Sample records for suv-sized asteroid entered


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Andreić


    Full Text Available Asteroids are the largest minor bodies in the Solar System. Nowadays they are in the research focus due to several facts about them: first, a subclass of asteroids can collide with Earth, and consequences of such a collision are dramatic. Second, they are now seen as source of materials that are becoming scarce on Earth, and they will be needed in future space constructions anyway. Third, they are holding clues about the origin and evolution of the Solar System. In this article, a short overview of current knowledge about asteroids is presented. Last, but not least, as several Croatian scientists were recently honored by naming an asteroid after them, a short overview of the naming process is given.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is intended to include all reported timings of observed asteroid occultation events through Feb. 23, 2005, as well as asteroid occultation axes derived...

  3. Asteroid photometry (United States)

    Li, Jian-Yang; Helfenstein, Paul; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Takir, Driss; Beth Ellen Clark,; Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.


    Asteroid photometry has three major applications: providing clues about asteroid surface physical properties and compositions, facilitating photometric corrections, and helping design and plan ground-based and spacecraft observations. The most significant advances in asteroid photometry in the past decade were driven by spacecraft observations that collected spatially resolved imaging and spectroscopy data. In the mean time, laboratory measurements and theoretical developments are revealing controversies regarding the physical interpretations of models and model parameter values. We will review the new developments in asteroid photometry that have occurred over the past decade in the three complementary areas of observations, laboratory work, and theory. Finally we will summarize and discuss the implications of recent findings.

  4. Asteroid team (United States)

    Matson, D. L.


    Work on asteroid classification continued was rewarded with the discovery of two Earth-approaching M asteroids. The M class is rare and these are the first found among the near-Earth asteroids to have the spectral albedo characteristic of this class. The two asteroids are newly discovered 1986 DA and 1986 EB which were observed at N and Q bandpasses (i.e., 10 and 20 microns) with the 3 m IRTF telescope and at five wavelengths from 0.36 to 0.85 microns from Kitt peak National Observatory's 0.36 m telescope. The derived diameters are about 2 km for both objects. In the asteroid radiometry program N or Q photometry was obtained for more than 40 asteroids in Feb. 1986. Radiometric diameter calibration support were provided for stellar occultations of stars by 230 Athamantis and 129 Antigone. The data were reduced but not analyzed. Infrared spectra (0.8 to 2.6 microns) of 60 asteroids were reduced and are now ready for compositional analysis.

  5. Asteroid team (United States)

    Matson, D. L.


    Work on asteroid classification continued was rewarded with the discovery of two Earth-approaching M asteroids. The M class is rare and these are the first found among the near-Earth asteroids to have the spectral albedo characteristic of this class. The two asteroids are newly discovered 1986 DA and 1986 EB which were observed at N and Q bandpasses (i.e., 10 and 20 microns) with the 3 m IRTF telescope and at five wavelengths from 0.36 to 0.85 microns from Kitt peak National Observatory's 0.36 m telescope. The derived diameters are about 2 km for both objects. In the asteroid radiometry program N or Q photometry was obtained for more than 40 asteroids in Feb. 1986. Radiometric diameter calibration support were provided for stellar occultations of stars by 230 Athamantis and 129 Antigone. The data were reduced but not analyzed. Infrared spectra (0.8 to 2.6 microns) of 60 asteroids were reduced and are now ready for compositional analysis.

  6. Asteroids IV (United States)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    Asteroids are fascinating worlds. Considered the building blocks of our planets, many of the authors of this book have devoted their scientific careers to exploring them with the tools of our trade: ground- and spacebased observations, in situ space missions, and studies that run the gamut from theoretical modeling efforts to laboratory work. Like fossils for paleontologists, or DNA for geneticists, they allow us to construct a veritable time machine and provide us with tantalizing glimpses of the earliest nature of our solar system. By investigating them, we can probe what our home system was like before life or even the planets existed. The origin and evolution of life on our planet is also intertwined with asteroids in a different way. It is believed that impacts on the primordial Earth may have delivered the basic components for life, with biology favoring attributes that could more easily survive the aftermath of such energetic events. In this fashion, asteroids may have banished many probable avenues for life to relative obscurity. Similarly, they may have also prevented our biosphere from becoming more complex until more recent eras. The full tale of asteroid impacts on the history of our world, and how human life managed to emerge from myriad possibilities, has yet to be fully told. The hazard posed by asteroid impacts to our civilization is low but singular. The design of efficient mitigation strategies strongly relies on asteroid detection by our ground- and spacebased surveys as well as knowledge of their physical properties. A more positive motivation for asteroid discovery is that the proximity of some asteroids to Earth may allow future astronauts to harvest their water and rare mineral resources for use in exploration. A key goal of asteroid science is therefore to learn how humans and robotic probes can interact with asteroids (and extract their materials) in an efficient way. We expect that these adventures may be commonplace in the future

  7. Asteroid structure (United States)

    Asphaug, E.


    Even before the first space missions to asteroids, in the mid-1990s, it was known that asteroids have weird structures. Photometry indicated complicated shapes, and the pioneering radar investigations by Ostro and colleagues followed by adaptive optics campaigns and flybys showed odd binary forms, and confirmed the common presence of satellites, and indications of highly varying surface roughness. Some asteroids turned out to be dominated by a single major cratering event, while others showed no evidence of a major crater, or perhaps for global crater erasure. The first space mission to orbit an asteroid, NEAR, found a mixture of heavily cratered terrains and geomorphically active 'ponds', and indicated evidence for global seismicity from impact. The next mission to orbit an asteroid, Hayabusa, found what most agree is a rubble pile, with no major craters and an absence of fines. There is to date no direct evidence of asteroid interior geology, other than measurements of bulk density, and inferences made for mass distribution asymmetry based on dynamics, and inferences based on surface lineaments. Interpolating from the surface to the interior is always risky and usually wrong, but of course the answer is important since we are someday destined to require this knowledge in order to divert a hazardous asteroid from impact with the Earth. Even considering the near-subsurface, here we remain as ignorant as we were about the Moon in the early 1960s, whether the surface will swallow us up in dust, or will provide secure landing and anchoring points. Laboratory experimentation in close to zero-G is still in its early stages. Adventures such as mining and colonization will surely have to wait until we better know these things. How do we get from here to there? I will focus on 3 areas of progress: (1) asteroid cratering seismology, where we use the surface craters to understand what is going on inside; (2) numerical modeling of collisions, which predicts the internal

  8. Solar wind tans young asteroids (United States)


    's surface composition is an important factor in how red its surface can become. After the first million years, the surface "tans" much more slowly. At that stage, the colour depends more on composition than on age. Moreover, the observations reveal that collisions cannot be the main mechanism behind the high proportion of "fresh" surfaces seen among near-Earth asteroids. Instead, these "fresh-looking" surfaces may be the results of planetary encounters, where the tug of a planet has "shaken" the asteroid, exposing unaltered material. Thanks to these results, astronomers will now be able to understand better how the surface of an asteroid -- which often is the only thing we can observe -- reflects its history. More information This result was presented in a paper published this week in the journal Nature, "Solar wind as the origin of rapid reddening of asteroid surfaces", by P. Vernazza et al. The team is composed of Pierre Vernazza (ESA), Richard Binzel (MIT, Cambridge, USA), Alessandro Rossi (ISTI-CNR, Pisa, Italy), Marcello Fulchignoni (Paris Observatory, France), and Mirel Birlan (IMCCE, CNRS-8028, Paris Observatory, France). A PDF file can be downloaded here. Notes [1] Meteorites are small fragments of asteroids that fall on Earth. While a meteorite enters the Earth's atmosphere its surface can melt and be partially charred by the intense heat. Nevertheless, the meteorite interior remains unaffected, and can be studied in a laboratory, providing a wealth of information on the nature and composition of asteroids. [2] An asteroid family is a group of asteroids that are on similar orbits around the Sun. The members of a given family are believed to be the fragments of a larger asteroid that was destroyed during a collision. [3] The surface of an asteroid is affected by the highly energetic particles forming the solar wind. These particles partially destroy the molecules and crystals on the surface, re-arranging them in other combinations. Over time, these changes give

  9. Asteroid Impact Mission: relevance to asteroid mining (United States)

    Michel, P.; Kueppers, M.; Carnelli, I.


