#### Sample records for suydam criterion

1. On the Jeans criterion

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Whitworth, A.P.

1980-01-01

The Jeans criterion is first stated and distinguished from the Virial Theorem. Then it is discussed how the Jeans criterion can be derived from the Virial Theorem and the inherent shortcomings in this derivation. Finally, it is indicated how these shortcomings might be overcome. The Jeans criterion is a fragmentation - or condensation -criterion. An expression is given, connecting the fragmentation of an unstable extended medium into masses Msub(J). Rather than picturing the background medium fragmenting, it is probably more appropriate to envisage these masses Msub(J) 'condensing' out of the background medium. On the condensation picture some fraction of the background material separates out into coherent bound nodules under the pull of its self-gravity. For this reason the Jeans criterion is discussed as a condensation condition, reserving the term fragmentation for a different process. The Virial Theorem provides a contraction criterion. This is described with reference to a spherical cloud and is developed to derive the Jeans criterion. (U.K.)

2. General Criterion for Harmonicity

Science.gov (United States)

Proesmans, Karel; Vandebroek, Hans; Van den Broeck, Christian

2017-10-01

Inspired by Kubo-Anderson Markov processes, we introduce a new class of transfer matrices whose largest eigenvalue is determined by a simple explicit algebraic equation. Applications include the free energy calculation for various equilibrium systems and a general criterion for perfect harmonicity, i.e., a free energy that is exactly quadratic in the external field. As an illustration, we construct a "perfect spring," namely, a polymer with non-Gaussian, exponentially distributed subunits which, nevertheless, remains harmonic until it is fully stretched. This surprising discovery is confirmed by Monte Carlo and Langevin simulations.

3. A Failure Criterion for Concrete

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ottosen, N. S.

1977-01-01

A four-parameter failure criterion containing all the three stress invariants explicitly is proposed for short-time loading of concrete. It corresponds to a smooth convex failure surface with curved meridians, which open in the negative direction of the hydrostatic axis, and the trace in the devi......A four-parameter failure criterion containing all the three stress invariants explicitly is proposed for short-time loading of concrete. It corresponds to a smooth convex failure surface with curved meridians, which open in the negative direction of the hydrostatic axis, and the trace...

4. Distance criterion for hydrogen bond

First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Distance criterion for hydrogen bond. In a D-H ...A contact, the D...A distance must be less than the sum of van der Waals Radii of the D and A atoms, for it to be a hydrogen bond.

5. A Failure Criterion for Concrete

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ottosen, N. S.

1977-01-01

A four-parameter failure criterion containing all the three stress invariants explicitly is proposed for short-time loading of concrete. It corresponds to a smooth convex failure surface with curved meridians, which open in the negative direction of the hydrostatic axis, and the trace...... are given for three typical ratios. A review of some earlier proposed failure criteria is included....

6. Centrality as a Prior Criterion.

Science.gov (United States)

Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Tuttle, Jane

Program discontinuance at colleges and universities is often linked to issues of program demand and quality. However, neither low demand nor low quality is sufficient for program discontinuance without a judgment on the criterion of the centrality of the program to the institution's core mission. Colleges' retrenchment and survival mechanisms…

7. On the Modified Barkhausen Criterion

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.

2016-01-01

Oscillators are normally designed according to the Modified Barkhausen Criterion i.e. the complex pole pair is moved out in RHP so that the linear circuit becomes unstable. By means of the Mancini Phaseshift Oscillator it is demonstrated that the distortion of the oscillator may be minimized by i...... by introducing a nonlinear ”Hewlett Resistor” so that the complex pole-pair is in the RHP for small signals and in the LHP for large signals i.e. the complex pole pair of the instant linearized small signal model is moving around the imaginary axis in the complex frequency plane....

8. Common Criterion For Failure Of Different Materials

Science.gov (United States)

Beyer, Rodney B.

1992-01-01

Common scaling criterion found to relate some physical quantities characterizing tensile failures of three different solid propellant materials. Tensile failures of different rubbery propellants characterized by similar plots.

9. An Operational Definition of the Emergence Criterion

Science.gov (United States)

Pallotti, Gabriele

2007-01-01

Although acquisition criteria are a fundamental issue for SLA research, they have not always been adequately defined or elaborated in the literature. This article critically scrutinizes one such criterion, the emergence criterion, proposing an explicit, operational definition. After discussing emergence as a theoretical construct, the article…

10. The qualitative criterion of transient angle stability

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lyu, R.; Xue, Y.; Xue, F.

2015-01-01

In almost all the literatures, the qualitative assessment of transient angle stability extracts the angle information of generators based on the swing curve. As the angle (or angle difference) of concern and the threshold value rely strongly on the engineering experience, the validity and robust...... of these criterions are weak. Based on the stability mechanism from the extended equal area criterion (EEAC) theory and combining with abundant simulations of real system, this paper analyzes the criterions in most literatures and finds that the results could be too conservative or too optimistic. It is concluded...

11. FFTBM and primary pressure acceptance criterion

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prosek, A.

2004-01-01

When thermalhydraulic computer codes are used for simulation in the area of nuclear engineering the question is how to conduct an objective comparison between the code calculation and measured data. To answer this the fast Fourier transform based method (FFTBM) was developed. When the FFTBM method was developed the acceptance criteria for primary pressure and total accuracy were set. In the recent study the FFTBM method was used for accuracy quantification of RD-14M large LOCA test B9401 calculations. The blind accuracy analysis indicated good total accuracy while the primary pressure criterion was not fulfilled. The objective of the study was therefore to investigate the reasons for not fulfilling the primary pressure acceptance criterion and the applicability of the criterion to experimental facilities simulating heavy water reactor. The results of the open quantitative analysis showed that sensitivity analysis for influence parameters provide sufficient information to judge in which calculation the accuracy of primary pressure is acceptable. (author)

12. General stability criterion for inviscid parallel flow

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sun Liang

2007-01-01

Arnol'd's second stability theorem is approached from an elementary point of view. First, a sufficient criterion for stability is found analytically as either -μ 1 s ) s ) in the flow, where U s is the velocity at the inflection point, and μ 1 is the eigenvalue of Poincare's problem. Second, this criterion is generalized to barotropic geophysical flows in the β plane. And the connections between present criteria and Arnol'd's nonlinear criteria are also discussed. The proofs are completely elementary and so could be used to teach undergraduate students

13. Sampling Criterion for EMC Near Field Measurements

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Franek, Ondrej; Sørensen, Morten; Ebert, Hans

2012-01-01

An alternative, quasi-empirical sampling criterion for EMC near field measurements intended for close coupling investigations is proposed. The criterion is based on maximum error caused by sub-optimal sampling of near fields in the vicinity of an elementary dipole, which is suggested as a worst......-case representative of a signal trace on a typical printed circuit board. It has been found that the sampling density derived in this way is in fact very similar to that given by the antenna near field sampling theorem, if an error less than 1 dB is required. The principal advantage of the proposed formulation is its...

14. Mercier criterion for high-β tokamaks

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Galvao, R.M.O.

1984-01-01

An expression, for the application of the Mercier criterion to numerical studies of diffuse high-β tokamaks (β approximatelly Σ,q approximatelly 1), which contains only leading order contributions in the high-β tokamak approximation is derived. (L.C.) [pt

15. A scale invariance criterion for LES parametrizations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Urs Schaefer-Rolffs

2015-01-01

Full Text Available Turbulent kinetic energy cascades in fluid dynamical systems are usually characterized by scale invariance. However, representations of subgrid scales in large eddy simulations do not necessarily fulfill this constraint. So far, scale invariance has been considered in the context of isotropic, incompressible, and three-dimensional turbulence. In the present paper, the theory is extended to compressible flows that obey the hydrostatic approximation, as well as to corresponding subgrid-scale parametrizations. A criterion is presented to check if the symmetries of the governing equations are correctly translated into the equations used in numerical models. By applying scaling transformations to the model equations, relations between the scaling factors are obtained by demanding that the mathematical structure of the equations does not change.The criterion is validated by recovering the breakdown of scale invariance in the classical Smagorinsky model and confirming scale invariance for the Dynamic Smagorinsky Model. The criterion also shows that the compressible continuity equation is intrinsically scale-invariant. The criterion also proves that a scale-invariant turbulent kinetic energy equation or a scale-invariant equation of motion for a passive tracer is obtained only with a dynamic mixing length. For large-scale atmospheric flows governed by the hydrostatic balance the energy cascade is due to horizontal advection and the vertical length scale exhibits a scaling behaviour that is different from that derived for horizontal length scales.

16. The Leadership Criterion in Technological Institute

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carvalho, Marcelo Souza de; Cussa, Adriana Lourenco d'Avila; Suita, Julio Cezar

2005-01-01

This paper introduces the Direction's 'Decision Making Practice'. It has recently been reviewed with the merging of the beddings of the Leadership Criterion (CE-PNQ). These changes improved the control of institutional plans of action which are the result of the global performance critical analysis and other information associated with the Decision Making Practice. (author)

17. A pellet-clad interaction failure criterion

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Howl, D.A.; Coucill, D.N.; Marechal, A.J.C.

1983-01-01

A Pellet-Clad Interaction (PCI) failure criterion, enabling the number of fuel rod failures in a reactor core to be determined for a variety of normal and fault conditions, is required for safety analysis. The criterion currently being used for the safety analysis of the Pressurized Water Reactor planned for Sizewell in the UK is defined and justified in this paper. The criterion is based upon a threshold clad stress which diminishes with increasing fast neutron dose. This concept is consistent with the mechanism of clad failure being stress corrosion cracking (SCC); providing excess corrodant is always present, the dominant parameter determining the propagation of SCC defects is stress. In applying the criterion, the SLEUTH-SEER 77 fuel performance computer code is used to calculate the peak clad stress, allowing for concentrations due to pellet hourglassing and the effect of radial cracks in the fuel. The method has been validated by analysis of PCI failures in various in-reactor experiments, particularly in the well-characterised power ramp tests in the Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor (SGHWR) at Winfrith. It is also in accord with out-of-reactor tests with iodine and irradiated Zircaloy clad, such as those carried out at Kjeller in Norway. (author)

18. An aerodynamic load criterion for airships

Science.gov (United States)

Woodward, D. E.

1975-01-01

A simple aerodynamic bending moment envelope is derived for conventionally shaped airships. This criterion is intended to be used, much like the Naval Architect's standard wave, for preliminary estimates of longitudinal strength requirements. It should be useful in tradeoff studies between speed, fineness ratio, block coefficient, structure weight, and other such general parameters of airship design.

19. Information criterion for the categorization quality evaluation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Michail V. Svirkin

2011-05-01

Full Text Available The paper considers the possibility of using the variation of information function as a quality criterion for categorizing a collection of documents. The performance of the variation of information function is being examined subject to the number of categories and the sample volume of the test document collection.

20. On the hodological criterion for homology

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Macarena eFaunes

2015-06-01

Full Text Available Owen’s pre-evolutionary definition of a homologue as the same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function and its redefinition after Darwin as the same trait in different lineages due to common ancestry entail the same heuristic problem: how to establish sameness. Although different criteria for homology often conflict, there is currently a generalized acceptance of gene expression as the best criterion. This gene-centered view of homology results from a reductionist and preformationist concept of living beings. Here, we adopt an alternative organismic-epigenetic viewpoint, and conceive living beings as systems whose identity is given by the dynamic interactions between their components at their multiple levels of composition. We posit that there cannot be an absolute homology criterion, and instead, homology should be inferred from comparisons at the levels and developmental stages where the delimitation of the compared trait lies. In this line, we argue that neural connectivity, i.e., the hodological criterion, should prevail in the determination of homologies between brain supra-cellular structures, such as the vertebrate pallium.

1. A criterion for nuclear safety assessment

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gonzalez, A.J.

1975-01-01

The criterion presented has been developed extrapolating to the nuclear safety field the ICRP basic concepts and philosophies on radiological protection. The criterion postulates the use of a hyperbolic control curve basically similar to the one proposed by F.R. Farmer for probabilistic evaluations. The postulated control curve differs from Farmer's curve in both application range and characteristics of its mathematical function. A range of application is proposed from a minimum severity level (the 131 I authorized discharge limit) to a severity level as large as the reactor's 131 I inventory. The exponent value of the proposed hyperbolic function is variable with both the siting and 131 I inventory of the reactor, and it also changes with the extrapolated radioprotection concept, as considered. The methodology to evaluate the control curve exponent is also presented. Three evaluation methods are described with the following objectives: (a) to limit expectation of individual dose in order to limit individual risk; (b) to limit expectation of collective dose in order to limit population detriment to justifiable levels; and (c) to optimize the installation in order to obtain a dose expectation as low as readily achievable. Three figures present the control curve exponent plotted versus dosimetric factor for 10 6 , 10 7 and 10 8 Ci of 131 I inventories. The following conclusions can be deduced: (a) the expectation of individual dose changes very little with different inventories; (b) in sites where the collective dose per unit of activity released is high, only large reactors are justifiable; and (c) optimization analysis is generally less restrictive than the justification one. Finally, a criterion is suggested for limitation of collective dose commitment, to limit the future dose rate arising from accidents that could occur at present

2. Two novel synchronization criterions for a unified chaotic system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tao Chaohai; Xiong Hongxia; Hu Feng

2006-01-01

Two novel synchronization criterions are proposed in this paper. It includes drive-response synchronization and adaptive synchronization schemes. Moreover, these synchronization criterions can be applied to a large class of chaotic systems and are very useful for secure communication

3. Novel global robust stability criterion for neural networks with delay

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Singh, Vimal

2009-01-01

A novel criterion for the global robust stability of Hopfield-type interval neural networks with delay is presented. An example illustrating the improvement of the present criterion over several recently reported criteria is given.

4. Systems interaction and single failure criterion

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1981-01-01

This report documents the results of a six-month study to evaluate the ongoing research programs of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and U.S. commercial nuclear station owners which address the safety significance of systems interaction and the regulatory adequacy of the single failure criterion. The evaluation of system interactions provided is the initial phase of a more detailed study leading to the development and application of methodology for quantifying the relative safety of operating nuclear plants. (Auth.)

5. Early Stop Criterion from the Bootstrap Ensemble

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan; Fog, Torben L.

1997-01-01

This paper addresses the problem of generalization error estimation in neural networks. A new early stop criterion based on a Bootstrap estimate of the generalization error is suggested. The estimate does not require the network to be trained to the minimum of the cost function, as required...... by other methods based on asymptotic theory. Moreover, in contrast to methods based on cross-validation which require data left out for testing, and thus biasing the estimate, the Bootstrap technique does not have this disadvantage. The potential of the suggested technique is demonstrated on various time...

6. Model selection criterion in survival analysis

Science.gov (United States)

Karabey, Uǧur; Tutkun, Nihal Ata

2017-07-01

Survival analysis deals with time until occurrence of an event of interest such as death, recurrence of an illness, the failure of an equipment or divorce. There are various survival models with semi-parametric or parametric approaches used in medical, natural or social sciences. The decision on the most appropriate model for the data is an important point of the analysis. In literature Akaike information criteria or Bayesian information criteria are used to select among nested models. In this study,the behavior of these information criterion is discussed for a real data set.

7. Extensions and applications of the Bohm criterion

Science.gov (United States)

Baalrud, Scott D.; Scheiner, Brett; Yee, Benjamin; Hopkins, Matthew; Barnat, Edward

2015-04-01

The generalized Bohm criterion is revisited in the context of incorporating kinetic effects of the electron and ion distribution functions into the theory. The underlying assumptions and results of two different approaches are compared: the conventional ‘kinetic Bohm criterion’ and a fluid-moment hierarchy approach. The former is based on the asymptotic limit of an infinitely thin sheath (λD/l = 0), whereas the latter is based on a perturbative expansion of a sheath that is thin compared to the plasma (λD/l ≪ 1). Here λD is the Debye length, which characterizes the sheath length scale, and l is a measure of the plasma or presheath length scale. The consequences of these assumptions are discussed in terms of how they restrict the class of distribution functions to which the resulting criteria can be applied. Two examples are considered to provide concrete comparisons between the two approaches. The first is a Tonks-Langmuir model including a warm ion source (Robertson 2009 Phys. Plasmas 16 103503). This highlights a substantial difference between the conventional kinetic theory, which predicts slow ions dominate at the sheath edge, and the fluid moment approach, which predicts slow ions have little influence. The second example considers planar electrostatic probes biased near the plasma potential using model equations and particle-in-cell simulations. This demonstrates a situation where electron kinetic effects alter the Bohm criterion, leading to a subsonic ion flow at the sheath edge.

8. Maximum Correntropy Criterion for Robust Face Recognition.

Science.gov (United States)

He, Ran; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Hu, Bao-Gang

2011-08-01

In this paper, we present a sparse correntropy framework for computing robust sparse representations of face images for recognition. Compared with the state-of-the-art l(1)norm-based sparse representation classifier (SRC), which assumes that noise also has a sparse representation, our sparse algorithm is developed based on the maximum correntropy criterion, which is much more insensitive to outliers. In order to develop a more tractable and practical approach, we in particular impose nonnegativity constraint on the variables in the maximum correntropy criterion and develop a half-quadratic optimization technique to approximately maximize the objective function in an alternating way so that the complex optimization problem is reduced to learning a sparse representation through a weighted linear least squares problem with nonnegativity constraint at each iteration. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is more robust and efficient in dealing with the occlusion and corruption problems in face recognition as compared to the related state-of-the-art methods. In particular, it shows that the proposed method can improve both recognition accuracy and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves, while the computational cost is much lower than the SRC algorithms.

9. Extended equal areas criterion: foundations and applications

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yusheng, Xue [Nanjim Automation Research Institute, Nanjim (China)

1994-12-31

The extended equal area criterion (EEAC) provides analytical expressions for ultra fast transient stability assessment, flexible sensitivity analysis, and means to preventive and emergency controls. Its outstanding performances have been demonstrated by thousands upon thousands simulations on more than 50 real power systems and by on-line operation records in an EMS environment of Northeast China Power System since September 1992. However, the researchers have mainly based on heuristics and simulations. This paper lays a theoretical foundation of EEAC and brings to light the mechanism of transient stability. It proves true that the dynamic EEAC furnishes a necessary and sufficient condition for stability of multi machine systems with any detailed models, in the sense of the integration accuracy. This establishes a new platform for further advancing EEAC and better understanding of problems. An overview of EEAC applications in China is also given in this paper. (author) 30 refs.

10. Nash equilibrium and multi criterion aerodynamic optimization

Science.gov (United States)

Tang, Zhili; Zhang, Lianhe

2016-06-01

Game theory and its particular Nash Equilibrium (NE) are gaining importance in solving Multi Criterion Optimization (MCO) in engineering problems over the past decade. The solution of a MCO problem can be viewed as a NE under the concept of competitive games. This paper surveyed/proposed four efficient algorithms for calculating a NE of a MCO problem. Existence and equivalence of the solution are analyzed and proved in the paper based on fixed point theorem. Specific virtual symmetric Nash game is also presented to set up an optimization strategy for single objective optimization problems. Two numerical examples are presented to verify proposed algorithms. One is mathematical functions' optimization to illustrate detailed numerical procedures of algorithms, the other is aerodynamic drag reduction of civil transport wing fuselage configuration by using virtual game. The successful application validates efficiency of algorithms in solving complex aerodynamic optimization problem.

11. Application of the single failure criterion

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1990-01-01

In order to present further details on the application and interpretation and on the limitations of individual concepts in the NUSS Codes and Safety Guides, a series of Safety Practice publications have been initiated. It is hoped that many Member States will be able to benefit from the experience presented in these books. The present publication will be useful not only to regulators but also to designers and could be particularly helpful in the interpretation of cases which fall on the borderline between the two areas. It should assist in clarifying, by way of examples, many of the concepts and implementation methods. It also describes some of the limitations involved. The book addresses a specialized topic and it is recommended that it be used together with the other books in the Safety Series. During the development of this publication the actual practices of all countries with major reactor programmes has been taken into account. An interpretation of the relevant text of the Design Code is given in the light of these national practices. The criterion is put into perspective with the general reliability requirements in which it is also embedded in the Design Code. Its relation to common cause and other multiple failure cases and also to the temporary disengagement of components in systems important to safety is clarified. Its use and its limitations are thus explained in the context of reliability targets for systems performance. The guidance provided applies to all reactor systems and would be applicable even to systems not in nuclear power plants. But since this publication was developed to give an interpretation of a specific requirement of the Design Code, the broader applicability is not explicitly claimed. The Design Code lists three cases for which compliance with the criterion may not be justified. The present publication assists in the more precise and practical identification of those cases. 9 figs, 1 tab

12. A criterion for separating process calculi

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Federico Banti

2010-11-01

Full Text Available We introduce a new criterion, replacement freeness, to discern the relative expressiveness of process calculi. Intuitively, a calculus is strongly replacement free if replacing, within an enclosing context, a process that cannot perform any visible action by an arbitrary process never inhibits the capability of the resulting process to perform a visible action. We prove that there exists no compositional and interaction sensitive encoding of a not strongly replacement free calculus into any strongly replacement free one. We then define a weaker version of replacement freeness, by only considering replacement of closed processes, and prove that, if we additionally require the encoding to preserve name independence, it is not even possible to encode a non replacement free calculus into a weakly replacement free one. As a consequence of our encodability results, we get that many calculi equipped with priority are not replacement free and hence are not encodable into mainstream calculi like CCS and pi-calculus, that instead are strongly replacement free. We also prove that variants of pi-calculus with match among names, pattern matching or polyadic synchronization are only weakly replacement free, hence they are separated both from process calculi with priority and from mainstream calculi.

13. A Difference Criterion for Dimensionality Reduction

Science.gov (United States)

Aved, A. J.; Blasch, E.; Peng, J.

2015-12-01

A dynamic data-driven geoscience application includes hyperspectral scene classification which has shown promising potential in many remote-sensing applications. A hyperspectral image of a scene spectral radiance is typically measured by hundreds of contiguous spectral bands or features, ranging from visible/near-infrared (VNIR) to shortwave infrared (SWIR). Spectral-reflectance measurements provide rich information for object detection and classification. On the other hand, they generate a large number of features, resulting in a high dimensional measurement space. However, a large number of features often poses challenges and can result in poor classification performance. This is due to the curse of dimensionality which requires model reduction, uncertainty quantification and optimization for real-world applications. In such situations, feature extraction or selection methods play an important role by significantly reducing the number of features for building classifiers. In this work, we focus on efficient feature extraction using the dynamic data-driven applications systems (DDDAS) paradigm. Many dimension reduction techniques have been proposed in the literature. A well-known technique is Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (LDA). LDA finds the projection matrix that simultaneously maximizes a within class scatter matrix and minimizes a between class scatter matrix. However, LDA requires matrix inverse which can be a major issue when the within matrix is singular. We propose a difference criterion for dimension reduction that does not require a matrix inverse for software implementation. We show how to solve the optimization problem with semi-definite programming. In addition, we establish an error bound for the proposed algorithm. We demonstrate the connection between relief feature selection and a two class formulation of multi-class problems, thereby providing a sound basis for observed benefits associated with this formulation. Finally, we provide

14. Suboptimal Criterion Learning in Static and Dynamic Environments.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Elyse H Norton

2017-01-01

15. Condorcet versus participation criterion in social welfare rules

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Can, Burak; Ergin, Emre; Pourpouneh, Mohsen

2017-01-01

Moulin (1988) shows that there exists no social choice rule, that satisfies the following two criteria at the same time: the Condorcet criterion and the participation criterion, a.k.a., No Show Paradox. We extend these criteria to social welfare rules, i.e., rules that choose rankings for each

16. Some necessary and sufficient conditions for Hypercyclicity Criterion

R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

shifts in terms of their weights. But, then Montes and Leon showed that these hypercyclic operators do satisfy the criterion as well (§2 of [17] and Proposition 4.3 of [18]). Bes and. Peris proved that a continuous linear operator T on a Frechet space satisfies the Hyper- cyclicity Criterion if and only if it is hereditarily hypercyclic.

17. Some necessary and sufficient conditions for Hypercyclicity Criterion

R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

We give necessary and sufficient conditions for an operator on a separable. Hilbert space to satisfy the hypercyclicity criterion. Keywords. Strong operator topology; Hilbert–Schmidt operators; Hypercyclicity. Criterion. 1. Introduction. Suppose thatX is a separable topological vector space andT is a continuous linear mapping.

18. A Random Strategy Criterion for Validity of Simulation Game Participation.

Science.gov (United States)

Dickinson, John R.; Faria, A. J.

1997-01-01

Proposes a new approach (random strategy criterion) for measuring the internal validity of simulation game participation that offers a more logical conceptual foundation than past research approaches. Results of classroom testing with 660 undergraduate marketing students supports the use of random strategy criterion for measuring internal…

19. Frequency-domain criterion for the chaos synchronization of time ...

This paper studies the global synchronization of non-autonomous, time-delay, chaotic power systems via linear state-error feedback control. The frequency domain criterion and the LMI criterion are proposed and applied to design the coupling matrix. Some algebraic criteria via a single-variable linear coupling are derived ...

20. Modified Schur-Cohn Criterion for Stability of Delayed Systems

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Juan Ignacio Mulero-Martínez

2015-01-01

Full Text Available A modified Schur-Cohn criterion for time-delay linear time-invariant systems is derived. The classical Schur-Cohn criterion has two main drawbacks; namely, (i the dimension of the Schur-Cohn matrix generates some round-off errors eventually resulting in a polynomial of s with erroneous coefficients and (ii imaginary roots are very hard to detect when numerical errors creep in. In contrast to the classical Schur-Cohn criterion an alternative approach is proposed in this paper which is based on the application of triangular matrices over a polynomial ring in a similar way as in the Jury test of stability for discrete systems. The advantages of the proposed approach are that it halves the dimension of the polynomial and it only requires seeking real roots, making this modified criterion comparable to the Rekasius substitution criterion.

1. Nonparametric adaptive age replacement with a one-cycle criterion

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coolen-Schrijner, P.; Coolen, F.P.A.

2007-01-01

Age replacement of technical units has received much attention in the reliability literature over the last four decades. Mostly, the failure time distribution for the units is assumed to be known, and minimal costs per unit of time is used as optimality criterion, where renewal reward theory simplifies the mathematics involved but requires the assumption that the same process and replacement strategy continues over a very large ('infinite') period of time. Recently, there has been increasing attention to adaptive strategies for age replacement, taking into account the information from the process. Although renewal reward theory can still be used to provide an intuitively and mathematically attractive optimality criterion, it is more logical to use minimal costs per unit of time over a single cycle as optimality criterion for adaptive age replacement. In this paper, we first show that in the classical age replacement setting, with known failure time distribution with increasing hazard rate, the one-cycle criterion leads to earlier replacement than the renewal reward criterion. Thereafter, we present adaptive age replacement with a one-cycle criterion within the nonparametric predictive inferential framework. We study the performance of this approach via simulations, which are also used for comparisons with the use of the renewal reward criterion within the same statistical framework

2. Failure Criterion for Brick Masonry: A Micro-Mechanics Approach

Science.gov (United States)

Kawa, Marek

2015-02-01

The paper deals with the formulation of failure criterion for an in-plane loaded masonry. Using micro-mechanics approach the strength estimation for masonry microstructure with constituents obeying the Drucker-Prager criterion is determined numerically. The procedure invokes lower bound analysis: for assumed stress fields constructed within masonry periodic cell critical load is obtained as a solution of constrained optimization problem. The analysis is carried out for many different loading conditions at different orientations of bed joints. The performance of the approach is verified against solutions obtained for corresponding layered and block microstructures, which provides the upper and lower strength bounds for masonry microstructure, respectively. Subsequently, a phenomenological anisotropic strength criterion for masonry microstructure is proposed. The criterion has a form of conjunction of Jaeger critical plane condition and Tsai-Wu criterion. The model proposed is identified based on the fitting of numerical results obtained from the microstructural analysis. Identified criterion is then verified against results obtained for different loading orientations. It appears that strength of masonry microstructure can be satisfactorily described by the criterion proposed.

3. Failure Criterion for Brick Masonry: A Micro-Mechanics Approach

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Kawa Marek

2015-02-01

Full Text Available The paper deals with the formulation of failure criterion for an in-plane loaded masonry. Using micro-mechanics approach the strength estimation for masonry microstructure with constituents obeying the Drucker-Prager criterion is determined numerically. The procedure invokes lower bound analysis: for assumed stress fields constructed within masonry periodic cell critical load is obtained as a solution of constrained optimization problem. The analysis is carried out for many different loading conditions at different orientations of bed joints. The performance of the approach is verified against solutions obtained for corresponding layered and block microstructures, which provides the upper and lower strength bounds for masonry microstructure, respectively. Subsequently, a phenomenological anisotropic strength criterion for masonry microstructure is proposed. The criterion has a form of conjunction of Jaeger critical plane condition and Tsai-Wu criterion. The model proposed is identified based on the fitting of numerical results obtained from the microstructural analysis. Identified criterion is then verified against results obtained for different loading orientations. It appears that strength of masonry microstructure can be satisfactorily described by the criterion proposed.

4. Criterion of damage beginning: experimental identification for laminate composite

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thiebaud, F.; Perreux, D.; Varchon, D.; Lebras, J.

1996-01-01

The aim of this study is to propose a criterion of damage beginning for laminate composite. The materials is a glass-epoxy laminate [+55 deg.,-55 deg.[ n performed by winding filament process. First of all a description of the damage is performed and allows to define a damage variable. Thanks to the potential of free energy, an associated variable is defined. The damage criterion is written by using this last one. The parameter of the criterion is identified using mechanical and acoustical methods. The result is compared and exhibit a good agreement. (authors). 13 refs., 5 figs

5. Robust Hammerstein Adaptive Filtering under Maximum Correntropy Criterion

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Zongze Wu

2015-10-01

Full Text Available The maximum correntropy criterion (MCC has recently been successfully applied to adaptive filtering. Adaptive algorithms under MCC show strong robustness against large outliers. In this work, we apply the MCC criterion to develop a robust Hammerstein adaptive filter. Compared with the traditional Hammerstein adaptive filters, which are usually derived based on the well-known mean square error (MSE criterion, the proposed algorithm can achieve better convergence performance especially in the presence of impulsive non-Gaussian (e.g., α-stable noises. Additionally, some theoretical results concerning the convergence behavior are also obtained. Simulation examples are presented to confirm the superior performance of the new algorithm.

6. A multipole acceptability criterion for electronic structure theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Schwegler, E.; Challacombe, M.; Head-Gordon, M.

1998-01-01

Accurate and computationally inexpensive estimates of multipole expansion errors are crucial to the success of several fast electronic structure methods. In this paper, a new nonempirical multipole acceptability criterion is described that is directly applicable to expansions of high order moments. Several model calculations typical of electronic structure theory are presented to demonstrate its performance. For cases involving small translation distances, accuracies are increased by up to five orders of magnitude over an empirical criterion. The new multipole acceptance criterion is on average within an order of magnitude of the exact expansion error. Use of the multipole acceptance criterion in hierarchical multipole based methods as well as in traditional electronic structure methods is discussed. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

7. Importance biasing quality criterion based on contribution response theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Borisov, N.M.; Panin, M.P.

2001-01-01

The report proposes a visual criterion of importance biasing both of forward and adjoint simulation. The similarity of contribution Monte Carlo and importance biasing random collision event distribution is proved. The conservation of total number of random trajectory crossings of surfaces, which separate the source and the detector is proposed as importance biasing quality criterion. The use of this criterion is demonstrated on the example of forward vs. adjoint importance biasing in gamma ray deep penetration problem. The larger amount of published data on forward field characteristics than on adjoint leads to the more accurate approximation of adjoint importance function in comparison to forward, for it adjoint importance simulation is more effective than forward. The proposed criterion indicates it visually, showing the most uniform distribution of random trajectory crossing events for the most effective importance biasing parameters and pointing to the direction of tuning importance biasing parameters. (orig.)

8. Angular criterion for distinguishing between Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Medina, Francisco F.; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge; Castaneda, Roman; Matteucci, Giorgio

2003-03-01

The distinction between Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction is a crucial condition for the accurate analysis of diffracting structures. In this paper we propose a criterion based on the angle subtended by the first zero of the diffraction pattern from the center of the diffracting aperture. The determination of the zero of the diffraction pattern is the crucial point for assuring the precision of the criterion. It mainly depends on the dynamical range of the detector. Therefore, the applicability of adequate thresholds for different detector types is discussed. The criterion is also generalized by expressing it in terms of the number of Fresnel zones delimited by the aperture. Simulations are reported for illustrating the feasibility of the criterion. (author)

9. Failure Criterion for Brick Masonry: A Micro-Mechanics Approach

OpenAIRE

Kawa Marek

2015-01-01

The paper deals with the formulation of failure criterion for an in-plane loaded masonry. Using micro-mechanics approach the strength estimation for masonry microstructure with constituents obeying the Drucker-Prager criterion is determined numerically. The procedure invokes lower bound analysis: for assumed stress fields constructed within masonry periodic cell critical load is obtained as a solution of constrained optimization problem. The analysis is carried out for many different loading ...

10. Stochastic Learning and the Intuitive Criterion in Simple Signaling Games

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

A stochastic learning process for signaling games with two types, two signals, and two responses gives rise to equilibrium selection which is in remarkable accordance with the selection obtained by the intuitive criterion......A stochastic learning process for signaling games with two types, two signals, and two responses gives rise to equilibrium selection which is in remarkable accordance with the selection obtained by the intuitive criterion...

11. Decision criterion dynamics in animals performing an auditory detection task.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Robert W Mill

Full Text Available Classical signal detection theory attributes bias in perceptual decisions to a threshold criterion, against which sensory excitation is compared. The optimal criterion setting depends on the signal level, which may vary over time, and about which the subject is naïve. Consequently, the subject must optimise its threshold by responding appropriately to feedback. Here a series of experiments was conducted, and a computational model applied, to determine how the decision bias of the ferret in an auditory signal detection task tracks changes in the stimulus level. The time scales of criterion dynamics were investigated by means of a yes-no signal-in-noise detection task, in which trials were grouped into blocks that alternately contained easy- and hard-to-detect signals. The responses of the ferrets implied both long- and short-term criterion dynamics. The animals exhibited a bias in favour of responding "yes" during blocks of harder trials, and vice versa. Moreover, the outcome of each single trial had a strong influence on the decision at the next trial. We demonstrate that the single-trial and block-level changes in bias are a manifestation of the same criterion update policy by fitting a model, in which the criterion is shifted by fixed amounts according to the outcome of the previous trial and decays strongly towards a resting value. The apparent block-level stabilisation of bias arises as the probabilities of outcomes and shifts on single trials mutually interact to establish equilibrium. To gain an intuition into how stable criterion distributions arise from specific parameter sets we develop a Markov model which accounts for the dynamic effects of criterion shifts. Our approach provides a framework for investigating the dynamics of decisions at different timescales in other species (e.g., humans and in other psychological domains (e.g., vision, memory.

12. SONOX criterion application for ecological analysis of thermopower plants operation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cardu, Mircea; Baica, Malvina

2009-01-01

In this paper the authors introduce a new criterion - SONOX - which can be used to analyze the thermopower plants (TPPs) operation impact on the environment trough noxious gas emissions (sulphur and nitrogen oxides) in the atmosphere. Based on this criterion and applying the equivalence and the compensation principles, developed by the authors in some of their previous papers, we analyze some main Romanian TPPs and some recommendations are given in order to join the European Union norms regarding the respective emissions limits

13. Evaluation of the tensor polynomial failure criterion for composite materials

Science.gov (United States)

Tennyson, R. C.; Macdonald, D.; Nanyaro, A. P.

1978-01-01

A comprehensive experimental and analytical evaluation of the tensor polynomial failure criterion was undertaken to determine its capability for predicting the ultimate strength of laminated composite structures subject to a plane stress state. Results are presented demonstrating that a quadratic formulation is too conservative and a cubic representation is required. Strength comparisons with test data derived from glass/epoxy and graphite/epoxy tubular specimens are also provided to validate the cubic strength criterion.

14. TABU SEARCH WITH ASPIRATION CRITERION FOR THE TIMETABLING PROBLEM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Oscar Chávez-Bosquez

2015-01-01

Full Text Available The aspiration criterion is an imperative element in the Tabu Search, with aspiration-by-default and the aspiration-by-objective the mainly used criteria in the literature. In this paper a new aspiration criterion is proposed in order to implement a probabilistic function when evaluating an element classified as tabu which improves the current solution, the proposal is called Tabu Search with Probabilistic Aspiration Criterion (BT- CAP. The test case used to evaluate the performance of the Probabilistic Aspiration Criterion proposed consists on the 20 instances of the problem described in the First International Timetabling Competition. The results are compared with 2 additional variants of the Tabu Search Algorithm: Tabu Search with Default Aspiration Criterion (BT-CAD and Tabu Search with Objective Aspiration Criterion (BT-CAO. Wilcoxon test was applied to the generated results, and it was proved with 99 % confidence that BT-CAP algorithm gets better solutions than the two other variants of the Tabu Search algorithm.

15. Risk acceptance criterion for tanker oil spill risk reduction measures.

Science.gov (United States)

