from surface waters located near (WWTP) outflows display TCS resistance and, if so, whether such organisms exhibit increased resistance to antibiotics. Water samples were collected at two streams in Morris County, NJ that receive WWTP effluent: Loantaka Brook and the Whippany River. Water samples were collected at three sites within each location near the WWTP effluent outflow. Abiotic river parameters were measured and FCs were enumerated for each sample. River parameters were analyzed to determine if TCS or antibiotic resistance was correlated to water quality. Triclosan resistance levels were determined for individual isolates, and isolates were screened against seven classes of antibiotics at clinically relevant levels to assess cross-resistance. At Loantaka Brook, 78.8% of FC isolates were resistant to TCS with an average minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 43.2 μg ml(-1). In addition, 89.6% of isolates were resistant to four classes of antibiotics and all were identified as Citrobacter freundii. There was a significant effect of stream location on mean TCS MIC values in the Loantaka Brook, with effluent isolates maintaining significantly higher MIC values compared to upstream isolates. At Whippany River sites, TCS resistant isolates were detected on 94% of sampling dates with a significant relationship between TCS resistance and multiple antibiotic resistances (≥ three antibiotic classes, p<0.001). TCS resistant isolates were significantly more resistant to chloramphenicol (p=0.007) and to nitrofurantoin (p=0.037) when compared to TCS sensitive isolates. Environmental FC isolates resistant to high level TCS included species of Escherichia, Enterobacter

  12. Cross-cultural translation, adaptation, and psychometric testing of the Roland-Morris disability questionnaire into modern standard Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Dana; Rajab, Ebrahim; Watson, Paul J; Critchley, Duncan J

    2014-12-01

    Cross-cultural translation, adaptation, and psychometric testing. To cross-culturally translate and adapt the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) into Modern Standard Arabic and examine its validity with Arabic-speaking patients with low back pain (LBP). The English RMDQ is valid, reliable, and commonly used to assess LBP disability in clinical practice and research. There is no valid and reliable version of the RMDQ in Modern Standard Arabic. The RMDQ was forward translated and back translated. An expert committee of musculoskeletal physiotherapists reviewed the translation. Eight patients with LBP evaluated item-by-item comprehensibility. Ten patients piloted the RMDQ for overall comprehensibility and acceptability. Seventeen bilingual patients tested the agreement of the Arabic and English RMDQs. Two-hundred one patients completed the RMDQ and the visual analogue scale. Sixty-four patients were followed-up for test-retest reliability. Translation of most items was uncontroversial. The expert committee found the Arabic RMDQ clinically and culturally appropriate. They reviewed item 11, addressing bending and kneeling, because this has a clinical significance and cultural/religious implication regarding prayer positions. All patients reported that it was easy to understand and complete. The Arabic RMDQ had high overall agreement with the English RMDQ for the global score (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.925; 0.811-0.972). Kappa statistics showed good item-by-item agreement (none ≤0.30). Mean (SD) RMDQ and visual analog scale scores of 201 patients were 10.53 (4.80) and 5.11 (2.28), respectively. The RMDQ had a low correlation against pain intensity (r = 0.259; P Arabic RMDQ was good (ICC = 0.900; 95% confidence interval, 0.753-0.951). Kappa statistics were high for 18 items and fair for 6. The Arabic version of the RMDQ has good comprehensibility and acceptability, high internal consistency and reliability, low correlation against pain

  13. Strain-dependent effects of acute caffeine on anxiety-related behavior in PVG/c, Long-Evans and Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert N; Hancock, Nicola J

    2016-01-01

    To assess the possibility that acute caffeine's behavioral action might depend on rats' strain, effects of 50mg/kg of the drug were observed on activity, anxiety-related behavior and habituation learning in male and female rats from three different strains, namely PVG/c, Long-Evans and Wistar. All subjects were tested in an open field, an elevated plus maze and a light-dark box. For the three strains combined, increased occupancy of the center of the open field and entries of the open plus-maze arms with caffeine suggested caffeine-induced anxiolysis, whereas increased grooming in the open field, decreased rearing in the plus maze and increased risk assessment in the light-dark box were consistent with anxiogenesis. Caffeine also reduced open-field rearing only for PVG/c rats, and entries into and occupation of the light side of the light-dark box only for Long-Evans rats, and increased total defecation in the three types of apparatus for all three strains combined. Overall, caffeine appeared to be mainly anxiogenic. The drug also increased open-field ambulation for PVG/c rats and walking for all rats, but decreased open-field ambulation and entries into the plus maze closed arms for Wistar rats alone. In general, Wistar rats appeared to be the least and Long-Evans the most anxious of the three strains investigated. Caffeine also decreased within-session habituation of open-field ambulation for PVG/c rats alone, thereby suggesting strain-dependent interference with non-associative learning and short-term memory. Several overall sex differences were also observed that supported female rats being more active and less anxious than males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Letting the CAT out of the bag: comparing computer adaptive tests and an 11-item short form of the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Karon F; Choi, Seung W; Crane, Paul K; Deyo, Richard A; Johnson, Kurt L; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2008-05-20

    A post hoc simulation of a computer adaptive administration of the items of a modified version of the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. To evaluate the effectiveness of adaptive administration of back pain-related disability items compared with a fixed 11-item short form. Short form versions of the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire have been developed. An alternative to paper-and-pencil short forms is to administer items adaptively so that items are presented based on a person's responses to previous items. Theoretically, this allows precise estimation of back pain disability with administration of only a few items. Data were gathered from 2 previously conducted studies of persons with back pain. An item response theory model was used to calibrate scores based on all items, items of a paper-and-pencil short form, and several computer adaptive tests (CATs). Correlations between each CAT condition and scores based on a 23-item version of the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire ranged from 0.93 to 0.98. Compared with an 11-item short form, an 11-item CAT produced scores that were significantly more highly correlated with scores based on the 23-item scale. CATs with even fewer items also produced scores that were highly correlated with scores based on all items. For example, scores from a 5-item CAT had a correlation of 0.93 with full scale scores. Seven- and 9-item CATs correlated at 0.95 and 0.97, respectively. A CAT with a standard-error-based stopping rule produced scores that correlated at 0.95 with full scale scores. A CAT-based back pain-related disability measure may be a valuable tool for use in clinical and research contexts. Use of CAT for other common measures in back pain research, such as other functional scales or measures of psychological distress, may offer similar advantages.

  15. Ocorrência simultânea de síndrome de Evans e anemia falciforme em uma criança de 2 anos

    OpenAIRE

    Brito,Adriana Alexandre; Leite,Luiz Arthur Calheiros; Martin,Rúbia Maysa; Ramos,Fernando Wagner da Silva; Reis,Simone Medeiros Beder

    2012-01-01

    A associação entre anemia falciforme (AF) e síndrome de Evans (SE) parece ser rara. Esse estudo objetivou relatar o caso de uma criança com AF e SE. A paciente R. M. S. S., 2 anos de idade, foi admitida em um centro hematológico apresentando hemorragia de mucosa, leucometria 20,3 × 10(9)/l, hemoglobina 4,6 g/dl e plaquetas 28 × 10(9)/l. Posteriormente, realizou-se mielograma, que evidenciou hipercelularidade eritroide, sugerindo hemólise. Teste positivo da antiglobulina direcionou o diagnósti...

  16. A prospective cohort study comparing the VAS spine score and Roland-Morris disability questionnaire in patients with a type a traumatic thoracolumbar spinal fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Siebenga, Joukje; Leferink, Vincent; Segers, Michiel; Elzinga, Matthijs; Bakker, Fred; Duis, D.H.J.; Rommens, Pol; Patka, Peter

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ-24) and the VAS spine score have been regularly used to measure functional outcome in patients with back pain. The RMDQ-24 is primarily used in degenerative disease of the spine and the VAS Spine is used in trauma patients. The aim of this study is to compare these scores and to see if there is a correlation in patients with a traumatic thoracolumbar spinal fracture. Prospective cohort study comparing the RMDQ-24 and the VAS spine s...

  17. Acerca de la influencia de William Morris y el movimiento Arts & Crafts en Cataluña. Primeros apuntes y algunas puntualizaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Calvera, Anna

    1997-01-01

    En considerar el desenvolupament del Modernisme i els seus origens, se citen Morris i el Moviment de les Arts & Crafts com una de les seves principals fonts d'inspiració. Si convé considerar més en detall aquesta influencia 6s perque ja no es tracta tant de demostrar la component internacionalista del Modernisme com de comprendre que podia suposar aquest influx i demostrar si era possible que tingués Iloc, i quan. El treball es proposa, en primer Iloc, resseguir I'ascendent angles mitjanc...

  18. The University of Minnesota Morris (UMM) STEP Program: an initiative to encourage the participation of Native Americans in the sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of the UMM STEP program is to increase the number of graduates in STEM fields through innovative curricular, recruiting and mentoring strategies. A unique focus of the UMM STEP program is increasing the number of Native American science majors. The STEP program fosters a summer research environment where peer interaction and mentoring creates a web of support. To do so we will establish a supportive and fulfilling pipeline that: 1) Identifies Native American students and involves them in research while they are high school; 2) Mentors and prepares participants for university academics the summer before their freshman year; 3) Provides a complete tuition waiver, mentoring and a support network throughout their undergraduate career; and 4) Involves participants in an active and dynamic summer undergraduate research environment where under-represented individuals are in the majority. The third and fourth components of this pipeline are in very good shape. The Morris campus was originally established as an Indian School in 1887. When the federal government deeded the Indian school campus to the University of Minnesota a stipulation was that Native American students attend the college for free. At present, 196 Native Americans are enrolled at UMM (50 are STEM majors). The UMM STEP research experience provides the unique opportunity to interact with a scientific community that both breaks down a number of traditional barriers and aids in the maturation of these students as scientists. In Summer 2008, 4 students were involved in summer research and in 2009 seven Native American students participated. Early efforts of the UMM STEP program are encouraging. UMM Admissions staff used the UMM STEP program to recruit Native American students and the P.I. phoned “uncommitted admits”, visited reservations and hosted reservation student visits. The result was an increase in freshman Native American Science majors from 7 in Fall 2007, 15 in fall 2008 and 20 in fall

  19. Effects of acupuncture stimulation on blood glucose concentration in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, an animal model for type-2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hironori; Ishigami, Tatsuyo; Kawase, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Atsushi; Minagawa, Munenori; Fukuta, Hiroyasu; Kurono, Yasuzo; Suzuki, Hikaru

    2014-05-19

    Effects of acupuncture stimulation on blood glucose concentration and body weight were investigated in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a model for type-2 diabetes. Three groups of rats were used: OLETF, acupuncture-treated OLETF (AcOLETF), and Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats (as control for the OLETF rats). In AcOLETF rats, acupuncture stimulation was applied twice a week to 6 points (zhongwan, tianshu, qihai, ganshu, pishu, shenshu) and changes in blood glucose concentration and body weight were measured. Initially, at 6 weeks old, there was no significant difference in blood glucose levels between groups. Blood glucose levels increased with age in each group, reaching a maximum of about 430 mg/dl at 37 weeks in OLETF rats. In AcOLETF rats, blood glucose levels increased at a slower rate than in OLETF rats, reaching a maximum concentration of about 280 mg/dl at 37 weeks of age, significantly lower than that in OLETF rats. The concentration of blood glucose in LETO rats had stabilized at a maximum value of 120~140 mg/dl by 16 weeks, remaining at this level for up to 39 weeks. In each group, body weight increased with age and was not affected by acupuncture treatment. In OLETF rats, acupuncture treatment significantly reduced blood glucose levels, but not their body weight, suggesting that acupuncture therapy was effective in preventing the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus.

  20. Removal of Evans Blue and Yellow thiazole dyes from aqueous solution by Mg-Al-CO3 Layered Double Hydroxides as anion-exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Bouraada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mg-Al-CO3 Layered double hydroxide (LDH was prepared by co-precipitation method at constant pH, and subsequently used to remove Evans Blue (EB and Yellow thiazole (YT dyes from aqueous solutions. The obtained material was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermal analysis and BET. The kinetic and equilibrium aspects of sorption of the anionic dyes from aqueous solution by Mg-Al-CO3 were investigated in batch mode. The sorption kinetic data were found to be consistent with the pseudo-second-order model. Data for YT and EB sorption by Mg-Al-CO3 were fitted better by the Langmuir equation than by the Freundlich equation based on the determination coefficient values R2 . The maximum adsorption capacities of 222.2 mgg-1 for Yellow thiazole and 107.5 mgg-1 for Evans blue. The thermodynamic parameters including Gibbs free energy (G°, standard enthalpy change (H°, and standard entropy change (S° for the process were calculated. The negative G° value indicates the spontaneity of the removal process.

  1. Synthesis and radioiodination of di-iodo-Evan's blue via isotopic exchange reaction in the molten state and evaluation of the kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Azony, K.M. [Research Center Juelich (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry]|[Hot Lab. Center, Cairo (Egypt). Radioactive Isotopes and Generators Dept.; Bier, D.; Coenen, H.H. [Research Center Juelich (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry

    2004-07-01

    Many aryl halides were synthesized from aryl amines such as iodo-trypan, iodo-methylene blue and iodo-toluidine. Methylene blue and toludine blue are phenothiazinium dyes and were used to localize parathyroid glands visually during surgery. Radioiodination of these compounds by using iodine-123 analogues for scintgraphic localization of parathyroids was reported. Radiolabelled dyes administered may also localize in tumor tissues. Evan's blue dye was used to study altered sarcolemmal permeability in dystrophic muscle fibers, and in animals to study muscular dystrophy. In this work Diiodo-Evan's blue was synthesized via Sandmeyer reaction and characterized by mass spectrum analysis. A procedure for labelling DIEB with Na{sup 131}I via isotopic exchange in molten medium was developed. The labelling conditions studied for the isotopic exchange of {sup 131}I-for-I in DIEB included the effect of temperature and solvents (melt of acetamide, benzoic and pivalic acid). Kinetic studies were performed to obtain [{sup 131}I] DIEB with more reliable reaction conditions. Quality control for the final product ([{sup 131}I] DIEB) was performed by HPLC. (orig.)

  2. Reliability and validity of simplified Chinese version of Roland-Morris questionnaire in evaluating rural and urban patients with low back pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei Yi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The causes of low back pain in China and Western countries are extremely different. We attempted to analyze the risk factors of low back pain in urban and rural patients under the dual economy with the simplified Chinese version of Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (SC-RMDQ to demonstrate that SC-RMDQ could evaluate patients with low back pain arising from different causes. METHODS: Roland-Morris disability questionnaire was translated into SCRMDQ according to international guidelines for questionnaire adaptation. In this study, causes of low back pain of 187 outpatients and inpatients (99 urban patients and 88 rural patients were analyzed. All patients underwent simplified Chinese version of Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (SC-RMDQ, simplified Chinese Oswestry disability index (SCODI and visual analogue scale (VAS. Reliability was tested using reproducibility (intraclass coefficient of correlation--ICC and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha. Validity was tested using Pearson correlation analysis. RESULTS: The leading causes for low back pain were sedentariness (38.4% and vibration (18.1% in urban patients and waist bending (48.9% and spraining (25% in rural patients. Although causes of low back pain in the two groups of population were completely different, SCRMDQ had high internal consistency (Cronbach's α value of 0.874 in urban patients and 0.883 in rural patients and good reproducibility (ICC value of .952 in urban patients and 0.949 in rural patients, P<0.01. SCRMDQ also showed significant correlation with Simplified Chinese version of Oswestry disability index (SCODI and visual analogue scale (VAS in rural areas (SCRMDQ-SCODI r = 0.841; SCRMDQ-VAS: r = 0.685, P<0.01 and in urban areas (SCRMDQ-SCODI: r = 0.818, P<0.01; SCRMDQ-VAS: r = 0.666, P<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Although causes of low back pain are completely different in rural and urban patients, SCRMDQ has a good reliability and validity, which

  3. Política, teoría e historia: el William Morris de E. P. Thompson desde la sociología de los intelectuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO ESTRELLA GONZÁLEZ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende ilustrar la forma en la que los cambios en las condiciones sociales y urgencias prácticas a las que se enfrenta un autor determinan «los giros» que es posible apreciar en su trayectoria intelectual, sin que esto signifique que dicha trayectoria pueda explicarse exclusivamente por aquellos condicionantes. Para ilustrar este fenómeno tomaremos como objeto de estudio las dos versiones del William Morris de E. P. Thompson, uno de los historiadoresque mayor influencia ha ejercido en el ámbito de las ciencias sociales contemporáneas. Sobre dicho objeto, aplicáremos las herramientas que nos ofrece la sociología de los intelectuales de Pierre Bourdieu, cuya propuesta permite explicar cómo funcionan las determinaciones extra-intelectuales, sin que ello implique aceptar una reducción del «texto» al «contexto».

  4. Lack of protection of monoamine oxidase B-deficient mice from age-related spatial learning deficits in the Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holschneider, D P; Scremin, O U; Chen, K; Shih, J C

    1999-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) increases in brain in response to aging and neurodegeneration. Whether such increases represent a risk factor to further neuronal damage or simply represent epiphenomena remains unclear. L-deprenyl, an inhibitor of MAO-B, has been shown to improve learning in aged rodents. However, recent data suggests this may occur through mechanisms independent of its enzymatic inhibition. This study investigates visualspatial learning of MAO-B deficient mice and examines what effects absence of MAO-B has on age-related cognitive decline. Learning was tested in the Morris Water Maze in male transgenic MAO-B knockout mice (KO) ages 2 months (n = 9), 7 months (n = 7), and 17 months (n = 8). Performance was compared to that of wild type (WT) littermates. Animals were given four 60 second trials per day with the submerged platform in the "North" position. Animals received 7 days of learning in which they were introduced into the pool facing the wall, alternating between the "East" and "West" positions. A single probe trial followed on day 8, followed by continuation of the original learning paradigm on days 9 and 10. Subsequently, the platform position was changed to the diagonally opposite quadrant and learning continued on days 11-13, followed by a cue phase in which the platform was made visible. Total distance traveled and latency to the platform was increased in 7- and 17- month old mice, most significantly at the beginning of the acquisition phase. This effect reappeared again in 17- month old mice during the reversal phase. No predominant genotypic differences in latency or distance were observed during any phase of the experiment. Our results show that presence or absence of MAO-B does not appear to alter performance in the Morris water maze. Furthermore, presence or absence of MAO-B does not provide protection from the age-dependent deficits in spatial learning.

  5. Vendor differences in alcohol consumption and the contribution of dopamine receptors to Pavlovian-conditioned alcohol-seeking in Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Lindsay M; Sciascia, Joanna M; Ayorech, Ziada; Chaudhri, Nadia

    2014-02-01

    Drug-associated environmental stimuli elicit craving in humans and drug-seeking in animals. We tested the hypothesis that Pavlovian-conditioned alcohol-seeking is mediated by dopamine, using rats from two vendors. Male, Long-Evans rats (220-240 g) from Charles River (St-Constant, QC, Canada) and Harlan Laboratories (Indianapolis, IN, USA) received 21 sessions of intermittent, 24-h access to ethanol (15 %, v/v) and water in the home-cage. Subsequently, rats were trained to discriminate between one conditioned stimulus (CS+) that was paired with ethanol (0.2 ml per CS+) and a second stimulus (CS-) that was not. Entries into a fluid port where ethanol was delivered were recorded. Next, rats were exposed to a different context where cues and ethanol were withheld. At test, responding to the CS+ and CS- without ethanol was assessed in the second, non-alcohol context. Injections (1 ml/kg; s.c.) of the dopamine D1-receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (0, 3.33, and 10 μg/kg) or dopamine D2-receptor antagonist eticlopride (0, 5, and 10 μg/kg) were administered before test. Home-cage alcohol consumption was higher in Harlan rats than Charles River rats. At test, saline-treated rats responded more to the alcohol-predictive CS+ than the CS-. While SCH 23390 attenuated CS+ responding in rats from both vendors, eticlopride reduced CS+ responding in Harlan rats only. Subsequently, SCH 23390 but not eticlopride attenuated CS+ responding when the CS+ was again paired with ethanol. These results indicate important differences in alcohol consumption in Long-Evans rats from different suppliers, and highlight a novel role for dopamine in Pavlovian-conditioned alcohol-seeking.

  6. Bile salt-induced pro-oxidant liver damage promotes transplanted cell proliferation for correcting Wilson disease in the Long-Evans Cinnamon rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Brigid; Kapoor, Sorabh; Schilsky, Michael L; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2009-05-01

    Insights into disease-specific mechanisms for liver repopulation are needed for cell therapy. To understand the efficacy of pro-oxidant hepatic perturbations in Wilson disease, we studied Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats with copper toxicosis under several conditions. Hepatocytes from healthy Long-Evans Agouti (LEA) rats were transplanted intrasplenically into the liver. A cure was defined as lowering of copper to below 250 microg/g liver, presence of ATPase, Cu++ transporting, beta polypeptide (atp7b) messenger RNA (mRNA) in the liver and improvement in liver histology. Treatment of animals with the hydrophobic bile salt, cholic acid, or liver radiation before cell transplantation produced cure rates of 14% and 33%, respectively; whereas liver radiation plus partial hepatectomy followed by cell transplantation proved more effective, with cure in 55%, P < 0.01; and liver radiation plus cholic acid followed by cell transplantation was most effective, with cure in 75%, P < 0.001. As a group, cell therapy cures in rats preconditioned with liver radiation plus cholic acid resulted in less hepatic copper, indicating greater extent of liver repopulation. We observed increased hepatic catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in LEC rats, suggesting chronic oxidative stress. After liver radiation or cholic acid, hepatic lipid peroxidation levels increased, indicating further oxidative injury, although we did not observe overt additional cytotoxicity. This contrasted with healthy animals in which liver radiation and cholic acid produced hepatic steatosis and loss of injured hepatocytes. We concluded that pro-oxidant perturbations were uniquely effective for cell therapy in Wilson disease because of the nature of preexisting hepatic damage.

  7. Evans blue staining reveals vascular leakage associated with focal areas of host-parasite interaction in brains of pigs infected with Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzal, Miguel; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Paredes, Adriana; Cangalaya, Carla; Rivera, Andrea; Gonzalez, Armando E; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E

    2014-01-01

    Cysticidal drug treatment of viable Taenia solium brain parenchymal cysts leads to an acute pericystic host inflammatory response and blood brain barrier breakdown (BBB), commonly resulting in seizures. Naturally infected pigs, untreated or treated one time with praziquantel were sacrificed at 48 hr and 120 hr following the injection of Evans blue (EB) to assess the effect of treatment on larval parasites and surrounding tissue. Examination of harvested non encapsulated muscle cysts unexpectedly revealed one or more small, focal round region(s) of Evans blue dye infiltration (REBI) on the surface of otherwise non dye-stained muscle cysts. Histopathological analysis of REBI revealed focal areas of eosinophil-rich inflammatory infiltrates that migrated from the capsule into the tegument and internal structures of the parasite. In addition some encapsulated brain cysts, in which the presence of REBI could not be directly assessed, showed histopathology identical to that of the REBI. Muscle cysts with REBI were more frequent in pigs that had received praziquantel (6.6% of 3736 cysts; n = 6 pigs) than in those that were untreated (0.2% of 3172 cysts; n = 2 pigs). Similar results were found in the brain, where 20.7% of 29 cysts showed histopathology identical to muscle REBI cysts in praziquantel-treated pigs compared to the 4.3% of 47 cysts in untreated pigs. Closer examination of REBI infiltrates showed that EB was taken up only by eosinophils, a major component of the cellular infiltrates, which likely explains persistence of EB in the REBI. REBI likely represent early damaging host responses to T. solium cysts and highlight the focal nature of this initial host response and the importance of eosinophils at sites of host-parasite interaction. These findings suggest new avenues for immunomodulation to reduce inflammatory side effects of anthelmintic therapy.

  8. Four weeks' inhalation exposure of Long Evans rats to 4-tert-butyltoluene: Effect on evoked potentials, behaviour and brain neurochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Henrik Rye; Ladefoged, Ole; Østergaard, Grete

    2000-01-01

    and somatosensory evoked potentials were not affected by TBT In Auditory Brain Stem Response there was no shift in hearing threshold, but the amplitude of the first wave was increased in both exposed groups at high stimulus levels. Three to four months after the end of exposure, behavioural studies in Morris water...... maze and eight-arm maze failed to demonstrate any TBT induced effects. Exposure was followed by a 5 months exposure-free period prior to gross regional and subcellular (synaptosomal) neurochemical investigations of the brain. TBT reduced the NA concentration in whole brain minus cerebellum......, respectively. We hypothesise that a reduced yield of synaptosomal protein reflects a more general effect of organic solvent exposure on the software of the brain. The synaptosomal concentration per mg synaptosomal protein and the total amount of 5-hydroxytryptamine were not affected whereas the total amount...