    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is the European (ESA) component of the AIDA mission in collaboration with NASA. The objectives of AIDA are: (1) to perform a test of asteroid deflection using a kinetic impactor with the USA (NASA) component DART, and (2) with AIM, to investigate the binary near-Earth asteroid Didymos, in particular its secondary and target of DART, with data of high value for mining purposes.

  10. Asteroid Family Associations of Active Asteroids (United States)

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Novaković, Bojan; Kim, Yoonyoung; Brasser, Ramon


    We report on the results of a systematic search for associated asteroid families for all active asteroids known to date. We find that 10 out of 12 main-belt comets (MBCs) and five out of seven disrupted asteroids are linked with known or candidate families, rates that have ∼0.1% and ∼6% probabilities, respectively, of occurring by chance, given the overall family association rate of 37% for asteroids in the main asteroid belt. We find previously unidentified family associations between 238P/Read and the candidate Gorchakov family, 311P/PANSTARRS and the candidate Behrens family, 324P/La Sagra and the Alauda family, 354P/LINEAR and the Baptistina family, P/2013 R3-B (Catalina-PANSTARRS) and the Mandragora family, P/2015 X6 (PANSTARRS) and the Aeolia family, P/2016 G1 (PANSTARRS) and the Adeona family, and P/2016 J1-A/B (PANSTARRS) and the Theobalda family. All MBCs with family associations belong to families that contain asteroids with primitive taxonomic classifications and low average reported albedos (\\overline{{p}V}≲ 0.10), while disrupted asteroids with family associations belong to families that contain asteroids that span wider ranges of taxonomic types and average reported albedos (0.06p}V}young asteroid families could lead to the production of present-day MBCs.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a compilation of published rotational parameters derived from lightcurve data for asteroids, based on the Warner et al. (2009) Asteroid Lightcurve Database....

  12. Asteroid impact risk


    Rumpf, Clemens


    Asteroid impacts are a hazard to human populations. A method to assess the impact risk of hazardous asteroids was developed in this work, making use of the universal concept of risk culminating in the Asteroid Risk Mitigation Optimization and Research (ARMOR) tool. Using this tool, the global spatial risk distribution of a threatening asteroid can be calculated and expressed in the units of expected casualties (= fatalities). Risk distribution knowledge enables disaster managers to plan for a...

  13. Asteroid thermophysical modeling


    Delbo, Marco; Mueller, Michael; Emery, Joshua P.; Rozitis, Ben; Capria, Maria Teresa


    The field of asteroid thermophysical modeling has experienced an extraordinary growth in the last ten years, as new thermal infrared data became available for hundreds of thousands of asteroids. The infrared emission of asteroids depends on the body's size, shape, albedo, thermal inertia, roughness and rotational properties. These parameters can therefore be derived by thermophysical modeling of infrared data. Thermophysical modeling led to asteroid size estimates that were confirmed at the f...

  14. Asteroid volatiles inventory (United States)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Jones, T. D.; Herbert, F.


    Asteroids appear in light of telescopic and meteority studies to be the most accessible repositories of early solar system history available. In the cooler regions of the outer asteroid belt, apparently unaffected by severe heating, the C, P, and D populations appear to harbor significant inventories of volatiles; the larger primordial belt population may have had an even greater percentage of volatile-rich, low-albedo asteroids, constituting a potent asteroid for veneering early terrestrial planet atmospheres. The volatile-rich asteroids contain carbon, structurally bound and adsorbed water, as well as remnants of interstellar material predating the solar system.

  15. Cratering on Asteroids (United States)

    Marchi, S.; Chapman, C. R.; Barnouin, O. S.; Richardson, J. E.; Vincent, J.-B.

    Impact craters are a ubiquitous feature of asteroid surfaces. On a local scale, small craters puncture the surface in a way similar to that observed on terrestrial planets and the Moon. At the opposite extreme, larger craters often approach the physical size of asteroids, thus globally affecting their shapes and surface properties. Crater measurements are a powerful means of investigation. Crater spatial and size distributions inform us of fundamental processes, such as asteroid collisional history. A paucity of craters, sometimes observed, may be diagnostic of mechanisms of erasure that are unique on low-gravity asteroids. Byproducts of impacts, such as ridges, troughs, and blocks, inform us of the bulk structure. In this chapter we review the major properties of crater populations on asteroids visited by spacecraft. In doing so we provide key examples to illustrate how craters affect the overall shape and can be used to constrain asteroid surface ages, bulk properties, and impact-driven surface evolution.

  16. Escape of asteroids from the main belt (United States)

    Granvik, Mikael; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Vokrouhlický, David; Bottke, William F.; Nesvorný, David; Jedicke, Robert


    Aims: We locate escape routes from the main asteroid belt, particularly into the near-Earth-object (NEO) region, and estimate the relative fluxes for different escape routes as a function of object size under the influence of the Yarkovsky semimajor-axis drift. Methods: We integrated the orbits of 78 355 known and 14 094 cloned main-belt objects and Cybele and Hilda asteroids (hereafter collectively called MBOs) for 100 Myr and recorded the characteristics of the escaping objects. The selected sample of MBOs with perihelion distance q > 1.3 au and semimajor axis a random spin obliquities (either 0 deg or 180 deg) for each test asteroid. Results: We find more than ten obvious escape routes from the asteroid belt to the NEO region, and they typically coincide with low-order mean-motion resonances with Jupiter and secular resonances. The locations of the escape routes are independent of the semimajor-axis drift rate and thus are also independent of the asteroid diameter. The locations of the escape routes are likewise unaffected when we added a model for Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) cycles coupled with secular evolution of the rotation pole as a result of the solar gravitational torque. A Yarkovsky-only model predicts a flux of asteroids entering the NEO region that is too high compared to the observationally constrained flux, and the discrepancy grows larger for smaller asteroids. A combined Yarkovsky and YORP model predicts a flux of small NEOs that is approximately a factor of 5 too low compared to an observationally constrained estimate. This suggests that the characteristic timescale of the YORP cycle is longer than our canonical YORP model predicts.

  17. Asteroids and Amateur Astronomers. (United States)

    Gunter, Jay U.


    Traces asteroid discoveries by amateurs from the 19th century to the present. The importance and necessity of amateur work are noted, especially with reference to observing and documenting occultations (one object passes directly in front of another which is farther away). Suggestions are made for viewing asteroids as a hobby. (DH)


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Seven-color Asteroid Survey(SCAS) consists of photometry in seven filters from 0.9 to 2.3 microns, of a total of 126 asteroids of types S, K, and M.