Psarros, George; Skjong, Rolf; Vanem, Erik

2011-01-01

This paper is aimed at investigating whether there is ample support for the view that the acceptance criterion for evaluating measures for prevention of oil spills from tankers should be based on cost-effectiveness considerations. One such criterion can be reflected by the Cost of Averting a Tonne of oil Spilt (CATS) whereas its target value is updated by elaborating the inherent uncertainties of oil spill costs and establishing a value for the criterion's assurance factor. To this end, a value of $80,000/t is proposed as a sensible CATS criterion and the proposed value for the assurance factor F=1.5 is supported by the retrieved Protection and Indemnity (P&I) Clubs' Annual Reports. It is envisaged that this criterion would allow the conversion of direct and indirect costs into a non-market value for the optimal allocation of resources between the various parties investing in shipping. A review of previous cost estimation models on oil spills is presented and a probability distribution (log-normal) is fitted on the available oil spill cost data, where it should be made abundantly clear that the mean value of the distribution is used for deriving the updated CATS criterion value. However, the difference between the initial and the updated CATS criterion in the percentiles of the distribution is small. It is found through the current analysis that results are partly lower than the predicted values from the published estimation models. The costs are also found to depend on the type of accident, which is in agreement with the results of previous studies. Other proposals on acceptance criteria are reviewed and it is asserted that the CATS criterion can be considered as the best candidate. Evidence is provided that the CATS approach is practical and meaningful by including examples of successful applications in actual risk assessments. Finally, it is suggested that the criterion may be refined subject to more readily available cost data and experience gained from future 16. Formulation of cross-anisotropic failure criterion for soils Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Yi-fei Sun 2013-10-01 Full Text Available Inherently anisotropic soil fabric has a considerable influence on soil strength. To model this kind of inherent anisotropy, a three-dimensional anisotropic failure criterion was proposed, employing a scalar-valued anisotropic variable and a modified general threedimensional isotropic failure criterion. The scalar-valued anisotropic variable in all sectors of the deviatoric plane was defined by correlating a normalized stress tensor with a normalized fabric tensor. Detailed comparison between the available experimental data and the corresponding model predictions in the deviatoric plane was conducted. The proposed failure criterion was shown to well predict the failure behavior in all sectors, especially in sector II with the Lode angle ranging between 60° and 120°, where the prediction was almost in accordance with test data. However, it was also observed that the proposed criterion overestimated the strength of dense Santa Monica Beach sand in sector III where the intermediate principal stress ratio b varied from approximately 0.2 to 0.8, and slightly underestimated the strength when b was between approximately 0.8 and 1. The difference between the model predictions and experimental data was due to the occurrence of shear bending, which might reduce the measured strength. Therefore, the proposed anisotropic failure criterion has a strong ability to characterize the failure behavior of various soils and potentially allows a better description of the influence of the loading direction with respect to the soil fabric. 17. Development of failure criterion for Kevlar-epoxy fabric laminates Science.gov (United States) Tennyson, R. C.; Elliott, W. G. 1984-01-01 The development of the tensor polynomial failure criterion for composite laminate analysis is discussed. In particular, emphasis is given to the fabrication and testing of Kevlar-49 fabric (Style 285)/Narmco 5208 Epoxy. The quadratic-failure criterion with F(12)=0 provides accurate estimates of failure stresses for the Kevlar/Epoxy investigated. The cubic failure criterion was re-cast into an operationally easier form, providing the engineer with design curves that can be applied to laminates fabricated from unidirectional prepregs. In the form presented no interaction strength tests are required, although recourse to the quadratic model and the principal strength parameters is necessary. However, insufficient test data exists at present to generalize this approach for all undirectional prepregs and its use must be restricted to the generic materials investigated to-date. 18. PTSD and Sexual Orientation: An Examination of Criterion A1 and Non-Criterion A1 Events. Science.gov (United States) Alessi, Edward J; Meyer, Ilan H; Martin, James I 2013-03-01 This large-scale cross-sectional study compared posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence among White, Black, and Latino lesbian, gay and bisexual individuals (LGBs; n = 382) and compared them with heterosexual individuals ( n = 126). Building on previous research, we relaxed the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV ; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), allowing non-Criterion A1 events such as ending a relationship, unemployment, homelessness, and separation from parents to qualify, and we assessed differences in PTSD prevalence between standard DSM-IV criteria and the relaxed criteria. Findings revealed that participants reporting a non-Criterion A1 event were more likely than those reporting a Criterion A1 event to have symptoms diagnosable as PTSD. There was no significant difference in either DSM-IV or relaxed Criterion A1 PTSD prevalence between lesbian and gay, and heterosexual individuals or between bisexual and heterosexual individuals. Compared with White LGBs, Black and Latino LGBs had higher prevalence of PTSD with the relaxed Criterion A1 definition, but this was statistically significant only for Latinos. 19. Bell's theorem based on a generalized EPR criterion of reality International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Eberhard, P.H.; Rosselet, P. 1993-04-01 First, the demonstration of Bell's theorem, i.e. of the non-local character of quantum theory, is spelled out using the EPR criterion of reality as premises and a gedanken experiment involving two particles. Then, the EPR criterion is extended to include quantities predicted almost with certainty, and Bell's theorem is demonstrated on these new premises. The same experiment is used but in conditions that become possible in real life, without the requirements of ideal efficiencies and zero background. Very high efficiencies and low background are needed, but these requirements may be met in the future. (author) 1 fig., 11 refs 20. Criterion-based laparoscopic training reduces total training time OpenAIRE Brinkman, Willem M.; Buzink, Sonja N.; Alevizos, Leonidas; de Hingh, Ignace H. J. T.; Jakimowicz, Jack J. 2011-01-01 Introduction The benefits of criterion-based laparoscopic training over time-oriented training are unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare these types of training based on training outcome and time efficiency. Methods During four training sessions within 1 week (one session per day) 34 medical interns (no laparoscopic experience) practiced on two basic tasks on the Simbionix LAP Mentor virtual-reality (VR) simulator: ‘clipping and grasping’ and ‘cutting’. Group C (criterion-based) (N... 1. Reversed-field pinch configuration with minimum energy and finite beta International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Zhang Peng 1989-01-01 The reversed-field pinch (RFP) configuration has been studied for the case of finite beta. Suydam's condition and the sufficient criterion have been used to examine this configuration. Results of numerical calculations show that the critical value of the pinch parameter Θ for the appearance of the reverse toroidal field increases as the β-value increases. The critical value of Θ for the helical state increases with β as well. Suydam's and Robinson's stability regions increase and shift towards higher values of Θ with increasing β. Theoretical results for finite β coincide with recent RFP experimental results 2. Lost-sales inventory systems with a service level criterion NARCIS (Netherlands) Bijvank, Marco; Vis, Iris F. A. 2012-01-01 Competitive retail environments are characterized by service levels and lost sales in case of excess demand. We contribute to research on lost-sales models with a service level criterion in multiple ways. First, we study the optimal replenishment policy for this type of inventory system as well as 3. Orthogonality criterion for banishing hydrino states from standard quantum mechanics International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Castro, Antonio S. de 2007-01-01 Orthogonality criterion is used to show in a very simple and general way that anomalous bound-state solutions for the Coulomb potential (hydrino states) do not exist as bona fide solutions of the Schroedinger, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations 4. Criterion III: Maintenance of rangeland productive capacity [Chapter 4 Science.gov (United States) G. R. Evans; R. A. Washmgton-Allen; R. D. Child; J. E. Mitchell; B. R. Bobowskl; R. V. Loper; B. H. Allen-Diaz; D. W. Thompson; G. R. Welling; T. B. Reuwsaat 2010-01-01 Maintenance of rangeland productive capacity is one of five criteria established by the Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable (SRR) to monitor and assess rangeland sustainable management. Within this criterion, six indicators were developed through the Delphi Process and the expert opinions of academicians, rangeland scientists, rangeland management agency personnel, non-... 5. Evaluation of minimum residual pressure as design criterion for ... African Journals Online (AJOL) ... as the design criterion for minimum residual pressure in water distribution systems. However, the theoretical peak demand in many systems has increased beyond the point where minimum residual pressure exceeds 24 m – at least according to hydraulic models. Additions of customers to existing supply systems have led ... 6. Breakdown of universal Lindemann criterion in the melting of ... Indian Academy of Sciences (India) SARMISTHA SARKAR Abstract. It is commonly believed that melting occurs when mean square displacement (MSD) of a particle of crystalline solid exceeds a threshold value. This is known as the Lindemann criterion, first introduced in the year of 1910 by Lindemann. However, Chakravarty et al., demonstrated that this common wisdom is inade-. 7. Development of a Work Sample Criterion for General Vehicle Mechanic. Science.gov (United States) Engel, John D. A work sample criterion test was developed for General Vehicle Repairman, MOS 63C30 and 63C40. Test items covered three task categories: troubleshooting, corrective action, and preventive maintenance. Thirty-eight organizational mechanics were tested at Fort Knox, Kentucky. Data were also collected on the quality of performance, for example, use… 8. Creativity.4in1: Four-Criterion Construct of Creativity Science.gov (United States) Kharkhurin, Anatoliy V. 2014-01-01 The purpose of this theoretical article is to provide an extended definition of creativity that embraces potential cross-cultural variations in this construct. Creativity is defined as a 4-criterion construct, which includes attributes of novelty, utility, aesthetics, and authenticity. Novelty attribute stipulates that a creative work brings… 9. The Bohm criterion for a dusty plasma sheath Indian Academy of Sciences (India) Abstract. The formation of the sheath in a dusty plasma is investigated. The Bohm criterion is derived for two different cases: (a) when electrons are in thermodynamic equilibrium and dust grains provide the immobile, stationary background and (b) when both electrons and ions are in thermodynamic equilibrium and dust ... 10. Prioritising transport infrastructure projects: Towards a multi-criterion ... African Journals Online (AJOL) Cost/benefit analysis, when applied in a classic sense, is not suitable for this purpose, given its exclusive focus on economic efficiency, whilst attempts to broaden it to include other impacts (or objectives) are not generally accepted. Multi-criterion analysis, however, is capable of facilitating project ranking in a multi-objective ... 11. Overcoming the Criterion Problem in the Evaluation of Library Performance. Science.gov (United States) Knightly, John J. 1979-01-01 Library performance criteria used by managers in 62 academic, special, and public libraries are analyzed to measure the extent to which criteria proposed in the literature are actually used, to identify types of criteria in use, and to develop guidelines for future criterion selection. (Author) 12. Criterion-based laparoscopic training reduces total training time NARCIS (Netherlands) Brinkman, W.M.; Buzink, S.N.; Alevizos, L.; De Hingh, I.H.J.T.; Jakimowicz, J.J. 2011-01-01 The benefits of criterion-based laparoscopic training over time-oriented training are unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare these types of training based on training outcome and time efficiency. Methods During four training sessions within 1 week (one session per day) 34 medical interns 13. Utilization of Durability Criterion to Develop Automotive Components DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Ricardo, Luiz Carlos Hernandes 2010-01-01 Today the automotive companies must reduce the time to development of new products with improvement in performance, durability and low cost reductions where possible. To achieve this goal the carmakers need to improve the design criterion of car systems like body, chassis and suspension component... 14. An Elementary Proof of a Criterion for Linear Disjointness Science.gov (United States) Dobbs, David E. 2013-01-01 An elementary proof using matrix theory is given for the following criterion: if "F"/"K" and "L"/"K" are field extensions, with "F" and "L" both contained in a common extension field, then "F" and "L" are linearly disjoint over "K" if (and only if) some… 15. On the Jeans Criterion of a Stratified Heat Conducting Gaseous ... Indian Academy of Sciences (India) 2016-01-27 Jan 27, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 33; Issue 4. On the Jeans Criterion of a Stratified Heat Conducting Gaseous Medium in the Presence of Non-Uniform Rotation and Magnetic Field. Joginder S. Dhiman Rekha Dadwal. Volume 33 Issue 4 December 2012 pp 363-373 ... 16. On the Jeans Criterion of a Stratified Heat Conducting Gaseous ... Indian Academy of Sciences (India) homogeneous stratified gaseous medium with finite thermal conductiv- ity and infinite electrical conductivity, in the presence of non-uniform rotation and magnetic field in the Chandrasekhar's frame of reference, is studied. It is found that the magnetic field, whether uniform or non- uniform, has no effect on the Jeans' criterion ... 17. The undergeneration of permutation invariance as a criterion for logicality NARCIS (Netherlands) Dutilh Novaes, Catarina 2014-01-01 Permutation invariance is often presented as the correct criterion for logicality. The basic idea is that one can demarcate the realm of logic by isolating speciﬁc entities—logical notions or constants—and that permutation invariance would provide a philosophically motivated and technically 18. A Criterion-Referenced Approach to Student Ratings of Instruction Science.gov (United States) Meyer, J. Patrick; Doromal, Justin B.; Wei, Xiaoxin; Zhu, Shi 2017-01-01 We developed a criterion-referenced student rating of instruction (SRI) to facilitate formative assessment of teaching. It involves four dimensions of teaching quality that are grounded in current instructional design principles: Organization and structure, Assessment and feedback, Personal interactions, and Academic rigor. Using item response… 19. Numerical and Experimental Validation of a New Damage Initiation Criterion NARCIS (Netherlands) Sadhinoch, M.; Atzema, E.H.; Perdahcioglu, E.S.; Van Den Boogaard, A.H. 2017-01-01 Most commercial finite element software packages, like Abaqus, have a built-in coupled damage model where a damage evolution needs to be defined in terms of a single fracture energy value for all stress states. The Johnson-Cook criterion has been modified to be Lode parameter dependent and this 20. Logical and Decisive Combining Criterion for Binary Group Decision Making Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Ivan Vrana 2010-04-01 Full Text Available A new combining criterion, the Multiplicative Proportional Deviative Influence (MPDI is presented for combining or aggregating multi-expert numerical judgments in Yes-or-No type ill-structured group decision making situations. This newly proposed criterion performs well in comparison with the widely used aggregation means: the Arithmetic Mean (AM, and Geometric Mean (GM, especially in better reflecting the degree of agreement between criteria levels or numerical experts’ judgments. The MPDI can be considered as another class of combining criteria that make effect of the degree of agreement among multiple numerical judgments. The MPDI is applicable in integrating several collaborative or synergistic decision making systems through combining final numerical decision outputs. A discussion and generalization of the proposed MPDI is discussed withnumerical example. 1. Satisfying the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen criterion with massive particles DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Peise, Jan; Kruse, I.; Lange, K. 2016-01-01 In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) questioned the completeness of quantum mechanics by devising a quantum state of two massive particles with maximally correlated space and momentum coordinates. The EPR criterion qualifies such continuous-variable entangled states, as shown successfully...... with light fields. Here, we report on the production of massive particles which meet the EPR criterion for continuous phase/amplitude variables. The created quantum state of ultracold atoms shows an EPR parameter of 0.18(3), which is 2.4 standard deviations below the threshold of 1/4. Our state presents...... a resource for tests of quantum nonlocality with massive particles and a wide variety of applications in the field of continuous-variable quantum information and metrology.... 2. A Generalized Evolution Criterion in Nonequilibrium Convective Systems Science.gov (United States) Ichiyanagi, Masakazu; Nisizima, Kunisuke 1989-04-01 A general evolution criterion, applicable to transport processes such as the conduction of heat and mass diffusion, is obtained as a direct version of the Le Chatelier-Braun principle for stationary states. The present theory is not based on any radical departure from the conventional one. The generalized theory is made determinate by proposing the balance equations for extensive thermodynamic variables which will reflect the character of convective systems under the assumption of local equilibrium. As a consequence of the introduction of source terms in the balance equations, there appear additional terms in the expression of the local entropy production, which are bilinear in terms of the intensive variables and the sources. In the present paper, we show that we can construct a dissipation function for such general cases, in which the premises of the Glansdorff-Prigogine theory are accumulated. The new dissipation function permits us to formulate a generalized evolution criterion for convective systems. 3. Local graph cut criterion for supervised dimensionality reduction Science.gov (United States) Zhang, Xiangrong; Zhou, Sisi; Jiao, Licheng 2009-10-01 Graph cut criterion has been proven to be robust and applicable in clustering problems. In this paper the graph cut criterion is applied to construct a supervised dimensionality reduction. A new graph cut, scaling cut, is proposed based on the classical normalized cut. Scaling cut depicts the relationship between samples, which makes it can handle the heteroscedastic and multimodel data in which LDA fails. Meanwhile, the solution to scaling cut is global optimal for it is a generalized eigenvalue problem. To obtain a more reasonable projection matrix and reduce the computational complexity as well, the localized k-nearest neighbor graph is introduced in, which leads to equivalent or better results compared with scaling cut. 4. Criterion validity of a new measure of self-actualization. Science.gov (United States) Leclerc, G; Lefrançois, R; Dubé, M; Hébert, R; Gaulin, P 1999-12-01 Many authors have questioned the validity of the major existing measures of self-actualization (the Personal Orientation Inventory, the Personal Orientation Dimensions, and the Short Index of Self-actualization), given their serious theoretical and methodological limitations. A new inventory was developed, the Measure of Actualization of Potential, and various studies were conducted to assess its theoretical and empirical content as well as its construct validity, internal consistency, and temporal reliability. The present aim was to estimate the criterion validity of the new measure using humanistic clinical psychologists' assessments as the criterion. The results show that eight clinical psychologists' rankings of 73 individuals are positively and highly correlated with the scores obtained by the same individuals on the Measure of Actualization of Potential. 5. On Feller's criterion for the law of the iterated logarithm Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Deli Li 1994-01-01 Full Text Available Combining Feller's criterion with a non-uniform estimate result in the context of the Central Limit Theorem for partial sums of independent random variables, we obtain several results on the Law of the Iterated Logarithm. Two of these results refine corresponding results of Wittmann (1985 and Egorov (1971. In addition, these results are compared with the corresponding results of Teicher (1974, Tomkins (1983 and Tomkins (1990 6. Amenorrhea as a Diagnostic Criterion for Anorexia Nervosa OpenAIRE Vellisca González, María Yolanda; Hospital Obispo Polanco; Latorre Marín, José Ignacio; Santed Germán, Miguel Ángel; Orejudo Hernández, Santos 2012-01-01 Amenorrhea is a current criterion for the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (AN) according to the DSM-IV-TR. Nevertheless, when comparing groups of patients who fulfill all the criteria of this manual for AN and groups of women who show them all but amenorrhea, some studies did not find significant differences in the psychopathology typically associated with AN. The purpose of our study was to compare both groups in demographic, anthropometric, psychological and psychopathological variables. Ther... 7. New dental implant selection criterion based on implant design OpenAIRE El-Anwar, Mohamed I.; El-Zawahry, Mohamed M.; Ibraheem, Eman M.; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria; ElGabry, Hisham 2017-01-01 Objective: A comparative study between threaded and plain dental implant designs was performed to find out a new criterion for dental implant selection. Materials and Methods: Several dental implant designs with a systematic increase in diameter and length were positioned in a cylindrical-shaped bone section and analyzed using finite element method. Four loading types were tested on different dental implant designs; tension of 50 N, compression of 100 N, bending of 20 N, and torque of 2 Nm, t... 8. Criterion validation of a stress measure: the Stress Overload Scale. Science.gov (United States) Amirkhan, James H; Urizar, Guido G; Clark, Sarah 2015-09-01 Validating stress scales poses problems beyond those of other psychological measures. Here, 3 studies were conducted to address those problems and assess the criterion validity of scores from a new theory-derived measure, the Stress Overload Scale (SOS; Amirkhan, 2012). In Study 1, the SOS was tested for its ability to predict postsemester illness in a sample of college students (n = 127). Even with precautions to minimize criterion contamination, scores were found to predict health problems in the month following a final exam on all of 5 different criteria. In Study 2, a community sample (n = 231) was used to test the SOS' ability to differentiate people in stressful circumstances from those in more relaxed contexts. SOS scores demonstrated excellent sensitivity (96%) and specificity (100%) in this general population application. In Study 3, the SOS was tested for its ability to differentiate salivary cortisol responses to a laboratory stressor in a group of pregnant women (n = 40). High scores were found to be associated with a blunted cortisol response, which is indicative of HPA-axis overload and typical of persons suffering chronic stress and stress-related pathology. Across all 3 studies, despite variations in the stressor, criterion, population, and methods, SOS scores emerged as valid indicators of stress. However, each study also introduced new problems that beg additional corrective steps in future stress-scale validity tests. These strategies, and the SOS' utility as a research and diagnostic tool in varied applications and populations, are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved. 9. Heuristic optimality criterion algorithm for shape design of fluid flow Science.gov (United States) Wang, Limin; Fan, Yilin; Luo, Lingai 2010-10-01 This paper presents a heuristic optimality criterion algorithm for shape design of fluid flow. In this algorithm, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is utilized to calculate the flow field of a fluid domain which is divided into elemental cells. A heuristic optimality criterion is applied for cells at the solid-fluid interface, i.e. the dynamic pressure for fluid cells and the viscous stress on their neighboring solid cells. An automatic program is processed step by step to exchange the positions of solid and fluid cells identified by the optimality criterion, with the objective of decreasing the flow resistance at the constraint of constant fluid volume. To illustrate the procedure of this algorithm for shape design of fluid flow, two simple examples are presented: one with fluid flowing through a right angle elbow and the other through a converging T-junction. Numerical results show that this algorithm can successfully reduce the total pressure drop of the system, demonstrating its potential applications in engineering optimal design. 10. Global bifurcation criterion for oscillatory crack path instability. Science.gov (United States) Pham, Van-Bac; Bahr, Hans-Achim; Bahr, Ute; Balke, Herbert; Weiss, Hans-Jürgen 2008-06-01 A bifurcation criterion for the transition from straight to oscillatory quasistatic crack propagation in an isotropic material is derived from the requirement of pure mode I stress fields at the crack tip (K_{II}=0) on the entire crack path, henceforth called global bifurcation criterion. For a small-amplitude sine-shaped crack path which is observed in experiments at the transition, it is shown to be sufficient to postulate K_{II}=0 only for two phases of the crack path instead, which simplifies calculations. By using the measured temperature fields to solve the thermoelastic problem of dipping a hot thin glass slab into cold water, critical wavelengths of the oscillating crack growth obtained with the derived global bifurcation criterion agree remarkably well with those observed in experiments by Ronsin and Perrin. It is also shown that local bifurcation criteria, which do not take into account K_{II}=0 on the entire crack path, lead to incorrect results for the oscillatory crack path instability. 11. Carbon emissions and an equitable emission reduction criterion International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Golomb, Dan 1999-01-01 In 1995 the world-wide carbon emissions reached 5.8 billion metric tonnes per year (GTC/y). The Kyoto protocol calls for a reduction of carbon emissions from the developed countries (Annex I countries) of 6-8% below 1990 levels on the average, and unspecified commitments for the less developed (non-Annex I) countries. It is doubtful that the Kyoto agreement will be ratified by some parliaments, especially the USA Congress. Furthermore, it is shown that if the non-Annex I countries will not curtail their carbon emissions drastically, the global emissions will soar to huge levels by the middle of the next century. An equitable emission criterion is proposed which may lead to a sustainable rate of growth of carbon emissions, and be acceptable to all countries of the world. The criterion links the rate of growth of carbon emissions to the rate of growth of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). A target criterion is proposed R = 0.15 KgC/SGDP, which is the current average for western European countries and Japan. This allows for both the growth of the GDP and carbon emissions. However, to reach the target in a reasonable time, the countries for which R≤ 0.3 would be allowed a carbon emission growth rate of 1%./y, and countries for which R≥ 0.3, 0.75%/y. It is shown that by 2050 the world-wide carbon emissions would reach about 10 GTC/y, which is about 3 times less than the Kyoto agreement would allow. (Author) 12. Critical machine cluster identification using the equal area criterion DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob 2015-01-01 The paper introduces a new method to early identify the critical machine cluster (CMC) after a transient disturbance. For transient stability assessment with methods based on the equal area criterion it is necessary to split the generators into a group of critical and non-critical machines....... The generators in the CMC are those likely to lose synchronism. The early and reliable identification of the CMC is crucial and one of the major challenges. The proposed new approach is based on the assessment of the rotor dynamics between two machines and the evaluation of their coupling strength. A novel... 13. The alternative DSM-5 personality disorder traits criterion DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Bach, Bo; Maples-Keller, Jessica L; Bo, Sune 2016-01-01 The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013a) offers an alternative model for Personality Disorders (PDs) in Section III, which consists in part of a pathological personality traits criterion measured...... with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). The PID-5 selfreport instrument currently exists in the original 220-item form, a short 100-item form, and a brief 25-item form. For clinicians and researchers, the choice of a particular PID- 5 form depends on feasibility, but also reliability and validity. The goal... 14. Corner-point criterion for assessing nonlinear image processing imagers Science.gov (United States) Landeau, Stéphane; Pigois, Laurent; Foing, Jean-Paul; Deshors, Gilles; Swiathy, Greggory 2017-10-01 Range performance modeling of optronics imagers attempts to characterize the ability to resolve details in the image. Today, digital image processing is systematically used in conjunction with the optoelectronic system to correct its defects or to exploit tiny detection signals to increase performance. In order to characterize these processing having adaptive and non-linear properties, it becomes necessary to stimulate the imagers with test patterns whose properties are similar to the actual scene image ones, in terms of dynamic range, contours, texture and singular points. This paper presents an approach based on a Corner-Point (CP) resolution criterion, derived from the Probability of Correct Resolution (PCR) of binary fractal patterns. The fundamental principle lies in the respectful perception of the CP direction of one pixel minority value among the majority value of a 2×2 pixels block. The evaluation procedure considers the actual image as its multi-resolution CP transformation, taking the role of Ground Truth (GT). After a spatial registration between the degraded image and the original one, the degradation is statistically measured by comparing the GT with the degraded image CP transformation, in terms of localized PCR at the region of interest. The paper defines this CP criterion and presents the developed evaluation techniques, such as the measurement of the number of CP resolved on the target, the transformation CP and its inverse transform that make it possible to reconstruct an image of the perceived CPs. Then, this criterion is compared with the standard Johnson criterion, in the case of a linear blur and noise degradation. The evaluation of an imaging system integrating an image display and a visual perception is considered, by proposing an analysis scheme combining two methods: a CP measurement for the highly non-linear part (imaging) with real signature test target and conventional methods for the more linear part (displaying). The application to 15. Forecastability as a Design Criterion in Wind Resource Assessment: Preprint Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M. 2014-04-01 This paper proposes a methodology to include the wind power forecasting ability, or 'forecastability,' of a site as a design criterion in wind resource assessment and wind power plant design stages. The Unrestricted Wind Farm Layout Optimization (UWFLO) methodology is adopted to maximize the capacity factor of a wind power plant. The 1-hour-ahead persistence wind power forecasting method is used to characterize the forecastability of a potential wind power plant, thereby partially quantifying the integration cost. A trade-off between the maximum capacity factor and the forecastability is investigated. 16. Sensor Calibration Design Based on D-Optimality Criterion Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Hajiyev Chingiz 2016-09-01 Full Text Available In this study, a procedure for optimal selection of measurement points using the D-optimality criterion to find the best calibration curves of measurement sensors is proposed. The coefficients of calibration curve are evaluated by applying the classical Least Squares Method (LSM. As an example, the problem of optimal selection for standard pressure setters when calibrating a differential pressure sensor is solved. The values obtained from the D-optimum measurement points for calibration of the differential pressure sensor are compared with those from actual experiments. Comparison of the calibration errors corresponding to the D-optimal, A-optimal and Equidistant calibration curves is done. 17. Application of an enhanced Coordinate Modal Assurance Criterion Science.gov (United States) Hunt, David L. 1992-01-01 This paper presents an extension of the Coordinate Modal Assurance Criterion (COMAC) for spatial comparison of mode shapes. As is the case for the original COMAC, this enhanced COMAC helps identify degrees of freedom differences between test and analysis modes, but also overcomes some of the limitations of the original COMAC. The original COMAC cannot identify errors caused by scaling or polarity mistakes in the test data. Such mistakes are easily made during modal tests and not always easily detected since they do not affect the subjective quality of a frequency response function. 18. Slope Safety Factor Calculations With Non-Linear Yield Criterion Using Finite Elements DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars 2006-01-01 The factor of safety for a slope is calculated with the finite element method using a non-linear yield criterion of the Hoek-Brown type. The parameters of the Hoek-Brown criterion are found from triaxial test data. Parameters of the linear Mohr-Coulomb criterion are calibrated to the same triaxial... 19. A simplified wave enhancement criterion for moving extreme events Science.gov (United States) Kudryavtsev, Vladimir; Golubkin, Pavel; Chapron, Bertrand 2015-11-01 An analytical model is derived to efficiently describe the wave energy distribution along the main transects of a moving extreme weather event. The model essentially builds on a generalization of the self-similar wave growth model and the assumption of a strongly dominant single spectral mode in a given quadrant of the storm. The criterion to anticipate wave enhancement with the generation of trapped abnormal waves defined as gr/ur2≈cT>(ur/V>)1/q, with r, u, and V, radial distance, average sustained wind speed, and translation velocity, respectively. Constants q and cT follow the fetch-law definitions. If forced during a sufficient time scale interval, also defined from this generalized self-similar wave growth model, waves can be trapped and large amplification of the wave energy will occur in the front-right storm quadrant. Remarkably, the group velocity and corresponding wavelength of outrunning wave systems will become wind speed independent and solely related to the translating velocity. The resulting significant wave height also only weakly depends on wind speed, and more strongly on the translation velocity. Compared to altimeter satellite measurements, the proposed analytical solutions for the wave energy distribution demonstrate convincing agreement. As analytically developed, the wave enhancement criterion can provide a rapid evaluation to document the general characteristics of each storm, especially the expected wavefield asymmetry. 20. Physical and Constructive (Limiting) Criterions of Gear Wheels Wear Science.gov (United States) Fedorov, S. V. 2018-01-01 We suggest using a generalized model of friction - the model of elastic-plastic deformation of the body element, which is located on the surface of the friction pairs. This model is based on our new engineering approach to the problem of friction-triboergodynamics. Friction is examined as transformative and dissipative process. Structural-energetic interpretation of friction as a process of elasto-plastic deformation and fracture contact volumes is proposed. The model of Hertzian (heavy-loaded) friction contact evolution is considered. The least wear particle principle is formulated. It is mechanical (nano) quantum. Mechanical quantum represents the least structural form of solid material body in conditions of friction. It is dynamic oscillator of dissipative friction structure and it can be examined as the elementary nanostructure of metal’s solid body. At friction in state of most complete evolution of elementary tribosystem (tribocontact) all mechanical quanta (subtribosystems) with the exception of one, elasticity and reversibly transform energy of outer impact (mechanic movement). In these terms only one mechanical quantum is the lost – standard of wear. From this position we can consider the physical criterion of wear and the constructive (limiting) criterion of gear teeth and other practical examples of tribosystems efficiency with new tribology notion – mechanical (nano) quantum. 1. Stability criterion for superfluidity based on the density spectral function Science.gov (United States) Watabe, Shohei; Kato, Yusuke 2013-12-01 We study a stability criterion hypothesis for superfluids expressed in terms of the local density spectral function In(r,ω) that is applicable to both homogeneous and inhomogeneous systems. We evaluate the local density spectral function in the presence of a one-dimensional repulsive or attractive external potential within Bogoliubov theory, using solutions for the tunneling problem. We also evaluate the local density spectral function using an orthogonal basis, and calculate the autocorrelation function Cn(r,t). When superfluids in a d-dimensional system flow below a threshold, In(r,ω)∝ωd holds in the low-energy regime and Cn(r,t)∝1/td+1 holds in the long-time regime. However, when superfluids flow with the critical current, In(r,ω)∝ωβ holds in the low-energy regime and Cn(r,t)∝1/tβ+1 holds in the long-time regime with βcriterion hypothesis recently proposed. 2. A proposed risk acceptance criterion for nuclear fuel waste disposal International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Mehta, K. 1985-06-01 The need to establish a radiological protection criterion that applies specifically to disposal of high level nuclear fuel wastes arises from the difficulty of applying the present ICRP recommendations. These recommendations apply to situations in which radiological detriment can be actively controlled, while a permanent waste disposal facility is meant to operate without the need for corrective actions. Also, the risks associated with waste disposal depend on events and processes that have various probabilities of occurrence. In these circumstances, it is not suitable to apply standards that are based on a single dose limit as in the present ICRP recommendations, because it will generally be possible to envisage events, perhaps rare, that would lead to doses above any selected limit. To overcome these difficulties, it is proposed to base a criterion for acceptability on a set of dose values and corresponding limiting values of probabilities; this set of values constitutes a risk-limit line. A risk-limit line suitable for waste disposal is proposed that has characteristics consistent with the basic philosophy of the ICRP and UNSCEAR recommendations, and is based on levels on natural background radiation 3. Generalized melting criterion for beam-induced amorphization International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Lam, N. Q.; Okamoto, Paul R. 1993-09-01 Recent studies have shown that the mean-square static atomic displacements provide a generic measure of the enthalpy stored in the lattice in the form of chemical and topological disorder, and that the effect of the displacements on the softening of shear elastic constants is identical to that of heating. This finding lends support to a generalized form of the Lindemann phenomenological melting criterion and leads to a natural interpretion of crystalline-to-amorphous transformations as defect-induced melting of metastable crystals driven beyond a critical state of disorder where the melting temperature falls below the glass-transition temperature. Application of the generalized Lindemann criterion to both the crystalline and amorphous phases indicates that the enthalpies of the two phases become identical when their shear moduli become equal. This thermo-elastic rule provides a basis for predicting the relative susceptibility of compounds to amorphization in terms of their elastic properties as measured by Debye temperatures. The present approach can explain many of the basic findings on beam-induced amorphization of intermetallic compounds as well as amorphous phase formation associated with ion implantation, ion-beam mixing and other solid-state processes 4. Some comments about the use of J1 integral criterion International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Roche, Roland. 1977-01-01 Use of J 1 integral criterion in Post Yield Fracture Mechanics is considered. If J 1 is path independent, it can be considered as a crack tip singularity characterization and then, as a good criterion for crack initiation. But it is not proved that J 1 is path independent in general case. The current practice is to consider a material with a mechanical potential energy, it is to say to suppose that strain energy W is only function of the state of strain, but not of the loading history. It is possible to introduce the defect vector concept (or driving force). The resultants of defect vectors included inside a volume are the surface integrals J vector and L vector. So the general condition for J 1 path indepedence can be written. It seems that J 1 is path independent for radial loading but the question is still open for more complex ways of loading. What is the effect of material memory on the J 1 path dependence [fr 5. PET image reconstruction: mean, variance, and optimal minimax criterion International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Liu, Huafeng; Guo, Min; Gao, Fei; Shi, Pengcheng; Xue, Liying; Nie, Jing 2015-01-01 Given the noise nature of positron emission tomography (PET) measurements, it is critical to know the image quality and reliability as well as expected radioactivity map (mean image) for both qualitative interpretation and quantitative analysis. While existing efforts have often been devoted to providing only the reconstructed mean image, we present a unified framework for joint estimation of the mean and corresponding variance of the radioactivity map based on an efficient optimal min–max criterion. The proposed framework formulates the PET image reconstruction problem to be a transformation from system uncertainties to estimation errors, where the minimax criterion is adopted to minimize the estimation errors with possibly maximized system uncertainties. The estimation errors, in the form of a covariance matrix, express the measurement uncertainties in a complete way. The framework is then optimized by ∞-norm optimization and solved with the corresponding H ∞ filter. Unlike conventional statistical reconstruction algorithms, that rely on the statistical modeling methods of the measurement data or noise, the proposed joint estimation stands from the point of view of signal energies and can handle from imperfect statistical assumptions to even no a priori statistical assumptions. The performance and accuracy of reconstructed mean and variance images are validated using Monte Carlo simulations. Experiments on phantom scans with a small animal PET scanner and real patient scans are also conducted for assessment of clinical potential. (paper) 6. A criterion to maximize the irreversible efficiency in heat engines CERN Document Server Aragon-Gonzalez, G; Leon-Galicia, A; Musharrafie-Martinez, M 2003-01-01 The purpose of this work is to obtain a more precise calculation of the effective limits to the efficiency, of several cyclic heat engines. This calculation is based, first, on the equations describing the irreversible efficiency, and second, on a method which results from a general criterion to maximize this efficiency, applicable to several heat engines. With this method, we apply the criterion to maximize efficiencies; establish lower and upper bounds, corresponding to the efficiencies of Curzon-Ahlborn-like and Carnot-like heat engines; and, finally, find analytical or numerical expressions for the efficiencies eta sub m sub e and eta sub m sub a sub x. eta sub m sub a sub x is the maximum irreversible efficiency; eta sub m sub e is the efficiency in which the irreversible efficiency achieves its maximum, in a similar way to the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency (maximum work or power). The method was applied to a Brayton cycle, presenting internal dissipations of the working fluid and irreversibilities due to th... 7. Refocusing criterion via sparsity measurements in digital holography. Science.gov (United States) Memmolo, Pasquale; Paturzo, Melania; Javidi, Bahram; Netti, Paolo A; Ferraro, Pietro 2014-08-15 Several automatic approaches have been proposed in the past to compute the refocus distance in digital holography (DH). However most of them are based on a maximization or minimization of a suitable amplitude image contrast measure, regarded as a function of the reconstruction distance parameter. Here we show that, by using the sparsity measure coefficient regarded as a refocusing criterion in the holographic reconstruction, it is possible to recover the focus plane and, at the same time, establish the degree of sparsity of digital holograms, when samples of the diffraction Fresnel propagation integral are used as a sparse signal representation. We employ a sparsity measurement coefficient known as Gini's index thus showing for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, its application in DH, as an effective refocusing criterion. Demonstration is provided for different holographic configurations (i.e., lens and lensless apparatus) and for completely different objects (i.e., a thin pure phase microscopic object as an in vitro cell, and macroscopic puppets) preparation. 8. Memetic Differential Evolution with an Improved Contraction Criterion Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Lei Peng 2017-01-01 Full Text Available Memetic algorithms with an appropriate trade-off between the exploration and exploitation can obtain very good results in continuous optimization. In this paper, we present an improved memetic differential evolution algorithm for solving global optimization problems. The proposed approach, called memetic DE (MDE, hybridizes differential evolution (DE with a local search (LS operator and periodic reinitialization to balance the exploration and exploitation. A new contraction criterion, which is based on the improved maximum distance in objective space, is proposed to decide when the local search starts. The proposed algorithm is compared with six well-known evolutionary algorithms on twenty-one benchmark functions, and the experimental results are analyzed with two kinds of nonparametric statistical tests. Moreover, sensitivity analyses for parameters in MDE are also made. Experimental results have demonstrated the competitive performance of the proposed method with respect to the six compared algorithms. 9. Energy Criterion of Oil Film Failure during Friction Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) S.V. Fedorov 2014-12-01 Full Text Available The concepts developed by the thermodynamic theory of solid body strength and fracture are used to examine the conditions of lubricant film failure. We obtain a quantitative criterion that defines the lubricant film "defectness" - the critical value (constant for a given mineral oil of the internal (thermal energy density in the volume of the lubricant film. We propose analytic relations for evaluating scuffing in friction with lubrication and verify them experimentally on a full-scale stand for testing actual sliding bearings. We show the constancy of the critical value of the internal (thermal energy density in the volume of the oil film at the moment of scuffing for an inactive mineral oil. 10. QV modal distance displacement - a criterion for contingency ranking Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Rios, M.A.; Sanchez, J.L.; Zapata, C.J. [Universidad de Los Andes (Colombia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: mrios@uniandes.edu.co, josesan@uniandes.edu.co, cjzapata@utp.edu.co 2009-07-01 This paper proposes a new methodology using concepts of fast decoupled load flow, modal analysis and ranking of contingencies, where the impact of each contingency is measured hourly taking into account the influence of each contingency over the mathematical model of the system, i.e. the Jacobian Matrix. This method computes the displacement of the reduced Jacobian Matrix eigenvalues used in voltage stability analysis, as a criterion of contingency ranking, considering the fact that the lowest eigenvalue in the normal operation condition is not the same lowest eigenvalue in N-1 contingency condition. It is made using all branches in the system and specific branches according to the IBPF index. The test system used is the IEEE 118 nodes. (author) 11. A criterion and mechanism for power ramp defects International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Garlick, A.; Gravenor, J.G. 1978-02-01 The problem of power ramp defects in water reactor fuel pins is discussed in relation to results recently obtained from ramp experiments in the Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor. Cladding cracks in the defected fuel pins were similar, both macro- and micro structurally, to those in unirradiated Zircaloy exposed to iodine stress-corrosion cracking (scc) conditions. Furthermore, when the measured stress levels for scc in short-term tests were taken as a criterion for ramp defects, UK fuel modelling codes were found to give a useful indication of defect probability under reactor service conditions. The likelihood of sticking between fuel and cladding is discussed and evidence presented which suggests that even at power a degree of adhesion may be expected in some fuel pins. The ramp defect mechanism is discussed in terms of fission product scc, initiation being by intergranular penetration and propagation by cleavage when suitably orientated grains are exposed to large dilatational stresses ahead of the main crack. (author) 12. A new cavability assessment criterion for longwall top coal caving Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Vakili, A.; Hebblewhite, B.K. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia) 2010-12-15 This paper describes the main results of project aimed at developing a new cavability assessment criterion for top-coal, and improving the overall understanding of the caving mechanism in Longwall Top Coal Caving (LTCC) technology. The research methodology for this study incorporated a combination of analytical, observational and empirical engineering methods. The two major outcomes of the study were an improved understanding of the caving mechanics, and a new cavability assessment system, the Top-Coal Cavability Rating (TCCR). New conceptual models were introduced for better understanding of top coal caving mechanism. The results of the conceptual investigations suggest that six major parameters can influence the cavability of a typical coal seam, i.e. deformation modulus; vertical pre-mining stress; 3-sub-horizontal pre-mining stress; 4-seam thickness; spacing of sub-horizontal joints; and spacing of sub-vertical joints. The applicability of TCCR system was investigated by back analysing the cavability in earlier LTCC practices. 13. Metal-insulator transition: the Mott criterion and coherence length CERN Document Server Pergament, A 2003-01-01 On the basis of the Mott criterion for metal-insulator transition (MIT), an expression for the correlation length, identical to that for the coherence length in the theory of superconductivity, is obtained. This correlation length characterizes the size of an electron-hole pair (in an excitonic insulator) or the effective Bohr radius (as, e.g., in doped semiconductors). The relation obtained is used for calculation of the coherence length in vanadium dioxide. The presence of two characteristic coherence lengths (xi sub 1 approx 20 A and xi sub 2 approx 2 A) is found. This is associated with the specific features of the transition mechanism in VO sub 2 : this mechanism represents a combination of the purely electronic Mott-Hubbard contribution and the structural (Peierls-like) one. It is shown, however, that the driving force of the MIT in VO sub 2 is the electron-correlation Mott-Hubbard transition. 14. Error sensitivity to refinement: a criterion for optimal grid adaptation Science.gov (United States) Luchini, Paolo; Giannetti, Flavio; Citro, Vincenzo 2017-12-01 Most indicators used for automatic grid refinement are suboptimal, in the sense that they do not really minimize the global solution error. This paper concerns with a new indicator, related to the sensitivity map of global stability problems, suitable for an optimal grid refinement that minimizes the global solution error. The new criterion is derived from the properties of the adjoint operator and provides a map of the sensitivity of the global error (or its estimate) to a local mesh refinement. Examples are presented for both a scalar partial differential equation and for the system of Navier-Stokes equations. In the last case, we also present a grid-adaptation algorithm based on the new estimator and on the FreeFem++ software that improves the accuracy of the solution of almost two order of magnitude by redistributing the nodes of the initial computational mesh. 15. PRINCIPLE OF PROPORTIONALITY, CRITERION OF LEGITIMACY IN THE PUBLIC LAW Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) MARIUS ANDREESCU 2011-04-01 Full Text Available A problem of essence of the state is the one to delimit the discretionary power, respectively the power abuse in the activity of the state’s institutions. The legal behavior of the state’s institutions consists in their right to appreciate them and the power excess generates the violation of a subjective right or of the right that is of legitimate interest to the citizen. The application and nonobservance of the principle of lawfulness in the activities of the state is a complex problem because the exercise of the state’s functions assumes the discretionary powers with which the states authorities are invested, or otherwise said the ‘right of appreciation” of the authorities regarding the moment of adopting the contents of the measures proposed. The discretionary power cannot be opposed to the principle of lawfulness, as a dimension of the state de jure. In this study we propose to analyze the concept of discretionary power, respectively the power excess, having as a guidance the legislation, jurisprudence and doctrine in the matter. At the same time we would like to identify the most important criterions that will allow the user, regardless that he is or not an administrator, a public clerk or a judge, to delimit the legal behavior of the state’s institutions from the power excess. Within this context, we appreciate that the principle of proportionality represents such a criterion. The proportionality is a legal principle of the law, but at the same time it is a principle of the constitutional law and of other law branches. It expresses clearly the idea of balance, reasonability but also of adjusting the measures ordered by the state’s authorities to the situation in fact, respectively to the purpose for which they have been conceived. In our study we choose theoretical and jurisprudence arguments according to which the principle of proportionality can procedurally be determined and used to delimit the discretionary power and 16. ADDED VALUE AS EFFICIENCY CRITERION FOR INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION PROCESS Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) L. M. Korotkevich 2016-01-01 Full Text Available Literary analysis has shown that the majority of researchers are using classical efficiency criteria for construction of an optimization model for production process: profit maximization; cost minimization; maximization of commercial product output; minimization of back-log for product demand; minimization of total time consumption due to production change. The paper proposes to use an index of added value as an efficiency criterion because it combines economic and social interests of all main interested subjects of the business activity: national government, property owners, employees, investors. The following types of added value have been considered in the paper: joint-stock, market, monetary, economic, notional (gross, net, real. The paper makes suggestion to use an index of real value added as an efficiency criterion. Such approach permits to bring notional added value in comparable variant because added value can be increased not only due to efficiency improvement of enterprise activity but also due to environmental factors – excess in rate of export price increases over rate of import growth. An analysis of methods for calculation of real value added has been made on a country-by-country basis (extrapolation, simple and double deflation. A method of double deflation has been selected on the basis of the executed analysis and it is counted according to the Laspeyires, Paasche, Fischer indices. A conclusion has been made that the used expressions do not take into account fully economic peculiarities of the Republic of Belarus: they are considered as inappropriate in the case when product cost is differentiated according to marketing outlets; they do not take account of difference in rate of several currencies and such approach is reflected in export price of a released product and import price for raw material, supplies and component parts. Taking this into consideration expressions for calculation of real value added have been specified 17. Validation of a Criterion for Cam Mechanisms Optimization Using Constraints upon Cam’s Curvature Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Stelian Alaci 2016-06-01 Full Text Available For the mechanism with rotating cam and knife-edge follower, an optimization criterion by means of imposed constraints upon cam’s curvature is expressed in a special coordinate system. Thus, stating the optimization criterion in the coordinate system defined by the mechanisms constructive parameters -eccentricity and minimum follower’s stroke, a contour is obtained for any position of the mechanism. The optimization criterion assumes establishing the position of the characteristic point of the mechanism with respect to this contour. Fulfillment of optimization criterion assumes that the characteristic point is positioned in the same manner with respect to all contours. The optimization criterion is simplified when considering the envelope of the contours. The method is exemplified using two mechanisms, with the cams priori satisfying the criterion. 18. Fluency: an aim in teaching and a criterion in assessment Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Aud Marit Simensen 2010-05-01 Full Text Available This article investigates the concept ‘fluency’ from different perspectives. When fluency is an aim in teaching, a thorough comprehension of the concept among teachers is a prerequisite for appropriate planning of instruction, including the choice of appropriate classroom activities. When fluency is an assessment criterion, it is even more important that examiners have a shared perception of the concept. The present article starts by presenting common perceptions of the concept and goes on to explore some of the current research. Next, it provides a historical overview of the place of fluency in teaching theory and explains some of the preconditions for the inclusion of this concept among teaching objectives and assessment criteria. It will also, as an illustration, give an outline of the position of the concept over time in the Norwegian school system on the basis of an analysis of the relevant syllabuses. Finally, the article explicates the notion of language use as a complex cognitive skill and explores current method¬ological ideas about teaching towards fluency. 19. A novel SURE-based criterion for parametric PSF estimation. Science.gov (United States) Xue, Feng; Blu, Thierry 2015-02-01 We propose an unbiased estimate of a filtered version of the mean squared error--the blur-SURE (Stein's unbiased risk estimate)--as a novel criterion for estimating an unknown point spread function (PSF) from the degraded image only. The PSF is obtained by minimizing this new objective functional over a family of Wiener processings. Based on this estimated blur kernel, we then perform nonblind deconvolution using our recently developed algorithm. The SURE-based framework is exemplified with a number of parametric PSF, involving a scaling factor that controls the blur size. A typical example of such parametrization is the Gaussian kernel. The experimental results demonstrate that minimizing the blur-SURE yields highly accurate estimates of the PSF parameters, which also result in a restoration quality that is very similar to the one obtained with the exact PSF, when plugged into our recent multi-Wiener SURE-LET deconvolution algorithm. The highly competitive results obtained outline the great potential of developing more powerful blind deconvolution algorithms based on SURE-like estimates. 20. Equal-area criterion in power systems revisited. Science.gov (United States) Sun, Yong; Ma, Jinpeng; Kurths, Jürgen; Zhan, Meng 2018-02-01 The classic equal-area criterion (EAC) is of key importance in power system analysis, and provides a powerful, pictorial and quantitative means of analysing transient stability (i.e. the system's ability to maintain stable operation when subjected to a large disturbance). Based on the traditional EAC, it is common sense in engineering that there is a critical cleaning time (CCT); namely, a power system is stable (unstable) if a fault is cleared before (after) this CCT. We regard this form of CCT as bipartite. In this paper, we revisit the EAC theory and, surprisingly, find different kinds of transient stability behaviour. Based on these analyses, we discover that the bipartite CCT is only one type among four major types, and, actually, the forms of CCT can be diversified. In particular, under some circumstances, a system may have no CCT or show a periodic CCT. Our theoretical analysis is verified by numerical simulations in a single-machine-infinite-bus system and also in multi-machine systems. Thus, our study provides a panoramic framework for diverse transient stability behaviour in power systems and also may have a significant impact on applications of multi-stability in various other systems, such as neuroscience, climatology or photonics. 1. Akaike information criterion to select well-fit resist models Science.gov (United States) Burbine, Andrew; Fryer, David; Sturtevant, John 2015-03-01 In the field of model design and selection, there is always a risk that a model is over-fit to the data used to train the model. A model is well suited when it describes the physical system and not the stochastic behavior of the particular data collected. K-fold cross validation is a method to check this potential over-fitting to the data by calibrating with k-number of folds in the data, typically between 4 and 10. Model training is a computationally expensive operation, however, and given a wide choice of candidate models, calibrating each one repeatedly becomes prohibitively time consuming. Akaike information criterion (AIC) is an information-theoretic approach to model selection based on the maximized log-likelihood for a given model that only needs a single calibration per model. It is used in this study to demonstrate model ranking and selection among compact resist modelforms that have various numbers and types of terms to describe photoresist behavior. It is shown that there is a good correspondence of AIC to K-fold cross validation in selecting the best modelform, and it is further shown that over-fitting is, in most cases, not indicated. In modelforms with more than 40 fitting parameters, the size of the calibration data set benefits from additional parameters, statistically validating the model complexity. 2. Controllability, not chaos, key criterion for ocean state estimation Science.gov (United States) Gebbie, Geoffrey; Hsieh, Tsung-Lin 2017-07-01 The Lagrange multiplier method for combining observations and models (i.e., the adjoint method or 4D-VAR) has been avoided or approximated when the numerical model is highly nonlinear or chaotic. This approach has been adopted primarily due to difficulties in the initialization of low-dimensional chaotic models, where the search for optimal initial conditions by gradient-descent algorithms is hampered by multiple local minima. Although initialization is an important task for numerical weather prediction, ocean state estimation usually demands an additional task - a solution of the time-dependent surface boundary conditions that result from atmosphere-ocean interaction. Here, we apply the Lagrange multiplier method to an analogous boundary control problem, tracking the trajectory of the forced chaotic pendulum. Contrary to previous assertions, it is demonstrated that the Lagrange multiplier method can track multiple chaotic transitions through time, so long as the boundary conditions render the system controllable. Thus, the nonlinear timescale poses no limit to the time interval for successful Lagrange multiplier-based estimation. That the key criterion is controllability, not a pure measure of dynamical stability or chaos, illustrates the similarities between the Lagrange multiplier method and other state estimation methods. The results with the chaotic pendulum suggest that nonlinearity should not be a fundamental obstacle to ocean state estimation with eddy-resolving models, especially when using an improved first-guess trajectory. 3. New dental implant selection criterion based on implant design. Science.gov (United States) El-Anwar, Mohamed I; El-Zawahry, Mohamed M; Ibraheem, Eman M; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria; ElGabry, Hisham 2017-01-01 A comparative study between threaded and plain dental implant designs was performed to find out a new criterion for dental implant selection. Several dental implant designs with a systematic increase in diameter and length were positioned in a cylindrical-shaped bone section and analyzed using finite element method. Four loading types were tested on different dental implant designs; tension of 50 N, compression of 100 N, bending of 20 N, and torque of 2 Nm, to derive design curves. Better stress distribution on both spongy and cortical bone was noted with an increase in dental implant diameter and length. With the increase in dental implant side area, a stress reduction in the surrounding bones was observed, where threaded dental implants showed better behavior over the plain ones. Increasing value of ratio between dental implant side area and its cross-sectional area reduces stresses transferred to cortical and spongy bones. The use of implants with higher ratio of side area to cross-section area, especially with weak jaw bone, is recommended. 4. Robust deep network with maximum correntropy criterion for seizure detection. Science.gov (United States) Qi, Yu; Wang, Yueming; Zhang, Jianmin; Zhu, Junming; Zheng, Xiaoxiang 2014-01-01 Effective seizure detection from long-term EEG is highly important for seizure diagnosis. Existing methods usually design the feature and classifier individually, while little work has been done for the simultaneous optimization of the two parts. This work proposes a deep network to jointly learn a feature and a classifier so that they could help each other to make the whole system optimal. To deal with the challenge of the impulsive noises and outliers caused by EMG artifacts in EEG signals, we formulate a robust stacked autoencoder (R-SAE) as a part of the network to learn an effective feature. In R-SAE, the maximum correntropy criterion (MCC) is proposed to reduce the effect of noise/outliers. Unlike the mean square error (MSE), the output of the new kernel MCC increases more slowly than that of MSE when the input goes away from the center. Thus, the effect of those noises/outliers positioned far away from the center can be suppressed. The proposed method is evaluated on six patients of 33.6 hours of scalp EEG data. Our method achieves a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 99%, which is promising for clinical applications. 5. Robust Deep Network with Maximum Correntropy Criterion for Seizure Detection Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Yu Qi 2014-01-01 Full Text Available Effective seizure detection from long-term EEG is highly important for seizure diagnosis. Existing methods usually design the feature and classifier individually, while little work has been done for the simultaneous optimization of the two parts. This work proposes a deep network to jointly learn a feature and a classifier so that they could help each other to make the whole system optimal. To deal with the challenge of the impulsive noises and outliers caused by EMG artifacts in EEG signals, we formulate a robust stacked autoencoder (R-SAE as a part of the network to learn an effective feature. In R-SAE, the maximum correntropy criterion (MCC is proposed to reduce the effect of noise/outliers. Unlike the mean square error (MSE, the output of the new kernel MCC increases more slowly than that of MSE when the input goes away from the center. Thus, the effect of those noises/outliers positioned far away from the center can be suppressed. The proposed method is evaluated on six patients of 33.6 hours of scalp EEG data. Our method achieves a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 99%, which is promising for clinical applications. 6. WPS criterion proposition based on experimental data base interpretation International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Chapuliot, S.; Izard, J.P.; Moinereau, D.; Marie, S. 2011-01-01 This article gives the background and the methodology developed to define a K J based criterion for brittle fracture of Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) submitted to Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS), and taking into account Warm Pre Stressing effect (WPS). The first step of this methodology is the constitution of an experimental data base. This work was performed through bibliography and partnerships, and allows merging experimental results dealing with: -) Various ferritic steels; -) Various material states (as received, thermally aged, irradiated...); -) Various mode of fracture (cleavage, inter-granular, mixed mode); -) Various specimen geometry and size (CT, SENB, mock-ups); -) Various thermo-mechanical transients. Based on this experimental data base, a simple K J based limit is proposed and compared to experimental results. Parametric studies are performed in order to define the main parameters of the problem. Finally, a simple proposition based on a detailed analysis of tests results is performed. This proposition giving satisfactory results in every cases, it constitutes a good candidate for integration in French RSE-M code for in service assessment. (authors) 7. A Heuristic Criterion for Instability to Fragmentation in Rotating, Interstellar Clouds Science.gov (United States) Boss, Alan Paul 1982-01-01 A heuristic criterion, based on linear perturbation analysis, is applied to the initial growth of density perturbations in isothermal or adiabatic gas clouds, with initially uniform density and uniform rotation. The heuristic criterion is shown to be consistent with the available results from numerical calculations of cloud collapse. The criterion predicts that perturbations varying as cos (m(phi)) will be most likely to grow when )pi is small, unless the cloud is nearly pressureless. 8. Refocus criterion for both phase and amplitude objects in digital holographic microscopy. Science.gov (United States) Dubois, Frank; El Mallahi, Ahmed; Dohet-Eraly, Jérôme; Yourassowsky, Catherine 2014-08-01 For digital holographic microscopy applications, we modify the focus criterion based on the integration of the amplitude modulus to make possible its use regardless of the phase or amplitude nature of the objects under test. When applied on holographic data, the original criterion gives, at the focus plane, a minimum or a maximum, for amplitude or phase objects. The criterion we propose here operates on high-pass filtered complex amplitudes. It is shown that the proposed criterion gives a minimum for both types of objects when the focus plane is reached. Experimental results on real samples and simulations are provided, illustrating the efficiency and the potential of the method. 9. An analysis of the stratified and nonstartified flow transition criterion in horizontal/inclined pipes International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Sung, Chang Kyung 1996-02-01 The present studies are developed to present the two-step approach which is used in extending the phase-plane method and the hyperbolicity breaking concept for instability analyses of one-dimensional two-phase flow equations to the derivations of the new criterion for the stratified and non-stratified flow transition (e.g., onset of slugging), the critical flow condition criterion, and the flooding criterion. In the first step, more general forms for the onset of slugging criterion, the critical flow condition criterion, and the flooding criterion are derived based on the nonlinear analysis: more specifically, analyses of the phase-plane method and hyperbolicity breaking concept of the 'inflected nodes' (neutral stability conditions) and 'parallel lines' in the topological patterns of the linear system obtained from the transient one-dimensional two-phase flow equations of a two-fluid model. In the second step, through the introduction of simplifications and incorporation of a parameter (at the onset of slugging criterion) or an empirical constant (at the flooding criterion) into the general expression derived in the first step to satisfy a number of physical conditions a priori specified, new criteria for the onset of slugging and the onset of flooding have been derived. Validation of the present stratified and non-stratified flow transition criterion is achieved by comparison with the existing analytical criteria (Taitel and Dukler model and one-dimensional wave model) and experimental data from large test facilities (IFP, SINTEF, Harwell, Creare/PRC, ROSA and UPTF). The result of the validation shows good agreement at large pipe diameters and at high gas velocities. Present studies have revealed that the two-phase density ratio and pipe inclination angle are very important parameters that should be handled properly to determine the flow regime boundary correctly. Comparison between the present critical flow condition criterion with Gardner's critical flow 10. The Criterion A problem revisited: controversies and challenges in defining and measuring psychological trauma. Science.gov (United States) Weathers, Frank W; Keane, Terence M 2007-04-01 The Criterion A problem in the field of traumatic stress refers to the stressor criterion for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and involves a number of fundamental issues regarding the definition and measurement of psychological trauma. These issues first emerged with the introduction of PTSD as a diagnostic category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition (DSM-III; American Psychiatric Association, 1980) and continue to generate considerable controversy. In this article, the authors provide an update on the Criterion A problem, with particular emphasis on the evolution of the DSM definition of the stressor criterion and the ongoing debate regarding broad versus narrow conceptualizations of traumatic events. 