  9. Adolescent social isolation does not lead to persistent increases in anxiety- like behavior or ethanol intake in female long-evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Tracy R; Carter, Eugenia; Weiner, Jeffrey L

    2014-08-01

    Clinically, early life stress and anxiety disorders are associated with increased vulnerability for alcohol use disorders. In male rats, early life stress, imparted by adolescent social isolation, results in long-lasting increases in a number of behavioral risk factors for alcoholism, including greater anxiety-like behaviors and ethanol (EtOH) intake. Several recent studies have begun to use this model to gain insight into the relationships among anxiety measures, stress, EtOH intake, and neurobiological correlates driving these behaviors. As prior research has noted significant sex differences in the impact of adolescent stress on anxiety measures and EtOH drinking, the current study was conducted to determine if this same model produces an "addiction vulnerable" phenotype in female rodents. Female Long Evans rats were socially isolated (SI; 1/cage) or group housed (GH; 4/cage) for 6 weeks during adolescence. After this housing manipulation, behavioral assessment was conducted using the elevated plus maze, response to novelty in an open field environment, and the light/dark box. After behavioral testing, home cage EtOH drinking was assessed across an 8-week period. No group differences were detected in any of the behavioral measures of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior. Greater EtOH intake and preference were observed in SI females but these differences did not persist. The SI/GH model, which results in robust and enduring increases in anxiety measures and EtOH self-administration in male Long Evans rats, did not result in similar behavioral changes in female rats. These data, and that of others, suggest that adolescent social isolation is not a useful model with which to study neurobiological substrates linking antecedent anxiety and addiction vulnerability in female rats. Given the compelling epidemiological evidence that the relationship between chronic adolescent stress and alcohol addiction is particularly strong in women, there is clearly an urgent need

  10. Obesity and type 2 diabetes, not a diet high in fat, sucrose, and cholesterol, negatively impacts bone outcomes in the hyperphagic Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortinau, Laura C; Linden, Melissa A; Dirkes, Rebecca; Rector, R Scott; Hinton, Pamela S

    2017-12-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) increase fracture risk; however, the association between obesity/T2D may be confounded by consumption of a diet high in fat, sucrose, and cholesterol (HFSC). The study objective was to determine the main and interactive effects of obesity/T2D and a HFSC diet on bone outcomes using hyperphagic Otuska Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats and normophagic Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) controls. At 8weeks of age, male OLETF and LETO rats were randomized to either a control (CON, 10 en% from fat as soybean oil) or HFSC (45 en% from fat as soybean oil/lard, 17 en% sucrose, and 1wt%) diet, resulting in four treatment groups. At 32weeks, total body bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) and body composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, followed by euthanasia and collection of blood and tibiae. Bone turnover markers and sclerostin were measured using ELISA. Trabecular microarchitecture of the proximal tibia and geometry of the tibia mid-diaphysis were measured using microcomputed tomography; whole-bone and tissue-level biomechanical properties were evaluated using torsional loading of the tibia. Two-factor ANOVA was used to determine main and interactive effects of diet (CON vs. HFSC) and obesity/T2D (OLETF vs. LETO) on bone outcomes. Hyperphagic OLEFT rats had greater final body mass, body fat, and fasting glucose than normophagic LETO, with no effect of diet. Total body BMC and serum markers of bone formation were decreased, and bone resorption and sclerostin were increased in obese/T2D OLETF rats. Trabecular bone volume and microarchitecture were adversely affected by obesity/T2D, but not diet. Whole-bone and tissue-level biomechanical properties of the tibia were not affected by obesity/T2D; the HFSC diet improved biomechanical properties only in LETO rats. Obesity/T2D, regardless of diet, negatively impacted the balance between bone formation and resorption and trabecular bone volume and

  11. AVALIAÇÃO DA DOR LOMBAR CRÔNICA EM PRATICANTES AMADORES DE MUSCULAÇÃO PONDERADOS PELOS INSTRUMENTOS: Oswestry e Roland Morris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Amaro Salsa Ferreira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A dor lombar acomete uma parcela importante da população mundial, e é uma das principais causas de lesões em indivíduos praticantes de atividades físicas em especial a musculação, Trata-se de um estudo controlado, randomizado, duplo cego, qualiquantitativo, descritivo e analítico. Os instrumentos de avaliação que foram utilizados nesse estudo são: Oswestry e Roland Morris (RMDQ, A escolha dos participantes foi feita de forma aleatória. A amostra foi composta por 50 indivíduos, sendo 25 do gênero masculino e 25 do gênero feminino. Os resultados da análise dos instrumentos para o gênero feminino apontou um valor de P<0,0003, já para o grupo do gênero masculino observou-se um valor de P<0,0415 foi considerado relevante, confirmando a dor lombar entre os mesmos. Conclui-se que a amostra analisada no presente estudo apresenta dor e incapacidade lombar na prática constante da musculação.

  12. The relationship between psychosocial distress and disability assessed by the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised and Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire in patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica R; Reneman, Michiel F; Boonstra, Anne M; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Versteegen, Gerbrig J; Geertzen, Jan H B

    2007-01-01

    In the assessment and treatment of chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients, the biopsychosocial model is used worldwide. Psychological distress has been reported to have a strong relationship with disability as measured with several instruments. The relationship between psychosocial distress measured with the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and self-reported disability measured with the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) has not been investigated. To analyze the relationship between psychosocial distress measured with the SCL-90-R and self-reported disability measured with the RMDQ in patients with CLBP. This cross sectional study was performed in an outpatient pain rehabilitation setting. The study sample consisted of 152 patients with CLBP. SCL-90-R and RMDQ. All patients admitted for multidisciplinary treatment completed the SCL-90-R and RMDQ before treatment. Pearson's correlation coefficients between SCL-90-R (Global Severity Index and subscales) and RMDQ were calculated. Correlation coefficients between SCL-90-R (Global Severity Index and subscales) and RMDQ ranged from 0.18 to 0.31 (ppsychosocial distress measured with the SCL-90-R and self-reported disability measured with the RMDQ in CLBP patients is weak.

  13. Emergency assessments of postfire debris-flow hazards for the 2009 La Brea, Jesusita, Guiberson, Morris, Sheep, Oak Glen, Pendleton, and Cottonwood fires in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Rupert, Michael G.; Michael, John A.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents an emergency assessment of potential debris-flow hazards from basins burned by the 2009 La Brea and Jesusita fires in Santa Barbara County, the Guiberson fire in Ventura County, the Morris fire in Los Angeles County, the Sheep, Oak Glen, and Pendleton fires in San Bernardino County, and the Cottonwood fire in Riverside County, southern California. Statistical-empirical models developed to analyze postfire debris flows are used to estimate the probability and volume of debris-flows produced from drainage basins within each of the burned areas. Debris-flow probabilities and volumes are estimated as functions of different measures of basin burned extent, gradient, and material properties in response to both a 3-hour-duration, 2-year-recurrence thunderstorm and to a widespread, 12-hour-duration, 2-year-recurrence winter storm. This assessment provides critical information for issuing warnings, locating and designing mitigation measures, and planning evacuation timing and routes within the first two winters following the fire.

  14. Electroacupuncture Treatment Improves Learning-Memory Ability and Brain Glucose Metabolism in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease: Using Morris Water Maze and Micro-PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alzheimer’s disease (AD causes progressive hippocampus dysfunctions leading to the impairment of learning and memory ability and low level of uptake rate of glucose in hippocampus. What is more, there is no effective treatment for AD. In this study, we evaluated the beneficial and protective effects of electroacupuncture in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8. Method. In the electroacupuncture paradigm, electroacupuncture treatment was performed once a day for 15 days on 7.5-month-old SAMP8 male mice. In the normal control paradigm and AD control group, 7.5-month-old SAMR1 male mice and SAMP8 male mice were grabbed and bandaged while electroacupuncture group therapy, in order to ensure the same treatment conditions, once a day, 15 days. Results. From the Morris water maze (MWM test, we found that the treatment of electroacupuncture can improve the spatial learning and memory ability of SAMP8 mouse, and from the micro-PET test, we proved that after the electroacupuncture treatment the level of uptake rate of glucose in hippocampus was higher than normal control group. Conclusion. These results suggest that the treatment of electroacupuncture may provide a viable treatment option for AD.

  15. An examination of the effect on cigarette prices and promotions of Philip Morris USA penalties to stores that sell cigarettes to minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, E C; Schleicher, N C; Ribisl, K M; Rogers, T

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the potential impact of public policies to regulate price discounting strategies on retail cigarette prices and advertising. Philip Morris USA (PM USA) has a policy designed to sanction stores violating state laws banning illegal tobacco sales to minors by temporarily suspending price discounting incentives. This study examined the impact of those sanctions on retail cigarette prices and sales promotion advertising. In November 2006, the California Attorney General's Office informed PM USA that 196 stores were found guilty of illegal underage sales. Of these, 109 stores that participated in the PM USA Retail Leaders Program were notified that their merchandising and/or promotional resources would be suspended for the month of April 2007. The remaining 87 stores were not sanctioned and served as a comparison group. Trained raters assessed advertising and prices of selected PM USA brands in these stores pre-penalty and during the penalty phase. There were no significant differences between sanctioned and non-sanctioned stores on median changes in price and sales promotion advertising from the pre-penalty to the penalty phase. The lack of impact on cigarette prices and advertising indicate that the PM USA policy may be flawed in its design or execution. If public policies are developed to restrain cigarette price discounting strategies, they should be crafted to ensure compliance and preclude possible compensatory actions by retailers.

  16. Improving urban visibility through fractal analysis of street edges: The case of John Evans Atta Mills High Street in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Oppong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Streets are a representation of cities, and the image of a city is a reflection of its home country. Although attempts to ensure harmonious spatial and environmental development in Ghanaian settlements date back to the colonial era, these efforts have minimal physical manifestation in the urban fabric of the city of Accra. The Independence Arch of Ghana, an important landmark in the urban fabric and history of Accra, lacks the striking vista and approach it deserves. This paper introduces the use of fractal analysis of street edges to understand the characteristics of the John Evans Atta Mills (JEAM High Street for developing recommendations to improve visibility along its stretch and the overall image of the city. The box-counting method with visual survey was used in research. The pertinent questions this paper seeks to address are as follows: What factors affect the visibility and imageability of JEAM High Street? What design aspects should be considered to improve urban visibility along JEAM High Street? What is the link of fractals to urban design and architecture? The paper recommends various design considerations and qualities to improve the urban visibility and imageability of JEAM High Street.

  17. The effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) self-administration in male and female Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Alison G P; Wetzell, Bradley B; Pomfrey, Rebecca L; Clasen, Matthew M; Taylor, William W; Hempel, Briana J; Riley, Anthony L

    2017-08-01

    Despite widespread cannabis use in humans, few rodent models exist demonstrating significant Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) self-administration, possibly due to THC's co-occurring aversive effects, which impact drug reinforcement. Cannabis contains a number of phytocannabinoids in addition to THC, one of which, cannabidiol (CBD), has been reported to antagonize some of the aversive effects of THC. Given such effects of CBD, it is possible that it might influence THC intravenous self-administration in rodents. Accordingly, male and female Long-Evans rats were trained to self-administer THC over a 3-week period and then were assessed for the effects of CBD on responding for THC at 1:1 and 1:10 dose ratios or for the establishment of cocaine self-administration (as a positive control for drug self-administration). Consistent with previous research, THC self-administration was modest and only evident in a subset of animals (and unaffected by sex). Cocaine self-administration was high and evident in the majority of animals tested, indicating that the design was sensitive to drug reinforcement. There was no effect of CBD pretreatment on THC intravenous self-administration at any CBD:THC dose ratio. Future developments of animal models of THC self-administration and the examination of factors that affect its display remain important to establish procedures designed to assess the basis for and treatment of cannabis use and abuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Isolation and molecular characterization of group B Streptococcus from laboratory Long-Evans rats (Rattus norvegicus) with and without invasive group B streptococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodi Winn, Caroline; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Esmail, Michael Y; Feng, Yan; Dzink-Fox, JoAnn; Richey, Lauren; Perkins, Scott E; Nordberg, Eric K; Fox, James G

    2017-11-21

    Group B Streptococcus (S. agalactiae, GBS) is a Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen that inhabits the respiratory, urogenital and gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. Maternal colonization of GBS is a risk factor for a spectrum of clinical diseases in humans and a principle cause of neonatal meningitis and septicaemia. We describe polymicrobial sepsis including GBS in two gravid adult female Long-Evans rats experiencing acute mortality from a colony of long-term breeding pairs. Fluorescent in situ hybridization confirmed GBS association with pathological changes in affected tissues, including the heart and uterus. Characterization of seven GBS strains obtained from clinically affected and non-affected animals indicated similar antibiotic resistance and susceptibility patterns to that of human strains of GBS. The rat strains have virulence factors known to contribute to pathogenicity, and shared serotypes with human invasive isolates. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that one rat-derived GBS strain was more closely related to human-derived strains than other rat-derived strains, strengthening the notion that interspecies transmission is possible. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation of genotypic and phenotypic features of rat-derived GBS strains and their comparison to human- and other animal-derived GBS strains. Since GBS commonly colonizes commercially available rats, its exclusion as a potential pathogen for immunocompromised or stressed animals is recommended.

  19. Effects of prenatal exposure to a low dose atrazine metabolite mixture on pubertal timing and prostate development of male Long-Evans rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanko, Jason [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); Enoch, Rolondo [North Carolina Central University, Durham; Rayner, Jennifer L [ORNL; Davis, Christine [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Wolf, Douglas [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Malarkey, David [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Fenton, Suzanne [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)

    2010-12-01

    The present study examines the postnatal reproductive development of male rats following prenatal exposure to an atrazine metabolite mixture (AMM) consisting of the herbicide atrazine and its environmental metabolites diaminochlorotriazine, hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were treated by gavage with 0.09, 0.87, or 8.73 mg AMM/kg body weight (BW), vehicle, or 100 mg ATR/kg BW positive control, on gestation days 15 19. Preputial separation was significantly delayed in 0.87 mg and 8.73 mg AMM-exposed males. AMM-exposed males demonstrated a significant treatment-related increase in incidence and severity of inflammation in the prostate on postnatal day (PND) 120. A dose-dependent increase in epididymal fat masses and prostate foci were grossly visible in AMM-exposed offspring. These results indicate that a short, late prenatal exposure to mixture of chlorotriazine metabolites can cause chronic prostatitis in male LE rats. The mode of action for these effects is presently unclear.

  20. Attenuation of Diabetic Nephropathy in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF Rats with a Combination of Chinese Herbs (Tangshen Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haojun Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most significant microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetics. The concise mechanism of diabetic nephropathy is unknown and there is no successful treatment. The objective of study was to investigate effects of Chinese herbs (Tangshen Formula on diabetic nephropathy in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF rats. OLETF rats and LETO rats were divided into four groups: LETO control, OLETF diabetics, OLETF diabetics treated with Tangshen Formula, and OLETF diabetics treated with Monopril. Body weight, blood glucose, and 24 h urinary proteins were measured once every four weeks. Blood samples and kidney tissues were obtained for analyses of total cholesterol, triglyceride, whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, and pathohistological examination at 36 and 56 weeksrespectively. Untreated OLETF rats displayed diabetic nephropathy over the study period. Treatment of OLETF rats with Tangshen Formula attenuated the increases in blood glucose, body weight, 24 h urinary protein content, serum total cholesterol, whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity at certain time. Treatment with Tangshen Formula also reduced glomerulosclerotic index and interstitial fibrotic index seen in OLETF rats. In conclusion, Tangshen Formula could attenuate the development of diabetic nephropathy in OLETF rat diabetic model.

  1. Long-Evans and Sprague-Dawley rats have similar skilled reaching success and limb representations in motor cortex but different movements: some cautionary insights into the selection of rat strains for neurobiological motor research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whishaw, Ian Q; Gorny, Bogdan; Foroud, Afra; Kleim, Jeffrey A

    2003-10-17

    Many rat strains are used for neurobiological studies of nervous system function and behavior. The most widely used strain for studies of the neural basis of movement is the out bred, pigmented Long-Evans strain, while the most widely used strains for the study of movement impairments in neurological disease are out bred albino rats, including Sprague-Dawley rats. Although previous research has indicated that there are strain differences in skilled movements displayed by different rat strains, there has been no explicit comparison of the Long-Evans and Sprague-Dawley strains. This was the purpose of the present study. The rats were video recorded as they learned to reach for single food pellets and the video records were subjected to frame-by-frame analysis. Component movements of reaching were scored using a system derived from Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation (EWMN). The quality of movements was described using Laban Movement Analysis (LMA). Forelimb representations in motor cortex were defined electrophysiologically. Acquisition scores and success in reaching did not differ between the two strains, nor did the topographical representation of the forelimb in motor cortex. Long-Evans and Sprague-Dawley rats did differ in the movements used for reaching and on the quality of their movements. The movements of Sprague-Dawley rats resembled the movements of Long-Evans rats with motor system injury. That rat strains can show both quantitative and qualitative differences in movement is useful for the understanding of the genetic, neural, and behavioral organization of the motor system. The results are also relevant to the question of appropriateness of particular rat strains for studies of neurological diseases and the effects of albinism on motor behavior, and suggest that some of the most widely used rat strains for neurological investigations may be less than appropriate.

  2. 5-HTT Deficiency Affects Neuroplasticity and Increases Stress Sensitivity Resulting in Altered Spatial Learning Performance in the Morris Water Maze but Not in the Barnes Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabeg, Margherita M.; Grauthoff, Sandra; Kollert, Sina Y.; Weidner, Magdalena; Heiming, Rebecca S.; Jansen, Friederike; Popp, Sandy; Kaiser, Sylvia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether spatial hippocampus-dependent learning is affected by the serotonergic system and stress. Therefore, 5-HTT knockout (-/-), heterozygous (+/-) and wildtype (+/+) mice were subjected to the Barnes maze (BM) and the Morris water maze (WM), the latter being discussed as more aversive. Additionally, immediate early gene (IEG) expression, hippocampal adult neurogenesis (aN), and blood plasma corticosterone were analyzed. While the performance of 5-HTT-/- mice in the BM was undistinguishable from both other genotypes, they performed worse in the WM. However, in the course of the repeated WM trials 5-HTT-/- mice advanced to wildtype level. The experience of a single trial of either the WM or the BM resulted in increased plasma corticosterone levels in all genotypes. After several trials 5-HTT-/- mice exhibited higher corticosterone concentrations compared with both other genotypes in both tests. Corticosterone levels were highest in 5-HTT-/- mice tested in the WM indicating greater aversiveness of the WM and a greater stress sensitivity of 5-HTT deficient mice. Quantitative immunohistochemistry in the hippocampus revealed increased cell counts positive for the IEG products cFos and Arc as well as for proliferation marker Ki67 and immature neuron marker NeuroD in 5-HTT-/- mice compared to 5-HTT+/+ mice, irrespective of the test. Most differences were found in the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus of the septal hippocampus. Ki67-immunohistochemistry revealed a genotype x environment interaction with 5-HTT genotype differences in naïve controls and WM experience exclusively yielding more Ki67-positive cells in 5-HTT+/+ mice. Moreover, in 5-HTT-/- mice we demonstrate that learning performance correlates with the extent of aN. Overall, higher baseline IEG expression and increased an in the hippocampus of 5-HTT-/- mice together with increased stress sensitivity may constitute the neurobiological correlate of raised

  3. Effects of rolipram and zaprinast on learning and memory in the Morris water maze and radial arm maze tests in naive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, F; Mutlu, O; Celikyurt, I K; Ulak, G; Erden, F; Bektas, E; Tanyeri, P

    2015-02-01

    Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE) improved recognition memory and counteracted spatial learning impairment induced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition in recent studies. Aim of this study was to investigate effects of rolipram, a PDE4 inhibitor and zaprinast, a PDE5 inhibitor, on learning and memory in Morris water maze (MWM) and radial arm maze (RAM) tests in naive mice. Male Balb-c mice were treated subchronically with zaprinast (3 and 10 mg/kg) and rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) for 6 days in the MWM test and acutely before the retention trial of radial arm maze test. Rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) significantly decreased escape latency between 2(nd) and 5(th) sessions, while zaprinast (10 mg/kg) significantly decreased escape latency only in 2(nd) session. Rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) and zaprinast (10 mg/kg) significantly increased time spent in escape platform's quadrant in probe trial of MWM test; only rolipram decreased mean distance to platform, while zaprinast had no effect on mean distance to platform. Zaprinast (3 and 10 mg/kg) significantly decreased number of errors compared to control group, while rolipram (0.05 and 0.1mg/kg) had no effect on number of errors in retention trial of RAM test. Rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) and zaprinast (10 mg/kg) significantly decreased time spent to complete retention trial (latency) compared to control group. Our study revealed that both zaprinast and rolipram enhanced spatial memory in MWM, while zaprinast seems to have more memory enhancing effects compared to rolipram in radial arm maze test. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Divergence in Morris Water Maze-Based Cognitive Performance under Chronic Stress Is Associated with the Hippocampal Whole Transcriptomic Modification in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seung H.; Brownlow, Milene L.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Jankord, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Individual susceptibility determines the magnitude of stress effects on cognitive function. The hippocampus, a brain region of memory consolidation, is vulnerable to stressful environments, and the impact of stress on hippocampus may determine individual variability in cognitive performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to define the relationship between the divergence in spatial memory performance under chronically unpredictable stress and an associated transcriptomic alternation in hippocampus, the brain region of spatial memory consolidation. Multiple strains of BXD (B6 × D2) recombinant inbred mice went through a 4-week chronic variable stress (CVS) paradigm, and the Morris water maze (MWM) test was conducted during the last week of CVS to assess hippocampal-dependent spatial memory performance and grouped animals into low and high performing groups based on the cognitive performance. Using hippocampal whole transcriptome RNA-sequencing data, differential expression, PANTHER analysis, WGCNA, Ingenuity's upstream regulator analysis in the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis® and phenotype association analysis were conducted. Our data identified multiple genes and pathways that were significantly associated with chronic stress-associated cognitive modification and the divergence in hippocampal dependent memory performance under chronic stress. Biological pathways associated with memory performance following chronic stress included metabolism, neurotransmitter and receptor regulation, immune response and cellular process. The Ingenuity's upstream regulator analysis identified 247 upstream transcriptional regulators from 16 different molecule types. Transcripts predictive of cognitive performance under high stress included genes that are associated with a high occurrence of Alzheimer's and cognitive impairments (e.g., Ncl, Eno1, Scn9a, Slc19a3, Ncstn, Fos, Eif4h, Copa, etc.). Our results show that the variable effects of chronic stress on the hippocampal

  5. Rare sugar D-psicose prevents progression and development of diabetes in T2DM model Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Akram Hossain,1,2 Fuminori Yamaguchi,1 Kayoko Hirose,1 Toru Matsunaga,3 Li Sui,1 Yuko Hirata,1 Chisato Noguchi,1 Ayako Katagi,1 Kazuyo Kamitori,1 Youyi Dong,1 Ikuko Tsukamoto,4 Masaaki Tokuda11Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Ikenobe, Miki, Kagawa, Japan; 2Research and Development, Matsutani Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., Kitaitami, Itami-shi, Hyogo, Japan; 3Division of Hospital Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Ikenobe, Miki, Kagawa, Japan; 4Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Ikenobe, Miki, Kagawa, JapanBackground: The fundamental cause of overweight and obesity is consumption of calorie-dense foods. We have introduced a zero-calorie sweet sugar, D-psicose (D-allulose, a rare sugar that has been proven to have strong antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects, and could be used as a replacement of natural sugar for the obese and diabetic subjects.Aim: Above mentioned efficacy of D-psicose (D-allulose has been confirmed in our previous studies on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM model Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF rats with short-term treatment. In this study we investigated the long-term effect of D-psicose in preventing the commencement and progression of T2DM with the mechanism of preservation of pancreatic β-cells in OLETF rats.Methods: Treated OLETF rats were fed 5% d-psicose dissolved in water and control rats only water. Nondiabetic control rats, Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO, were taken as healthy control and fed water. To follow the progression of diabetes, periodic measurements of blood glucose, plasma insulin, and body weight changes were continued till sacrifice at 60 weeks. Periodic in vivo body fat mass was measured. On sacrifice, pancreas, liver, and abdominal adipose tissues were collected for various staining tests.Results: D-Psicose prevented the commencement and progression of T2DM till 60 weeks through the

  6. Exercise initiated after the onset of insulin resistance improves trabecular microarchitecture and cortical bone biomechanics of the tibia in hyperphagic Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortinau, Laura C; Linden, Melissa A; Dirkes, Rebecca K; Rector, R Scott; Hinton, Pamela S

    2017-10-01

    The present study extends our previous findings that exercise, which prevents the onset of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D), also prevents the detrimental effects of T2D on whole-bone and tissue-level strength. Our objective was to determine whether exercise improves bone's structural and material properties if insulin resistance is already present in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat. The OLETF rat is hyperphagic due to a loss-of-function mutation in cholecystokinin-1 receptor (CCK-1 receptor), which leads to progressive obesity, insulin resistance and T2D after the majority of skeletal growth is complete. Because exercise reduces body mass, which is a significant determinant of bone strength, we used a body-mass-matched caloric-restricted control to isolate body-mass-independent effects of exercise on bone. Eight-wk old, male OLETF rats were fed ad libitum until onset of hyperglycemia (20weeks of age), at which time they were randomly assigned to three groups: ad libitum fed, sedentary (O-SED); ad libitum fed, treadmill running (O-EX); or, sedentary, mild caloric restriction to match body mass of O-EX (O-CR). Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats served as the normophagic, normoglycemic controls (L-SED). At 32weeks of age, O-SED rats had T2D as evidenced by hyperglycemia and a significant reduction in fasting insulin compared to OLETFs at 20weeks of age. O-SED rats also had reduced total body bone mineral content (BMC), increased C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx)/tartrate resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b), decreased N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP), reduced percent cancellous bone volume (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N) and increased trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and structural model index (SMI) of the proximal tibia compared to L-SED. T2D also adversely affected biomechanical properties of the tibial diaphysis, and serum sclerostin was increased and β-catenin, runt-related transcription factor

  7. Perilesional Inflammation in Neurocysticercosis - Relationship Between Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Evans Blue Staining and Histopathology in the Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangalaya, Carla; Bustos, Javier A; Calcina, Juan; Vargas-Calla, Ana; Suarez, Diego; Gonzalez, Armando E; Chacaltana, Juan; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E; García, Hector H

    2016-07-01

    Disease manifestations in neurocysticercosis (NCC) are frequently due to inflammation of degenerating Taenia solium brain cysts. Exacerbated inflammation post anthelmintic treatment is associated with leakage of the blood brain barrier (BBB) using Evans blue (EB) staining. How well EB extravasation into the brain correlates with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using gadolinium (Gd) enhancement as a contrast agent and pericystic inflammation was analyzed in pigs harboring brain cysts of Taenia solium. Three groups of 4 naturally infected pigs were assessed. The first and second groups were treated with both praziquantel plus albendazole and sacrificed two and five days post treatment, respectively. A third untreated group remained untreated. Pigs were injected with EB two hours prior to evaluation by Gd-enhanced T1-MRI, and euthanized. The EB staining for each cyst capsule was scored (EB grades were 0: 0%; 1: up to 50%; 2: over 50% but less than 100%; 3: 100%). Similarly, the Gd enhancement around each cyst was qualitatively and quantitatively scored from the MRI. The extent of pericystic inflammation on histology was scored in increasing severity as IS1, IS2, IS3 and IS4. Grade 3 EB staining and enhancement was only seen in treated capsules. Also, treated groups had higher Gd intensity than the untreated group. Grades of enhancement correlated significantly with Gd enhancement intensity. EB staining was correlated with Gd enhancement intensity and with IS4 in the treated groups. These correlations were stronger in internally located cysts compared to superficial cysts in treated groups. EB staining and Gd enhancement strongly correlate. The intensity of enhancement determined by MRI is a good indication of the degree of inflammation. Similarly, EB staining highly correlates with the degree of inflammation and may be applied to study inflammation in the pig model of NCC.

  8. Dissociable effects of the d- and l- enantiomers of govadine on the disruption of prepulse inhibition by MK-801 and apomorphine in male Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Brittney R; Marks, Wendie N; Phillips, Anthony G; Howland, John G

    2017-04-01

    The search for novel antipsychotic drugs to treat schizophrenia is driven by the poor treatment efficacy, serious side effects, and poor patient compliance of current medications. Recently, a class of compounds known as tetrahydroprotoberberines, which includes the compound d,l-govadine, have shown promise in preclinical rodent tests relevant to schizophrenia. To date, the effect of govadine on prepulse inhibition (PPI), a test for sensorimotor gating commonly used to assess the effects of putative treatments for schizophrenia, has not been determined. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of each enantiomer of govadine (d- and l-govadine) on PPI alone and its disruption by the distinct pharmacological compounds apomorphine and MK-801. Male Long-Evans rats were treated systemically with d- or l-govadine and apomorphine or MK-801 prior to PPI. The PPI paradigm employed here included parametric manipulations of the prepulse intensity and the interval between the prepulse and pulse. Acute MK-801 (0.15 mg/kg) significantly increased the startle response to startle pulses alone, while both MK-801 and apomorphine (0.2 mg/kg) significantly increased reactivity to prepulse-alone trials. Both MK-801 and apomorphine disrupted PPI. In addition, d-govadine alone significantly disrupted PPI in the apomorphine experiment. Pretreatment with l-, but not d-, govadine (1.0 mg/kg) blocked the effect of apomorphine and MK-801 on PPI. Treatment of rats with l-govadine alone (0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg/kg) also dose-dependently increased PPI. Given the high affinity of l-govadine for dopamine D2 receptors, these results suggest that further testing of l-govadine as an antipsychotic is warranted.