  19. Entering Space (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert

    The authors is giving a classification of civilisations depending on the degree of colonisation of the Earth, Solar System and Our Galaxy. The problems of: History of geographic discoveries (The great geographical discoveries during the Middle Age, the concurence of Chinnese and Europeans in this Area); The Astrophysics, such as: Asteroids, Water and Atmosphere on outer planets, Planet Mars Planet, Agriculture on outer planets, Minerals on outer planets; Cosmic flights: Fuels, Robotics, Moon (as an intermediary basis for interplanetary flights), Mars colonisation; Interstellar flights, Space research costs, strategy and tactics of the space colonisation; Policy: War and Peace, International Collaboration are discussed.

  20. Radiation enteritis (United States)

    Radiation enteropathy; Radiation-induced small bowel injury; Post-radiation enteritis ... Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. The therapy ...

  1. AIDA: Asteroid impact & Deflection Assessment


    Cheng, A F; Michel, P; Ulamec, S.; Reed, C


    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is a kinetic impactor experiment to demonstrate asteroid impact hazard mitigation by deflecting an asteroid. AIDA is an international cooperation between NASA and ESA, consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the ESA Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) rendezvous mission. The primary goals of AIDA are (i) to demonstrate the kinetic impact technique on a potentially hazardous near-Ea...

  2. 24-COLOR ASTEROID SURVEY (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is comprised of asteroid flux data measured in 26 filters using the McCord dual beam photometer, and covering the range 0.32 - 1.08 microns for 285...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains 94 optical asteroid spectra obtained by Scott Sawyer as part of his Ph.D. dissertation at the University of Texas at Austin. Observational...

  4. 52-COLOR ASTEROID SURVEY (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains 52-color IR data of asteroids, taken using a double circularly variable filter. The short wavelength portion of the CVF covered the octave...

  5. Asteroids@Home (United States)

    Durech, Josef; Hanus, J.; Vanco, R.


    We present a new project called Asteroids@home ( It is a volunteer-computing project that uses an open-source BOINC (Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing) software to distribute tasks to volunteers, who provide their computing resources. The project was created at the Astronomical Institute, Charles University in Prague, in cooperation with the Czech National Team. The scientific aim of the project is to solve a time-consuming inverse problem of shape reconstruction of asteroids from sparse-in-time photometry. The time-demanding nature of the problem comes from the fact that with sparse-in-time photometry the rotation period of an asteroid is not apriori known and a huge parameter space must be densely scanned for the best solution. The nature of the problem makes it an ideal task to be solved by distributed computing - the period parameter space can be divided into small bins that can be scanned separately and then joined together to give the globally best solution. In the framework of the the project, we process asteroid photometric data from surveys together with asteroid lightcurves and we derive asteroid shapes and spin states. The algorithm is based on the lightcurve inversion method developed by Kaasalainen et al. (Icarus 153, 37, 2001). The enormous potential of distributed computing will enable us to effectively process also the data from future surveys (Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Gaia mission, etc.). We also plan to process data of a synthetic asteroid population to reveal biases of the method. In our presentation, we will describe the project, show the first results (new models of asteroids), and discuss the possibilities of its further development. This work has been supported by the grant GACR P209/10/0537 of the Czech Science Foundation and by the Research Program MSM0021620860 of the Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic.

  6. Damage from the impacts of small asteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, J.G.; Goda, M.P.


    The fragmentation of a small asteroid in the atmosphere greatly increases its aerodynamic drag and rate of energy dissipation. The differential atmospheric pressure across it disperses its fragments at a velocity that increases with atmospheric density and impact velocity and decreases with asteroid density. Extending our previous work, we use a spherical atmosphere and a fitted curve to its density profile to find the damage done by an asteroid entering the atmosphere at various zenith angles. In previous work we estimated the blast damage by scaling from data on nuclear explosions in the atmosphere during the 1940s, 1950s and early 1960s. This underestimated the blast from asteroid impacts because nuclear fireballs radiate away a larger fraction of their energy than do meteors, so less of their energy goes into the blast wave. We have redone the calculations to allow for this effect. We have found the area of destruction around the impact point in which the over pressure in the blast wave exceeds 4 pounds/inch{sup 2} = 2.8 X 10{sup 5} dynes/cm{sup 3}, which is enough to knock over trees and destroy buildings. About every 100 years an impactor should blast an area of 300 km{sup 2} or more somewhere on the land area of Earth. The optical flux from asteroids 60 meters or more in diameter is enough to ignite pine forests. However, the blast from an impacting asteroid goes beyond the radius within which the fire starts. It tends to blow out the fire, so it is likely that the impact will char the forest (as at Tunguska), but it will not produce a sustained fire. Because of the atmosphere, asteroids less than about 200 m in diameter are not effective in producing craters and earthquakes. They are also not effective in producing water waves and tsunami in ocean impacts. Tsunami is probably the most devastating type of damage for asteroids that are between 200 meters and 1 km in diameter.

  7. The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) (United States)

    Küppers, M.; Carnelli, I.; Galvez, A.; Mellab, K.; Michel, P.; AIM Team


    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is ESA's contribution to an international cooperation targeting the demonstration of deflection of a hazardous nearearth asteroid as well as the first in-depth investigation of a binary asteroid. After launch in 2020, AIM will rendezvous the binary near-Earth asteroid (65803) Didymos in 2022 and observe the system before, during, and after the impact of NASA's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft. The AIM mission will test new technologies like optical telecommunications by laser and Cubesats with nano-payloads and will perform scientific measurements at the asteroid system.

  8. The Maria asteroid family (United States)

    Aljbaae, S.; Carruba, V.; Masiero, J. R.; Domingos, R. C.; Huaman, M.


    The Maria asteroid family is a group of S-type asteroids. Its location adjacent to the left side of the 3J:-1A mean-motion resonances could be the reason for the absence of the left side of the `V' shape in the (a, 1/D) domain. This family can be considered as a likely source of ordinary chondrite-like material. In this work, we make use of the time dependence of the asymmetric coefficient AS describing the degree of asymmetry of the C distribution of a fictitious Maria family generated with the value of the ejection velocity parameter VEJ = 35 m s-1 to obtain an age estimate of 1750_{+537}^{-231} Myr, in good agreement with the family age found in the literature. Analysing the contribution to the near-Earth object (NEO) population, we found that about 7.6 per cent of presently known near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) have orbits similar to asteroids from the Maria family. Only ˜1.7 per cent of our simulated family can stay in NEO space for more than 10 Myr, while only five asteroids become NEOs in the last 500 Myr of the simulation.

  9. 2015 Barcelona Asteroid Day

    CERN Document Server

    Gritsevich, Maria; Palme, Herbert


    This volume is a compilation of the research presented at the International Asteroid Day workshop which was celebrated at Barcelona on June 30th, 2015. The proceedings discuss the beginning of a new era in the study and exploration of the solar system’s minor bodies. International Asteroid Day commemorates the Tunguska event of June 30th, 1908. The workshop’s goal was to promote the importance of dealing proactively with impact hazards from space. Multidisciplinary experts contributed to this discussion by describing the nature of comets and asteroids along with their offspring, meteoroids. New missions to return material samples of asteroids back to Earth such as Osiris-REx and Hayabusa 2, as well as projects like AIM and DART which will test impact deflection techniques for Potentially Hazardous Asteroids encounters were also covered. The proceedings include both an outreach level to popularize impact hazards and a scientific character which covers the latest knowledge on these topics, as well as offeri...