11. Establishment of reference intervals and transfusion criterion for Sonoclot analysis. Science.gov (United States) Zhang, Zhen-Lu; Chen, You-Ping; Tao, Cui-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Li, Meng-Ya; Zhou, Xin 2016-08-01 Sonoclot analyzer has been widely used in many countries. But the reference intervals provided by the manufacturer were derived from only 45 participants, and there was no cut-off value for transfusion for Sonoclot analysis. This study aimed to establish reference intervals and transfusion criterion for Sonoclot analysis. Volunteers were recruited from healthy Chinese adults and patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Blood samples were withdrawn from forearm vein and measured for activated clotting time (ACT), clot rate (CR), platelet function (PF), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen concentration (FIB), and platelet count (PLT). The reference intervals were determined by the nonparametric method. Cut-off values were determined by the receiver operating characteristics curve. A total of 135 healthy volunteers and 281 patients were enrolled. The 95% reference intervals were 96-195 s, 22-51 signal U/min, >1.6 for ACT, CR, PF respectively. In the 281 patients, the results of APTT, FIB, PLT, ACT, CR, and PF ranged from 20.5-300.0 s, 0.28-4.11 g/L, (19.0-387.3)×109/L, 80-514 s, 2.9-74 signal U/min, and 0.1-5.1 respectively. The cut-off values for transfusion were >208, ≤14, and ≤1.3 for ACT, CR, PF respectively. The cut-off values of Sonoclot analysis were within the manufacturer's reference intervals, while they were outside the reference intervals established in this study. The results suggested that the manufacturer's reference intervals were not suitable for Chinese. The reference intervals and cut-off values established in this study will be helpful to Chinese patients. 12. The Impact of Professional and Administrative Standards on Court Cases Involving Criterion-Related Validity. Science.gov (United States) Faley, Robert H.; Kleiman, Lawrence S. This paper reviews 12 Title VII court cases litigated since 1978 to assess implications of recent professional and legal guidelines regarding criterion-related validity of paper and pencil tests used by employers to prove job relatedness. Major topics important to an understanding of predictor criterion, including procedural, and data analysis and… 13. Characteristics of Criterion-Referenced Instruments: Implications for Materials Selection for the Learning Disabled. Science.gov (United States) Blasi, Joyce F. Discussed are characteristics of criterion referenced reading tests for use with learning disabled (LD) children, and analyzed are the Basic Educational Skills Inventory (BESI), the Prescriptive Reading Inventory (PRI), and the Cooper-McGuire Diagnostic Work-Analysis Test (CooperMcGuire). Criterion referenced tests are defined; and problems in… 14. A new risk-based screening criterion for treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity in Denmark DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Slidsborg, Carina; Forman, Julie Lyng; Rasmussen, Steen Christian 2011-01-01 The aim of this study was to uncover the most effective and safe criterion to implement for retinopathy of prematurity screening in Denmark.......The aim of this study was to uncover the most effective and safe criterion to implement for retinopathy of prematurity screening in Denmark.... 15. Energy-efficient induction motors designing with application of a modified criterion of reduced costs Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) V.S. Petrushin 2014-03-01 Full Text Available The paper introduces a modified criterion of reduced costs that employs coefficients of operation significance and priority of ohmic loss accounting to allow matching maximum efficiency with minimum reduced costs. Impact of the inflation factor on the criterion of reduced costs is analyzed. 16. Elaboration of generalized criterion for zonality determination of the Chernobyl' NPP working spaces International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Simakov, A.V.; Bad'in, V.I.; Nosovskij, A.V. 1992-01-01 Analysis of the features of radioactive dose rating, regularities of their formation and dosimetry allows suggesting generalized criterion for assess zonality of compartments and territories, combining all factors and their action on operators. This criterion may be used during design of the new objects, development of programs and pursuance of work on removal of atomic power plants from operation. 6 refs.; 1 fig 17. The Bohm Criterion for Radiofrequency Discharges - a Numerical Verification Based on Poisson Equation NARCIS (Netherlands) Meijer, P. M.; W. J. Goedheer, 1993-01-01 Recently it was shown that, by using the analysis of electrostatic waves entering the plasma-sheath edge, the direct-current (dc) Bohm criterion also holds for discharges under radio-frequency (rf) conditions. In this paper, the influence of Bohm's criterion on the sheath characteristics for 18. Evidence for the Criterion Validity and Clinical Utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory Science.gov (United States) Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J. 2012-01-01 In this study, the authors evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (N = 299 and 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic… 19. A Controlled Evaluation of the Distress Criterion for Binge Eating Disorder Science.gov (United States) Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A. 2011-01-01 Objective: Research has examined various aspects of the validity of the research criteria for binge eating disorder (BED) but has yet to evaluate the utility of Criterion C, "marked distress about binge eating." This study examined the significance of the marked distress criterion for BED using 2 complementary comparison groups. Method:… 20. Six Single-Administration Reliability Coefficients for Criterion-Referenced Tests: A Comparative Study. Science.gov (United States) Downing, Steven M.; Mehrens, William A. Four criterion-referenced reliability coefficicents were compared to the Kuder-Richardson estimates and to each other. The Kuder-Richardson formulas 20 and 21, the Livingston, the Subkoviak and two Huynh coefficients were computed for a random sample of 33 criterion-referenced tests. The Subkoviak coefficient yielded the highest mean value;… 1. The New DSM-5 Impairment Criterion: A Challenge to Early Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis? Science.gov (United States) Zander, Eric; Bölte, Sven 2015-01-01 The possible effect of the DSM-5 impairment criterion on diagnosing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in young children was examined in 127 children aged 20-47 months with a DSM-IV-TR clinical consensus diagnosis of ASD. The composite score of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) served as a proxy for the DSM-5 impairment criterion. When… 2. An Investigation Into the Use of Criterion-Referenced Measurement in Vocational and Technical Training. Science.gov (United States) Day, Gerald F. The paper investigates and analyses the current state of the art of criterion-referenced measurement (CRM), with a view to determining its use in training and instructional programs. It presents a reveiw of the literature pertaining to the following aspects: a brief history of CRM; a definition and comparison of criterion-referenced and… 3. Working Memory in Children with Learning Disabilities: Rethinking the Criterion of Discrepancy Science.gov (United States) Maehler, Claudia; Schuchardt, Kirsten 2011-01-01 The criterion of discrepancy is used to distinguish children with learning disorders from children with intellectual disabilities. The justification of the criterion of discrepancy for the diagnosis of learning disorders relies on the conviction of fundamental differences between children with learning difficulties with versus without discrepancy… 4. A Short-Circuit Safe Operation Area Identification Criterion for SiC MOSFET Power Modules DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Luo, Haoze 2017-01-01 -circuit-current-based criterion; and 2) the gate-voltage-based criterion. The applicability of these two criteria makes possible the SCSOA evaluation of SiC MOSFETs with some safety margins in order to avoid unnecessary failures during their SCSOA characterization. SiC MOSFET power modules from two different manufacturers... 5. Criterion 7: Legal, institutional, and economic framework for forest conservation and sustainable management Science.gov (United States) Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield 2012-01-01 This criterion focuses on the social context of forestsâthe laws, policies, administrative rules, and social and economic institutionsâthat governs forest resource management and use. What society permits or restricts, encourages or discourages all influence the sustainability of forest resources. Criterion 7 captures this by turning attention to all the different... 6. Exclusion as a Criterion for Selecting Socially Vulnerable Population Groups Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Aleksandra Anatol’evna Shabunova 2016-05-01 Full Text Available The article considers theoretical aspects of a scientific research “The Mechanisms for Overcoming Mental Barriers of Inclusion of Socially Vulnerable Categories of the Population for the Purpose of Intensifying Modernization in the Regional Community” (RSF grant No. 16-18-00078. The authors analyze the essence of the category of “socially vulnerable groups” from the legal, economic and sociological perspectives. The paper shows that the economic approach that uses the criterion “the level of income and accumulated assets” when defining vulnerable population groups prevails in public administration practice. The legal field of the category based on the economic approach is defined by the concept of “the poor and socially unprotected categories of citizens”. With the help of the analysis of theoretical and methodological aspects of this issue, the authors show that these criteria are a necessary but not sufficient condition for classifying the population as being socially vulnerable. Foreign literature associates the phenomenon of vulnerability with the concept of risks, with the possibility of households responding to them and with the likelihood of losing the well-being (poverty theory; research areas related to the means of subsistence, etc.. The asset-based approaches relate vulnerability to the poverty that arises due to lack of access to tangible and intangible assets. Sociological theories presented by the concept of social exclusion pay much attention to the breakdown of social ties as a source of vulnerability. The essence of social exclusion consists in the inability of people to participate in important aspects of social life (in politics, labor markets, education and healthcare, cultural life, etc. though they have all the rights to do so. The difference between the concepts of exclusion and poverty is manifested in the displacement of emphasis from income inequality to limited access to rights. Social exclusion is 7. A stopping criterion for the iterative solution of partial differential equations Science.gov (United States) Rao, Kaustubh; Malan, Paul; Perot, J. Blair 2018-01-01 A stopping criterion for iterative solution methods is presented that accurately estimates the solution error using low computational overhead. The proposed criterion uses information from prior solution changes to estimate the error. When the solution changes are noisy or stagnating it reverts to a less accurate but more robust, low-cost singular value estimate to approximate the error given the residual. This estimator can also be applied to iterative linear matrix solvers such as Krylov subspace or multigrid methods. Examples of the stopping criterion's ability to accurately estimate the non-linear and linear solution error are provided for a number of different test cases in incompressible fluid dynamics. 8. Optimization of the criterion for selecting photodetectors for photon counting and its application International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Gulakov, I.R.; Pertsev, A.N.; Kholondyrev, S.V. 1985-01-01 An optimized version of photo-detectors selection criteria for photon counting is suggested. Use of the criterion for selecting a light boundary wave length during the transition from one photo-detector to another and for choosing dissectors (coordinate-sensitive detectors) is considered. The criterion suggested possesses a convenient simplicity for operative experimental application and turns out the most effective for cases when signal pulse counting rate exceeds shadow pulse counting rates. The criterion is easily generalized for the ares of high counting rates when due to the dead time effect the Poisson flow nature of recorded events is distorted 9. TEMPERATURE-DEFORMATION CRITERION OF OPTIMIZATION OF FINE DRAWING HIGH CARBON WIRE ROUTE Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Y. L. Bobarikin 2012-01-01 Full Text Available The temperature-deformation criterion of assessment and optimization of routes of the thin high-carbon wire drawing enabling to increase plastic properties of wire at retaining of its durability is offered. 10. SIMULATION OF FRACTURE USING A MESH-DEPENDENT FRACTURE CRITERION IN THE DISCRETE ELEMENT METHOD Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Andrey Dimaki 2018-02-01 Full Text Available Recently, Pohrt and Popov have shown that for simulation of adhesive contacts a mesh dependent detachment criterion must be used to obtain the mesh-independent macroscopic behavior of the system. The same principle should be also applicable for the simulation of fracture processes in any method using finite discretization. In particular, in the Discrete Element Methods (DEM the detachment criterion of particles should depend on the particle size. In the present paper, we analyze how the mesh dependent detachment criterion has to be introduced to guarantee the macroscopic invariance of mechanical behavior of a material. We find that it is possible to formulate the criterion which describes fracture both in tensile and shear experiments correctly. 11. Use of the Niyama criterion to predict porosity of the mushy zone with deformation Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) S. Polyakov 2011-10-01 Full Text Available The article presents new results on the use of the Niyama criterion to estimate porosity appearance in castings under hindered shrinkage. The effect of deformation of the mushy zone on filtration is shown. A new form of the Niyama criterion accounting for the hindered shrinkage and the range of deformation localization has been obtained. The results of this study are illustrated by the examp le of the Niyama criterion calculated for Al-Cu alloys under different diffusion conditions of solidification and rate of deformation in the mushy zone. Derived equations can be used in a mathematical model of the casting solidification as well as for interpretation of the simulation results of casting solidification under hindered shrinkage. The presented study resulted in a new procedure of using the Niyama criterion under mushy zone deformation. 12. A criterion for testing hypotheses about the covariance function of a stationary Gaussian stochastic process OpenAIRE Kozachenko, Yuriy; Troshki, Viktor 2015-01-01 We consider a measurable stationary Gaussian stochastic process. A criterion for testing hypotheses about the covariance function of such a process using estimates for its norm in the space$L_p(\\mathbb {T}),\\,p\\geq1, is constructed. 13. Ten Issues in Criterion-Referenced Testing: A Response to Commonly Heard Criticisms. Science.gov (United States) Curlette, William L.; Stallings, William M. 1979-01-01 The 10 criticisms of criterion-referenced tests addressed in this paper are: the domains tested; pedagogical influence; difficulty of items; cumbersome reports; reliability; arbitrary criteria; local objectives; labeling; predictive validity; and repeated testing. (SJL) 14. On global stability criterion for neural networks with discrete and distributed delays International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Park, Ju H. 2006-01-01 Based on the Lyapunov functional stability analysis for differential equations and the linear matrix inequality (LMI) optimization approach, a new delay-dependent criterion for neural networks with discrete and distributed delays is derived to guarantee global asymptotic stability. The criterion is expressed in terms of LMIs, which can be solved easily by various convex optimization algorithms. Some numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of proposed method 15. Relative criterion for validity of a semiclassical approach to the dynamics near quantum critical points. Science.gov (United States) Wang, Qian; Qin, Pinquan; Wang, Wen-ge 2015-10-01 Based on an analysis of Feynman's path integral formulation of the propagator, a relative criterion is proposed for validity of a semiclassical approach to the dynamics near critical points in a class of systems undergoing quantum phase transitions. It is given by an effective Planck constant, in the relative sense that a smaller effective Planck constant implies better performance of the semiclassical approach. Numerical tests of this relative criterion are given in the XY model and in the Dicke model. 16. Bias-Compensated Normalized Maximum Correntropy Criterion Algorithm for System Identification with Noisy Input OpenAIRE Ma, Wentao; Zheng, Dongqiao; Li, Yuanhao; Zhang, Zhiyu; Chen, Badong 2017-01-01 This paper proposed a bias-compensated normalized maximum correntropy criterion (BCNMCC) algorithm charactered by its low steady-state misalignment for system identification with noisy input in an impulsive output noise environment. The normalized maximum correntropy criterion (NMCC) is derived from a correntropy based cost function, which is rather robust with respect to impulsive noises. To deal with the noisy input, we introduce a bias-compensated vector (BCV) to the NMCC algorithm, and th... 17. Failure Study of Composite Materials by the Yeh-Stratton Criterion Science.gov (United States) Yeh, Hsien-Yang; Richards, W. Lance 1997-01-01 The newly developed Yeh-Stratton (Y-S) Strength Criterion was used to study the failure of composite materials with central holes and normal cracks. To evaluate the interaction parameters for the Y-S failure theory, it is necessary to perform several biaxial loading tests. However, it is indisputable that the inhomogeneous and anisotropic nature of composite materials have made their own contribution to the complication of the biaxial testing problem. To avoid the difficulties of performing many biaxial tests and still consider the effects of the interaction term in the Y-S Criterion, a simple modification of the Y-S Criterion was developed. The preliminary predictions by the modified Y-S Criterion were relatively conservative compared to the testing data. Thus, the modified Y-S Criterion could be used as a design tool. To further understand the composite failure problem, an investigation of the damage zone in front of the crack tip coupled with the Y-S Criterion is imperative. 18. Multiaxial fatigue criterion based on parameters from torsion and axial S-N curve Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) M. Margetin 2016-07-01 Full Text Available Multiaxial high cycle fatigue is a topic that concerns nearly all industrial domains. In recent years, a great deal of recommendations how to address problems with multiaxial fatigue life time estimation have been made and a huge progress in the field has been achieved. Until now, however, no universal criterion for multiaxial fatigue has been proposed. Addressing this situation, this paper offers a design of a new multiaxial criterion for high cycle fatigue. This criterion is based on critical plane search. Damage parameter consists of a combination of normal and shear stresses on a critical plane (which is a plane with maximal shear stress amplitude. Material parameters used in proposed criterion are obtained from torsion and axial S-N curves. Proposed criterion correctly calculates life time for boundary loading condition (pure torsion and pure axial loading. Application of proposed model is demonstrated on biaxial loading and the results are verified with testing program using specimens made from S355 steel. Fatigue material parameters for proposed criterion and multiple sets of data for different combination of axial and torsional loading have been obtained during the experiment. 19. A new criterion of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) method to detect irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Zhang, Liwen; Lin, Tong; Jiang, Yingqiao; Bi, Fujun 2013-01-01 This work used a new criterion to analyze 162 varieties (222 batches) of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs based on the European Standard EN 13751 (2009. Foodstuffs—Detection of Irradiated Food Using Photostimulated Luminescence. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium). The characteristics of PSL signals are described, and a new criterion is established. Compared to EN 13751, the new criterion uses clearer definition to evaluate instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN Standard, such as “much greater than” and “within the same order of magnitude”. Moreover, the accuracy of the new criterion is as good as or better than EN Standard in regard to classifying irradiated and non-irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. It can help to avoid false positive result when a non-irradiated herb got a screening PSL measurement above 5000 counts/60 s. This new criterion of photostimulated luminescence method can be applied to identify the irradiation status of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, even if the medicinal herbs were irradiated at a low dose (0.3 kGy) or stored in the dark at room temperature for 24 months after the irradiation treatment. - Highlights: • Clearer evaluation criterion instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN 13751. • Accuracy satisfied. • Large sample size provides outstanding representativeness. • Systematical evaluation on PSL method 20. Zero mass field quantization and Kibble's long-range force criterion for the Goldstone theorem International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Wright, S.H. 1981-01-01 The central theme of the dissertation is an investigation of the long-range force criterion used by Kibble in his discussion of the Goldstone Theorem. This investigation is broken up into the following sections: I. Introduction. Spontaneous symmetry breaking, the Goldstone Theorem and the conditions under which it holds are discussed. II. Massless Wave Expansions. In order to make explicit calculations of the operator commutators used in applying Kibble's criterion, it is necessary to work out the operator expansions for a massless field. Unusual results are obtained which include operators corresponding to classical macroscopic field modes. III. The Kibble Criterion for Simple Models Exhibiting Spontaneously Broken Symmetries. The results of the previous section are applied to simple models with spontaneously broken symmetries, namely, the real scalar massless field and the Goldstone model without gauge coupling. IV. The Higgs Mechanism in Classical Field Theory. It is shown that the Higgs Mechanism has a simple interpretation in terms of classical field theory, namely, that it arises from a derivative coupling term between the Goldstone fields and the gauge fields. V. The Higgs Mechanism and Kibble's Criterion. This section draws together the material discussed in sections II to IV. Explicit calculations are made to evaluate Kibble's criterion on a Goldstone-Higgs type of model in the Coulomb gauge. It is found, as expected, that the criterion is not met, but not for reasons relating to the range of the mediating force. By referring to the findings of sections III and IV, it is concluded that the common denominator underlying both the Higgs Mechanism and the failure of Kibble's criterion is a structural aspect of the field equations: derivative coupling between fields 1. A controlled evaluation of the distress criterion for binge eating disorder. Science.gov (United States) Grilo, Carlos M; White, Marney A 2011-08-01 Research has examined various aspects of the validity of the research criteria for binge eating disorder (BED) but has yet to evaluate the utility of Criterion C, "marked distress about binge eating." This study examined the significance of the marked distress criterion for BED using 2 complementary comparison groups. A total of 1,075 community volunteers completed a battery of self-report instruments as part of an Internet study. Analyses compared body mass index (BMI), eating-disorder psychopathology, and depressive levels in 4 groups: 97 participants with BED except for the distress criterion (BED-ND), 221 participants with BED including the distress criterion (BED), 79 participants with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 489 obese participants without binge eating or purging (NBPO). Parallel analyses compared these study groups using the broadened frequency criterion (i.e., once weekly for binge/purge behaviors) proposed for the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and the 4th edition (DSM-IV) twice-weekly frequency criterion. The BED group had significantly greater eating-disorder psychopathology and depressive levels than the BED-ND group. The BED group, but not the BED-ND group, had significantly greater eating-disorder psychopathology than the NBPO comparison group. The BN group had significantly greater eating-disorder psychopathology and depressive levels than all 3 other groups. The group differences in eating-disorder psychopathology existed even after controlling for depression levels, BMI, and demographic variables, although some differences between the BN and BED groups were attenuated when controlling for depression levels. These findings provide support for the validity of the "marked distress" criterion for the diagnosis of BED. 2. Criterion learning in rule-based categorization: simulation of neural mechanism and new data. Science.gov (United States) Helie, Sebastien; Ell, Shawn W; Filoteo, J Vincent; Maddox, W Todd 2015-04-01 In perceptual categorization, rule selection consists of selecting one or several stimulus-dimensions to be used to categorize the stimuli (e.g., categorize lines according to their length). Once a rule has been selected, criterion learning consists of defining how stimuli will be grouped using the selected dimension(s) (e.g., if the selected rule is line length, define 'long' and 'short'). Very little is known about the neuroscience of criterion learning, and most existing computational models do not provide a biological mechanism for this process. In this article, we introduce a new model of rule learning called Heterosynaptic Inhibitory Criterion Learning (HICL). HICL includes a biologically-based explanation of criterion learning, and we use new category-learning data to test key aspects of the model. In HICL, rule selective cells in prefrontal cortex modulate stimulus-response associations using pre-synaptic inhibition. Criterion learning is implemented by a new type of heterosynaptic error-driven Hebbian learning at inhibitory synapses that uses feedback to drive cell activation above/below thresholds representing ionic gating mechanisms. The model is used to account for new human categorization data from two experiments showing that: (1) changing rule criterion on a given dimension is easier if irrelevant dimensions are also changing (Experiment 1), and (2) showing that changing the relevant rule dimension and learning a new criterion is more difficult, but also facilitated by a change in the irrelevant dimension (Experiment 2). We conclude with a discussion of some of HICL's implications for future research on rule learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 3. Optimal Conformal Polynomial Projections for Croatia According to the Airy/Jordan Criterion Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Dražen Tutić 2009-05-01 Full Text Available The paper describes optimal conformal polynomial projections for Croatia according to the Airy/Jordan criterion. A brief introduction of history and theory of conformal mapping is followed by descriptions of conformal polynomial projections and their current application. The paper considers polynomials of degrees 1 to 10. Since there are conditions in which the 1st degree polynomial becomes the famous Mercator projection, it was not considered specifically for Croatian territory. The area of Croatia was defined as a union of national territory and the continental shelf. Area definition data were taken from the Euro Global Map 1:1 000 000 for Croatia, as well as from two maritime delimitation treaties. Such an irregular area was approximated with a regular grid consisting of 11 934 ellipsoidal trapezoids 2' large. The Airy/Jordan criterion for the optimal projection is defined as minimum of weighted mean of Airy/Jordan measure of distortion in points. The value of the Airy/Jordan criterion is calculated from all 11 934 centres of ellipsoidal trapezoids, while the weights are equal to areas of corresponding ellipsoidal trapezoids. The minimum is obtained by Nelder and Mead’s method, as implemented in the fminsearch function of the MATLAB package. Maps of Croatia representing the distribution of distortions are given for polynomial degrees 2 to 6 and 10. Increasing the polynomial degree results in better projections considering the criterion, and the 6th degree polynomial provides a good ratio of formula complexity and criterion value. 4. Fulfillment of the kinetic Bohm criterion in a quasineutral particle-in-cell model International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Ahedo, Eduardo; Santos, Robert; Parra, Felix I. 2010-01-01 Quasineutral particle-in-cell models of ions must fulfill the kinetic Bohm criterion, in its inequality form, at the domain boundary in order to match correctly with solutions of the Debye sheaths tied to the walls. The simple, fluid form of the Bohm criterion is shown to be a bad approximation of the exact, kinetic form when the ion velocity distribution function has a significant dispersion and involves different charge numbers. The fulfillment of the Bohm criterion is measured by a weighting algorithm at the boundary, but linear weighting algorithms have difficulties to reproduce the nonlinear behavior around the sheath edge. A surface weighting algorithm with an extended temporal weighting is proposed and shown to behave better than the standard volumetric weighting. Still, this must be supplemented by a forcing algorithm of the kinetic Bohm criterion. This postulates a small potential fall in a supplementary, thin, transition layer. The electron-wall interaction is shown to be of little relevance in the fulfillment of the Bohm criterion. 5. A discussion on the time criterion of the 50m radio-telescope Science.gov (United States) Ni, G. R.; Xu, L. P.; He, K. Y. 2006-07-01 It analyzes the influence of the time-frequency properties of atom clock on time-keeping error by quantity, and estimates the error of related physical measure caused by the time-keeping properties of atom time-frequency criterion---time resolution. The comparison table of modern practical atom clock's performance index is given. The index of transferring and comparing standard time-frequency signal by modern radio means is also listed. The high-precision time-frequency criterion's important status in the fields of exploration of earth and astrospace, VLBI and the timing application of millisecond pulsars are also discussed. The high-precision requirement and selection principle, which are applied to time criterion by Chang E-I'' moon-exploration task, and the 50m radio telescope's scientific aim are set forth. In order to achieve its scientific aim and task, the time-frequency criterion, which is correspondent to its research goal and high-standard as soon as possible, must be set up, so that the high-quality data and high-efficiency research achievement can be attained. The problem of what time criterion should be set up is discussed, and the primary suggestions are put forward as well. 6. PTSD's risky behavior criterion: Relation with DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters and psychopathology. Science.gov (United States) Contractor, Ateka A; Weiss, Nicole H; Dranger, Paula; Ruggero, Camilo; Armour, Cherie 2017-06-01 A new symptom criterion of reckless and self-destructive behaviors (E2) was recently added to posttraumatic stress disorder's (PTSD) diagnostic criteria in DSM-5, which is unsurprising given the well-established relation between PTSD and risky behaviors. Researchers have questioned the significance and incremental validity of this symptom criterion within PTSD's symptomatology. Unprecedented to our knowledge, we aim to compare trauma-exposed groups differing on their endorsement status of the risky behavior symptom on several psychopathology constructs (PTSD, depression, distress tolerance, rumination, anger). The sample included 123 trauma-exposed participants seeking mental health treatment (M age=35.70; 68.30% female) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, depression, rumination, distress tolerance, and anger. Results of independent samples t-tests indicated that participants who endorsed the E2 criterion at a clinically significant level reported significantly greater PTSD subscale severity; depression severity; rumination facets of repetitive thoughts, counterfactual thinking, and problem-focused thinking; and anger reactions; and significantly less absorption and regulation (distress tolerance facets) compared to participants who did not endorse the E2 criterion at a clinically significant level. Results indicate the utility of the E2 criterion in identifying trauma-exposed individual with greater posttraumatic distress, and emphasize the importance of targeting such behaviors in treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. 7. Covariance-Based Measurement Selection Criterion for Gaussian-Based Algorithms Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Fernando A. Auat Cheein 2013-01-01 Full Text Available Process modeling by means of Gaussian-based algorithms often suffers from redundant information which usually increases the estimation computational complexity without significantly improving the estimation performance. In this article, a non-arbitrary measurement selection criterion for Gaussian-based algorithms is proposed. The measurement selection criterion is based on the determination of the most significant measurement from both an estimation convergence perspective and the covariance matrix associated with the measurement. The selection criterion is independent from the nature of the measured variable. This criterion is used in conjunction with three Gaussian-based algorithms: the EIF (Extended Information Filter, the EKF (Extended Kalman Filter and the UKF (Unscented Kalman Filter. Nevertheless, the measurement selection criterion shown herein can also be applied to other Gaussian-based algorithms. Although this work is focused on environment modeling, the results shown herein can be applied to other Gaussian-based algorithm implementations. Mathematical descriptions and implementation results that validate the proposal are also included in this work. 8. Spatial frequency discrimination: visual long-term memory or criterion setting? Science.gov (United States) Lages, M; Treisman, M 1998-02-01 A long-term sensory memory is believed to account for spatial frequency discrimination when reference and test stimuli are separated by long intervals. We test an alternative proposal: that discrimination is determined by the range of test stimuli, through their entrainment of criterion-setting processes. Experiments 1 and 2 show that the 50% point of the psychometric function is largely determined by the midpoint of the stimulus range, not by the reference stimulus. Experiment 3 shows that discrimination of spatial frequencies is similarly affected by orthogonal contextual stimuli and parallel contextual stimuli and that these effects can be explained by criterion-setting processes. These findings support the hypothesis that discrimination over long intervals is explained by the operation of criterion-setting processes rather than by long-term sensory retention of a neural representation of the stimulus. 9. On PID Controller Design by Combining Pole Placement Technique with Symmetrical Optimum Criterion Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Viorel Nicolau 2013-01-01 Full Text Available In this paper, aspects of analytical design of PID controllers are studied, by combining pole placement technique with symmetrical optimum criterion. The proposed method is based on low-order plant model with pure integrator, and it can be used for both fast and slow processes. Starting from the desired closed-loop transfer function, which contains a second-order oscillating system and a lead-lag compensator, it is shown that the zero value depends on the real-pole value of closed-loop transfer function. In addition, there is only one pole value, which satisfies the assumptions of symmetrical optimum criterion imposed to open-loop transfer function. In these conditions, by combining the pole placement technique with symmetrical optimum criterion, the analytical expressions of the controller parameters can be simplified. For simulations, PID autopilot design for heading control problem of a conventional ship is considered. 10. Optimization of Thermal Object Nonlinear Control Systems by Energy Efficiency Criterion. Science.gov (United States) Velichkin, Vladimir A.; Zavyalov, Vladimir A. 2018-03-01 This article presents the results of thermal object functioning control analysis (heat exchanger, dryer, heat treatment chamber, etc.). The results were used to determine a mathematical model of the generalized thermal control object. The appropriate optimality criterion was chosen to make the control more energy-efficient. The mathematical programming task was formulated based on the chosen optimality criterion, control object mathematical model and technological constraints. The “maximum energy efficiency” criterion helped avoid solving a system of nonlinear differential equations and solve the formulated problem of mathematical programming in an analytical way. It should be noted that in the case under review the search for optimal control and optimal trajectory reduces to solving an algebraic system of equations. In addition, it is shown that the optimal trajectory does not depend on the dynamic characteristics of the control object. 11. Failure Criterion For Isotropic Time Dependent Materials Which Accounts for Multi-Axial Loading Science.gov (United States) Richardson, D. E.; Anderson, G. L.; Macon, D. J. 2003-01-01 The Space Shuttle's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle program has recently conducted testing to characterize the effects of multi-axial loading, temperature and time on the failure characteristics of TIGA321, EA913NA, EA946 (three filled epoxy adhesives). From the test data a "Multi-Axial, Temperature, and Time Dependent" or MATT failure criterion was developed. It is shown that this criterion simplifies, for constant load and constant load rate conditions, into a form that can be easily used for stress analysis. Failure for TIGA321 and EA913NA are characterized below their glass transition temperature. Failure for EA946 is characterized for conditions that pass through its glass transition. The MATT failure criterion is shown to be accurate for a wide range of conditions for these adhesives. 12. A new criterion for failure of materials by environment-induced cracking Science.gov (United States) Williams, D. P. 1973-01-01 A new criterion has been developed for predicting failure of materials by environment-induced cracking. The criterion has been developed by the use of fracture mechanics concepts and assumes that the relationship between crack-growth rate and stress intensity can be described by three separable regions of behavior as first suggested by Wiederhorn. The analytical form of the criterion relates failure time to the initial crack length and the critical crack length or alternatively, to the initial stress intensity and the fracture toughness for various conditions of stress and the environmental variables. The analytical expression is examined by the use of some experimental data on the hydrogen-induced cracking of Ti-5Al-2.5 Sn, and it is demonstrated that the expression predicts the general expected form of the relationship between the normalized stress intensity parameter and the failure time. 13. Possible deviations from Griffith’s criterion in shallow slabs, and consequences on slab avalanche release Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) F. Louchet 2002-01-01 Full Text Available Possible reasons for deviations from Griffith’s criterion in slab avalanche triggerings are examined. In the case of a major basal crack, we show (i that the usual form of Griffith’s criterion is valid if elastic energy is stored in a shallow and hard slab only, and (ii that rapid healing of broken ice bonds may lead to shear toughnesses larger than expected from tensile toughness experiments. In the case of avalanches resulting from failure of multi-cracked weak layers, where a simple Griffith’s criterion cannot be applied, frequency/size plots obtained from discrete elements and cellular automata simulations are shown to obey scale invariant power law distributions. These findings are confirmed by both frequency/acoustic emission duration and frequency/size plots obtained from field data, suggesting that avalanche triggerings may be described using the formalism of critical phenomena. 14. A new multiobjective performance criterion used in PID tuning optimization algorithms. Science.gov (United States) Sahib, Mouayad A; Ahmed, Bestoun S 2016-01-01 In PID controller design, an optimization algorithm is commonly employed to search for the optimal controller parameters. The optimization algorithm is based on a specific performance criterion which is defined by an objective or cost function. To this end, different objective functions have been proposed in the literature to optimize the response of the controlled system. These functions include numerous weighted time and frequency domain variables. However, for an optimum desired response it is difficult to select the appropriate objective function or identify the best weight values required to optimize the PID controller design. This paper presents a new time domain performance criterion based on the multiobjective Pareto front solutions. The proposed objective function is tested in the PID controller design for an automatic voltage regulator system (AVR) application using particle swarm optimization algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed performance criterion can highly improve the PID tuning optimization in comparison with traditional objective functions. 15. Synchronization criterion for Lur'e type complex dynamical networks with time-varying delay International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Ji, D.H.; Park, Ju H.; Yoo, W.J.; Won, S.C.; Lee, S.M. 2010-01-01 In this Letter, the synchronization problem for a class of complex dynamical networks in which every identical node is a Lur'e system with time-varying delay is considered. A delay-dependent synchronization criterion is derived for the synchronization of complex dynamical network that represented by Lur'e system with sector restricted nonlinearities. The derived criterion is a sufficient condition for absolute stability of error dynamics between the each nodes and the isolated node. Using a convex representation of the nonlinearity for error dynamics, the stability condition based on the discretized Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional is obtained via LMI formulation. The proposed delay-dependent synchronization criterion is less conservative than the existing ones. The effectiveness of our work is verified through numerical examples. 16. A criterion for the recalculation of shape factors in reactor kinetics problems International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Kamelander, G. 1983-01-01 One of the best known methods to solve the neutron kinetics equations is the factorization method which consists in splitting the neutron flux in an amplitude factor P(t) and in a shape factor PSI(r,t). This shape factor is approximated by the solution of the stationary form of the neutron diffusion equation. If the flux shape changes significantly during the course of the transient PSI(r,t) must be recalculated. The present paper gives a qualitative criterion for the recalculation of the shape factor. The physical model of the code TRANS-II using this criterion is presented. The results of two transient calculations are given. It is shown that this criterion provides a reliable tool to optimize the factorization method. (orig.) [de 17. A risk-based microbiological criterion that uses the relative risk as the critical limit DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Andersen, Jens Kirk; Nørrung, Birgit; da Costa Alves Machado, Simone 2015-01-01 A risk-based microbiological criterion is described, that is based on the relative risk associated to the analytical result of a number of samples taken from a food lot. The acceptable limit is a specific level of risk and not a specific number of microorganisms, as in other microbiological...... criteria. The approach requires the availability of a quantitative microbiological risk assessment model to get risk estimates for food products from sampled food lots. By relating these food lot risk estimates to the mean risk estimate associated to a representative baseline data set, a relative risk...... estimate can be obtained. This relative risk estimate then can be compared with a critical value, defined by the criterion. This microbiological criterion based on a relative risk limit is particularly useful when quantitative enumeration data are available and when the prevalence of the microorganism... 18. The role of criterion A2 in the DSM-IV diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder. Science.gov (United States) Karam, Elie George; Andrews, Gavin; Bromet, Evelyn; Petukhova, Maria; Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Salamoun, Mariana; Sampson, Nancy; Stein, Dan J; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Angermeyer, Matthias; Demyttenaere, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Kaminer, Debra; Kotov, Roman; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Oakley Browne, Mark A; Posada-Villa, José; Sagar, Rajesh; Shalev, Arieh Y; Takeshima, Tadashi; Tomov, Toma; Kessler, Ronald C 2010-09-01 Controversy exists about the utility of DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criterion A2 (A2): that exposure to a potentially traumatic experience (PTE; PTSD criterion A1) is accompanied by intense fear, helplessness, or horror. Lifetime DSM-IV PTSD was assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview in community surveys of 52,826 respondents across 21 countries in the World Mental Health Surveys. Of 28,490 representative PTEs reported by respondents, 37.6% met criterion A2, a proportion higher than the proportions meeting other criteria (B-F; 5.4%-9.6%). Conditional prevalence of meeting all other criteria for a diagnosis of PTSD given a PTE was significantly higher in the presence (9.7%) than absence (.1%) of A2. However, as only 1.4% of respondents who met all other criteria failed A2, the estimated prevalence of PTSD increased only slightly (from 3.64% to 3.69%) when A2 was not required for diagnosis. Posttraumatic stress disorder with or without criterion A2 did not differ in persistence or predicted consequences (subsequent suicidal ideation or secondary disorders) depending on presence-absence of A2. Furthermore, as A2 was by far the most commonly reported symptom of PTSD, initial assessment of A2 would be much less efficient than screening other criteria in quickly ruling out a large proportion of noncases. Removal of A2 from the DSM-IV criterion set would reduce the complexity of diagnosing PTSD, while not substantially increasing the number of people who qualify for diagnosis. Criterion A2 should consequently be reconceptualized as a risk factor for PTSD rather than as a diagnostic requirement. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 19. Development of a brittle fracture acceptance criterion for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Sorenson, K.B.; Salzbrenner, R.; Nickell, R.E. 1992-01-01 An effort has been undertaken to develop a brittle fracture acceptance criterion for structural components of nuclear material transportation casks. The need for such a criterion was twofold. First, new generation cask designs have proposed the use of ferritic steels and other materials to replace the austenitic stainless steel commonly used for structural components in transport casks. Unlike austenitic stainless steel which fails in a high-energy absorbing, ductile tearing mode, it is possible for these candidate materials to fail via brittle fracture when subjected to certain combinations of elevated loading rates and low temperatures. Second, there is no established brittle fracture criterion accepted by the regulatory community that covers a broad range of structural materials. Although the existing IAEA Safety Series number-sign 37 addressed brittle fracture, its the guidance was dated and pertained only to ferritic steels. Consultant's Services Meetings held under the auspices of the IAEA have resulted in a recommended brittle fracture criterion. The brittle fracture criterion is based on linear elastic fracture mechanics, and is the result of a consensus of experts from six participating IAEA-member countries. The brittle fracture criterion allows three approaches to determine the fracture toughness of the structural material. The three approaches present the opportunity to balance material testing requirements and the conservatism of the material's fracture toughness which must be used to demonstrate resistance to brittle fracture. This work has resulted in a revised Appendix IX to Safety Series number-sign 37 which will be released as an IAEA Technical Document within the coming year 20. Application of controllable unit approach (CUA) to performance-criterion-based nuclear material control and accounting International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Foster, K.W.; Rogers, D.R. 1979-01-01 The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is considering the use of maximum-loss performance criteria as a means of controlling SNM in nuclear plants. The Controllable Unit Approach to material control and accounting (CUA) was developed by Mound to determine the feasibility of controlling a plant to a performance criterion. The concept was tested with the proposed Anderson, SC, mixed-oxide plant, and it was shown that CUA is indeed a feasible method for controlling a complex process to a performance criterion. The application of CUA to an actual low-enrichment plant to assist the NRC in establishing performance criteria for uranium processes is discussed. 5 refs 1. Discussion on verification criterion and method of human factors engineering for nuclear power plant controller International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Yang Hualong; Liu Yanzi; Jia Ming; Huang Weijun 2014-01-01 In order to prevent or reduce human error and ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants, control device should be verified from the perspective of human factors engineering (HFE). The domestic and international human factors engineering guidelines about nuclear power plant controller were considered, the verification criterion and method of human factors engineering for nuclear power plant controller were discussed and the application examples were provided for reference in this paper. The results show that the appropriate verification criterion and method should be selected to ensure the objectivity and accuracy of the conclusion. (authors) 2. Specific strain work as a failure criterion in plane stress state International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Zuchowski, R.; Zietkowski, L. 1985-01-01 An experimental verification of failure criterion based on specific strain work was performed. Thin-walled cylindrical specimens were examined by loading with constant force and constant torque moment, assuming different values for particular tests, at the same time keeping stress intensity constant, and by subjecting to thermal cycling. It was found that the critical value of failure did not depend on axial-to-shearing stresses ratio, i.e., on the type of state of stress. Thereby, the validity of the analysed failure criterion in plane stress was confirmed. Besides, a simple description of damage development in plane stress was suggested. (orig./RF) 3. Diffusion correction to the Raether Meek criterion for the avalanche-to-streamer transition Science.gov (United States) Montijn, Carolynne; Ebert, Ute 2006-07-01 Space-charge dominated streamer discharges can emerge in free space from single electrons. We reinvestigate the Raether-Meek criterion and show that streamer emergence depends not only on ionization and attachment rates and gap length, but also on electron diffusion. Motivated by simulation results, we derive an explicit quantitative criterion for the avalanche-to-streamer transition both for pure non-attaching gases and for air, under the assumption that the avalanche emerges from a single free electron and evolves in a homogeneous field. 4. Adiabaticity criterion and the shortest adiabatic mode transformer in a coupled-waveguide system. Science.gov (United States) Sun, Xiankai; Liu, Hsi-Chun; Yariv, Amnon 2009-02-01 By analyzing the propagating behavior of the supermodes in a coupled-waveguide system, we have derived a universal criterion for designing adiabatic mode transformers. The criterion relates epsilon, the fraction of power scattered into the unwanted mode, to waveguide design parameters and gives the shortest possible length of an adiabatic mode transformer, which is approximately 2/piepsilon1/2 times the distance of maximal power transfer between the waveguides. The results from numerical calculations based on a transfer-matrix formalism support this theory very well. 5. Generalized statistical criterion for distinguishing random optical groupings from physical multiple systems International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Anosova, Z.P. 1988-01-01 A statistical criterion is proposed for distinguishing between random and physical groupings of stars and galaxies. The criterion is applied to nearby wide multiple stars, triplets of galaxies in the list of Karachentsev, Karachentseva, and Shcherbanovskii, and double galaxies in the list of Dahari, in which the principal components are Seyfert galaxies. Systems that are almost certainly physical, probably physical, probably optical, and almost certainly optical are identified. The limiting difference between the radial velocities of the components of physical multiple galaxies is estimated 6. Verifications of fracture criterion of graphite by means of acoustic emission International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Kurumada, Akira; Sato, Sennosuke; Fukaya, Katsuaki. 1985-01-01 The graphite-fracture criterion, which is presented by authors, in 1984, contains basically a concept of restriction of crack propagation under predominant compressive stress, but the concept was not always confirmed phenomenally. In this paper such latent crack initiations for several kinds of graphite are detected by means of an acoustic emission (AE) technique during the compressive and diametral compressive testings and a verification for the fracture criterion is given. A proof testing for acceptance/rejection of production graphite for a high temperature gas cooled reactor using by AE is also discussed. (author) 7. Exploring DSM-5 criterion A in Acute Stress Disorder symptoms following natural disaster. Science.gov (United States) Lavenda, Osnat; Grossman, Ephraim S; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Hoffman, Yaakov 2017-10-01 The present study examines the DSM-5 Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) diagnostic criteria of exposure, in the context of a natural disaster. The study is based on the reports of 1001 Filipinos following the aftermath of super typhoon Haiyan in 2013. Participants reported exposure to injury, psychological distress and ASD symptoms. Findings indicated the association of criterion A with the prevalence of meeting all other ASD diagnostic criteria and high psychological distress. The diagnostic properties of Criterion A are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 8. Rayleigh Number Criterion for Formation of A-Segregates in Steel Castings and Ingots DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Rad, M. Torabi; Kotas, Petr; Beckermann, C. 2013-01-01 A Rayleigh number-based criterion is developed for predicting the formation of A-segregates in steel castings and ingots. The criterion is calibrated using available experimental data for ingots involving 27 different steel compositions. The critical Rayleigh number above which A-segregates can b......, the primary reason for this over-prediction is persumed to be the presence of a central zone of equiaxed grains in the casting sections. A-segregates do not form when the grain structure is equiaxed. © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2013... 9. Application of the cubic polynomial strength criterion to the failure analysis of composite materials Science.gov (United States) Tennyson, R. C.; Nanyaro, A. P.; Wharram, G. E. 1980-01-01 A comparative failure analysis is presented based on the application of quadratic and cubic forms of the tensor polynomial lamina strength criterion to various composite structural configurations in a plane stress state. Failure loads have been predicted for off-angle laminates under simple loading conditions and for symmetric-balanced laminates subject to varying degrees of biaxial tension, including configurations subject to multimode failures. Some experimental data are also provided to support these calculations. From these results, the necessity of employing a cubic strength criterion to accurately predict the failure of composite laminae is demonstrated. 10. Gregory research beliefs scale: discriminant construct, concurrent criterion, and known-groups validity. Science.gov (United States) Gregory, Virgil L 2012-01-01 The purpose of the author in this study was to evaluate the discriminant construct, concurrent criterion, and known-groups validity of the Gregory Research Beliefs Scale (GRBS). Data was collected from masters and bachelors level social work students via online and traditional classroom settings. The Gregory Research Beliefs Scale's discriminant construct validity was supported via principal component and confirmatory factor analysis. A correlation coefficient provided some evidence for the concurrent criterion validity. The Gregory Research Beliefs Scale's known-groups validity was not supported. Strengths, limitations, future research, and implications for evidence-based social work practice are discussed. 11. LMFBR safety criteria: cost-benefit considerations under the constraint of an a priori risk criterion International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Hartung, J. 1979-01-01 The role of cost-benefit considerations and a priori risk criteria as determinants of Core Disruptive Accident (CDA)-related safety criteria for large LMFBR's is explored with the aid of quantitative risk and probabilistic analysis methods. A methodology is described which allows a large number of design and siting alternatives to be traded off against each other with the goal of minimizing energy generation costs subject to the constraint of both an a priori risk criterion and a cost-benefit criterion. Application of this methodology to a specific LMFBR design project is described and the results are discussed. 5 refs 12. fracture criterion Indian Academy of Sciences (India) Fracture in metallic glasses. What are the connections between nano- and micro- mechanisms and toughness? Metallic glasses are schizophrenic in the fracture sense. PDF Create! 5 Trial www.nuance.com ... 13. Dry spot growth criterion for isothermal liquid films on a horizontal substrate Science.gov (United States) Maltsev, L. I.; Podzharov, Yu. S.; Kabov, O. A. 2017-05-01 A criterion was elaborated for the phenomenon of dry spot evolution in isothermal liquid films on a horizontal substrate. The formulas are presented for gravity force and surface tension acting upon an element of the rim around the dry spot. The forces balance gives the evolution of initial dry spot: to expand or to contract. 14. Wearable monitors criterion validity for energy expenditure in sedentary and light activities Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Florez-Pregonero Alberto 2017-03-01 Conclusion: None of the WMs tested in this study were equivalent with the criterion measure (VO2 in estimating sedentary-to-light activities; however, the activPAL had greater overall accuracy in measuring SB and LPA than did the ActiGraph and SenseWear 2 monitors. 15. Using Item Data for Evaluating Criterion Reference Measures with an Empirical Investigation of Index Consistency. Science.gov (United States) Meredith, Keith E.; Sabers, Darrell L. Data required for evaluating a Criterion Referenced Measurement (CRM) is described with a matrix. The information within the matrix consists of the "pass-fail" decisions of two CRMs. By differentially defining these two CRMs, different concepts of reliability and validity can be examined. Indices suggested for analyzing the matrix are listed with… 16. Evaluation of Inequality Constrained Hypotheses Using an Akaike-Type Information Criterion NARCIS (Netherlands) Altinisik, Y. 2018-01-01 The Akaike information criterion (AIC) is one of the best known information criteria that can be used to evaluate hypotheses containing only equality restrictions on model parameters. The GORIC is a generalization of the AIC that can be utilized to evaluate hypotheses containing equality and/or 17. A geometric criterion for the stability of forced oscillations in non-linear mechanics (1961) International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Blaquiere, A. 1961-01-01 The author completes the two-parameter diagram theory which he has previously explained, by giving a geometric criterion of stability for a non-linear system under forced conditions. After two simple geometric transformations of the diagram he obtains the separators which are the boundary conditions for the zones of stability. (author) [fr 18. Ginsburg criterion for an equilibrium superradiant model in the dynamic approach International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Trache, M. 1991-10-01 Some critical properties of an equilibrium superradiant model are discussed, taking into account the quantum fluctuations of the field variables. The critical region is calculated using the Ginsburg criterion, underlining the role of the atomic concentration as a control parameter of the phase transition. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig 19. The Matching Criterion Purification for Differential Item Functioning Analyses in a Large-Scale Assessment Science.gov (United States) Lee, HyeSun; Geisinger, Kurt F. 2016-01-01 The current study investigated the impact of matching criterion purification on the accuracy of differential item functioning (DIF) detection in large-scale assessments. The three matching approaches for DIF analyses (block-level matching, pooled booklet matching, and equated pooled booklet matching) were employed with the Mantel-Haenszel… 20. Empathy and the application of the 'unbearable suffering' criterion in Dutch euthanasia practice NARCIS (Netherlands) van Tol, Donald G.; Rietjens, Judith A. C.; van der Heide, Agnes A pivotal due care criterion for lawful euthanasia in the Netherlands is that doctors must be convinced that a patient requesting for euthanasia, suffers unbearably. Our study aims to find out how doctors judge if a patient suffers unbearably. How do doctors bridge the gap from 3rd person assessment 1. Predicting ethnic and racial discrimination: a meta-analysis of IAT criterion studies. Science.gov (United States) Oswald, Frederick L; Mitchell, Gregory; Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James; Tetlock, Philip E 2013-08-01 This article reports a meta-analysis of studies examining the predictive validity of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and explicit measures of bias for a wide range of criterion measures of discrimination. The meta-analysis estimates the heterogeneity of effects within and across 2 domains of intergroup bias (interracial and interethnic), 6 criterion categories (interpersonal behavior, person perception, policy preference, microbehavior, response time, and brain activity), 2 versions of the IAT (stereotype and attitude IATs), 3 strategies for measuring explicit bias (feeling thermometers, multi-item explicit measures such as the Modern Racism Scale, and ad hoc measures of intergroup attitudes and stereotypes), and 4 criterion-scoring methods (computed majority-minority difference scores, relative majority-minority ratings, minority-only ratings, and majority-only ratings). IATs were poor predictors of every criterion category other than brain activity, and the IATs performed no better than simple explicit measures. These results have important implications for the construct validity of IATs, for competing theories of prejudice and attitude-behavior relations, and for measuring and modeling prejudice and discrimination. 2. 34 CFR 389.30 - What additional selection criterion is used under this program? Science.gov (United States) 2010-07-01 ... improve the competence of professional and other personnel in the rehabilitation agencies serving... criterion is used under this program? In addition to the criteria in 34 CFR 385.31(c), the Secretary uses...-Federal rehabilitation service program. (1) The Secretary reviews each application for information that... 3. Discriminative and Criterion Validity of the Autism Spectrum Identity Scale (ASIS) Science.gov (United States) McDonald, T. A. M. 2017-01-01 Individuals on the autism spectrum face stigma that can influence identity development. Previous research on the 22-item Autism Spectrum Identity Scale (ASIS) reported a four-factor structure with strong split-sample cross-validation and good internal consistency. This study reports the discriminative and criterion validity of the ASIS with other… 4. The implication of using ''consequences'' as a criterion for reactor design International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Cave, L.; Holmes, P. 1978-01-01 The influences which may necessitate closer consideration of reactor accident consequences, rather than reactor risk, as a criterion for design are examined briefly. Possible methods for reducing consequences are described and the advantages of inherent features for this purpose are discussed. The cost effectiveness of two possible methods of reducing consequences and risks is estimated. (author) 5. Higher order criterion for the nonexistence of formal first integral for nonlinear systems Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Zhiguo Xu 2017-11-01 Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to find a criterion for the nonexistence of formal first integrals for nonlinear systems under general resonance. An algorithm illustrates an application to a class of generalized Lokta-Volterra systems. Our result generalize the classical Poincare's nonintegrability theorem and the existing results in the literature. 6. Localized stability criterion for kink modes in systems with small shear International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Hastie, R.J.; Johnson, J.L. 1986-02-01 A localized magnetohydrodynamic stability criterion for ideal kink instabilities is determined for systems where the safety factor has a local minimum on a rational surface with no pressure gradient. These modes are stable in the cylindrical limit, but toroidal effects can make them unstable. They could provide a partial explanation for the rapid current penetration observed in tokamaks. 7 refs 7. Evaluation of Self-Perceptions of Creativity: Is It a Useful Criterion? Science.gov (United States) Reiter-Palmon, Roni; Robinson-Morral, Erika J.; Kaufman, James C.; Santo, Jonathan B. 2012-01-01 Self-evaluations or self-perceptions of creativity have been used in the past both as predictors of creative performance and as criteria. Four measures utilizing self-perceptions of creativity were assessed for their usefulness as criterion measures of creativity. Analyses provided evidence of domain specificity of self-perceptions. The scales… 8. Validity and Reliability of Criterion-Referenced Measures: Issues and Procedures for Special Educators. Science.gov (United States) Harris, Larry P.; Wolf, Steven R. 1979-01-01 The article focuses on the controversy over norm-referenced v criterion-referenced measures (CRM) in assessment of learning disorders. The authors contend that while the reliability of CRMs is generally indisputable, the validity of measures designed from local curricula is still dependent on the intuitive judgments of teachers. (Author/SBH) 9. LSSVM-Based Rock Failure Criterion and Its Application in Numerical Simulation Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Changxing Zhu 2015-01-01 Full Text Available A rock failure criterion is very important for the prediction of the failure of rocks or rock masses in rock mechanics and engineering. Least squares support vector machines (LSSVM are a powerful tool for addressing complex nonlinear problems. This paper describes a LSSVM-based rock failure criterion for analyzing the deformation of a circular tunnel under different in situ stresses without assuming a function form. First, LSSVM was used to represent the nonlinear relationship between the mechanical properties of rock and the failure behavior of the rock in order to construct a rock failure criterion based on experimental data. Then, this was used in a hypothetical numerical analysis of a circular tunnel to analyze the mechanical behavior of the rock mass surrounding the tunnel. The Mohr-Coulomb and Hoek-Brown failure criteria were also used to analyze the same case, and the results were compared; these clearly indicate that LSSVM can be used to establish a rock failure criterion and to predict the failure of a rock mass during excavation of a circular tunnel. 10. Validation of Cost-Effectiveness Criterion for Evaluating Noise Abatement Measures Science.gov (United States) 1999-04-01 This project will provide the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT)with information about the effects of the current cost-effectiveness criterion. The project has reviewed (1) the cost-effectiveness criteria used by other states, (2) the noise b... 11. Responder Status Criterion for Stepped Care Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Young Children Science.gov (United States) Salloum, Alison; Scheeringa, Michael S.; Cohen, Judith A.; Storch, Eric A. 2015-01-01 Background: In order to develop Stepped Care trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), a definition of early response/non-response is needed to guide decisions about the need for subsequent treatment. Objective: The purpose of this article is to (1) establish criterion for defining an early indicator of response/non-response to the… 12. Person fit and criterion-related validity: an extension of the Schmitt, Cortina, and Whitney study NARCIS (Netherlands) Meijer, R.R. 1997-01-01 The effect on criterion-related validity of nonfitting response vectors (NRVs) on a predictor test was investigated. Using simulated data, it was shown that there was a substantial decrease in validity when the type of misfit was severe (i.e., guessing the correct answers to all test items), when 13. A relaxed criterion for contraction theory: application to an underwater vehicle observer DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Jouffroy, Jerome the Jacobian is not uniformly negative definite but fulfils some weaker conditions. Intended as an illustrative example, a nonlinear underwater vehicle observer, which Jacobian is not uniformly negative definite, is presented and proven to be exponentially convergent using the new criterion.... 14. Tightening the Dutch coffee shop policy: Evaluation of the private club and the residence criterion NARCIS (Netherlands) van Ooyen-Houben, M.M.J.; Bieleman, B.; Korf, D.J. 2016-01-01 Background The Dutch coffee shop policy was tightened in 2012. Two additional criteria that coffee shops must adhere to in order for them to be tolerated came into force: the private club and the residence criterion. Coffee shops were only permitted to give access to members and only residents of 15. Reliability and criterion validity of an observation protocol for working technique assessments in cash register work. Science.gov (United States) Palm, Peter; Josephson, Malin; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Kjellberg, Katarina 2016-06-01 We evaluated the intra- and inter-observer reliability and criterion validity of an observation protocol, developed in an iterative process involving practicing ergonomists, for assessment of working technique during cash register work for the purpose of preventing upper extremity symptoms. Two ergonomists independently assessed 17 15-min videos of cash register work on two occasions each, as a basis for examining reliability. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing these assessments with meticulous video-based analyses by researchers. Intra-observer reliability was acceptable (i.e. proportional agreement >0.7 and kappa >0.4) for 10/10 questions. Inter-observer reliability was acceptable for only 3/10 questions. An acceptable inter-observer reliability combined with an acceptable criterion validity was obtained only for one working technique aspect, 'Quality of movements'. Thus, major elements of the cashiers' working technique could not be assessed with an acceptable accuracy from short periods of observations by one observer, such as often desired by practitioners. Practitioner Summary: We examined an observation protocol for assessing working technique in cash register work. It was feasible in use, but inter-observer reliability and criterion validity were generally not acceptable when working technique aspects were assessed from short periods of work. We recommend the protocol to be used for educational purposes only. 16. An adaptive pruning algorithm for the discrete L-curve criterion DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Hansen, Per Christian; Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Rodriguez, Giuseppe 2007-01-01 We describe a robust and adaptive implementation of the L-curve criterion, i.e., for locating the corner of a discrete L-curve consisting of a log-log plot of corresponding residual and solution norms of regularized solutions from a method with a discrete regularization parameter (such as truncated... 17. An Adaptive Pruning Algorithm for the Discrete L-Curve Criterion DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Hansen, Per Christian; Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Rodriguez, Giuseppe 2004-01-01 We describe a robust and adaptive implementation of the L-curve criterion, i.e., for locating the corner of a discrete L-curve consisting of a log-log plot of corresponding residual and solution norms of regularized solutions from a method with a discrete regularization parameter (such as truncated... 18. 76 FR 33740 - Final Priorities and Selection Criterion; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation... Science.gov (United States) 2011-06-09 ... selection criterion. Public Comment: In response to our invitation in the NPP, nine parties submitted... treating SCI and innovative approaches to assessing outcomes. This commenter stated that it would be more reasonable to require projects to test either innovative approaches to treating SCI or innovative approaches... 19. Linear dimensionality reduction via a heteroscedastic extension of LDA: the Chernoff criterion. Science.gov (United States) Loog, Marco; Duin, Robert P W 2004-06-01 We propose an eigenvector-based heteroscedastic linear dimension reduction (LDR) technique for multiclass data. The technique is based on a heteroscedastic two-class technique which utilizes the so-called Chernoff criterion, and successfully extends the well-known linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The latter, which is based on the Fisher criterion, is incapable of dealing with heteroscedastic data in a proper way. For the two-class case, the between-class scatter is generalized so to capture differences in (co)variances. It is shown that the classical notion of between-class scatter can be associated with Euclidean distances between class means. From this viewpoint, the between-class scatter is generalized by employing the Chernoff distance measure, leading to our proposed heteroscedastic measure. Finally, using the results from the two-class case, a multiclass extension of the Chernoff criterion is proposed. This criterion combines separation information present in the class mean as well as the class covariance matrices. Extensive experiments and a comparison with similar dimension reduction techniques are presented. 20. Soliton stability criterion for generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Science.gov (United States) Quintero, Niurka R; Mertens, Franz G; Bishop, A R 2015-01-01 A stability criterion for solitons of the driven nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) has been conjectured. The criterion states that p'(v)0 is a necessary condition for stability; here, v is the soliton velocity and p=P/N, where P and N are the soliton momentum and norm, respectively. To date, the curve p(v) was calculated approximately by a collective coordinate theory, and the criterion was confirmed by simulations. The goal of this paper is to calculate p(v) exactly for several classes and cases of the generalized NLSE: a soliton moving in a real potential, in particular a time-dependent ramp potential, and a time-dependent confining quadratic potential, where the nonlinearity in the NLSE also has a time-dependent coefficient. Moreover, we investigate a logarithmic and a cubic NLSE with a time-independent quadratic potential well. In the latter case, there is a bisoliton solution that consists of two solitons with asymmetric shapes, forming a bound state in which the shapes and the separation distance oscillate. Finally, we consider a cubic NLSE with parametric driving. In all cases, the p(v) curve is calculated either analytically or numerically, and the stability criterion is confirmed. 