  9. Altered sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) volume in adult Long-Evans rats by dietary soy phytoestrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, T D; Rhees, R W; Setchell, K D; Lephart, E D

    2001-09-28

    Naturally occurring estrogen-like molecules in plants (phytoestrogens), present via soy, in animal diets can alter morphology and physiology in rodents. Phytoestrogens have the ability to bind estrogen receptors and exert many of the biological responses evoked by physiological estrogens. This study characterized the effects of dietary phytoestrogens on the expression of body and prostate weight, circulating testosterone and estradiol levels, puberty onset, vaginal cyclicity, and volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) in Long-Evans rats. Using different experimental protocols, animals were fed either a phytoestrogen-rich (Phyto-600) or a phytoestrogen-free (Phyto-free) diet. Animals fed the Phyto-600 diet displayed significantly decreased body weights (in males and females), prostate weights and delayed puberty in females compared to that of animals fed the Phyto-free diet. Circulating testosterone or estradiol levels in males or estrous cyclicity were not altered by the diets. The volume of the SDN-POA was significantly altered by a change in diet at 80 days of age where one-half of the males or females fed the Phyto-600 diet (from birth) were switched to the Phyto-free diet until 120 days of age. Males initially fed a Phyto-600 diet but changed to a Phyto-free diet had significantly smaller SDN-POA volumes compared to males fed the Phyto-600 diet (long-term). These data suggest that consumption of phytoestrogens via a soy diet, significantly: (1) decreases body and prostate weight, (2) delays puberty onset, and (3) alters SDN-POA volumes during adulthood.

  10. Decreased sexual motivation and heightened anxiety in male Long-Evans rats are correlated with the memory for a traumatic event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Wayne R; Grissom, Elin M; Belkin, Mark N; James, Thomas F; Dohanich, Gary P

    2013-05-01

    Individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently report disturbances in sexual functioning in addition to alterations in their affective behaviors. Notably, maladaptive cognitions and dysfunctional behaviors are perpetuated by the emergence of the intrusive thoughts that characterize the disorder. In rats, reminders of a traumatic event designed to simulate intrusive thoughts are associated with impairments in affective, social, and sexual behaviors. The current study examined the relationship between the memory for a traumatic event and changes in sexual and affective behaviors in male Long-Evans rats (N = 36). The trauma featured a combination stressor consisting of simultaneous exposure to a footshock and the odor of soiled cat litter. Memory for the trauma was reactivated by re-exposures to the context of the trauma in the absence of stressors and confirmed by assessing the percentage of time spent freezing. Following the second and final reminder, traumatized males exhibited reduced sexual motivation and increased anxiety, signified by longer latencies to achieve their first mount on a post-stress test of sexual behavior, and longer latencies to begin feeding in a novel environment, respectively. Correlational analyses revealed that decreased sexual motivation and heightened anxiety were predicted by the memory for the trauma as indicated by the time spent freezing during the re-exposures. The findings from the current study have implications for understanding the relationship between stress and sexual functioning and indicate that the impairments in sexual behavior that often occur in individuals with PTSD may be impacted by their memory for the trauma.

  11. Effect of magnesium ion supplementation on obesity and diabetes mellitus in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats under excessive food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa

    2013-01-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have found that magnesium ion (Mg²⁺) is related to obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there have been almost no reports on the effects of a combination of excessive food intake and Mg²⁺ supplementation on metabolic syndrome and various blood tests values for diabetes mellitus. In this study, we investigated changes in body weight and blood test values for diabetes mellitus of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model for human type 2 diabetes mellitus via metabolic syndrome, under conditions of combined excessive food intake and Mg²⁺ supplementation. The rats received Mg²⁺ supplementation by drinking magnesium water (Mg²⁺; 200 mg/l). No significant differences were observed in the levels of food or water intake between OLETF rats drinking purified water (PW) or magnesium water (MW). Type 2 diabetes mellitus with metabolic syndrome developed at 30 weeks of age, and the body weights and plasma insulin levels of OLETF rats at 60 weeks of age were lower than those of normal rats. The plasma glucose (PG) levels in 38-week-old OLETF rats drinking MW were significantly lower than in those of rats drinking PW, while the body weights and the levels of triglycerides (TG) and insulin of 38-week-old MW-drinking OLETF rats were significantly higher than those of their PW-drinking counterparts. On the other hand, the decreases in body weight and insulin levels in 60-week-old OLETF rats were suppressed by MW supplementation. The present study demonstrates that Mg²⁺ supplementation delays the development of diabetes mellitus in OLETF rats under conditions of excessive food intake. In addition, obesity and high blood TG levels were observed in OLETF rats receiving Mg²⁺ supplementation in conjunction with excessive food intake.

  12. The effect of atrazine administered by gavage or in diet on the LH surge and reproductive performance in intact female Sprague-Dawley and Long Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foradori, Chad D; Sawhney Coder, Prägati; Tisdel, Merrill; Yi, Kun Don; Simpkins, James W; Handa, Robert J; Breckenridge, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Atrazine (ATR) blunts the hormone-induced luteinizing hormone (LH) surge, when administered by gavage (50-100 mg/kg/day for 4 days), in ovariectomized rats. In this study, we determined if comparable doses delivered either by gavage (bolus dose) or distributed in diet would reduce the LH surge and subsequently affect fertility in the intact female rat. ATR was administered daily to intact female Sprague-Dawley (SD) or Long Evans (LE) rats by gavage (0, 0.75 1.5, 3, 6, 10, 12, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day) or diet (0, 30, 100, 160, 500, 660, or 1460 ppm) during one complete 4-day estrous cycle, starting on day of estrus. Estrous status, corpora lutea, ova, and LH plasma concentrations were evaluated. A second cohort of animals was mated on the fourth treatment day. Fertility metrics were assessed on gestational day 20. A higher portion of LE rats had asynchronous estrous cycles when compared to SD rats both during pretreatment and in response to ATR (≥50 mg/kg). In contrast, bolus doses of ATR (≥50 mg/kg) inhibited the peak and area under the curve for the preovulatory LH surge in SD but not LE animals. Likewise, only bolus-treated SD, not LE, rats displayed reduced mean number of corpora lutea and ova. There were no effects of ATR administered by gavage on mating, gravid number, or fetus number. Dietary administration had no effect on any reproductive parameter measured. These findings indicate that short duration, high-bolus doses of ATR can inhibit the LH surge and reduce the number of follicles ovulated; however, dietary administration has no effect on any endocrine or reproductive outcomes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Effect of Atrazine Administered by Gavage or in Diet on the LH Surge and Reproductive Performance in Intact Female Sprague-Dawley and Long Evans Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foradori, Chad D; Sawhney Coder, Prägati; Tisdel, Merrill; Yi, Kun Don; Simpkins, James W; Handa, Robert J; Breckenridge, Charles B

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine (ATR) blunts the hormone-induced luteinizing hormone (LH) surge, when administered by gavage (50–100 mg/kg/day for 4 days), in ovariectomized rats. In this study, we determined if comparable doses delivered either by gavage (bolus dose) or distributed in diet would reduce the LH surge and subsequently affect fertility in the intact female rat. ATR was administered daily to intact female Sprague-Dawley (SD) or Long Evans (LE) rats by gavage (0, 0.75 1.5, 3, 6, 10, 12, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day) or diet (0, 30, 100, 160, 500, 660, or 1460 ppm) during one complete 4-day estrous cycle, starting on day of estrus. Estrous status, corpora lutea, ova, and LH plasma concentrations were evaluated. A second cohort of animals was mated on the fourth treatment day. Fertility metrics were assessed on gestational day 20. A higher portion of LE rats had asynchronous estrous cycles when compared to SD rats both during pretreatment and in response to ATR (≥50 mg/kg). In contrast, bolus doses of ATR (≥50 mg/kg) inhibited the peak and area under the curve for the preovulatory LH surge in SD but not LE animals. Likewise, only bolus-treated SD, not LE, rats displayed reduced mean number of corpora lutea and ova. There were no effects of ATR administered by gavage on mating, gravid number, or fetus number. Dietary administration had no effect on any reproductive parameter measured. These findings indicate that short duration, high-bolus doses of ATR can inhibit the LH surge and reduce the number of follicles ovulated; however, dietary administration has no effect on any endocrine or reproductive outcomes PMID:24831581

  14. GABA Uptake Inhibition Reduces In Vivo Extraction Fraction in the Ventral Tegmental Area of Long Evans Rats Measured by Quantitative Microdialysis Under Transient Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandy, Shannon L; Gonzales, Rueben A

    2018-02-01

    Inhibitory signaling in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is involved in the mechanism of action for many drugs of abuse. Although drugs of abuse have been shown to alter extracellular γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration in the VTA, knowledge on how uptake mechanisms are regulated in vivo is limited. Quantitative (no-net-flux) microdialysis is commonly used to examine the extracellular concentration and clearance of monoamine neurotransmitters, however it is unclear whether this method is sensitive to changes in clearance for amino acid neurotransmitters such as GABA. The purpose of this study was to determine whether changes in GABA uptake are reflected by in vivo extraction fraction within the VTA. Using quantitative (no-net-flux) microdialysis adapted for transient conditions, we examined the effects of local perfusion with the GABA uptake inhibitor, nipecotic acid, in the VTA of Long Evans rats. Basal extracellular GABA concentration and in vivo extraction fraction were 44.4 ± 1.9 nM (x-intercepts from 4 baseline regressions using a total of 24 rats) and 0.19 ± 0.01 (slopes from 4 baseline regressions using a total of 24 rats), respectively. Nipecotic acid (50 μM) significantly increased extracellular GABA concentration to 170 ± 4 nM and reduced in vivo extraction fraction to 0.112 ± 0.003. Extraction fraction returned to baseline following removal of nipecotic acid from the perfusate. Conventional microdialysis substantially underestimated the increase of extracellular GABA concentration due to nipecotic acid perfusion compared with that obtained from the quantitative analysis. Together, these results show that inhibiting GABA uptake mechanisms within the VTA alters in vivo extraction fraction measured using microdialysis and that in vivo extraction fraction may be an indirect measure of GABA clearance.

  15. El polisulfuro de calcio en el manejo de la moniliasis Moniliophthora roreri (Cif & Par. Evans et al. del cacao Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ramírez González

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El cacao es severamente afectado por el hongo Moniliophthora roreri (Cif & Par. Evans et al., el cual daña los frutos y puede ocasionar pérdidas totales y su control es principalmente cultural. El objetivo del trabajo es determinar la efectividad del polisulfuro de calcio (PC como alternativa para su manejo. El patógeno fue aislado y cultivado in vitro y se evaluó el efecto del PC sobre la germinación y formación de conidias; en el campo, sobre frutos se asperjó PC antes y después de la inoculación con M. roreri y se determinó la incidencia e índices de severidad interna y externa. En una plantación de cacao se asperjó PC y se determinó su incidencia y producción. El PC in vitro inhibió el crecimiento y la formación de conidias; la aplicación de PC antes o después de la inoculación artificial con M. roreri sobre frutos inhibe completamente el desarrollo de la enfermedad; con aspersiones de PC en plantaciones de cacao la incidencia de la enfermedad fue de 0,53%, mientras que fue de 21% con manejo cultural y del 69,6% con testigo de inoculación natural; la producción de cacao seco/año fue de un 90,6% más con PC que en el testigo de inoculación natural, por lo que resulta viable integrar PC en el manejo deM. roreri.

  16. Mapping and characterization of quantitative trait loci for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with an improved genetic map in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, S; Wei, K; Moralejo, D H; Ogino, T; Koike, G; Jacob, H J; Sugiura, K; Sasaki, Y; Yamada, T; Matsumoto, K

    1999-03-01

    The Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat is an animal model for obese-type, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in humans. We have previously reported four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for NIDDM on Chromosomes (Chrs) 7, 14, 8, and 11 (Nidd1-4/of for Non-insulin-dependent diabetes1-4/oletf) by a whole-genome search in 160 F2 progenies obtained by mating the OLETF and the Fischer-344 (F344) rats. Our present investigation was designed to identify and characterize novel QTLs affecting NIDDM by performing a genome-wide linkage analysis of genes for glucose levels and body weight and analysis for gene-to-gene and gene-to-body-weight interactions on an improved genetic map with a set of 382 informative markers in the 160 F2 progenies. We have identified seven novel QTLs on rat Chrs 1 (Nidd5 and 6/of), 5 (Nidd7/of), 9 (Nidd8/of), 12 (Nidd9/of), 14 (Nidd10/of) and 16 (Nidd11/of) which, together with the Nidd1-4/of, account for a total of approximately 60% and approximately 75% of the genetic variance of the fasting and postprandial glucose levels, respectively, in the F2. While the OLETF allele corresponds with increased glucose levels as expected for the novel QTLs except Nidd8 and 9/of, the Nidd8 and 9/of exhibit heterosis: heterozygotes showing significantly higher glucose levels than OLETF or F344 homozygotes. There are epistatic interactions between Nidd1 and 10/of and between Nidd2 and 8/of. Additionally, our results indicated that the Nidd6 and 11/of could also contribute to an increase of body weight, and that the other five QTLs could show no linkage with body weight, but Nidd8,9, and 10/of have an interaction with body weight.

  17. An iron-deficient diet stimulates the onset of the hepatitis due to hepatic copper deposition in the Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Naoki; Sugawara, Chieko [Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Public Health

    1999-09-01

    To study effects of dietary Cu and Fe levels on the onset of hepatitis in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, female rats (40 days old) were fed a semipurified diet containing 0.1 or 10 mg Cu/kg and 1.5 or 150 mg Fe/kg in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement for 35 days. At 75 days after birth, LEC rats (+Cu-Fe) fed a Cu-sufficient but Fe-deficient diet (Cu, 10 mg/kg; Fe, 1.5 mg/kg) showed jaundice, with lethargy, anorexia, and malaise. The biochemical variables relating to liver function were significantly increased compared to three other groups, a Cu- and Fe-deficient (-Cu-Fe) group, a Cu-deficient but Fe-sufficient (-Cu+Fe) group, and a Cu and Fe sufficient (+Cu+Fe) group. Furthermore, the +Cu-Fe rat liver showed massive necrosis with huge nuclei. The other three groups presented no biochemical and histological findings of hepatitis. Hepatic Cu and metallothionein concentrations were 289 {+-} 87 (mean {+-} SD) {mu}g/g liver and 8.7 {+-} 1.8 mg/g liver, respectively, in the +Cu-Fe rats. However, in the +Cu+Fe group the values were 196 {+-} 28 {mu}g Cu/g liver and 10.8 {+-} 1.0 mg/g liver. Hepatic Fe deposition was not influenced significantly by the dietary Cu level. The +Cu-Fe group with jaundice showed the highest free Cu concentration in the liver among the four groups, but the hepatic free Fe concentration was similar to those in the -Cu+Fe and +Cu+Fe groups. Our results indicate that an Fe-deficient diet enhances the deposition of hepatic Cu due to increased absorption of Cu from the gastrointestinal tract. This deposition stimulated the onset of hepatitis. (orig.)

  18. Sensitivity analysis of a radionuclide transfer model describing contaminated vegetation in Fukushima prefecture, using Morris and Sobol' - Application of sensitivity analysis on a radionuclides transfer model in the environment describing weeds contamination in Fukushima Prefecture, using Morris method and Sobol' indices indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoulaud-Gouin, V.; Metivier, J.M.; Gonze, M.A. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire-PRP-ENV/SERIS/LM2E (France); Garcia-Sanchez, L. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire-PRPENV/SERIS/L2BT (France)

    2014-07-01

    The increasing spatial and temporal complexity of models demands methods capable of ranking the influence of their large numbers of parameters. This question specifically arises in assessment studies on the consequences of the Fukushima accident. Sensitivity analysis aims at measuring the influence of input variability on the output response. Generally, two main approaches are distinguished (Saltelli, 2001, Iooss, 2011): - Screening approach, less expensive in computation time and allowing to identify non influential parameters; - Measures of importance, introducing finer quantitative indices. In this category, there are regression-based methods, assuming a linear or monotonic response (Pearson coefficient, Spearman coefficient), and variance-based methods, without assumptions on the model but requiring an increasingly prohibitive number of evaluations when the number of parameters increases. These approaches are available in various statistical programs (notably R) but are still poorly integrated in modelling platforms of radioecological risk assessment. This work aimed at illustrating the benefits of sensitivity analysis in the course of radioecological risk assessments This study used two complementary state-of-art global sensitivity analysis methods: - The screening method of Morris (Morris, 1991; Campolongo et al., 2007) based on limited model evaluations with a one-at-a-time (OAT) design; - The variance-based Sobol' sensitivity analysis (Saltelli, 2002) based a large number of model evaluations in the parameter space with a quasi-random sampling (Owen, 2003). Sensitivity analyses were applied on a dynamic Soil-Plant Deposition Model (Gonze et al., submitted to this conference) predicting foliar concentration in weeds after atmospheric radionuclide fallout. The Soil-Plant Deposition Model considers two foliage pools and a root pool, and describes foliar biomass growth with a Verhulst model. The developed semi-analytic formulation of foliar concentration

  19. Correlations Between the SF-36, the Oswestry-Disability Index and Rolland-Morris Disability Questionnaire in Patients Undergoing Lumbar Decompression According to Types of Spine Origin Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Sangbong; Chae, Seungbum

    2017-07-01

    Cross-sectional study. To determine the correlation between SF-36 (a measure for overall health status in patients) and Oswestry-Disability Index (ODI) or Rolland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) confined to spine according to the type of pain from the spine. Data showed moderate correlation between ODI and SF-36 Physical Component Score (PCS), Physical Functioning (PF) (r=-0.46), Physical Role Functioning (RP) (r=-0.284), Bodily Pain (BP) (r=-0.327), and Mental Component Score (MCS), Emotional Role Functioning (r=-0.250), Social Role Functioning (r=0.254), Vitality (r=0.296). Between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2013, a total of 69 patients were enrolled in this study. They were diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis and underwent decompression surgery such as laminotomy in this hospital. The 3 standardized questionnaires (ODI, RMDQ, and SF-36) were given to these patients, at least 1 year after the surgery. ODI and SF-36 had a statistically significant (P=0.001) and moderate correlation. Small correlations were also seen between Physical Functioning (r=-0.46), Physical Role Functioning (r=-0.284), and Bodily Pain (r=-0.327) of SF-36 PCS and ODI, and between Emotional Role Functioning (r=-0.250), Social Role Functioning (r=-0.254), and Vitality (r=-0.296) of SF-36 Mental Component Score and ODI. Items in ODI for the level of pain while standing and traveling were mostly related to axial back pain, while item of lifting was related to referred buttock pain. Sleeping disturbance section in the ODI was mainly caused by radiated leg pain. In addition, RMDQ was also associated to the 3 types of pain. Moderate correlation was found between ODI or RMDQ as a condition-specific outcome and the SF-36, indicating overall health status. ODI was found to be a more adequate measure to evaluate axial back pain rather than referred pain or radiating pain. RMDQ was adequate to measure the health status and to evaluate the 3 types of spine pain. These 3 instruments could

  20. Effects of training in the Morris water maze on the spatial learning acquisition and VAChT expression in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Naghdi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n  Background and the purpose of the study: It has been well established that cholinergic pathway plays an important role in learning and memory processes. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Morris water maze (MWM training on spatial memory acquisition and expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT in male rats. "n  Methods: In this study, training trials of all groups of animals were conducted in the MWM task. Rats received one training session consisting of four trials per day which continued for another four consecutive days. Controls received visible platform MWM training. The escape latency, the traveled distance and swimming speed for each rat were recorded and used to evaluate the performance of the animal during training period. For evaluation of expression of VAChT protein levels, brain tissues from animals in each experiment were obtained immediately after the last trial on the related experimental day and processed for immunohistochemistry staining and western blotting analysis. "n  Results: There was a significant difference between animals subjected to one day training and those receiving four days of training in escape latency and travel distance. There were an apparent increase in VAChT immunoreactivity in the medial septal area (MSA and CA1 region of the hippocampus in one day and four day trained animals compared with controls (visible group. Quantitative immunostaining analysis by optical density measurements in the CA1 region and evaluation of immunopositive neurons in medial septal area of brain sections confirmed qualitative findings. Assessment of VAChT protein level expression in hippocampus by western blotting evaluation showed the same pattern of immunohistochemistry results. "n  Conclusion: Overall, results of this study reveal changes in cholinergic neuron activity in different stages of training in the MWM task. Data suggest that there is a significant level of

  1. Operant self-administration of sweetened ethanol and time course of blood ethanol levels in adolescent and adult male Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, James M; Gonzales, Rueben A

    2015-03-01

    Little is known regarding mechanisms regulating ethanol (EtOH) self-administration during adolescence or if the mechanisms differ from adults. One of the best models of abuse liability is operant self-administration. Therefore, we characterized operant sweetened EtOH self-administration behavior in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent (36 days old at first EtOH exposure) and adult male Long-Evans rats were first trained to self-administer 10% sucrose (10S) in an appetitive/consummatory operant model for 1 week, and then the drinking solution was switched to 10% sucrose plus 10% EtOH (10S10E) for 2 weeks. Next, rats were switched to a fixed ratio 2 schedule, and this was followed by 1 session using a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Last, rats were tested for cue-induced reinstatement of lever-pressing behavior under extinction conditions after 13 days of abstinence. Blood EtOH concentration (BEC) of sweetened EtOH (self-administered or intragastric [IG] administration of 1 g/kg) was determined via gas chromatography. Control rats drank only 10S. Consumption of sweetened EtOH was not different between adolescents and adults under any schedule tested, reaching 1 g/kg in 20 minutes in the appetitive/consummatory model. Appetitive behavior directed at sweetened EtOH was less focused in adolescents versus adults. No age differences were found in motivation for sweetened EtOH. Cue-induced reinstatement of EtOH-seeking behavior after abstinence also did not differ by age. In control groups, no age difference was found in appetitive behavior or the amount of sucrose consumed, although adults exhibited greater cue-induced reinstatement. BEC after self-administration or IG administration of sweetened EtOH was higher in adults than adolescents. Consumption and motivation for sweetened EtOH are similar in adolescents and adults, although adolescents are more vulnerable to the effects of EtOH consumption on appetitive behavior. The IG results suggest larger volume

  2. The inhibitory effects of corncob bedding on sexual behavior in the ovariectomized Long-Evans rat treated with estradiol benzoate are overcome by male cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sherri Lee; Antonie, R Alexandru; Pfaus, James G

    2015-06-01

    The mechanisms underlying the sensitization of sexual behaviors by repeated administration of estradiol benzoate (EB) to ovariectomized (OVX) rats are not well understood. Here we tested whether two housing conditions play a role. Sexual behavior in the female rat is dependent on the activation of ERα (estrogen receptor alpha) by estradiol. Corncob (CC) bedding has been reported to have adverse effects on the reproductive behavior and physiology of rats, and to disrupt ERα signaling in mice. In addition, some rodent behaviors are stimulated by olfactory stimuli and enhanced in the presence of estradiol. Upon arrival to the facilities OVX Long-Evans rats were housed on either Sani-Chips (SC) or CC in a room that housed only females (F) or males and females (M). Females were first given four sexual training sessions with 10 μg EB + 500 μg progesterone (P; administered 48 h and 4h prior to training, respectively), followed by a 2-week hormone washout period. Next, 10 μg EB was administered s.c. every 4 days, 48 h prior to each of 8 test sessions in a unilevel 4-hole pacing chamber. On the final training day (i.e., when primed with EB+P), no inhibitory effects of corncob bedding were found, however a facilitation of the lordosis quality occurred in SC/F. Although all groups appear to have sensitized to the repeated administration of EB, CC/F animals displayed fewer high quality lordosis magnitudes and hop/darts, and received fewer mounts and intromissions overall. They also had a lower lordosis quotient (LQ) on tests 2-4 although this effect disappeared by test 5. These results suggest that although CC may inhibit some components of female sexual behavior when primed with EB alone, cues from sexually vigorous males can overcome that inhibition. Moreover, they suggest that male cues can facilitate mechanisms of estradiol sensitization. We recommend that quality control studies be conducted at individual institutions to assess any impact of corncob bedding on animal

  3. Nicotine and ethanol co-use in Long-Evans rats: Stimulatory effects of perinatal exposure to a fat-rich diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatayev, Olga; Lukatskaya, Olga; Moon, Sang-Ho; Guo, Wei-Ran; Chen, Dan; Algava, Diane; Abedi, Susan; Leibowitz, Sarah F.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies demonstrate frequent co-existence of nicotine and alcohol abuse and suggest that this may result, in part, from the ready access to and intake of fat-rich diets. Whereas animal studies show that high-fat diet intake in adults can enhance the consumption of either nicotine or ethanol and that maternal consumption of a fat-rich diet during pregnancy increases operant responding for nicotine in offspring, little is known about the impact of dietary fat on the co-abuse of these two drugs. The goal of this study was to test in Long-Evans rats the effects of perinatal exposure to fat on the co-use of nicotine and ethanol, using a novel paradigm that involves simultaneous intravenous (IV) self-administration of these two drugs. Fat- vs. chow-exposed offspring were characterized and compared, first in terms of their nicotine self-administration behavior, then in terms of their nicotine/ethanol self-administration behavior, and lastly in terms of their self-administration of ethanol in the absence of nicotine. The results demonstrate that maternal consumption of fat compared to low-fat chow during gestation and lactation significantly stimulates nicotine self-administration during fixed-ratio testing. It also increases nicotine/ethanol self-administration during fixed-ratio and dose-response testing, with BEC elevated to 120 mg/dL, and causes an increase in breakpoint during progressive ratio testing. Of particular note is the finding that rats perinatally exposed to fat self-administer significantly more of the nicotine/ethanol mixture as compared to nicotine alone, an effect not evident in the chow-control rats. After removal of nicotine from the nicotine/ethanol mixture, this difference between the fat- and chow-exposed rats was lost, with both groups failing to acquire the self-administration of ethanol alone. Together, these findings suggest that perinatal exposure to a fat-rich diet, in addition to stimulating self-administration of nicotine, causes

  4. Antihyperglycemic, insulin-sensitivity and anti-hyperlipidemic potential of Ganoderma lucidum, a dietary mushroom, on alloxan- and glucocorticoid-induced diabetic Long-Evans rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known and popular edible mushroom eaten as vegetables all over the world. It has been used as alternative medicine for long years in China, Korea, Japan, Malaysia, and in eastern Russia. It is reported to exhibit a number of medicinal properties including antitumor, antioxidant, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and hypoglycemic activities due to the presence of bioactive polysaccharide. Glucocorticoids, prescribed for the treatment of arthritis to protect inflammation and reduce pain, can induce hyperglycemia or aggravate the hyperglycemic condition reaching to very high glucose levels in diabetic patients. However, no report has been published for its activity on glucocorticoid-induced diabetes. Objective: To investigate the effect of Ganoderma lucidum on alloxan- and glucocorticoid- induced diabetes in Long-Evans rats. Methods: Alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg was intraperitoneally administered to Long-Evans rats as a single dose. The same volume of normal saline was injected to control rats. Three days after alloxan injection, rats with plasma glucose levels higher than 12 mmoL /L were considered as diabetic and they were included in the study. Reishi mushroom was collected from the Mushroom Development Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh, where it was identified by a Taxonomist. Petroleum ether extract (PEE Methanol extract (ME were prepared by maceration and distillation techniques. The extracts were orally administered once in a day at doses of 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg, respectively for 7 days. Metformin (150 mg/kg was orally administered as a standard antidiabetic drug. Glucose levels were measured at 0 and 7th days of treatment. The rats were allowed to rest for 1 week without treatment. The animals were again injected with dexamethasone (2 mg/kg through intra-muscular route for 3 days and glucose levels were monitored regularly. Rats were

  5. Assessing self-reported disability in a low-literate population with chronic low back pain: cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric testing of Igbo Roland Morris disability questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igwesi-Chidobe, Chinonso N; Obiekwe, Chinwe; Sorinola, Isaac O; Godfrey, Emma L

    2017-12-14

    Cross-culturally adapt and validate the Igbo Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Cross-cultural adaptation, test-retest, and cross-sectional psychometric testing. Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire was forward and back translated by clinical/non-clinical translators. An expert committee appraised the translations. Twelve participants with chronic low back pain pre-tested the measure in a rural Nigerian community. Internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha; test-retest reliability using intra-class correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plot; and minimal detectable change were investigated in a convenient sample of 50 people with chronic low back pain in rural and urban Nigeria. Pearson's correlation analyses using the eleven-point box scale and back performance scale, and exploratory factor analysis were used to examine construct validity in a random sample of 200 adults with chronic low back pain in rural Nigeria. Ceiling and floor effects were investigated in the two samples. Modifications gave the option of interviewer-administration and reflected Nigerian social context. The measure had excellent internal consistency (α = 0.91) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC =0.84), moderately high correlations (r > 0.6) with performance-based disability and pain intensity, and a predominant uni-dimensional structure, with no ceiling or floor effects. Igbo Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire is a valid and reliable measure of pain-related disability. Implications for rehabilitation Low back pain is the leading cause of years lived with disability worldwide, and is particularly prevalent in rural Nigeria, but there are no self-report measures to assess its impact due to low literacy rates. This study describes the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of a core self-report back pain specific disability measure in a low-literate Nigerian population. The Igbo Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire is a reliable and valid measure of self

  6. Role of Suzanne Mubarak Science Exploration Center in Motivating Physics Learning (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, Mona

    2009-04-01

    The role of Science Exploration centers to promote learning ``beyond school walls'' is demonstrated. The Suzane Mubarak Science Exploration Center (www.smsec.com) at Hadaek El Kobba, Cairo, was inaugurated in 1998 with the assistance of Zusane Mubarak, the first lady of Egypt and the minister of education. It was the first interactive science and technology center in Egypt. After 10 years, the number of centers has increased to 33 nationwide. Since its inauguration the center has received over 3 million visitors. Through different facilities, such as the internet, science cities, multimedia, and virtual reality programs, basic principles of science are simplified and their technological applications in our daily lives are explored. These facilities are fully equipped with new media such as video conferencing, videotapes, overhead projectors, data shows, and libraries, as well as demonstration tools for basic science. The main objectives of the science exploration centers are discussed such as: (1) curricula development for on-line learning; (2) integration of e-learning programs into basic science (physics, mathematics, chemistry, and biology) and (3) workshops and organizations for students, teachers, and communities dealing with basic science programs.