  10. Asteroids astronomical and geological bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Burbine, Thomas H


    Asteroid science is a fundamental topic in planetary science and is key to furthering our understanding of planetary formation and the evolution of the Solar System. Ground-based observations and missions have provided a wealth of new data in recent years, and forthcoming missions promise further exciting results. This accessible book presents a comprehensive introduction to asteroid science, summarising the astronomical and geological characteristics of asteroids. The interdisciplinary nature of asteroid science is reflected in the broad range of topics covered, including asteroid and meteorite classification, chemical and physical properties of asteroids, observational techniques, cratering, and the discovery of asteroids and how they are named. Other chapters discuss past, present and future space missions and the threat that these bodies pose for Earth. Based on an upper-level course on asteroids and meteorites taught by the author, this book is ideal for students, researchers and professional scientists ...

  11. Asteroids - NeoWs API (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NeoWs (Near Earth Object Web Service) is a RESTful web service for near earth Asteroid information. With NeoWs a user can: search for Asteroids based on their...

  12. Geography of the asteroid belt (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.


    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  13. Manuel's asteroid disruption technique. (United States)

    John, Manuel; Ipe, Abraham; Jacob, Ivan


    A seventy-year-old male presented with dense asteroid hyalosis in both eyes. He had undergone cataract extraction in one eye 3 years ago, and the other eye had immature cataract. Both the autorefractor and dilated streak retinoscopy did not give readings and subjective visual improvement could not be achieved. Immediately following YAG posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitreous asteroid disruption, the vision improved to 20/20 with recordable auto refractor and streak retinoscopy values. Our initial experience indicates that the treatment is simple, safe and effective but needs controlled and prospective studies to confirm its long-term safety.

  14. Rotational breakup as the origin of small binary asteroids. (United States)

    Walsh, Kevin J; Richardson, Derek C; Michel, Patrick


    Asteroids with satellites are observed throughout the Solar System, from subkilometre near-Earth asteroid pairs to systems of large and distant bodies in the Kuiper belt. The smallest and closest systems are found among the near-Earth and small inner main-belt asteroids, which typically have rapidly rotating primaries and close secondaries on circular orbits. About 15 per cent of near-Earth and main-belt asteroids with diameters under 10 km have satellites. The mechanism that forms such similar binaries in these two dynamically different populations was hitherto unclear. Here we show that these binaries are created by the slow spinup of a 'rubble pile' asteroid by means of the thermal YORP (Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack) effect. We find that mass shed from the equator of a critically spinning body accretes into a satellite if the material is collisionally dissipative and the primary maintains a low equatorial elongation. The satellite forms mostly from material originating near the primary's surface and enters into a close, low-eccentricity orbit. The properties of binaries produced by our model match those currently observed in the small near-Earth and main-belt asteroid populations, including 1999 KW(4) (refs 3, 4).

  15. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.


    Mission Description and Objectives: NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), a robotic mission to visit a large (greater than approximately 100 meters diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will explore and investigate the boulder and return to Earth with samples. The ARRM is currently planned to launch at the end of 2021 and the ARCM is scheduled for late 2026.

  16. The asteroid lightcurve database

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Warner, B. D.; Harris, A. W.; Pravec, Petr


    Roč. 202, č. 1 (2009), s. 134-146 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/05/0604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids * rotation * photometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.340, year: 2009

  17. Asteroids, meteorites, and comets

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T


    Asteroids, Comets, and Meteorites provides students, researchers, and general readers with the most up-to-date information on this fascinating field. From the days of the dinosaurs to our modern environment, this book explores all aspects of these cosmic invaders.

  18. Asteroid impact monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milani A.


    Full Text Available Some asteroids and comets with Earth-crossing orbit may impact our planet, thus we need to be able to identify the cases which could have a dangerous close approach within a century. This must be done as soon as such an asteroid is discovered, allowing for follow up observations which might contradict the impact possibility, and in the worst case to organize mitigation, possibly including deflection. The mathematical problem of predicting possible impacts, even with very low probabilities, has been solved by our group in the last few years. This paper presents the basic theory of these impact prediction, and discusses how they are practically used in the impact monitoring systems now operational, in particular the CLOMON2 robot of the Universities of Pisa and Valladolid.

  19. Asteroid Ida Rotation Sequence (United States)


    This montage of 14 images (the time order is right to left, bottom to top) shows Ida as it appeared in the field of view of Galileo's camera on August 28, 1993. Asteroid Ida rotates once every 4 hours, 39 minutes and clockwise when viewed from above the north pole; these images cover about one Ida 'day.' This sequence has been used to create a 3-D model that shows Ida to be almost croissant shaped. The earliest view (lower right) was taken from a range of 240,000 kilometers (150,000 miles), 5.4 hours before closest approach. The asteroid Ida draws its name from mythology, in which the Greek god Zeus was raised by the nymph Ida.

  20. Silicates in Alien Asteroids (United States)


    This plot of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescopes shows that asteroid dust around a dead 'white dwarf' star contains silicates a common mineral on Earth. The data were taken primarily by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, an instrument that breaks light apart into its basic constituents. The yellow dots show averaged data from the spectrograph, while the orange triangles show older data from Spitzer's infrared array camera. The white dwarf is called GD 40.

  1. Modeling of Fragmentation of Asteroids (United States)

    Agrawal, Parul; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Carlozzi, Alexander; Hart, Kenneth; Bryson, Katie; Sears, Derek


    The objective of this study is to understand fragmentation and fracture of a given asteroid and mechanisms of break-up. The focus of the present work is to develop modeling techniques for stony asteroids in 10m-100m range to answer two questions: 1) What is the role of material makeup of an asteroid in the stress distribution? 2)How is stress distribution altered in the presence of pre-existing defects?

  2. A retrograde co-orbital asteroid of Jupiter. (United States)

    Wiegert, Paul; Connors, Martin; Veillet, Christian


    Recent theoretical work in celestial mechanics has revealed that an asteroid may orbit stably in the same region as a planet, despite revolving around the Sun in the sense opposite to that of the planet itself. Asteroid 2015 BZ 509 was discovered in 2015, but with too much uncertainty in its measured orbit to establish whether it was such a retrograde co-orbital body. Here we report observations and analysis that demonstrates that asteroid 2015 BZ 509 is indeed a retrograde co-orbital asteroid of the planet Jupiter. We find that 2015 BZ 509 has long-term stability, having been in its current, resonant state for around a million years. This is long enough to preclude precise calculation of the time or mechanism of its injection to its present state, but it may be a Halley-family comet that entered the resonance through an interaction with Saturn. Retrograde co-orbital asteroids of Jupiter and other planets may be more common than previously expected.

  3. Physical studies of asteroids XX - Photoelectric photometry of asteroids (United States)

    Debehogne, H.; Lagerkvist, C.-I.; Magnusson, P.; Hahn, G.

    The asteroids 8 Flora, 69 Hesperia, 80 Sappho, 130 Elektra and 173 Ino were observed with the ESO 50 cm and the Danish 50 cm telescopes at ESO, Chile. Composite lightcurves from four nights are presented for the asteroids Sappho, Elektra and Ino. For 173 Ino an improved rotation period of 6.15 hours was determined.

  4. Photometry of Karin family asteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, G.; Mottola, S.; Sen, A. K.; Harris, A. W.; Kührt, E.; Mueller, M.