1. Using Exit Charts to Develop an Early Stopping Criterion for Turbo Decoding NARCIS (Netherlands) Potman, J.; Hoeksema, F.W.; Slump, Cornelis H. 2004-01-01 Early stopping criteria are used to determine when additional decoder iterations result in little or no improvement in the bit- error-rate (BER) at the output of a Turbo decoder. This paper proposes a stopping criterion based on Extrinsic Information Transfer (EXIT) charts. The generation and 2. CO2 absorption in carbonate/bicarbonate solutions : The Danckwerts-criterion revisited NARCIS (Netherlands) Cents, A. H. G.; Brilman, D. W. F.; Versteeg, G. F. 2005-01-01 In industrial applications CO2 is frequently removed from gas streams at elevated pressures by absorption and subsequent chemical reaction in carbonate/bicarbonate solutions (e.g. Benfield process). The criterion that determines whether or not this reaction can be regarded as pseudo-first order is 3. easyCBM® Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Grades K-1. Technical Report #1309 Science.gov (United States) Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald 2013-01-01 In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade K-1 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence, including the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy… 4. easyCBM® Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Grades 2-5. Technical Report #1310 Science.gov (United States) Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald 2013-01-01 In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade 2-5 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence, including the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests and the Dynamic… 5. Learning Patterns as Criterion for Forming Work Groups in 3D Simulation Learning Environments Science.gov (United States) Maria Cela-Ranilla, Jose; Molías, Luis Marqués; Cervera, Mercè Gisbert 2016-01-01 This study analyzes the relationship between the use of learning patterns as a grouping criterion to develop learning activities in the 3D simulation environment at University. Participants included 72 Spanish students from the Education and Marketing disciplines. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were conducted. The process was… 6. Is age structure a relevant criterion for the health of fish stocks? NARCIS (Netherlands) Brunel, T.P.A.; Piet, G.J. 2013-01-01 The age and size structure of exploited fish stocks is one of the criteria for Good Environmental Status of commercial fish. However, two underlying assumptions to this criterion remain to be tested: first, that a well-balanced age structure is indeed indicative of a “healthier” stock, and second, 7. An Integrated Pruning Criterion for Ensemble Learning Based on Classification Accuracy and Diversity DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Fu, Bin; Wang, Zhihai; Pan, Rong 2013-01-01 Ensemble pruning is an important issue in the field of ensemble learning. Diversity is a key criterion to determine how the pruning process has been done and measure what result has been derived. However, there is few formal definitions of diversity yet. Hence, three important factors that should... 8. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Items for Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration. Science.gov (United States) Davis, Diane, Ed. These criterion-referenced test (CRT) items for air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration are keyed to the Missouri Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Competency Profile. The items are designed to work with both the Vocational Instructional Management System and Vocational Administrative Management System. For word processing and… 9. Using the brain criterion in organ donation after the circulatory determination of death. Science.gov (United States) Dalle Ave, Anne L; Bernat, James L 2016-06-01 The UK, France, and Switzerland determine death using the brain criterion even in organ donation after the circulatory determination of death (DCDD), in which the United States and Canada use the circulatory-respiratory criterion. In our analysis of the scientific validity of the brain criterion in DCDD, we concluded that although it may be attractive in theory because it conceptualizes death as a unitary phenomenon, its use in practice is invalid. The preconditions (ie, the absence of reversible causes, such as toxic or metabolic disorders) for determining brain death cannot be met in DCDD. Thus, although brain death tests prove the cessation of tested brain functions, they do not prove that their cessation is irreversible. A stand-off period of 5 to 10 minutes is insufficient to achieve the irreversibility requirement of brain death. Because circulatory cessation inevitably leads to cessation of brain functions, first permanently and then irreversibly, the use of brain criterion is unnecessary to determine death in DCDD. Expanding brain death to permit it to be satisfied by permanent cessation of brain functions is controversial but has been considered as a possible means to declare death in uncontrolled DCDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 10. A convenient criterion under which Z{sub 2}-graded operators are Hamiltonian Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Hussin, Veronique [Departement de Mathematiques et de Statistique, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Kiselev, Arthemy V, E-mail: hussin@dms.umontreal.ca, E-mail: A.V.Kiselev@rug.nl [Mathematical Institute, University of Utrecht, PO Box 80.010, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands) 2011-03-01 We formulate a simple and convenient criterion under which skew-adjoint Z{sub 2}-graded total differential operators are Hamiltonian, provided that their images are closed under commutation in the Lie algebras of evolutionary vector fields on the infinite jet spaces for vector bundles over smooth manifolds. 11. Reliability and Criterion-Related Validity of the Seated Posture Scale. Science.gov (United States) Barks, Lelia; Garvan, Cynthia; Crane, Barbara; Peterson, Matthew; Brown, Lisa M; Powell-Cope, Gail 2018-03-19 Earlier, we reported development and initial testing of a rapid, low burden measure of wheelchair seated posture (the Seated Posture Scale [SPS]) for research and clinical use. The purpose of this study was to test the intrarater reliability, interrater reliability, and criterion related validity of the SPS. We used a descriptive design to test and develop the instrument. We used the method described by Walter, Donner, and Eliasziw to determine 46 participants were needed, from two Veterans Administration nursing homes or CLCs (community living centers). Using a digital goniometer to score rapidly and with two trained raters, we scored individual participants simultaneously and again in succession. For criterion related concurrent validity, we also scored each participant with Section 2 of the Seated Postural Control Measure for Adults. Intrarater reliability, interrater reliability, and criterion related, concurrent validity were assessed using kappa statistics for individual instrument items (and corresponding 95% confidence intervals where appropriate) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for total scores. The intrarater intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was .995; interrater ICC was .80; interrater reliability kappas ranged from -.03 to .80. Criterion-related, concurrent validity kappas ranged from .13 to .91. ICC for total scores was .85. The SPS has sufficient preliminary validity and reliability to support measurement of wheelchair-seated posture in outcomes research and clinical use. In the future, rehabilitation nurses may use the SPS to improve management of wheelchair seated posture, to improve clinical outcomes, particularly for those who do not reposition themselves. 12. Direct numerical simulations of non-premixed ethylene-air flames: Local flame extinction criterion KAUST Repository Lecoustre, Vivien R. 2014-11-01 Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of ethylene/air diffusion flame extinctions in decaying two-dimensional turbulence were performed. A Damköhler-number-based flame extinction criterion as provided by classical large activation energy asymptotic (AEA) theory is assessed for its validity in predicting flame extinction and compared to one based on Chemical Explosive Mode Analysis (CEMA) of the detailed chemistry. The DNS code solves compressible flow conservation equations using high order finite difference and explicit time integration schemes. The ethylene/air chemistry is simulated with a reduced mechanism that is generated based on the directed relation graph (DRG) based methods along with stiffness removal. The numerical configuration is an ethylene fuel strip embedded in ambient air and exposed to a prescribed decaying turbulent flow field. The emphasis of this study is on the several flame extinction events observed in contrived parametric simulations. A modified viscosity and changing pressure (MVCP) scheme was adopted in order to artificially manipulate the probability of flame extinction. Using MVCP, pressure was changed from the baseline case of 1 atm to 0.1 and 10 atm. In the high pressure MVCP case, the simulated flame is extinction-free, whereas in the low pressure MVCP case, the simulated flame features frequent extinction events and is close to global extinction. Results show that, despite its relative simplicity and provided that the global flame activation temperature is correctly calibrated, the AEA-based flame extinction criterion can accurately predict the simulated flame extinction events. It is also found that the AEA-based criterion provides predictions of flame extinction that are consistent with those provided by a CEMA-based criterion. This study supports the validity of a simple Damköhler-number-based criterion to predict flame extinction in engineering-level CFD models. © 2014 The Combustion Institute. 13. Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Beyond the McWhirter criterion International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Cristoforetti, G.; De Giacomo, A.; Dell'Aglio, M.; Legnaioli, S.; Tognoni, E.; Palleschi, V.; Omenetto, N. 2010-01-01 In the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique, the existence of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) is the essential requisite for meaningful application of theoretical Boltzmann-Maxwell and Saha-Eggert expressions that relate fundamental plasma parameters and concentration of analyte species. The most popular criterion reported in the literature dealing with plasma diagnostics, and usually invoked as a proof of the existence of LTE in the plasma, is the McWhirter criterion [R.W.P. McWhirter, in: Eds. R.H. Huddlestone, S.L. Leonard, Plasma Diagnostic Techniques, Academic Press, New York, 1965, pp. 201-264]. However, as pointed out in several papers, this criterion is known to be a necessary but not a sufficient condition to insure LTE. The considerations reported here are meant to briefly review the theoretical analysis underlying the concept of thermodynamic equilibrium and the derivation of the McWhirter criterion, and to critically discuss its application to a transient and non-homogeneous plasma, like that created by a laser pulse on solid targets. Specific examples are given of theoretical expressions involving relaxation times and diffusion coefficients, as well as a discussion of different experimental approaches involving space and time-resolved measurements that could be used to complement a positive result of the calculation of the minimum electron number density required for LTE using the McWhirter formula. It is argued that these approaches will allow a more complete assessment of the existence of LTE and therefore permit a better quantitative result. It is suggested that the mere use of the McWhirter criterion to assess the existence of LTE in laser-induced plasmas should be discontinued. 14. Inferring phylogenetic networks by the maximum parsimony criterion: a case study. Science.gov (United States) Jin, Guohua; Nakhleh, Luay; Snir, Sagi; Tuller, Tamir 2007-01-01 Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) may result in genes whose evolutionary histories disagree with each other, as well as with the species tree. In this case, reconciling the species and gene trees results in a network of relationships, known as the "phylogenetic network" of the set of species. A phylogenetic network that incorporates HGT consists of an underlying species tree that captures vertical inheritance and a set of edges which model the "horizontal" transfer of genetic material. In a series of papers, Nakhleh and colleagues have recently formulated a maximum parsimony (MP) criterion for phylogenetic networks, provided an array of computationally efficient algorithms and heuristics for computing it, and demonstrated its plausibility on simulated data. In this article, we study the performance and robustness of this criterion on biological data. Our findings indicate that MP is very promising when its application is extended to the domain of phylogenetic network reconstruction and HGT detection. In all cases we investigated, the MP criterion detected the correct number of HGT events required to map the evolutionary history of a gene data set onto the species phylogeny. Furthermore, our results indicate that the criterion is robust with respect to both incomplete taxon sampling and the use of different site substitution matrices. Finally, our results show that the MP criterion is very promising in detecting HGT in chimeric genes, whose evolutionary histories are a mix of vertical and horizontal evolution. Besides the performance analysis of MP, our findings offer new insights into the evolution of 4 biological data sets and new possible explanations of HGT scenarios in their evolutionary history. 15. An empirical, purely spatial criterion for the planes of F-simultaneity Science.gov (United States) Coleman, Robert Alan; Korte, Herbert 1991-04-01 The claim that distant simultaneity with respect to an inertial observer is conventional arose in the context of a space-and-time rather than a spacetime ontology. Reformulating this problem in terms of a spacetime ontology merely trivializes it. In the context of flat space, flat time, and a linear inertial structure (a purely space-and-time formalism), we prove that the hyperplanes of space for a given inertial observer are determined by a purely spatial criterion that depends for its validity only on the two-way light principle, which is universally regarded as empirically verified. All (empirically determined) “spacetime” entities, such as the conformal structure or light surface equation, are used in a purely mathematical manner that is independent of and hence is neutral with respect to the ontological status that is ascribed to them. In this regard, our criterion is significantly stronger than the spacetime criterion recently advanced by D. Malament, which appeals explicitly to the conformal orthogonality of spacetime vectors and to the invariance of the conformal-orthogonal structure of spacetime under the causal automorphisms of spacetime. Once the hyperplanes of space for a given inertial observer have been determined by our empirical and purely spatial criterion, the following holds: there exists one and only oneěc \\varepsilon -synchronization procedure, namely the standard procedure proposed by Einstein, such that the planes of common time are the same as the nonconventional hyperplanes of space for the inertial observer. It follows that our criterion provides an empirical even if indirect method for determining that the one-way speed of light is the same as the average two-way speed of light. In addition, two inertial observers that are not at rest with respect to each other necessarily have different hyperplanes of space, and consequently their respective spatial views cannot be encompassed in a single three-dimensional space. Hence, our purely 16. Maintenance and enhancement of long-term multiple socioeconomic benefits to meet the needs of societies. Criterion 6. Science.gov (United States) Ken Skog; James Howard; Susan Alexander; Ken Cordell; Marla Emery; Evan Mercer; Shela Mou; Kristen Magis; Maureen. McDonough 2011-01-01 This report provides a comprehensive picture of current conditions and trends in our Nation's forests, its forest industries, and its forest communities. Although the first five criteria are centered in the environmental sphere of sustainability (with the exception of Criterion 2, which clearly overlaps the economic sphere), Criterion 6 is centered firmly in the... 17. Mass spectrometric confirmation criterion for product-ion spectra generated in flow-injection analysis. Environmental application NARCIS (Netherlands) Geerdink, R.B.; Niessen, W.M.A.; Brinkman, U.A.T. 2001-01-01 The suitability of a confirmation criterion recently recommended in the Netherlands for gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS), was evaluated for flow-injection analysis (FIA) with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation MS-MS detection. The main feature of the criterion is 18. A theoretical derivation of the Hoek–Brown failure criterion for rock materials Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Jianping Zuo 2015-08-01 Full Text Available This study uses a three-dimensional crack model to theoretically derive the Hoek–Brown rock failure criterion based on the linear elastic fracture theory. Specifically, we argue that a failure characteristic factor needs to exceed a critical value when macro-failure occurs. This factor is a product of the micro-failure orientation angle (characterizing the density and orientation of damaged micro-cracks and the changing rate of the angle with respect to the major principal stress (characterizing the microscopic stability of damaged cracks. We further demonstrate that the factor mathematically leads to the empirical Hoek–Brown rock failure criterion. Thus, the proposed factor is able to successfully relate the evolution of microscopic damaged crack characteristics to macro-failure. Based on this theoretical development, we also propose a quantitative relationship between the brittle–ductile transition point and confining pressure, which is consistent with experimental observations. 19. Diffusion Maximum Correntropy Criterion Based Robust Spectrum Sensing in Non-Gaussian Noise Environments Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Xiguang Xu 2018-04-01 Full Text Available Spectrum sensing is the most important task in cognitive radio (CR. In this paper, a new robust distributed spectrum sensing approach, called diffusion maximum correntropy criterion (DMCC-based robust spectrum sensing, is proposed for CR in the presence of non-Gaussian noise or impulsive noise. The proposed distributed scheme, which does not need any central processing unit, is characterized by an adaptive diffusion model. The maximum correntropy criterion, which is insensitive to impulsive interference, is introduced to deal with the effect of non-Gaussian noise. Simulation results show that the DMCC-based spectrum sensing algorithm has an excellent robust property with respect to non-Gaussian noise. It is also observed that the new method displays a considerably better detection performance than its predecessor (i.e., diffusion least mean square (DLMS in impulsive noise. Moreover, the mean and variance convergence analysis of the proposed algorithm are also carried out. 20. Criterion for vortex breakdown on shock wave and streamwise vortex interactions. Science.gov (United States) Hiejima, Toshihiko 2014-05-01 The interactions between supersonic streamwise vortices and oblique shock waves are theoretically and numerically investigated by three-dimensional (3D) Navier-Stokes equations. Based on the two inequalities, a criterion for shock-induced breakdown of the streamwise vortex is proposed. The simple breakdown condition depends on the Mach number, the swirl number, the velocity deficit, and the shock angle. According to the proposed criterion, the breakdown region expands as the Mach number increases. In numerical simulations, vortex breakdown appeared under conditions of multiple pressure increases and the helicity disappeared behind the oblique shock wave along the line of the vortex center. The numerical results are consistent with the predicted breakdown condition at Mach numbers 2.0 and 3.0. This study also found that the axial velocity deficit is important for classifying the breakdown configuration. 1. Performance Optimization of Generalized Irreversible Refrigerator Based on a New Ecological Criterion Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Jie Xu 2013-11-01 Full Text Available On the basis of the exergy analysis, a performance optimization is carried out for a generalized irreversible refrigerator model, which takes into account the heat resistance, heat leakage and internal irreversibility losses. A new ecological criterion, named coefficient of performance of exergy (COPE, defined as the dimensionless ratio of the exergy output rate to the exergy loss rate, is proposed as an objective function in this paper. The optimal performance factors which maximize the ecological objective function have been discussed. Numerical examples are given to explain the influences of heat leakage and internal irreversibility on the generalized and optimal performances. This new ecological criterion may be beneficial for determining the reasonable design of refrigerators. 2. Strength criterion for rocks under compressive-tensile stresses and its application Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Mingqing You 2015-08-01 Full Text Available Estimating in-situ stress with hydraulic borehole fracturing involves tensile strength of rock. Several strength criteria with three parameters result in tensile strengths with great differences, although they may describe the relation between strength of rock and confining pressure with low misfits. The exponential criterion provides acceptable magnitudes of tensile strengths for granites and over-estimates that for other rocks, but the criterion with tension cut-off is applicable to all rocks. The breakdown pressure will be lower than the shut-in pressure during hydraulic borehole fracturing, when the maximum horizontal principal stress is 2 times larger than the minor one; and it is not the peak value in the first cycle, but the point where the slope of pressure-time curve begins to decline. 3. A criterion for the onset of slugging in horizontal stratified air-water countercurrent flow Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Chun, Moon-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ryung; Kim, Yang-Seok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others 1995-09-01 This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of wave height and transition criterion from wavy to slug flow in horizontal air-water countercurrent stratified flow conditions. A theoretical formula for the wave height in a stratified wavy flow regime has been developed using the concept of total energy balance over a wave crest to consider the shear stress acting on the interface of two fluids. From the limiting condition of the formula for the wave height, a necessary criterion for transition from a stratified wavy flow to a slug flow has been derived. A series of experiments have been conducted changing the non-dimensional water depth and the flow rates of air in a horizontal pipe and a duct. Comparisons between the measured data and the predictions of the present theory show that the agreement is within {plus_minus}8%. 4. Generalized Metropolis acceptance criterion for hybrid non-equilibrium molecular dynamics-Monte Carlo simulations. Science.gov (United States) Chen, Yunjie; Roux, Benoît 2015-01-14 A family of hybrid simulation methods that combines the advantages of Monte Carlo (MC) with the strengths of classical molecular dynamics (MD) consists in carrying out short non-equilibrium MD (neMD) trajectories to generate new configurations that are subsequently accepted or rejected via an MC process. In the simplest case where a deterministic dynamic propagator is used to generate the neMD trajectories, the familiar Metropolis acceptance criterion based on the change in the total energy ΔE, min[1, exp{-βΔE}], guarantees that the hybrid algorithm will yield the equilibrium Boltzmann distribution. However, the functional form of the acceptance probability is more complex when the non-equilibrium switching process is generated via a non-deterministic stochastic dissipative propagator coupled to a heat bath. Here, we clarify the conditions under which the Metropolis criterion remains valid to rigorously yield a proper equilibrium Boltzmann distribution within hybrid neMD-MC algorithm. 5. Modified maximum tangential stress criterion for fracture behavior of zirconia/veneer interfaces. Science.gov (United States) Mirsayar, M M; Park, P 2016-06-01 The veneering porcelain sintered on zirconia is widely used in dental prostheses, but repeated mechanical loadings may cause a fracture such as edge chipping or delamination. In order to predict the crack initiation angle and fracture toughness of zirconia/veneer bi-layered components subjected to mixed mode loadings, the accuracy of a new and traditional fracture criteria are investigated. A modified maximum tangential stress criterion considering the effect of T-stress and critical distance theory is introduced, and compared to three traditional fracture criteria. Comparisons to the recently published fracture test data show that the traditional fracture criteria are not able to properly predict the fracture initiation conditions in zirconia/veneer bi-material joints. The modified maximum tangential stress criterion provides more accurate predictions of the experimental results than the traditional fracture criteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 6. Ethical leadership: meta-analytic evidence of criterion-related and incremental validity. Science.gov (United States) Ng, Thomas W H; Feldman, Daniel C 2015-05-01 This study examines the criterion-related and incremental validity of ethical leadership (EL) with meta-analytic data. Across 101 samples published over the last 15 years (N = 29,620), we observed that EL demonstrated acceptable criterion-related validity with variables that tap followers' job attitudes, job performance, and evaluations of their leaders. Further, followers' trust in the leader mediated the relationships of EL with job attitudes and performance. In terms of incremental validity, we found that EL significantly, albeit weakly in some cases, predicted task performance, citizenship behavior, and counterproductive work behavior-even after controlling for the effects of such variables as transformational leadership, use of contingent rewards, management by exception, interactional fairness, and destructive leadership. The article concludes with a discussion of ways to strengthen the incremental validity of EL. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). 7. Seismic bearing capacity of strip footings on rock masses using the Hoek–Brown failure criterion Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Amin Keshavarz 2016-04-01 Full Text Available In this paper, the bearing capacity of strip footings on rock masses has been studied in the seismic case. The stress characteristics or slip line method was used for analysis. The problem was analyzed in the plane strain condition using the Hoek–Brown failure criterion. First, the equilibrium equations along the stress characteristics were obtained and the rock failure criterion was applied. Then, the equations were solved using the finite difference method. A computer code has been provided for analysis. Given the footing and rock parameters, the code can calculate the stress characteristics network and obtain the stress distribution under the footing. The seismic effects have been applied as the horizontal and vertical pseudo-static coefficients. The results of this paper are very close to those of the other studies. The seismic bearing capacity of weightless rock masses can be obtained using the proposed equations and graphs without calculating the whole stress characteristics network. 8. Study of failure criterion of hole-notched plain Woven CFRP composites Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Kim, Sang Young; Geum, In Hwa; Koo, Jae Mean; Seok, Chang Sung [Sungkyungwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of) 2009-07-01 Recently, CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) is more and more using in the various fields because of a higher specific modulus, chemical property and so on. Most products using CFRP composite are manufactured by construction of components. Various independent components are joined with those by bolts and pins. Holes for bolts and pins are decreasing strength of components, because those act as notch in structures. In this paper, the fracture behavior of CFRP plain-woven composite plates containing circular holes is experimentally investigated to examine the effects of hole-size and specimen width on notched tensile strength. It is shown in this paper that the characteristic length according to the point stress criterion depends on the hole-size and specimen width. Notched tensile strength and characteristic length are shown a certain relation. Fracture criterion is redefined by this relation. 9. Modelling of Lime Kiln Using Subspace Method with New Order Selection Criterion Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Li Zhang 2014-01-01 Full Text Available This paper is taking actual control demand of rotary kiln as background and builds a calcining belt state space model using PO-Moesp subspace method. A novel order-delay double parameters error criterion (ODC is presented to reduce the modeling order. The proposed subspace order identification method takes into account the influence of order and delay on model error criterion simultaneously. For the introduction of the delay factors, the order is reduced dramatically in the system modeling. Also, in the data processing part sliding-window method is adopted for stripping delay factor from historical data. For this, the parameters can be changed flexibly. Some practical problems in industrial kiln process modeling are also solved. Finally, it is applied to an industrial kiln case. 10. Wavelength selection in injection-driven Hele-Shaw flows: A maximum amplitude criterion Science.gov (United States) Dias, Eduardo; Miranda, Jose 2013-11-01 As in most interfacial flow problems, the standard theoretical procedure to establish wavelength selection in the viscous fingering instability is to maximize the linear growth rate. However, there are important discrepancies between previous theoretical predictions and existing experimental data. In this work we perform a linear stability analysis of the radial Hele-Shaw flow system that takes into account the combined action of viscous normal stresses and wetting effects. Most importantly, we introduce an alternative selection criterion for which the selected wavelength is determined by the maximum of the interfacial perturbation amplitude. The effectiveness of such a criterion is substantiated by the significantly improved agreement between theory and experiments. We thank CNPq (Brazilian Sponsor) for financial support. 11. Selection criterion of stable dendritic growth at arbitrary Péclet numbers with convection. Science.gov (United States) Alexandrov, Dmitri V; Galenko, Peter K 2013-06-01 A free dendrite growth under forced fluid flow is analyzed for solidification of a nonisothermal binary system. Using an approach to dendrite growth developed by Bouissou and Pelcé [Phys. Rev. A 40, 6673 (1989)], the analysis is presented for the parabolic dendrite interface with small anisotropy of surface energy growing at arbitrary Péclet numbers. The stable growth mode is obtained from the solvability condition giving the stability criterion for the dendrite tip velocity V and dendrite tip radius ρ as a function of the growth Péclet number, flow Péclet number, and Reynolds number. In limiting cases, the obtained stability criterion presents known criteria for small and high growth Péclet numbers of the solidifying system with and without convective fluid flow. 12. Employment Standards for Australian Urban Firefighters: Part 2: The Physiological Demands and the Criterion Tasks. Science.gov (United States) Taylor, Nigel A S; Fullagar, Hugh H K; Sampson, John A; Notley, Sean R; Burley, Simon D; Lee, Daniel S; Groeller, Herbert 2015-10-01 The physiological demands of 15 essential, physically demanding fire-fighting tasks were investigated to identify criterion tasks for bona fide recruit selection. A total of 51 operational firefighters participated in discrete, field-based occupational simulations, with physiological responses measured throughout. The most stressful tasks were identified and classified according to dominant fitness attributes and movement patterns. Three movement classes (single-sided load carriage [5 tasks], dragging loads [4 tasks], and overhead pushing and holding objects [2 tasks]) and one mandatory strength task emerged. Seven criterion tasks were identified. Load holding and carriage dominated these movement patterns, yet no task accentuated whole-body endurance. Material handling movements from each classification must appear within a physical aptitude (selection) test for it to adequately represent the breadth of tasks performed by Australian urban firefighters. 13. Aggressive Attitudes in Middle Schools: A Factor Structure and Criterion-Related Validity Study. Science.gov (United States) Huang, Francis L; Cornell, Dewey G; Konold, Timothy R 2015-08-01 Student attitudes toward aggression have been linked to individual aggressive behavior, but the relationship between school-wide normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior poses some important measurement challenges that have not been adequately examined. The current study investigated the factor structure, measurement invariance, and criterion-related validity of a six-item Aggressive Attitudes scale using a large sample of seventh- and eighth-grade students (n = 39,364) from 423 schools. Analytic procedures accounted for the frequently ignored modeling problems of clustered and ordinal data to provide more reliable and accurate model estimates and standard errors. The resulting second-order factor structure of the Aggressive Attitudes scale demonstrated measurement invariance across gender, grade, and race/ethnicity groups. Criterion-related validity was supported with eight student- and school-level indices of aggressive behavior. © The Author(s) 2014. 14. A criterion for the onset of slugging in horizontal stratified air-water countercurrent flow International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Chun, Moon-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ryung; Kim, Yang-Seok 1995-01-01 This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of wave height and transition criterion from wavy to slug flow in horizontal air-water countercurrent stratified flow conditions. A theoretical formula for the wave height in a stratified wavy flow regime has been developed using the concept of total energy balance over a wave crest to consider the shear stress acting on the interface of two fluids. From the limiting condition of the formula for the wave height, a necessary criterion for transition from a stratified wavy flow to a slug flow has been derived. A series of experiments have been conducted changing the non-dimensional water depth and the flow rates of air in a horizontal pipe and a duct. Comparisons between the measured data and the predictions of the present theory show that the agreement is within ±8% 15. Experimental Damage Criterion for Static and Fatigue Life Assessment of Commercial Aluminum Alloy Die Castings Science.gov (United States) Battaglia, Eleonora; Bonollo, Franco; Ferro, Paolo 2017-05-01 Defects, particularly porosity and oxides, in high-pressure die casting can seriously compromise the in-service behavior and durability of products subjected to static or cyclic loadings. In this study, the influence of dimension, orientation, and position of casting defects on the mechanical properties of an AlSi12(b) (EN-AC 44100) aluminum alloy commercial component has been studied. A finite element model has been carried out in order to calculate the stress distribution induced by service loads and identify the crack initiation zones. Castings were qualitatively classified on the basis of porosities distribution detected by X-ray technique and oxides observed on fracture surfaces of specimens coming from fatigue and tensile tests. A damage criterion has been formulated which considers the influence of defects position and orientation on the mechanical strength of the components. Using the proposed damage criterion, it was possible to describe the mechanical behavior of the castings with good accuracy. 16. Unit rupture work as a criterion for quantitative estimation of hardenability in steel International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Kramarov, M.A.; Orlov, E.D.; Rybakov, A.B. 1980-01-01 Shown is possible utilization of high sensitivity of resistance to fracture of structural steel to the hardenability degree in the course of hardening to find the quantitative estimation of the latter one. Proposed is a criterion kappa, the ratio of the unit rupture work in the case of incomplete hardenability (asub(Tsub(ih))) under investigation, and the analoguc value obtained in the case of complete hardenability Asub(Tsub(Ch)) at the testing temperature corresponding to the critical temperature Tsub(100(M). Confirmed is high criterion sensitivity of the hardened steel structure on the basis of experimental investigation of the 40Kh, 38KhNM and 38KhNMFA steels after isothermal hold-up at different temperatures, corresponding to production of various products of austenite decomposition 17. Sufficient criterion for guaranteeing that a two-qubit state is unsteerable Science.gov (United States) Bowles, Joseph; Hirsch, Flavien; Quintino, Marco Túlio; Brunner, Nicolas 2016-02-01 Quantum steering can be detected via the violation of steering inequalities, which provide sufficient conditions for the steerability of quantum states. Here we discuss the converse problem, namely, ensuring that an entangled state is unsteerable and hence Bell local. We present a simple criterion, applicable to any two-qubit state, that guarantees that the state admits a local hidden state model for arbitrary projective measurements. Specifically, we construct local hidden state models for a large class of entangled states, which thus cannot violate any steering or Bell inequality. In turn, this leads to sufficient conditions for a state to be only one-way steerable and provides the simplest possible example of one-way steering. Finally, by exploiting the connection between steering and measurement incompatibility, we give a sufficient criterion for a continuous set of qubit measurements to be jointly measurable. 18. Focused information criterion and model averaging based on weighted composite quantile regression KAUST Repository Xu, Ganggang 2013-08-13 We study the focused information criterion and frequentist model averaging and their application to post-model-selection inference for weighted composite quantile regression (WCQR) in the context of the additive partial linear models. With the non-parametric functions approximated by polynomial splines, we show that, under certain conditions, the asymptotic distribution of the frequentist model averaging WCQR-estimator of a focused parameter is a non-linear mixture of normal distributions. This asymptotic distribution is used to construct confidence intervals that achieve the nominal coverage probability. With properly chosen weights, the focused information criterion based WCQR estimators are not only robust to outliers and non-normal residuals but also can achieve efficiency close to the maximum likelihood estimator, without assuming the true error distribution. Simulation studies and a real data analysis are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed procedure. © 2013 Board of the Foundation of the Scandinavian Journal of Statistics.. 19. A General Zero Attraction Proportionate Normalized Maximum Correntropy Criterion Algorithm for Sparse System Identification Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Yingsong Li 2017-10-01 Full Text Available A general zero attraction (GZA proportionate normalized maximum correntropy criterion (GZA-PNMCC algorithm is devised and presented on the basis of the proportionate-type adaptive filter techniques and zero attracting theory to highly improve the sparse system estimation behavior of the classical MCC algorithm within the framework of the sparse system identifications. The newly-developed GZA-PNMCC algorithm is carried out by introducing a parameter adjusting function into the cost function of the typical proportionate normalized maximum correntropy criterion (PNMCC to create a zero attraction term. The developed optimization framework unifies the derivation of the zero attraction-based PNMCC algorithms. The developed GZA-PNMCC algorithm further exploits the impulsive response sparsity in comparison with the proportionate-type-based NMCC algorithm due to the GZA zero attraction. The superior performance of the GZA-PNMCC algorithm for estimating a sparse system in a non-Gaussian noise environment is proven by simulations. 20. Criterion for inclusion in onchocerciasis control programmes based on ivermectin distribution. Science.gov (United States) De Sole, G 1995-01-01 Data on onchocercal lymphatic and skin lesions from 45 communities located in the West African savanna were analysed to determine if the criterion for inclusion in ivermectin mass treatment based on risk of onchocercal blindness needs to be modified. Only 16 cases of elephantiasis were reported among 10,108 people examined. Other lymphatic lesions were almost exclusively found in people older than 30 years living in villages at risk of onchocercal blindness. Permanent skin lesions also affected older people and were 3 times more frequent in villages at risk of onchocercal blindness. Papular rash and pruritus affected younger people. No evidence was, therefore, found to change the criterion based on risk of onchocercal blindness presently in use in savanna areas. 1. Stress regularity in quasi-static perfect plasticity with a pressure dependent yield criterion Science.gov (United States) Babadjian, Jean-François; Mora, Maria Giovanna 2018-04-01 This work is devoted to establishing a regularity result for the stress tensor in quasi-static planar isotropic linearly elastic - perfectly plastic materials obeying a Drucker-Prager or Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion. Under suitable assumptions on the data, it is proved that the stress tensor has a spatial gradient that is locally squared integrable. As a corollary, the usual measure theoretical flow rule is expressed in a strong form using the quasi-continuous representative of the stress. 2. Performance Optimization of Generalized Irreversible Refrigerator Based on a New Ecological Criterion OpenAIRE Xu, Jie; Pang, Liping; Wang, Jun 2013-01-01 On the basis of the exergy analysis, a performance optimization is carried out for a generalized irreversible refrigerator model, which takes into account the heat resistance, heat leakage and internal irreversibility losses. A new ecological criterion, named coefficient of performance of exergy (COPE), defined as the dimensionless ratio of the exergy output rate to the exergy loss rate, is proposed as an objective function in this paper. The optimal performance factors which maximize the eco... 3. Spatial frequency discrimination : visual long-term memory or criterion setting? OpenAIRE 1998-01-01 A long-term sensory memory is believed to account for spatial frequency discrimination when reference and test stimuli are separated by long intervals. We test an alternative proposal: that discrimination is determined by the range of test stimuli, through their entrainment of criterion-setting processes. Experiments 1 and 2 show that the 50% point of the psychometric function is largely determined by the midpoint of the stimulus range, not by the reference stimulus. Experiment 3 shows that d... 4. AGGLOMERATIVE CLUSTERING OF SOUND RECORD SPEECH SEGMENTS BASED ON BAYESIAN INFORMATION CRITERION Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) O. Yu. Kydashev 2013-01-01 Full Text Available This paper presents the detailed description of agglomerative clustering system implementation for speech segments based on Bayesian information criterion. Numerical experiment results with different acoustic features, as well as the full and diagonal covariance matrices application are given. The error rate DER equal to 6.4% for audio records of radio «Svoboda» was achieved by means of designed system. 5. Criterion for Estimation of Ecological Safety of Objects of Urban Transport Construction Science.gov (United States) Bakaeva, N. V.; Chernyaeva, I. V. 2017-11-01 A new approach to assess the ecological safety of the urban environment including urban transport facilities is being considered. The chemical and acoustic pollution of the environment from the impact of the urban transport construction objects is analyzed. The description of the sustainable state concept and ecological balance of the urban environment is given. A criterion for assessing environmental safety based on a comprehensive indicator of the city’s biosphere compatibility was proposed. The scale of environmental safety assessments is constructed. 6. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF INTEGRAL CRITERION OF COMPETITION POTENTIAL OF MARITIME-RIVER HIGHER EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENT. OpenAIRE Y.G. Yakusevich; L.D. Gerganov 2012-01-01 The competitive potential (CP) of maritime-river higher educational establishment in the conditions of a modern market of educational service is analyzed. The model of strategic resources (SR) is formalized. The mathematical model of an integral criterion of the competitive potential of higher educational establishment on the basis of Guermeyer’s method is built. It is proved that the discreteness of competitive edges is a reason of the formation of fuzzy resources and requires the cons... 7. Option Pricing under Risk-Minimization Criterion in an Incomplete Market with the Finite Difference Method Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Xinfeng Ruan 2013-01-01 Full Text Available We study option pricing with risk-minimization criterion in an incomplete market where the dynamics of the risky underlying asset is governed by a jump diffusion equation with stochastic volatility. We obtain the Radon-Nikodym derivative for the minimal martingale measure and a partial integro-differential equation (PIDE of European option. The finite difference method is employed to compute the European option valuation of PIDE. 8. A Willett type criterion with the best possible constant for linear dynamic equations Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database Řehák, Pavel vol. 53, - (2009), s. 261-269. ISBN 978-4-931469-49-5. ISSN 1793-4338. [11th International Conference on Difference Equations and Applications. Kyoto, 24.07.2006-28.07.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB1019407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Willett criterion * linear dynamic equation * time scale Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics 9. Experiment on Seepage Property and Sand Inrush Criterion for Granular Rock Mass OpenAIRE Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Boyang; Liu, Jiangfeng; Ma, Dan; Bai, Haibo 2017-01-01 Water and sand inrush is one of the most serious threats in some shallow coal mines in China. In order to understand the process of sand inrush, experiments were performed to obtain the criterion for sand inrush. First, seepage tests were carried out to study the hydraulic properties of granular sandstone. The results indicate that seepage velocity has a linear relation with the porosity and particle-size distribution parameter. Then, sand inrush tests were conducted to investigate the critic... 10. Finite-time stability of discrete fractional delay systems: Gronwall inequality and stability criterion Science.gov (United States) Wu, Guo-Cheng; Baleanu, Dumitru; Zeng, Sheng-Da 2018-04-01 This study investigates finite-time stability of Caputo delta fractional difference equations. A generalized Gronwall inequality is given on a finite time domain. A finite-time stability criterion is proposed for fractional differential equations. Then the idea is extended to the discrete fractional case. A linear fractional difference equation with constant delays is considered and finite-time stable conditions are provided. One example is numerically illustrated to support the theoretical result. 11. Using the ENF Criterion for Determining the Time of Recording of Short Digital Audio Recordings Science.gov (United States) Huijbregtse, Maarten; Geradts, Zeno The Electric Network Frequency (ENF) Criterion is a recently developed forensic technique for determining the time of recording of digital audio recordings, by matching the ENF pattern from a questioned recording with an ENF pattern database. In this paper we discuss its inherent limitations in the case of short - i.e., less than 10 minutes in duration - digital audio recordings. We also present a matching procedure based on the correlation coefficient, as a more robust alternative to squared error matching. 12. Sample-Path Optimal Stationary Policies in Stable Markov Decision Chains with Average Reward Criterion Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database Cavazos-Cadena, R.; Montes-de-Oca, R.; Sladký, Karel 2015-01-01 Roč. 52, č. 2 (2015), s. 419-440 ISSN 0021-9002 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) 171396 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Dominated Convergence theorem for the expected average criterion * Discrepancy function * Kolmogorov inequality * Innovations * Strong sample-path optimality Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.665, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/E/sladky-0449029.pdf 13. h-Adaptive Mesh Generation using Electric Field Intensity Value as a Criterion (in Japanese) OpenAIRE Toyonaga, Kiyomi; Cingoski, Vlatko; Kaneda, Kazufumi; Yamashita, Hideo 1994-01-01 Finite mesh divisions are essential to obtain accurate solution of two dimensional electric field analysis. It requires the technical knowledge to generate a suitable fine mesh divisions. In electric field problem, analysts are usually interested in the electric field intensity and its distribution. In order to obtain electric field intensity with high-accuracy, we have developed and adaptive mesh generator using electric field intensity value as a criterion. 14. Estimation of the enterprise marketing activity by criterion on future abilities creation to form demand OpenAIRE L.V. Potrashkova 2015-01-01 The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to develop theoretic grounds to calculate enterprise marketing activity factors, which characterize its long term consequences with production demand formation in future. The results of the analysis. One suggests to estimate enterprise marketing activity by criterion on future enterprise abilities creation to form production demand. That’s why enterprise marketing activity factors have to include enterprise marketing potential factors. Thes... 15. Corotational and Compressibility aspects leading to a modification of the vortex-identification Q-criterion Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database Kolář, Václav; Šístek, Jakub 2015-01-01 Roč. 53, č. 8 (2015), s. 2406-2410 ISSN 0001-1452 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 ; RVO:67985840 Keywords : vortex * vortex identification * vortex-identification criterion * vortex-identification method * vortical structures Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics; BA - General Mathematics (MU-W) Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2015 16. Efficiency criterion for teleportation via channel matrix, measurement matrix and collapsed matrix Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Xin-Wei Zha Full Text Available In this paper, three kinds of coefficient matrixes (channel matrix, measurement matrix, collapsed matrix associated with the pure state for teleportation are presented, the general relation among channel matrix, measurement matrix and collapsed matrix is obtained. In addition, a criterion for judging whether a state can be teleported successfully is given, depending on the relation between the number of parameter of an unknown state and the rank of the collapsed matrix. Keywords: Channel matrix, Measurement matrix, Collapsed matrix, Teleportation 17. A new self-report inventory of dyslexia for students: criterion and construct validity. Science.gov (United States) Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C M 2015-02-01 The validity of a Dutch self-report inventory of dyslexia was ascertained in two samples of students. Six biographical questions, 20 general language statements and 56 specific language statements were based on dyslexia as a multi-dimensional deficit. Dyslexia and non-dyslexia were assessed with two criteria: identification with test results (Sample 1) and classification using biographical information (both samples). Using discriminant analyses, these criteria were predicted with various groups of statements. All together, 11 discriminant functions were used to estimate classification accuracy of the inventory. In Sample 1, 15 statements predicted the test criterion with classification accuracy of 98%, and 18 statements predicted the biographical criterion with classification accuracy of 97%. In Sample 2, 16 statements predicted the biographical criterion with classification accuracy of 94%. Estimations of positive and negative predictive value were 89% and 99%. Items of various discriminant functions were factor analysed to find characteristic difficulties of students with dyslexia, resulting in a five-factor structure in Sample 1 and a four-factor structure in Sample 2. Answer bias was investigated with measures of internal consistency reliability. Less than 20 self-report items are sufficient to accurately classify students with and without dyslexia. This supports the usefulness of self-assessment of dyslexia as a valid alternative to diagnostic test batteries. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 18. Strength cues and blocking at test promote reliable within-list criterion shifts in recognition memory. Science.gov (United States) Hicks, Jason L; Starns, Jeffrey J 2014-07-01 In seven experiments, we explored the potential for strength-based, within-list criterion shifts in recognition memory. People studied a mix of target words, some presented four times (strong) and others studied once (weak). In Experiments 1, 2, 4A, and 4B, the test was organized into alternating blocks of 10, 20, or 40 trials. Each block contained lures intermixed with strong targets only or weak targets only. In strength-cued conditions, test probes appeared in a unique font color for strong and weak blocks. In the uncued conditions of Experiments 1 and 2, similar strength blocks were tested, but strength was not cued with font color. False alarms to lures were lower in blocks containing strong target words, as compared with lures in blocks containing weak targets, but only when strength was cued with font color. Providing test feedback in Experiment 2 did not alter these results. In Experiments 3A-3C, test items were presented in a random order (i.e., not blocked by strength). Of these three experiments, only one demonstrated a significant shift even though strength cues were provided. Overall, the criterion shift was larger and more reliable as block size increased, and the shift occurred only when strength was cued with font color. These results clarify the factors that affect participants' willingness to change their response criterion within a test list. 19. Direct observation is a valid criterion for estimating physical activity and sedentary behavior. Science.gov (United States) Lyden, Kate; Petruski, Natalia; Staudenmayer, John; Freedson, Patty 2014-05-01 Physical activity and sedentary behavior measurement tools need to be validated in free-living settings. Direct observation (DO) may be an appropriate criterion for these studies. However, it is not known if trained observers can correctly judge the absolute intensity of free-living activities. To compare DO estimates of total MET-hours and time in activity intensity categories to a criterion measure from indirect calorimetry (IC). Fifteen participants were directly observed on three separate days for two hours each day. During this time participants wore an Oxycon Mobile indirect calorimeter and performed any activity of their choice within the reception area of the wireless metabolic equipment. Participants were provided with a desk for sedentary activities (writing, reading, computer use) and had access to exercise equipment (treadmill, bike). DO accurately and precisely estimated MET-hours [% bias (95% CI) = -12.7% (-16.4, -7.3), ICC = 0.98], time in low intensity activity [% bias (95% CI) = 2.1% (1.1, 3.2), ICC = 1.00] and time in moderate to vigorous intensity activity [% bias (95% CI) -4.9% (-7.4, -2.5), ICC = 1.00]. This study provides evidence that DO can be used as a criterion measure of absolute intensity in free-living validation studies. 20. Description of a developmental criterion-referenced assessment for promoting competence in internal medicine residents. Science.gov (United States) Varney, Andrew; Todd, Christine; Hingle, Susan; Clark, Michael 2009-09-01 End-of- rotation global evaluations can be subjective, produce inflated grades, lack interrater reliability, and offer information that lacks value. This article outlines the generation of a unique developmental criterion-referenced assessment that applies adult learning theory and the learner, manager, teacher model, and represents an innovative application to the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) 9-point scale. We describe the process used by Southern Illinois University School of Medicine to develop rotation-specific, criterion-based evaluation anchors that evolved into an effective faculty development exercise. The intervention gave faculty a clearer understanding of the 6 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies, each rotation's educational goals, and how rotation design affects meaningful work-based assessment. We also describe easily attainable successes in evaluation design and pitfalls that other institutions may be able to avoid. Shifting the evaluation emphasis on the residents' development of competence has made the expectations of rotation faculty more transparent, has facilitated conversations between program director and residents, and has improved the specificity of the tool for feedback. Our findings showed the new approach reduced grade inflation compared with the ABIM end-of-rotation global evaluation form. We offer the new developmental criterion-referenced assessment as a unique application of the competences to the ABIM 9-point scale as a transferable model for improving the validity and reliability of resident evaluations across graduate medical education programs. 1. Failure criterion effect on solid production prediction and selection of completion solution Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Dariush Javani 2017-12-01 Full Text Available Production of fines together with reservoir fluid is called solid production. It varies from a few grams or less per ton of reservoir fluid posing only minor problems, to catastrophic amount possibly leading to erosion and complete filling of the borehole. This paper assesses solid production potential in a carbonate gas reservoir located in the south of Iran. Petrophysical logs obtained from the vertical well were employed to construct mechanical earth model. Then, two failure criteria, i.e. Mohr–Coulomb and Mogi–Coulomb, were used to investigate the potential of solid production of the well in the initial and depleted conditions of the reservoir. Using these two criteria, we estimated critical collapse pressure and compared them to the reservoir pressure. Solid production occurs if collapse pressure is greater than pore pressure. Results indicate that the two failure criteria show different estimations of solid production potential of the studied reservoir. Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion estimated solid production in both initial and depleted conditions, where Mogi–Coulomb criterion predicted no solid production in the initial condition of reservoir. Based on Mogi–Coulomb criterion, the well may not require completion solutions like perforated liner, until at least 60% of reservoir pressure was depleted which leads to decrease in operation cost and time. 2. New Quality Assessment Criterion of AlSi5Cu1 Alloy Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) M. Wierzbińska 2007-07-01 Full Text Available The paper presents the discussion of the results of mechanical testing for aluminium foundry alloy AlSi5Cu1Mg for high-loaded machine elements. Values of yield strength (Rp0.2, tensile strength (Rm, elongation(A5 and hardness (HB are usually considered as the primary quality assessment criterion for a manufacturing process. It was concluded, that this criterion, A5 index particularly, is unsatisfactory to estimate the plasticity of the alloy and its crack resistance in the presence of sharp-pointed stress concentrators or microcracks. More adequate parameter is plane strain fracture toughness KIc. However, size of the samples appeared to be twice as large as would be needed to fulfill requirements of test conditions, and the test itself is laborious and time-consuming that it becomes impractical as a acceptance test. Therefore, substitute test for quality assessment – determination of tensile strength in the presence of a sharp notch kmR was applied. The comparative analysis of kmR/Rp0.2 ratio, as a more enhanced fatigue resistance criterion than kmR and plane strain fracture toughness KIc of the alloy was performed. It was assumed that kmR/Rp0.2 parameter has good correlation with the critical stress intensity factor KIc Thus, under manufacturing process conditions, being unable to carry out KIc test, it may be successfully replaced by kmR test. 3. Integrodifference equations in the presence of climate change: persistence criterion, travelling waves and inside dynamics. Science.gov (United States) Lewis, Mark A; Marculis, Nathan G; Shen, Zhongwei 2018-01-13 To understand the effects that the climate change has on the evolution of species as well as the genetic consequences, we analyze an integrodifference equation (IDE) models for a reproducing and dispersing population in a spatio-temporal heterogeneous environment described by a shifting climate envelope. Our analysis on the IDE focuses on the persistence criterion, travelling wave solutions, and the inside dynamics. First, the persistence criterion, characterizing the global dynamics of the IDE, is established in terms of the basic reproduction number. In the case of persistence, a unique travelling wave is found to govern the global dynamics. The effects of the size and the shifting speed of the climate envelope on the basic reproduction number, and hence, on the persistence criterion, are also investigated. In particular, the critical domain size and the critical shifting speed are found in certain cases. Numerical simulations are performed to complement the theoretical results. In the case of persistence, we separate the travelling wave and general solutions into spatially distinct neutral fractions to study the inside dynamics. It is shown that each neutral genetic fraction rearranges itself spatially so as to asymptotically achieve the profile of the travelling wave. To measure the genetic diversity of the population density we calculate the Shannon diversity index and related indices, and use these to illustrate how diversity changes with underlying parameters. 4. The criterion for time symmetry of probabilistic theories and the reversibility of quantum mechanics International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Holster, A T 2003-01-01 Physicists routinely claim that the fundamental laws of physics are 'time symmetric' or 'time reversal invariant' or 'reversible'. In particular, it is claimed that the theory of quantum mechanics is time symmetric. But it is shown in this paper that the orthodox analysis suffers from a fatal conceptual error, because the logical criterion for judging the time symmetry of probabilistic theories has been incorrectly formulated. The correct criterion requires symmetry between future-directed laws and past-directed laws. This criterion is formulated and proved in detail. The orthodox claim that quantum mechanics is reversible is re-evaluated. The property demonstrated in the orthodox analysis is shown to be quite distinct from time reversal invariance. The view of Satosi Watanabe that quantum mechanics is time asymmetric is verified, as well as his view that this feature does not merely show a de facto or 'contingent' asymmetry, as commonly supposed, but implies a genuine failure of time reversal invariance of the laws of quantum mechanics. The laws of quantum mechanics would be incompatible with a time-reversed version of our universe 5. Functional Quality Criterion of Rock Handling Mechanization at Open-pit Mines Science.gov (United States) Voronov, Yuri; Voronov, Artyoni 2017-11-01 Overburden and mining operations at open-pit mines are performed mainly by powerful shovel-truck systems (STSs). One of the main problems of the STSs is a rather low level of their operating quality, mainly due to unjustified over-trucking. In this article, a functional criterion for assessing the qualify of the STS operation at open-pit mines is formulated, derived and analyzed. We introduce the rationale and general principles for the functional criterion formation, its general form, as well as variations for various STS structures: a mixed truck fleet and a homogeneous shovel fleet, a mixed shove! fleet and a homogeneous truck fleet, mixed truck and shovel fleets. The possibility of assessing the quality of the STS operation is of great importance for identifying the main directions for improving their operational performance and operating quality, optimizing the main performance indicators by the qualify criterion, and. as a result, for possible saving of material and technical resources for open-pit mining. Improvement of the quality of the STS operation also allows increasing the mining safety and decreasing the atmosphere pollution - by means of possible reducing of the number of the operating trucks. 6. The Maximum Error Probability Criterion, Random Encoder, and Feedback, in Multiple Input Channels Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Ning Cai 2014-02-01 Full Text Available For a multiple input channel, one may define different capacity regions, according to the criterions of error, types of codes, and presence of feedback. In this paper, we aim to draw a complete picture of relations among these different capacity regions. To this end, we first prove that the average-error-probability capacity region of a multiple input channel can be achieved by a random code under the criterion of maximum error probability. Moreover, we show that for a non-deterministic multiple input channel with feedback, the capacity regions are the same under two different error criterions. In addition, we discuss two special classes of channels to shed light on the relation of different capacity regions. In particular, to illustrate the roles of feedback, we provide a class of MAC, for which feedback may enlarge maximum-error-probability capacity regions, but not average-error-capacity regions. Besides, we present a class of MAC, as an example for which the maximum-error-probability capacity regions are strictly smaller than the average-error-probability capacity regions (first example showing this was due to G. Dueck. Differently from G. Dueck’s enlightening example in which a deterministic MAC was considered, our example includes and further generalizes G. Dueck’s example by taking both deterministic and non-deterministic MACs into account. Finally, we extend our results for a discrete memoryless two-input channel, to compound, arbitrarily varying MAC, and MAC with more than two inputs. 7. Optimal order and time-step criterion for Aarseth-type N-body integrators International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Makino, Junichiro 1991-01-01 How the selection of the time-step criterion and the order of the integrator change the efficiency of Aarseth-type N-body integrators is discussed. An alternative to Aarseth's scheme based on the direct calculation of the time derivative of the force using the Hermite interpolation is compared to Aarseth's scheme, which uses the Newton interpolation to construct the predictor and corrector. How the number of particles in the system changes the behavior of integrators is examined. The Hermite scheme allows a time step twice as large as that for the standard Aarseth scheme for the same accuracy. The calculation cost of the Hermite scheme per time step is roughly twice as much as that of the standard Aarseth scheme. The optimal order of the integrators depends on both the particle number and the accuracy required. The time-step criterion of the standard Aarseth scheme is found to be inapplicable to higher-order integrators, and a more uniformly reliable criterion is proposed. 18 refs 8. Optimal order and time-step criterion for Aarseth-type N-body integrators Science.gov (United States) Makino, Junichiro 1991-03-01 How the selection of the time-step criterion and the order of the integrator change the efficiency of Aarseth-type N-body integrators is discussed. An alternative to Aarseth's scheme based on the direct calculation of the time derivative of the force using the Hermite interpolation is compared to Aarseth's scheme, which uses the Newton interpolation to construct the predictor and corrector. How the number of particles in the system changes the behavior of integrators is examined. The Hermite scheme allows a time step twice as large as that for the standard Aarseth scheme for the same accuracy. The calculation cost of the Hermite scheme per time step is roughly twice as much as that of the standard Aarseth scheme. The optimal order of the integrators depends on both the particle number and the accuracy required. The time-step criterion of the standard Aarseth scheme is found to be inapplicable to higher-order integrators, and a more uniformly reliable criterion is proposed. 9. Optimal order and time-step criterion for Aarseth-type N-body integrators Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Makino, Junichiro (Tokyo Univ. (Japan)) 1991-03-01 How the selection of the time-step criterion and the order of the integrator change the efficiency of Aarseth-type N-body integrators is discussed. An alternative to Aarseth's scheme based on the direct calculation of the time derivative of the force using the Hermite interpolation is compared to Aarseth's scheme, which uses the Newton interpolation to construct the predictor and corrector. How the number of particles in the system changes the behavior of integrators is examined. The Hermite scheme allows a time step twice as large as that for the standard Aarseth scheme for the same accuracy. The calculation cost of the Hermite scheme per time step is roughly twice as much as that of the standard Aarseth scheme. The optimal order of the integrators depends on both the particle number and the accuracy required. The time-step criterion of the standard Aarseth scheme is found to be inapplicable to higher-order integrators, and a more uniformly reliable criterion is proposed. 18 refs. 10. Optimal design of constant-stress accelerated degradation tests using the M-optimality criterion International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Wang, Han; Zhao, Yu; Ma, Xiaobing; Wang, Hongyu 2017-01-01 In this paper, we propose the M-optimality criterion for designing constant-stress accelerated degradation tests (ADTs). The newly proposed criterion concentrates on the degradation mechanism equivalence rather than evaluation precision or prediction accuracy which is usually considered in traditional optimization criteria. Subject to the constraints of total sample number, test termination time as well as the stress region, an optimum constant-stress ADT plan is derived by determining the combination of stress levels and the number of samples allocated to each stress level, when the degradation path comes from inverse Gaussian (IG) process model with covariates and random effects. A numerical example is presented to verify the robustness of our proposed optimum plan and compare its efficiency with other test plans. Results show that, with a slightly relaxed requirement of evaluation precision and prediction accuracy, our proposed optimum plan reduces the dispersion of the estimated acceleration factor between the usage stress level and a higher accelerated stress level, which makes an important contribution to reliability demonstration and assessment tests. - Highlights: • We establish the necessary conditions for degradation mechanism equivalence of ADTs. • We propose the M-optimality criterion for designing constant-stress ADT plans. • The M-optimality plan reduces the dispersion of the estimated accelerated factors. • An electrical connector with its stress relaxation data is used for illustration. 11. Experiments and modeling of ballistic penetration using an energy failure criterion Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Dolinski M. 2015-01-01 Full Text Available One of the most intricate problems in terminal ballistics is the physics underlying penetration and perforation. Several penetration modes are well identified, such as petalling, plugging, spall failure and fragmentation (Sedgwick, 1968. In most cases, the final target failure will combine those modes. Some of the failure modes can be due to brittle material behavior, but penetration of ductile targets by blunt projectiles, involving plugging in particular, is caused by excessive localized plasticity, with emphasis on adiabatic shear banding (ASB. Among the theories regarding the onset of ASB, new evidence was recently brought by Rittel et al. (2006, according to whom shear bands initiate as a result of dynamic recrystallization (DRX, a local softening mechanism driven by the stored energy of cold work. As such, ASB formation results from microstructural transformations, rather than from thermal softening. In our previous work (Dolinski et al., 2010, a failure criterion based on plastic strain energy density was presented and applied to model four different classical examples of dynamic failure involving ASB formation. According to this criterion, a material point starts to fail when the total plastic strain energy density reaches a critical value. Thereafter, the strength of the element decreases gradually to zero to mimic the actual material mechanical behavior. The goal of this paper is to present a new combined experimental-numerical study of ballistic penetration and perforation, using the above-mentioned failure criterion. Careful experiments are carried out using a single combination of AISI 4340 FSP projectiles and 25[mm] thick RHA steel plates, while the impact velocity, and hence the imparted damage, are systematically varied. We show that our failure model, which includes only one adjustable parameter in this present work, can faithfully reproduce each of the experiments without any further adjustment. Moreover, it is shown that the 12. Differentiation between Superficial and Deep Lobe Parotid Tumors by Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Usefulness of the Parotid Duct Criterion Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Imaizumi, A.; Kuribayashi, A.; Okochi, K.; Yoshino, N.; Kurabayashi, T. (Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Ishii, J. (Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Sumi, Y. (Division of Oral and Dental Surgery, Dept. of Advanced Medicine, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi (Japan)) 2009-08-15 Background: The location of a parotid tumor affects the choice of surgery, and there is a risk of damaging the facial nerve during surgery. Thus, differentiation between superficial and deep lobe parotid tumors is important for appropriate surgical planning. Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of using the parotid duct, in addition to the retromandibular vein, for differentiating between superficial and deep lobe parotid tumors on MR images. Material and Methods: Magnetic resonance images of 42 parotid tumors in 40 patients were reviewed to determine whether the tumor was located in the superficial or deep lobe. In each case, the retromandibular vein and the parotid duct were used to locate the tumor. The parotid duct was only used in cases where the tumor and the duct were visualized on the same image. Results: Using the retromandibular vein criterion, 71% of deep lobe and 86% of superficial lobe tumors were correctly diagnosed, providing an accuracy of 81%. However, the accuracy achieved when using the parotid duct criterion was 100%, although it could be applied to only 28 of the 42 cases. Based on these results, we defined the following diagnostic method: the parotid duct criterion is first applied, and for cases in which it cannot be applied, the retromandibular vein criterion is used. The accuracy of this method was 88%, which was better than that achieved using the retromandibular vein criterion alone. Conclusion: The parotid duct criterion is useful for determining the location of parotid tumors. Combining the parotid duct criterion with the retromandibular vein criterion might improve the diagnostic accuracy of parotid tumor location compared to using the latter criterion alone 13. Compliance of the Vaalputs national radioactive waste disposal facility to a frequency-magnitude release criterion as required for licensing International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Adrian, H.W.W.; Gerber, H.H.; Kruger, J.; Weygand, J. 1986-01-01 Accidental releases of radioactivity from the Vaalputs nuclear waste repository have been quantified and release frequencies have been attached to a number of accident scenarios of human or natural origin. These have then been compared to a frequency-magnitude release criterion according to South African licensing requirements. It was shown that the criterion was applicable in three release bands. In two of these the criterion was met by some orders of magnitude. In the third band the permitted release frequency was a factor 55 below the limit in spite of pessimistic release assumptions 14. Evaluation of a Consensus-Based Criterion Standard Definition of Trauma Center Need for Use in Field Triage Research. Science.gov (United States) Willenbring, Brian D; Lerner, E Brooke; Brasel, Karen; Cushman, Jeremy T; Guse, Clare E; Shah, Manish N; Swor, Robert 2016-01-01 Research on field triage of injured patients is limited by the lack of a widely used criterion standard for defining trauma center need. Injury Severity Score (ISS) >15 has been a commonly used outcome measure in research for determining trauma center need that has never been validated. A multidisciplinary team recently published a consensus-based criterion standard definition of trauma center need, but this measure has not yet been validated. The objective was to determine if the consensus-based criterion standard can be obtained by medical record review and compare patients identified as needing a trauma center by the consensus-based criterion standard vs. ISS >15. A subanalysis of data collected during a 2-year prospective cohort study of 4,528 adult trauma patients transported by EMS to a single trauma center was conducted. These data included ICD-9-CM codes, treatment times, and other patient care data. Presence of the consensus-based criterion standard was determined for each patient. ISS was calculated based on ICD-9-CM codes assigned for billing. The consensus-based criterion standard could be applied to 4,471 (98.7%) cases. ISS could be determined for 4,506 (99.5%) cases. Based on an ISS >15, 8.9% of cases were identified as needing a trauma center. Of those, only 48.2% met the consensus-based criterion standard. Almost all patients that did not meet the consensus-based criterion standard, but had an ISS >15 were diagnosed with chest (rib fractures (100/205 cases)/pneumothorax (57/205 cases), closed head (without surgical intervention 88/205 cases), vertebral (without spinal cord injury 45/205 cases), and/or extremity injuries (39/205 cases). There were 4,053 cases with an ISS <15. 5.0% of those with an ISS <15 met the consensus-based criterion standard with the majority requiring surgery (139/203 cases) or a blood transfusion (60/203 cases). The kappa coefficient of agreement for ISS and the consensus-based criterion standard was 0.43. We determined that 15. A new combined criterion to better predict malignant lesions in patients with pancreatic cystic neoplasms Science.gov (United States) Lan, Chungen; Li, Xin; Wang, Xiuchao; Hao, Jihui; Ren, He 2018-01-01 Objective: Cystic lesions of the pancreas have been increasingly recognized. Some lesions exhibit benign behavior, while others have unequivocal malignant potential. Thus, accurate identification of malignancy in patients diagnosed with pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCNs) remains a major challenge. The aim of this study was to define a combined criterion to better predict malignant lesions in patients with PCNs. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 165 patients who underwent resection of PCNs from October 2011 to May 2017. The relationship among malignancy and serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and the presence of enhanced solid component on imaging was analyzed. Results: NLR before surgery in patients with malignant PCNs (2.81±2.14) was significantly higher than that in patients diagnosed with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (1.90±0.69, P=0.013) or healthy volunteers (1.40±0.48; P1.976 and presence of enhanced solid component were independent predictors of PCN malignancy. A combined criterion meeting any two or more of the three elements including CA19-9 ≥39 U/mL, NLR >1.976, and presence of enhanced solid component on computed tomography imaging is an indicator with a high positive predictive value of 80.5% and a high negative predictive value of 87.9%, and thus, represents a highly accurate test (86.1%). Conclusions: The new combined criterion is an effective predictor of tumor malignancy in patients with PCNs. PMID:29545970 16. Some comment on the use of J criterion in elastic plastic fracture mechanics International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Roche, R.L. 1978-01-01 In Post Yield Fracture Mechanics, several criteria have been proposed for the onset of crack propagation, one of the most popular being the J 1 integral criterion. This is only well established for elastic materials, where it can be shown that J 1 is not path dependent, and that J 1 is equal to the variation of potential energy with crack length. Extension is easy for material exhibiting deformation type plasticity, but there is no proof of path independence for flow-type plastic material. Experimental results are often given as a proof of J 1 criterion validity, but a critical analysis shows that important assumptions are made in the use of the test results. The main assumption is that the received work, known as strain energy, is not dependent on the loading history and is only dependent on the mechanical state. The study of the J 1 path dependence is the main point of the J 1 criteria validation. A general method to assess path dependence can be founded on the 'defect vector' (or driving force) concept. The space-density of defect is given by j = grad W - σ grad (W = strain-energy, σ stress tensor, epsilon strain tensor). It is shown that the virtual translation delta a of the defect vectors inside a volume, lead to a virtual work variation given by J 1 delta a and that J 1 is the resultant of all the defect vectors included in the volume surrounded by the integration surface. Using these results the path independence conditions are examined. Some numerical results are given for incremental processes such as plasticity or creep, and where the loading path is radial (proportional) and monotonic, no appreciable path variations found. Finally the results of direct applications of J 1 criterion to real structures are examined. (author) 17. An existential criterion for normal and abnormal personality in the works of Erich Fromm. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Kapustin S.A. 2015-06-01 Full Text Available This is the first of four articles scheduled for publication in this journal on the position people with normal and abnormal personalities take in regard to so-called existential dichotomies. The main objective of this article is to propose a new, existential criterion for normal and abnormal personality implicitly present in the works of Erich Fromm. According to this criterion, normal and abnormal personalities are determined, first, by special features of the content of their position regarding existential dichotomies, and, second, by particular aspects of the formation of this position. Such dichotomies, entitatively existent in all human life, are inherent, two-alternative contradictions. The position of a normal personality in its content orients one toward a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and the necessity of searching for compromise in resolving these dichotomies. This position is created on a rational basis with the person’s active participation. The position of an abnormal personality in its content subjectively denies a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and orients one toward a consistent, noncompetitive, and, as a consequence, one-sided way of life that doesn’t include self-determination. This position is imposed by other people on an irrational basis. Abnormal personality interpreted like this is one of the most important factors influencing the development of various kinds of psychological problems and mental disorders — primarily, neurosis. In the following three articles it will be shown that this criterion is also implicitly present in the theories of personality devised by Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, and Viktor Frankl. 18. The effect of using a robust optimality criterion in model based adaptive optimization. Science.gov (United States) Strömberg, Eric A; Hooker, Andrew C 2017-08-01 Optimizing designs using robust (global) optimality criteria has been shown to be a more flexible approach compared to using local optimality criteria. Additionally, model based adaptive optimal design (MBAOD) may be less sensitive to misspecification in the prior information available at the design stage. In this work, we investigate the influence of using a local (lnD) or a robust (ELD) optimality criterion for a MBAOD of a simulated dose optimization study, for rich and sparse sampling schedules. A stopping criterion for accurate effect prediction is constructed to determine the endpoint of the MBAOD by minimizing the expected uncertainty in the effect response of the typical individual. 50 iterations of the MBAODs were run using the MBAOD R-package, with the concentration from a one-compartment first-order absorption pharmacokinetic model driving the population effect response in a sigmoidal EMAX pharmacodynamics model. The initial cohort consisted of eight individuals in two groups and each additional cohort added two individuals receiving a dose optimized as a discrete covariate. The MBAOD designs using lnD and ELD optimality with misspecified initial model parameters were compared by evaluating the efficiency relative to an lnD-optimal design based on the true parameter values. For the explored example model, the MBAOD using ELD-optimal designs converged quicker to the theoretically optimal lnD-optimal design based on the true parameters for both sampling schedules. Thus, using a robust optimality criterion in MBAODs could reduce the number of adaptations required and improve the practicality of adaptive trials using optimal design. 19. Ginzburg criterion for the mean-field to three-dimensional Ising crossover in polymer blends DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Schwahn, D.; Schmackers, T.; Mortensen, K. 1995-01-01 Composition fluctuations within the mean-field and three-dimensional Ising range were measured in a homogeneous binary polymer blend by small angle neutron scattering as a function of temperature and pressure. The experimental data were analyzed in terms of the crossover function of Belyakov...... and Kiselev [Physica A 190, 75 (1992)]. It is shown that the reduced-crossover-temperature, the Ginzburg number Gi, decreases with pressure sensitively, in accordance with the prediction of Belyakov and Kiselev. On the other hand, de Gennes' crossover criterion for polymer blends predicts an increase of Gi... 20. Interpretive conundrum on the exclusion criterion of "transplantation with xenografts" for tissue and cell donation. Science.gov (United States) Cox, Michael A; Brubaker, Scott A 2012-06-01 In the context of the EU Directives for human tissues and cells (2004/23/EC, 2006/17/EC and 2006/86/EC) further interest has arisen on the practical application of a few clauses. One such aspect, for the evaluation phase of a potential donor, is the interpretation of the exclusion criterion "transplantation with xenografts." This article outlines the consensus viewpoints regarding the earlier evaluation of the risks related to xenotransplantation and describes the current status of the terminology and recommendations/laws in several healthcare sectors. The application of uniform terminology is encouraged within the healthcare sectors at the international level. 1. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF INTEGRAL CRITERION OF COMPETITION POTENTIAL OF MARITIME-RIVER HIGHER EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENT. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Y.G. Yakusevich 2012-07-01 Full Text Available The competitive potential (CP of maritime-river higher educational establishment in the conditions of a modern market of educational service is analyzed. The model of strategic resources (SR is formalized. The mathematical model of an integral criterion of the competitive potential of higher educational establishment on the basis of Guermeyer’s method is built. It is proved that the discreteness of competitive edges is a reason of the formation of fuzzy resources and requires the construction of the functions belonging to competition potential of higher educational establishment. 2. Verifying the Kugo-Ojima confinement criterion in Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory. Science.gov (United States) Watson, P; Alkofer, R 2001-06-04 Expanding the Landau gauge gluon and ghost two-point functions in a power series we investigate their infrared behavior. The corresponding powers are constrained through the ghost Dyson-Schwinger equation by exploiting multiplicative renormalizability. Without recourse to any specific truncation we demonstrate that the infrared powers of the gluon and ghost propagators are uniquely related to each other. Constraints for these powers are derived, and the resulting infrared enhancement of the ghost propagator signals that the Kugo-Ojima confinement criterion is fulfilled in Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory. 3. Generalized Empirical Likelihood-Based Focused Information Criterion and Model Averaging Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Naoya Sueishi 2013-07-01 Full Text Available This paper develops model selection and averaging methods for moment restriction models. We first propose a focused information criterion based on the generalized empirical likelihood estimator. We address the issue of selecting an optimal model, rather than a correct model, for estimating a specific parameter of interest. Then, this study investigates a generalized empirical likelihood-based model averaging estimator that minimizes the asymptotic mean squared error. A simulation study suggests that our averaging estimator can be a useful alternative to existing post-selection estimators. 4. Some problems on rf breakdown in room temperature accelerator structure, a possible criterion International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Wang, J.W. 1986-04-01 The discussion is confined to high gradient, room-temperature accelerators which have clean well-finished cavity surfaces and good vacuum conditions. Breakdown-initiating mechanisms due to ''cold'' field electron emission occurring at isolated sites on broad-area cavity surfaces, where the field is enhanced, are described. The influences of an alternating field and transition time tunneling are taken into account. The thermal instability resulting in vacuum voltage breakdown is hypothesized to derive a new criterion for room-temperature accelerator structure. 18 refs., 5 figs 5. Mean Field Theory, Ginzburg Criterion, and Marginal Dimensionality of Phase-Transitions DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgenau, R. J. 1977-01-01 By applying a real space version of the Ginzburg criterion, the role of fluctuations and thence the self‐consistency of mean field theory are assessed in a simple fashion for a variety of phase transitions. It is shown that in using this approach the concept of ’’marginal dimensionality’’ emerges...... in a natural way. For example, it is shown that for many homogeneous structural transformations the marginal dimensionality is two, so that mean field theory will be valid for real three‐dimensional systems. It is suggested that this simple self‐consistent approach to Landau theory should be incorporated... 6. A criterion for the reliable use of MRI-only radiotherapy DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Elgaard Korsholm Nielsen, Marie; Waring, Line Winther; Edmund, Jens 2014-01-01 and a T2-weighted MRI scan, a structure set and a clinically approved CT based treatment plan, which was re-calculated with identical parameters on the density corrected MRI scans. A statistical analysis including a 95% confidence interval was performed in clinically relevant DVH points. RESULTS: The mean...... differences in the investigated DVH points were in the order of 1.5% for the PTV and up to 4.2% for organs at risk. In addition, a proposed criterion of 2% dose difference in the PTV coverage for 95% of the patients was fulfilled for all diagnostic groups for a bulk segmented MRI in the DVH points, D... 7. On the Performance of Principal Component Liu-Type Estimator under the Mean Square Error Criterion Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Jibo Wu 2013-01-01 Full Text Available Wu (2013 proposed an estimator, principal component Liu-type estimator, to overcome multicollinearity. This estimator is a general estimator which includes ordinary least squares estimator, principal component regression estimator, ridge estimator, Liu estimator, Liu-type estimator, r-k class estimator, and r-d class estimator. In this paper, firstly we use a new method to propose the principal component Liu-type estimator; then we study the superior of the new estimator by using the scalar mean squares error criterion. Finally, we give a numerical example to show the theoretical results. 8. Health state of population as a criterion of harmfulness of environmental pollution with hazardous wastes International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Khacatrian, T.S. 1991-01-01 Valuation of children's health state living in an industrial city, in different microdistricts of which environmental pollution with various hazardous wastes takes place, is done. Investigation results established essential distinctions in health state of children's contingent under examination in dependence upon microdistrict of their permanent living in the given city which is connected with the environmental pollution with various hazardous wastes. The received data allow to examine the health state of population as an integral indicator of ecological situation in the region, and also as a criterion of environmental pollution with hazardous wastes. (au) 9. Fracture Prediction for High-strength Steel Sheet Subjected to Draw-bending Using Forming Limit Stress Criterion Science.gov (United States) Sekiguchi, C.; Hakoyama, T.; Kuwabara, T.; Fukiharu, H. 2016-08-01 A fracture criterion for sheet metals subjected to draw-bending is investigated using the concept of the forming limit stress criterion. The test material used is a 1.0-mm-thick high- strength steel sheet with a tensile strength of 590MPa. The specimen undergoes bendingunbending under tension when passing over the die profile. The drawing speed was set to 5-100 mm • s-1. The magnitude of true stress σDB when a specimen fractured has been precisely determined. Moreover, multiaxial tube expansion tests of the test material are performed to measure the forming limit stress σPT of the test material under plane-strain tension. It is found that σDB is larger than σPT by 2.8-6.3%. Therefore, it is concluded that the forming limit stress criterion is effective as a fracture criterion in draw-bending. 10. Criterion-Related Validity of the 20-M Shuttle Run Test for Estimating Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Meta-Analysis OpenAIRE Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Aguilar-Soto, Pablo; Viciana, Jesús 2015-01-01 The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. Relevant studies were searched from twelve electronic databases up to December 2014, as well as from several alternative modes of searching. The Hunter-Schmidt’s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate the population criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test. From 57 studies that were included in ... 11. An existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality in the works of Carl Jung and Carl Rogers OpenAIRE Kapustin, Sergey A. 2016-01-01 This article is the third in a series of four articles scheduled for publication in this journal. In the first article (Kapustin, 2015a) I proposed a description of a new so-called existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality that is implicitly present in the works of Erich Fromm. According to this criterion, normal and abnormal personalities are determined, first, by special features of the content of their position regarding existential dichotomies that are natural to human bein... 12. DATA ANALYSIS BY FORMAL METHODS OF ESTIMATION OF INDEXES OF RATING CRITERION IN PROCESS OF ACCUMULATION OF DATA ABOUT WORKING OF THE TEACHING STAFF Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Alexey E. Fedoseev 2014-01-01 Full Text Available The article considers the development of formal methods of assessing the rating criterion exponents. The article deals with the mathematical model, which allows to connect together quantitative rating criterion characteristics, measured in various scales, with intuitive idea of them. The solution to the problem of rating criterion estimation is proposed. 13. Locally linear representation Fisher criterion based tumor gene expressive data classification. Science.gov (United States) Li, Bo; Tian, Bei-Bei; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Xiao-Ping 2014-10-01 Tumor gene expressive data are characterized by a large amount of genes with only a small amount of observations, which always appear with high dimensionality. So it is necessary to reduce the dimensionality before identifying their genre. In this paper, a discriminant manifold learning method, named locally linear representation Fisher criterion (LLRFC), is applied to extract features from tumor gene expressive data. In LLRFC, an inter-class graph and an intra-class graph are constructed based on their genre information, where any tumor gene expressive data in the inter-class graph should select k nearest neighbors with different class labels and in the intra-class graph the k nearest neighbors for any tumor gene expressive data must be sampled from those with the same class. And then the locally least linear reconstruction is introduced to optimize the corresponding weights in both graphs. Moreover, a Fisher criterion is modeled to explore a low dimensional subspace where the reconstruction errors in the inter-class graph can be maximized and the reconstruction errors in the intra-class graph can be minimized, simultaneously. Experiments on some benchmark tumor gene expressive data have been conducted with some related algorithms, by which the proposed LLRFC has been validated to be efficient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 14. Empathy and the application of the 'unbearable suffering' criterion in Dutch euthanasia practice. Science.gov (United States) van Tol, Donald G; Rietjens, Judith A C; van der Heide, Agnes 2012-05-01 A pivotal due care criterion for lawful euthanasia in the Netherlands is that doctors must be convinced that a patient requesting for euthanasia, suffers unbearably. Our study aims to find out how doctors judge if a patient suffers unbearably. How do doctors bridge the gap from 3rd person assessment to 1st person experience? We performed a qualitative interview study among 15 physicians, mainly general practitioners, who participated earlier in a related quantitative survey on the way doctors apply the suffering criterion. Results show that doctors follow different 'cognitive routes' when assessing a patients suffering in the context of a euthanasia request. Sometimes doctors do this imagining how she herself would experience the situation of the patient ('imagine self'). Doctors may also try to adopt the perspective of the patient and imagine what the situation is like for this particular patient ('imagine other'). Besides this we found that the (outcome of the) assessment is influenced by a doctor's private norms, values and emotions considering (the performance of) euthanasia. We conclude by arguing why doctors should be aware of both the 'cognitive route' followed as well as the influence of their own personal norms on the assessment of suffering in the context of euthanasia requests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. 15. Criterion and Divergent Validity of the Sexual Minority Adolescent Stress Inventory Science.gov (United States) Goldbach, Jeremy T.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Mamey, Mary R. 2017-01-01 Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) consistently report health disparities compared to their heterosexual counterparts, yet the underlying mechanisms of these negative health outcomes remain unclear. The predominant explanatory model is the minority stress theory; however, this model was developed largely with adults, and no valid and comprehensive measure of minority stress has been developed for adolescents. The present study validated a newly developed instrument to measure minority stress among racially and ethnically diverse SMA. A sample of 346 SMA aged 14–17 was recruited and surveyed between February 2015 and July 2016. The focal measure of interest was the 64-item, 11-factor Sexual Minority Adolescent Stress Inventory (SMASI) developed in the initial phase of this study. Criterion validation measures included measures of depressive symptoms, suicidality and self-harm, youth problem behaviors, and substance use; the general Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ) was included as a measure of divergent validity. Analyses included Pearson and tetrachoric correlations to establish criterion and divergent validity and structural equation modeling to assess the explanatory utility of the SMASI relative to the ASQ. SMASI scores were significantly associated with all outcomes but only moderately associated with the ASQ (r = −0.13 to 0.51). Analyses revealed significant associations of a latent minority stress variable with both proximal and distal health outcomes beyond the variation explained by general stress. Results show that the SMASI is the first instrument to validly measure minority stress among SMA. PMID:29234292 16. Building a maintenance policy through a multi-criterion decision-making model Science.gov (United States) Faghihinia, Elahe; Mollaverdi, Naser 2012-08-01 A major competitive advantage of production and service systems is establishing a proper maintenance policy. Therefore, maintenance managers should make maintenance decisions that best fit their systems. Multi-criterion decision-making methods can take into account a number of aspects associated with the competitiveness factors of a system. This paper presents a multi-criterion decision-aided maintenance model with three criteria that have more influence on decision making: reliability, maintenance cost, and maintenance downtime. The Bayesian approach has been applied to confront maintenance failure data shortage. Therefore, the model seeks to make the best compromise between these three criteria and establish replacement intervals using Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE II), integrating the Bayesian approach with regard to the preference of the decision maker to the problem. Finally, using a numerical application, the model has been illustrated, and for a visual realization and an illustrative sensitivity analysis, PROMETHEE GAIA (the visual interactive module) has been used. Use of PROMETHEE II and PROMETHEE GAIA has been made with Decision Lab software. A sensitivity analysis has been made to verify the robustness of certain parameters of the model. 17. Generalized Bohm’s criterion and negative anode voltage fall in electric discharges International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Londer, Ya. I.; Ul’yanov, K. N. 2013-01-01 The value of the voltage fall across the anode sheath is found as a function of the current density. Analytic solutions are obtained in a wide range of the ratio of the directed velocity of plasma electrons v 0 to their thermal velocity v T . It is shown that the voltage fall in a one-dimensional collisionless anode sheath is always negative. At the small values of v 0 /v T , the obtained expression asymptotically transforms into the Langmuir formula. Generalized Bohm’s criterion for an electric discharge with allowance for the space charge density ρ(0), electric field E(0), ion velocity v i (0), and ratio v 0 /v T at the plasma-sheath interface is formulated. It is shown that the minimum value of the ion velocity v i * (0) corresponds to the vanishing of the electric field at one point inside the sheath. The dependence of v i * (0) on ρ(0), E(0), and v 0 /v T determines the boundary of the existence domain of stationary solutions in the sheath. Using this criterion, the maximum possible degree of contraction of the electron current at the anode is determined for a short high-current vacuum arc discharge 18. A new criterion to assess distributional homogeneity in hyperspectral images of solid pharmaceutical dosage forms International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Sacré, Pierre-Yves; Lebrun, Pierre; Chavez, Pierre-François; Bleye, Charlotte De; Netchacovitch, Lauranne; Rozet, Eric; Klinkenberg, Régis; Streel, Bruno; Hubert, Philippe; Ziemons, Eric 2014-01-01 Highlights: • DHI has been developed to assess distributional homogeneity in hyperspectral maps. • This criterion has been tested with simulated maps of different homogeneity. • A linear relationship is observed between homogeneity and DHI value. • DHI methodology has been applied on real samples. • A linear relationship is observed between DHI and content uniformity values. - Abstract: During galenic formulation development, homogeneity of distribution is a critical parameter to check since it may influence activity and safety of the drug. Raman hyperspectral imaging is a technique of choice for assessing the distributional homogeneity of compounds of interest. Indeed, the combination of both spectroscopic and spatial information provides a detailed knowledge of chemical composition and component distribution. Actually, most authors assess homogeneity using parameters of the histogram of intensities (e.g. mean, skewness and kurtosis). However, this approach does not take into account spatial information and loses the main advantage of imaging. To overcome this limitation, we propose a new criterion: Distributional Homogeneity Index (DHI). DHI has been tested on simulated maps and formulation development samples. The distribution maps of the samples were obtained without validated calibration model since different formulations were under investigation. The results obtained showed a linear relationship between content uniformity values and DHI values of distribution maps. Therefore, DHI methodology appears to be a suitable tool for the analysis of homogeneity of distribution maps even without calibration during formulation development 19. Electricity Consumption Forecasting Scheme via Improved LSSVM with Maximum Correntropy Criterion Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Jiandong Duan 2018-02-01 Full Text Available In recent years, with the deepening of China’s electricity sales side reform and electricity market opening up gradually, the forecasting of electricity consumption (FoEC becomes an extremely important technique for the electricity market. At present, how to forecast the electricity accurately and make an evaluation of results scientifically are still key research topics. In this paper, we propose a novel prediction scheme based on the least-square support vector machine (LSSVM model with a maximum correntropy criterion (MCC to forecast the electricity consumption (EC. Firstly, the electricity characteristics of various industries are analyzed to determine the factors that mainly affect the changes in electricity, such as the gross domestic product (GDP, temperature, and so on. Secondly, according to the statistics of the status quo of the small sample data, the LSSVM model is employed as the prediction model. In order to optimize the parameters of the LSSVM model, we further use the local similarity function MCC as the evaluation criterion. Thirdly, we employ the K-fold cross-validation and grid searching methods to improve the learning ability. In the experiments, we have used the EC data of Shaanxi Province in China to evaluate the proposed prediction scheme, and the results show that the proposed prediction scheme outperforms the method based on the traditional LSSVM model. 20. For reflexivity as an epistemic criterion of ontological coherence and virtuous social theorizing Science.gov (United States) 2017-01-01 This article offers an approach that combines, on the one hand, the philosophical notion of reflexivity, which is related to the ideas of self-reference and paradox, and, on the other hand, the sociological discussion of epistemic reflexivity as a problem of coherence, which was mainly initiated by certain branches of ethnomethodology and social constructionism. This combinatory approach argues for reflexivity as an epistemic criterion of ontological coherence, which suggests that social ontologies should account for the possibility of self-reflective subjectivity – for otherwise they result in a paradoxical conclusion according to which a social scientist reflects on her or his ontological commitments even though these commitments deny her or him the capacity for self-reflection. This analysis presupposes that all human sciences are categorically premised on social ontologies; and it argues for an analytical distinction between self-reflection, which refers to the agential capacity for reflecting on one’s own commitments, and the epistemic criterion of reflexivity hereby proposed. These two analytically distinct though interdependent socio-theoretical concepts are frequently conflated in the literature; thus, this article also aims at a ‘clearing of the ground’ that can be of categorical use to the human sciences. PMID:29276343 1. Cutting velocity accuracy as a criterion for comparing robot trajectories and manual movements for medical industry Science.gov (United States) Vorotnikov, A. A.; Klimov, D. D.; Romash, E. V.; Bashevskaya, O. S.; Poduraev, Yu. V.; Bazykyan, E. A.; Chunihin, A. A. 2018-03-01 Industrial robots perform technological operations, such as spot and arc welding, machining and laser cutting along different trajectories within their performance characteristics. The evaluation of these characteristics is carried out according to the criteria of the standard ISO 9283. The criteria of this standard are applicable in industrial manufacturing, but not in the medical industry, as they are not developed in the framework of medical tasks. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate according to criteria built on different principles. In this article, the question of comparative evaluation of trajectories from program movements of a robot and manual movements of a surgeon, arising during the development of robotic medical complexes using industrial robots, is considered. A comparative evaluation is required to prove the expediency of automating medical operations in maxillofacial surgery. This study focuses on the estimation of velocity accuracy of a medical instrument. To obtain the velocity of the medical instrument, coordinates of the trajectory points from the program movements of the robot KUKA LWR4+ and trajectories from the manual movements of a professional surgeon have been measured. The measurement was carried out using a coordinate measuring machine, the laser tracker Leica LTD800. The accuracy estimation was carried out by two criteria: the criterion set out in the ISO 9283 standard, and the developed alternative criterion, the description of which is presented in this article. A quantitative comparative evaluation of the trajectories of a robot and a surgeon was obtained. 2. Design optimization of scaffold microstructures using wall shear stress criterion towards regulated flow-induced erosion. Science.gov (United States) Chen, Yuhang; Schellekens, Michiel; Zhou, Shiwei; Cadman, Joseph; Li, Wei; Appleyard, Richard; Li, Qing 2011-08-01 Tissue scaffolds aim to provide a cell-friendly biomechanical environment for facilitating cell growth. Existing studies have shown significant demands for generating a certain level of wall shear stress (WSS) on scaffold microstructural surfaces for promoting cellular response and attachment efficacy. Recently, its role in shear-induced erosion of polymer scaffold has also drawn increasing attention. This paper proposes a bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) approach for design of scaffold microstructure in terms of the WSS uniformity criterion, by downgrading highly-stressed solid elements into fluidic elements and/or upgrading lowly-stressed fluidic elements into solid elements. In addition to this, a computational model is presented to simulate shear-induced erosion process. The effective stiffness and permeability of initial and optimized scaffold microstructures are characterized by the finite element based homogenization technique to quantify the variations of mechanical properties of scaffold during erosion. The illustrative examples show that a uniform WSS is achieved within the optimized scaffold microstructures, and their architectural and biomechanical features are maintained for a longer lifetime during shear-induced erosion process. This study provides a mathematical means to the design optimization of cellular biomaterials in terms of the WSS criterion towards controllable shear-induced erosion. 3. The Success of Linear Bootstrapping Models: Decision Domain-, Expertise-, and Criterion-Specific Meta-Analysis Science.gov (United States) Kaufmann, Esther; Wittmann, Werner W. 2016-01-01 The success of bootstrapping or replacing a human judge with a model (e.g., an equation) has been demonstrated in Paul Meehl’s (1954) seminal work and bolstered by the results of several meta-analyses. To date, however, analyses considering different types of meta-analyses as well as the potential dependence of bootstrapping success on the decision domain, the level of expertise of the human judge, and the criterion for what constitutes an accurate decision have been missing from the literature. In this study, we addressed these research gaps by conducting a meta-analysis of lens model studies. We compared the results of a traditional (bare-bones) meta-analysis with findings of a meta-analysis of the success of bootstrap models corrected for various methodological artifacts. In line with previous studies, we found that bootstrapping was more successful than human judgment. Furthermore, bootstrapping was more successful in studies with an objective decision criterion than in studies with subjective or test score criteria. We did not find clear evidence that the success of bootstrapping depended on the decision domain (e.g., education or medicine) or on the judge’s level of expertise (novice or expert). Correction of methodological artifacts increased the estimated success of bootstrapping, suggesting that previous analyses without artifact correction (i.e., traditional meta-analyses) may have underestimated the value of bootstrapping models. PMID:27327085 4. No rationale for 1 variable per 10 events criterion for binary logistic regression analysis. Science.gov (United States) van Smeden, Maarten; de Groot, Joris A H; Moons, Karel G M; Collins, Gary S; Altman, Douglas G; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Reitsma, Johannes B 2016-11-24 Ten events per variable (EPV) is a widely advocated minimal criterion for sample size considerations in logistic regression analysis. Of three previous simulation studies that examined this minimal EPV criterion only one supports the use of a minimum of 10 EPV. In this paper, we examine the reasons for substantial differences between these extensive simulation studies. The current study uses Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate small sample bias, coverage of confidence intervals and mean square error of logit coefficients. Logistic regression models fitted by maximum likelihood and a modified estimation procedure, known as Firth's correction, are compared. The results show that besides EPV, the problems associated with low EPV depend on other factors such as the total sample size. It is also demonstrated that simulation results can be dominated by even a few simulated data sets for which the prediction of the outcome by the covariates is perfect ('separation'). We reveal that different approaches for identifying and handling separation leads to substantially different simulation results. We further show that Firth's correction can be used to improve the accuracy of regression coefficients and alleviate the problems associated with separation. The current evidence supporting EPV rules for binary logistic regression is weak. Given our findings, there is an urgent need for new research to provide guidance for supporting sample size considerations for binary logistic regression analysis. 5. Criterion of independence applied to personnel responsible for in-house verification International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Pavaux, F. 1982-01-01 Framatome's experience has shown that one of the most difficult criteria to interpret in applying quality assurance programmes is that of ''organization''. In particular, this requires that personnel responsible for in-house verification should have ''sufficient independence''. The author examines how Framatome interprets the criterion of sufficient independence. It may seem easy to deal with this problem on paper, by redistributing the boxes of the organizational chart, but to do so is both unrealistic and deceptive; the development of reference models runs into difficulties when it comes to practical application and these difficulties alone justify trying another approach to the problem. The method advocated here consists in analysing each situation as it arises, taking into account the criterion in question, and disregarding any pre-defined model or reference situation. The analysis should involve all quality assurance functions and not, as is too often the case, only the independence of the quality assurance service. The analysis should also examine organizational freedom and independence from direct pressures of cost and schedule considerations. To support this recommendation, three standard cases are described (manufacturing control, design verification, on-site inspection team) which demonstrate how these criteria can give rise to different difficulties in different cases. The author concludes that, in contrast to other criteria so often applied by successive approximations, organizational changes should only be decided upon when absolutely necessary and after a detailed analysis of the particular case in question has been performed. (author) 6. PCA criterion for SVM (MLP) classifier for flavivirus biomarker from salivary SERS spectra at febrile stage. Science.gov (United States) Radzol, A R M; Lee, Khuan Y; Mansor, W; Omar, I S 2016-08-01 Non-structural protein (NS1) has been conceded as one of the biomarkers for flavivirus that causes diseases with life threatening consequences. NS1 is an antigen that allows detection of the illness at febrile stage, mostly from blood samples currently. Our work here intends to define an optimum model for PCA-SVM with MLP kernel for classification of flavivirus biomarker, NS1 molecule, from SERS spectra of saliva, which to the best of our knowledge has never been explored. Since performance of the model depends on the PCA criterion and MLP parameters, both are examined in tandem. Input vector to classifier determined by each PCA criterion is subjected to brute force tuning of MLP parameters for entirety. Its performance is also compared to our previous works where a Linear and RBF kernel are used. It is found that the best PCA-SVM (MLP) model can be defined by 5 PCs from Cattel's Scree test for PCA, together with P1 and P2 values of 0.1 and -0.2 respectively, with a classification performance of [96.9%, 93.8%, 100.0%]. 7. Constipation incidence and impact in medical critical care patients: importance of the definition criterion. Science.gov (United States) Prat, Dominique; Messika, Jonathan; Avenel, Alexandre; Jacobs, Frédéric; Fichet, Jérome; Lemeur, Matthieu; Ricard, Jean-Damien; Sztrymf, Benjamin 2016-03-01 Constipation incidence and impact remain controversial in the ICU. This may depend on the definition criterion used in the previous studies on the field. We aimed to determine the frequency and significance of constipation according to its definition criterion. This is a prospective observational study. Adult patients without a cause of transit time modification and laxative intake within the first 3 days were screened. Constipation was defined by a first stool passage occurring after 3 days of ICU stay. Thereafter, we identified two subgroups of patients: absence of stool passage more than 3 days but less than 6 days (3-day subgroup), and no stool passage for 6 days or more (6-day subgroup). Survival, length of stay and time spent under mechanical ventilation (MV) were compared according to constipation status. Among 189 included patients [age 60.8 (49.5-74.2) years, SAPS II 44 (34-53)], 98 (51.9%) exhibited constipation (3-day subgroup n=53, 6-day subgroup n=45). Constipated patients were more likely to receive MV, sedation, vasopressors, enteral nutrition and neuromuscular blocking agents. ICU length of stay and time spent under MV was longer in the 6-day subgroup but not in the 3-day subgroup of patients. With regard to outcomes, defining constipation by the absence of stool passage less than 6 days after ICU admission does not identify a specific subset of population. Further studies on the management of this condition should focus on these 'long-term' constipated patients. 8. Biomechanical simulation of needle insertion into cornea based on distortion energy failure criterion. Science.gov (United States) Su, Peng; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Leiyu; Huang, Long 2016-01-01 This paper is mainly about biomechanical behavior of needle insertion into cornea, and proposes a failure criterion to simulate the insertion process which has attracted considerable attention due to its importance for the minimally invasive treatment. In the process of needle insertion into cornea, tiny and complex insertion force is generated due to contact between needle and soft tissue. Based on the distortion energy theory, there is proposed a failure criterion of corneal material that can solve contact problem between rigid body and biological tissue in insertion simulation, where Cauchy stress of corneal material is the key to numerical calculation. A finite element model of in vivo cornea is built, and the cornea constrained by sclera is simplified to two layers containing epithelium and stroma. Considering the hyper-viscoelastic property of corneal material, insertion simulation is carried out. By insertion experiment, the insertion force increases with insertion depth accompanying obvious fluctuations. Different insertion forces are generated at different speeds. The punctured locations are obvious in the force-displacement curves. The results of insertion simulation are generally consistent with experimental data. Maps of von Mises stress reflect the tissue injury of the cornea during insertion process, and punctured status corresponds to the point in the curves. The ability of this study to reproduce the behavior of needle insertion into cornea opens a promising perspective for the control of robotic surgery operation as well as the real-time simulation of corneal suture surgery. 9. Experimental Investigation of the Peak Shear Strength Criterion Based on Three-Dimensional Surface Description Science.gov (United States) Liu, Quansheng; Tian, Yongchao; Ji, Peiqi; Ma, Hao 2018-04-01 The three-dimensional (3D) morphology of joints is enormously important for the shear mechanical properties of rock. In this study, three-dimensional morphology scanning tests and direct shear tests are conducted to establish a new peak shear strength criterion. The test results show that (1) surface morphology and normal stress exert significant effects on peak shear strength and distribution of the damage area. (2) The damage area is located at the steepest zone facing the shear direction; as the normal stress increases, it extends from the steepest zone toward a less steep zone. Via mechanical analysis, a new formula for the apparent dip angle is developed. The influence of the apparent dip angle and the average joint height on the potential contact area is discussed, respectively. A new peak shear strength criterion, mainly applicable to specimens under compression, is established by using new roughness parameters and taking the effects of normal stress and the rock mechanical properties into account. A comparison of this newly established model with the JRC-JCS model and the Grasselli's model shows that the new one could apparently improve the fitting effect. Compared with earlier models, the new model is simpler and more precise. All the parameters in the new model have clear physical meanings and can be directly determined from the scanned data. In addition, the indexes used in the new model are more rational. 10. A new criterion for defective used nuclear fuel in dry storage condition Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Desgranges, Lionel [CEA Cadarache Bat 316 13108Saint-Paul lez Durance (France); Poulesquen, Arnaud; Ferry, Cecile [CEA Saclay Bat. 450 point courrier no 40 - 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France) 2008-07-01 In the frame of the PRECCI program, the mechanisms associated to the oxidation of used nuclear fuel were studied. Experiments on un-irradiated UO{sub 2}, evidenced that the oxidation proceeded in three stages (namely UO{sub 2} {yields} U{sub 4}O{sub 9}, U{sub 4}O{sub 9} {yields} U{sub 3}O{sub 7} and U{sub 3}O{sub 7} {yields} U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) instead of 2 as previously proposed in literature. Experiments on irradiated fuel fragments evidenced the existence of an oxidation front inside the fuel fragment associated to some fission gas release. The degradation of a fuel rod slice was simulated in situ with CROCODILE experiment, and shown to be due to the fuel swelling. Finally a new criterion was proposed defining a safe duration for defective used fuel in a dry air facility in the case of an accident scenario where a breach in a container would put a defective fuel rod in contact with atmosphere. The criterion is related to the time needed to form a given thickness of U{sub 4}O{sub 9{gamma}}{sub +{psi}} with a higher stoichiometry than a given value, in irradiated grains. This U{sub 4}O{sub 9{gamma}}{sub +{psi}} layer thickness is assumed to simulate the onset of the ceramic fragmentation. This safety duration was calculated thanks to a new modeling of fuel fragment oxidation. 11. [Criterion and Construct Validity in Nursing Diagnosis "Sedentary Lifestyle" in People over 50 Years Old]. Science.gov (United States) Guirao-Goris, Silamani J; Ferrer Ferrandis, Esperanza; Montejano Lozoya, Raimunda 2016-02-18 The aim of the study is to identify the construct and criterion validity of the nursing diagnosis label Sedentary Lifestyle. A cross-sectional study in a nursing consultation in primary health care was conducted. Participants were all people that was attended for one year over 50 who voluntarily wish to participate (n=85) in the study. Objective weekly physical activity was measured in METs with an Accelerometer, objective measure of performance was measured by gait speed EPESE Battery (both measures that were used as the gold standard), and physical activity questionnaires (RAPA), the COOP-WONCA physical fitness chart. Spearman correlation coefficients, mean comparison tests and analysis of sensitivity and specificity were used as statistical analysis. The diagnosis "Sedentary Lifestyle" showed a positive correlation between its manifestations and physical activity measured in METs (r=0.39) and EPESE gait speed (r=0.35). The diagnosis showed a sensitivity of 85.1% and a specificity of 65.2% and showed ability to discriminate active people from those that are not using METs as a measure of physical activity (t=-4.4). The diagnosis "Sedentary Lifestyle" shows criterion and construct validity. 12. Determine the optimal carrier selection for a logistics network based on multi-commodity reliability criterion Science.gov (United States) Lin, Yi-Kuei; Yeh, Cheng-Ta 2013-05-01 From the perspective of supply chain management, the selected carrier plays an important role in freight delivery. This article proposes a new criterion of multi-commodity reliability and optimises the carrier selection based on such a criterion for logistics networks with routes and nodes, over which multiple commodities are delivered. Carrier selection concerns the selection of exactly one carrier to deliver freight on each route. The capacity of each carrier has several available values associated with a probability distribution, since some of a carrier's capacity may be reserved for various orders. Therefore, the logistics network, given any carrier selection, is a multi-commodity multi-state logistics network. Multi-commodity reliability is defined as a probability that the logistics network can satisfy a customer's demand for various commodities, and is a performance indicator for freight delivery. To solve this problem, this study proposes an optimisation algorithm that integrates genetic algorithm, minimal paths and Recursive Sum of Disjoint Products. A practical example in which multi-sized LCD monitors are delivered from China to Germany is considered to illustrate the solution procedure. 13. No rationale for 1 variable per 10 events criterion for binary logistic regression analysis Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Maarten van Smeden 2016-11-01 Full Text Available Abstract Background Ten events per variable (EPV is a widely advocated minimal criterion for sample size considerations in logistic regression analysis. Of three previous simulation studies that examined this minimal EPV criterion only one supports the use of a minimum of 10 EPV. In this paper, we examine the reasons for substantial differences between these extensive simulation studies. Methods The current study uses Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate small sample bias, coverage of confidence intervals and mean square error of logit coefficients. Logistic regression models fitted by maximum likelihood and a modified estimation procedure, known as Firth’s correction, are compared. Results The results show that besides EPV, the problems associated with low EPV depend on other factors such as the total sample size. It is also demonstrated that simulation results can be dominated by even a few simulated data sets for which the prediction of the outcome by the covariates is perfect (‘separation’. We reveal that different approaches for identifying and handling separation leads to substantially different simulation results. We further show that Firth’s correction can be used to improve the accuracy of regression coefficients and alleviate the problems associated with separation. Conclusions The current evidence supporting EPV rules for binary logistic regression is weak. Given our findings, there is an urgent need for new research to provide guidance for supporting sample size considerations for binary logistic regression analysis. 14. Active RFID Attached Object Clustering Method with New Evaluation Criterion for Finding Lost Objects Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Masaya Tanbo 2017-01-01 Full Text Available An active radio frequency identification (RFID tag that can communicate with smartphones using Bluetooth low energy technology has recently received widespread attention. We have studied a novel approach to finding lost objects using active RFID. We hypothesize that users can deduce the location of a lost object from information about surrounding objects in an environment where RFID tags are attached to all personal belongings. To help find lost objects from the proximity between RFID tags, the system calculates the proximity between pairs of RFID tags from the RSSI series and estimates the groups of objects in the neighborhood. We developed a method for calculating the proximity of the lost object to those around it using a distance function between RSSI series and estimating the group by hierarchical clustering. There is no method to evaluate whether a combination is suitable for application purposes directly. Presently, different combinations of distance functions and clustering algorithms yield different clustering results. Thus, we propose the number of nearest neighbor candidates (NNNC as the criterion to evaluate the clustering results. The simulation results show that the NNNC is an appropriate evaluation criterion for our system because it is able to exhaustively evaluate the combination of distance functions and clustering algorithms. 15. Unidentified bright objects on brain MRI in children as a diagnostic criterion for neurofibromatosis type 1 Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Lopes Ferraz Filho, Jose R.; Pontes Munis, Marcos; Soares Souza, Antonio; Sanches, Rafael A. [Medical School in Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Imaging Department, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Goloni-Bertollo, Eni M.; Pavarino-Bertelli, Erika C. [Center of Research and Attendance in Neurofibromatosis, Sao Paulo (Brazil) 2008-03-15 Lesions of the brain denominated as unidentified bright objects (UBOs), which are not included in the diagnostic criteria for neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) established by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), have been detected by MRI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of including the presence of UBOs as a diagnostic criterion for NF1 in children. The study included 88 children between the ages of 2 and 18 years. The case group consisted of 40 children diagnosed with sporadic or familial NF1 according to the criteria established by the NIH. A control group consisted of 48 individuals referred for routine MRI of the brain for other complaints not related to NF1. UBOs were identified in 70% of the NF1 patients and in none of the control group. The sensitivity of the presence of UBOs for the diagnosis of NF1 was 70% (CI 53-83%), with a false-negative rate of 30% (CI 27-47%), a specificity of 100% (CI 86-100%) and a false-positive rate of 0% (CI 0-14%). Faced with the difficulties in diagnosing NF1 in children and the high frequency and specificity of the presence UBOs identified by MRI in our series, we recommend the inclusion of the presence UBOs as a diagnostic criterion for NF1 in children. (orig.) 16. Criterion and Divergent Validity of the Sexual Minority Adolescent Stress Inventory Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Jeremy T. Goldbach 2017-11-01 Full Text Available Sexual minority adolescents (SMA consistently report health disparities compared to their heterosexual counterparts, yet the underlying mechanisms of these negative health outcomes remain unclear. The predominant explanatory model is the minority stress theory; however, this model was developed largely with adults, and no valid and comprehensive measure of minority stress has been developed for adolescents. The present study validated a newly developed instrument to measure minority stress among racially and ethnically diverse SMA. A sample of 346 SMA aged 14–17 was recruited and surveyed between February 2015 and July 2016. The focal measure of interest was the 64-item, 11-factor Sexual Minority Adolescent Stress Inventory (SMASI developed in the initial phase of this study. Criterion validation measures included measures of depressive symptoms, suicidality and self-harm, youth problem behaviors, and substance use; the general Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ was included as a measure of divergent validity. Analyses included Pearson and tetrachoric correlations to establish criterion and divergent validity and structural equation modeling to assess the explanatory utility of the SMASI relative to the ASQ. SMASI scores were significantly associated with all outcomes but only moderately associated with the ASQ (r = −0.13 to 0.51. Analyses revealed significant associations of a latent minority stress variable with both proximal and distal health outcomes beyond the variation explained by general stress. Results show that the SMASI is the first instrument to validly measure minority stress among SMA. 17. A weighted information criterion for multiple minor components and its adaptive extraction algorithms. Science.gov (United States) Gao, Yingbin; Kong, Xiangyu; Zhang, Huihui; Hou, Li'an 2017-05-01 Minor component (MC) plays an important role in signal processing and data analysis, so it is a valuable work to develop MC extraction algorithms. Based on the concepts of weighted subspace and optimum theory, a weighted information criterion is proposed for searching the optimum solution of a linear neural network. This information criterion exhibits a unique global minimum attained if and only if the state matrix is composed of the desired MCs of an autocorrelation matrix of an input signal. By using gradient ascent method and recursive least square (RLS) method, two algorithms are developed for multiple MCs extraction. The global convergences of the proposed algorithms are also analyzed by the Lyapunov method. The proposed algorithms can extract the multiple MCs in parallel and has advantage in dealing with high dimension matrices. Since the weighted matrix does not require an accurate value, it facilitates the system design of the proposed algorithms for practical applications. The speed and computation advantages of the proposed algorithms are verified through simulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 18. Development and validation of an MRI reference criterion for defining a positive SIJ MRI in spondyloarthritis DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Weber, Ulrich; Zubler, Veronika; Pedersen, Susanne J 2012-01-01 OBJECTIVE: To validate an MRI reference criterion for a positive SIJ MRI based on the level of confidence in classification of spondyloarthritis (SpA) by expert MRI readers. METHODS: Four readers assessed SIJ MRI in two inception cohorts (A/B) of 157 consecutive back pain patients ≤50 years......, and in 20 healthy controls. Patients were classified according to clinical examination and pelvic radiography as having non-radiographic axial SpA (n=51), ankylosing spondylitis (n=34), or non-specific back pain (n=72). Readers recorded their level of confidence in the classification of SpA on a 0-10 scale...... (0=definitely not; 10=definite). The MRI reference criterion was pre-specified as the majority of readers recording a confidence of 8-10; absence of SpA required all readers to record Non-SpA (confidence 0-4). We calculated inter-reader reliability and agreement between MRI-based and clinical... 19. A Soft Parameter Function Penalized Normalized Maximum Correntropy Criterion Algorithm for Sparse System Identification Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Yingsong Li 2017-01-01 Full Text Available A soft parameter function penalized normalized maximum correntropy criterion (SPF-NMCC algorithm is proposed for sparse system identification. The proposed SPF-NMCC algorithm is derived on the basis of the normalized adaptive filter theory, the maximum correntropy criterion (MCC algorithm and zero-attracting techniques. A soft parameter function is incorporated into the cost function of the traditional normalized MCC (NMCC algorithm to exploit the sparsity properties of the sparse signals. The proposed SPF-NMCC algorithm is mathematically derived in detail. As a result, the proposed SPF-NMCC algorithm can provide an efficient zero attractor term to effectively attract the zero taps and near-zero coefficients to zero, and, hence, it can speed up the convergence. Furthermore, the estimation behaviors are obtained by estimating a sparse system and a sparse acoustic echo channel. Computer simulation results indicate that the proposed SPF-NMCC algorithm can achieve a better performance in comparison with the MCC, NMCC, LMS (least mean square algorithms and their zero attraction forms in terms of both convergence speed and steady-state performance. 20. Maximum Correntropy Criterion Kalman Filter for α-Jerk Tracking Model with Non-Gaussian Noise Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Bowen Hou 2017-11-01 Full Text Available As one of the most critical issues for target track, α -jerk model is an effective maneuver target track model. Non-Gaussian noises always exist in the track process, which usually lead to inconsistency and divergence of the track filter. A novel Kalman filter is derived and applied on α -jerk tracking model to handle non-Gaussian noise. The weighted least square solution is presented and the standard Kalman filter is deduced firstly. A novel Kalman filter with the weighted least square based on the maximum correntropy criterion is deduced. The robustness of the maximum correntropy criterion is also analyzed with the influence function and compared with the Huber-based filter, and, moreover, the kernel size of Gaussian kernel plays an important role in the filter algorithm. A new adaptive kernel method is proposed in this paper to adjust the parameter in real time. Finally, simulation results indicate the validity and the efficiency of the proposed filter. The comparison study shows that the proposed filter can significantly reduce the noise influence for α -jerk model. 1. Criterion validity of the cervical range of motion (CROM) goniometer for cervical flexion and extension. Science.gov (United States) Tousignant, M; de Bellefeuille, L; O'Donoughue, S; Grahovac, S 2000-02-01 This study used a validity protocol. To estimate the criterion validity of the Cervical Range of Motion goniometer using a healthy population. The results of the 1994 study by Mayo et al show that there are no validated tools currently available for clinically measuring the cervical range of motion. Numerous decisions regarding patient status and treatment are based wholly or in part on joint motion measurements. Because of current budgetary restrictions, clinicians are being asked to justify their interventions objectively, and to do so, they will need validated tools. The population consisted of 31 healthy participants ranging in age from 18 to 45 years. None had experienced cervical problems in the previous 3 months or were pregnant. Data collection took place at the radiology department. After participants were positioned on a stool, the cervical range of motion goniometer frame was set on their head by the physiotherapist. With the participant in this neutral position, the physiotherapist took the first Cervical Range of Motion measurement. The radiograph technologist obtained the radiograph immediately afterward. This procedure was repeated with the participant in fully flexed and fully extended positions. A Pearson's r correlation test was used to evaluate the criterion validity of the Cervical Range of Motion goniometer versus the radiographic method. The two measurements proved to be highly correlated (flexion: r = 0.97, P goniometer was found to be valid for measurements of cervical flexion and extension. Further research is needed on the validity of this instrument for other cervical spine movements. 2. Ignition criterion for heterogeneous energetic materials based on hotspot size-temperature threshold Science.gov (United States) Barua, A.; Kim, S.; Horie, Y.; Zhou, M. 2013-02-01 A criterion for the ignition of granular explosives (GXs) and polymer-bonded explosives (PBXs) under shock and non-shock loading is developed. The formulation is based on integration of a quantification of the distributions of the sizes and locations of hotspots in loading events using a cohesive finite element method (CFEM) developed recently and the characterization by Tarver et al. [C. M. Tarver et al., "Critical conditions for impact- and shock-induced hot spots in solid explosives," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 5794-5799 (1996)] of the critical size-temperature threshold of hotspots required for chemical ignition of solid explosives. The criterion, along with the CFEM capability to quantify the thermal-mechanical behavior of GXs and PBXs, allows the critical impact velocity for ignition, time to ignition, and critical input energy at ignition to be determined as functions of material composition, microstructure, and loading conditions. The applicability of the relation between the critical input energy (E) and impact velocity of James [H. R. James, "An extension to the critical energy criterion used to predict shock initiation thresholds," Propellants, Explos., Pyrotech. 21, 8-13 (1996)] for shock loading is examined, leading to a modified interpretation, which is sensitive to microstructure and loading condition. As an application, numerical studies are undertaken to evaluate the ignition threshold of granular high melting point eXplosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,2,3,5-tetrazocine (HMX) and HMX/Estane PBX under loading with impact velocities up to 350 ms-1 and strain rates up to 105 s-1. Results show that, for the GX, the time to criticality (tc) is strongly influenced by initial porosity, but is insensitive to grain size. Analyses also lead to a quantification of the differences between the responses of the GXs and PBXs in terms of critical impact velocity for ignition, time to ignition, and critical input energy at ignition. Since the framework permits 3. The latent structure of personality functioning: Investigating criterion a from the alternative model for personality disorders in DSM-5. Science.gov (United States) Zimmermann, Johannes; Böhnke, Jan R; Eschstruth, Rhea; Mathews, Alessa; Wenzel, Kristin; Leising, Daniel 2015-08-01 The alternative model for the classification of personality disorders (PD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) Section III comprises 2 major components: impairments in personality functioning (Criterion A) and maladaptive personality traits (Criterion B). In this study, we investigated the latent structure of Criterion A (a) within subdomains, (b) across subdomains, and (c) in conjunction with the Criterion B trait facets. Data were gathered as part of an online study that collected other-ratings by 515 laypersons and 145 therapists. Laypersons were asked to assess 1 of their personal acquaintances, whereas therapists were asked to assess 1 of their patients, using 135 items that captured features of Criteria A and B. We were able to show that (a) the structure within the Criterion A subdomains can be appropriately modeled using generalized graded unfolding models, with results suggesting that the items are indeed related to common underlying constructs but often deviate from their theoretically expected severity level; (b) the structure across subdomains is broadly in line with a model comprising 2 strongly correlated factors of self- and interpersonal functioning, with some notable deviations from the theoretical model; and (c) the joint structure of the Criterion A subdomains and the Criterion B facets broadly resembles the expected model of 2 plus 5 factors, albeit the loading pattern suggests that the distinction between Criteria A and B is somewhat blurry. Our findings provide support for several major assumptions of the alternative DSM-5 model for PD but also highlight aspects of the model that need to be further refined. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). 4. Implementation of natural frequency analysis and optimality criterion design. [computer technique for structural analysis Science.gov (United States) Levy, R.; Chai, K. 1978-01-01 A description is presented of an effective optimality criterion computer design approach for member size selection to improve frequency characteristics for moderately large structure models. It is shown that the implementation of the simultaneous iteration method within a natural frequency structural design optimization provides a method which is more efficient in isolating the lowest natural frequency modes than the frequently applied Stodola method. Additional computational advantages are derived by using previously converged eigenvectors at the start of the iterations during the second and the following design cycles. Vectors with random components can be used at the first design cycle, which, in relation to the entire computer time for the design program, results in only a moderate computational penalty. 5. SNP sets selection under mutual information criterion, application to F7/FVII dataset. Science.gov (United States) Brunel, H; Perera, A; Buil, A; Sabater-Lleal, M; Souto, J C; Fontcuberta, J; Vallverdu, M; Soria, J M; Caminal, P 2008-01-01 One of the main goals of human genetics is to find genetic markers related to complex diseases. In blood coagulation process, it is known that genetic variability in F7 gene is the most responsible for observed variations in FVII levels in blood. In this work, we propose a method for selecting sets of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly correlated with a phenotype (FVII levels). This method employs a feature selection algorithm (variant of Sequential Forward Selection, SFS) based on a criterion of statistical significance of a mutual information functional. This algorithm is applied to a sample of independent individuals from the GAIT project. Main SNPs found by the algorithm are in correspondence with previous results published using family-based techniques. 6. Psychometric aspects of item mapping for criterion-referenced interpretation and bookmark standard setting. Science.gov (United States) Huynh, Huynh 2010-01-01 Locating an item on an achievement continuum (item mapping) is well-established in technical work for educational/psychological assessment. Applications of item mapping may be found in criterion-referenced (CR) testing (or scale anchoring, Beaton and Allen, 1992; Huynh, 1994, 1998a, 2000a, 2000b, 2006), computer-assisted testing, test form assembly, and in standard setting methods based on ordered test booklets. These methods include the bookmark standard setting originally used for the CTB/TerraNova tests (Lewis, Mitzel, Green, and Patz, 1999), the item descriptor process (Ferrara, Perie, and Johnson, 2002) and a similar process described by Wang (2003) for multiple-choice licensure and certification examinations. While item response theory (IRT) models such as the Rasch and two-parameter logistic (2PL) models traditionally place a binary item at its location, Huynh has argued in the cited papers that such mapping may not be appropriate in selecting items for CR interpretation and scale anchoring. 7. PID controller auto-tuning based on process step response and damping optimum criterion. Science.gov (United States) Pavković, Danijel; Polak, Siniša; Zorc, Davor 2014-01-01 This paper presents a novel method of PID controller tuning suitable for higher-order aperiodic processes and aimed at step response-based auto-tuning applications. The PID controller tuning is based on the identification of so-called n-th order lag (PTn) process model and application of damping optimum criterion, thus facilitating straightforward algebraic rules for the adjustment of both the closed-loop response speed and damping. The PTn model identification is based on the process step response, wherein the PTn model parameters are evaluated in a novel manner from the process step response equivalent dead-time and lag time constant. The effectiveness of the proposed PTn model parameter estimation procedure and the related damping optimum-based PID controller auto-tuning have been verified by means of extensive computer simulations. © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 8. Insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium sesquioxide: does the Mott criterion work in this case? Science.gov (United States) Pergament, Alexander; Stefanovich, Genrikh 2012-03-01 It is shown that the Mott criterion expressed by the simple relation a B(n c)1/3 ≈ 0.25 turns out to be quite successful in describing metal-insulator phase transitions not only in heavily doped semiconductors, but also in transition metal oxides such as VO2 and V2O3. It is found in this article that, in the case of a high-temperature transition 'paramagnetic insulator - paramagnetic metal' in vanadium sesquioxide, a B(n c)1/3 = 0.254. Difficulties connected with the analogous description of a low-temperature transition ('paramagnetic metal - antiferromagnetic insulator') in V2O3 are discussed. 9. Discussion on the Criterion for the Safety Certification Basis Compilation - Brazilian Space Program Case Science.gov (United States) Niwa, M.; Alves, N. C.; Caetano, A. O.; Andrade, N. S. O. 2012-01-01 The recent advent of the commercial launch and re- entry activities, for promoting the expansion of human access to space for tourism and hypersonic travel, in the already complex ambience of the global space activities, brought additional difficulties over the development of a harmonized framework of international safety rules. In the present work, with the purpose of providing some complementary elements for global safety rule development, the certification-related activities conducted in the Brazilian space program are depicted and discussed, focusing mainly on the criterion for certification basis compilation. The results suggest that the composition of a certification basis with the preferential use of internationally-recognized standards, as is the case of ISO standards, can be a first step toward the development of an international safety regulation for commercial space activities. 10. Criterion validity of the Physical Activity Scale (PAS2) in Danish adults DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Lunde Pedersen, Eva Sophie; Mortensen, L H; Brage, S 2017-01-01 BACKGROUND: The Physical Activity Scale (PAS2) was developed to measure physical activity (PA) during work, transportation and leisure time, in the Danish adult population. The objective of this study was to assess the criterion validity of PAS2 against a combined accelerometer and heart rate...... and heart rate sensor for seven days. Average daily estimates from PAS2 were categorised into time spent in sedentary behaviour, light PA, moderate PA and vigorous PA and were compared to the objective measures. RESULTS: PAS2 accounted for 19.5 hours/day on average. Time spent in sedentary behaviour, light...... and moderate-intensity PA was weakly correlated with objective data (polychoric correlation coefficients (PCC): 0.18-0.20), whereas vigorous intensity PA was moderately correlated (PCC: 0.54, p = 0.04). Mean bias was -2.3 hours/day (95% limits of agreement (LoA): -9.04 to 4.34) for sedentary behaviour, 1... 