  7. Effect of crude extract and its semi purified constituents from guaraná seeds [Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart. lucke] on cognitive performance in Morris water maze in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Jacques Otobone

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of crude lyophilized extract (EBPC and the semi-purified constituents (EPA and EPB of Paullinia cupana (guaraná seeds long-term administered in rats by gavage at different doses was studied on cognitive behavior in rats. EBPC (30.0 mg/kg and EPA (2.0 mg/kg, but not EPB (2.0 or 4.0 mg/kg showed a smaller escape latency to find the emerged platform in Morris water maze test (MWMT, showing nootropic-like effect in normal rats, and in scopolamine induced amnesia rats compared to their controls (saline + 0.2% Tween 80 group. These extracts had no significant effect in open field test (OFT. Caffeine did alter escape latency in MWMT only in scopolamine induced amnesia rats and increased the crossings number in OFT, showing significant stimulant effect. Chronic treatment showed the same increase in body weight and average lifespan indicating a low toxicity for the extracts.O efeito do tratamento crônico (gavagem do extrato bruto liofilizado (EBPC das sementes da Paullinia cupana, guaraná, e seus constituintes semi-purificados EPA e EPB, sobre o comportamento cognitivo foi estudado em ratos submetidos ao teste do labirinto aquático de Morris. EBPC (30.0 mg/kg e EPA (2.0 mg/kg, mostraram menor latência para encontrar a plataforma submersa quando comparados ao grupo controle (salina+ tween 80 a 0.2%, em ratos normais ou tratados com escopolamina, o que sugere efeito benéfico sobre a cognição. Estes extratos não alteraram a atividade locomotora no teste do campo aberto. A cafeína, reduziu o tempo de latência para encontrar a plataforma submersa no teste do labirinto aquático de Morris em tratados com escopolamina. Além disso, aumentou o número de cruzamentos no teste do campo aberto, mostrando efeito estimulante. Ratos tratados com EPB não produziram alteração significativa nos testes utilizados. Os animais tratados cronicamente com EBPC, EPA ou EPB tiveram a mesma evolução ponderal e sobrevida o que sugere baixa toxicidade

  8. University of Geneva honours LHC project leader Lyn Evans at 450th anniversary ceremony. The honorary degrees, which recognize endeavours in human rights and in fostering dialogue between nations, were also awarded to Mary Robinson, Desmond Tutu, as well as Pascal Lamy .

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2009-01-01

    University of Geneva honours LHC project leader Lyn Evans at 450th anniversary ceremony. The honorary degrees, which recognize endeavours in human rights and in fostering dialogue between nations, were also awarded to Mary Robinson, Desmond Tutu, as well as Pascal Lamy .

  9. [Application of the method of one-day learning in a Morris water maze to analyse the effects of sleep deprivation on memory trace recall 24 hours later, after learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorokhov, V B; Kozhedub, R G; Arsenyev, G N; Bukhgolts, O I; Marchenko, V G; Puchkova, A N

    2014-01-01

    The proposed model of a one-day spatial learning is of interest in research of how sleep influences the hippocamp-dependent memory consolidation. We have studied the influence of a one-day total sleep deprivation on spatial memory consolidation in hooded rats after a one-day learning in the Morris water maze according to Feldman et al. [2010] protocol. According to it rats had to find a submerged platform that was alternatively marked by a flag or completely invisible to an animal. In a previous study [Dorokhov et al., 2011] we have used another one-day learning protocol [Frick et al., 2000] and Wistar rats and have demonstrated a large interindividual variance in learning parameters and sleep deprivation effects on memory consolidation. In this study we confirm previously acquired results on negative impact of sleep deprivation on spatial memory consolidation. To demonstrate the effects of sleep deprivation on the results of one-day learning we are using for the first time an evaluation of the time spent by an animal in the area of the platform placement and corresponding areas in the other quadrants of the water maze.

  10. The bilingual Loch Ness Monster raises its non-asymmetric head again-or, why bother with such cumbersome notions as validity and reliability? Comments on Evans et al. (2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Michel

    2003-12-01

    All of the experimental studies of the past 25 years combined and the meta-analyses of their findings have not advanced our knowledge of the lateralization of language in bilingual speakers one bit. We are left with a clutter of inherently uninterpretable contradictory results. Successive studies do not contribute a single brick to the edifice or a single piece to the puzzle-only more confusion. study is no exception. So far, there has been no demonstration of the validity of any experimental paradigm claiming to measure degree of language laterality in bilingual speakers. Experimentation is pointless unless the nature of what is alleged to be lateralized is clearly defined and the validity of the measures employed has been established. Because of the lack of validity of the paradigms used in bilingual laterality studies, experiments and meta-analyses of their findings cannot have any scientific significance. Like their predecessors, Evans et al. pay lip service to a number of methodological problems, but ignore their implications and simply carry on anyway. The authors ought to demonstrate, rather than assume, that degree of visual half-field advantage for single words corresponds to degree of lateralization of any component of language (even if only of words).

  11. Can Mapping Algorithms Based on Raw Scores Overestimate QALYs Gained by Treatment? A Comparison of Mappings Between the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire and the EQ-5D-3L Based on Raw and Differenced Score Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Jason; Khan, Kamran A; Petrou, Stavros; Lamb, Sarah E

    2017-05-01

    Mapping algorithms are increasingly being used to predict health-utility values based on responses or scores from non-preference-based measures, thereby informing economic evaluations. We explored whether predictions in the EuroQol 5-dimension 3-level instrument (EQ-5D-3L) health-utility gains from mapping algorithms might differ if estimated using differenced versus raw scores, using the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ), a widely used health status measure for low back pain, as an example. We estimated algorithms mapping within-person changes in RMQ scores to changes in EQ-5D-3L health utilities using data from two clinical trials with repeated observations. We also used logistic regression models to estimate response mapping algorithms from these data to predict within-person changes in responses to each EQ-5D-3L dimension from changes in RMQ scores. Predicted health-utility gains from these mappings were compared with predictions based on raw RMQ data. Using differenced scores reduced the predicted health-utility gain from a unit decrease in RMQ score from 0.037 (standard error [SE] 0.001) to 0.020 (SE 0.002). Analysis of response mapping data suggests that the use of differenced data reduces the predicted impact of reducing RMQ scores across EQ-5D-3L dimensions and that patients can experience health-utility gains on the EQ-5D-3L 'usual activity' dimension independent from improvements captured by the RMQ. Mappings based on raw RMQ data overestimate the EQ-5D-3L health utility gains from interventions that reduce RMQ scores. Where possible, mapping algorithms should reflect within-person changes in health outcome and be estimated from datasets containing repeated observations if they are to be used to estimate incremental health-utility gains.

  12. "It doesn't seem to make sense for a company that sells cigarettes to help smokers stop using them": A case study of Philip Morris's involvement in smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Lown, E Anne; Malone, Ruth E

    2017-01-01

    In the late 1990s, American tobacco companies began offering limited cessation assistance to smokers by posting links on their company websites to government-sponsored smoking cessation resources. Philip Morris USA (PM) went further, funding youth cessation programs and creating its own online cessation program, QuitAssist. We explore why PM entered the cessation arena, and describe the variety of options considered and how PM-supported cessation programs were evaluated and promoted. We retrieved and analyzed archival PM documents from 1998-2005. We supplemented information from the documents with scholarly articles assessing QuitAssist and archived versions of the PM and QuitAssist websites. PM's Youth Smoking Prevention department began funding youth cessation projects and programs soon after its creation in 1998, motivated by the same issue that drove its interest in youth smoking prevention: regulatory threats posed by public and policymaker concern about youth smoking. The department took a similar approach to youth smoking cessation as it did with prevention, rejecting curricula with "anti-industry" themes. In 2002, a "cessation exploration team" examined a variety of rationales for and approaches to company support for adult smoking cessation. Ultimately, PM chose QuitAssist, a limited and less expensive option that nonetheless provided opportunities for engagement with a variety of public health and government officials. Independent research indicates that QuitAssist is not an effective cessation tool. While the transformation of ambitious plans into a mundane final product is a recurring theme with PM's corporate responsibility efforts, it would be inappropriate to dismiss PM's smoking cessation endeavors as half-hearted attempts to appear responsible. Such endeavors have the potential to inflict real harm by competing with more effective programs and by helping to maintain a tobacco-favorable policy environment. If PM truly wanted to support cessation, it

  13. Item response theory analysis to evaluate reliability and minimal clinically important change of the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire in patients with severe disability due to back pain from vertebral compression fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minji K; Yost, Kathleen J; McDonald, Jennifer S; Dougherty, Ryne W; Vine, Roanna L; Kallmes, David F

    2017-06-01

    The majority of validation done on the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) has been in patients with mild or moderate disability. There is paucity of research focusing on the psychometric quality of the RMDQ in patients with severe disability. To evaluate the psychometric quality of the RMDQ in patients with severe disability. Observational clinical study. The sample consisted of 214 patients with painful vertebral compression fractures who underwent vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty. The 23-item version of the RMDQ was completed at two time points: baseline and 30-day postintervention follow-up. With the two-parameter logistic unidimensional item response theory (IRT) analyses, we derived the range of scores that produced reliable measurement and investigated the minimal clinically important difference (MCID). Scores for 214 (100%) patients at baseline and 108 (50%) patients at follow-up did not meet the reliability criterion of 0.90 or higher, with the majority of patients having disability due to back pain that was too severe to be reliably measured by the RMDQ. Depending on methodology, MCID estimates ranged from 2 to 8 points and the proportion of patients classified as having experienced meaningful improvement ranged from 26% to 68%. A greater change in score was needed at the extreme ends of the score scale to be classified as having achieved MCID using IRT methods. Replacing items measuring moderate disability with items measuring severe disability could yield a version of the RMDQ that better targets patients with severe disability due to back pain. Improved precision in measuring disability would be valuable to clinicians who treat patients with greater functional impairments. Caution is needed when choosing criteria for interpreting meaningful change using the RMDQ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Herbal composition Gambigyeongsinhwan (4) from Curcuma longa, Alnus japonica, and Massa Medicata Fermentata inhibits lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells and regulates obesity in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jong Sung; Lee, Hyunghee; Woo, Sangee; Yoon, Miso; Kim, Jeongjun; Park, Sun Dong; Shin, Soon Shik; Yoon, Michung

    2015-08-02

    Adipocyte lipid accumulation due to impaired fatty acid oxidation causes adipocyte hypertrophy and adipose tissue increment, leading to obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the antiobesity effects of the herbal composition Gambigyeongsinhwan (4) (GGH(4)) composed of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), Alnus japonica (Thunb.) Steud. (Betulaceae), and the fermented traditional Korean medicine Massa Medicata Fermentata. The effects of GGH(4) and the individual components on lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and body weight gain in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were examined using Oil red O staining, hematoxylin and eosin staining, quantitative real-time PCR, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) transactivation assay. GGH(4), individual components, and an active principle of Curcuma longa curcumin inhibited lipid accumulation and mRNA levels of adipocyte-specific genes (PPARγ, aP2, and C/EBPα) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared with control cells. Treatment with GGH(4), the individual components or curcmumin increased mRNA levels of mitochondrial (CPT-1, MCAD, and VLCAD) and peroxisomal (ACOX and thiolase) PPARα target genes. GGH(4) and the individual components also increased PPARα reporter gene expression compared with control cells. These effects were most prominent in GGH(4)-treated cells. However, the PPARα antagonist GW6471 reversed the inhibitory effects of GGH(4) on adipogenesis. An in vivo study showed that GGH(4) decreased body weight gain, adipose tissue mass, and visceral adipocyte size with increasing mRNA levels of adipose tissue PPARα target genes in OLETF rats. These results demonstrate that GGH(4) has an antiobesity effects through the inhibition of adipocyte lipid accumulation, and this process may be mediated in part through adipose PPARα activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lewis morris rutherfurd 1816-1892.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devons, S

    1976-07-01

    Lewis M. Rutherfurd (1816-1892) was a wealthy amateur practitioner of science, making notable contributions to the optics of astronomy and spectroscopy. He graduated from Williams College at the age of 18 and soon began a career in law. Not long thereafter he was fortunate enough to acquire sufficient wealth through marriage to permit him to pursue scientific activity, for which he had gained interest. He soon became interested in photographing the heavens to obtain quantitative data regarding star motions. A few years later he developed a spectrometer with which he obtained some of the best attainable stellar spectra of the time. Rutherfurd is not widely known because he did not fully report his work; but through correspondence and instrument development he had a profound influence on his contemporaries. He was made a trustee of Columbia College in 1858, and in 1881 he helped to found a department of Geodesy and Practical Astronomy there.

  16. Cardiovascular Ultrasound of Neonatal Long Evans Rats ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This abstract describes the use of a relatively new technology, cardiovascular ultrasound (echocardiography) for evaluating developmental toxicity affecting heart development. The abstract describes the effects of two known cardiac teratogens, trichloroacetic acid and dimethadione, and their effects as determined by echocardiography. This abstract describes the use and development of a relatively new technology, cardiovascular ultrasound (echocardiography) for evaluating developmental toxicity affecting heart development.

  17. Síndrome de Evans en lactantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Alejandra Flores-Montes

    2017-03-01

    Conclusiones: En el abordaje del paciente pediátrico con trombocitopenia se deben buscar alteraciones de otra línea celular. En los casos reportados se detectó la presencia de anemia hemolítica y monocitosis, por lo que se deben incluir estudios infecciosos e inmunológicos. El tratamiento de primera línea es con esteroides, y debe considerarse la administración de inmunoglobulina si existe trombocitopenia severa asociada, como se observó en estos casos.

  18. Craniofacial form is altered by chronic adult exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD in Han/Wistar and Long–Evans rats with different aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina B. Sholts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian bone has shown a variety of responses to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD exposure in experimental and wildlife studies. Although many responses have been well characterized in the postcranial skeleton, dioxin-induced effects on the cranium are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic adult exposure to TCDD on cranial size and shape in dioxin-resistant Han/Wistar (H/W and dioxin-sensitive Long–Evans (L–E rat strains. Three-dimensional landmark configurations for the face, vault, and base of the cranium were recorded and analyzed using geometric morphometrics (GM and dose–response modeling. The strongest effects were shown by L–E and H/W rats with daily exposures of 100 and 1000 ng TCDD/kg bw/day, respectively, resulting in significant reductions in centroid size (CS in all three cranial modules for both strains except for the vault in H/W rats. Consistent with previous evidence of intraspecific variation in TCDD resistance, the benchmark doses (CEDs for cranial size reduction in L–E rats were roughly 10-fold lower than those for H/W rats. For both strains, the face showed the greatest size reduction from the highest doses of TCDD (i.e., 3.6 and 6.3% decreases in H/W and L–E rats, respectively, most likely related to dose-dependent reductions in limb bone size and body weight gain. However, intrinsic morphological differences between strains were also observed: although the control groups of H/W and L–E rats had vaults and bases of comparable size, the face was 6.4% larger in L–E rats. Thus, although H/W rats possess an altered aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR that appears to mediate and provides some resistance to TCDD exposure, their smaller reductions in facial size may also relate to strain-specific patterns of cranial development and growth. Future research will be aimed at understanding how ontogenetic factors may modulate toxic effects of prenatal and lactational exposure on

  19. Perceived effects of art therapy in the treatment of personalitydisorders, cluster B/C: A qualitative studySuzanne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haeyen, S.W.; Hooren, S. van; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Art therapy (AT) is frequently used in the treatment of patients diagnosed with cluster B/C personality disorders, but there is little evidence for its efficacy. This study aimed to provide insight into the perceived effects of AT. We interviewed 29 adult patients in individual and focus-group

  20. The Proactive Grand Strategy for Consensual and Peaceful Korean Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Author: Jungsoo Kim Approved by: Edward A. Olsen Thesis Co-Advisor Alice Lyman Miller Thesis Co-Advisor Douglas Porch Chairman...Jorge Chen, Madison and Claire Morris, OJ and Janan Sanchez, Don and Charla Moss, Dan and Jodi Billquist, Suzanne Schang, Rob and Laura Hulse, Jack...Young, who was later purged.”23 b. Counterargument Jung Byung-joon, a professor at Mokpo National University in South Korea, contradicts the

  1. BOOK REVIEW: ADRENALINE JUNKIES AND TEMPLATE ZOMBIES Understanding Patterns of Project Behavior by Tom Demarco, Peter Hruschka, Tim Lister, Steve McMenamin, James Robertson, Suzanne Robertson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. KADIR ALPASLAN DEMIR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today, armed forces are in continuous transformation. As new technologies are developed and new principles of war are introduced, the ministries of defenses and armed forces have to adapt to this changing environment. Almost every day, military officials start new projects to handle the technological and cultural transformations in the military. Project management became an integral part of defense development and management. Today, all high or middle level military officials are either a project sponsor overseeing a project, or a project manager executing a project, or a member of project team helping the project to become a reality. As a result, project management skills became an essential part of skillset that a military official need to successfully execute his/her duties.

  2. Joseph E. Suzanne, Fertile Bonds. Bedouin class, kinship and gender in the Bekaa Valley, University Press of Florida, 2013, 233 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Van Aken

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of kinship ties and their idiom in marginalized communities in the Middle East and elsewhere is a focal theme in anthropological literature. Reinventing bonds and their symbolical and material meaning in everyday life has been historically one of the main neglected issues in understanding poverty, local coping strategies, class formation and policy making. This is even more true of pastoral communities, which tend to be relegated in social studies to the “traditional” conservat...

  3. Managing missing scores on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    2009-01-01

    error present when the Oswestry was scored in the same way. Methods ·         For each of 311 fully completed RMDQ23 questionnaires from people seeking primary or secondary care, a sum score was calculated and standardized to a 100-point scale. ·         Using random number generation, questions were...... Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) sum scores when one or more questions have not been answered. However, missing data are common on the RMDQ and the current options are: calculate a sum score regardless of unanswered questions, reject all data containing unanswered questions, or to impute scores. Other...... questionnaires, such as the Oswestry Disability Index (Oswestry) convert their raw score into a standardized score out of 100. An advantage of this method is that it allows missing data to be accommodated by proportional recalculation. For example, if 17 questions had been answered ’yes’ on a RMDQ questionnaire...

  4. Classification of the eastern alpine vegetation of Lesotho | Morris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is proposed that topography acts to modify the factors that directly influence plant growth by modifying solar radiation patterns. Keywords:aspect; botanical composition; botany; c3 grasses; c4 grasses; discriminant analysis; grassland; grasslands; lesotho; relationships; solar radiation; subtropical grasses; vegetation

  5. William Morris Davis e a Teoria Geográfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto de Figueiredo Monteiro

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O autor põe em confronto a proposta teórica do Ciclo Geográfico de W. M. Davis, da virada dos séculos passados (1899 e a famosa crítica sobre a carência de fundamentação científica na Geografia, feita por Fred Schaefer (1953. Este é o ponto de partida para traçar um panorama da evolução da Geografia Física no Brasil, notadamente da Geomorfologia e da Climatologia, ao longo do século XX. Sincronizando a evolução do pensamento geográfico com os grandes acontecimentos mundiais do passado século, o autor destaca o segmento 1968-1973 como o possível ponto de mutação a partir do qual penetramos na Grande Crise Histórica que atravessamos nesta virada dos séculos XX e XXI e o caráter desagregativo da atual Geografia.

  6. The Subject Headings of the Morris Swett Library, USAFAS. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-15

    Sparrow) S7 (Sparrow I) S71 (Sparrow II) S72 (Sparrow III) S73 ( Sprint ) S78 (Talos-W) T2 (Terrier) T3 (Terrier iB) T31 (TOW) (Typhoon) T9 (XSSM-A-1... VOLLEYBALL (GV 1017) VOLTAGE DIVIDERS VOLTOHMETER (TK 7879.2) VOLTURNO, BATTLE OF THE, 1943 (D 763.161 V7) VOLUNTEERS, MILITARY (UB 323) VOODOOISM

  7. DCS SURVEY SUBMISSION for MORRIS COUNTY, NEW JERSEY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  8. DCS HYDROLOGY SUBMISSION for MORRIS COUNTY, NEW JERSEY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. DCS HYDRAULICS SUBMISSION for MORRIS COUNTY, NEW JERSEY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  10. DCS TERRAIN SUBMISSION for MORRIS COUNTY, NEW JERSEY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  11. The Nineteenth Amy Morris Homans Lecture. The Long Green Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Beverly June

    1985-01-01

    Physical educators have been over-attentive to the technical and professional prerequisites perceived as necessary for a first job or graduate school. Yet, all students need a sound liberal education if they are going to be contributing members of a society and live rich, productive, and rewarding lives. (MT)

  12. Plato's Cave | Morris | South African Journal of Philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current interpretations of Plato's cave are obviously incorrect because they do not explain how what we hear does not come from what we see. I argue that Plato is saying that the colors we receive from our faculty of vision do not cause the sounds that we receive from our faculty of hearing. I also show how we do not see ...

  13. Effects of Fipronil on the EEG of Long Evans Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have reported that the non-stimulus driven EEG is differentially altered by deltamethrin or permethrin (Lyke and Herr, Toxicologist, 114(S-1):265, 2010). In the current study, we examined the ability to detect changes in EEG activity produced by fipronil, a phenylpyrazole pest...

  14. Evans v. Amicus Healthcare Ltd; Hadley v. Midland Fertility Ltd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Court Decision: [2003] 4 All England Law Reports 903; 2003 October 1 (date of decision). The England and Wales High Court held in two separate cases that the use of an embryo created through in vitro fertilization could not proceed without consent of both parents at the point of time at which the embryo was to transferred. Two women brought suit against their respective former male partners with whom embryos had been created through in vitro fertilization. Both women had subsequently separated from their partners and had brought suit to gain use of the created embryos. Although both men had given consent for their gametes to be used to create the embryos, such consent had been given solely for treatment together with their partners. Absent the mens' consent at the time of transfer of the embryos into the women, the parties could not be said to be seeking treatment together. Despite any broad unconditional statements of consent made by either man prior to separation, public policy concerns required the present objection to prevent finding of informed consent to transfer of the embryos to the women.

  15. Potential antifungal activity of Cladonia aff. rappii A. Evans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Plaza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lichen is a self-supporting symbiotic organism composed of a fungus and an algal partner. They have manifold biological activities like antiviral, antibiotic, antioxidant, antitumor, allergenic and inhibition of plant growth. Species of Cladonia, have been studied by its antifungal activity. Aims: To evaluate the antifungal activity determination of Cladonia aff. rappii against five yeasts, four of genus Candida and one Cryptococcus, using water, ethanol and dichloromethane extracts. Methods: The evaluation of the antifungal activity was developed by three diffusion methods such as spot-on-a-lawn, disc diffusion and well diffusion. Additionally, the values of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC were determined. Results: Based on the experimental results obtained, the best antifungal activity was using ethanol extract at 20 mg/mL against Candida albicans, applying the three diffusion methods above mentioned. With ethanol extract, the lower MIC was against Candida glabrata and the lower MFC were with Candida glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. The dichloromethane extract presented the lowest MIC and MFC against C. neoformans. Not activity was observed with aqueous extract. Conclusions: The present study revealed antifungal and fungicidal activity in the extract of lichen Cladonia aff. rappii.