    We have performed photometric observations in the V-band of two asteroids belonging to the Karin asteroid family, (11728) Einer and (93690) 2000 VE21 , using the 2-m Himalayan Chandra Telescope, Hanle and 2k ×4k pixels CCD imager. We obtained measurements during two nights (November 25 and 26, 2005)

  5. Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout (MASCOT) - An asteroid lander package for the Hayabusa-2 mission (United States)

    Lange, Caroline; Richter, Lutz; Dietze, Claudia; Ho, Tra-Mi; Lange, Michael; Sproewitz, Tom; Wagenbach, Susanne; Kroemer, Olaf; Witte, Lars; Braukhane, Andy


    The Hayabusa-2 mission is currently being studied by JAXA/JSPEC as a sample return mission to the C-type near-Earth asteroid 1999JU3. Hayabusa-2, with launch planned for 2014, would be the immediate successor to the currently flying Hayabusa mission. Originally in the context of the proposed ESA Cosmic Vision M-class mission Marco Polo, but then following an invitation by JAXA/JSPEC, the Institute of Space Systems of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) led a proposal for a separate lander package 'Mascot' (Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout) to be carried on the mission. A feasibility study was subsequently carried out that, upon consultation with the planetary science community, assessed different concepts for the lander that converged to a package with 3 kg of P/L, for a total mass of 10-15 kg. Presently, 'Mascot' enters the preliminary design phase while an Announcement of Opportunity for its payload complement is being prepared. The presentation will outline the current baseline design, with special consideration of how the highly demanding constraints that are being imposed on the system due to the general mission scenario, the asteroid environment and the tight budgetary limitations are being fulfilled in such a rather modest design, still offering an excellent science potential.

  6. Asteroid electrostatic instrumentation and modelling (United States)

    Aplin, K. L.; Bowles, N. E.; Urbak, E.; Keane, D.; Sawyer, E. C.


    Asteroid surface material is expected to become photoelectrically charged, and is likely to be transported through electrostatic levitation. Understanding any movement of the surface material is relevant to proposed space missions to return samples to Earth for detailed isotopic analysis. Motivated by preparations for the Marco Polo sample return mission, we present electrostatic modelling for a real asteroid, Itokawa, for which detailed shape information is available, and verify that charging effects are likely to be significant at the terminator and at the edges of shadow regions for the Marco Polo baseline asteroid, 1999JU3. We also describe the Asteroid Charge Experiment electric field instrumentation intended for Marco Polo. Finally, we find that the differing asteroid and spacecraft potentials on landing could perturb sample collection for the short landing time of 20min that is currently planned.

  7. Asteroid electrostatic instrumentation and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aplin, K L; Bowles, N E; Urbak, E [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Keane, D; Sawyer, E C, E-mail: [RAL Space, R25, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)


    Asteroid surface material is expected to become photoelectrically charged, and is likely to be transported through electrostatic levitation. Understanding any movement of the surface material is relevant to proposed space missions to return samples to Earth for detailed isotopic analysis. Motivated by preparations for the Marco Polo sample return mission, we present electrostatic modelling for a real asteroid, Itokawa, for which detailed shape information is available, and verify that charging effects are likely to be significant at the terminator and at the edges of shadow regions for the Marco Polo baseline asteroid, 1999JU3. We also describe the Asteroid Charge Experiment electric field instrumentation intended for Marco Polo. Finally, we find that the differing asteroid and spacecraft potentials on landing could perturb sample collection for the short landing time of 20min that is currently planned.

  8. Asteroid airburst altitude vs. strength (United States)

    Robertson, D. K.; Wheeler, L.; Mathias, D.


    The entry and break-up of small asteroids were simulated with a hydrocode to examine the effect of strength, size, composition, entry angle, and speed on the resulting airburst. A strong asteroid, such as a monolithic boulder, structurally fail and deposit most of their energy around the altitude at which dynamic ram pressure exceeds the cohesive strength of the asteroid. A weaker asteroid, such as a loose rubble pile, will structurally fail at high altitude, but continue to fly through the atmosphere as a single unit until reaching lower altitudes where the increased aerodynamic pressure is sufficient to disrupt and disperse the rubble resulting in a flare. Airburst from weak asteroids consequently have a peak energy deposition at similar altitudes.This study focuses on small NEO asteroids which are likely to airburst rather than impact the ground where the damage created on the ground depends strongly on the altitude at which most of the energy is deposited in the atmosphere. The ability to accurately predict ground damage is useful in determining appropriate evacuation or shelter plans and emergency management. Airbursting asteroids are not a threat on a national level but can still cause a significant amount of local damage as demonstrated by the Chelyabinsk event where there was over $33 million worth of damage (1 billion roubles) and 1500 were injured by flying glass.

  9. Identification and Dynamical Properties of Asteroid Families


    Nesvorny, D.; Broz, M.; Carruba, V.


    Asteroids formed in a dynamically quiescent disk but their orbits became gravitationally stirred enough by Jupiter to lead to high-speed collisions. As a result, many dozen large asteroids have been disrupted by impacts over the age of the Solar System, producing groups of fragments known as asteroid families. Here we explain how the asteroid families are identified, review their current inventory, and discuss how they can be used to get insights into long-term dynamics of main belt asteroids...

  10. Tectonism and Magmatism on Asteroids (United States)

    Buczkowski, D. L.; Wyrick, D. Y.


    Linear features generally accepted as tectonic structures have been observed on several asteroids and their presence has implications for the internal structure, strength and evolution of these various bodies. Observations of several small bodies have identified different physical mechanisms by which linear features can be formed. Analysis shows that asteroid lineaments appear to have different origins. We also discuss the potential for volcanism and/or magmatism on asteroids, especially in regard to Vesta which, as a differentiated proto-planet,is a unique body with which to study the role that internal rheologies and structures play on surface features.

  11. Structural Stability of Asteroids (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Toshi

    This thesis develops a technique for analyzing the internal structure of an irregularly shaped asteroid. This research focuses on asteroid (216) Kleopatra, a few-hundred-kilometer-sized main belt asteroid spinning about its maximum moment of inertia axis with a rotation period of 5.385 hours, to motivate the techniques. While Ostro et al. [117] reported its dog bone-like shape, estimation of its size has been actively discussed. There are at least three different size estimates: Ostro et al., Descamps et al., and Marchis et al. Descamps et al. reported that (216) Kleopatra has satellites and obtained the mass of this object. This research consists of determination of possible failure modes of (216) Kleopatra and its subsequent detailed stress analysis, with each part including an estimation of the internal structure. The first part of this thesis considers the failure mode of Kleopatra and evaluates the size from it. Possible failure modes are modeled as either material shedding from the surface or plastic failure of the internal structure. The surface shedding condition is met when a zero-velocity curve with the same energy level as one of the dynamical equilibrium points attaches to the surface at the slowest spin period, while the plastic failure condition is characterized by extending the theorem by Holsapple (2008) that the yield condition of the averaged stress over the whole volume is identical to an upper bound for global failure. The prime result shows that while surface shedding does not occur at the current spin period and thus cannot result in the formation of the satellites, the neck may be situated near its plastic deformation state. From the failure condition, we also find that the size estimated by Descamps et al. (2011) is the most structurally stable. The second part of this thesis discusses finite element analyses with an assumption of an elastic-perfectly plastic material and a non-associated flow rule. The yield condition is modeled as the

  12. Near Earth Asteroid Scout Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In considering targets for human asteroid missions, there are several major factors that will make a significant difference in assessment of mission risks that...