11. Speckle processing for OCT image based on Bayesian least mean square error criterion Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) WANG Rong 2013-06-01 Full Text Available This paper presents a noise reduction algorithm for the speckle noise in optical coherence tomography images based on Bayesian criterion.First,the noisy imaging data is put into the logarithmic space and sample is extracted from the data with noise of Gaussian distribution.Then pixels within the sample are given relevant weights based on the correlation between adjacent pixels in the image.Finally,the posterior distribution is estimated by using a weighted histogram approach and the noise-free data is estimated using generic Bayesian least mean square error estimate.Compared with traditional wavelet transformation noise reduction and median filtering denoising,this method obviously improves the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and the equivalent apparent number (ENL of OCT image.Thus the image quality is enhanced to some extent. 12. Stochastic Games for Continuous-Time Jump Processes Under Finite-Horizon Payoff Criterion Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Wei, Qingda, E-mail: weiqd@hqu.edu.cn [Huaqiao University, School of Economics and Finance (China); Chen, Xian, E-mail: chenxian@amss.ac.cn [Peking University, School of Mathematical Sciences (China) 2016-10-15 In this paper we study two-person nonzero-sum games for continuous-time jump processes with the randomized history-dependent strategies under the finite-horizon payoff criterion. The state space is countable, and the transition rates and payoff functions are allowed to be unbounded from above and from below. Under the suitable conditions, we introduce a new topology for the set of all randomized Markov multi-strategies and establish its compactness and metrizability. Then by constructing the approximating sequences of the transition rates and payoff functions, we show that the optimal value function for each player is a unique solution to the corresponding optimality equation and obtain the existence of a randomized Markov Nash equilibrium. Furthermore, we illustrate the applications of our main results with a controlled birth and death system. 13. Simple criterion for predicting fatigue life under combined bending and torsion loading Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) K. Slámečka 2017-07-01 Full Text Available Multiaxial fatigue is a challenging problem and, consequently, a number of methods has been developed to aid in design of components and assemblies. Following the complexity of the problem, these approaches are often elaborate and it is difficult to use them for simple loading cases. In this paper, an empirical approach for constant amplitude, proportional axial and torsion loading is introduced to serve as a basic engineering tool for estimating fatigue life of rotational structural parts. The criterion relies on a quadratic equivalent-stress formula and requires one constant parameter to be determined from experiments. The comparison with similar classical stressbased approaches using data on diverse materials (several steels, aluminium alloy, and nickel base superalloy reveals very good agreement with experimental data. 14. Communication and general concern criterion prior to activation of the rapid response team: a grounded theory. Science.gov (United States) Martland, Jarrad; Chamberlain, Diane; Hutton, Alison; Smigielski, Michael 2016-11-01 Objective Patients commonly show signs and symptoms of deterioration for hours or days before cardiorespiratory arrest. Rapid response teams (RRT) were created to improve recognition and response to patient deterioration in these situations. Activation criteria include vital signs or 'general concern' by a clinician or family member. The general concern criterion for RRT activation accounts for nearly one-third of all RRT activity, and although it is well established that communication deficits between staff can contribute to poorer outcomes for patients, there is little evidence pertaining to communication and its effects on the general concern RRT activation. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a substantive grounded theory related to the communication process between clinicians that preceded the activation of an RRT when general concern criterion was used. Methods Qualitative grounded theory involved collection of three types of data details namely personal notes from participants in focus groups with white board notes from discussions and audio recordings of the focus groups sessions. Focus groups were conducted with participants exploring issues associated with clinician communication and how it related to the activation of an RRT using the general concern criterion. Results The three main phases of coding (i.e. open, axial and selective coding) analysis identified 322 separate open codes. The strongest theme contributed to a theory of ineffective communication and decreased psychological safety, namely that 'In the absence of effective communication there is a subsequent increase in anxiety, fear or concern that can be directly attributed to the activation of an RRT using the 'general concern' criterion'. The RRT filled cultural and process deficiencies in the compliance with an escalation protocol. Issues such as 'not for resuscitation documentation' and 'inability to establish communication with and between medical or nursing personnel' rated 15. Extra-electron induced covalent strengthening and generalization of intrinsic ductile-to-brittle criterion Science.gov (United States) Niu, Haiyang; Chen, Xing-Qiu; Liu, Peitao; Xing, Weiwei; Cheng, Xiyue; Li, Dianzhong; Li, Yiyi 2012-10-01 Traditional strengthening ways, such as strain, precipitation, and solid-solution, come into effect by pinning the motion of dislocation. Here, through first-principles calculations we report on an extra-electron induced covalent strengthening mechanism, which alters chemical bonding upon the introduction of extra-valence electrons in the matrix of parent materials. It is responsible for the brittle and high-strength properties of Al12W-type compounds featured by the typical fivefold icosahedral cages, which are common for quasicrystals and bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). In combination with this mechanism, we generalize ductile-to-brittle criterion in a universal hyperbolic form by integrating the classical Pettifor's Cauchy pressure with Pugh's modulus ratio for a wide variety of materials with cubic lattices. This study provides compelling evidence to correlate Pugh's modulus ratio with hardness of materials and may have implication for understanding the intrinsic brittleness of quasicrystals and BMGs. 16. Dimensionality Reduction by Integrating Sparse Representation and Fisher Criterion and its Applications. Science.gov (United States) Gao, Quanxue; Wang, Qianqian; Huang, Yunfang; Gao, Xinbo; Hong, Xin; Zhang, Hailin 2015-12-01 Sparse representation shows impressive results for image classification, however, it cannot well characterize the discriminant structure of data, which is important for classification. This paper aims to seek a projection matrix such that the low-dimensional representations well characterize the discriminant structure embedded in high-dimensional data and simultaneously well fit sparse representation-based classifier (SRC). To be specific, Fisher discriminant criterion (FDC) is used to extract the discriminant structure, and sparse representation is simultaneously considered to guarantee that the projected data well satisfy the SRC. Thus, our method, called SRC-FDC, characterizes both the spatial Euclidean distribution and local reconstruction relationship, which enable SRC to achieve better performance. Extensive experiments are done on the AR, CMU-PIE, Extended Yale B face image databases, the USPS digit database, and COIL20 database, and results illustrate that the proposed method is more efficient than other feature extraction methods based on SRC. 17. Calibration transfer based on maximum margin criterion for qualitative analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Science.gov (United States) Hu, Yong; Peng, Silong; Bi, Yiming; Tang, Liang 2012-12-21 A traditional multivariate calibration transfer method such as piecewise direct standardization (PDS) is usually applied to quantitative analysis. To make the method apply to qualitative analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), we propose an improved calibration transfer method based on the maximum margin criterion (CTMMC). The new method not only considers the spectral changes under different conditions, but also takes into account the geometric characteristics of spectra from different classes, so the transformed spectra from different classes will be separated as far as possible, and this will improve the performance of the follow-up qualitative analysis. A comparative study is provided between the proposed method CTMMC and other traditional calibration transfer methods on two data sets. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve better performance than previous methods. 18. On signal design by the R/0/ criterion for non-white Gaussian noise channels Science.gov (United States) Bordelon, D. L. 1977-01-01 The use of the cut-off rate criterion for modulation system design is investigated for channels with non-white Gaussian noise. A signal space representation of the waveform channel is developed, and the cut-off rate for vector channels with additive non-white Gaussian noise and unquantized demodulation is derived. When the signal input to the channel is a continuous random vector, maximization of the cut-off rate with constrained average signal energy leads to a water-filling interpretation of optimal energy distribution in signal space. The necessary condition for a finite signal set to maximize the cut-off rate with constrained energy and an equally likely probability assignment of signal vectors is presented, and an algorithm is outlined for numerically computing the optimum signal set. As an example, the rectangular signal set which has the water-filling average energy distribution and the optimum rectangular set are compared. 19. Revision, criterion validity, and multigroup assessment of the reactions to homosexuality scale. Science.gov (United States) Smolenski, Derek J; Diamond, Pamela M; Ross, Michael W; Rosser, B R Simon 2010-11-01 Internalized homonegativity encompasses negative attitudes toward one's own sexual orientation and is associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. The Reactions to Homosexuality Scale (Ross & Rosser, 1996), an instrument used to measure internalized homonegativity, has been criticized for including content irrelevant to the construct of internalized homonegativity. We revised the scale using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and identified a 7-item, 3-factor reduced version that demonstrated measurement invariance across racial/ethnic categorizations and between English and Spanish versions. We also investigated criterion validity by estimating correlations with hypothesized outcomes associated with outness, relationship status, sexual orientation, and gay community affiliation. The evidence of measurement invariance suggests that this scale is appropriate for pluralistic treatment or study groups. 20. Conflicting views on a neutrality criterion for radioactive-waste management International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Bodde, D.L.; Cochran, T.B. 1981-01-01 Public debate over the management of radioactive wastes illustrates the moral dilemma of intergenerational justice. Because of low priority, there has been no permanent disposal of high-level radioactive wastes or decontamination and decommisioning of reactors. The problem is now receiving public attention because of the near depletion of temporary storage capacity, the deferral of reprocessing, and concerns for the safe transport and disposal of hazardous materials. Two authors examine the criterion of neutrality in which the risks of radioactive wastes can be balanced by the risks future generations would face without the opportunity for nuclear power. They disagree, however, in whether the model can possibly represent the real world and whether that risk is a significant consideration. 27 references, 1 figure 1. Study on fatigue life evaluation of structural component based on crack growth criterion International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Shibata, Katsuyuki 1984-07-01 As one of the practical application of fracture mechanics, fatigue life evaluation method based on crack growth criterion has been diffusing in various field of technology in order to determine the rational and reliable life of structural components. The fatigue life by this method is evaluated based on the fatigue crack growth analysis from defects, while many problems, such as the influence of residual stress on the crack growth behavior, the effect of overloading, and evaluation method for multiple surface cracks, are not sufficiently solved yet. In this paper, the above problems are treated, and based on some exprimental data some simple mehtods for fatigue life evaluation are proposed regarding the above problems. Verification of the proposed methods are shown in the paper by comparing with some experimental results, and the applicability of the proposed method is also examined by the fatigue test of pipes with cracks in the inner surface. (author) 2. Bohm criterion and plasma particle/power exhaust to and recycling at the wall Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Xian-Zhu Tang 2017-08-01 Full Text Available The plasma particle and power exhaust to the divertor surface drives both particle and power recycling at the surface, which in return constrains the plasma density and temperature at the target and their profile further upstream. Both particle and power exhaust fluxes are mediated by the plasma sheath next to the divertor surface. In particular, the Bohm criterion constrains the ion exit flow speed, which enters directly into the particle flux and the kinetic flow energy component of the ion power flux, and indirectly into the electron power flux through the sheath potential drop. Here we give an overview on how the Bohm speed is set in a general plasma and how it enters power exhaust and power recycling at the divertor surface, and the implication on the correct implementation of sheath boundary conditions in numerical codes. The cases of ideal and non-ideal Bohm speed are distinguished as a result of the physics discussion. 3. Test-retest reliability and criterion validity of a new Taekwondo anaerobic intermittent kick test. Science.gov (United States) Tayech, Amel; Mejri, Mohamed A; Chaabene, Helmi; Chaouachi, Mehdi; Behm, David G; Chaouachi, Anis 2018-01-04 The aim of this study was to determine the relative and absolute test-retest reliability and criterion validity of a new Taekwondo anaerobic intermittent kick test (TAIKT). Twenty Tunisian elite Taekwondo athletes participated in this study (15 males and 5 females). Participants performed the TAIKT and the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST), twice (test and retest), on separate occasions three-week apart. Peak heart rate (HRpeak), blood lactate concentration [La־], and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during each session. There was no significant difference between the test and retest of TAIKT and RAST for all performances and physiological variables, except for the absolute mean power (Pmean) of RAST. Test-retest results showed that the TAIKT and RAST were reliable. All TAIKT and RAST parameters had an ICC>0.90, SEMtest for assessing anaerobic power of Taekwondo athletes. 4. Criterion for polynomial solutions to a class of linear differential equations of second order International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Saad, Nasser; Hall, Richard L; Ciftci, Hakan 2006-01-01 We consider the differential equations y-prime = λ 0 (x)y' + s 0 (x)y, where λ 0 (x), s 0 (x) are C ∞ -functions. We prove (i) if the differential equation has a polynomial solution of degree n > 0, then δ n = λ n s n-1 - λ n-1 s n = 0, where λ n λ' n-1 + s n-1 + λ 0 λ n-1 ands n = s' n-1 + s 0 λ k-1 , n = 1, 2, .... Conversely (ii) if λ n λ n-1 ≠ 0 and δ n = 0, then the differential equation has a polynomial solution of degree at most n. We show that the classical differential equations of Laguerre, Hermite, Legendre, Jacobi, Chebyshev (first and second kinds), Gegenbauer and the Hypergeometric type, etc obey this criterion. Further, we find the polynomial solutions for the generalized Hermite, Laguerre, Legendre and Chebyshev differential equations 5. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF EXISTING REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS ON NORMAL CRACK LENGTH CRITERION Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Vladimir S. Utkin 2017-06-01 Full Text Available The article discusses a problem of the crack length influence on the reliability (safety of reinforced concrete beams under conditions of limited statistical information about controlled parameters in the design mathematical models of limit state. Numerical examples revealed the possibility of practical application of the reliability analysis methods for inspections and determining the category of the technical condition of buildings and structures. The article offers the methods for reliability (probability of non-failure analysis and the residual resource of reinforced concrete beams according to the criterion of the normal crack length in the tensile zone of reinforced concrete beams. The methods of reliability analysis constructed on the basis of possibility theory and fuzzy set theory. The algorithms of reliability analysis of reinforced concrete beams are presented on numerical examples of reliability analysis. 6. Stability criterion for a light binary attracted by a heavy body Science.gov (United States) Vasilkova, O. O. 2010-03-01 Dynamical behaviour of a small binary with equal components, each of mass m, is considered under attraction of a heavy body of mass M. Differential equations of the general three-body problem are integrated numerically using the code by S. J. Aarseth (Aarseth, Zare 1974) for mass ratios m/M within 10-11-10-4 range. The direct and retrograde orbits of light bodies about each other are considered which lie either in the plane of moving their center of mass or in the plane perpendicular to it. It is shown numerically that the critical separation between the binary components which leads to disruption of binary is proportional to ( m/M)1/3. The criterion can be used for studying (in the first approximation) the motion of double stars and binary asteroids or computing the parameters of magnetic monopol and antimonopol pairs. 7. Comparison of Some Estimators under the Pitman’s Closeness Criterion in Linear Regression Model Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Jibo Wu 2014-01-01 Full Text Available Batah et al. (2009 combined the unbiased ridge estimator and principal components regression estimator and introduced the modified r-k class estimator. They also showed that the modified r-k class estimator is superior to the ordinary least squares estimator and principal components regression estimator in the mean squared error matrix. In this paper, firstly, we will give a new method to obtain the modified r-k class estimator; secondly, we will discuss its properties in some detail, comparing the modified r-k class estimator to the ordinary least squares estimator and principal components regression estimator under the Pitman closeness criterion. A numerical example and a simulation study are given to illustrate our findings. 8. Color Trails Test: normative data and criterion validity for the greek adult population. Science.gov (United States) Messinis, Lambros; Malegiannaki, Amaryllis-Chryssi; Christodoulou, Tessa; Panagiotopoulos, Vassillis; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis 2011-06-01 The Color Trails Test (CTT) was developed as a culturally fair analog of the Trail Making Test. In the present study, normative data for the CTT were developed for the Greek adult population and further the criterion validity of the CTT was examined in two clinical groups (29 Parkinson's disease [PD] and 25 acute stroke patients). The instrument was applied to 163 healthy participants, aged 19-75. Stepwise linear regression analyses revealed a significant influence of age and education level on completion time in both parts of the CTT (increased age and decreased educational level contributed to slower completion times for both parts), whereas gender did not influence time to completion of part B. Further, the CTT appears to discriminate adequately between the performance of PD and acute stroke patients and matched healthy controls. 9. Revision, Criterion Validity, and Multi-group Assessment of the Reactions to Homosexuality Scale Science.gov (United States) Smolenski, Derek J.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Ross, Michael W.; Simon Rosser, B. R. 2010-01-01 Internalized homonegativity encompasses negative attitudes toward one’s own sexual orientation, and is associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. The Reactions to Homosexuality scale (Ross & Rosser, 1996), an instrument used to measure internalized homonegativity, has been criticized for including content irrelevant to the construct of internalized homonegativity. We revised the scale using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and identified a seven-item, three-factor reduced version that demonstrated measurement invariance across racial/ethnic categorizations and between English and Spanish versions. We also investigated criterion validity by estimating correlations with hypothesized outcomes associated with outness, relationship status, sexual orientation, and gay community affiliation. The evidence of measurement invariance suggests that this scale is appropriate for pluralistic treatment or study groups. PMID:20954058 10. Flat-fielding of Solar Hα Observations Based on the Maximum Correntropy Criterion Science.gov (United States) Xu, Gao-Gui; Zheng, Sheng; Lin, Gang-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Fan 2016-08-01 The flat-field CCD calibration method of Kuhn et al. (KLL) is an efficient method for flat-fielding. However, since it depends on the minimum of the sum of squares error (SSE), its solution is sensitive to noise, especially non-Gaussian noise. In this paper, a new algorithm is proposed to determine the flat field. The idea is to change the criterion of gain estimate from SSE to the maximum correntropy. The result of a test on simulated data demonstrates that our method has a higher accuracy and a faster convergence than KLL’s and Chae’s. It has been found that the method effectively suppresses noise, especially in the case of typical non-Gaussian noise. And the computing time of our algorithm is the shortest. 11. Empirical as Criterion of law Effectiveness: between Alf Ros and Hebert Hart Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Horácio Wanderlei Rodrigues 2016-04-01 Full Text Available Legal positivism positions the law in the formal validity. However, the law theory also focuses on other aspects of empirical to understand the legal phenomenon, we seek such elements in the works of Herbert Hart and Alf Ross. To Hart the rule of recognition’s content, that we can use to meet the validity of the right, should be measured empirically in each legal system and may also (but not necessarily incorporate moral elements. Differently, the realistic Ross theory is independent of the validity criterion and he argues that the effectiveness is verifiable by the effective application of the law by legal authorities. 12. A Variable Block Insertion Heuristic for the Blocking Flowshop Scheduling Problem with Total Flowtime Criterion Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Mehmet Fatih Tasgetiren 2016-10-01 Full Text Available In this paper, we present a variable block insertion heuristic (VBIH algorithm to solve the blocking flowshop scheduling problem with the total flowtime criterion. In the VBIH algorithm, we define a minimum and a maximum block size. After constructing the initial sequence, the VBIH algorithm starts with a minimum block size being equal to one. It removes the block from the current sequence and inserts it into the partial sequence sequentially with a predetermined move size. The sequence, which is obtained after several block moves, goes under a variable local search (VLS, which is based on traditional insertion and swap neighborhood structures. If the new sequence obtained after the VLS local search is better than the current sequence, it replaces the current sequence. As long as it improves, it keeps the same block size. However, if it does not improve, the block size is incremented by one and a simulated annealing-type of acceptance criterion is used to accept the current sequence. This process is repeated until the block size reaches at the maximum block size. Furthermore, we present a novel constructive heuristic, which is based on the profile fitting heuristic from the literature. The proposed constructive heuristic is able to further improve the best known solutions for some larger instances in a few seconds. Parameters of the constructive heuristic and the VBIH algorithm are determined through a design of experiment approach. Extensive computational results on the Taillard’s well-known benchmark suite show that the proposed VBIH algorithm outperforms the discrete artificial bee colony algorithm, which is one of the most efficient algorithms recently in the literature. Ultimately, 52 out of the 150 best known solutions are further improved with substantial margins. 13. Experimentally Manipulating Items Informs on the (Limited Construct and Criterion Validity of the Humor Styles Questionnaire Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Willibald Ruch 2017-04-01 Full Text Available How strongly does humor (i.e., the construct-relevant content in the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003 determine the responses to this measure (i.e., construct validity? Also, how much does humor influence the relationships of the four HSQ scales, namely affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating, with personality traits and subjective well-being (i.e., criterion validity? The present paper answers these two questions by experimentally manipulating the 32 items of the HSQ to only (or mostly contain humor (i.e., construct-relevant content or to substitute the humor content with non-humorous alternatives (i.e., only assessing construct-irrelevant context. Study 1 (N = 187 showed that the HSQ affiliative scale was mainly determined by humor, self-enhancing and aggressive were determined by both humor and non-humorous context, and self-defeating was primarily determined by the context. This suggests that humor is not the primary source of the variance in three of the HQS scales, thereby limiting their construct validity. Study 2 (N = 261 showed that the relationships of the HSQ scales to the Big Five personality traits and subjective well-being (positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction were consistently reduced (personality or vanished (subjective well-being when the non-humorous contexts in the HSQ items were controlled for. For the HSQ self-defeating scale, the pattern of relationships to personality was also altered, supporting an positive rather than a negative view of the humor in this humor style. The present findings thus call for a reevaluation of the role that humor plays in the HSQ (construct validity and in the relationships to personality and well-being (criterion validity. 14. Optimization of filtering criterion for SEQUEST database searching to improve proteome coverage in shotgun proteomics Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Ye Mingliang 2007-08-01 Full Text Available Abstract Background In proteomic analysis, MS/MS spectra acquired by mass spectrometer are assigned to peptides by database searching algorithms such as SEQUEST. The assignations of peptides to MS/MS spectra by SEQUEST searching algorithm are defined by several scores including Xcorr, ΔCn, Sp, Rsp, matched ion count and so on. Filtering criterion using several above scores is used to isolate correct identifications from random assignments. However, the filtering criterion was not favorably optimized up to now. Results In this study, we implemented a machine learning approach known as predictive genetic algorithm (GA for the optimization of filtering criteria to maximize the number of identified peptides at fixed false-discovery rate (FDR for SEQUEST database searching. As the FDR was directly determined by decoy database search scheme, the GA based optimization approach did not require any pre-knowledge on the characteristics of the data set, which represented significant advantages over statistical approaches such as PeptideProphet. Compared with PeptideProphet, the GA based approach can achieve similar performance in distinguishing true from false assignment with only 1/10 of the processing time. Moreover, the GA based approach can be easily extended to process other database search results as it did not rely on any assumption on the data. Conclusion Our results indicated that filtering criteria should be optimized individually for different samples. The new developed software using GA provides a convenient and fast way to create tailored optimal criteria for different proteome samples to improve proteome coverage. 15. DESTRUCTION CRITERION IN MODEL OF NON-LINEAR ELASTIC PLASTIC MEDIUM Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) O. L. Shved 2014-01-01 Full Text Available The paper considers a destruction criterion in a specific phenomenological model of elastic plastic medium which significantly differs from the known criteria. In case of vector interpretation of rank-2 symmetric tensors yield surface in the Cauchy stress space is formed by closed piecewise concave surfaces of its deviator sections with due account of experimental data. Section surface is determined by normal vector which is selected from two private vectors of criterial “deviator” operator. Such selection is not always possible in the case of anisotropy growth. It is expected that destruction can only start when a process point in the stress space is located in the current deviator section of the yield surface. It occurs when a critical point appears in the section, and a private value of an operator becomes N-fold in the point that determines the private vector corresponding to the normal vector. Unique and reasonable selection of the normal vector becomes impossible in the critical point and an yield criteria loses its significance in the point.When the destruction initiation is determined there is a possibility of a special case due to the proposed conic form of the yield surface. The deviator section degenerates into the point at the yield surface peak. Criterion formulation at the surface peak lies in the fact that there is no physically correct solution while using a state equation in regard to elastic distortion measures with a fixed tensor of elastic turn. Such usage of the equation is always possible for the rest points of the yield surface and it is considered as an obligatory condition for determination of the deviator section. A critical point is generally absent at any deviator section of the yield surface for isotropic material. A limiting value of the mean stress has been calculated at uniform tension. 16. Building a response criterion for pediatric multidisciplinary obesity intervention success based on combined benefits. Science.gov (United States) Nardo Junior, Nelson; Bianchini, Josiane Aparecida Alves; da Silva, Danilo Fernandes; Ferraro, Zachary M; Lopera, Carlos Andres; Antonini, Vanessa Drieli Seron 2018-03-19 To propose a response criterion for analyzing the intervention success by verifying patient outcomes after a multidisciplinary obesity treatment program in Brazilian children and adolescents. Obese children and adolescents (n = 103) completed a 16-week multidisciplinary intervention (IG) and were compared to the control group (CG) (n = 66). A cluster of parameters (e.g. total domain of HRQoL; BMI z-score; cardiorespiratory fitness; body mass; waist circumference; fat mass; lean mass) were measured pre and post-intervention, and the sum of the median percentage variation and the percentile 25 and 75 were used from IG and CG to determine the responsiveness to the program. We are proposing four ranges in which children and adolescents may be classified after the intervention: (1) CG percentile 50 values or lower are considered non-responsive to the intervention, (2) values greater than CG percentile 50 but lower than IG percentile 50 are considered slightly responsive, (3) values greater than IG percentile 50 but lower than IG percentile 75 were considered as moderately responsive, and (4) values greater than IG percentile 75 were considered very responsive. This criterion may serve as a complementary tool that can be employed to monitor the response to this model of multidisciplinary intervention. What is Known: • The effectiveness of multidisciplinary obesity interventions is usually determined by comparing changes in selected outcomes in the intervention versus versus control group. • There is no consensus about what should be assessed before and after the intervention program, which makes difficult to compare different programs and to determine their rate of responsiveness. What is New: • This study proposes a response criteria to pediatric obesity interventions following a similar model compared to ours based on key variables that presents low cost and high applicability in different settings. 17. Criterion validity of 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale in patients with asthma. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Ana Janežič Full Text Available The 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8 is reliable and valid in patients with hypertension, but to our knowledge validity has not been established for patients with asthma. The aim of the study was to determine the criterion validity of the MMAS-8 in patients with asthma. In the cross-sectional study patients older than 12 year were recruited when dispensed asthma medications in community pharmacies. Criterion validity of the scale was assessed through associations with asthma control and quality of life. Asthma control was assessed by the Asthma Control Test (ACT and quality of life was evaluated by the Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ. A total of 208 patients (mean age 56 years, 59% female were included in the study. Almost all patients were prescribed inhaled corticosteroids (96%. Asthma was not controlled in 37% of the patients and 22% experienced at least one exacerbation requiring emergency room visit, hospitalization or treatment with oral corticosteroid therapy in the previous year. The 8-item MMAS was significantly associated with asthma control and quality of life. Patients who scored 8 points, 6 points and ≤6 points on the scale were considered to have high, medium and low adherence, respectively. High, medium and low adherence was found in 53%, 23% and 24% of the patients, respectively. As adherence improved from low to medium or from medium to high, the odds of asthma control increased by 1.7 times (OR 1.65, p = 0.027. Patients with high and medium adherence had SGRQ scores that were 6.1 and 5.3 points lower, respectively, compared with patients with low adherence. The MMAS-8 was found to be valid for assessing medication adherence and predicting health outcomes in patients with asthma. 18. Criterion validity of 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale in patients with asthma. Science.gov (United States) Janežič, Ana; Locatelli, Igor; Kos, Mitja 2017-01-01 The 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) is reliable and valid in patients with hypertension, but to our knowledge validity has not been established for patients with asthma. The aim of the study was to determine the criterion validity of the MMAS-8 in patients with asthma. In the cross-sectional study patients older than 12 year were recruited when dispensed asthma medications in community pharmacies. Criterion validity of the scale was assessed through associations with asthma control and quality of life. Asthma control was assessed by the Asthma Control Test (ACT) and quality of life was evaluated by the Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). A total of 208 patients (mean age 56 years, 59% female) were included in the study. Almost all patients were prescribed inhaled corticosteroids (96%). Asthma was not controlled in 37% of the patients and 22% experienced at least one exacerbation requiring emergency room visit, hospitalization or treatment with oral corticosteroid therapy in the previous year. The 8-item MMAS was significantly associated with asthma control and quality of life. Patients who scored 8 points, 6 points and ≤6 points on the scale were considered to have high, medium and low adherence, respectively. High, medium and low adherence was found in 53%, 23% and 24% of the patients, respectively. As adherence improved from low to medium or from medium to high, the odds of asthma control increased by 1.7 times (OR 1.65, p = 0.027). Patients with high and medium adherence had SGRQ scores that were 6.1 and 5.3 points lower, respectively, compared with patients with low adherence. The MMAS-8 was found to be valid for assessing medication adherence and predicting health outcomes in patients with asthma. 19. An improved procedure for gene selection from microarray experiments using false discovery rate criterion Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Yang Mark CK 2006-01-01 Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of genes usually show differential expressions in a microarray experiment with two types of tissues, and the p-values of a proper statistical test are often used to quantify the significance of these differences. The genes with small p-values are then picked as the genes responsible for the differences in the tissue RNA expressions. One key question is what should be the threshold to consider the p-values small. There is always a trade off between this threshold and the rate of false claims. Recent statistical literature shows that the false discovery rate (FDR criterion is a powerful and reasonable criterion to pick those genes with differential expression. Moreover, the power of detection can be increased by knowing the number of non-differential expression genes. While this number is unknown in practice, there are methods to estimate it from data. The purpose of this paper is to present a new method of estimating this number and use it for the FDR procedure construction. Results A combination of test functions is used to estimate the number of differentially expressed genes. Simulation study shows that the proposed method has a higher power to detect these genes than other existing methods, while still keeping the FDR under control. The improvement can be substantial if the proportion of true differentially expressed genes is large. This procedure has also been tested with good results using a real dataset. Conclusion For a given expected FDR, the method proposed in this paper has better power to pick genes that show differentiation in their expression than two other well known methods. 20. A systematic review of reliability and objective criterion-related validity of physical activity questionnaires Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Helmerhorst Hendrik JF 2012-08-01 Full Text Available Abstract Physical inactivity is one of the four leading risk factors for global mortality. Accurate measurement of physical activity (PA and in particular by physical activity questionnaires (PAQs remains a challenge. The aim of this paper is to provide an updated systematic review of the reliability and validity characteristics of existing and more recently developed PAQs and to quantitatively compare the performance between existing and newly developed PAQs. A literature search of electronic databases was performed for studies assessing reliability and validity data of PAQs using an objective criterion measurement of PA between January 1997 and December 2011. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were screened and data were extracted to provide a systematic overview of measurement properties. Due to differences in reported outcomes and criterion methods a quantitative meta-analysis was not possible. In total, 31 studies testing 34 newly developed PAQs, and 65 studies examining 96 existing PAQs were included. Very few PAQs showed good results on both reliability and validity. Median reliability correlation coefficients were 0.62–0.71 for existing, and 0.74–0.76 for new PAQs. Median validity coefficients ranged from 0.30–0.39 for existing, and from 0.25–0.41 for new PAQs. Although the majority of PAQs appear to have acceptable reliability, the validity is moderate at best. Newly developed PAQs do not appear to perform substantially better than existing PAQs in terms of reliability and validity. Future PAQ studies should include measures of absolute validity and the error structure of the instrument. 1. A systematic review of reliability and objective criterion-related validity of physical activity questionnaires Science.gov (United States) 2012-01-01 Physical inactivity is one of the four leading risk factors for global mortality. Accurate measurement of physical activity (PA) and in particular by physical activity questionnaires (PAQs) remains a challenge. The aim of this paper is to provide an updated systematic review of the reliability and validity characteristics of existing and more recently developed PAQs and to quantitatively compare the performance between existing and newly developed PAQs. A literature search of electronic databases was performed for studies assessing reliability and validity data of PAQs using an objective criterion measurement of PA between January 1997 and December 2011. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were screened and data were extracted to provide a systematic overview of measurement properties. Due to differences in reported outcomes and criterion methods a quantitative meta-analysis was not possible. In total, 31 studies testing 34 newly developed PAQs, and 65 studies examining 96 existing PAQs were included. Very few PAQs showed good results on both reliability and validity. Median reliability correlation coefficients were 0.62–0.71 for existing, and 0.74–0.76 for new PAQs. Median validity coefficients ranged from 0.30–0.39 for existing, and from 0.25–0.41 for new PAQs. Although the majority of PAQs appear to have acceptable reliability, the validity is moderate at best. Newly developed PAQs do not appear to perform substantially better than existing PAQs in terms of reliability and validity. Future PAQ studies should include measures of absolute validity and the error structure of the instrument. PMID:22938557 2. OPTIMAL ESTIMATION OF RANDOM PROCESSES ON THE CRITERION OF MAXIMUM A POSTERIORI PROBABILITY Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) A. A. Lobaty 2016-01-01 Full Text Available The problem of obtaining the equations for the a posteriori probability density of a stochastic Markov process with a linear measurement model. Unlike common approaches based on consideration as a criterion for optimization of the minimum mean square error of estimation, in this case, the optimization criterion is considered the maximum a posteriori probability density of the process being evaluated.The a priori probability density estimated Gaussian process originally considered a differentiable function that allows us to expand it in a Taylor series without use of intermediate transformations characteristic functions and harmonic decomposition. For small time intervals the probability density measurement error vector, by definition, as given by a Gaussian with zero expectation. This makes it possible to obtain a mathematical expression for the residual function, which characterizes the deviation of the actual measurement process from its mathematical model.To determine the optimal a posteriori estimation of the state vector is given by the assumption that this estimate is consistent with its expectation – the maximum a posteriori probability density. This makes it possible on the basis of Bayes’ formula for the a priori and a posteriori probability density of an equation Stratonovich-Kushner.Using equation Stratonovich-Kushner in different types and values of the vector of drift and diffusion matrix of a Markov stochastic process can solve a variety of filtration tasks, identify, smoothing and system status forecast for continuous and for discrete systems. Discrete continuous implementation of the developed algorithms posteriori assessment provides a specific, discrete algorithms for the implementation of the on-board computer, a mobile robot system. 3. The stressor criterion in DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder: an empirical investigation. Science.gov (United States) Breslau, N; Kessler, R C 2001-11-01 The DSM-IV two-part definition of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) widened the variety of stressors (A1) and added a subjective component (A2). The effects of the revised stressor criterion on estimates of exposure and PTSD in a community sample are evaluated. A representative sample of 2181 persons in southeast Michigan were interviewed about lifetime history of traumatic events and PTSD. The evaluation of the revised two-part definition is based on a randomly selected sample of events that represents the total pool of traumatic events experienced in the community. The enlarged definition of stressors in A1 increased the total number of events that can be used to diagnose PTSD by 59%. The majority of A1 events (76.6%) involved the emotional response in A2. Females were more likely than males to endorse A2 (adjusted odds ratio = 2.66; 95% confidence interval 1.92, 3.71). Of all PTSD cases resulting from the representative sample of events, 38% were attributable to the expansion of qualifying events in A1. The identification of exposures that lead to PTSD were not improved materially by A2 however, events that did not involve A2 rarely resulted in PTSD. Compared to previous definitions, the wider variety of stressors in A1 markedly increased the number of events experienced in the community that can be used to diagnose PTSD. Furthermore, A2 might be useful as a separate criterion, an acute response necessary for the emergence of PTSD, and might serve as an early screen for identifying a subset of recently exposed persons at virtually no risk for PTSD. The utility of A2 as a screen must be tested prospectively. 4. Genetic Gain Increases by Applying the Usefulness Criterion with Improved Variance Prediction in Selection of Crosses. Science.gov (United States) Lehermeier, Christina; Teyssèdre, Simon; Schön, Chris-Carolin 2017-12-01 A crucial step in plant breeding is the selection and combination of parents to form new crosses. Genome-based prediction guides the selection of high-performing parental lines in many crop breeding programs which ensures a high mean performance of progeny. To warrant maximum selection progress, a new cross should also provide a large progeny variance. The usefulness concept as measure of the gain that can be obtained from a specific cross accounts for variation in progeny variance. Here, it is shown that genetic gain can be considerably increased when crosses are selected based on their genomic usefulness criterion compared to selection based on mean genomic estimated breeding values. An efficient and improved method to predict the genetic variance of a cross based on Markov chain Monte Carlo samples of marker effects from a whole-genome regression model is suggested. In simulations representing selection procedures in crop breeding programs, the performance of this novel approach is compared with existing methods, like selection based on mean genomic estimated breeding values and optimal haploid values. In all cases, higher genetic gain was obtained compared with previously suggested methods. When 1% of progenies per cross were selected, the genetic gain based on the estimated usefulness criterion increased by 0.14 genetic standard deviation compared to a selection based on mean genomic estimated breeding values. Analytical derivations of the progeny genotypic variance-covariance matrix based on parental genotypes and genetic map information make simulations of progeny dispensable, and allow fast implementation in large-scale breeding programs. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America. 5. Numerical analysis oriented biaxial stress-strain relation and failure criterion of plain concrete International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Link, J. 1975-01-01 A biaxial stress-strain relation and failure criterion is proposed, which is applicable to structural analysis methods. The formulation of material behavior of plain concrete in biaxial stress-state was developed. A nonlinear elastic, anisotropic stress-strain relation was derived with two moduli of elasticity, E 1 , E 2 and Poisson's ratios, ν 1 , ν 2 , which depend on the prevailing biaxial stress state. The stress-strain relation is valid in the whole biaxial stress field, that means with a smooth transition between the domains of tension/tension, tension/compression and compression/compression. The stress-dependent moduli E 1 , E 2 and the Poisson's ratios ν 1 , ν 2 are approximated by polynomials, trigonometrical and exponential functions. A failure criterion was defined by approximating the test results of the biaxial ultimate concrete strength with a 7th degree polynomial, which is also valid in the whole biaxial stress domain. The definition of the state of failure is given as a function of stresses as well as strains. Initial parameters of the formulation of the biaxial material behavior are the uniaxial cylindrical strength of concrete and the initial values of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. A simple expansion of this formulation makes it applicable not only to normal but also to light-weight concrete. Comparison of numerically calculated stress-strain curves up to the ultimate biaxial stresses which indicate the failure criteria with those obtained from tests show a very good agreement. It is shown, that the biaxial stress-strain relation can be extended for use in cases of triaxial tension/tension/compression stress state. Numerical examples of analysis of concrete slabs show the importance of incorporation of a realistic material behavior for better safety estimations 6. Problems of criterions of sanitary evaluation of fodder phosphates of an increased content of radioactive elements International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Zarski, T.P.; Krynski, A. 1984-01-01 In samples of 15 fodder phosphates a proper activity of natural radionuclides K-40, Ra-226 and Th-228 was determined. It was found that the content of K-40 in the examined phosphates was from 0 to 113.6 mBq/g (0-3.07 pCi/g), Ra-226 from 5.6 to 2523.4 mBq/g (0.15-68.2 pCi/g) and Th-228 from 11.1 to 100 mBq/g (0.3-2.7 pCi/g). On the basis of the obtained data the quantity of uranium in fodder phosphates and the quantity of Ra-226 transmitted into milk of cows fed on these phosphates was estimated. It was found that the quantity of uranium in phosphates was harmless for animals. It was admitted that the criterion of phosphates evaluation on the basis of quantity of Ra-226 transmitted into milk is not sufficient for drawing conclusion about their sanitary value. For a complex evaluation of fodder phosphates a limit value of radioactive activity of Ra-226 37 mBq/g (1 pCi/g) is proposed. Considering the possibility of air pollution in fodder factories a disuse of phosphates in production in which the activity of Ra-226 increases to 0.37 mBq/g (10 pCi/g) and of Th-228 to 75 mBq/g (2pCi/g) was proposed. The proposed criterion of evaluation concerns all phosphates used in Poland. (author) 7. Experimentally Manipulating Items Informs on the (Limited) Construct and Criterion Validity of the Humor Styles Questionnaire. Science.gov (United States) Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja 2017-01-01 How strongly does humor (i.e., the construct-relevant content) in the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) determine the responses to this measure (i.e., construct validity)? Also, how much does humor influence the relationships of the four HSQ scales, namely affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating, with personality traits and subjective well-being (i.e., criterion validity)? The present paper answers these two questions by experimentally manipulating the 32 items of the HSQ to only (or mostly) contain humor (i.e., construct-relevant content) or to substitute the humor content with non-humorous alternatives (i.e., only assessing construct-irrelevant context). Study 1 ( N = 187) showed that the HSQ affiliative scale was mainly determined by humor, self-enhancing and aggressive were determined by both humor and non-humorous context, and self-defeating was primarily determined by the context. This suggests that humor is not the primary source of the variance in three of the HQS scales, thereby limiting their construct validity. Study 2 ( N = 261) showed that the relationships of the HSQ scales to the Big Five personality traits and subjective well-being (positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction) were consistently reduced (personality) or vanished (subjective well-being) when the non-humorous contexts in the HSQ items were controlled for. For the HSQ self-defeating scale, the pattern of relationships to personality was also altered, supporting an positive rather than a negative view of the humor in this humor style. The present findings thus call for a reevaluation of the role that humor plays in the HSQ (construct validity) and in the relationships to personality and well-being (criterion validity). 8. Disintegration of sublingual tablets: proposal for a validated test method and acceptance criterion. Science.gov (United States) Weda, M; van Riet-Nales, D A; van Aalst, P; de Kaste, D; Lekkerkerker, J F F 2006-12-01 In the Netherlands the market share of isosorbide dinitrate 5 mg sublingual tablets is dominated by 2 products (A and B). In the last few years complaints have been received from health care professionals on product B. During patient use the disintegration of the tablet was reported to be slow and/or incomplete, and ineffectiveness was experienced. In the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) no requirement is present for the disintegration time of sublingual tablets. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro disintegration time of products A and B, and to establish a suitable test method and acceptance criterion. A and B were tested with the Ph. Eur. method described in the monograph on disintegration of tablets and capsules as well as with 3 modified tests using the same Ph. Eur. apparatus, but without movement of the basket-rack assembly. In modified test 1 and modified test 2 water was used as medium (900 ml and 50 ml respectively), whereas in modified test 3 artificial saliva was used (50 ml). In addition, disintegration was tested in Nessler tubes with 0.5 and 2 ml of water. Finally, the Ph. Eur. method was also applied to other sublingual tablets with other drug substances on the Dutch market. With modified test 3 no disintegration could be achieved within 20 min. With the Ph. Eur. method and modified tests 1 and 2 product A and B differed significantly (p disintegration times. These 3 methods were capable of discriminating between products and between batches. The time measured with the Ph. Eur. method was significantly lower compared to modified tests 1 and 2 (p tablets the disintegration time should be tested. The Ph. Eur. method is considered suitable for this test. In view of the products currently on the market and taking into consideration requirements in the United States Pharmacopeia and Japanese Pharmacopoeia, an acceptance criterion of not more than 2 min is proposed. 9. Reliability and Criterion-Related Validity Testing (construct) of the Endotracheal Suction Assessment Tool (ESAT©). Science.gov (United States) Davies, K; Bulsara, M; Ramelet, A S; Monteroso, L 2018-01-18 To establish criterion-related construct validity and test-retest reliability for the Endotracheal Suction Assessment Tool© (ESAT©). Endotracheal tube suction performed in children can significantly affect clinical stability. Previously identified clinical indicators for endotracheal tube suction were used as criteria when designing the ESAT©. Content validity was reported previously. The final stages of psychometric testing are presented. Observational testing was used to measure construct validity and determine whether the ESAT© could guide 'inexperienced' paediatric intensive care nurses' decision-making regarding endotracheal tube suction. Test-retest reliability of the ESAT© was performed at two time points. The researchers and paediatric intensive care nurse 'experts' developed 10 hypothetical clinical scenarios with predetermined endotracheal tube suction outcomes. 'Experienced' (n=12) and 'inexperienced' (n=14) paediatric intensive care nurses were presented with the scenarios and the ESAT© guiding decision-making about whether to perform endotracheal tube suction for each scenario. Outcomes were compared with those predetermined by the 'experts' (n=9). Test-retest reliability of the ESAT© was measured at two consecutive time points (4 weeks apart) with 'experienced' and 'inexperienced' PIC nurses using the same scenarios and tool to guide decision-making. No differences were observed between endotracheal tube suction decisions made by 'experts' (n=9), 'inexperienced' (n=14) and 'experienced' (n=12) nurses confirming the tool's construct validity. No differences were observed between groups for endotracheal tube suction decisions at T1 and T2. Criterion-related construct validity and test-retest reliability of the ESAT© were demonstrated. Further testing is recommended to confirm reliability in the clinical setting with the 'inexperienced' nurse to guide decision-making related to endotracheal tube suction. This article is protected by copyright 10. Criterion-Related Validity of the 20-M Shuttle Run Test for Estimating Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Meta-Analysis. Science.gov (United States) Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Aguilar-Soto, Pablo; Viciana, Jesús 2015-09-01 The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. Relevant studies were searched from twelve electronic databases up to December 2014, as well as from several alternative modes of searching. The Hunter-Schmidt's psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate the population criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test. From 57 studies that were included in the present meta-analysis, a total of 78 correlation values were analyzed. The overall results showed that the performance score of the 20-m shuttle run test had a moderate-to-high criterion-related validity for estimating maximum oxygen uptake (r p = 0.66-0.84), being higher when other variables (e.g. sex, age or body mass) were used (r p = 0.78-0.95). The present meta-analysis also showed that the criterion-related validity of Léger's protocol was statistically higher for adults (r p = 0.94, 0.87-1.00) than for children (r p = 0.78, 0.72-0.85). However, sex and maximum oxygen uptake level do not seem to affect the criterion-related validity values. When an individual's maximum oxygen uptake attained during a laboratory-based test is not feasible, the 20-m shuttle run test seems to be a useful alternative for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. In adults the performance score only seems to be a strong estimator of cardiorespiratory fitness, in contrast among children the performance score should be combined with other variables. Nevertheless, as in the application of any physical fitness field test, evaluators must be aware that the performance score of the 20-m shuttle run test is simply an estimation and not a direct measure of cardiorespiratory fitness. Key pointsOverall the 20-m shuttle run test has a moderate-to-high mean criterion-related validity for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness.The criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test is significantly 11. Criterion-Related Validity of the 20-M Shuttle Run Test for Estimating Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Meta-Analysis Science.gov (United States) Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Aguilar-Soto, Pablo; Viciana, Jesús 2015-01-01 The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. Relevant studies were searched from twelve electronic databases up to December 2014, as well as from several alternative modes of searching. The Hunter-Schmidt’s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate the population criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test. From 57 studies that were included in the present meta-analysis, a total of 78 correlation values were analyzed. The overall results showed that the performance score of the 20-m shuttle run test had a moderate-to-high criterion-related validity for estimating maximum oxygen uptake (rp = 0.66-0.84), being higher when other variables (e.g. sex, age or body mass) were used (rp = 0.78-0.95). The present meta-analysis also showed that the criterion-related validity of Léger’s protocol was statistically higher for adults (rp = 0.94, 0.87-1.00) than for children (rp = 0.78, 0.72-0.85). However, sex and maximum oxygen uptake level do not seem to affect the criterion-related validity values. When an individual’s maximum oxygen uptake attained during a laboratory-based test is not feasible, the 20-m shuttle run test seems to be a useful alternative for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. In adults the performance score only seems to be a strong estimator of cardiorespiratory fitness, in contrast among children the performance score should be combined with other variables. Nevertheless, as in the application of any physical fitness field test, evaluators must be aware that the performance score of the 20-m shuttle run test is simply an estimation and not a direct measure of cardiorespiratory fitness. Key points Overall the 20-m shuttle run test has a moderate-to-high mean criterion-related validity for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. The criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test is significantly 12. A study on the instability criterion for the stratified flow in horizontal pipe at cocurrent flow conditions Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Sung, Chang Kyung [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of) 1997-12-31 This paper presents a theoretical approach of the instability criterion from stratified to nonstratified flow in horizontal pipe at cocurrent flow conditions. The new theoretical instability criterion for the stratified and nonstratified flow transition in horizontal pipe has been developed by hyperbolic equations in two-phase flow. Critical flow condition criterion and onset of slugging at cocurrent flow condition correspond to zero and imaginary characteristics which occur when the hyperbolicity of a stratified two-phase flow is broken, respectively. Through comparison between results predicted by the present flow is broken, respectively. Through comparison between results predicted by the present theory and the Kukita et al. [1] experimental data of pipes, it is shown that they are in good agreement with data. 4 refs., 2 figs. (Author) 13. Assessment of Poliak-Jonas criterion for the onset of dynamic recrystallization in semi-solid deformation Science.gov (United States) Sheikh-Ansari, M. H.; Aghaie-Khafri, M. 2017-10-01 In the present investigation, the application of the Poliak-Jonas criterion in the semi-solid state has been evaluated. The evolution of grains by dynamic recrystallization during semi-solid forming was studied using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. The strain rate in the solid phase for each strain in terms of the overall strain rate, as well as the liquid fraction, was calculated based on the Gurson model. The numerical investigation revealed that the preliminaries of the Poliak-Jonas criterion are almost satisfied in the semi-solid deformation of alloys at low and moderate strain rates. However, there is less reliability regarding the criterion at high values of strain rates, where commonly used in industrial applications. 14. Criterion-Related Validity of Sit-and-Reach Tests for Estimating Hamstring and Lumbar Extensibility: a Meta-Analysis Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Daniel Mayorga-Vega 2014-03-01 Full Text Available The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the scientific literature on the criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach tests for estimating hamstring and lumbar extensibility. For this purpose relevant studies were searched from seven electronic databases dated up through December 2012. Primary outcomes of criterion-related validity were Pearson´s zero-order correlation coefficients (r between sit-and-reach tests and hamstrings and/or lumbar extensibility criterion measures. Then, from the included studies, the Hunter- Schmidt´s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate population criterion- related validity of sit-and-reach tests. Firstly, the corrected correlation mean (rp, unaffected by statistical artefacts (i.e., sampling error and measurement error, was calculated separately for each sit-and-reach test. Subsequently, the three potential moderator variables (sex of participants, age of participants, and level of hamstring extensibility were examined by a partially hierarchical analysis. Of the 34 studies included in the present meta-analysis, 99 correlations values across eight sit-and-reach tests and 51 across seven sit-and-reach tests were retrieved for hamstring and lumbar extensibility, respectively. The overall results showed that all sit-and-reach tests had a moderate mean criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility (rp = 0.46-0.67, but they had a low mean for estimating lumbar extensibility (rp = 0. 16-0.35. Generally, females, adults and participants with high levels of hamstring extensibility tended to have greater mean values of criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility. When the use of angular tests is limited such as in a school setting or in large scale studies, scientists and practitioners could use the sit-and-reach tests as a useful alternative for hamstring extensibility estimation, but not for estimating lumbar extensibility. 15. Application of Dang Van criterion to rolling contact fatigue in wind turbine roller bearings under elastohydrodynamic lubrication conditions DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Cerullo, Michele 2014-01-01 classic Hertzian and elastohydrodynamic lubrication theories have been used to model the pressure distribution acting on the inner raceway and results are compared according to the Dang Van multiaxial fatigue criterion. The contact on the bearing raceway is simulated by substituting the roller...... its values to the fatigue limit parameters for the material. It is found that both for Hertzian and elastohydrodynamic lubrication contacts, the Dang Van criterion predicts that fatigue failure will first occur in the subsurface region and that, regardless of the specific pressure distribution used... 16. Features of Designing the Criterion-Based Rehabilitation Program for Patients after Arthroscopic Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) I.V. Roy 2016-04-01 Full Text Available The article presents an innovative criterion-based rehabilitation program for patients, who underwent arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. The features of the program are described, methodological foundations to perform permissible exercises are presented for each periods of the program, which correspond to a specific motor mode. The degree of preparedness of the patient is determined by the criterion of performance of the test exercises that will permit him to the loads of a new, higher level of trainings. The effectiveness of the developed program is confirmed clinically. 17. The historical development of heat transfer surfaces for gas-cooled reactors analysed with a simple criterion International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Leslie, D.C. 1980-01-01 The evolution of finned heat transfer surfaces for gas-cooled reactors, from longitudinal through transverse to the sophisticated helical polyzonal and herring-bone fins, is described, and their merits are compared using a simple criterion of heat transfer efficiency. These fins cannot be used in AGR's because of the high neutron absorption and low thermal conductivity of stainless steel, and artificial roughening in the form of ribbing is used instead; the same criterion can be applied to this type of surface. The interest of the material is largely historical. (author) 18. A stationary criterion to identify the duration of efficient rainfalls to trigger shallow landslide Science.gov (United States) Vessia, G.; Parise, M. 2012-04-01 framework of a nationwide project by CNR-IRPI, under funds from the National Civil Department, the authors propose in this article a new criterion to identify from rain gauge measures the duration of the rainfalls triggering shallow landslides. The new criterion represents an attempt to identify the duration of the "effective rainfall event" responsible for the landslide occurrence, as reported by newspaper clips and/or in real time web newspapers. At this regard, antecedent precipitations are not taken into account, since the model considers only that amount of rainfall that effectively triggers the slope failure. The model analyses the hourly rainfall time series for at least one month before occurrence of the shallow landslide, using a historical landslide archive covering the time range between 2002 and 2011 in the Lazio Region, central Italy. This archive was obtained by a procedure consisting of the following steps: i) critical scrutiny of chronicles, ii) identification of the landslide site, and iii) retrieval of the rainfall data from the nearest rain gauge station within the pluviometric network provided by the National Department of Civil Protection. The proposed method, for each reported landslide, uses the cumulative function of the rainfall heights and rainfall intensity calculated for different time lag. Then, in order to identify the beginning of the effective rainfall event, two conditions have to be satisfied: (1) the difference in rainfall intensity between two adjacent windows must be very low, and (2) the time series of lack of rainfall must be stationary. When these conditions are met, the initial time of the efficient rainfall necessary to trigger the landslide is established. Such criterion is statistically based according to the rainfall time distribution only. No assumption is needed on the probabilistic distributions of time series of rain/not rain. Such approach has been successfully applied to medium-to-long rainfalls, for which rain/not rain 19. The role of decision criterion in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false recognition memory: False memory falls and rises as a function of restriction on criterion setting. Science.gov (United States) Jou, Jerwen; Escamilla, Eric E; Arredondo, Mario L; Pena, Liann; Zuniga, Richard; Perez, Martin; Garcia, Clarissa 2018-02-01 How much of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory is attributable to decision criterion is so far a controversial issue. Previous studies typically used explicit warnings against accepting the critical lure to investigate this issue. The assumption is that if the false memory results from using a liberally biased criterion, it should be greatly reduced or eliminated by an explicit warning against accepting the critical lure. Results showed that warning was generally ineffective. We asked the question of whether subjects can substantially reduce false recognition without being warned when the test forces them to make a distinction between true and false memories. Using a two-alternative forced choice in which criterion plays a relatively smaller role, we showed that subjects could indeed greatly reduce the rate of false recognition. However, when the forced-choice restriction was removed from the two-item choice test, the rate of false recognition rebounded to that of the hit for studied list words, indicating the role of criterion in false recognition. 20. Russian Federation regions classification according to criterion of self-developing Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Ekaterina Aleksandrovna Zakharchuk 2011-09-01 Full Text Available This paper presents the results of selecting the regions of the Russian Federation according to two criteria of self-development - gross domestic product and financial balance of the territory. 30 regions of Russia showed the dynamics of the GRP growth comparable to or higher than in Russia as a whole, the central part and north-west parts of Russia keep the leadership on the number of self-developing regions on the criterion of the GRP. The outsiders of regional economic development are Volga, Ural, Siberian and Far East Federal Districts. Of 83 subjects of Russian Federation in total, in 38 an excessive level of taxes and other obligatory payments to budgets of all levels of government expenditure of the territories was observed. Based on the author's calculations, a classification of Russian regions on the type of economic development of the areas has been made into four types: self-developing regions, developing territories, financially stable territories and under-developed regions. A classification of self-developing regions on the type of economic development is made; resource-isolated, agricultural, managing and organically developing territories within the Russian Federation are defined. 1. The development of a burst criterion for zircaloy fuel cladding under LOCA conditions International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Neitzel, H.J.; Rossinger, H.E. 1980-02-01 A burst criterion model, which assumes that deformation is controlled by steady-state creep, has been developed for a thin-walled cladding, in this case Zircaloy-4, subjected to a differential pressure and high temperature. The creep equation is integrated to obtain a burst time at the singularity of the strain. Once the burst time is known, the burst temperature and burst pressure can be calculated from the known temperature and pressure histories. A further relationship between burst stress and burst temperature is used to calculate the burst strain. Comparison with measured burst data shows good agreement between theory and experiment was found that, if the heating rate is constant, the burst temperature increases with decreasing stress, and that, if the stress level is constant, the burst temperature increases with increasing heating rate. It was also found that anisotropy alters the burst temperature and burst strain, and that test conditions in the α-Zr temperature range have no influence on the burst data. (auth) 2. The development of a burst criterion for Zircaloy fuel cladding under LOCA conditions International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Neitzel, H.J.; Rosinger, H.E. 1980-10-01 A burst criterion model, which assumes that deformation is controlled by steady-state creep, has been developed for a thin-walled cladding, in this case Zircaloy-4, subjected to a differential pressure and high temperature. The creep equation is integrated to obtain a burst time at the singularity of the strain. Once that urst time is known, the burst temperature and burst pressure can be calculated from the known temperature and pressure histories. A further relationship between burst stress and burst temperature is used to calculate the burst strain. Comparison with measured burst data shows good agreement between theory and experiment. It was found that, if the heating rate is constant, the burst temperature increases with decreasing stress, and that, if the stress level is constant, the burst temperature increases with increasing heating rate. It was also found that anisotropy alters the burst temperature and burst strain, and that thest conditions in the α-Zr temperature range have no influence on the burst data. (orig.) [de 3. A criterion to identify the equilibration time in lipid bilayer simulations Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Rodolfo D. Porasso 2012-11-01 Full Text Available With the aim of establishing a criterion for identifying when a lipid bilayer has reached steady state using the molecular dynamics simulation technique, lipid bilayers of different composition in their liquid crystalline phase were simulated in aqueous solution in presence of CaCl_2 as electrolyte, at different concentration levels. In this regard, we used two different lipid bilayer systems: one composed by 288 DPPC (DiPalmitoylPhosphatidylCholine and another constituted by 288 DPPS (DiPalmitoylPhosphatidylSerine. In this sense, for both type of lipid bilayers, we have studied the temporal evolution of some lipids properties, such as the surface area per lipid, the deuterium order parameter, the lipid hydration and the lipid-calcium coordination. From their analysis, it became evident how each property has a different time to achieve equilibrium. The following order was found, from faster property to slower property: coordination of ionsapprox$deuterium order parameter > area per lipid$approx\$ hydration. Consequently, when the hydration of lipids or the mean area per lipid are stable, we can ensure that the lipid membrane has reached the steady state.