  16. Meie igapäevane paanika / Ott Karulin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karulin, Ott, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Kahest Vanemuise teatri lavastusest Tartus - Saksa Kultuuri Instituudis etendunud Ingvar Ambjornseni-Axel Hellsteniuse "Elling" Ain Mäeotsa lavastuses ja Laura Cunninghami "Beautiful Bodies" Vanemuises, lavastaja Jüri Lumiste

  17. OrthoImagery Submission for Evans County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — NAIP imagery is available for distribution within 60 days of the end of a flying season and is intended to provide current information of agricultural conditions in...

  18. Dualistlikud juhid : edukas toimetulek paradoksidega / Paul A. L Evans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Evans, Paul A. L

    2001-01-01

    INSEAD'i juhtimisprofessor väidab, et juhtidele esitatud väljakutse seisneb vastandite vahel manööverdamises. Juhtimise 11 paradoksi. Artikkel tõlgitud raamatust "Management 21C: Someday we'll all manage this way", 2000

  19. Postmodern Vexations: A Reply to Meyer and Evans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Dianne L.; Ferguson, Philip M.

    1993-01-01

    This commentary on EC 608 302, which discusses behavioral research methodology involving individuals with developmental disabilities, argues that a clear distinction must be made between methods and models, there is a need for more broadly focused intervention studies considering the body of applied practical knowledge, and differences in research…

  20. SINK OR SWIM? DEBT REVIEW'S AMBIVALENT "LIFELINE" ---- A SECOND SEQUEL TO "… A TALE OF TWO JUDGMENTS" NEDBANK V ANDREWS (240/2011 2011 ZAECPEHC 29 (10 May 2011; FIRSTRAND BANK LTD V EVANS 2011 4 SA 597 (KZD AND FIRSTRAND BANK LTD V JANSE VAN RENSBURG 2012 2 All SA 186 (ECP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Steyn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The interface between the National Credit Act 34 of 2005 and the Insolvency Act 24 of 1936 has been the object of our courts' attention in a number of recent cases including Ex parte Ford and Two Similar Cases 2009 3 SA 376 (WCC, Investec Bank Ltd v Mutemeri 2010 1 SA 265 (GSJ, Naidoo v ABSA Bank Ltd 2010 4 SA 597 (SCA and, more recently, Nedbank v Andrews (240/2011 2011 ZAECPEHC 29 (10 May 2011, FirstRand Bank Ltd v Evans 2011 4 597 (KZD and FirstRand Bank Ltd v Janse van Rensburg 2012 2 All SA 186 (ECP. The question raised in all of the three most recent cases was whether or not a debtor's application for debt review in terms of the National Credit Act constitutes an "act of insolvency" in terms of section 8 of the Insolvency Act, upon which a creditor may rely in an application for the compulsory sequestration of the debtor's estate. If it does, it would mean that by resorting to the debt relief measures provided by the National Credit Act a debtor commits the very act on which a creditor may base an application for a sequestration order which, if granted, will render the debtor's estate insolvent and bring about the liquidation of his assets. From the debtor's perspective, this is probably precisely the situation that he seeks to avert by applying for debt review. Further, sequestration would frustrate the stated purpose of the National Credit Act, which is that debtors should take responsibility for their debts by satisfying them in full. Concurrent creditors might also ultimately receive a dividend which falls far short of what is due to them. The question of whether a debtor's resorting to debt review may or should be the very act that triggers his estate's sequestration and its attendant consequences is an important issue, the treatment of which impacts significantly on the efficacy of the South African consumer debt relief system. This article analyses the most recent judgments and considers whether or not statutory regulation of the

  1. 76 FR 7589 - Bob Evans Farms, Inc., an Ohio Corporation, a Subsidiary of Bob Evans Farms, Inc., a Delaware...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... sows (the main component in the production of pork sausage) from Canada, the cost of production of the finished sausage product increased. The workers' hours of production were decreased due to the cost of... those produced by the subject firm, there has not been a shift of production by the subject firm to a...

  2. "Infinitely CERN Memories from 50 years of research" CERN and Editions Suzanne Hurter are publishing a beautiful book, "Infinitely CERN", to commemorate the human and scientific adventure of CERN.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The book tells the history of CERN through the voices of those who lived it. Highlights such as scientific events, technical achievements and CERN's role as an international organization in Geneva, are recalled chronologically by people who witnessed them: administrators, engineers and physicists, including Georges Charpak, Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer, who received the Nobel Prize in physics for discoveries made at CERN.

  3. Development of the Iranian provinces in health indices using Morris Model and linear TOPSIS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatollah Bahrami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health is a central pillar of sustainable development and an inseparable part of the prosperity and improved quality of life. Protecting and promoting public health is necessity for every action to be considered in socio-economic planning. Providing appropriate facilities for physical, psychological, social and spiritual health in all stages of life is a basic to human rights and needs. This article aims to determine the distribution and availability of health services in all Iran provinces. Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, a total of 14 institutional and specialized variables were used. To explain the indicators using Excel and SPSS software, linear TOPSIS method and Human Development Index were used. Results: At national level, 13 provinces were haves, 5 semi-haves and 13 other provinces have-nots. The research results show that distribution of facilities and health services followed the center –periphery theory. Often, the central provinces are haves and marginal provinces are have-nots. Conclusion: In order to improve the health indicators, the government should review the distribution manner of medical and health services. To this end, the priority should be given to development of clinics, revision of distribution of general surgeon, pediatrician, internist and pharmacist. Most of the provinces had limitations in this regard.

  4. Long-term impoverished housing effects on morris maze performance after a fimbria lesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Rijzingen, I.M.S.; Doremalen, E. van; Spruijt, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    Male Wistar rats received bilateral Fimbria lesions and were postoperatively housed in either standard social conditions or in impoverished conditions (one rat per cage) for 2 weeks in experiment I, and for 7 months in experiment II. The effects of lesion and housing conditions were investigated in

  5. On obtaining Knuth, Morris, and Pratt's string matcher by partial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ager, Mads Sig; Danvy, Olivier; Rohde, Henning Korsholm

    2002-01-01

    We present the first formal proof that partial evaluation of a quadratic string matcher can yield the precise behaviour of the KMP string matcher. Obtaining the KMP is a canonical example of partial evaluation: one starts from the naive, quadratic program checking whether a pattern occurs in a text...

  6. 75 FR 41879 - Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Morris County, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... refuge, contact William Koch, Refuge Manager, at Great Swamp NWR, 241 Pleasant Plains Road, Basking Ridge... listed endangered Indiana bats are known to occur on the refuge. Reptile and amphibian species of...

  7. Diversity and Racial Identity: A Conversation with Jo Ann Morris-Scott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Francesca

    1998-01-01

    Each person belongs to a racial group that determines the way they see themselves and others, how they view the world, and how they are viewed by the world. A safe adventure environment enables participants to explore and reflect on what racial identity means to them personally, which leads to broader understanding. (SAS)

  8. Rasch scaling of the Oswestry Disability Index and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Hartvigsen, Jan

    Locomotion Network, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark 2. Nordic Institute of Chiropractic and Clinical Biomechanics, Clinical Locomotion Network, Forskerparken 10A, 5230 Odense M, Denmark Background Rasch analysis is a modern psychometric approach with the ability to turn instruments scored...... population of low back pain patients. Methods A total of 232 patients with low back pain and/or leg pain were recruited from an out-patient spinal clinic and 7 chiropractic practices and assessed using the RMQ and the ODI. The Dichotomous Model was applied to the RMQ and the unrestricted Partial Credit Model...

  9. The Morris-Lecar neuron model embeds a leaky integrate-and-fire model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Susanne; Greenwood, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    We showthat the stochastic Morris–Lecar neuron, in a neighborhood of its stable point, can be approximated by a two-dimensional Ornstein Uhlenbeck (OU) modulation of a constant circular motion. The associated radial OU process is an example of a leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) model prior to firing...

  10. Rasch analysis of the 23-item version of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Grotle, Margreth; Dunn, Kate M

    2015-01-01

    -based approach that includes consideration of new items and response options; or (ii) the use of alternative questionnaires should be recommended, such as the Oswestry Disability Index, that have shown evidence of fitting the Rasch model; or (iii) a completely new condition-specific questionnaire should...

  11. 78 FR 62678 - Morris W. Cochran, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... conference with the parties, that he had intended to write May 17, 2013, rather than May 17, 2012, in the... plenary, administrative hearing. See Larry Elbert Perry, M.D., 77 FR 67,671 (DEA 2012); Treasure Coast...

  12. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow, Picatinny Arsenal and vicinity, Morris County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, L.M.; Rice, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water flow in glacial sediments and bedrock at Picatinny Arsenal, N.J., was simulated by use of a three-dimensional finite-difference ground- water-flow model. The modeled area includes a 4.3-square-mile area that extends from Picatinny Lake to the Rockaway River. Most of the study area is bounded by the natural hydrologic boundaries of the ground-water system. eophysical logs, lithologic logs, particle-size data, and core data from selected wells and surface geophysical data were analyzed to define the hydrogeologic framework. Hydrogeologic sections and thickness maps define six permeable and three low-permeability layers that are represented in the model as aquifers and confining units, respectively. Hydrologic data incorporated in the model include a rate of recharge from precipitation of 22 inches per year, estimated from long-term precipitation records and estimates of evapotranspiration. Additional recharge from infiltration along valleys was estimated from measured discharge of springs along the adjacent valley walls and from estimates of runoff from upland drainage that flows to the valley floor. Horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities of permeable and low-permeability layers were estimated from examination of aquifer-test data, gamma-ray logs, borehole cuttings, and previously published data. Horizontal hydraulic conductivities in glacial sediments range from 10 to 380 feet per day. Vertical hydraulic conductivities of the low-permeability layers range from 0.01 to 0.7 feet per day. The model was calibrated by simulating steady-state conditions during 1989-93 and by closely matching simulated and measured ground-water levels, vertical ground-water-head differences, and streamflow gain and loss. Simulated steady-state potentiometric- surface maps produced for the six permeable layers indicate that ground water in the unconfined material within Picatinny Arsenal flows predominantly toward the center of the valley, where it discharges to Green Pond Brook. Beneath the upper confining unit, ground water flows southwestward, down the valley. Between First Street and Farley Avenue, the upper confining unit pinches out near the valley walls, resulting in a major input of water to, and causing a local potentiometric high in, the underlying aquifer layers. Ground-water-flow directions southwest of the southern arsenal boundary are predominantly to the Rockaway River.

  13. Spatial discrimination deficits by excitotoxic lesions in the MORRIS WATER ESCAPE TASK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spowart-Manning, L.; Staay, van der F.J.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEI) metrifonate and donepezil were assessed on spatial performance of rats with bilateral lesions of the entorhinal cortex (EC), which is thought to model early changes in the brains of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. In the present study,

  14. 77 FR 17505 - Morris W. Cochran, M.D.: Revocation of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... patient.'' Id. Finally, the Order alleged that Respondent had ``continue to prescribe alprazolam, a... prescriptions * * * written under his X number for'' drugs other than Suboxone and Subutex, including Xanax (a... intake form, JC1 listed his medications as methadone and Xanax. GX 5N, at 2. On the progress note for JC1...

  15. The Twentieth Amy Morris Homans Lecture 1986. Leadership: The Key Ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forker, Barbara E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes changes in the concept of leadership during the last century, and then addresses the importance of fostering strong leadership. A plan to encourage integrated, farsighted leadership in the field of physical education is proposed. (MT)

  16. Realists, Radicals, and Rainbows. The Twenty-Eighth Amy Morris Homans Lecture 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Roberta S.

    1995-01-01

    Challenges physical education professionals to be realists who name the conditions around them that divide according to group identity and thus perpetuate injustice; to be radicals who work to change conditions; and to build and follow a rainbow path to a future where social justice, human rights, and the human condition are first priorities. (JB)

  17. Contaminants in fish and sediments of Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Morris County, New Jersey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study was designed to achieve three goals which would assist future refuge management and serve to focus further study: 1) identify toxic contaminants present...

  18. SEMIOTIKA MORRIS DAN TRADISI PENAFSIRAN ALQUR’AN: SEBUAH TAWARAN TAFSIR KONTEKSTUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Romdhoni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an interpretation approach which involves historical data as its important dimension, socio-cultural contexts, and psychological effect on the audience. It is an important thing, since the Qur’anic interpretation studies in the contemporary era demands an interpretation model which involves historical data, socio-cultural context and psychological effect on the society. Since, the holy Qur’an given to Prophet Muhammad SAW was revealed in order to respond certain social condition, so each verse given to the prophet was clearly interrelated actively to the space and time. Hereby, each verse of the holy Qur’an has its own historical context, meaning, and effect.

  19. Modafinil and Memory: Effects of Modafinil on Morris Water Maze Learning and Pavlovian Fear Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Shuman, Tristan; Wood, Suzanne C.; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.

    2009-01-01

    Modafinil has been shown to promote wakefulness and some studies suggest the drug can improve cognitive function. Because of many similarities, the mechanism of action may be comparable to classical psychostimulants, although the exact mechanisms of modafinil’s actions in wakefulness and cognitive enhancement are unknown. The current study aims to further examine the effects of modafinil as a cognitive enhancer on hippocampus-dependent memory in mice. A high dose of modafinil (75 mg/kg, i.p.)...

  20. Type A behavior pattern and coronary heart disease: Philip Morris's "crown jewel".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petticrew, Mark P; Lee, Kelley; McKee, Martin

    2012-11-01

    The type A behavior pattern (TABP) was described in the 1950s by cardiologists Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman, who argued that TABP was an important risk factor for coronary heart disease. This theory was supported by positive findings from the Western Collaborative Group Study and the Framingham Study. We analyzed tobacco industry documents to show that the tobacco industry was a major funder of TABP research, with selected results used to counter concerns regarding tobacco and health. Our findings also help explain inconsistencies in the findings of epidemiological studies of TABP, in particular the phenomenon of initially promising results followed by negative findings. Our analysis suggests that these "decline effects" are partly explained by tobacco industry involvement in TABP research.

  1. IMIDACLOPRID PRODUCES MINIMAL CHANGES IN THE EEG OF LONG-EVANS RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have reported that the non-stimulus driven EEG is differentially altered by deltamethrin or permethrin (Lyke and Herr, Toxicologist, 114(S-1) :265, 2010) as well as fipronil (Lyke and Herr, Toxicologist, 120(S-2) :290, 2011). In the current study, we examined the ability to de...

  2. Utilization Management of Orthopedic Services by Fitzsimons Army Medical Center and Evans Army Community Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    orthopedic resources due to its close proximity to FAMC, its large orthopedic workload, its experience as a Catchment Area Management (CAM) demonstration...Mean LOS: _otal LOS: Ma FAMe -HCFA FAMC - HCFA 112 Lower Extreme & Humer Proc ex Hip, Foot, Femur, Age > 17 w/o CC 30 7.5 2.5 76 Total 649 5.7 1.1 737... Fractures of Hip & Pelvis 6 4.2 -2.8 -17 Utilization Management 57 Table 9 (Continued) Fiscal Year 90 Nine Most Frequent Orthopedic Diagnosis Related

  3. Evans functions and bifurcations of nonlinear waves of some nonlinear reaction diffusion equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linghai

    2017-10-01

    The main purposes of this paper are to accomplish the existence, stability, instability and bifurcation of the nonlinear waves of the nonlinear system of reaction diffusion equations ut =uxx + α [ βH (u - θ) - u ] - w, wt = ε (u - γw) and to establish the existence, stability, instability and bifurcation of the nonlinear waves of the nonlinear scalar reaction diffusion equation ut =uxx + α [ βH (u - θ) - u ], under different conditions on the model constants. To establish the bifurcation for the system, we will study the existence and instability of a standing pulse solution if 0 1; the existence and instability of two standing wave fronts if 2 (1 + αγ) θ = αβγ and 0 0 is a positive constant, if 0 mathematical neuroscience.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: High-resolution imaging of TEP systems (HITEP) (Evans+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D. F.; Southworth, H.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Skottfelt, J.; Hundertmark, M.; Jorgensen, U. G.; Dominik, M.; Alsubai, K. A.; Andersen, M. I.; Bozza, V.; Bramich, D. M.; Burgdorf, M. J.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Gu, S. H.; Haugbolle, T.; Hinse, T. C.; Juncher, D.; Kains, N.; Kerins, E.; Korhonen, H.; Kuffmeier, M.; Peixinho, N.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Schmidt, R. W.; Snodgrass, C.; Starkey, D.; Surdej, J.; Tronsgaard, R.; von Essen, C.; Wang, Y. B.; Wertz, O.

    2016-03-01

    Table 1 contains the summary of observations undertaken in this work, listing each observation, the target, and exposure time in one (red) or two (red and visible) cameras. Table 4 contains a set of distances derived to the exoplanet host stars, using the K-band calibration of Kervella et al. (2004A&A...426..297K). Table 8 gives the raw measurements of each detected companion on each observation, which include observing date, separation and position angle, and magnitude relative to the exoplanet host star in one (red) or two (red and visible) cameras. (3 data files).

  5. Katayama fever in scuba divers - A report of 3 cases | Evans | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Katayama fever or acute schistosomiasis probably occurs more commonly than is recorded. Interviews with a 3-man scuba diving team who had had contact with a large dam in an ·endemic area of the eastern Transvaal Lowveld at the same time and contact area on the same day during late summer of 1986 are discussed.

  6. Demonstrating Potential of Cell Therapy for Wilson's Disease with the Long-Evans Cinnamon Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jaber, Fadi Luc; Sharma, Yogeshwar; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2017-01-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) is characterized by the inability to excrete copper (Cu) from the body with progressive tissue injury, especially in liver and brain. The molecular defect in WD concerns mutations in ATP7B gene leading to loss of Cu transport from the hepatocyte to the bile canaliculus. While drugs, e.g., Cu chelators, have been available for several decades, these must be taken lifelong, which can be difficult due to issues of compliance or side effects. Many individuals may require liv...

  7. DCS Hydraulics Submission for Evans County GA MapMod08

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  8. Ülev ja igapäevane = The sublime and the everyday / Kaja Pae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Kaja

    2015-01-01

    Eesti linnade suurima elanike tihedusega piirkonnad on vabaplaneeringu alad. Paneelelamupiirkondade avalik ruum on jäänud lõpetamata, valmis on ehitatud kortermajad, koolid ja lasteaiad ning suurem infrastruktuur, kuid majadevahelise vaba ruumi täpsema läbimõtestamiseni pole jõutud.Tartu linnavalitsus korraldas 2014. aastal Annelinna visioonikonkursi, et planeeringulisi võimalusi edasi arendada ja avalikku ruumi parandada.

  9. Effects produced by single and repeated dosages of Fipronil on the EEG of Long Evans Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously reported that various classes of pesticides have different effects on the non- stimulus driven EEG after acute treatment, including fipronil (25 or 50 mg/kg) (Lyke et a!., Toxicologist, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013). In this study, we compared the effects of single a...

  10. Toluene Inhalation Exposure for 13 Weeks Causes Persistent Changes in Electroretinograms of Long-Evans Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of humans chronically exposed to volatile organic solvents have reported impaired visual functions, including low contrast sensitivity and reduced color discrimination. These reports, however, lacked confirmation from controlled laboratory experiments. To addre...

  11. Principled 'Bastard' Leadership? A Rejoinder to Gold, Evans, Earley, Halpin and Collarbone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    Rejoinder to "Principled Principals" article (EA0000000). Asserts, for example, that offering second-order values such as questioning as evidence of principled leadership does not obviate "bastard leadership." (Contains 10 references.) (PKP)

  12. A Short History of Laos, the Land in Between, Grant Evans

    OpenAIRE

    Doré, Amphay

    2013-01-01

    L’ouvrage comprend une préface, des remerciements, une note sur le système de transcription et sur la définition des termes « Lao » et « Laos », un petit glossaire et une liste d’abréviations. Le texte se répartit en six chapitres : 1. « Before Laos » ; 2. « Le Laos français » ; 3. « The Royal Lao Government (RLG) » ; 4. « War and the destruction of the RLG » ; 5. « The Lao People’s Democratic Republic » ; et 6. « Laos in the modern world ». Dans sa préface, l’auteur rappelle que le Laos est ...

  13. DCS Hydrology Submission for Evans County GA MapMod08

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  14. Inpatient Behavioral Health Recapture A Busiess Case Analysis at Evans Army Community Hospital Fort Carson, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-20

    Telephone Area BX001 3.72 40 Minimum, one per 80.000 gsf of medical treatment facility space. RETAIL AREAS Vending Machine Area BX001 1.86 20 20 nsf... gsf . Several departments can share one closet, as long as the area does not exceed 10.000 gsf . Janitor Closet JANC1 3.70 40 One janitor closet per...10.000 gsf . Several departments can share one janitor closet, as long as the area does not exceed 10.000 gsf . Last Updated: 27 October 2006 Chapter 5.08 Page 7 of 7 (GP) - Guideplate Available

  15. Tissue time course and bioavailability of the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin in the Long-Evans rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifenthrin is a pyrethroid insecticide and human exposure to it can occur by oral, pulmonary and dermal routes. Pyrethroids are neurotoxic agents and it is generally believed that the parent pyrethroid is the toxic entity. This study evaluated the oral disposition and bioavaila...

  16. A word from Lyn Evans:
    A sprint to the finish

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Most people consider that the starting point for the LHC was a meeting organised by the European Committee for Future Accelerators in Lausanne in March 1984, even though quite a few of us at CERN had already begun work on the design in 1981. Since that time this truly unique machine has moved from a dream to a reality. With its ‘two in one’ magnet structure cooled by superfluid helium for operation at 1.9 K, the LHC is like no other particle collider. In a very real sense, the LHC is its own prototype. Other colliders have either consisted of two rings to accelerate and store two beams of particles, as in the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) here at CERN, or they have stored particles and their antiparticles travelling in opposite directions with a single ring, as we did with the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider. In addition, the LHC is the first accelerator in which the superconducting magnets have been cooled as low as 1...

  17. Moniliophthora roreri (Cif y Par Evans et al. en el cultivo de cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando David Sánchez Mora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Más de un siglo, el cacao (Theobroma cacaoL. en el Ecuador ha sido fuente importante de ingresos para losagricultoresy de divisas para el país, llegando a ser uno de los exportadores más grandes a nivel mundial.Posteriormente, perdió paulatinamente ese estatus debido al ataque de enfermedades, entre ellas la moniliasiscausada por [Moniliophthoraroreri(Cif y ParEvanset al.]. Esta enfermedad puede causar daños hasta del80% en la producción. Actualmente no existe mucha información actualizada y científica, sobre su ocurrencia,sintomatología, etiología, epidemiología, ciclo de vida y manejo o estrategias de controlde la mencionadaenfermedad, por la tanto se realiza esta revisión con estos tópicos importantes, aportando con esto a esta áreadel conocimiento.

  18. A home program of strength training, movement strategy training and education did not prevent falls in people with Parkinson’s disease: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg E Morris

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: A home program of strength and movement strategy training and falls education does not prevent falls when applied at the dose used in this study. Arguably, the dosage of therapy was insufficient. Future trials need to explore further therapy content, repetitions and duration, in order to optimise outcomes and cost-effectiveness. [Morris ME, Taylor NF, Watts JJ, Evans A, Horne M, Kempster P, Danoudis M, McGinley J, Martin C, Menz HB (2017 A home program of strength training, movement strategy training and education did not prevent falls in people with Parkinson’s disease: a randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 63: 94–100

  19. Dreamers in dialogue: evolution, sex and gender in the utopian visions of William Morris and William Henry Hudson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Novák

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explore the parallels between two late-nineteenth-century utopias,William Henry Hudsons A Crystal Age (1882 and William Morriss News from Nowhere (1891. Itaims to explore how these two works respond to the transition from a kinetic to a static conception ofutopia that under pressure from evolutionary and feminist discourses took place during the period.Particular focus lies on the way in which this is negotiated through the depiction of evolution, sexuality,and gender roles in the respective novels, and how the depiction of these disruptive elements may workas a means of ensuring the readers active engagement in political, intellectual and emotional terms.

  20. Efficacy of Intra-arterial Norcantharidin in Suppressing Tumour 14C-labelled Glucose Oxidative Metabolism in rat Morris Hepatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mack

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Norcantharidin is the demethylated form of Cantharidin, which is the active ingredient of the blister beetle, Mylabris, a long used Chinese traditional medicine. Though not well publicised outside China, Norcantharidin is known to possess significant anti-hepatoma activity, and is relatively free from side effects. In the present study, glucose oxidation in tumour and liver tissue slices harvested from hepatomabearing animals was quantified by measuring the radioactivity of 14C-labelled CO released from 14C-glucose in oxygen-enriched incubation medium. Results were expressed asa tumour/liver ratio. For comparison, treatments with Norcantharidin, Adriamycin and with hepatic artery ligation were studied. The mean tumour/liver ratio was 4.2+2.2 in untreated controls, but dropped significantly to 2.3+0.5 (p<0.05 with intra-arterial Norcantharidin (0.5 mg/kg and to 2.3+0.7 (p<0.05 with intra-arterial Adriamycin (2.4 mg/kg, and to 2.2+0.7 (p<0.05 with hepatic artery ligation. However, with intravenous Adriamycin at 2.4 mg/kg, the mean tumour/liver ratio was reduced to only 3.5+2.0 and was not significantly different from untreated controls. It is concluded that intra-arterial Norcantharidin is as effective as intraarterial Adriamycin and hepatic artery ligation in suppressing tumour glucose oxidative metabolism. These results imply that Norcantharidin may have a role to play in the chemotherapy ofprimary livercancer.

  1. Sex difference in cue strategy in a modified version of the Morris water task: correlations between brain and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Robin J; Tyndall, Amanda V; Scott, Gavin A; Saucier, Deborah M

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial memory function have been reported with mixed results in the literature, with some studies showing male advantages and others showing no differences. When considering estrus cycle in females, results are mixed at to whether high or low circulating estradiol results in an advantage in spatial navigation tasks. Research involving humans and rodents has demonstrated males preferentially employ Euclidean strategies and utilize geometric cues in order to spatially navigate, whereas females employ landmark strategies and cues in order to spatially navigate. This study used the water-based snowcone maze in order to assess male and female preference for landmark or geometric cues, with specific emphasis placed on the effects of estrus cycle phase for female rat. Performance and preference for the geometric cue was examined in relation to total hippocampal and hippocampal subregions (CA1&2, CA3 and dentate gyrus) volumes and entorhinal cortex thickness in order to determine the relation between strategy and spatial performance and brain area size. The study revealed that males outperformed females overall during training trials, relied on the geometric cue when the platform was moved and showed significant correlations between entorhinal cortex thickness and spatial memory performance. No gross differences in behavioural performance was observed within females when accounting for cyclicity, and only total hippocampal volume was correlated with performance during the learning trials. This study demonstrates the sex-specific use of cues and brain areas in a spatial learning task.

  2. Using Kinesiology: A Comparison of Applied Veins in the Subdisciplines. The Twenty-sixth Amy Morris Honors Lecture 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Janet C.