  13. Asteroid Ida and Its Moon (United States)


    This is the first full picture showing both asteroid 243 Ida and its newly discovered moon to be transmitted to Earth from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Galileo spacecraft--the first conclusive evidence that natural satellites of asteroids exist. Ida, the large object, is about 56 kilometers (35 miles) long. Ida's natural satellite is the small object to the right. This portrait was taken by Galileo's charge-coupled device (CCD) camera on August 28, 1993, about 14 minutes before the Jupiter-bound spacecraft's closest approach to the asteroid, from a range of 10,870 kilometers (6,755 miles). Ida is a heavily cratered, irregularly shaped asteroid in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter--the 243rd asteroid to be discovered since the first was found at the beginning of the 19th century. Ida is a member of a group of asteroids called the Koronis family. The small satellite, which is about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile) across in this view, has yet to be given a name by astronomers. It has been provisionally designated '1993 (243) 1' by the International Astronomical Union. ('1993' denotes the year the picture was taken, '243' the asteroid number and '1' the fact that it is the first moon of Ida to be found.) Although appearing to be 'next' to Ida, the satellite is actually in the foreground, slightly closer to the spacecraft than Ida is. Combining this image with data from Galileo's near-infrared mapping spectrometer, the science team estimates that the satellite is about 100 kilometers (60 miles) away from the center of Ida. This image, which was taken through a green filter, is one of a six-frame series using different color filters. The spatial resolution in this image is about 100 meters (330 feet) per pixel.

  14. Cellinoid Shape Model for Asteroids (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoping; Zhao, Haibin; You, Zhong


    The ellipsoid shape model plays an important role in physical research on asteroids. However, its symmetric structure cannot practically simulate real asteroids. This article applies a general shape model, named the cellinoid, instead of the ellipsoid model to simulate the asymmetric shape of asteroids. The cellinoid shape model consists of eight octants of ellipsoids having different semi-axes, with the constraint that adjacent octants must have two equal semi-axes in common. Totally, the shape of the cellinoid model is controlled by six parameters, not three as in the case of the shape of the ellipsoid. Using this shape model, the brightness of asteroids observed from the Earth can be fitted numerically by the surface triangularization of the cellinoid. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is also employed here to solve a nonlinear minimization problem. Owing to the asymmetric shape of the cellinoid, the physical parameters of asteroids, such as the rotation period and pole orientation, can be fitted more accurately than in the case of the ellipsoid model. Finally, this is confirmed numerically by applying the shape to both synthetic light curves and real light curves of asteroids. Additionally, the center of mass and moment of inertia of the cellinoid are analyzed explicitly.

  15. Anatomy of an Asteroid Breakup (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    A team of scientists has observed the breakup of an asteroid as it orbits the Sun. In a new study, they reveal what theyve learned from their ground- and space-based observations of this disintegration.These Hubble images show the fragments of R3 in higher resolution over the span of October 2013 to February 2014. [Jewitt et al. 2017]Observations of DisintegrationActive asteroids are objects that move on asteroid-like orbits while displaying comet-like behavior. The cause of their activity can vary ranging from outgassing as the asteroid heats up in its solar approach, to expelled debris from a collision, to the entire asteroid flying apart because its spinning too fast.Led by David Jewitt (University of California at Los Angeles), a team of scientists has analyzed observations of the disintegrating asteroid P/2013 R3. The observations span two years and were made by a number of telescopes, including Hubble, Keck (in Hawaii), Magellan (in Chile), and the Very Large Telescope (in Chile).A schematic diagram of the different fragments of R3 and how they relate to each other. Black numbers estimate the fragment separation velocities; red numbers estimate the separation date. [Jewitt et al. 2017]Jewitt and collaborators then used these observations and a bit of modeling to understand what asteroid R3 was like originally, what its pieces are doing now, and what caused it to break up.Cause of the BreakupThe team found that P/2013 R3 broke up into at least 13 pieces, the biggest of which was likely no more than 100-200 meters in size. The original asteroid was probably less than 400 m in radius.By measuring the velocities of the fragments in the various observations, Jewitt and collaborators were able to work backward to determine when each piece broke off. They found that the fragmentation process was spread out over the span of roughly 5 months suggesting that the asteroids breakup wasnt impact-related (otherwise the fragmentation would likely have been all at once

  16. Asteroid Exploration and Exploitation (United States)

    Lewis, John S.


    John S. Lewis is Professor of Planetary Sciences and Co-Director of the Space Engineering Research Center at the University of Arizona. He was previously a Professor of Planetary Sciences at MIT and Visiting Professor at the California Institute of Technology. Most recently, he was a Visiting Professor at Tsinghua University in Beijing for the 2005-2006 academic year. His research interests are related to the application of chemistry to astronomical problems, including the origin of the Solar System, the evolution of planetary atmospheres, the origin of organic matter in planetary environments, the chemical structure and history of icy satellites, the hazards of comet and asteroid bombardment of Earth, and the extraction, processing, and use of the energy and material resources of nearby space. He has served as member or Chairman of a wide variety of NASA and NAS advisory committees and review panels. He has written 17 books, including undergraduate and graduate level texts and popular science books, and has authored over 150 scientific publications.

  17. Delivery of enteral nutrition. (United States)

    Grant, M J; Martin, S


    There is increasing evidence that enteral feeding is superior to parenteral nutrition with regard to maintaining gut structure and function. Selection of the enteral access route depends on the type and anticipated duration of nutrient delivery. At present, enteral feeding devices can be divided into two major categories: those entering the gastrointestinal tract through the oral or nasal cavity (oroenteric or nasoenteric tubes) and those entering through the abdominal wall including gastrostomy, duodenostomy, or jejunostomy tubes. This article provides a review of methods to insert and confirm gastric and intestinal feeding tube placement. Care of the patient with an enteric tube will be described.

  18. Excluding interlopers from asteroid families (United States)

    Novakovic, B.; Radovic, V.


    Introduction: Asteroid families are believed to have originated from catastrophic collisions among asteroids. They are a very important subject of Solar System investigation, because practically any research topic carried out in asteroid-related science sooner or later encounters problems pertaining to asteroid families. One basic problem encountered when dealing with families is to determine reliably the list of its members, i.e. to reduce the number of interlopers as much as possible. This is an important problem, because many conclusions derived from analyses of the physical properties of family members must be necessarily based on firm and well established membership. However, as the number of known asteroids increases fast it becomes more and more difficult to obtain robust list of members of an asteroid family. To cope with these challenges we are proposing a new approach that may help to significantly reduce presence of interlopers among the family members. This method should be particularly useful once additional information become available, including primarily spectro-photometric data. This is exactly the kind of information that will be provided by Gaia. Metodology: Families (and their members) have been commonly identified by analysing the distribution of asteroids in the space of proper orbital elements, using the Hierarchical Clustering Method (HCM) [1]. A well-known drawback of the HCM based on the single linkage rule is the so-called chaining phenomenon: first concentrations naturally tend to incorporate nearby groups, forming a kind of 'chain'. Thus, any family membership obtained by the pure HCM must unavoidably include some interlopers. The method we are proposing here could be used to identify these interlopers, with its main advantage being an ability to significantly reduce the chaining effect. The method consists of three main steps. First we determine an asteroid family members by applying the HCM to the catalogue of proper elements obtained