4. Perspectivism and Intersubjective Criteria for Personal Identity: A Defense of Bernard Williams’ Criterion of Bodily Continuity

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Tristan Guillermo Torriani

2008-06-01

Full Text Available In this article I revisit earlier stages of the discussion of personal identity, before Neo-Lockean psychological continuity views became prevalent. In particular, I am interested in Bernard Williams’ initial proposal of bodily identity as a necessary, although not sufficient, criterion of personal identity. It was at this point that psychological continuity views came to the fore arguing that bodily identity was not necessary because brain transplants were logically possible, even if physically impossible. Further proposals by Shoemaker of causal relations between mental states in our memory and Parfit’s discussion of branching causal chains created additional complications. My contention in this paper is that psychological continuity views deflected our attention from what should have remained in the spotlight all the time: the intersubjective character (or not of criteria proposed to decide personal identity in our language game, and ultimately our form of life concerning ourselves as persons. B. Williams’ emphasis on the body was not just common sense. It was also recognition of the importance of giving priority to criteria that could be kept under intersubjective control.

5. Threshold Estimation of Generalized Pareto Distribution Based on Akaike Information Criterion for Accurate Reliability Analysis

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kang, Seunghoon; Lim, Woochul; Cho, Su-gil; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Tae Hee; Lee, Minuk; Choi, Jong-su; Hong, Sup

2015-01-01

In order to perform estimations with high reliability, it is necessary to deal with the tail part of the cumulative distribution function (CDF) in greater detail compared to an overall CDF. The use of a generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) to model the tail part of a CDF is receiving more research attention with the goal of performing estimations with high reliability. Current studies on GPDs focus on ways to determine the appropriate number of sample points and their parameters. However, even if a proper estimation is made, it can be inaccurate as a result of an incorrect threshold value. Therefore, in this paper, a GPD based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC) is proposed to improve the accuracy of the tail model. The proposed method determines an accurate threshold value using the AIC with the overall samples before estimating the GPD over the threshold. To validate the accuracy of the method, its reliability is compared with that obtained using a general GPD model with an empirical CDF

6. Risk assessment of security systems based on entropy theory and the Neyman–Pearson criterion

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lv, Haitao; Yin, Chao; Cui, Zongmin; Zhan, Qin; Zhou, Hongbo

2015-01-01

For a security system, the risk assessment is an important method to verdict whether its protection effectiveness is good or not. In this paper, a security system is regarded abstractly as a network by the name of a security network. A security network is made up of security nodes that are abstract functional units with the ability of detecting, delaying and responding. By the use of risk entropy and the Neyman–Pearson criterion, we construct a model to computer the protection probability of any position in the area where a security network is deployed. We provide a solution to find the most vulnerable path of a security network and the protection probability on the path is considered as the risk measure. Finally, we study the effect of some parameters on the risk and the breach protection probability of a security network. Ultimately, we can gain insight about the risk assessment of a security system. - Highlights: • A security system is regarded abstractly as a network made up of security nodes. • We construct a model to computer the protection probability provided by a security network. • We provide a better solution to find the most vulnerable path of a security network. • We build a risk assessment model for a security network based on the most vulnerable path

7. Evaluation of Modified Retinopathy of Prematurity Screening Guidelines Using Birth Weight as the Sole Inclusion Criterion

Science.gov (United States)

Chalam, Kakarla V.; Lin, Selina; Murthy, Ravi K.; Brar, Vikram S.; Gupta, Shailesh K.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

2011-01-01

Purpose: The purpose was to determine if birth weight (BW) alone can be the sole criterion for screening infants at risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Materials and Methods: In this retrospective, observational case series, 208 infants were screened for ROP using the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) Guidelines (1997). Variables examined included gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), and a composite variable BWGA Index [(grams × weeks)/1000], which takes into consideration both the birth weight and gestational age of the infant. Infants were divided into two groups: Group 1, BW ≤1250 g, and Group 2, BW >1250 g. Multivariate analysis was performed to detect factors predictive of ROP. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the efficacy of screening using the BW, GA, and BWGA Index. Statistical analyses were performed with logistic regression with a P-value of 0.05 or less indicating statistical significance. Results: Varying stages of ROP were present in 116 of 416 eyes. Of the 105 eyes in Group 2, only 1 eye developed stage 1 ROP. Only Group 1 eyes developed stage 3 or higher ROP. The ROC curve for BW alone gave an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.797 (standard error [SE] = 0.0329, P premature infants at risk for ROP. PMID:21887076

8. Some comments about the J1 integral criterion in post yield fracture mechanics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Roche, R.L.

1977-01-01

Several criteria have been proposed for Post Yield Fracture Mechanics. One of the most interesting ones is the J 1 integral. When the behaviour of material is elastic (even non-linear) it can be shown that J 1 is not path dependent (for a straight crack without thermal stresses). For this reason, it may be considered that J 1 characterizes the crack tip singularity. Extension is easy to deformation-type elastic plastic material, but there is no proof of path independence for flow-type plastic material (incremental plasticity or creep). Experimental results are often given as a proof of J 1 criterion validity, but there is no experimental value of a contour integral and assumptions are made in the use of experimental results. The main assumption implies that the received mechanical work (strain energy) is not dependent on the loading history (is only dependent on mechanical state). A general method to assess J 1 path dependence can be founded on the 'defect vector' (or driving force) concept. It can be shown that the resultant of defects included in a volumne is the J integral on the surface surrounding the volume (and L for the moment). In order to have an empirical idea of the J 1 path independence, it is possible to make computations with finite elements method. Some results are given and it seems that no noticeable path dependence is seen with simple shapes and radial (proportional) loading. A few cases with complex way of loading are also studied. (Auth.)

9. Jet pairing algorithm for the 6-jet Higgs channel via energy chi-square criterion

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magallanes, J.B.; Arogancia, D.C.; Gooc, H.C.; Vicente, I.C.M.; Bacala, A.M.; Miyamoto, A.; Fujii, K.

2002-01-01

Study and discovery of the Higgs bosons at JLC (Joint Linear Collider) is one of the tasks of ACFA (Asian Committee for future Accelerators)-JLC Group. The mode of Higgs production at JLC is e + e - → Z 0 H 0 . In this paper, studies are concentrated on the Higgsstrahlung process and the selection of its signals by getting the right jet-pairing algorithm of 6-jet final state at 300 GeV assuming that Higgs boson mass is 120 GeV and luminosity is 500 fb -1 . The total decay width Γ (H 0 → all) and the efficiency of the signals at the JLC are studied utilizing the 6-jet channel. Out of the 91,500 Higgsstrahlung events, 4,174 6-jet events are selected. PYTHIA Monte Carlo Generator generates the 6-jet Higgsstrahlung channel according to the Standard Model. The generated events are then simulated by Quick Simulator using the JCL parameters. After tagging all 6 quarks which correspond to the 6-jet final state of the Higgsstrahlung, the mean energy of the Z, H, and W's are obtained. Having calculated these information, the event energy chi-square is defined and it is found that the correct combination have generally smaller value. This criterion can be used to find correct jet-pairing algorithm and as one of the cuts for the background signals later on. Other chi-definitions are also proposed. (S. Funahashi)

10. Development of a Model for Dynamic Recrystallization Consistent with the Second Derivative Criterion

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2017-11-01

Full Text Available Dynamic recrystallization (DRX processes are widely used in industrial hot working operations, not only to keep the forming forces low but also to control the microstructure and final properties of the workpiece. According to the second derivative criterion (SDC by Poliak and Jonas, the onset of DRX can be detected from an inflection point in the strain-hardening rate as a function of flow stress. Various models are available that can predict the evolution of flow stress from incipient plastic flow up to steady-state deformation in the presence of DRX. Some of these models have been implemented into finite element codes and are widely used for the design of metal forming processes, but their consistency with the SDC has not been investigated. This work identifies three sources of inconsistencies that models for DRX may exhibit. For a consistent modeling of the DRX kinetics, a new strain-hardening model for the hardening stages III to IV is proposed and combined with consistent recrystallization kinetics. The model is devised in the Kocks-Mecking space based on characteristic transition in the strain-hardening rate. A linear variation of the transition and inflection points is observed for alloy 800H at all tested temperatures and strain rates. The comparison of experimental and model results shows that the model is able to follow the course of the strain-hardening rate very precisely, such that highly accurate flow stress predictions are obtained.

11. A model expansion criterion for treating surface topography in ray path calculations using the eikonal equation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ma, Ting; Zhang, Zhongjie

2014-01-01

Irregular surface topography has revolutionized how seismic traveltime is calculated and the data are processed. There are two main schemes for dealing with an irregular surface in the seismic first-arrival traveltime calculation: (1) expanding the model and (2) flattening the surface irregularities. In the first scheme, a notional infill medium is added above the surface to expand the physical space into a regular space, as required by the eikonal equation solver. Here, we evaluate the chosen propagation velocity in the infill medium through ray path tracking with the eikonal equation-solved traveltime field, and observe that the ray paths will be physically unrealistic for some values of this propagation velocity. The choice of a suitable propagation velocity in the infill medium is crucial for seismic processing of irregular topography. Our model expansion criterion for dealing with surface topography in the calculation of traveltime and ray paths using the eikonal equation highlights the importance of both the propagation velocity of the infill physical medium and the topography gradient. (paper)

12. High Voltage Overhead Power Line Routing under an Objective Observability Criterion

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

L. Alfredo Fernandez-Jimenez

2017-10-01

Full Text Available The construction of new high voltage overhead power lines (HVOPLs has become a controversial issue for electricity companies due to social opposition. Citizens are concerned about how these power lines may have an impact on their lives, basically caused by their effects on health and safety. Visual impact is one of the most easily perceived. Although there are several published works that deal with the assessment of the visual impact produced by HVOPLs, no methodology has been proposed to assess this impact from an objective perspective. This work presents an original methodology which helps to identify the optimal routes for a new HVOPL under an objective observability criterion, enabling the selection of those with the lowest visibility in a zone. The application of the proposed methodology achieves a set of routes that links new HVOPL origin and destination points creating a corridor which includes all possible routes with an observability of its towers under a threshold limit. This methodology is illustrated by a real-life use corresponding to the selection of the route with least observability for a new power line in La Rioja (Spain. The results obtained may help to achieve a consensus between key stakeholders since it is focused on the specific issues of the planned HVOPL and its observability from an objective perspective.

13. The derivation of a bistable criterion for double V-beam mechanisms

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wu, Cho-Chun; Chen, Rongshun; Lin, Meng-Ju

2013-01-01

This study presents the theoretical derivation of the discriminant D as a structural and material criterion for determining whether bistability can occur in micromechanically bistable mechanisms. When D < 0, the mechanism displays bistable behavior if an appropriate force is applied to push the bistable mechanism, whereas when D > 0, bistable behavior cannot occur. The proposed V-beam bistable mechanism was successfully fabricated with various beam lengths and tilted angles. The experiments conducted in this study validated the theoretical study of bistability. A comparison of the theoretical solutions and experimental results shows good agreement. Results further show that to design a bistable V-beam mechanism, the tilted angle should be larger for the same beam length, whereas the beam length should be longer for the same tilted angle. The developed discriminant D can be used to predict if a bistable mechanism can achieve bistable behavior based on structural sizes and material properties. Consequently, researchers can reduce trial-and-error experiments when designing a bistable mechanism. A V-beam with a larger tilted angle of up to 5° was successfully fabricated to act as a bistable mechanism, compared to a 3.5° tilted angle in existing studies. Consequently, the proposed method has the advantages of shorter beam lengths and smaller device areas. (paper)

14. Criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach tests in university men in Hong Kong.

Science.gov (United States)

Chung, P K; Yuen, C K

1999-02-01

To examine the criterion-related validity of traditional, modified, and YMCA sit-and-reach tests and the relationships of these with abdominal muscular strength and endurance measured by the sit-up test, 52 university men of mean age 20.7 yr. were administered two trials of six measurements in counterbalanced order, including traditional, modified, and YMCA sit-and-reach tests, passive straight-leg raise, low-back flexibility evaluation, and 1-min. sit-up test. Pearson product-moment correlations were significant (p sit-and-reach tests with hamstrings' flexibility (rs = .71 and .77, respectively). Also, the YMCA sit-and-reach test was significantly associated with hamstrings' flexibility (r = .64) and low-back flexibility (r = .47). Stepwise multiple regression indicated hamstrings' flexibility was the only significant predictor of traditional and modified sit-and-reach tests, explaining the variances of 59.1% and 49.8%, respectively. However, both hamstring and low-back flexibility were significant predictors for the YMCA sit-and-reach test, which in total accounted for 52.2% of explained variance. Traditional and modified sit-and-reach tests are valid in assessing hamstrings' flexibility only, whereas the YMCA sit-and-reach test is valid for measuring both the hamstring and low-back flexibility.

15. Stability Criterion of Linear Stochastic Systems Subject to Mixed H2/Passivity Performance

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Cheung-Chieh Ku

2015-01-01

Full Text Available The H2 control scheme and passivity theory are applied to investigate the stability criterion of continuous-time linear stochastic system subject to mixed performance. Based on the stochastic differential equation, the stochastic behaviors can be described as multiplicative noise terms. For the considered system, the H2 control scheme is applied to deal with the problem on minimizing output energy. And the asymptotical stability of the system can be guaranteed under desired initial conditions. Besides, the passivity theory is employed to constrain the effect of external disturbance on the system. Moreover, the Itô formula and Lyapunov function are used to derive the sufficient conditions which are converted into linear matrix inequality (LMI form for applying convex optimization algorithm. Via solving the sufficient conditions, the state feedback controller can be established such that the asymptotical stability and mixed performance of the system are achieved in the mean square. Finally, the synchronous generator system is used to verify the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed design method.

16. Cancer as a Criterion A Traumatic Stressor for Veterans: Prevalence and Correlates

Science.gov (United States)

Mulligan, Elizabeth A.; Wachen, Jennifer Schuster; Naik, Aanand D.; Gosian, Jeffrey; Moye, Jennifer

2015-01-01

The diagnosis of cancer is an uncontrollable stressor posing the threat of death and disfigurement, often followed by repeated exposure to aversive reminders in the form of noxious treatments, persisting side effects, reengagement at times of surveillance, and the threat of recurrence. The phenomenon of cancer as a traumatic stressor is explored in this study, with a focus on the prevalence and correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Criterion A in a sample of 170 mostly male adults who received health care at VA Medical Centers in Boston or Houston. Participants were interviewed 6 months after diagnosis with head and neck, gastro-esophageal, or colorectal cancers. Approximately half–42.9% to 65.9% depending on cut-score used—perceived cancer to be a traumatic stressor involving actual/threatened death or injury or threat to physical integrity as well as fear, helplessness, or horror. Younger veterans and those with current combat PTSD symptoms were more likely to perceive cancer as a traumatic stressor, as were those who perceived their prognosis as uncertain; 12% had PTSD symptoms above a PCLC cut score of 50, which is similar to incidence rates of PTSD associated with other traumatic stressors. Cancer, therefore, appears to be a serious and for some, traumatic stressor, suggesting the importance of screening for cancer related PTSD in cancer survivors, particularly those most at risk. PMID:25741406

17. Diagonal recurrent neural network based adaptive control of nonlinear dynamical systems using lyapunov stability criterion.

Science.gov (United States)

Kumar, Rajesh; Srivastava, Smriti; Gupta, J R P

2017-03-01

In this paper adaptive control of nonlinear dynamical systems using diagonal recurrent neural network (DRNN) is proposed. The structure of DRNN is a modification of fully connected recurrent neural network (FCRNN). Presence of self-recurrent neurons in the hidden layer of DRNN gives it an ability to capture the dynamic behaviour of the nonlinear plant under consideration (to be controlled). To ensure stability, update rules are developed using lyapunov stability criterion. These rules are then used for adjusting the various parameters of DRNN. The responses of plants obtained with DRNN are compared with those obtained when multi-layer feed forward neural network (MLFFNN) is used as a controller. Also, in example 4, FCRNN is also investigated and compared with DRNN and MLFFNN. Robustness of the proposed control scheme is also tested against parameter variations and disturbance signals. Four simulation examples including one-link robotic manipulator and inverted pendulum are considered on which the proposed controller is applied. The results so obtained show the superiority of DRNN over MLFFNN as a controller. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

18. Can a fixed measure serve as a pertinent diagnostic criterion for large vestibular aqueduct in children?

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Legeais, Marc; Cottier, Jean P. [CHU de TOURS, Department of Neuroradiology, Tours (France); Haguenoer, Ken [CHU de TOURS, Department of Medical Information, Tours (France); Sirinelli, Dominique [CHU de TOURS, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Tours (France)

2006-10-15

A vestibular aqueduct midpoint width greater than 1.50 mm is currently considered to be pathognomonic for a large vestibular aqueduct syndrome. To analyse the diameter of the vestibular aqueduct in children as a function of age and consequently to determine if a fixed measure could serve as a pertinent diagnostic criterion. This was a retrospective study of 200 high-resolution CT scans of the ear in 100 patients aged 0-16 years and from various paediatric medical departments. On each CT scan, the lateral semicircular canal diameter, the vestibular aqueduct midpoint width between the external aperture and common crus, and the vestibular aqueduct external aperture diameter were measured. Spearman's rank test and the Mann-Whitney correlation test were used for an integrated statistical analysis. There was no statistically significant variability in vestibular aqueduct diameter as a function of age or sex of patients. A CT scan threshold value, fixed and independent of age and sex, is thus legitimate for the diagnosis of vestibular aqueduct dilatation. (orig.)

19. Development of a site-specific water quality criterion for hexavalent chromium

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

McIntyre, D.O.; Sticko, J.P.; Reash, R.J.

1995-01-01

The effluent of treated fly ash from a coal-fired power plant located on the Ohio River periodically exceeds its NPDES acute permit limit for hexavalent chromium of 15 microg/L. The increased levels of hexavalent chromium in the effluent are a recent occurrence which are likely due to changes in coal blends burned in the generating units. Ohio EPA determined the use designation of the receiving stream (Limited Resource Water) was being attained and a one-year biomonitoring program of the effluent detected no acute toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia or Daphnia magna. The water-effect ratio (WER) procedure was selected to develop a site-specific criterion maximum concentration for hexavalent chromium for the effluent's receiving stream. WER procedures followed those described in EPA's ''Interim Guidance on Determination and Use of Water-Effect Ratios for Metals'' (1994). Site water used in the WER determinations was undiluted effluent since the receiving stream originates at the discharge point of the outfall. 48-hour acute D. magna and 96-hour acute fathead minnow toxicity tests were selected as the primary and secondary tests, respectively for use in three seasonal WER determinations. The results of the three WER determinations and the status of the regulatory process will be presented

20. A Better Criterion for the Discharging Time in an RC Circuit

Science.gov (United States)

Lima, Fabio M. S.

2015-01-01

When all parts of an electric circuit are at the same potential, no electric current flows and it is said to be in equilibrium. Otherwise, a current will flow from the higher potential parts to the lower ones, as when we make contact between the plates of a charged capacitor. The resulting discharging process towards equilibrium is a common phenomenon in electricity labs, as well as a topic covered in introductory physics, but some questions are not answered, e.g., could we establish a good criterion for the "end" of the charge transfer process? If so, typically how long does it take for electric equilibrium to be reached? The absence of these questions in textbooks and lab manuals has bothered me since my own undergraduate studies because, as the usual theory, in which charge is treated as a continuous, rather than discrete, parameter, predicts an exponential decay for the charge stored in the capacitor, rigorously speaking we should wait an infinitely long time for finding a complete equilibrium.1 Fortunately, when teaching experimental physics last year, I was asked about these very questions, which motivated me to search for a simple answer that could be adopted universally for measuring the "lifetime" of any physical quantity that decays exponentially in time.

1. Criterion-based clinical audit in obstetrics: bridging the quality gap?

Science.gov (United States)

Graham, W J

2009-06-01

The Millennium Development Goal 5 - reducing maternal mortality by 75% - is unlikely to be met globally and for the majority of low-income countries. At this time of heightened concern to scale-up services for mothers and babies, it is crucial that not only shortfalls in the quantity of care - in terms of location and financial access - are addressed, but also the quality. Reductions in maternal and perinatal mortality in the immediate term depend in large part on the timely delivery of effective practices in the management of life-threatening complications. Such practices require a functioning health system - including skilled and motivated providers engaged with the women and communities whom they serve. Assuring the quality of this system, the services and the care that women receive requires many inputs, including effective and efficient monitoring mechanisms. The purpose of this article is to summarise the practical steps involved in applying one such mechanism, criterion-based clinical audit (CBCA), and to highlight recent lessons from its application in developing countries. Like all audit tools, the ultimate worth of CBCA relates to the action it stimulates in the health system and among providers.

2. Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Seed Plants Based on a Uniform π Criterion

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Bin Ai

2014-12-01

Full Text Available Despite substantial advances in genotyping techniques and massively accumulated data over the past half century, a uniform measurement of neutral genetic diversity derived by different molecular markers across a wide taxonomical range has not yet been formulated. We collected genetic diversity data on seed plants derived by AFLP, allozyme, ISSR, RAPD, SSR and nucleotide sequences, converted expected heterozygosity (He to nucleotide diversity (π, and reassessed the relationship between plant genetic diversity and life history traits or extinction risk. We successfully established a uniform π criterion and developed a comprehensive plant genetic diversity database. The mean population-level and species-level π values across seed plants were 0.00374 (966 taxa, 155 families, 47 orders and 0.00569 (728 taxa, 130 families, 46 orders, respectively. Significant differences were recovered for breeding system (p < 0.001 at the population level and geographic range (p = 0.023 at the species level. Selfing taxa had significantly lower π values than outcrossing and mixed-mating taxa, whereas narrowly distributed taxa had significantly lower π values than widely distributed taxa. Despite significant differences between the two extreme threat categories (critically endangered and least concern, the genetic diversity reduction on the way to extinction was difficult to detect in early stages.

3. Decision Trees for Continuous Data and Conditional Mutual Information as a Criterion for Splitting Instances.

Science.gov (United States)

Drakakis, Georgios; Moledina, Saadiq; Chomenidis, Charalampos; Doganis, Philip; Sarimveis, Haralambos

2016-01-01

Decision trees are renowned in the computational chemistry and machine learning communities for their interpretability. Their capacity and usage are somewhat limited by the fact that they normally work on categorical data. Improvements to known decision tree algorithms are usually carried out by increasing and tweaking parameters, as well as the post-processing of the class assignment. In this work we attempted to tackle both these issues. Firstly, conditional mutual information was used as the criterion for selecting the attribute on which to split instances. The algorithm performance was compared with the results of C4.5 (WEKA's J48) using default parameters and no restrictions. Two datasets were used for this purpose, DrugBank compounds for HRH1 binding prediction and Traditional Chinese Medicine formulation predicted bioactivities for therapeutic class annotation. Secondly, an automated binning method for continuous data was evaluated, namely Scott's normal reference rule, in order to allow any decision tree to easily handle continuous data. This was applied to all approved drugs in DrugBank for predicting the RDKit SLogP property, using the remaining RDKit physicochemical attributes as input.

4. Development of a Model for Dynamic Recrystallization Consistent with the Second Derivative Criterion.

Science.gov (United States)

Imran, Muhammad; Kühbach, Markus; Roters, Franz; Bambach, Markus

2017-11-02

Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) processes are widely used in industrial hot working operations, not only to keep the forming forces low but also to control the microstructure and final properties of the workpiece. According to the second derivative criterion (SDC) by Poliak and Jonas, the onset of DRX can be detected from an inflection point in the strain-hardening rate as a function of flow stress. Various models are available that can predict the evolution of flow stress from incipient plastic flow up to steady-state deformation in the presence of DRX. Some of these models have been implemented into finite element codes and are widely used for the design of metal forming processes, but their consistency with the SDC has not been investigated. This work identifies three sources of inconsistencies that models for DRX may exhibit. For a consistent modeling of the DRX kinetics, a new strain-hardening model for the hardening stages III to IV is proposed and combined with consistent recrystallization kinetics. The model is devised in the Kocks-Mecking space based on characteristic transition in the strain-hardening rate. A linear variation of the transition and inflection points is observed for alloy 800H at all tested temperatures and strain rates. The comparison of experimental and model results shows that the model is able to follow the course of the strain-hardening rate very precisely, such that highly accurate flow stress predictions are obtained.

5. ISAR Image Formation Based on Minimum Entropy Criterion and Fractional Fourier Transform

Science.gov (United States)

Conventional radar imaging systems use Fourier transform for image formation, but due to the target's complicated motion the Doppler spectrum is time-varying and thus the reconstructed image becomes blurred even after applying standard motion compensation algorithms. Therefore, sophisticated algorithms such as polar reformatting are usually employed to produce clear images. Alternatively, Joint Time-Frequency (JTF) analysis can be used for image formation which produces clear image without using polar reformatting algorithm. In this paper, a new JTF-based method is proposed for image formation in inverse synthetic aperture radars (ISAR). This method uses minimum entropy criterion for optimum parameter adjustment of JTF algorithms. Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) and Fractional Fourier Transform (FrFT) are applied as JTF for time-varying Doppler spectrum analysis. Both the width of Gaussian window of STFT and the order of FrFT, α, are adjusted using minimum entropy as local and total measures. Furthermore, a new statistical parameter, called normalized correlation, is defined for comparison of images reconstructed by different methods. Simulation results show that α-order FrFT with local adjustment has much better performance than the other methods in this category even in low SNR.

6. On signal design by the R sub 0 criterion for non-white Gaussian noise channels

Science.gov (United States)

Bordelon, D. L.

1976-01-01

The use of the R sub 0 criterion for modulation system design is investigated for channels with non-white Gaussian noise. A signal space representation of the waveform channel is developed, and the cut-off rate R sub 0 for vector channels with additive nonwhite Gaussian noise and unquantized demodulation is derived. When the signal unput to the channel is a continuous random vector, maximization of R sub 0 with constrained average signal energy leads to a water-filling interpretation of optimal energy distribution in signal space. The necessary condition for a finite signal set to maximize R sub 0 with constrained energy and an equally likely probability assignment of signal vectors is presented, and an algorithm is outlined for numerically computing the optimum signal set. A necessary condition on a constrained energy, finite signal set is found which maximizes a Taylor series approximation of R sub 0. This signal set is compared with the finite signal set which has the water-filling average energy distribution.

7. A Semi-analytic Criterion for the Spontaneous Initiation of Carbon Detonations in White Dwarfs

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Garg, Uma; Chang, Philip, E-mail: umagarg@uwm.edu, E-mail: chang65@uwm.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 3135 North Maryland Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States)

2017-02-20

Despite over 40 years of active research, the nature of the white dwarf progenitors of SNe Ia remains unclear. However, in the last decade, various progenitor scenarios have highlighted the need for detonations to be the primary mechanism by which these white dwarfs are consumed, but it is unclear how these detonations are triggered. In this paper we study how detonations are spontaneously initiated due to temperature inhomogeneities, e.g., hotspots, in burning nuclear fuel in a simplified physical scenario. Following the earlier work by Zel’Dovich, we describe the physics of detonation initiation in terms of the comparison between the spontaneous wave speed and the Chapman–Jouguet speed. We develop an analytic expression for the spontaneous wave speed and utilize it to determine a semi-analytic criterion for the minimum size of a hotspot with a linear temperature gradient between a peak and base temperature for which detonations in burning carbon–oxygen material can occur. Our results suggest that spontaneous detonations may easily form under a diverse range of conditions, likely allowing a number of progenitor scenarios to initiate detonations that burn up the star.

8. A Failure Criterion for Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Based on Molecular Mechanics

Science.gov (United States)

Avila, Antonio; Lacerda, Guilherme

2008-03-01

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are the natural choice for high performance materials. The problem, however, rises when the experimental data are compared against each other. The large variability of experimental data lead to development of a new set of numerical simulations called molecular mechanics, which is a symbiotic'' association of molecular dynamics and solid mechanics. This papers deals with a molecular mechanics simulations of single-walled carbon nanotubes. Three SWNT configurations and its combinations were simulated, i.e. armchair, zigzag and chiral. The failure criterion introduced is based on modified Morse's potential with dissociation energy of 124 Kcal/mol and an inflection point considered is around 13% of strain. The numerical data are in good agreement with data from Belytschko et al. (2002) where the failure occurred at 10.6% strain at 65.2 GPa of stress. To be able to identify the highest stress concentration region, one end of the SWNT all degrees-of-freedom were fixed and a prescribed axial displacement was applied at the opposite end. The Sadoc (chiral-chiral) configuration had the highest stress at the smallest chiral SWNT. For the Dunlap configuration (chiral-zigzag) the highest stress occurred at chiral part close to the pentagon location.

9. Analysis Of Hydro Formed Complex Shape Parts Using A Ductile Fracture Criterion

Science.gov (United States)

Palumbo, G.; Pinto, S.; Sorgente, D.; Tricarico, L.

2004-06-01

Nowadays the Hydro Forming techniques have been largely accepted by industries for the production of components characterized by complex shape, good surface quality, near net shape and low volume batch. In particular the Sheet Hydro Forming (SHF) process offers the possibility of no restrictions in the final shape of the part. This is the reason why a deeper investigation on the chance of using the SHF process for the production of complex shaped parts could be of great interest. In this work, the authors have considered as case of study a compound part which is made of a cylindrical region (the base) connected to a square part (the protrusion). Experimental and numerical activities have been performed. In particular, a commercial Finite Element (FE) code has been chosen to simulate the SHF process; a stress-strain based damage variable according to the Oh's criterion (derived from the Cockroft and Latham one) has been also used to evaluate the process limits. The Critical Damage Value (CDV) of the steel adopted for the analysis (AISI 304) has been set using experimental test results. The critical regions and the blank thinning have been analyzed for different geometrical configurations of the compound die cavity. Thus, a complexity shape factor has been defined.

10. Parents' and Adolescents' Perspectives on Parenting: Evaluating Conceptual Structure, Measurement Invariance, and Criterion Validity.

Science.gov (United States)

Janssens, Annelies; Goossens, Luc; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine; Van Leeuwen, Karla

2015-08-01

Uncertainty persists regarding adequate measurement of parenting behavior during early adolescence. The present study aimed to clarify the conceptual structure of parenting by evaluating three different models that include support, psychological control, and various types of behavioral control (i.e., proactive, punitive, and harsh punitive control). Furthermore, we examined measurement invariance of parenting ratings by 1,111 Flemish adolescents from Grade 7 till 9, their mother, and father. Finally, criterion validity of parenting ratings was estimated in relation to adolescent problem behavior. Results supported a five-factor parenting model indicating multiple aspects of behavioral control, with punitive and harsh punitive control as more intrusive forms and proactive control as a more supportive form. Similar constructs were measured for adolescents, mothers, and fathers (i.e., configural and metric invariance), however on a different scale (i.e., scalar noninvariance). Future research and clinical practices should acknowledge these findings in order to fully grasp the parenting process. © The Author(s) 2014.

11. A New Criterion to Evaluate Water Vapor Interference in Protein Secondary Structural Analysis by FTIR Spectroscopy

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ye Zou

2014-06-01

Full Text Available Second derivative and Fourier self-deconvolution (FSD are two commonly used techniques to resolve the overlapped component peaks from the often featureless amide I band in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR curve-fitting approach for protein secondary structural analysis. Yet, the reliability of these two techniques is greatly affected by the omnipresent water vapor in the atmosphere. Several criteria are currently in use as quality controls to ensure the protein absorption spectrum is negligibly affected by water vapor interference. In this study, through a second derivative study of liquid water, we first argue that the previously established criteria cannot guarantee a reliable evaluation of water vapor interference due to a phenomenon that we refer to as sample’s absorbance-dependent water vapor interference. Then, through a comparative study of protein and liquid water, we show that a protein absorption spectrum can still be significantly affected by water vapor interference even though it satisfies the established criteria. At last, we propose to use the comparison between the second derivative spectra of protein and liquid water as a new criterion to better evaluate water vapor interference for more reliable second derivative and FSD treatments on the protein amide I band.

12. Proposed criterion for distinguishing ABO mosaics from ABO chimeras using flow cytometric analysis.

Science.gov (United States)

Oda, Akira; Matsuyama, Nobuki; Hirashima, Mizuko; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Keiko; Matsukura, Harumichi; Hirayama, Fumiya; Kawa, Keisei; Fukumori, Yasuo

2015-01-01

Differentiation of ABO mosaics from chimeras is performed using flow cytometry (FCM) analysis. Although mosaics and chimeras have been distinguished by presence or absence of clear resolution using FCM analysis, the lack of quantitative metrics and definitive criteria for this differentiation has made some cases difficult to differentiate. In this study, therefore, we attempted to establish a definitive and quantitative criterion for this differentiation. When FCM histogram gates for group "A" or "B" antigen-negative and -positive red blood cells (RBCs) were set such that group O RBCs were classified as 99 percent negative and group A or B RBCs as 99 percent positive, the percentages of RBCs in the middle region of six chimeras and 23 mosaics (12 A mosaics and 11 B mosaics) were 0.1-0.6 percent and 7.0-19.0 percent, respectively. This results suggested that ABO mosaics and chimeras can be unambiguously differentiated when the cutoff point of the intermediate region is set to 1 percent.

13. Irreducibility and co-primeness as an integrability criterion for discrete equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kanki, Masataka; Mada, Jun; Mase, Takafumi; Tokihiro, Tetsuji

2014-01-01

We study the Laurent property, the irreducibility and co-primeness of discrete integrable and non-integrable equations. First we study a discrete integrable equation related to the Somos-4 sequence, and also a non-integrable equation as a comparison. We prove that the conditions of irreducibility and co-primeness hold only in the integrable case. Next, we generalize our previous results on the singularities of the discrete Korteweg–de Vries (dKdV) equation. In our previous paper (Kanki et al 2014 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 47 065201) we described the singularity confinement test (one of the integrability criteria) using the Laurent property, and the irreducibility, and co-primeness of the terms in the bilinear dKdV equation, in which we only considered simplified boundary conditions. This restriction was needed to obtain simple (monomial) relations between the bilinear form and the nonlinear form of the dKdV equation. In this paper, we prove the co-primeness of the terms in the nonlinear dKdV equation for general initial conditions and boundary conditions, by using the localization of Laurent rings and the interchange of the axes. We assert that co-primeness of the terms can be used as a new integrability criterion, which is a mathematical re-interpretation of the confinement of singularities in the case of discrete equations. (paper)

14. Criterion and construct validity of the CogState Schizophrenia Battery in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Taisuke Yoshida

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The CogState Schizophrenia Battery (CSB, a computerized cognitive battery, covers all the same cognitive domains as the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery but is briefer to conduct. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the criterion and construct validity of the Japanese language version of the CSB (CSB-J in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty Japanese patients with schizophrenia and 40 Japanese healthy controls with matching age, gender, and premorbid intelligence quotient were enrolled. The CSB-J and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Japanese-language version (BACS-J were performed once. The structure of the CSB-J was also evaluated by a factor analysis. Similar to the BACS-J, the CSB-J was sensitive to cognitive impairment in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between the CSB-J composite score and the BACS-J composite score. A factor analysis showed a three-factor model consisting of memory, speed, and social cognition factors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggests that the CSB-J is a useful and rapid automatically administered computerized battery for assessing broad cognitive domains in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

15. Low beta rigid mode stability criterion for an arbitrary Larmor radius plasma

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Berk, H.L.; Wong, H.V.

1987-05-01

The low beta flute interchange dispersion relation for rigid displacement perturbation of axisymmetric plasma equilibria with arbitrary Larmor radius particles and field line curvature, large compared to the plasma radius, is derived. The equilibrium particle orbits are characterized by two constants of motion, energy and angular momentum, and a third adiabatic invariant derived from the rapid radial motion. The Vlasov equation is integrated, assuming that the mode frequency, axial ''bounce'' frequency, and particle drift frequency are small compared to the cyclotron frequency, and it is demonstrated that the plasma response to a rigid perturbation has a universal character independent of Larmor radius. As a result the interchange instability is the same as that predicted from conventional MHD theory. However, a new prediction, more optimistic than earlier work, is found for the low density threshold of systems like Migma, which are disc-shaped, that is, the axial extent Δz is less than the radial extent r 0 . For Δz/sub r 0 / much less than 1, the stability criterion is determined by the total particle number. Whereas the older theory (Δz/sub r 0 / much greater than 1) predicted instability at about the densities achieved in actual Migma experiments, the present theory (Δz/sub r 0 / much less than 1) indicates that the experimental results were for plasmas with particle number below the interchange threshold

16. Study of a design criterion for 316L irradiated represented by a strain hardened material

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gouin, H.

1999-01-01

17. Nuclear power plant control room ventilation system design for meeting general criterion 19

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Murphy, K.G.; Campe, K.M.

1975-01-01

The requirement for protection of control room personnel against radiation is specified in General Design Criterion 19 of Appendix A, 10 CFR Part 50. The evaluation of a control room design, especially its emergency ventilation system, with respect to radiation protection primarily consists of determining the radiation doses to control room personnel under accident conditions. The accident dose assessment involves modeling and evaluation of radiological source terms, atmospheric transport of airborne activity, and protection features of the control room ventilation system. Some of the assumptions and conservatisms used in the dose analyses are based on the technical review experience of existing or proposed control room designs. A review of over 50 control room designs has revealed a great variety of design concepts, not all of which seem to have been based on radiation protection criteria. A summary of the basic control room protection requirements, design features, dose acceptance criteria, and an outline of the methods used by the Regulatory staff for accident dose evaluation are presented. (U.S.)

18. Asymptotic Effectiveness of the Event-Based Sampling According to the Integral Criterion

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Marek Miskowicz

2007-01-01

Full Text Available A rapid progress in intelligent sensing technology creates new interest in a development of analysis and design of non-conventional sampling schemes. The investigation of the event-based sampling according to the integral criterion is presented in this paper. The investigated sampling scheme is an extension of the pure linear send-on- delta/level-crossing algorithm utilized for reporting the state of objects monitored by intelligent sensors. The motivation of using the event-based integral sampling is outlined. The related works in adaptive sampling are summarized. The analytical closed-form formulas for the evaluation of the mean rate of event-based traffic, and the asymptotic integral sampling effectiveness, are derived. The simulation results verifying the analytical formulas are reported. The effectiveness of the integral sampling is compared with the related linear send-on-delta/level-crossing scheme. The calculation of the asymptotic effectiveness for common signals, which model the state evolution of dynamic systems in time, is exemplified.

19. Subpixel edge localization with reduced uncertainty by violating the Nyquist criterion

Science.gov (United States)

Heidingsfelder, Philipp; Gao, Jun; Wang, Kun; Ott, Peter

2014-12-01

In this contribution, the extent to which the Nyquist criterion can be violated in optical imaging systems with a digital sensor, e.g., a digital microscope, is investigated. In detail, we analyze the subpixel uncertainty of the detected position of a step edge, the edge of a stripe with a varying width, and that of a periodic rectangular pattern for varying pixel pitches of the sensor, thus also in aliased conditions. The analysis includes the investigation of different algorithms of edge localization based on direct fitting or based on the derivative of the edge profile, such as the common centroid method. In addition to the systematic error of these algorithms, the influence of the photon noise (PN) is included in the investigation. A simplified closed form solution for the uncertainty of the edge position caused by the PN is derived. The presented results show that, in the vast majority of cases, the pixel pitch can exceed the Nyquist sampling distance by about 50% without an increase of the uncertainty of edge localization. This allows one to increase the field-of-view without increasing the resolution of the sensor and to decrease the size of the setup by reducing the magnification. Experimental results confirm the simulation results.

20. Fuzzy Wavelet Neural Network Using a Correntropy Criterion for Nonlinear System Identification

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Leandro L. S. Linhares

2015-01-01

Full Text Available Recent researches have demonstrated that the Fuzzy Wavelet Neural Networks (FWNNs are an efficient tool to identify nonlinear systems. In these structures, features related to fuzzy logic, wavelet functions, and neural networks are combined in an architecture similar to the Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS. In practical applications, the experimental data set used in the identification task often contains unknown noise and outliers, which decrease the FWNN model reliability. In order to reduce the negative effects of these erroneous measurements, this work proposes the direct use of a similarity measure based on information theory in the FWNN learning procedure. The Mean Squared Error (MSE cost function is replaced by the Maximum Correntropy Criterion (MCC in the traditional error backpropagation (BP algorithm. The input-output maps of a real nonlinear system studied in this work are identified from an experimental data set corrupted by different outliers rates and additive white Gaussian noise. The results demonstrate the advantages of the proposed cost function using the MCC as compared to the MSE. This work also investigates the influence of the kernel size on the performance of the MCC in the BP algorithm, since it is the only free parameter of correntropy.

1. Robust and stable gene selection via Maximum-Minimum Correntropy Criterion.

Science.gov (United States)

2016-03-01

One of the central challenges in cancer research is identifying significant genes among thousands of others on a microarray. Since preventing outbreak and progression of cancer is the ultimate goal in bioinformatics and computational biology, detection of genes that are most involved is vital and crucial. In this article, we propose a Maximum-Minimum Correntropy Criterion (MMCC) approach for selection of informative genes from microarray data sets which is stable, fast and robust against diverse noise and outliers and competitively accurate in comparison with other algorithms. Moreover, via an evolutionary optimization process, the optimal number of features for each data set is determined. Through broad experimental evaluation, MMCC is proved to be significantly better compared to other well-known gene selection algorithms for 25 commonly used microarray data sets. Surprisingly, high accuracy in classification by Support Vector Machine (SVM) is achieved by less than 10 genes selected by MMCC in all of the cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2. Criterion for obtaining thallium HTSC ceramics for targets with Tc(R = 0) = 125 K

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shchetkin, I.S.; Abramov, N.V.

1994-01-01

The phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity (HTSC) in systems based on yttrium Y-Ba-Cu-O, bismuth Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O, and on an entire family of thallium superconductors with the common formula Tl m Ba 2 Ca n-1 Cu n O 2n+2+m , where m = 1,2; n = 1, 2, 3 aroused considerable interest among scientists around the world. Among thallium ceramics the composition Tl 2 Ba 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x (2223) has the highest critical temperature of full superconduction transition: T c 0 ∼ 125 K. In this work, the authors present a modified two-stage method of sintering thallium ceramics using complete sealing at the second stage. The study of the correlation between the technology, the phase composition, structure, critical temperature of the superconduction transition, and the physical characteristics of ceramics with the composition Tl 2 Ba 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x 7 enabled the authors to establish a criterion of obtaining superconductors with the temperature of full transition to the superconducting state T c 0 = 125 K. 2 figs

3. Emotional intelligence: an admission criterion alternative to cumulative grade point averages for prelicensure students.

Science.gov (United States)

Jones-Schenk, Jan; Harper, Mary G

2014-03-01

4. Fracture criterion for brittle materials based on statistical cells of finite volume

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cords, H.; Kleist, G.; Zimmermann, R.

1986-06-01

An analytical consideration of the Weibull Statistical Analysis of brittle materials established the necessity of including one additional material constant for a more comprehensive description of the failure behaviour. The Weibull analysis is restricted to infinitesimal volume elements in consequence of the differential calculus applied. It was found that infinitesimally small elements are in conflict with the basic statistical assumption and that the differential calculus is not needed in fact since nowadays most of the stress analyses are based on finite element calculations, and these are most suitable for a subsequent statistical analysis of strength. The size of a finite statistical cell has been introduced as the third material parameter. It should represent the minimum volume containing all statistical features of the material such as distribution of pores, flaws and grains. The new approach also contains a unique treatment of failure under multiaxial stresses. The quantity responsible for failure under multiaxial stresses is introduced as a modified strain energy. Sixteen different tensile specimens including CT-specimens have been investigated experimentally and analyzed with the probabilistic fracture criterion. As a result it can be stated that the failure rates of all types of specimens made from three different grades of graphite are predictable. The accuracy of the prediction is one standard deviation. (orig.) [de

5. Modeling the Impact of Test Anxiety and Test Familiarity on the Criterion-Related Validity of Cognitive Ability Tests

Science.gov (United States)

Reeve, Charlie L.; Heggestad, Eric D.; Lievens, Filip

2009-01-01

The assessment of cognitive abilities, whether it is for purposes of basic research or applied decision making, is potentially susceptible to both facilitating and debilitating influences. However, relatively little research has examined the degree to which these factors might moderate the criterion-related validity of cognitive ability tests. To…

6. Technical issues affecting the implementation of US environmental protection agency's proposed fish tissue-based aquatic criterion for selenium

Science.gov (United States)

A. Dennis Lemly; Joseph P. Skorupa

2007-01-01

The US Environmental Protection Agency is developing a national water quality criterion for selenium that is based on concentrations of the element in fish tissue. Although this approach offers advantages over the current water-based regulations, it also presents new challenges with respect to implementation. A comprehensive protocol that answers the ââwhat, where, and...

7. The provisional ACR/EULAR definition of remission in RA: a comment on the patient global assessment criterion

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Vermeer, M.; Kuper, Hillechina H.; van der Bijl, Arie E.; Baan, H.; Posthumus, Marcel D.; Brus, Herman L.M.; van Riel, Piet L.C.M.; van de Laar, Mart A F J

2012-01-01

Objectives. The provisional ACR/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) definition of remission in RA requires a score of ≤1 on the patient global assessment (PGA, 0–10 scale). We explored the relation between the PGA criterion and the patient's clinical disease state in an observational dataset.

8. The provisional ACR/EULAR definition of remission in RA : a comment on the patient global assessment criterion

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Vermeer, Marloes; Kuper, Hillechiena H.; van der Bijl, Arie E.; Baan, Henriette; Posthumus, Marcel D.; Brus, Herman L. M.; van Riel, Piet L. C. M.; van de Laar, Mart A. F. J.

Objectives. The provisional ACR/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) definition of remission in RA requires a score of 41 on the patient global assessment (PGA, 0-10 scale). We explored the relation between the PGA criterion and the patient's clinical disease state in an observational dataset.

9. Evaluation of the Barr & Stroud FP15 and Criterion 400 laser dendrometers for measuring upper stem diameters and heights

Science.gov (United States)

Michael S. Williams; Kenneth L. Cormier; Ronald G. Briggs; Donald L. Martinez

1999-01-01

Calibrated Barr & Stroud FP15 and Criterion 400 laser dendrometers were tested for reliability in measuring upper stem diameters and heights under typical field conditions. Data were collected in the Black Hills National Forest, which covers parts of South Dakota and Wyoming in the United States. Mixed effects models were employed to account for differences between...

10. Interpretation of ongoing thermal response tests of vertical (BHE) borehole heat exchangers with predictive uncertainty based stopping criterion

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Alberdi Pagola, Maria

2015-01-01

A method for real-time interpretation of ongoing thermal response tests of vertical borehole heat exchangers is presented. The method utilizes a statistically based stopping criterion for ongoing tests. The study finds minimum testing times for synthetic and actual TRTs to be in the interval 12–2...

11. Multi-Criterion Two-Sided Matching of Public–Private Partnership Infrastructure Projects: Criteria and Methods

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Ru Liang

2018-04-01

Full Text Available Two kinds of evaluative criteria are associated with Public–Private Partnership (PPP infrastructure projects, i.e., private evaluative criteria and public evaluative criteria. These evaluative criteria are inversely related, that is, the higher the public benefits; the lower the private surplus. To balance evaluative criteria in the Two-Sided Matching (TSM decision, this paper develops a quantitative matching decision model to select an optimal matching scheme for PPP infrastructure projects based on the Hesitant Fuzzy Set (HFS under unknown evaluative criterion weights. In the model, HFS is introduced to describe values of the evaluative criteria and multi-criterion information is fully considered given by groups. The optimal model is built and solved by maximizing the whole deviation of each criterion so that the evaluative criterion weights are determined objectively. Then, the match-degree of the two sides is calculated and a multi-objective optimization model is introduced to select an optimal matching scheme via a min-max approach. The results provide new insights and implications of the influence on evaluative criteria in the TSM decision.

12. A focused information criterion for graphical models in fMRI connectivity with high-dimensional data

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Pircalabelu, E.; Claeskens, G.; Jahfari, S.; Waldorp, L.J.