    1993-01-01

    Compares three domains in kinesiology with regard to essential professional competencies: biophysical sciences focused on exercise and sport, behavioral/sociocultural sciences focused on sport, and pedagogical sciences focused on school physical education. The paper compares the relative emphases placed on technical and critical/reflective…

  3. Effects of historical and active nursery operations on the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Morris County, New Jersey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents preliminary reconnaissance data on sediment and fish samples collected within the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (GSNWR) Tract 141A - the...

  4. Phase I Inspection Report. National Dam Safety Program, Boonton Dam and Parsippany Dike, Morris County, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    inspection for Boonton Dam, Parsippany Dike and reservoir, was conducted on April 14, 1978. The air temperature was about 50 F with partly cloudy skies...operating procedures, the gates are raised in the spring and lowered in the fall. e. Seismic Stability - The dam is located in the Triassic Highlands...physiographic subprovince of northern New Jersey and is founded on fine to medium grained, red sandstone and shale of the Triassic Newark Group

  5. Uue tehnoloogiaga varustatud William Morrise poeg = The son of William Morris - equipped with new technology / Peter Davey ; interv. Georg Poslawski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davey, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Inglise arhitekt ja arhitektuuriajaloolane Peter Davey arhitektuurikriitika traditsioonidest ja rollist, identiteedist ja kopeerimisest arhitektuuris, arhitektuuriajakirjade mõjust ühiskondlikule elule, soome arhitektuurist jm

  6. Estimation in the partially observed stochastic Morris-Lecar neuronal model with particle filter and stochastic approximation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Susanne; Samson, Adeline

    2014-01-01

    Parameter estimation in multidimensional diffusion models with only one coordinate observed is highly relevant in many biological applications, but a statistically difficult problem. In neuroscience, the membrane potential evolution in single neurons can be measured at high frequency, but biophys...

  7. 75 FR 70691 - World Color Mt. Morris, IL LLC, Premedia Chicago Division, Currently Known as Quad/Graphics, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... Known as Quad/Graphics, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Creative Group and Creative Circle.../Graphics, Inc. and is currently known as Quad/Graphics, Inc. Workers separated from employment at World... account under the name Quad/Graphics, Inc. Accordingly, the Department is amending this certification to...

  8. Summer Epiphytic Diatoms from Terra Nova Bay and Cape Evans (Ross Sea, Antarctica) - A Synthesis and Final Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Roksana; Convey, Peter; De Stefano, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in polar marine biology and related fields, many aspects of the ecological interactions that are crucial for the functioning of Antarctic shallow water habitats remain poorly understood. Although epiphytic diatoms play an essential role in the Antarctic marine food web, basic information regarding their ecology, biodiversity and biogeography is largely unavailable. Here, we synthesise studies on Ross Sea epiphytic diatoms collected during 11 summer Antarctic expeditions between the years 1989/90 and 2011/12, presenting a full list of diatom taxa associated with three macroalgal species (Iridaea cordata, Phyllophora antarctica, and Plocamium cartilagineum) and their epiphytic sessile fauna. Diatom communities found during the three summer months at various depths and sampling stations differed significantly in terms of species composition, growth form structure and abundances. Densities ranged from 21 to >8000 cells mm-2, and were significantly higher on the surface of epiphytic micro-fauna than on any of the macroalgal species examined. Generally, host organisms characterized by higher morphological heterogeneity (sessile microfauna, ramified Plocamium) supported richer diatom communities than those with more uniform surfaces (Iridaea). Differences between epiphytic communities associated with different macroalgae were reflected better in species composition than in growth form structure. The latter changed significantly with season, which was related strongly to the changing ice conditions. A general trend towards an increasing number of erect forms in deeper waters and tube-dwelling diatoms in the shallowest sites (2–5 m) was also observed. This study explores further important and largely previously unknown aspects of relationships and interactions between Antarctic epiphytic diatoms and their micro- and macro-environments. PMID:27078637

  9. Acute and subchronic toxicity of inhaled toluene in male Long Evans rats: oxidative stress markers in brain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Research interested in oxidative stress markers following exposure to VOCs. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Kodavanti , P., J. Royland ,...

  10. Maternal liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) stores are increased via higher serum unesterified DHA uptake in pregnant long Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherel, Adam H; Kitson, Alex P; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Lacombe, R J Scott; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Alashmali, Shoug M; Lin, Lin; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-08-01

    Maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) supplies the developing fetus during pregnancy; however, the mechanisms are unclear. We utilized pregnant rats to determine rates of DHA accretion, tissue unesterified DHA uptake and whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion. Female rats maintained on a DHA-free, 2% α-linolenic acid diet were either:1) sacrificed at 56 days for baseline measures, 2) mated and sacrificed at 14-18 days of pregnancy or 3) or sacrificed at 14-18 days as age-matched virgin controls. Maternal brain, adipose, liver and whole body fatty acid concentrations was determined for balance analysis, and kinetic modeling was used to determine brain and liver plasma unesterified DHA uptake and whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion rates. Total liver DHA was significantly higher in pregnant (95±5 μmol) versus non-pregnant (49±5) rats with no differences in whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion rates. However, liver uptake of plasma unesterified DHA was 3.8-fold higher in pregnant animals compared to non-pregnant controls, and periuterine adipose DHA was lower in pregnant (0.89±0.09 μmol/g) versus non-pregnant (1.26±0.06) rats. In conclusion, higher liver DHA accretion during pregnancy appears to be driven by higher unesterified DHA uptake, potentially via DHA mobilization from periuterine adipose for delivery to the fetus during the brain growth spurt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term effects of duodenojejunal bypass on diabetes in Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima Fatty rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kuon Lee

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: We have shown that DJB alone does not improve glucose tolerance in obese, diabetic OLETF rats. Therefore, it may be that DJB alone is insufficient for diabetic control in obese diabetic rats. The addition of a restrictive component such as sleeve gastrectomy, or a new drug may be necessary for achieving diabetes reversal.

  12. Effects of Exercise Training and Social Environment on Stress Resilience in Male and Female Long-Evans Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    and synthesis of laboratory research. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 355-391. Ditzen, B., Neumann, I.D., Bodenmann, G., von Dawans, B., Turner, R.A...depression in rats: effects of reboxetine, haloperidol and diazepam . Behavioural Pharmacology, 19, 183-196. Salmon, P. (2001). Effects of physical

  13. Sex differences in diazepam effects and parvalbumin-positive GABA neurons in trait anxiety Long Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenelle, Rebecca; Neugebauer, Nichole M; Niedzielak, Timothy; Donaldson, S Tiffany

    2014-08-15

    In clinical populations, prevalence rates for a number of anxiety disorders differ between males and females and gonadal hormones are thought to contribute to these differences. While these hormones have been shown to modulate the anxiolytic effects of the benzodiazepine agonist diazepam in some models, findings are inconsistent. Here, we tested for sex differences in response to anxiogenic stimuli following a 30-min diazepam (1.0mg/kg) pre-treatment in male and female rats showing high (HAn) and low (LAn) anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus maze. Acute diazepam administration resulted in decreased anxiety-like behavior only in HAn males as demonstrated by a significant increase in percent open arm time in the elevated plus maze (EPM). Immunohistochemical analysis for parvalbumin (PV; a calcium-binding protein that selectively stains GABAergic neurons) in central amygdala (CeA), caudate putamen (CPu) and the hippocampus indicated the number of GABAergic interneurons in these areas differed across sex and anxiety trait. In the CPu, females had significantly more PV-immunoreactive (IR) cells than males, and LAn females had greater PV-IR neurons than HAn females. In the CeA, males displayed an increased number of PV-IR neurons compared to females, with no differences found between LAn and HAn. Further, trait differences were evident in the CA2 region of the hippocampus, regardless of sex. Taken together, these data suggest that gonadal hormones and trait anxiety may influence the sensitivity to the anti-anxiety effects of diazepam and these differences may be due in part to the distribution of GABA-containing interneurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Exposure to methylphenidate during peri-adolescence affects endocrine functioning and sexual behavior in female Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarraci, Fay A; Holifield, Caroline; Morales-Valenzuela, Jessica; Greene, Kasera; Brown, Jeanette; Lopez, Rebecca; Crandall, Christina; Gibbs, Nicole; Vela, Rebekah; Delgado, Melissa Y; Frohardt, Russell J

    2016-03-01

    The present study was designed to test the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) exposure on the maturation of endocrine functioning and sexual behavior. Female rat pups received either MPH (2.0mg/kg, i.p.) or saline twice daily between postnatal days 20-35. This period of exposure represents the time just prior to puberty as well as puberty onset. Approximately five weeks after the last injection of MPH or saline, female subjects were hormone-primed and tested during their first sexual experience. Subjects were given the choice to interact with a sexually active male or a sexually receptive female rat (i.e., the partner-preference test). The partner-preference paradigm allows us to assess multiple aspects of female sexual behavior. MPH exposure during peri-adolescence delayed puberty and, when mated for the first time, affected sexual behavior (e.g., increased time spent with the male stimulus and decreased the likelihood of leaving after mounts) during the test of partner preference. When monitoring estrous cyclicity, female subjects treated with MPH during peri-adolescence frequently experienced irregular estrous cycles. The results of the present study suggest that chronic exposure to a therapeutic dose of MPH around the onset of puberty alters long-term endocrine functioning, but with hormone priming, increases sensitivity to sexual stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dermatomiositis y síndrome de Evans asociado a infección por HTLV-1

    OpenAIRE

    Loja-Oropeza, David; Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza. Lima, Perú.; Zavala-Flores, Ernesto; Universidad de San Martín de Porres. Lima, Perú.; Vilca-Vasquez, Maricela; Policlínico San Luis. EsSALUD. Lima, Perú.

    2016-01-01

    A 55-year-old female patient, born in Ayacucho, with a history of dermatomyositis for 3 years, who received irregular treatment with prednisone. Two months prior to admission, she presented with autoinmune hemolytic anemia and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. The patient received methylprednisolone pulse therapy and packed red blood cells transfusions. Upon admission, she was drowsy, with a poor overall status, marked weight loss, dehydration, with presence of livedo reticularis in her lo...

  16. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity of Inhaled Toluene in Male Long-Evans Rats: Oxidative Stress Markers in Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are of concern to the EPA, are poorly understood, in part because of insufficient characterization of how human exposure duration impacts VOC effects. Two inhalation studies with multiple endpoints, one acute an...

  17. Summer Epiphytic Diatoms from Terra Nova Bay and Cape Evans (Ross Sea, Antarctica--A Synthesis and Final Conclusions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksana Majewska

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in polar marine biology and related fields, many aspects of the ecological interactions that are crucial for the functioning of Antarctic shallow water habitats remain poorly understood. Although epiphytic diatoms play an essential role in the Antarctic marine food web, basic information regarding their ecology, biodiversity and biogeography is largely unavailable. Here, we synthesise studies on Ross Sea epiphytic diatoms collected during 11 summer Antarctic expeditions between the years 1989/90 and 2011/12, presenting a full list of diatom taxa associated with three macroalgal species (Iridaea cordata, Phyllophora antarctica, and Plocamium cartilagineum and their epiphytic sessile fauna. Diatom communities found during the three summer months at various depths and sampling stations differed significantly in terms of species composition, growth form structure and abundances. Densities ranged from 21 to >8000 cells mm-2, and were significantly higher on the surface of epiphytic micro-fauna than on any of the macroalgal species examined. Generally, host organisms characterized by higher morphological heterogeneity (sessile microfauna, ramified Plocamium supported richer diatom communities than those with more uniform surfaces (Iridaea. Differences between epiphytic communities associated with different macroalgae were reflected better in species composition than in growth form structure. The latter changed significantly with season, which was related strongly to the changing ice conditions. A general trend towards an increasing number of erect forms in deeper waters and tube-dwelling diatoms in the shallowest sites (2-5 m was also observed. This study explores further important and largely previously unknown aspects of relationships and interactions between Antarctic epiphytic diatoms and their micro- and macro-environments.

  18. Potential Applications of Using 68Ga-Evans Blue PET/CT in the Evaluation of Lymphatic Disorder: Preliminary Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Peilin; Li, Fang; Tong, Guansheng; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Zhu, Zhaohui

    2016-04-01

    Potentials of 68Ga-NEB as a PET tracer in the evaluation of a variety of lymphatic drainage disorders were analyzed. 68Ga-NEB was injected subcutaneously, and the PET/CT images were acquired in 13 patients with different suspected lymphatic drainage abnormality. The 68Ga-NEB PET/CT findings were compared with Tc-SC lymphoscintigraphy. 68Ga-NEB activity could be clearly observed in the lymphatic route on the PET/CT images from all the patients. In 5 (38.5%) of 13 patients tested, 68Ga-NEB PET/CT provided more information than the Tc-SC lymphoscintigraphy. 68Ga-NEB PET/CT can be used as an alternative of Tc-SC lymphoscintigraphy in the evaluation of lymphatic disorders, which enables fast results and might be more accurate than the conventional Tc-SC lymphoscintigraphy.

  19. Dorsal lateral geniculate substructure in the Long-Evans rat: A cholera toxin B-subunit study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire B. Discenza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The pigmented rat is an increasingly important model in visual neuroscience research, yet the lamination of retinal projections in the dLGN has not been examined in sufficient detail. From previous studies it was known that most of the rat dLGN receives monocular input from the contralateral eye, with a small island receiving predominantly ipsilateral projections. Here we revisit the question using cholera toxin B subunit (CTB, a tracer that efficiently fills retinal terminals after intra-ocular injection. We imaged retinal termini throughout the dLGN at 0.5 um resolution and traced areas of ipsilateral and contralateral terminals to obtain a high resolution 3D reconstruction of the projection pattern. Retinal termini in the dLGN are well segregated by eye of origin, as expected. We find, however, that the ipsilateral projections form multiple discrete projection zones in three dimensions, not the single island previously described. It remains to be determined whether these subdomains represent distinct functional sublaminae, as is the case in other mammals.

  20. Social instability stress in adolescence increases anxiety and reduces social interactions in adulthood in male Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Matthew R; Barnes, Brittany; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effects of social instability stress (daily 1-hr isolation, change of cage partner, postnatal day 30-45) in adolescence in male rats on open field exploration and social behavior in adulthood. Social stressed rats had longer latencies to enter the center of an open field and then took longer to approach an object placed in the center of the field. When another rat was placed in the open field, stressed rats spent less time in social interaction than control rats, particularly when paired with another stressed, rather than a control, rat. The groups did not differ in social approach tests (when a stimulus rat was separated by wire mesh) nor in novel object exploration (when controlling for open field anxiety). The results suggest social stress in adolescence increases open field anxiety while maintaining exploratory behavior, and alters social interactions in adulthood. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Tingkat pemangsaan Neoseiulus longispinosus Evans (Acari : Phytoseiidae terhadap Tetranychus urticae Koch dan Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae serta perilaku kanibalismenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Iswella

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae Koch and Tetranycus kanzawai Kishida are important pests of various crops of economicall importance in Indonesia. Acaricide ussually used to control these mites. One of the alternative control methods is the use of phytoseiid predatory mites. Most of the phytoseiid mites that are used as biological control agents are exotic mites. For that reasons, it is necessary to study indegenous predatory mites that has the potential to be developed as biological control, such as N. longispinosus. The objective of this study was to determine the predation capacities of N. longispinosus on two red spider mites of T. urticae and T. kanzawai and the effect of predator densities to predator cannibalistic behavior. N. longispinosus were supplied with eggs and adults of T. urticae and T. kanzawai to determine the predation capacities. N. longispinosus were also supplied low number of T. kanzawai eggs as the prey at several predator densities to see its cannibalistic behavior. The results showed that the number of eggs of T. urticae dan T. kanzawai consumed by deutonymphs and adult females of N. longispinosus was higher than the adult female of T. urticae dan T. kanzawai. The number of eggs of T. urticae dan T. kanzawai consumed by adult female N. longispinosus was higher than by the deutonymphs. The number of eggs laid by adult females of N. longispinosus when feed on eggs of T. urticae and T. kanzawai was higher than those feed on adult female. Deutonymph and female adult stage of N. longispinosus showed cannibalistic behavior at several predator densities in low number of prey.

  2. The democratic experience in divided societies : the Baltic states in comparative perspective / Geoffrey Evans, Christine S Lipsmeyer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Evans, Geoffrey

    2001-01-01

    Artiklis võrreldakse vähemusrahvuste rahulolu demokratiseerimisprotsessiga ning osalemist demokraatlikes protsessides kolmes Balti riigis ning kümnes Ida-Euroopa riigis 1990. aastail. Tabelid. Lisa: The surveys

  3. 3-päevane üliõpilastöö - "Roheline lava" = 3-day student project - "Green stage"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Tutvustatakse Tallinna Tehnikakõrgkooli Arhitektuuri õppetooli õpitoa "Intelligentsed konstruktsioonid" raames 4. kursuse arhitektuuri ja ehituse eriala üliõpilaste kavandatud 11 "Rohelise lava" lahendust Tallinna lauluväljaku maa-alale. Üliõpilasi juhendasid Irina Raud ja Stefan Polonyi (Saksamaa)

  4. Adolescent social instability stress increases aggression in a food competition task in adult male Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Mark J; Thompson, Madison A; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2014-11-01

    Adolescent social instability stress (SS; daily 1 hr isolation + new cage partners postnatal days 30-45; thereafter with original cage partner, also in the SS condition) and control (CTL) rats competed for access to a preferred food in five sessions against their cage partner. In the first session, SS pairs displayed more aggression (face whacks, p = .02; rear attacks, p = .03), were less likely to relinquish access to the food voluntarily (p = .03), spent more time at the feeder than CTL pairs (p = .06), but did not differ in latency to access the feeder (p = .41). Pairs were considered in dominant-submissive relationships (DSR) if one rat spent significantly more time at the feeder than the other; 8 of 12 SS and 8 of 12 CTL pairs displayed DSRs (remaining: no-DSR). Aggression increased from the 1st to 5th session (p food reward. These results add to evidence that SS in adolescence modifies the adult social repertoire of rats and highlight the importance of adolescent social experiences for adult behavior. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Scopolamine disrupts place navigation in rats and humans: a translational validation of the Hidden Goal Task in the Morris water maze and a real maze for humans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laczó, J.; Marková, H.; Lobellová, Veronika; Gažová, I.; Pařízková, M.; Cerman, J.; Nekovářová, Tereza; Valeš, Karel; Klovrzová, S.; Harrison, J.; Windisch, M.; Vlček, Kamil; Svoboda, Jan; Hort, J.; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 234, č. 4 (2017), s. 535-547 ISSN 0033-3158 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14053 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : spatial orientation * scopolamine * acetylcholinesterase inhibitor * human * rat Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.308, year: 2016

  6. The relationship between psychosocial distress and disability assessed by the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised and Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire in patients with chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst Preuper, H.R.; Reneman, M.F.; Boonstra, Antje; Dijkstra, Pieter; Versteegen, G.J.; Geertzen, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: In the assessment and treatment of chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients, the biopsychosocial model is used worldwide. Psychological distress has been reported to have a strong relationship with disability as measured with several instruments. The relationship between

  7. Spatial Memory in the Morris Water Maze and Activation of Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding (CREB) Protein within the Mouse Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, Yves; Buhot, Marie Christine; Mons, Nicole E.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of learning-induced cAMP response element-binding protein activation/phosphorylation (pCREB) in mice trained in a spatial reference memory task in the water maze. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined pCREB immunoreactivity (pCREB-ir) in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 and related brain structures. During the…

  8. National Dam Safety Program. Morris Lake Dam (NJ00306). Hudson River Basin, Tributary of Wallkill River, Sussex County, New Jersey. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    Water, operational procedures are the following: Chlorine and fluoride are added at the Gatehouse prior to the water entering the 12 and 16 inch water...operational procedures for the dam include daily recordings of water main flow, fluoridation and chlorination of water and periodic cleaning of the water...INC. 14𔃾J U go IA Ci C _6 0 I a 0 D10 C4- + + ii P bil B A DATE Jo3e NA~7~ M1W (MA o. CKD -T~ DATE 4176IAe~~SLAke IPAir SHEET NO. 3 O.. LANGAN

  9. The University of Minnesota Morris - N.S.F. REU Program: Twenty years of encouraging women to participate in the Geological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of the UMM - REU program is to nurture the development of women in the geological sciences. Women are historically under-represented in the geological sciences. This program introduces undergraduate women to research project design and independent data collection and analysis designed to increase student’s scientific skills, introduce them to new fields of study, and to develop academic/professional confidence. In so doing, the program tries to encourage students to continue their education at the graduate level and/or to pursue a career in the Geosciences. The program was first proposed in 1988 and was run during the summers of 1989, '90, '91, '94, '95, '97, ’99, 2000, 05, 07, and 09 (in 1996 and 1998 a similar program was run at Gustavus Adolphus College). The focus of the program is field and laboratory research to determine the origin and history of glacial deposits in west-central Minnesota and the late Paleozoic Glacial deposits of the Parana Basin, Brazil. Much of the success of the program can be attributed to developing student “ownership” of their individual projects, their particular REU group, and the UMM-REU program overall. Research projects are selected and designed by the participants. Frequently considered are: research subject, location of field area and geologic techniques employed. Both project ownership and team building is encouraged by participant led weekly visits to field areas and frequent group discussions of research problems, successes and major gaffes. Additional team building activities include: 1) living in the same on-campus apartments and Brazilian B&B, 2) organized social activities, 3) international travel and working with Brazilian (women) students, 4) readings and discussions on "women in geology”, 5) shared strategies and concerns for career choices and; 6) participation in the "Friends of UMM-REU" conference (an "informal" presentation of results). Finally, an emphasis is placed on the utilization of the support network that has developed among the UMM-REU alumni. Participants read publications by past UMM-REU researchers, they are encouraged to contact alumni for information and advice, and alumni are invited back to mentor participants, provide insights and interact socially. UMM-REU reunions are held on a regular basis. The UMM-REU network is growing. Ninety-three women from 30 institutions have participated in the UMM-REU program. Participants have published four papers and 75 abstracts. Initial career trajectories are good. Of the 80 UMM-REU alumni that have (to date) received a bachelor degree: 29 went directly into careers in the sciences or teaching and 46 enrolled in graduate (9 have completed Ph.D.s). Over the long term results are also good. Of the 93 UMM-REU participants only 13 are not now pursuing degrees or working in careers in the sciences. Research for this study was funded by a grant from the N.S.F.-R.E.U. Program, including NSF-EAR 9820249 and NSF-EAR 0640575.

  10. Contaminants in white-tailed deer tissue from the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Morris and Somerset Counties, New Jersey: Results of 1988 sampling and analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) tissues were sampled during the December, 1988, public deer hunt at the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (GSNWR) to...

  11. National Dam Safety Program. Cozy Lake Dam (NJ00309) Passaic River Basin, Rockaway River, Morris County, New Jersey. Phase 1 Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    FEBRUARY1980L SHES FRANKLIN, NJ4CRN4 194-_pSD191 N sObOM Sheet No...4. ofAnderson- Nicho & Company, Inc. at Computed JOB NO. -0-fOf- 04 Checked...I3" S j ,,Shee No. 5" ofAnderson- Nichos & Company, Inc. Date r JOB NO. 3-q+q - 04 SQUARES 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

  12. Monitoring the Evolution and Benefits of Responsible Research and Innovation (MoRRI) – a preliminary framework for measuring RRI dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejlgaard, N.; Buehrer, S.; Griessler, E.; Lindner, R.; Maroulis, N.; Meijer, I.; Peter, V.; Rafols, I.; Ravn, T.; Stilgoe, J.; Tsipouri, L.; Woolley, R.; Wroblewski, A.

    2016-07-01

    European efforts to 'mainstream' the notion of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) is challenged by a lack of organisational and individual incentives, but also by absense of relevant measures of RRI. The European Commission has launched a study with the aim of developing indicators capturing the evolution and benefits of RRI across Europe. This paper presents the preliminary set of indicators identified by the project consortium. In recent years, the notion of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) has emerged in European policy making. From the perspective of the ‘Science with and for Society’ (SwafS) scheme of the European Commission (EC), the purpose of promoting RRI is “to build effective cooperation between science and society, to recruit new talent for science and to pair scientific excellence with social awareness and responsibility” (EC, 2016). (Author)

  13. The Relativity of Free Will and Liability of the Tobacco Industry – Deconstruction of a Myth. Brazilian Meditations on the United States v. Philip Morris et al. Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Facchini Neto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes one of the main arguments put forward by the tobacco industry to support the absence of liability for damages caused by tobacco addiction: the free will of the smoker. Through the contribution of other sciences, it seeks to demonstrate how young people, targeted audience of marketing campaigns of the tobacco industry, were extremely vulnerable to tobacco industry maneuvers to attract them to their products. It also demonstrates the addictive effects of nicotine and how it practically neutralizes the ability of an adult deciding to stop the addiction. At the end, it sustains the relativization of the principle of free will.

  14. Nicotine interacts with sex in affecting rat choice between "look-out" and "navigational" cognitive styles in the Morris water maze place learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanit, L; Taşkiran, D; Furedy, J J; Kulali, B; McDonald, R; Pöğün, S

    1998-07-15

    The effect of sex and nicotine on cognitive style was examined in rats using a water maze task that allows differentiation between cognitive ability and style. During the 12-day acquisition period with the platform in the same location (either visible or hidden) there were no effects or interactions attributable to nicotine and sex, either in terms of learning rate or asymptotic latency. On the final test day the platform was visible and shifted in its location, and on the first trial the new location was proximal to the rats starting position, in contrast to the more distal location of the platform during the previous acquisition days. This platform relocation presented the rats with a choice between two competing cognitive styles: using local visual (look-out) cues vs. navigational cues. Performance on the test day yielded a nicotine x sex interaction, such that only saline-treated female rats showed a clear preference for the perceptual-proximal look-out cognitive style by swimming straight to the newly-relocated visible platform with mean escape latency that approximated the limits of swimming speed. The other three groups did not differ from each other, and preferred navigational cues. The results show that male and female rats use different strategies in problem solving, and that nicotine shifts the female pattern to that of the male.

  15. Universal Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi Relations for C-C, C-O, C-N, N-O, N-N, and O-O Dissociation Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shengguang

    2010-10-27

    It is shown that for all the essential bond forming and bond breaking reactions on metal surfaces, the reactivity of the metal surface correlates linearly with the reaction energy in a single universal relation. Such correlations provide an easy way of establishing trends in reactivity among the different transition metals.