  19. Asteroid Ida - Five Frame Mosaic (United States)


    This view of the asteroid 243 Ida is a mosaic of five image frames acquired by the Galileo spacecraft's solid-state imaging system at ranges of 3,057 to 3,821 kilometers (1,900 to 2,375 miles) on August 28, 1993, about 3-1/2 minutes before the spacecraft made its closest approach to the asteroid. Galileo flew about 2,400 kilometers (1,500 miles) from Ida at a relative velocity of 12.4 km/sec (28,000 mph). Asteroid and spacecraft were 441 million kilometers (274 million miles) from the Sun. Ida is the second asteroid ever encountered by a spacecraft. It appears to be about 52 kilometers (32 miles) in length, more than twice as large as Gaspra, the first asteroid observed by Galileo in October 1991. Ida is an irregularly shaped asteroid placed by scientists in the S class (believed to be like stony or stony iron meteorites). It is a member of the Koronis family, presumed fragments left from the breakup of a precursor asteroid in a catastrophic collision. This view shows numerous craters, including many degraded craters larger than any seen on Gaspra. The extensive cratering seems to dispel theories about Ida's surface being geologically youthful. This view also seems to rule out the idea that Ida is a double body. The south pole is believed to be in the darkside near the middle of the asteroid. The camera's clear filter was used to produce this extremely sharp picture. Spatial resolution is 31 to 38 meters (roughly 100 feet) per pixel. A 30-frame mosaic was taken to assure capturing Ida; its position was somewhat uncertain before the Galileo encounter. Galileo shuttered and recorded a total of 150 images in order to capture Ida 21 different times during a five hour period (about one rotation of the asteroid). Color filters were used at many of these times to allow reconstruction of color images. Playback to Earth of the remaining images is planned for April through June 1994. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995

  20. Developing an Asteroid Rotational Theory (United States)

    Geis, Gena; Williams, Miguel; Linder, Tyler; Pakey, Donald


    The goal of this project is to develop a theoretical asteroid rotational theory from first principles. Starting at first principles provides a firm foundation for computer simulations which can be used to analyze multiple variables at once such as size, rotation period, tensile strength, and density. The initial theory will be presented along with early models of applying the theory to the asteroid population. Early results confirm previous work by Pravec et al. (2002) that show the majority of the asteroids larger than 200m have negligible tensile strength and have spin rates close to their critical breakup point. Additionally, results show that an object with zero tensile strength has a maximum rotational rate determined by the object’s density, not size. Therefore, an iron asteroid with a density of 8000 kg/m^3 would have a minimum spin period of 1.16h if the only forces were gravitational and centrifugal. The short-term goal is to include material forces in the simulations to determine what tensile strength will allow the high spin rates of asteroids smaller than 150m.

  1. ASTEROID OCCULTATIONS V6.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is intended to include all reported timings of observed asteroid occultation events as well as asteroid occultation axes derived from those timings by...

  2. ASTEROID OCCULTATIONS V2.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is intended to include all reported timings of observed asteroid occultation events through Mar. 1, 2004, as well as asteroid occultation axes derived...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Asteroid Photometric Catalog (3rd update), Lagerkvist,, 1993 [LAGERKVISTETAL1993], is a compilation of all asteroid lightcurve photometry published up to...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a compilation of the family memberships of numbered asteroids in five different asteroid family analyses. These include the analyses of Zappala et al.,...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Asteroid Photometric Catalog (3rd update), Lagerkvist,, 1993 [LAGERKVISTETAL1993], is a compilation of all asteroid lightcurve photometry published up to...

  6. ASTEROID OCCULTATIONS V4.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is intended to include all reported timings of observed asteroid occultation events through Apr. 11, 2006, as well as asteroid occultation axes derived...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Asteroid Polarimetric Database (APD) is a collection of asteroid polarimetry results compiled by D.F. Lupishko and S.V. Vasiliev of Karazin Kharkiv National...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Asteroid Polarimetric Database (APD) is a collection of asteroid polarimetry results compiled by D.F. Lupishko of Karazin Kharkiv National University, Ukraine....


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Asteroid Polarimetric Database (APD) is a collection of asteroid polarimetry results compiled by D.F. Lupishko of Karazin Kharkiv National University, Ukraine....


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Asteroid Polarimetric Database (APD) is a collection of asteroid polarimetry results compiled by D.F. Lupishko and S.V. Vasiliev of Karazin Kharkiv National...

  11. Characterizing Asteroid Internal Structure Through Tectonic Analyses (United States)

    Wyrick, D. Y.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Durda, D. D.


    Critical data gaps remain in characterizing the mechanical strength and internal structure of asteroids. Understanding asteroid internal coherency is required to develop effective mitigation, diversion, or destruction strategies against impact threat.

  12. Impacts into porous asteroids (United States)

    Housen, Kevin R.; Sweet, William J.; Holsapple, Keith A.


    Many small bodies in the solar system have bulk density well below the solid density of the constituent mineral grains in their meteorite counterparts. Those low-density bodies undoubtedly have significant porosity, which is a key factor that affects the formation of impact craters. This paper summarizes the results of lab experiments in which materials with porosity ranging from 43% to 96% were impacted at ∼1800 m/s. The experiments were performed on a geotechnical centrifuge, in order to reproduce the lithostatic overburden stress and ejecta ballistics that occur in large-scale cratering events on asteroids or planetary satellites. Experiments performed at various accelerations, up to 514G, simulate the outcomes of impacts at size scales up to several tens of km in diameter. Our experiments show that an impact into a highly porous cohesionless material generates a large ovoid-shaped cavity, due to crushing by the outgoing shock. The cavity opens up to form a transient crater that grows until the material flow is arrested by gravity. The cavity then collapses to form the final crater. During collapse, finely crushed material that lines the cavity wall is carried down and collected in a localized region below the final crater floor. At large simulated sizes (high accelerations), most of the crater volume is formed by compaction, because growth of the transient crater is quickly arrested. Nearly all ejected material falls back into the crater, leaving the crater without an ejecta blanket. We find that such compaction cratering and suppression of the ejecta blankets occur for large craters on porous bodies when the ratio of the lithostatic stress at one crater depth to the crush strength of the target exceeds ∼0.005. The results are used to identify small solar system bodies on which compaction cratering likely occurs. A model is developed that gives the crater size and ejecta mass that would result for a specified impact into a porous object.

  13. ATLAS: Finding the Nearest Asteroids (United States)

    Heinze, Aren; Tonry, John L.; Denneau, Larry; Stalder, Brian


    The Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (ATLAS) became fully operational in June 2017. Our two robotic, 0.5 meter telescopes survey the whole accessible sky every two nights from the Hawaiian mountains of Haleakala and Mauna Loa. With sensitivity to magnitude 19.5 over a field of 30 square degrees, we discover several bright near-Earth objects every month - particularly fast moving asteroids, which can slip by other surveys that scan the sky more slowly. Several important developments in 2017 have enhanced our sensitivity to small, nearby asteroids and potential impactors. We report on these developments - including optical adjustments, automated screening of detections, closer temporal spacing of images, and tolerance for large deviations from Great Circle motion on the sky - and we describe their effect in terms of measuring and discovering real objects.

  14. Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) Mission: The double Asteroid redirection test (DART)


    Cheng, A F; Michel, P; Barnouin, O.S.; Campo-Bagatin, A.; Miller, P.; Pravec, P.; Richardson, D. C.; Rivkin, A. S.; Schwartz, S.R.; Stickel, A.; Tsiganis, K.; Ulamec, S.