2015-01-01

Connectivity in the brain is the most promising approach to explain human behavior. Here we develop a focused information criterion for graphical models to determine brain connectivity tailored to specific research questions. All efforts are concentrated on high-dimensional settings where the number

13. An Investigation of the Validity of the Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Mastery Decisions in Criterion-Referenced Testing.

Science.gov (United States)

Frick, Theodore W.

The sequential probability ratio test (SPRT), developed by Abraham Wald, is one statistical model available for making mastery decisions during computer-based criterion referenced tests. The predictive validity of the SPRT was empirically investigated with two different and relatively large item pools with heterogeneous item parameters. Graduate…

14. da Vinci skills simulator for assessing learning curve and criterion-based training of robotic basic skills.

Science.gov (United States)

Brinkman, Willem M; Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Kengen, Bas; Schout, Barbara M A; Witjes, J Alfred; Bekkers, Ruud L

2013-03-01

To answer 2 research questions: what are the learning curve patterns of novices on the da Vinci skills simulator parameters and what parameters are appropriate for criterion-based robotic training. A total of 17 novices completed 2 simulator sessions within 3 days. Each training session consisted of a warming-up exercise, followed by 5 repetitions of the "ring and rail II" task. Expert participants (n = 3) performed a warming-up exercise and 3 repetitions of the "ring and rail II" task on 1 day. We analyzed all 9 parameters of the simulator. Significant learning occurred on 5 parameters: overall score, time to complete, instrument collision, instruments out of view, and critical errors within 1-10 repetitions (P motion and excessive instrument force only showed improvement within the first 5 repetitions. No significant learning on the parameter drops and master workspace range was found. Using the expert overall performance score (n = 3) as a criterion (overall score 90%), 9 of 17 novice participants met the criterion within 10 repetitions. Most parameters showed that basic robotic skills are learned relatively quickly using the da Vinci skills simulator, but that 10 repetitions were not sufficient for most novices to reach an expert level. Some parameters seemed inappropriate for expert-based criterion training because either no learning occurred or the novice performance was equal to expert performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

15. da Vinci Skills Simulator for Assessing Learning Curve and Criterion-based Training of Robotic Basic Skills

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Brinkman, W.M.; Luursema, J.M.; Kengen, B.; Schout, B.M.; Witjes, J.A.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

2013-01-01

OBJECTIVE: To answer 2 research questions: what are the learning curve patterns of novices on the da Vinci skills simulator parameters and what parameters are appropriate for criterion-based robotic training. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 17 novices completed 2 simulator sessions within 3 days.

16. Assessment of structural integrity of Monju steel liner against sodium leakage and combustion. Strain criterion of the liner material

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Asayama, T.; Koi, M. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)

2001-07-01

In a postulated condition of sodium leakage and combustion in the secondary heat transfer system of the prototype Japanese fast breeder reactor Monju, thermal stresses raise in steel liners installed to prevent sodium from contacting to concrete. Excessive strain due to the thermal stresses leads to failure of the liner. This paper proposes a strain criterion below that the mechanical integrity of liner is assured. In-plane thermal expansion causes membrane strain and out-of-plane expansion causes bending strain. Therefore, failure modes to be taken into account are tensile fracture and bending fracture. The strain criterion can be determined based on tensile and bending tests. Tensile tests and three-point bending tests were performed at the temperature range from room temperature to 1000 C. Fracture elongation was measured in both tests. Uniform elongation was also measured in tensile tests. Various factors that can affect the above experimental results, multi-axiality, environmental effects, and creep were examined. Based on the above results, the strain criterion was determined. The criterion is 10% for membrane strain and 30% for membrane plus bending strain in the temperature range of 350 C to 1000 C. For the temperatures less than 350 C, the half of those values is used. (author)

17. Proposing a model for safety risk assessment in the construction industry using gray multi-criterion decision-making

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

S. M. Abootorabi

2014-09-01

Full Text Available Introduction: Statistical Report of the Social Security Organization indicate that among the various industries, the construction industry has the highest number of work-related accidents so that in addition to frequency, it has high intensity, as well. On the other hand, a large number of human resources are working in this whish shows they necessity for paying special attention to these workers. Therefore, risk assessment of the safety in the construction industry is an effective step in this regard. In this study, a method for ranking safety risks in conditions of low number of samples and uncertainty is presented, using gray multi-criterion decision-making. .Material and Method: In this study, we first identified the factors affecting the occurrence of hazards in the construction industry. Then, appropriate for ranking the risks were determined and the problem was defined as a multi-criterion decision-making. In order to weight the criteria and to evaluate alternatives based on each criterion, gray numbers were used. In the last stage, the problem was solved using the gray possibility degree. .Results: The results show that the method of gray multi-criterion decision-making is an effective method for ranking risks in situations of low samples compared with other methods of MCDM. .Conclusion: The proposed method is preferred to fuzzy methods and statistics in uncertain and low sample size, due to simple calculations and no need to define the membership function.

18. Electronic Devices, Methods, and Computer Program Products for Selecting an Antenna Element Based on a Wireless Communication Performance Criterion

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

2014-01-01

A method of operating an electronic device includes providing a plurality of antenna elements, evaluating a wireless communication performance criterion to obtain a performance evaluation, and assigning a first one of the plurality of antenna elements to a main wireless signal reception and trans...

19. Criterion-Related Validity of Sit-and-Reach Tests for Estimating Hamstring and Lumbar Extensibility: a Meta-Analysis.

Science.gov (United States)

Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Merino-Marban, Rafael; Viciana, Jesús

2014-01-01

The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the scientific literature on the criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach tests for estimating hamstring and lumbar extensibility. For this purpose relevant studies were searched from seven electronic databases dated up through December 2012. Primary outcomes of criterion-related validity were Pearson´s zero-order correlation coefficients (r) between sit-and-reach tests and hamstrings and/or lumbar extensibility criterion measures. Then, from the included studies, the Hunter- Schmidt´s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate population criterion- related validity of sit-and-reach tests. Firstly, the corrected correlation mean (rp), unaffected by statistical artefacts (i.e., sampling error and measurement error), was calculated separately for each sit-and-reach test. Subsequently, the three potential moderator variables (sex of participants, age of participants, and level of hamstring extensibility) were examined by a partially hierarchical analysis. Of the 34 studies included in the present meta-analysis, 99 correlations values across eight sit-and-reach tests and 51 across seven sit-and-reach tests were retrieved for hamstring and lumbar extensibility, respectively. The overall results showed that all sit-and-reach tests had a moderate mean criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility (rp = 0.46-0.67), but they had a low mean for estimating lumbar extensibility (rp = 0. 16-0.35). Generally, females, adults and participants with high levels of hamstring extensibility tended to have greater mean values of criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility. When the use of angular tests is limited such as in a school setting or in large scale studies, scientists and practitioners could use the sit-and-reach tests as a useful alternative for hamstring extensibility estimation, but not for estimating lumbar extensibility. Key PointsOverall sit

20. Criterion-Related Validity of the 20-M Shuttle Run Test for Estimating Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Meta-Analysis

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Daniel Mayorga-Vega, Pablo Aguilar-Soto, Jesús Viciana

2015-09-01

Full Text Available The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. Relevant studies were searched from twelve electronic databases up to December 2014, as well as from several alternative modes of searching. The Hunter-Schmidt’s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate the population criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test. From 57 studies that were included in the present meta-analysis, a total of 78 correlation values were analyzed. The overall results showed that the performance score of the 20-m shuttle run test had a moderate-to-high criterion-related validity for estimating maximum oxygen uptake (rp = 0.66-0.84, being higher when other variables (e.g. sex, age or body mass were used (rp = 0.78-0.95. The present meta-analysis also showed that the criterion-related validity of Léger’s protocol was statistically higher for adults (rp = 0.94, 0.87-1.00 than for children (rp = 0.78, 0.72-0.85. However, sex and maximum oxygen uptake level do not seem to affect the criterion-related validity values. When an individual’s maximum oxygen uptake attained during a laboratory-based test is not feasible, the 20-m shuttle run test seems to be a useful alternative for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. In adults the performance score only seems to be a strong estimator of cardiorespiratory fitness, in contrast among children the performance score should be combined with other variables. Nevertheless, as in the application of any physical fitness field test, evaluators must be aware that the performance score of the 20-m shuttle run test is simply an estimation and not a direct measure of cardiorespiratory fitness.

1. An existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality in the works of Carl Jung and Carl Rogers

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Kapustin, Sergey A.

2016-06-01

Full Text Available This article is the third in a series of four articles scheduled for publication in this journal. In the first article (Kapustin, 2015a I proposed a description of a new so-called existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality that is implicitly present in the works of Erich Fromm. According to this criterion, normal and abnormal personalities are determined, first, by special features of the content of their position regarding existential dichotomies that are natural to human beings and, second, by particular aspects of the formation of this position. Such dichotomies, entitatively existent in all human life, are inherent, two-alternative contradictions. The position of a normal personality in its content orients a person toward a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and necessitates a search for compromise in resolving these dichotomies. This position is created on a rational basis with the person’s active participation. The position of an abnormal personality in its content subjectively denies a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and orients a person toward a consistent, noncompetitive, and, as a consequence, onesided way of life that doesn’t include self-determination. This position is imposed by other people on an irrational basis. Abnormality of personality interpreted like that is one of the most important factors influencing the development of various kinds of psychological problems and mental disorders — primarily, neurosis. In the second article (Kapustin, 2015b I showed that this criterion is also implicitly present in the personality theories of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler, although in more specific cases. In the current work I prove that this criterion is also present in the personality theories of Carl Jung and Carl Rogers, where it is implicitly stated in a more specific way. In the final article I will show that this criterion

2. The role of Criterion A2 in the DSM-IV diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder

Science.gov (United States)

Karam, Elie George; Andrews, Gavin; Bromet, Evelyn; Petukhova, Maria; Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Salamoun, Mariana; Sampson, Nancy; Stein, Dan J.; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Angermeyer, Matthias; Demyttenaere, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Kaminer, Debra; Kotov, Roman; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean Pierre; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Posada-Villa, José; Sagar, Rajesh; Shalev, Arieh Y.; Takeshima, Tadashi; Tomov, Toma; Kessler, Ronald C.

2011-01-01

Background Controversy exists about the utility of DSM-IV post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Criterion A2: that exposure to a potentially traumatic experience (PTE; PTSD Criterion A1) is accompanied by intense fear, helplessness, or horror. Methods Lifetime DSM-IV PTSD was assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview in community surveys of 52,826 respondents across 21 countries in the World Mental Health Surveys. Results 37.6% of 28,490 representative PTEs reported by respondents met Criterion A2, a proportion higher than the proportions meeting other criteria (B-F; 5.4-9.6%). Conditional prevalence of meeting all other criteria for a diagnosis of PTSD given a PTE was significantly higher in the presence (9.7%) than absence (0.1%) of A2. However, as only 1.4% of respondents who met all other criteria failed A2, the estimated prevalence of PTSD increased only slightly (from 3.64% to 3.69%) when A2 was not required for diagnosis. PTSD with or without Criterion A2 did not differ in persistence or predicted consequences (subsequent suicidal ideation or secondary disorders) depending on presence-absence of A2. Furthermore, as A2 was by far the most commonly reported symptom of PTSD, initial assessment of A2 would be much less efficient than screening other criteria in quickly ruling out a large proportion of non-cases. Conclusion Removal of A2 from the DSM-IV criterion set would reduce the complexity of diagnosing PTSD while not substantially increasing the number of people who qualify for diagnosis. A2 should consequently be reconceptualized as a risk factor for PTSD rather than as a diagnostic requirement. PMID:20599189

3. Usefulness of hemoglobin A1c as a criterion of dysglycemia in the definition of metabolic syndrome in Koreans.

Science.gov (United States)

Kim, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Chul-Hee; Kim, Eun-Hee; Bae, Sung-Jin; Park, Joong-Yeol

2012-03-01

To explore the utility of the HbA1c criterion in the definition of metabolic syndrome (MS) in Koreans, we cross-sectionally analyzed clinical and laboratory data on 11,293 non-diabetic Korean adults (aged 20-89 years, 34% women) collected during regular health checkups. Dysglycemia was defined as either fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 5.6 mmol/l or HbA1c ≥ 5.7%. The prevalence of MS as judged by the HbA1c criterion alone (17.8%) was significantly less than that determined by FPG level alone (24.5%). Use of a combination of both criteria slightly increased the prevalence of MS (26.0%). Among the 2953 subjects categorized as having MS using the combined criteria, 929 (31%) were diagnosed by the FPG criterion alone, 177 (6%) by the HbA1c criterion alone, and 1847 (63%) using both criteria. The group diagnosed using FPG values alone had significantly higher BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma insulin levels, and insulin resistance index compared with those in the group diagnosed using HbA1c levels alone. In men, the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was significantly higher and the HDL-cholesterol level was lower in the HbA1c-alone group. Therefore, employment of the HbA1c criterion may be useful to define MS in subjects at increased risk for atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

4. [The early expressive vocabulary size in simultaneous bilingual growing-up infants - a diagnostic relevant criterion?].

Science.gov (United States)

Kiese-Himmel, C; Sellner, L; Bockmann, A-K

2013-08-01

Bilingual young children's early expressive vocabulary size and its composition (as one domain of the language development) should be examined to find out whether children with a risk for delayed language development may be identified in this way. 30 bilingual kindergarten infants from Berlin (with simultaneous language acquisition; second language German) and 30 monolingual German infants from the greater areas of Stuttgart and Heidelberg were pair matched (mean chronological age 22.5 [SD 3.1] months; min 16; max 26). The German expressive vocabulary checklist Elternfragebogen zur Wort-schatzentwicklung im frühen Kindesalter (ELAN; Bockmann & Kiese-Himmel, 2006) was filled out by all parents. In addition, parents of bilingual infants completed the adaption of the German vocabulary checklist Sprachbeurteilung durch Eltern (SBE-2-KT; v. Suchodoletz & Sachse, 2008) for the second mother tongue. The monolinguals' word sum in the ELAN (145.7; SD 75.8) differed significantly (p=0.001) from the bilinguals' word sum (78.3; SD 78.9 words). In contrast, bilinguals did not significantly differ in their overall expressive vocabulary size (ELAN+SBE-2-KT: 101.2; SD 77.0 words) from their monolingual counterparts (ELAN). Because bilinguals had a similar sized overall early vocabulary (both languages) like monolingual German-learning infants, the diagnostic criterion to identify late talkers with 24 months of age (less than 50 German words and no word combinations) should not be applied to bilingually infants with simultaneously double language acquisition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

5. Towards quantized number theory: spectral operators and an asymmetric criterion for the Riemann hypothesis.

Science.gov (United States)

Lapidus, Michel L

2015-08-06

This research expository article not only contains a survey of earlier work but also contains a main new result, which we first describe. Given c≥0, the spectral operator [Formula: see text] can be thought of intuitively as the operator which sends the geometry onto the spectrum of a fractal string of dimension not exceeding c. Rigorously, it turns out to coincide with a suitable quantization of the Riemann zeta function ζ=ζ(s): a=ζ(∂), where ∂=∂(c) is the infinitesimal shift of the real line acting on the weighted Hilbert space [Formula: see text]. In this paper, we establish a new asymmetric criterion for the Riemann hypothesis (RH), expressed in terms of the invertibility of the spectral operator for all values of the dimension parameter [Formula: see text] (i.e. for all c in the left half of the critical interval (0,1)). This corresponds (conditionally) to a mathematical (and perhaps also, physical) 'phase transition' occurring in the midfractal case when [Formula: see text]. Both the universality and the non-universality of ζ=ζ(s) in the right (resp., left) critical strip [Formula: see text] (resp., [Formula: see text]) play a key role in this context. These new results are presented here. We also briefly discuss earlier joint work on the complex dimensions of fractal strings, and we survey earlier related work of the author with Maier and with Herichi, respectively, in which were established symmetric criteria for the RH, expressed, respectively, in terms of a family of natural inverse spectral problems for fractal strings of Minkowski dimension D∈(0,1), with [Formula: see text], and of the quasi-invertibility of the family of spectral operators [Formula: see text] (with [Formula: see text]). © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

6. Explicit analytical tuning rules for digital PID controllers via the magnitude optimum criterion.

Science.gov (United States)

2017-09-01

Analytical tuning rules for digital PID type-I controllers are presented regardless of the process complexity. This explicit solution allows control engineers 1) to make an accurate examination of the effect of the controller's sampling time to the control loop's performance both in the time and frequency domain 2) to decide when the control has to be I, PI and when the derivative, D, term has to be added or omitted 3) apply this control action to a series of stable benchmark processes regardless of their complexity. The former advantages are considered critical in industry applications, since 1) most of the times the choice of the digital controller's sampling time is based on heuristics and past criteria, 2) there is little a-priori knowledge of the controlled process making the choice of the type of the controller a trial and error exercise 3) model parameters change often depending on the control loop's operating point making in this way, the problem of retuning the controller's parameter a much challenging issue. Basis of the proposed control law is the principle of the PID tuning via the Magnitude Optimum criterion. The final control law involves the controller's sampling time T s within the explicit solution of the controller's parameters. Finally, the potential of the proposed method is justified by comparing its performance with the conventional PID tuning when controlling the same process. Further investigation regarding the choice of the controller's sampling time T s is also presented and useful conclusions for control engineers are derived. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

7. A Practical ECG Criterion to Unmask Left Accessory AV Connections in Patients With Subtle Preexcitation.

Science.gov (United States)

Thompson, J Jenkins; Shah, Jignesh; Charnigo, Richard; Tackett, Andrea; Darrat, Yousef H; Bailey, Alison; Delisle, Brian; Kakavand, Bahram; DI Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea; Morales, Gustavo; Elayi, Claude S

2015-05-20

Accessory AV-connections capable of antegrade conduction need to be recognized because of the potential for life-threatening arrhythmias. However, the preexcited ECG pattern may be subtle, especially among left-sided AV-connections. We explored whether additional ECG criteria might help identify left-sided AV-connections. We analyzed 156 patients who underwent an electrophysiology study (EPS) and ablation for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardias (PSVT). Patients were divided into 2 groups: those with left-sided AV-connections (Group 1) and all other PSVT (Group 2). Various ECG parameters were compared before and after ablation in both groups. The EPS identified left-sided AV-connections among 43 patients (Group 1) and excluded it among 113 (Group 2). Baseline ECG in Group 1 demonstrated obvious preexcitation among 24/43 patients (55.8%), the remaining 19/43 missing obvious preexcitation. R/S ratio > 0.5 in V1 was noted in 38/43 (88.4%) patients in Group 1 before ablation (median 1.00; IQR 0.58-2.20), including 16/19 (84.2%) patients lacking obvious left-sided AVconnections. Conversely, only 10/113 (8.8%) patients in Group 2 had R/S ratios in V1 ≥ 0.5 (0.20; 0.10-0.31), P AV-connections (sensitivity 93.0%). The negative predictive value of this combined criterion was 103/106 (97.2%). In symptomatic patients, combining the R/S ratio (≥ 0.5) in lead V1 with the classic preexcitation pattern on ECG markedly improved the sensitivity to diagnose left-sided AV-connections. This ratio may be particularly useful among patients lacking obvious preexcitation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

8. Performance and environment as objectives in multi-criterion optimization of steam injected gas turbine cycles

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2014-01-01

Rapidly growing demand for gas turbines promotes research on their performance improvement and reducing their exhaust pollutants. Even small increments in net power or thermal efficiency and small changes in pollutant emissions have become significant concerns for both new designs and cycle modifications. To fulfill these requirements an accurate performance evaluation method which enables to see the effects on the exhaust gas composition is an important necessity. To fill this gap, a thermo-ecologic performance evaluation approach for gas turbine cycles with chemical equilibrium approximation which enables performance and environmental aspects to be considered simultaneously, is presented in this work. Steam injection is an effective modification to boost power and limit NO x emissions for gas turbine systems. Steam injection also increases thermal efficiency so less fuel is burnt to maintain the same power output. Because of its performance related and environmental advantages, presented approach is applied on the steam injected gas turbine cycle and a precise multi-criterion optimization is carried out for varying steam injection, as well as equivalence and pressure ratios. Irreversibilities and pressure losses are also considered. Effects of each parameter on the net work and thermal efficiency as well as non-equilibrium NO x and CO emissions are demonstrated. Precision improvement of the presented thermo-ecological model is shown and two main concerns; constant turbine inlet condition for higher net work output and constant net work output condition for lower fuel consumption are compared. - Highlights: • A thermodynamically precise performance estimation tool for GT cycles is presented. • STIG application is provided to show its flexibility for any GT cycle and diluents. • Constant TIT and net work output conditions have been compared and discussed. • The model provides results to evaluate economic and environmental aspects together. • It provides a

9. Change in the alpha criterion policy: variable based on the maximum individual dose function

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Freitas Acosta Perez, C. de; Sordi, G.M.A.A.

2006-01-01

The Alpha value is an extremely important criterion because it determines the time that a country takes to achieve its proposals in order to decrease the workers doses involved with ionizing radiation sources. Currently the countries adopt a single value for alpha based on the annual gross national product, GNP, per capita. The aim of this paper is to show that the selection of a curve for the alpha in place of a single value would be more efficient. This curve would provide alpha values that would will be constraints to the biggest individual doses presented in each optimization process as applied both to designs and to operations. These maximum individual doses would represent the dose distribution among the workers team. To build the curve, the alpha values suggested are not based on the GNP per capita but on a distribution function of the maximum individual doses and on the time necessary to reach the proposal of 1/10 of the annual dose limit foreseen in the sequential optimization processes, that is to reach the region where the individual doses are considered acceptable. So, the differential equations will be - d X/dS =α(H m ax). To clarify our sight about the alpha value we started using the uranium mine example presented in ICRP publication 55, adopting the decision-aiding technique known as extended cost-benefit. for right. Then we used the same example in a hypothetical curve with portions: constant, linear, quadratic and exponential. Eventually we discussed briefly the different shapes of the curves that the alpha value can assume in function of the individual doses. Each of these shapes can correspond to the so called 'risk neutral attitude', 'risk adverse attitude' or 'risk prone attitude' suggested in the appendix B of the ICRP publication 55

10. New Contemporary Criterion-Referenced Assessment Instruments for Astronomy & Geology: TOAST & EGGS

Science.gov (United States)

Guffey, Sarah Katie; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

2015-08-01

Considerable effort in the astronomy and Earth sciences education research over the past decade has focused on developing assessment tools in the form of multiple-choice conceptual diagnostics and content knowledge surveys. This has been critically important in advancing discipline-based education research allowing scholar to establish the initial, incoming knowledge state of students as well as to attempt to measure some of the impacts of innovative instructional interventions. Before now, few of the existing instruments were constructed upon a solid list of clearly articulated and widely agreed upon learning objectives. Whereas first-generation assessment tools, such as the Astronomy Diagnostics Test ADT2) were based primarily upon further identifying documented astronomy misconceptions, scholars from the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research team are creating contemporary instruments based instead by developing items using modern test construction techniques and tightly aligned to the consensus learning goals identified by the American Association of the Advancement of Science’s Project 2061 Benchmarks, and the National Research Council’s National Science Education Standards, and the National Research Council’s Frameworks for A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. These consensus learning goals are further enhanced guiding documents from the American Astronomical Society - Chair’s Conference on ASTRO 101 and the NSF-funded Earth Science Literacy Initiative. Two of the resulting criterion-referenced assessment tools widely used by researchers are the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) and the Exam of GeoloGy StandardS (EGGS). These easy-to-use and easy-to-score multiple-choice instruments have a high degree of reliability and validity for instructors and researchers needing information on students’ initial knowledge state at the beginning of a course and can be used, in aggregate, to

11. APPLYING THE EFQM EXCELLENCE MODEL AT THE GERMAN STUDY LINE WITH FOCUS ON THE CRITERION

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

ILIES LIVIU

2013-07-01

Full Text Available This article presents a stage of the implementation process of the EFQM Model in a higher education institution, namely at the German study line within the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, “Babeș - Bolyai” University, Cluj –Napoca. Actually, designing this model for the higher education sector means highlighting the basis for the implementation of a Total Quality Management model, seen as a holistic dimension for the perception of quality in an organization. By means of the EFQM method, the authors try to identify the performance degree of the criterion ,,Customer Results”, related to the students’ satisfaction level. The students are seen as primary customers of the higher education sector and have an essential role in defining the quality dimensions. On the one hand, the customers of the higher education sector can surface the status quo of the quality in the institution and on the other hand they can improve the quality. Actually, the continuous improvement of quality is highly linked to performance. From this point of view, the European Foundation for Quality Management model is a practical tool in order to support the analysis of the opportunities within higher education institutions. Therefore, this model offers a customer focused approach, because many higher education institutions consider the students to be the heart of teaching and researching. Further, the fundamental concepts are defined and the focus is pointed in the direction of customer approach, which highlight the idea that excellence is creating added value for customers. Anticipating and identifying the current and the future needs of the students by developing a balanced range of relevant dimensions and indicators means taking an appropriate action based on the holistic view of quality in an organization. Focusing and understanding students’ and other customers’ requirements, their needs and expectations, follows the idea that performance can

12. Eyewitness confidence in simultaneous and sequential lineups: a criterion shift account for sequential mistaken identification overconfidence.

Science.gov (United States)

Dobolyi, David G; Dodson, Chad S

2013-12-01

Confidence judgments for eyewitness identifications play an integral role in determining guilt during legal proceedings. Past research has shown that confidence in positive identifications is strongly associated with accuracy. Using a standard lineup recognition paradigm, we investigated accuracy using signal detection and ROC analyses, along with the tendency to choose a face with both simultaneous and sequential lineups. We replicated past findings of reduced rates of choosing with sequential as compared to simultaneous lineups, but notably found an accuracy advantage in favor of simultaneous lineups. Moreover, our analysis of the confidence-accuracy relationship revealed two key findings. First, we observed a sequential mistaken identification overconfidence effect: despite an overall reduction in false alarms, confidence for false alarms that did occur was higher with sequential lineups than with simultaneous lineups, with no differences in confidence for correct identifications. This sequential mistaken identification overconfidence effect is an expected byproduct of the use of a more conservative identification criterion with sequential than with simultaneous lineups. Second, we found a steady drop in confidence for mistaken identifications (i.e., foil identifications and false alarms) from the first to the last face in sequential lineups, whereas confidence in and accuracy of correct identifications remained relatively stable. Overall, we observed that sequential lineups are both less accurate and produce higher confidence false identifications than do simultaneous lineups. Given the increasing prominence of sequential lineups in our legal system, our data argue for increased scrutiny and possibly a wholesale reevaluation of this lineup format. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

13. HbA1c as the diagnostic criterion for diabetes reduces incidence and prevalence of DM2 by 25% but strongly depending on analytical quality

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Brandslund, Ivan; Nielsen, Aneta Aleksandra; Hyldtoft Petersen, Per

HbA1c as the diagnostic criterion for diabetes reduces incidence and prevalence of DM2 by 25% but strongly depending on analytical quality......HbA1c as the diagnostic criterion for diabetes reduces incidence and prevalence of DM2 by 25% but strongly depending on analytical quality...

14. Criterion-Related Validity of Curriculum-Based Measurement in Writing with Narrative and Expository Prompts Relative to Passage Copying Speed in 10th Grade Students

Science.gov (United States)

Mercer, Sterett H.; Martinez, Rebecca S.; Faust, Dennis; Mitchell, Rachel R.

2012-01-01

We investigated the criterion-related validity of four indicators of curriculum-based measurement in writing (WCBM) when using expository versus narrative writing prompts as compared to the validity of passage copying speed. Specifically, we compared criterion-related validity of production-dependent (total words written, correct word sequences),…

15. Predicting the required number of training samples. [for remotely sensed image data based on covariance matrix estimate quality criterion of normal distribution

Science.gov (United States)

Kalayeh, H. M.; Landgrebe, D. A.

1983-01-01

A criterion which measures the quality of the estimate of the covariance matrix of a multivariate normal distribution is developed. Based on this criterion, the necessary number of training samples is predicted. Experimental results which are used as a guide for determining the number of training samples are included. Previously announced in STAR as N82-28109

16. Evaluation of Failure Strength of Woven CFRP Composite Plate Subject to Axial Load by Tan-Cheng Failure Criterion

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kim, Sang Young; Park, Hong Sun; Kang, Min Sung; Lee, Woo Hyung; Choi, Jung Hun; Koo, Jae Mean; Seok, Chang Sung [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

2009-04-15

In the manufacture of CFRP(Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite) composite structures, various independent components join by bolts and pins. Holes for bolts and pins have an effect on the failure strength of such structures, because those act as notches in structures. The failure characteristic of such structures are different from those of plain plate subject to remote load. In this paper, tensile properties of woven CFRP composite plates with laminates of 0 .deg., 30 .deg. and 45 .deg. were obtained according to ASTM D 3039. By using obtained tensile failure strength and Tan-Cheng failure criterion, tensile failure strength of CFRP laminate with arbitrary fiber angle were evaluated. Also, the degradation of tensile properties by center hole({Phi}10mm) with a remote load was evaluated and the failure strengths were applied to Tan's failure criterion, similarly.

17. Evaluation of Failure Strength of Woven CFRP Composite Plate Subject to Axial Load by Tan-Cheng Failure Criterion

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kim, Sang Young; Park, Hong Sun; Kang, Min Sung; Lee, Woo Hyung; Choi, Jung Hun; Koo, Jae Mean; Seok, Chang Sung

2009-01-01

In the manufacture of CFRP(Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite) composite structures, various independent components join by bolts and pins. Holes for bolts and pins have an effect on the failure strength of such structures, because those act as notches in structures. The failure characteristic of such structures are different from those of plain plate subject to remote load. In this paper, tensile properties of woven CFRP composite plates with laminates of 0 .deg., 30 .deg. and 45 .deg. were obtained according to ASTM D 3039. By using obtained tensile failure strength and Tan-Cheng failure criterion, tensile failure strength of CFRP laminate with arbitrary fiber angle were evaluated. Also, the degradation of tensile properties by center hole(Φ10mm) with a remote load was evaluated and the failure strengths were applied to Tan's failure criterion, similarly

18. ON THE VALIDITY OF THE 'HILL RADIUS CRITERION' FOR THE EJECTION OF PLANETS FROM STELLAR HABITABLE ZONES

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cuntz, M.; Yeager, K. E.

2009-01-01

We challenge the customary assumption that the entering of an Earth-mass planet into the Hill radius (or multiples of the Hill radius) of a giant planet is a valid criterion for its ejection from the star-planet system. This assumption has widely been used in previous studies, especially those with an astrobiological focus. As intriguing examples, we explore the dynamics of the systems HD 20782 and HD 188015. Each system possesses a giant planet that remains in or crosses into the stellar habitable zone, thus effectively thwarting the possibility of habitable terrestrial planets. In the case of HD 188015, the orbit of the giant planet is almost circular, whereas in the case of HD 20782, it is extremely elliptical. Although it is found that Earth-mass planets are eventually ejected from the habitable zones of these systems, the 'Hill Radius Criterion' is identified as invalid for the prediction of when the ejection is actually occurring.

19. The Establishment of Surface Roughness as Failure Criterion of Al–Li Alloy Stretch-Forming Process

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jing-Wen Feng

2016-01-01

Full Text Available Taking Al–Li–S4–T8 Al–Li alloy as the study object, based on the stretching and deforming characteristics of sheet metals, this paper proposes a new approach of critical orange peel state characterizations on the basis of the precise measurement of stretch-forming surface roughness and establishes the critical criterion for the occurrence of orange peel surface defects in the stretch-forming process of Al–Li alloy sheet metals. Stretching experiments of different strain paths are conducted on the specimens with different notches so as to establish the Al–Li–S4–T8 Al–Li alloy, forming limit diagram and forming limit curve equation, with the surface roughness of characteristic critical orange peel structure as the stretch-forming failure criterion.

20. Meta-heuristic algorithms for parallel identical machines scheduling problem with weighted late work criterion and common due date.

Science.gov (United States)

Xu, Zhenzhen; Zou, Yongxing; Kong, Xiangjie

2015-01-01

To our knowledge, this paper investigates the first application of meta-heuristic algorithms to tackle the parallel machines scheduling problem with weighted late work criterion and common due date ([Formula: see text]). Late work criterion is one of the performance measures of scheduling problems which considers the length of late parts of particular jobs when evaluating the quality of scheduling. Since this problem is known to be NP-hard, three meta-heuristic algorithms, namely ant colony system, genetic algorithm, and simulated annealing are designed and implemented, respectively. We also propose a novel algorithm named LDF (largest density first) which is improved from LPT (longest processing time first). The computational experiments compared these meta-heuristic algorithms with LDF, LPT and LS (list scheduling), and the experimental results show that SA performs the best in most cases. However, LDF is better than SA in some conditions, moreover, the running time of LDF is much shorter than SA.

1. Development of a New Gradient Based Strain-Criterion for Prediction of Bendability in Quality Assurance and FEA

Science.gov (United States)

Denninger, Ralf; Liewald, Mathias; Sindel, Manfred

2011-08-01

Numerical simulation systems are more and more used in process development of car bodies. Nowadays, also the hemming process is optimised in FEA. Thus, the analysing of process robustness calls for a failure criterion for the specific bending and hemming load condition. For that purpose the experimental determination of bendability under various pre-load conditions that occur in real production, e.g. during deep drawing in press shop, is content of this contribution. Using these experimental results, a new approach for a strain-gradient based failure criterion for bending operations is presented to optimise bendability prediction. The bending-strain-gradient approach can be used both in production related departments of quality assurance as well as for simulative process design or process validation for vehicle manufacturing planning.

2. Applying an overall criterion according to the European norms, for ecological assessment of the thermal electrical power plant operation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cardu, Mircea; Petrescu, Camelia

2006-01-01

This work consists of assessing the thermal power plants impact on the environment by the global considering of the pollutant SO 2 and NO x emissions. This assessment takes into account the emission comparisons with the admissible values provided by the European norms. The conclusion we might draw is that the SN proposed global criterion application, (S from sulfur, namely the sulfur dioxide and N from nitrogen, namely the nitrogen oxides), the investment expenses for installing the necessary SDN and SDS systems (were SDN stands for denox plant and SDS for desulfurization systems), and the operation expenses are smaller (in case of pit coal they are even smaller) if we apply such criterion. The ecologic analysis model we applied as an estimation for large solid fuels categories (lignite, pit coal) and for the 330 MW existing power units, can also be applied to the actual cases for different fuel qualities or unit unitary power levels

3. Antigenic characteristics as taxonomic criterion of differentiation of Alternaria spp., pathogenic for carrot and parsley

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Bulajić Aleksandra R.

2007-01-01

Full Text Available Identification of Alternaria genus species is a very complicated process which demands broadly designed investigations and studying of great number of properties which together can be considered as satisfying taxonomic criteria. The main objective of these investigations was examining the possibilities of applying the antigenic characteristics of Alternaria spp. phytopathogenic fungi as a taxonomic criterion, as well as introducing the serological methods for their identification. Conducting the examination of Alternaria spp., pathogenic for Apiaceae plants in Serbia, several isolates were obtained and identified as Alternaria radicina, A. petroselini, A. dauci and A. alternata, based on the conventional mycological methods and host range, as well as on molecular detection and partial characterization. The investigation included 12 isolates from plant leaves, seeds and soil which were pathogenic mainly to carrot and parsley and were identified as A. radicina, A. petroselini, A. dauci and A. alternate. Investigated isolates were compared with each other, as well as with standard isolates for the mentioned species (a total of 5 isolates, originating from USA and EU. During the investigation of serological characteristics of Alternaria spp. firstly a polyclonal antiserum was prepared against one isolate from Serbia identified as A. dauci. This antiserum was specific to Alternaria genus while there was no reaction with antigens from other phytopathogenic fungi genera (Fusarium, Rhizoctonia and Agaricus. Antiserum titer, determined by slide agglutination test, was 1/32. Antigenic characteristics of Alternaria genus fungi were examined by Electro-Blot-Immunoassay serological method (EBIA, Western blot, i.e. their protein profiles were compared. Investigated Alternaria spp. isolates showed different protein band profiles in gel and on nitrocellulose paper, and the observed differences were in complete correlation with the results of the previous

4. Motion compensation in extremity cone-beam CT using a penalized image sharpness criterion

Science.gov (United States)

Sisniega, A.; Stayman, J. W.; Yorkston, J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Zbijewski, W.

2017-05-01

Cone-beam CT (CBCT) for musculoskeletal imaging would benefit from a method to reduce the effects of involuntary patient motion. In particular, the continuing improvement in spatial resolution of CBCT may enable tasks such as quantitative assessment of bone microarchitecture (0.1 mm-0.2 mm detail size), where even subtle, sub-mm motion blur might be detrimental. We propose a purely image based motion compensation method that requires no fiducials, tracking hardware or prior images. A statistical optimization algorithm (CMA-ES) is used to estimate a motion trajectory that optimizes an objective function consisting of an image sharpness criterion augmented by a regularization term that encourages smooth motion trajectories. The objective function is evaluated using a volume of interest (VOI, e.g. a single bone and surrounding area) where the motion can be assumed to be rigid. More complex motions can be addressed by using multiple VOIs. Gradient variance was found to be a suitable sharpness metric for this application. The performance of the compensation algorithm was evaluated in simulated and experimental CBCT data, and in a clinical dataset. Motion-induced artifacts and blurring were significantly reduced across a broad range of motion amplitudes, from 0.5 mm to 10 mm. Structure similarity index (SSIM) against a static volume was used in the simulation studies to quantify the performance of the motion compensation. In studies with translational motion, the SSIM improved from 0.86 before compensation to 0.97 after compensation for 0.5 mm motion, from 0.8 to 0.94 for 2 mm motion and from 0.52 to 0.87 for 10 mm motion (~70% increase). Similar reduction of artifacts was observed in a benchtop experiment with controlled translational motion of an anthropomorphic hand phantom, where SSIM (against a reconstruction of a static phantom) improved from 0.3 to 0.8 for 10 mm motion. Application to a clinical dataset of a lower extremity showed dramatic reduction

5. New bandwidth selection criterion for Kernel PCA: approach to dimensionality reduction and classification problems.

Science.gov (United States)

Thomas, Minta; De Brabanter, Kris; De Moor, Bart

2014-05-10

DNA microarrays are potentially powerful technology for improving diagnostic classification, treatment selection, and prognostic assessment. The use of this technology to predict cancer outcome has a history of almost a decade. Disease class predictors can be designed for known disease cases and provide diagnostic confirmation or clarify abnormal cases. The main input to this class predictors are high dimensional data with many variables and few observations. Dimensionality reduction of these features set significantly speeds up the prediction task. Feature selection and feature transformation methods are well known preprocessing steps in the field of bioinformatics. Several prediction tools are available based on these techniques. Studies show that a well tuned Kernel PCA (KPCA) is an efficient preprocessing step for dimensionality reduction, but the available bandwidth selection method for KPCA was computationally expensive. In this paper, we propose a new data-driven bandwidth selection criterion for KPCA, which is related to least squares cross-validation for kernel density estimation. We propose a new prediction model with a well tuned KPCA and Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM). We estimate the accuracy of the newly proposed model based on 9 case studies. Then, we compare its performances (in terms of test set Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) and computational time) with other well known techniques such as whole data set + LS-SVM, PCA + LS-SVM, t-test + LS-SVM, Prediction Analysis of Microarrays (PAM) and Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (Lasso). Finally, we assess the performance of the proposed strategy with an existing KPCA parameter tuning algorithm by means of two additional case studies. We propose, evaluate, and compare several mathematical/statistical techniques, which apply feature transformation/selection for subsequent classification, and consider its application in medical diagnostics. Both feature selection and feature

6. Probabilistic thermal-mechanical fatigue criterion for lost foam casting aluminium alloys based on 2D/3D porosities distribution

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Szmytka F.

2014-06-01

Full Text Available A thermal-mechanical fatigue criterion is proposed to assess the lifetime of aluminium alloys produced by a lost foam casting process. It is based on the observed size distribution of pores sizes which are considered as critical zones for cracks initiation and gives reliable results when both pores sizes are identified from X-ray tomography and mean stresses are taken into account. Lifetime probabilities are finally successfully compared with experimental results.

7. An Illustration of Determining Quantitatively the Rock Mass Quality Parameters of the Hoek-Brown Failure Criterion

Science.gov (United States)

Wu, Li; Adoko, Amoussou Coffi; Li, Bo

2018-04-01

In tunneling, determining quantitatively the rock mass strength parameters of the Hoek-Brown (HB) failure criterion is useful since it can improve the reliability of the design of tunnel support systems. In this study, a quantitative method is proposed to determine the rock mass quality parameters of the HB failure criterion, namely the Geological Strength Index (GSI) and the disturbance factor ( D) based on the structure of drilling core and weathering condition of rock mass combined with acoustic wave test to calculate the strength of rock mass. The Rock Mass Structure Index and the Rock Mass Weathering Index are used to quantify the GSI while the longitudinal wave velocity ( V p) is employed to derive the value of D. The DK383+338 tunnel face of Yaojia tunnel of Shanghai-Kunming passenger dedicated line served as illustration of how the methodology is implemented. The values of the GSI and D are obtained using the HB criterion and then using the proposed method. The measured in situ stress is used to evaluate their accuracy. To this end, the major and minor principal stresses are calculated based on the GSI and D given by HB criterion and the proposed method. The results indicated that both methods were close to the field observation which suggests that the proposed method can be used for determining quantitatively the rock quality parameters, as well. However, these results remain valid only for rock mass quality and rock type similar to those of the DK383+338 tunnel face of Yaojia tunnel.

8. An existential criterion for normal and abnormal personality in the works of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Kapustin S.A.

2015-07-01

Full Text Available This is the second in a series of four articles scheduled for publication in this journal. In the previous article I proposed a description of a new so-called existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality that is implicitly present in the works of Erich Fromm. According to this criterion, normal and abnormal personalities are determined, first, by special features of the content of their position regarding existential dichotomies that are natural to human beings and, second, by particular aspects of the formation of this position. Such dichotomies, entitatively existent in all human life, are inherent, two-alternative contradictions. The position of a normal personality in its content orients one toward a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and the necessity of searching for compromise in resolving these dichotomies. This position is created on a rational basis with the person’s active participation. The position of an abnormal personality in its content subjectively denies a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and orients one toward a consistent, noncompetitive, and, as a consequence, one-sided way of life that doesn’t include self-determination. This position is imposed by other people on an irrational basis. Abnormality of personality interpreted like that is one of the most important factors influencing the development of various kinds of psychological problems and mental disorders — primarily, neurosis. In this article I show that this criterion is implicitly present in the personality theories of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler, although in more special cases. In the following articles I will show that this criterion is also implicitly present in the personality theories of Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, and Viktor Frankl.

9. A Counterexample on Sample-Path Optimality in Stable Markov Decision Chains with the Average Reward Criterion

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

2014-01-01

Roč. 163, č. 2 (2014), s. 674-684 ISSN 0022-3239 Grant - others:PSF Organization(US) 012/300/02; CONACYT (México) and ASCR (Czech Republic)(MX) 171396 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Strong sample-path optimality * Lyapunov function condition * Stationary policy * Expected average reward criterion Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.509, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/sladky-0432661.pdf

10. A localized navigation algorithm for Radiation Evasion for nuclear facilities. Part II: Optimizing the “Nearest Exit” Criterion

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2013-01-01

11. A localized navigation algorithm for Radiation Evasion for nuclear facilities. Part II: Optimizing the “Nearest Exit” Criterion

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Khasawneh, Mohammed A., E-mail: mkha@ieee.org [Department of Electrical Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology (Jordan); Al-Shboul, Zeina Aman M., E-mail: xeinaaman@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology (Jordan); Jaradat, Mohammad A., E-mail: majaradat@just.edu.jo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology (Jordan); Malkawi, Mohammad I., E-mail: mmalkawi@aimws.com [College of Engineering, Jadara University, Irbid 221 10 (Jordan)

2013-06-15

12. Criterion for traffic phases in single vehicle data and empirical test of a microscopic three-phase traffic theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L; Hiller, Andreas

2006-01-01

Based on empirical and numerical microscopic analyses, the physical nature of a qualitatively different behaviour of the wide moving jam phase in comparison with the synchronized flow phase-microscopic traffic flow interruption within the wide moving jam phase-is found. A microscopic criterion for distinguishing the synchronized flow and wide moving jam phases in single vehicle data measured at a single freeway location is presented. Based on this criterion, empirical microscopic classification of different local congested traffic states is performed. Simulations made show that the microscopic criterion and macroscopic spatiotemporal objective criteria lead to the same identification of the synchronized flow and wide moving jam phases in congested traffic. Microscopic models in the context of three-phase traffic theory have been tested based on the microscopic criterion for the phases in congested traffic. It is found that microscopic three-phase traffic models can explain both microscopic and macroscopic empirical congested pattern features. It is obtained that microscopic frequency distributions for vehicle speed difference as well as fundamental diagrams and speed correlation functions can depend on the spatial co-ordinate considerably. It turns out that microscopic optimal velocity (OV) functions and time headway distributions are not necessarily qualitatively different, even if local congested traffic states are qualitatively different. The reason for this is that important spatiotemporal features of congested traffic patterns are lost in these as well as in many other macroscopic and microscopic traffic characteristics, which are widely used as the empirical basis for a test of traffic flow models, specifically, cellular automata traffic flow models

13. Classification of Knee Joint Vibration Signals Using Bivariate Feature Distribution Estimation and Maximal Posterior Probability Decision Criterion

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Fang Zheng

2013-04-01

Full Text Available Analysis of knee joint vibration or vibroarthrographic (VAG signals using signal processing and machine learning algorithms possesses high potential for the noninvasive detection of articular cartilage degeneration, which may reduce unnecessary exploratory surgery. Feature representation of knee joint VAG signals helps characterize the pathological condition of degenerative articular cartilages in the knee. This paper used the kernel-based probability density estimation method to model the distributions of the VAG signals recorded from healthy subjects and patients with knee joint disorders. The estimated densities of the VAG signals showed explicit distributions of the normal and abnormal signal groups, along with the corresponding contours in the bivariate feature space. The signal classifications were performed by using the Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis, support vector machine with polynomial kernels, and the maximal posterior probability decision criterion. The maximal posterior probability decision criterion was able to provide the total classification accuracy of 86.67% and the area (Az of 0.9096 under the receiver operating characteristics curve, which were superior to the results obtained by either the Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis (accuracy: 81.33%, Az: 0.8564 or the support vector machine with polynomial kernels (accuracy: 81.33%, Az: 0.8533. Such results demonstrated the merits of the bivariate feature distribution estimation and the superiority of the maximal posterior probability decision criterion for analysis of knee joint VAG signals.

14. A study on the criterions of lean burn limit for an LPG EFI engine. Paper no. IGEC-1-140

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Li, L.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, Z.; Wang, H.; Deng, B.; Su, Y.

2005-01-01

Based on electronic low-pressure gaseous injection, the comparing analysis of several methods for the criterions of lean burn limit in an LPG engine is presented. Experiments are carried out in a single cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled, 125cc engine with electronic LPG injection. According to the analysis of multi-parameters in and out cylinder, it shows that variation coefficient of indicated pressure which is the classical judgment of lean burn limit, the HC emission, HC emission rising gradient, the misfiring rate and the variation coefficient of the crank angle of the maximum combustion pressure can be as the criterions for lean burn limit. For the test engine, 15% as variation coefficient of indicative mean pressure, 500 x 10 -6 as HC emission, 2000 x 10 -6 as HC emission rising ratio, 1% as misfiring rate and 50% as variation coefficient of the crank angle of the maximum combustion pressure can be as the judgment criterions of LPG lean burn limits. (author)

15. Closed-form dynamic stability criterion for elastic-plastic structures under near-fault ground motions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Kotaro eKojima

2016-03-01

Full Text Available A dynamic stability criterion for elastic-plastic structures under near-fault ground motions is derived in closed-form. A negative post-yield stiffness is treated in order to consider the P-delta effect. The double impulse is used as a substitute of the fling-step near-fault ground motion. Since only the free-vibration appears under such double impulse, the energy approach plays a critical role in the derivation of the closed-form solution of a complicated elastic-plastic response of structures with the P-delta effect. It is remarkable that no iteration is needed in the derivation of the closed-form dynamic stability criterion on the critical elastic-plastic response. It is shown via the closed-form expression that several patterns of unstable behaviors exist depending on the ratio of the input level of the double impulse to the structural strength and on the ratio of the negative post-yield stiffness to the initial elastic stiffness. The validity of the proposed dynamic stability criterion is investigated by the numerical response analysis for structures under double impulses with stable or unstable parameters. Furthermore the reliability of the proposed theory is tested through the comparison with the response analysis to the corresponding one-cycle sinusoidal input as a representative of the fling-step near-fault ground motion. The applicability of the proposed theory to actual recorded pulse-type ground motions is also discussed.

16. Bayesian Information Criterion Based Feature Filtering for the Fusion of Multiple Features in High-Spatial-Resolution Satellite Scene Classification

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Da Lin

2015-01-01

Full Text Available This paper presents a novel classification method for high-spatial-resolution satellite scene classification introducing Bayesian information criterion (BIC-based feature filtering process to further eliminate opaque and redundant information between multiple features. Firstly, two diverse and complementary feature descriptors are extracted to characterize the satellite scene. Then, sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA with penalty function is employed to fuse the extracted feature descriptors and remove the ambiguities and redundancies between them simultaneously. After that, a two-phase Bayesian information criterion (BIC-based feature filtering process is designed to further filter out redundant information. In the first phase, we gradually impose a constraint via an iterative process to set a constraint on the loadings for averting sparse correlation descending below to a lower confidence limit of the approximated canonical correlation. In the second phase, Bayesian information criterion (BIC is utilized to conduct the feature filtering which sets the smallest loading in absolute value to zero in each iteration for all features. Lastly, a support vector machine with pyramid match kernel is applied to obtain the final result. Experimental results on high-spatial-resolution satellite scenes demonstrate that the suggested approach achieves satisfactory performance in classification accuracy.

17. Coupling Effect of Intruding Water and Inherent Gas on Coal Strength Based on the Improved (Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yiyu Lu

2016-11-01

Full Text Available When employing hydraulic processes to increase gas drainage efficiency in underground coal mines, coal seams become a three-phase medium, containing water intruding into the coal pores with the inherent occurrence of gas. This can change the stress state of the coal and cause instability. This work studied the mechanical properties of coal containing water and gas and derived an appropriate failure criterion. Based on mixture theory of unsaturated porous media, the effective stress of coal, considering the interaction of water and gas, was analyzed, and the failure criterion established by combining this with the Mohr–Coulomb criterion. By introducing the stress factor of matrix suction and using fitted curves of experimentally determined matrix suction and moisture content, the relationships between coal strength, gas pressure, and moisture content were determined. To verify the established strength theory, a series of triaxial compression strength tests of coal containing water and gas were carried out on samples taken from the Songzao, Pingdingshan, and Tashan mines in China. The experimental results correlated well with the theoretical predictions. The results showed a linear decrease in the peak strength of coal with increasing gas pressure and an exponential reduction in peak strength with increasing moisture content. The strength theory of coal containing water and gas can become an important part of multiphase medium damage theory.

18. DSM-IV "criterion A" schizophrenia symptoms across ethnically different populations: evidence for differing psychotic symptom content or structural organization?

Science.gov (United States)

McLean, Duncan; Thara, Rangaswamy; John, Sujit; Barrett, Robert; Loa, Peter; McGrath, John; Mowry, Bryan

2014-09-01

There is significant variation in the expression of schizophrenia across ethnically different populations, and the optimal structural and diagnostic representation of schizophrenia are contested. We contrasted both lifetime frequencies of DSM-IV criterion A (the core symptom criterion of the internationally recognized DSM classification system) symptoms and types/content of delusions and hallucinations in transethnic schizophrenia populations from Australia (n = 776), India (n = 504) and Sarawak, Malaysia (n = 259), to elucidate clinical heterogeneity. Differences in both criterion A symptom composition and symptom content were apparent. Indian individuals with schizophrenia reported negative symptoms more frequently than other sites, whereas individuals from Sarawak reported disorganized symptoms more frequently. Delusions of control and thought broadcast, insertion, or withdrawal were less frequent in Sarawak than Australia. Curiously, a subgroup of 20 Indian individuals with schizophrenia reported no lifetime delusions or hallucinations. These findings potentially challenge the long-held view in psychiatry that schizophrenia is fundamentally similar across cultural groups, with differences in only the content of psychotic symptoms, but equivalence in structural form.

19. Reliability and criterion-related validity of the 20-yard shuttle test in competitive junior tennis players.

Science.gov (United States)

Eriksson, Anna; Johansson, Fredrik R; Bäck, Maria

2015-01-01

This study adds to the previous work in the field of sport-specific fitness testing by evaluating a tennis-specific agility test called "the 20-yard shuttle test". The aim of the study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability, the inter-rater reliability, and the criterion-related validity of the 20-yard shuttle test on competitive junior tennis players. Totally, 34 Swedish tennis players (13 girls), mean age 14±1.6 years, participated in the study. To examine test-retest reliability, the subjects performed the 20-yard shuttle test three times on the same day and then the same procedure was repeated after 3 days. To test the inter-rater reliability, the time was measured with a stopwatch simultaneously by two different raters. The time recorded manually was compared to the gold standard of digital timing to evaluate the criterion-related validity. Excellent test-retest reliability was found both within the same day (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] 0.95) and between days (ICC 0.91). Furthermore, the results showed excellent inter-rater reliability (ICC 0.99) and criterion-related validity on both test occasions (ICC 0.99). We have provided introductory support for the 20-yard shuttle test as a reliable and valid test for use in competitive junior tennis players. The ease of administration makes this test a practical alternative to evaluate physical fitness in order to optimally train the athletes.

20. MH2c: Characterization of major histocompatibility α-helices - an information criterion approach

Science.gov (United States)

Hischenhuber, B.; Frommlet, F.; Schreiner, W.; Knapp, B.

2012-07-01

Major histocompatibility proteins share a common overall structure or peptide binding groove. Two binding groove domains, on the same chain for major histocompatibility class I or on two different chains for major histocompatibility class II, contribute to that structure that consists of two α-helices (“wall”) and a sheet of eight anti-parallel beta strands (“floor”). Apart from the peptide presented in the groove, the major histocompatibility α-helices play a central role for the interaction with the T cell receptor. This study presents a generalized mathematical approach for the characterization of these helices. We employed polynomials of degree 1 to 7 and splines with 1 to 2 nodes based on polynomials of degree 1 to 7 on the α-helices projected on their principal components. We evaluated all models with a corrected Akaike Information Criterion to determine which model represents the α-helices in the best way without overfitting the data. This method is applicable for both the stationary and the dynamic characterization of α-helices. By deriving differential geometric parameters from these models one obtains a reliable method to characterize and compare α-helices for a broad range of applications. Catalogue identifier: AELX_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AELX_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 327 565 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 17 433 656 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Matlab Computer: Personal computer architectures Operating system: Windows, Linux, Mac (all systems on which Matlab can be installed) RAM: Depends on the trajectory size, min. 1 GB (Matlab) Classification: 2.1, 4.9, 4.14 External routines: Curve Fitting Toolbox and Statistic Toolbox of