  16. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accretion in the placenta but not the fetus is matched by plasma unesterified DHA uptake rates in pregnant Long Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherel, Adam H; Kitson, Alex P; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Lacombe, R J Scott; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Alashmali, Shoug M; Lin, Lin; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-10-01

    Maternal delivery of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) to the developing fetus via the placenta is required for fetal neurodevelopment, and is the only mechanism by which DHA can be accreted in the fetus. The aim of the current study was to utilize a balance model of DHA accretion combined with kinetic measures of serum unesterified DHA uptake to better understand the mechanism by which maternal DHA is delivered to the fetus via the placenta. Female rats maintained on a 2% α-linolenic acid diet free of DHA for 56 days were mated, and for balance analysis, sacrificed at 18 days of pregnancy, and fetus, placenta and maternal carcass fatty acid concentration were determined. For tissue DHA uptake, pregnant dams (14-18 days) were infused for 5 min with radiolabeled 14C-DHA and kinetic modeling was used to determine fetal and placental serum unesterified DHA uptake rates. DHA accretion rates in the fetus were determined to be 38 ± 2 nmol/d/g, 859 ± 100 nmol/d/litter and 74 ± 3 nmol/d/pup, which are all higher (P DHA uptake rates of 16 ± 6 nmol/d/g, 239 ± 145 nmol/d/litter and 14 ± 8 nmol/d/pup. No differences (p > 0.05) in placental DHA accretion rates versus serum unesterified DHA uptake rates were observed as values varied only 6-35% between studies. No differences in placental accretion and uptake rates suggests that serum unesterified DHA is a significant pool for the maternal-placental transfer of DHA, and lower fetal DHA uptake compared to accretion supports remodeling of placental DHA for delivery to the fetus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Progreso temporal y manejo integrado de la moniliais [Moniliophthora roreri (Cif y Par.) Evans et al.] del cacao (Theobroma cacao) en Tabasco, México.

    OpenAIRE

    Torres de la Cruz, Magdiel

    2010-01-01

    El cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) es uno de los principales recursos agrícolas de Tabasco, México. En abril del 2005, se reportó la moniliasis (Moniliophthora roreri) del cacao en Tabasco; para 2007, la enfermedad había invadido todas las regiones productoras del estado, convirtiéndose en la principal limitante parasítica. En la presente investigación se estudió el progreso temporal de la moniliasis en Tabasco, se evaluó al azoxystrobin como agente curativo de M. roreri, y evaluó un programa de m...

  18. Anatomical reconstruction and Evans tenodesis of the lateral ligaments of the ankle. Clinical and radiological findings after follow-up for 15 to 30 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krips, R.; Brandsson, S.; Swensson, C.; van Dijk, C. N.; Karlsson, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this retrospective study, we assessed the outcome in 99 patients who underwent reconstruction of the lateral ligaments of the ankle for chronic anterolateral instability with a minimum follow-up of 15 years. Two techniques were compared: 54 patients had an anatomical reconstruction (AR group) and

  19. Occupy Education: Living and Learning Sustainability. By Tina Lynn Evans, Peter Lang Publishing, 2012; 356 Pages. Price: $39.95, ISBN 978-1-4331-1966-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Occupy Education is motivated by the sustainability crisis and energized by the drive for social justice that inspired the Occupy movement. Situated within the struggle for sustainability taking place amid looming resource shortages, climate change, economic instability, and ecological breakdown, the book is a timely contribution to community education and action. It opens a whole realm of integrated theory to educators and sustainability activists-and demonstrates how that theory can be moved into practice. Occupy Education is an excellent text for courses in sustainability studies, social philosophy, globalization, social justice, food system praxis, sustainability education, political economy, and environmental studies.

  20. The Effects of Nicotine on Antinociception in Male and Female Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans Rats With and Without Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Raygada, Shaham , Nespor, Kant, & Grunberg, 1992). Hypothesis 5: Nicotine administration will decrease body weight in a positive dose-dependent manner (12...271. Raygada, M., Shaham , Y., Nespor, S.M., Kant, G.J., & Grunberg, N.E. (1992). Effect of stress on hypothalamic insulin in rats. Brain Research

  1. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AROCLOR 1016 OR 1254 DID NOT ALTER BRAIN CATECHOLAMINES NOR DELAYED ALTERNATION PERFORMANCE IN LONG EVANS RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several reports have indicated that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) altered development of biogenic amine systems in the brain, impaired behavioral performances and disrupted maturation of the thyroid axis. The current study examines whether these developmental effects of PCB ar...

  2. OXIDATIVE DNA DAMAGE FROM POTASSIUM BROMATE EXPOSURE IN LONG-EVANS RATS IS NOT ENHANCED BY A MIXTURE OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public drinking water treated with chemical disinfectants contains a complex mixture of disinfection by-products (DBPs) for which the relative toxicity of the mixtures needs to be characterized to accurately assess risk. Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is a by-product from ozonation of...

  3. Protocol for isolation of Moniliophthora roreri (Cif and Par Evans et al. from cacao fruits cv. `National' in the Ecuadorian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Carrera-Sánchez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Moniliophthora roreri is a pathogen of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. that causes high economic losses in Ecuador. This paper is intended to present a protocol for the isolation of the pathogen from cocoa fruits cv. `National', showing signs and symptoms of disease. The fruits were collected on farms of Napo (Ecuador. By wet chamber, it was able to induce profusely, sporulation on the surface of selected lesions. The isolations were performed from conidia directly located on the surface of fruits with brown powdery appearance. Isolation procedures and suggested of possible applications are presented.   Key words: amazonia, basidiomycetes, fungi, moniliasis, Theobroma cacao L.

  4. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de Lippia sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. y Par. Evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (Theobroma cacao L. In vitro effect of essential oils of three Lippia species on Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. and Par. Evans et al., causative agent of moniliasis of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Stefany Lozada

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5 extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas. Los aislados de monilia (M1, M2, M3, M4 y M5 fueron caracterizados por su morfología, germinación y crecimiento en medios de cultivo. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes concentraciones de los AEs fue evaluada contra el aislado M2 y la cepa de M. roreri (ATCC 64239, para determinar su efecto sobre la germinación y la inhibición del crecimiento micelial. Los AEs estudiados inhibieron 100% de la germinación y del crecimiento micelial cuando fueron utilizados en concentraciones de 800 - 1000 µg/ml. Concentraciones de 200 µg/ml también mostraron efecto sobre los aislamientos fúngicos, siendo los AEs obtenidos de L. origanoides (AE2 y AE3 los más activos. Estos estaban compuestos principalmente por timol, p-cimeno, g-terpineno, acetato de timilo, carvacrol, b-mirceno, trans-b-cariofileno. Diferencias significativas (P The in vitro antifungal effect of five essential oils (EOs (EO1, EO2, EO3, EO4 and EO5 extracted from Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora and L. alba on isolates of Monilia (Moniliophthora roreri was evaluated. Lippia plants were collected at five locations in Colombia, and monilia isolates were obtained from infected cocoa fruits collected in San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. The fungi strains (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5 were characterized by morphology, germination and growth in culture media. Antifungal activity of different concentrations of EOs was evaluated against the M2 and the isolated strain of M. roreri (ATCC 64239 determining their effect on germination and mycelial growth inhibition. The five essential oils studied inhibited 100% germination and micelial growth when they were used at concentrations from 800 to 1000 µg/ml. Concentrations of 200 µg/ml also showed an effect on fungal isolates, being the EOs obtained from L. origanoides (EO2 and EO3 the most active. These were mainly composed of thymol, p-cymene, g-terpinene, timilo acetate, carvacrol, b-myrcene, trans- b-caryophyllene. Significant differences (P < 0.05 on susceptibility were observed between the two fungal strains studied, being generally more susceptible the isolated M2 that the ATCC strain. The EOs of L. origanoides are candidates for use as biofungicides possible to control the moniliasis. Future studies oriented to determinate the in vivo antifungal activity of these EOs and its major components are required.

  5. Raise your game how to build on your successes to achieve transformational results

    CERN Document Server

    Hazelton, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Suzanne has a deep desire to help others "be the best they can", which inspires her to bring her mix of business experience, coaching and training to a wider audience. It is Suzanne's firm desire that readers discover and use these simple techniques, in order to start their upward spiral to success and fulfilment. Suzanne is a coach specialising in behavioural change within business. Suzanne has trained or coached more than 3500 people either in small group sessions or in one-to-one coaching and regularly delivers conference workshops. Suzanne has worked nationally and internationally. Her interest in professional development spans two decades. After a first degree in Industrial and Business Systems and an early career in IT, which encompassed project and people management, Suzanne specialised in developing and delivering personal development training courses at IBM, before founding her own business. Suzanne is a practitioner in a number of inter-related approaches such as: NLP (MPrac), Firo-B, and the Myers-...

  6. Drag queens' use of language and the performance of blurred gendered and racial identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Stephen L

    2011-01-01

    Building on Barrett (1998), this study provides a sociolinguistic analysis of the language used by Suzanne, a European-American drag queen, during her on-stage performance in the southeastern United States. Suzanne uses wigs and costumes to portray a female character on stage, but never hides the fact that she is biologically male. She is also a member of a predominantly African-American cast. Through her creative use of linguistic features such as stylemixing (i.e., the use of linguistic features shared across multiple language varieties) and expletives, Suzanne is able to perform an identity that frequently blurs gender and racial lines.

  7. Raamat eesti naiste saatustest / Ülo Ignats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ignats, Ülo, 1951-2011

    2006-01-01

    rets. rmt.: Carrying Linda´s stones: an anthology of Estonian women´s life stories/ editors Suzanne Stiver Lie ...[ et al.]; foreword by H. E. Aldona Wos. Tallinn: Tallinn University Press, 2006. 600 lk. : ill, kaart

  8. Pop / Bertil Tüvi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tüvi, Bertil

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Bonde Do Role "With Lasers", Cribs "Men's Needs Women's Needs Whatever", Dylan Donkin "Food for Thoughtlessness", Dream Theater "Systematic Chaos", Smashing Pumpkins "Zeitgeist", Suzanne Vega "Beauty and Crime", The Beach Boys "The Warmth Of The Sun"

  9. Speech Act Disagreement among Young Women in Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eslami Rasekh, Abbas; Parvaresh, Vahid; Parvaresh, Vahid; Eslami Rasekh, Abbas

    2009-01-01

    In their article "Speech Act Disagreement among Young Women in Iran" Vahid Parvaresh and Abbas Eslami Rasekh investigate the effects of solidarity and deference proposed by Ronald Scollon and Suzanne...

  10. Distributed Wind Cost Reduction: Learning from Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-02-23

    The distributed wind energy industry can learn several lessons from the solar industry regarding reducing soft costs. Suzanne Tegen presented this overview at the 2016 Distributed Wind Energy Association Business Conference in Washington, D.C., on February 23, 2016.

  11. Tõnu Kaalep kuulab plaate,mille autoriks on naised / Tõnu Kaalep

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaalep, Tõnu, 1966-

    2001-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Tori Amos "Strange Little Girls", Suzanne Vega "Songs in Red and Gray", Tracy Chapman "Collection", Sandy Dillon & Hector Zazou "12 (Las Vegas is Cursed)", Anja Garbarek "Smiling & Waving"

  12. Child fostering in West Africa: New perspectives on theory and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alber, E.; Martin, J.; Notermans, C.D.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction / Erdmute Alber, Jeannett Martin and Catrien Notermans -- A framework for the analysis of parent roles / Esther Goody -- Adoption, fosterage and marriage / Suzanne Lallemand -- The transfer of belonging: theories on child fostering in West Africa reviewed / Erdmute Alber -- Experiencing

  13. Book received: German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Marchand

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Suzanne Marchand, German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2009; including sample from introductory chapter 2-SM/1

  14. 75 FR 9960 - First Trust/Aberdeen Global Opportunity Income Fund, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... Senior Floating Rate Income Fund, First Trust/Four Corners Senior Floating Rate Income Fund II, Macquarie...., Chicago, Illinois 60603, attention: Eric F. Fess, Esq. and Suzanne M. Russell, Esq. FOR FURTHER...

  15. Indulging and Divulging: Exploding Expectation in Stand-Up Comedy by Women of Color

    OpenAIRE

    Nittrouer, Christie

    2011-01-01

    This essay discusses the acts of two stand-up comediennes, Maysoon Zayir and Suzanne Whang. The author analyzes the way in which both of these women, through their comedy, interrogate and provoke racial expectations, identity, and transnationalism.

  16. Indulging and Divulging: Expoloding Expectation in Stand-Up Comedy by Women of Color

    OpenAIRE

    Nittrouer, Christie

    2011-01-01

    This essay discusses the acts of two stand-up comediennes, Maysoon Zayir and Suzanne Whang. The author analyzes the way in which both of these women, through their comedy, interrogate and provoke racial expectations, identity, and transnationalism.

  17. The Collapse of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea: A Multilateral Approach to Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    control of Korea has been at the forefront, widely viewed as a dagger pointed at Japan’s heart as well as a bridge to the Asian mainland. See Samuel ...North Korea. 16 Tovar , Suzanne M. How Will External Powers Affect Korean Reunification? Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School, 2005. 81 17...and Korean Unification Strategies. Seoul, Korea: Kyungnam University Press, 1997. Tovar , Suzanne M. How Will External Powers Affect Korean

  18. A role for autophagy in long-term spatial memory formation in male rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylin, Michael J; Zhao, Jing; Tangavelou, Karthikeyan; Rozas, Natalia S; Hood, Kimberly N; MacGowan, Jacalyn S; Moore, Anthony N; Dash, Pramod K

    2018-03-01

    A hallmark of long-term memory formation is the requirement for protein synthesis. Administration of protein synthesis inhibitors impairs long-term memory formation without influencing short-term memory. Rapamycin is a specific inhibitor of target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) that has been shown to block protein synthesis and impair long-term memory. In addition to regulating protein synthesis, TORC1 also phosphorylates Unc-51-like autophagy activating kinase-1 (Ulk-1) to suppress autophagy. As autophagy can be activated by rapamycin (and rapamycin inhibits long-term memory), our aim was to test the hypothesis that autophagy inhibitors would enhance long-term memory. To examine if learning alters autophagosome number, we used male reporter mice carrying the GFP-LC3 transgene. Using these mice, we observed that training in the Morris water maze task increases the number of autophagosomes, a finding contrary to our expectations. For learning and memory studies, male Long Evans rats were used due to their relatively larger size (compared to mice), making it easier to perform intrahippocampal infusions in awake, moving animals. When the autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or Spautin-1 were administered bilaterally into the hippocampii prior to training in the Morris water maze task, the drugs did not alter learning. In contrast, when memory was tested 24 hours later by a probe trial, significant impairments were observed. In addition, intrahippocampal infusion of an autophagy activator peptide (TAT-Beclin-1) improved long-term memory. These results indicate that autophagy is not necessary for learning, but is required for long-term memory formation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Water Quality and Occurrence of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) and Other Fuel-Related Compounds in Lakes and Ground Water at Lakeside Communities in Sussex and Morris Counties, New Jersey, 1998-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehr, Arthur L.; Reilly, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    Densely populated communities surround many of the larger lakes in northwestern New Jersey. These communities derive most of their water supply from wells. The lakes can be navigated by gasoline-powered watercraft, can be in various stages of eutrophication, may contain pathogens associated with bathing and waterfowl, and are periodically subjected to chemical applications to control aquatic plant growth. Another feature that contributes to water-quality concerns in lakeside communities is the widespread use of septic tanks. Concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline oxygenate, in samples from Cranberry Lake and Lake Lackawanna ranged from 20 to 30 ug/L (micrograms per liter) and 5 to 14 ug/L during the summers of 1998 and 1999, respectively. These levels were persistent throughout the depth of the lakes when mixing conditions were present. MTBE concentrations in samples from the top 20 feet of Lake Hopatcong during summer 1999 were about 10 ug/L and about 2 to 3 ug/L in samples below 20 feet. The source of the MTBE in the lakes was determined to be gasoline-powered watercraft. Other constituents of gasoline--tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)--were detected in the lakes but at much lower concentrations than MTBE. Ambient ground-water quality at Cranberry Lake and Lake Lackawanna appears to be affected by the use of gasoline-powered watercraft. MTBE was detected in water samples from 13 of the 14 wells sampled at Cranberry Lake in fall 1998 and summer 1999. The wells were selected to monitor ambient ground-water quality and had no history of contamination. In ground-water samples collected during fall 1998, MTBE concentrations ranged from 0.12 to 19.8 ug/L, and the median concentration was 0.43 ug/L. In samples from summer 1999, MTBE concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 13.2 ug/L, and the median concentration was 0.38 ug/L. MTBE was detected in samples from four of the five wells at Lake Lackawanna in summer 1999;concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 0.19 ug/L. Lake/ground water interaction is a feasible explanation for the nearly ubiquitous presence of MTBE in ground water. The movement of water from lakes to wells is feasible because many static water levels and essentially all pumped water levels in the wells were below lake levels. Furthermore, diatom fragments were present in samples from the wells. Ambient ground water at Cranberry Lake also may be affected by septic-tank effluent, as indicated by the relation among concentrations of nitrate, boron, and chloroform. This result indicates potential vulnerability of the water supply to contamination by other chemicals and pathogens. Radon in ambient ground water is a concern throughout northern New Jersey. In particular, the median radon concentrations in ground-water samples collected from 14 wells at Cranberry Lake in 1998 and 1999 were 1,282 and 1,046 pCi/L, respectively. The median radon concentration in five ground-water samples collected at Lake Lackawanna in 1999 was 340 pCi/L. Although these values exceed regulatory levels, they are not high relative to radon concentrations measured in northwestern New Jersey. Eight wells in a neighborhood of Cranberry Lake with known MTBE contamination were sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey in summer 1998. MTBE was detected at concentrations greater than or equal to 40 ug/L in five of the wells. Concentrations of TAME, another gasoline oxygenate, were highly correlated with concentrations of MTBE; MTBE concentrations were about 10 times the TAME concentrations. In all samples, however, the concentrations of the BTEX compounds were less than 0.05 ug/L, and the sample from the most highly contaminated well, where the MTBE concentration was 900 ug/L, had no detectable BTEX.

  20. Influencia del ejercicio y el estrés en el proceso de aprendizaje y memoria en ratones NIH evaluados en el laberinto acuático de Morris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Alexandro Criollo Rayo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Se ha encontrado que el ejercicio estimula los procesos de plasticidad cerebral como neurogénesis y potenciación a largo plazo (LPL y de igual forma mejora la navegación espacial en ratas juveniles; sin embargo, no se conoce con claridad el mecanismo a travez del cual el ejercicio mejora el aprendizaje.

  1. Field Testing and Summary Report for Road 5 (Morris Road) Over Road 3 (Toftoy Throughway) at Redstone Arsenal, AL: Contractor’s Supplemental Report for Project F09-AR16

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    OVER TOFTOY THWY, REDSTONE ARSENAL, AL 17 1. Calculated an adjusted gross cross-sectional Moment of Inertia , Ix, based on the ratios of member...Bessel Max. Input Voltage 10.5 Volts DC Battery Power 9.6 NiMH rechargeable battery (Programmable low-power sleep mode) Alternative Power 9-48

  2. Talking Over the Years Sandra Evans Talking Over the Years and Jane Gamer (Eds) Brunner-Routledge 290 pp £17.99 158391 144 8 1583911448 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    This book addresses a relatively neglected area in the care of older adults. Its theoretical position is from a psychodynamic perspective - often thought not to be relevant to older adults. The chapters in part one give a brief account of the theories of eminent psychotherapists such as Melanie Kline, Erik Erickson and Sigmund Freud. Within each of these chapters, however, is not only the theoretical frame but also clinical examples relevant to all professions caring for older adults.

  3. Philippe Lebrun, Head of the AT Department, Lyn Evans, LHC Project Leader, and Lucio Rossi, Head of the AT-MAS Group, in front of the last batch of steel for the LHC at Cockerill Sambre.

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Casting the last batch of steel sheets for the LHC superconducting magnet yokes. The yokes constitute approximately 80% of the accelerator's weight and, if placed side by side, would stretch over 20 km !

  4. Volvo ja Ikea endine tegevjuht Göran Carstedt : Tänapäevane (personali)juhtimine peab sisaldama eeskätt looduslähedast mõtteviisi / Göran Carstedt ; interv. Tiina Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Carstedt, Göran

    2008-01-01

    Juhtimiskonsultant ning Organisatsioonilise Õppimise Ühingu eestvedaja ja arendaja Göran Carsedt vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad ettevõtte tegevust personali tööle pühendumise parendamiseks, ettevõtte jätkusuutlikku juhtimist ja tootlikkust, majanduslanguse mõju ettevõtete personalipoliitikale, talendijuhtimist, väikeste ettevõttete ellujäämist majanduslanguse ajal, IKEA kui hea tööandja mainet ning jätkusuutlikku personaliarendajat. Lisa: Jätkusuutlik juhtimine Rootsi moodi

  5. Actividad antifúngica in vitro de extractos de Origanum vulgare L., Tradescantia spathacea Swartz y Zingiber officinale Roscoe sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif & Par) Evans et ál.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez González, Sandra; López Báez, Orlando; Guzmán Hernández, Tomás; Munguía Ulloa, Sayra; Espinosa Zaragoza, Saúl

    2011-01-01

    La moniliasis del cacao ocasionada por Moniliophthora roreri origina grandes pérdidas en los países donde se ha estado dispersando; en México, de reciente ingreso ha afectado drásticamente la producción, ya que daña los frutos en sus diferentes estados y son escasas las medidas de control que se han podido implementar, por lo que se investigó el efecto in vitro de extractos de Origanum vulgare L., Tradescantia spathacea Swartz y Zingiber officinale Roscoe sobre M. roreri. Se aisló el hongo de...

  6. Universal Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi Relations for C–C, C–O, C–N, N–O, N–N, and O–O Dissociation Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Shengguang; Temel, Burcin; Shen, Juan

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that for all the essential bond forming and bond breaking reactions on metal surfaces, the reactivity of the metal surface correlates linearly with the reaction energy in a single universal relation. Such correlations provide an easy way of establishing trends in reactivity among the ...

  7. Actividad antifúngica in vitro de extractos de Origanum vulgare L., Tradescantia spathacea Swartz y Zingiber officinale Roscoe sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif & Par Evans et ál.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ramírez González

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La moniliasis del cacao ocasionada por Moniliophthora roreri origina grandes pérdidas en los países donde se ha estado dispersando; en México, de reciente ingreso ha afectado drásticamente la producción, ya que daña los frutos en sus diferentes estados y son escasas las medidas de control que se han podido implementar, por lo que se investigó el efecto in vitro de extractos de Origanum vulgare L., Tradescantia spathacea Swartz y Zingiber officinale Roscoe sobre M. roreri. Se aisló el hongo de frutos enfermos y se cultivó en laboratorio, las plantas fueron recolectadas y sometidas a cuatro formas de extracción: hidrolato por destilación, presurizado, fermentación aeróbica y anaeróbica. Dichos extractos se incorporaron al medio de cultivo al 50% (V/V, se sembró el hongo y se incubó durante 12 días, cuantificando el crecimiento diario y la formación de conidias; a los extractos que inhibieron totalmente al hongo se les determinó la concentración mínima.

  8. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de Lippia sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. y Par. Evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozada Betty Stefany

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5 extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas. Los aislados de monilia (M1, M2, M3, M4 y M5 fueron caracterizados por su morfología, germinación y crecimiento en medios de cultivo. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes concentraciones de los AEs fue evaluada contra el aisla- do M2 y la cepa de M. roreri (ATCC 64239, para determinar su efecto sobre la germinación y la inhibi- ción del crecimiento micelial. Los AEs estudiados inhibieron 100% de la germinación y del crecimiento micelial cuando fueron utilizados en concentraciones de 800 - 1000 µg/ml. Concentraciones de 200 µg/ml también mostraron efecto sobre los aislamientos fúngicos, siendo los AEs obtenidos de L. ori- ganoides (AE2 y AE3 los más activos. Estos estaban compuestos principalmente por timol, p-cimeno,

    y-terpineno, acetato de timilo, carvacrol, 1-mirceno, trans-1ccariofileno. Diferencias significativas (P <

    0.05 sobre la susceptibilidad se observaron entre las dos cepas fúngicas estudiadas, siendo en gene- ral más susceptible el aislado M2 que la cepa ATCC. Los AEs de L. origanoides son candidatos para ser usados como posibles biofungicidas en el control de la moniliasis. Son necesarios estudios futuros orientados a determinar la actividad in vivo antifúngica de estos AEs y sus principales componentes.

  9. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de Lippia sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. y Par. Evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Stefany Lozada

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5 extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas. Los aislados de monilia (M1, M2, M3, M4 y M5 fueron caracterizados por su morfología, germinación y crecimiento en medios de cultivo. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes concentraciones de los AEs fue evaluada contra el aislado M2 y la cepa de M. roreri (ATCC 64239, para determinar su efecto sobre la germinación y la inhibición del crecimiento micelial. Los AEs estudiados inhibieron 100% de la germinación y del crecimiento micelial cuando fueron utilizados en concentraciones de 800 - 1000 µg/ml. Concentraciones de 200 µg/ml también mostraron efecto sobre los aislamientos fúngicos, siendo los AEs obtenidos de L. origanoides (AE2 y AE3 los más activos. Estos estaban compuestos principalmente por timol, p-cimeno, g-terpineno, acetato de timilo, carvacrol, b-mirceno, trans-b-cariofileno. Diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 sobre la susceptibilidad se observaron entre las dos cepas fúngicas estudiadas, siendo en general más susceptible el aislado M2 que la cepa ATCC. Los AEs de L. origanoides son candidatos para ser usados como posibles biofungicidas en el control de la moniliasis. Son necesarios estudios futuros orientados a determinar la actividad in vivo antifúngica de estos AEs y sus principales componentes.

  10. Melanin-concentrating hormone inputs to the nucleus accumbens originate from distinct hypothalamic sources and are apposed to GABAergic and cholinergic cells in the Long-Evans rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemmerle, C A S; Campos, A M P; Bittencourt, J C

    2015-03-19

    Melanin-concentrating hormone [MCH] is a neuropeptide that modulates several behaviors, such as feeding and reward. Because the hedonic and rewarding features of a food also influence feeding behavior, the nucleus accumbens [Acb] has been highlighted as a key area integrating these roles. Functional data confirm that MCH acts on a subdivision of the Acb; however, considering the importance of finding anatomical and neurochemical data that correlate the previously demonstrated function of MCH, we delineated this investigation based on the following points: (1) Is there a pattern of innervation by MCH fibers regarding the subregions within the Acb? (2) Specifically, which hypothalamic nuclei synthesize MCH and innervate the Acb? (3) Finally, what are the neurochemical identities of the accumbal neurons innervated by MCH inputs? We examined the MCH immunoreactivity [MCH-ir] in the Acb in rat brains using the peroxidase technique. Additionally, after injecting retrograde neuronal tracer [Fluoro-Gold® - FG®] into subdivisions of the Acb [shell or core], we mapped single- or double-labeled cells. Moreover, using a double immunoperoxidase protocol, we investigated the MCH-ir fibers for gamma-aminobutyric acid [GABA]-ir and choline acetyltransferase [ChAT]-ir cells in the shell subdivision of the Acb [AcbSh]. We found that the MCH-ir fibers preferentially innervate the medial AcbSh, particularly the septal pole. This innervation originated from the incerto-hypothalamic area [IHy], internuclear area, lateral hypothalamic area, perifornical area, periventricular nucleus and posterior hypothalamus. Moreover, the IHy has the highest relationship between double/single retrogradely labeled cells [n=5.33±0.66/16±0.93, i.e. 33.33%] in the whole hypothalamus. Furthermore, our data suggest that MCH-ir fibers are in apposition to GABAergic and cholinergic cells in the AcbSh. Therefore, we provide anatomical support to the ongoing functional studies investigating the relation among the hypothalamus, MCH transmission into the Acb and the involvement of known neuronal phenotypes within the AcbSh. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gestational and Lactational Exposure to Ethinyl Estradiol, but not Bisphenol A, Decreases Androgen-Dependent Reproductive Organ Weights and Epididymal Sperm Abundance in the Male Long Evans Hooded Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many chemicals released into the environment are capable of disrupting normal sex steroid balance, including the oral contraceptive ethinyl estradiol (EE) and the plastic monomer bisphenol A (BPA). EE and BPA are reported to impair reproductive organ development in laboratory ani...

  12. Training on motor and visual spatial learning tasks in early adulthood produces large changes in dendritic organization of prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens in rats given nicotine prenatally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, A; Mychasiuk, R; Hosain, S; Nakahashi, A; Carroll, C; Gibb, R; Kolb, B

    2013-11-12

    Experience-dependent plasticity is an ongoing process that can be observed and measured at multiple levels. The first goal of this study was to examine the effects of prenatal nicotine on the performance of rats in three behavioral tasks (elevated plus maze (EPM), Morris water task (MWT), and Whishaw tray reaching). The second goal of this experiment sought to examine changes in dendritic organization following exposure to the behavioral training paradigm and/or low doses of prenatal nicotine. Female Long-Evans rats were administered daily injections of nicotine for the duration of pregnancy and their pups underwent a regimen of behavioral training in early adulthood (EPM, MWT, and Whishaw tray reaching). All offspring exposed to nicotine prenatally exhibited substantial increases in anxiety. Male offspring also showed increased efficiency in the Whishaw tray-reaching task and performed differently than the other groups in the probe trial of the MWT. Using Golgi-Cox staining we examined the dendritic organization of the medial and orbital prefrontal cortex as well as the nucleus accumbens. Participation in the behavioral training paradigm was associated with dramatic reorganization of dendritic morphology and spine density in all brain regions examined. Although both treatments (behavior training and prenatal nicotine exposure) markedly altered dendritic organization, the effects of the behavioral experience were much larger than those of the prenatal drug exposure, and in some cases interacted with the drug effects. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reduction in size of perforated postsynaptic densities in hippocampal axospinous synapses and age-related spatial learning impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Daniel A; Yoshida, Rie; Berry, Robert W; Gallagher, Michela; Geinisman, Yuri

    2004-09-01

    A central problem in the neurobiology of normal aging is why learning is preserved in some aged individuals yet impaired in others. To investigate this issue, we examined whether age-related deficits in spatial learning are associated with a reduction in postsynaptic density (PSD) area in hippocampal excitatory synapses (i.e., with a structural modification that is likely to have a deleterious effect on synaptic function). A hippocampus-dependent version of the Morris water maze task was used to separate Long-Evans male rats into young adult, aged learning-unimpaired, and equally aged learning-impaired groups. Axospinous synapses from the CA1 stratum radiatum were analyzed using systematic random sampling and serial section analyses. We report that aged learning-impaired rats exhibit a marked ( approximately 30%) and significant reduction in PSD area, whereas aged learning-unimpaired rats do not. The observed structural alteration involves a substantial proportion of perforated synapses but is not observed in nonperforated synapses. These findings support the notion that many hippocampal perforated synapses become less efficient in aged learning-impaired rats, which may contribute to cognitive decline during normal aging.

  14. Strain and sex differences in brain and behaviour of adult rats: Learning and memory, anxiety and volumetric estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, R J; Bye, C; Trow, J; McDonald, R J

    2015-07-15

    Alterations in behaviour can arise through a number of factors, including strain and sex. Here, we explored strain and sex differences between Long-Evans (LER) and Wistar (WR) male and female rats that had been trained in a myriad of behavioural tasks. Tests included those assessing motor learning (skilled reaching task), spatial learning and memory (Morris water task), contextual learning (discriminative fear-conditioning to context) and anxiety behaviour (elevated plus maze). Following behavioural assessment, associated brain areas were examined for volumetric differences, including the hippocampus and its subregions, prefrontal cortex areas and the amygdala. LER and WR differed in their rates of performance in the skilled reaching task throughout the training period. Overall, LER outperformed WR in tasks related to contextual and spatial learning, although this was not accompanied by larger volumes of associated brain areas. Males outperformed females in spatial learning, and females outperformed males in the contextual fear-conditioning task and had an associated larger amygdalar volume, although these sexual dimorphisms were only observed within the LER strain. Overall, this study highlights differences between these two rat strains as well as highlights that larger volumetric estimates of brain areas do not always confer improved function of associated behaviours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volume 28 Issue 6 December 2003 pp 671-681 Articles. The conservation of redundancy in genetic systems: effects of sexual and asexual reproduction · J A Morris R D Morris ... Volume 29 Issue 3 September 2004 pp 359-366 Articles. Sexual selection, redundancy and survival of the most beautiful · R D Morris J A Morris.

  16. Kolm huvitavat Eesti pioneeri Austraalias / Väino Jaaniste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jaaniste, Väino

    2003-01-01

    19. mail 2003 toimunud Thirlmere Huviringi kokkutulekust, kus arhivaar Maie Barrow rääkis kolmest eesti mehest: Evan Lumme, Gustav Einsaar ja Jakob Lukats, selles artiklis on juttu Evan Anton Johann Lummest

  17. in vivo ameliorative effect of methanolic extract of boswellia dalzielli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nwokem et al.

    2), 171-183. Evans, W. C. (2009). Trease and Evans' pharmacognosy. Elsevier Health Sciences. Hyman, L., Schachat, A. P., He, Q., & Leske, M. C. (2000). Hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and age-related macular degeneration. Archives.

  18. Acute sleep deprivation enhances avoidance learning and spatial memory and induces delayed alterations in neurochemical expression of GR, TH, DRD1, pCREB and Ki67 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azogu, Idu; de la Tremblaye, Patricia Barra; Dunbar, Megan; Lebreton, Marianne; LeMarec, Nathalie; Plamondon, Hélène

    2015-02-15

    The current study investigated the effects of acute versus repeated periods of sleep deprivation on avoidance learning and spatial memory and on the expression of discrete biochemical brain signals involved in stress regulation, motivation and brain plasticity. Male Long-Evans rats were sleep deprived using the platform-over-water method for a single 4 h period (ASD) or for daily 4h RSD period on five consecutive days (CSD). The Y maze passive avoidance task (YM-PAT) and the Morris water maze (MWM) were used to determine learning and memory 1h following the last SD period. Region-specific changes in glucocorticoid receptors (GR), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine 1 receptors (DRD1), phospho-CREB (pCREB) and Ki-67 expression were assessed in the hippocampal formation, hypothalamus and mesolimbic regions 72 h following RSD. Behaviorally, our findings revealed increased latency to re-enter the aversive arm in the YM-PAT and reduced distance traveled and latency to reach the platform in the MWM in ASD rats compared to all other groups, indicative of improved avoidance learning and spatial memory, respectively. Acute SD enhanced TH expression in the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens and A11 neurons of the hypothalamus and DRD1 expression in the lateral hypothalamus. Cell proliferation in the subventricular zone and pCREB expression in the dentate gyrus and CA3 regions was also enhanced following acute SD. In contrast, repeated SD significantly elevated GR-ir at the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and CA1 and CA3 layers of the hippocampus compared to all other groups. Our study supports that a brief 4h sleep deprivation period is sufficient to induce delayed neurochemical changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Tracks: EPHT Massachusetts Case Study

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-07-20

    This podcast highlights the Massachusetts Environmental Public Health Tracking Network and features commentary from Massachusetts Department of Public Health Associate Health Commissioner Suzanne Condon.  Created: 7/20/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/20/2009.

  20. Toward an Aristotelian Conception of Good Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Suzanne Rice examines Aristotle's ideas about virtue, character, and education as elements in an Aristotelian conception of good listening. Rice begins by surveying of several different contexts in which listening typically occurs, using this information to introduce the argument that what should count as "good listening" must be…

  1. Financiële crises in de media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheijen, Suzanne van

    2015-01-01

    abstractSuzanne van Scheijen Financial crises in the media. A study of the framing of news on financial crises in Dutch newspapers Dutch newspapers have extensively compared the initial period of the financial crisis of 1929 to that of 2008 as well as their corresponding characteristics. This

  2. Educating the Whole Child through Science: A Portrait of an Exemplary Primary Science Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytler, Russell; Clark, John Cripps; Darby, Linda

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the primary science practice of one teacher as a picture of exemplary professional practice. The teacher, Suzanne Peterson, was a colleague and friend. Her untimely death earlier this year was regarded by those who knew her as a tragic loss to education. As it happens, we have access to many sources of information about…

  3. 75 FR 3914 - Recordation of Trade Name “Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AB”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... of the recordation or any other provision of the law so requires. DATES: Effective Date: January 25, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Suzanne E. Kane, Attorney-Advisor, Intellectual Property Rights... requires. Dated: January 15, 2010. Charles R. Steuart, Chief, Intellectual Property Rights & Restricted...

  4. Sõber raamat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1997-01-01

    Raamatukaupluses EURO Publications pakutavate raamatute tutvustus. James Davidson, The Complete Home Lightning Book, 1997 Inglismaa ; Candace Ord Manroe. Uncluttered : Storage Room by Room ; Ruth Pretty. The Ultimate Interior Designer, Inglismaa 1997 ; Judith ja Martin Miller. Period Finishes and Effects, Londoni 1992 ; Suzanne Slesin, Stafford Cliff, Daniel Rozensztroch. Spanish Style, esmatrükk 1990.

  5. Asthma Awareness (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-30

    More than 22 million Americans have asthma, which is caused by a contraction of the airways in the lungs. In this podcast, Dr. Suzanne Beavers discusses ways to control and prevent asthma attacks.  Created: 4/30/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 4/30/2015.

  6. 76 FR 67402 - Performance Review Board Appointments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... A.; Baumes, Harry S.; Bender, Stuart; Bice, Donald; Black, David O.; Brady, Terence M.; Brewer, John..., Carole E.; MacMillian, Anne; Mande, Jerold; Mills, Ann C.; Palmieri, Suzanne; Pfaeffle, Frederick; Willis...; Douglas, Walt; Foster, Andrea L.; Golden, John; Gonzales, Oscar; Grahn, David P.; Hawk, Gilbert; Hobbs...

  7. Female Focalizers and Masculine Ideals: Gender as Performance in Twilight and the Hunger Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanio-Uluru, Lykke

    2016-01-01

    Stephenie Meyer's "Twilight" series (2005-2008) and Suzanne Collins' "The Hunger Games" series (2008-2010) have been hugely successful and influential texts, both as best-selling literary works and as action movie franchises. (To avoid confusion, "Twilight" and "The Hunger Games" in this essay refer to the…

  8. Responsible Grammar Rebels: Using the Hunger Games Trilogy to Teach the Intentional Sentence Fragment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Amber M.

    2016-01-01

    Building off of students' interest in popular apocalyptic/dystopian literature, this article explores how passages from Suzanne Collins's "The Hunger Games" trilogy aided in teaching students how to successfully rebel against traditional grammar rules, looking at fragments as intentional stylistic choices. Employing the values of…

  9. "The Hunger Games" and Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Horizons, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Mary Mobley teaches English and Michael Chambers teaches world history at Manor New Technology High School, a STEM school, in Manor, Texas. In this article, they talk about how they used "The Hunger Games" by Suzanne Collins to teach their students about forms of government between World War I and World War II, and "Edutopia"…

  10. Class on Fire: Using the Hunger Games Trilogy to Encourage Social Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Amber M.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores ways to utilize students' interest in fantasy literature to support critical literacy. Focusing on Suzanne Collins's The Hunger Games series (2008, 2009, 2010), the author addresses how elements of the trilogy relate to violent acts in our world, helping student understand that violence and brutality toward children is not…

  11. The Games People Play: Information and Media Literacies in the Hunger Games Trilogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Don; Hollister, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Katniss Everdeen, the narrator and protagonist of Suzanne Collins' Hunger Games Trilogy, survives the grueling ordeal of forced participation in two games to the death through both physical prowess and mental agility. Both within and outside of the Games, she demonstrates information and media literacies. By becoming adept at interpreting and…

  12. Alliances in "The Hunger Games"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Judith

    2012-01-01

    This lesson plan is based on "The Hunger Games" by Suzanne Collins. Characters in "The Hunger Games" form alliances both inside and outside the arena. Katniss and Gale form alliances within District 12. Katniss, Peeta, and the other tributes form alliances for a variety of reasons during the Games. An alliance means that "someone's got your back"…

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suzanne, Ayonghe Lum. Vol 11, No 1 (2013) - Articles Assessing the Impact of Audiovisual Translation on the Improvement of Academic Literacy Abstract PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  14. The NEA 2000 Almanac of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Harold, Ed.

    This report contains seven articles on current issues in higher education and a separate faculty salary report for 1998-1999. Articles on the status of the profession are: (1) "Faculty Salaries, 1998-99" (Suzanne B. Clery and John B. Lee); (2) "Innovative Approaches to Bargaining" (Gary Rhoades and Christine Maitland); (3)…

  15. The NEA 2001 Almanac of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Harold S., Ed.

    This report contains seven articles on current issues in higher education and a separate faculty salary report for 1999-2000. Articles on the "Status of the Profession" are: (1) "Faculty Salaries, 1999-2000" (Suzanne B. Clery and John B. Lee); (2) "Unions and Faculty Governance" (Christine Maitland and Gary Rhoades);…

  16. Practical User Experience Design for School Libraries: 5 Tips for Improving Day-to-Day Life for Your Users...and You!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannwald, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Suzanne Sannwald is the school librarian at West Hills High School in the Grossmont Union High School District, in San Diego's East County region. While working for a couple of years in a corporate setting prior to her current position, Sannwald learned about everything from organizational development and leadership to marketing and customer…

  17. Solid waste management and recycling : actors, partnerships and policies in Hyderabad, India and Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.; Baud, I.S.A.; Furedy, C.

    2004-01-01

    Solid waste management and recycling : actors, partnerships and policies in Hyderabad, India and Nairobi, Kenya / ed. by Isa Baud, Johan Post and Christine Furedy Author: Isabelle Suzanne Antoinette Baud; Johan Post Year: cop. 2004 Publisher: Dordrecht [etc.] : Kluwer Academic Publishers Series: The

  18. Book Review: The Drug Effect | Kriegler | South African Crime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Title: The Drug Effect: Health, Crime and Society Editors: Suzanne Fraser and David Moore Publisher: Cambridge University Press Price: R500.00 (incl. VAT and postage) Pages: 260. Availability: Published. Available through all academic bookstores. ISBN: 978-0-521-15605-9 ...

  19. Operations Events Census Report: Volume III, 1975-1980. Sanitized Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    JULIO S. 2 0599 BARRETT, LARRY K. 2 0837 BARRETT, SUZANNE J. 2 0638 BARRETT, THOMAS J. 2 0602 BARRETT, WILLIAM H. 2 0680 BASH, SUSAN C. 2 0602 BASSETT...0636 HALPIN, PATRICK N. 2 0599 HAMBY, VERN 2 0679 HAMILTON, THOMAS K. 2 0837 HAMMIL, DANIEL E. 2 0923 HAMMOND, JOHN B. 2 0679 HAMMOND, RICHARD C. 2

  20. A Reaction to Fairness in Dealing: Diversity, Psychology and Mathematics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossey, Ruth

    This paper is a reaction to a plenary address, "Fairness in Dealing: Diversity, Psychology, and Mathematics Education" by Suzanne Damarin (SE 057 179). Discussed are the importance of language in the repackaging of equity into the construct of fairness in dealing, the role of liberal feminism, race and ethnicity, physically structured…

  1. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Volume Eight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    This issue of the journal includes these papers on contrastive linguistics: "The Impersonal Sentence in Russian and Romanian" (Suzanne Whalen); "Differential Identity Between Languages--A Study of Assertion and Interrogation in French and English" (William A. Bennett); "The Use of the Article in English and Hungarian: A Contrastive Analysis" (Eva…

  2. Transformation of lacZ using different promoters in the commercially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... Transformation of lacZ using different promoters in the commercially important red alga, Gracilaria gracilis. Suzanne M. Huddy, Ann E. Meyers* and Vernon E. Coyne. Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Cape Town, P Bag X3, Rondebosch, 7701, South Africa. Accepted 10 November ...

  3. 77 FR 28889 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel; PAR-11-044: Indo-US Collaborative Program on Low-Cost Medical... applications. Place: St. Gregory Hotel, 2033 M Street NW., Washington, DC 20036. Contact Person: Suzanne Ryan.... to 5:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: St. Gregory Hotel, 2033 M...

  4. 77 FR 37458 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... from Suzanne H. Shatto, dated October 20, 2011 (``Shatto Letter''); Letter from Naphtali M. Hamlet, dated October 21, 2011 (``Hamlet Letter); Letter from Daniel Zinn, General Counsel, OTC Markets Group... Shatto Letter. \\36\\ See Hamlet Letter. Knight expressed the view that the proposal could have the...

  5. 77 FR 36012 - Notice of Record of Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... research funded by NSF or conducted by the USGS. The Proposed Action is for academic and U.S. government... variety of acoustic sources from research vessels operated by U.S. academic institutions and government...://www.nsf.gov/geo/oce/envcomp/ in Adobe portable document format (pdf). Dated: June 12, 2012. Suzanne H...

  6. “We have heard it together”: a qualitative analysis of couple HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “We have heard it together”: a qualitative analysis of couple HIV testing and counselling recruitment in Malawi's Option B+ programme. Nora E. Rosenberg, Rebecca Gross, Tiwonge Mtande, Suzanne Maman, Carol E. Golin, Friday Saidi, Olivia Manthalu, Irving Hoffman, Mina C. Hosseinipour, William C. Miller ...

  7. African Journal of AIDS Research - Vol 16, No 3 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... testing and counselling recruitment in Malawi's Option B+ programme · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Nora E. Rosenberg, Rebecca Gross, Tiwonge Mtande, Suzanne Maman, Carol E. Golin, Friday Saidi, Olivia Manthalu, Irving Hoffman, Mina C. Hosseinipour, ...

  8. New Combination Therapies for Advanced Prostate Cancer Based on the Radiosensitizing Potential of 5-Azacytidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    growth of xenografted prostate cancer tumors’ by Alfred Gallegos , Pamela Dino, Suzanne Regan, Bernard Futscher, Giuseppe Pizzorno and Eric Weterings...Jan 2012.  Steven Brotman, Senior Research Specialist, University of Arizona, Feb 2012 – Feb 2013.  Alfred Gallegos , Senior Research Specialist

  9. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    evkoff, ogan. 2 12. Sex talk among teens. Third base ain t what it used to be: what your kids are learning about sex today and how to teach them to become sexually healthy adults. Open Road Media. apafragou, Ann. 1996. On metonymy. ingua 99(4): 169 195. Romaine, Suzanne (1999). Communicating Gender. Mahwah:.

  10. Mapping Panem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Judith

    2012-01-01

    This lesson plan is based on Suzanne Collins's book, "The Hunger Games." Katniss and Gale know about District 12 and the surrounding woods. Additionally, from television coverage, they know that there are twelve districts and the Capitol. District 13 used to exist until the rebellion. But where are these districts now that the geography…

  11. Entering the Arena: The Figured Worlds Transition of Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Jane M.; Ash, Gwynne Ellen

    2013-01-01

    The article describes a semester-long project that draws on Suzanne Collins' "The Hunger Games" as a resource and over-arching theme for preservice teachers taking a content area literacy course. We examine how preservice teachers learn to connect written texts to content area (disciplinary) literacy and consider ways to prepare them for…

  12. Support personnel and family members in the Mission evaluation room (MER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Support personnel and family members in the Mission evaluation room (MER) during the flight of STS-4. Judy L. Hartsfield is shown seated at a desk in the MER of the mission control center (MCC) (33018); Judy Hartsfield, right, and Suzanne Vaccaro are seated at a desk in the MER in the MCC (33019).

  13. Ilmus kogumik eesti naiste elulugusid inglise keeles

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Carrying Linda's stones : an anthology of Estonian women's life stories / editors: Suzanne Stiver Lie, Lynda Malik, Ilvi Jõe-Cannon, Rutt Hinrikus ; foreword by H.E. Aldona Wos. Tallinn : Tallinn University Press, 2006. Sisaldab Elin Toona jt. elulugusid. Vt. ka SL Õhtuleht, 30. sept., lk. 27

  14. RSM Outlook Spring 2007 : Green Technology: The New IT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Morris (Rebecca)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstract#### Sustaining change (Rebecca Morris) An interview with RSM alumnus and Royal DSM Managing Board member Feike Sijbesma. #### Why celebrity sells: The brain mechanisms of persuasion (Vittorio Busato & Rebecca Morris) Marketing researchers at RSM are combining the latest

  15. Civilian Combatants, Military Professionals? American Officer Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    relative along these criteria. The Military Profession Harold Lasswell , Samuel Huntington, and Morris Janowitz argued that military officers are... Lasswell , ‘The Garrison State’, American Journal of Sociology (1941) p.455; Morris Janowitz, The Professional Soldier: A Social and

  16. Cannabis-induced impairment of learning and memory: effect of different nootropic drugs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Salem, Neveen A; El-Sayed El-Shamarka, Marwa; Al-Said Ahmed, Noha; Seid Hussein, Jihan; El-Khyat, Zakaria A

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis sativa preparations are the most commonly used illicit drugs worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Cannabis sativa extract in the working memory version of the Morris water maze (MWM; Morris, 1984[43...

  17. Cannabis-induced impairment of learning and memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M.E; Ahmed, Noha Al-Said; El-Khyat, Zakaria A; El-Shamarka, Marwa El-Sayed; Hussein, Jihan Seid; Salem, Neveen A

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis sativa preparations are the most commonly used illicit drugs worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Cannabis sativa extract in the working memory version of the Morris water maze (MWM; Morris, 1984...

  18. Morrise müstiline maailm / Jaanika Palm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palm, Jaanika, 1973-

    2008-01-01

    Retr. rmt.: Birck, Jan. Salaagent Morris ja vana tuuleveski saladus : põnevik piltides ; Salaagent Morris : hommikusöök võib oodata! : põnevik piltides (saksa keelest tõlkinud Kaja Ziegler. Tallinn : Grenader, 2007)

  19. The Five Point Plan: Foundational Transformation of the South Sudan Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Janowitz, Morris, The Citizen Soldier and National Service , (1979) Air University Review 3 infrastructure development in South Sudan is just starting to...2 Janowitz, Morris, The Citizen Soldier and National Service , (1979) Air University Review reserve, 4 military reorganization, and FID...Washington, DC 16. Janowitz, Morris, The Citizen Soldier and National Service , (1979) Air University Review 17, Spring, Joel, H, Education and the

  20. ‘Quick Reads’ May Promote Literacy without Stigma: Findings from Eight UK Public Libraries. A review of: McLoughlin, Carla, and Anne Morris. “UK Public Libraries: Roles in Adult Literacy Provision.” Journal of Librarianship and Information Science 36.1 (March 2004: 37-46.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hall

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To examine the role of public libraries in the provision of adult literacy services, with a detailed look at both the successes and concerns of the libraries under study; to provide recommendations for best practice in establishing or reviewing adult literacy services. Design – A series of case studies using written reports and semi-structured interviews. Setting – Eight public libraries in the UK involved in literacy service provision or reader development services. Subjects – Eight senior staff members in charge of library literacy programming. Method – A written report of literacy service initiatives was solicited from each participating library. A single interview was conducted with a staff member in charge of literacy service at each of the eight participating libraries. Fact-checking telephone interviews were conducted at three locations where adult literacy programs were in early stages. More indepth, face-to-face interviews were conducted at the five libraries with better established programs. Each type of interview consisted of a set of scripted questions supplemented by individualized questions based on the written reports. Main results – There are four key areas of results to be summarized from this study: • Adult Literacy Collections – The authors observed three main approaches to branding literacy collections: − Emphasis on reading for pleasure (with collections entitled ‘Quick Reads’ or ‘First Choice’; − Emphasis on reading for skills development; − Discreet labelling enabling stock recognition without advertising that the reader is borrowing literacy materials. The authors conclude that the ‘Quick Reads’ approach was the most successful in highlighting the collection without stigmatizing it and in promoting the pleasure of reading. The importance of maintaining relevant, attractive books was highlighted, with collections targeting both entry level readers and emergent readers. • Approaches for Supporting Adult Literacy – The libraries used reader development extensively as a strategy to support adult literacy efforts. Staff tied literacy offerings to other programs or services of interest (for example, promoting adult literacy services alongside audiovisual collections and Internet access. Adult learners were also targeted for library tours, reading groups, and assistance with book selection for the literacy collection. Some of the libraries hired new staff from outside the library profession, choosing candidates with prior experience in basic skills development or community work. • Methods of Attracting Adults with Poor Literacy ‐‐ Partnership was identified as a key strategy for the libraries studied. Partnerships were formed with numerous agencies, including the probationary service, a community centre (where the library’s ‘reader in residence’ was installed, a college, and a Peugeot factory. Networking with other literacy service providers and coalitions was also an important strategy, particularly as a way to increase the library’s profile as a literacy service provider. Perhaps the simplest strategy for attracting adults with poor literacy was to identify areas of the library districts where literacy skills were lowest and then to target literacy service to those regions. • Sustainability and Mainstreaming ‐‐ Early planning for sustainability was crucial. Incorporating funding for literacy staffing and collections into the core budget and annual library plan was also an important step. While some libraries hired new staff, and one library staffed the literacy project with volunteers, using existing staff for adult literacy work proved to be more efficient and sustainable. Instilling a sense of ownership in the project for both staff and users of the literacy services by involving them in the development and promotion of literacy service and collections was another strategy employed to ensure longevity of the service. Conclusions – The most successful form of library literacy service provision was found to be the reader development approach (promoting reading for enjoyment and building reading activities around existing interests. The libraries studied showed an understanding of the wide range of reading levels and interests among adult learners. Potential barriers for libraries in the provision of adult literacy service “include restrictive funding criteria, limited staff capacity, and a bidding culture that remains unsympathetic to public library circumstances” (44. The authors make five recommendations for best practices in adult literacy service provision: • Eclectic adult literacy collections: Collections should be fresh and appealing and should incorporate engaging non‐fiction. • Standardized criteria for adult literacy stock: Standardized criteria should be developed by a basic skills agency, preferably at a national level. • Equality for adult readers: Approach adult readers as people who read for enjoyment or who are ‘getting back to reading’, rather than as those needing to ‘improve’ their reading. • Maximum access: Ensure a diverse and well‐stocked collection of books that is easy for adult learners to locate. • Community profiling: Optimize service delivery by profiling your community’s literacy levels.