    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission will be the first space experiment to demonstrate asteroid impact hazard mitigation by using a kinetic impactor. AIDA is a joint ESA-NASA cooperative project [1,2], that includes the ESA Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) rendezvous spacecraft and the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission. The AIDA target is the near- Earth binary asteroid 65803 Didymos, which will make an unusually close approach to Earth in October, 20...

  15. Project RAMA: Reconstructing Asteroids Into Mechanical Automata (United States)

    Dunn, Jason; Fagin, Max; Snyder, Michael; Joyce, Eric


    Many interesting ideas have been conceived for building space-based infrastructure in cislunar space. From O'Neill's space colonies, to solar power satellite farms, and even prospecting retrieved near earth asteroids. In all the scenarios, one thing remained fixed - the need for space resources at the outpost. To satisfy this need, O'Neill suggested an electromagnetic railgun to deliver resources from the lunar surface, while NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission called for a solar electric tug to deliver asteroid materials from interplanetary space. At Made In Space, we propose an entirely new concept. One which is scalable, cost effective, and ensures that the abundant material wealth of the inner solar system becomes readily available to humankind in a nearly automated fashion. We propose the RAMA architecture, which turns asteroids into self-contained spacecraft capable of moving themselves back to cislunar space. The RAMA architecture is just as capable of transporting conventional-sized asteroids on the 10-meter length scale as transporting asteroids 100 meters or larger, making it the most versatile asteroid retrieval architecture in terms of retrieved-mass capability. This report describes the results of the Phase I study funded by the NASA NIAC program for Made In Space to establish the concept feasibility of using space manufacturing to convert asteroids into autonomous, mechanical spacecraft. Project RAMA, Reconstituting Asteroids into Mechanical Automata, is designed to leverage the future advances of additive manufacturing (AM), in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) and in-situ manufacturing (ISM) to realize enormous efficiencies in repeated asteroid redirect missions. A team of engineers at Made In Space performed the study work with consultation from the asteroid mining industry, academia, and NASA. Previous studies for asteroid retrieval have been constrained to studying only asteroids that are both large enough to be discovered, and small enough to be

  16. Asteroid Models from Sparse Photometry


    Hanuš, Josef


    We investigate the photometric accuracy of the sparse data from astrometric surveys available on AstDyS. We use data from seven surveys with the best accu- racy in combination with relative lightcurves in the lightcurve inversion method to derive ∼300 new asteroid physical models (i.e., convex shapes and rotational states). We introduce several reliability tests that we use on all new asteroid mod- els. We investigate rotational properties of our MBAs sample (∼450 models here or previously de...

  17. Simultaneous Mass Determination for Gravitationally Coupled Asteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, James [Private address, 3210 Apache Road, Pittsburgh, PA 15241 (United States); Chesley, Steven R., E-mail: [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)


    The conventional least-squares asteroid mass determination algorithm allows us to solve for the mass of a large subject asteroid that is perturbing the trajectory of a smaller test asteroid. However, this algorithm is necessarily a first approximation, ignoring the possibility that the subject asteroid may itself be perturbed by the test asteroid, or that the encounter’s precise geometry may be entangled with encounters involving other asteroids. After reviewing the conventional algorithm, we use it to calculate the masses of 30 main-belt asteroids. Compared to our previous results, we find new mass estimates for eight asteroids (11 Parthenope, 27 Euterpe, 51 Neimausa, 76 Freia, 121 Hermione, 324 Bamberga, 476 Hedwig, and 532 Herculina) and significantly more precise estimates for six others (2 Pallas, 3 Juno, 4 Vesta, 9 Metis, 16 Psyche, and 88 Thisbe). However, we also find that the conventional algorithm yields questionable results in several gravitationally coupled cases. To address such cases, we describe a new algorithm that allows the epoch state vectors of the subject asteroids to be included as solve-for parameters, allowing for the simultaneous solution of the masses and epoch state vectors of multiple subject and test asteroids. We then apply this algorithm to the same 30 main-belt asteroids and conclude that mass determinations resulting from current and future high-precision astrometric sources (such as Gaia ) should conduct a thorough search for possible gravitational couplings and account for their effects.

  18. Asteroid Lightcurves from Etscorn Observatory (United States)

    Klinglesmith, Daniel A., III; Hendrickx, Sebastian


    During 2017 August and September, we observed five spin-shape asteroids: 418 Alemannia, 1095 Tulipa, 2648 Owa, 3122 Florence, and 5040 Rabinowitz. The selections were by listed by Warner et al. (2017) in their regular MPB paper featuring photometric opportunities for the upcoming quarter.

  19. The empty primordial asteroid belt. (United States)

    Raymond, Sean N; Izidoro, Andre


    The asteroid belt contains less than a thousandth of Earth's mass and is radially segregated, with S-types dominating the inner belt and C-types the outer belt. It is generally assumed that the belt formed with far more mass and was later strongly depleted. We show that the present-day asteroid belt is consistent with having formed empty, without any planetesimals between Mars and Jupiter's present-day orbits. This is consistent with models in which drifting dust is concentrated into an isolated annulus of terrestrial planetesimals. Gravitational scattering during terrestrial planet formation causes radial spreading, transporting planetesimals from inside 1 to 1.5 astronomical units out to the belt. Several times the total current mass in S-types is implanted, with a preference for the inner main belt. C-types are implanted from the outside, as the giant planets' gas accretion destabilizes nearby planetesimals and injects a fraction into the asteroid belt, preferentially in the outer main belt. These implantation mechanisms are simple by-products of terrestrial and giant planet formation. The asteroid belt may thus represent a repository for planetary leftovers that accreted across the solar system but not in the belt itself.

  20. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Naasz, Bo; Cichy, Benjamin


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA’s plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  1. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald


    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  2. What Is Enteral Nutrition? (United States)

    ... pharmacists) will talk with you about the different types of feeding tubes. Enteral Nutrition Fact Sheet ... Continuing Education Certification Claim CE Credits ASPEN 2018 Nutrition Science and ...

  3. Asteroids. Prospective energy and material resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badescu, Viorel (ed.) [Bucharest Polytechnic Univ. (Romania). Candida Oancea Institute


    Recent research on Prospective Energy and Material Resources on Asteroids. Carefully edited book dedicated to Asteroids prospective energy and material resources. Written by leading experts in the field. The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power. Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth. Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space. This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions to old problems that could become reality in our life time. The book therefore is a great source of condensed information for specialists involved in current and impending asteroid-related activities and a good starting point for space researchers, inventors, technologists and potential investors. Written for researchers, engineers, and businessmen interested in asteroids' exploration and exploitation.

  4. Immediate preoperative enteral nutrition (preoperative enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lađević Nebojša


    Full Text Available Nutritional support of surgical patients is a necessary part of the treatment. It alone cannot cure the disease but it significantly affects the recovery of patients and supports surgical interventions. Patients in malnutrition have shown to have significantly more postoperative infectious and non-infectious complications. This significantly prolongs treatment time and increases costs. However, there is one fact that cannot be expressed in money, which is the patient's impression of the surgical intervention. Adequate preoperative patient support, based on the intake of liquid nutritive solutions, reduces preoperative stress and deflects the metabolic response. Now, it is recommended for adults and children older than one year to drink clear liquid up to 2 hours before induction in anesthesia. Appropriate enteral nutrition has a significant place in the postoperative recovery of patients. Enteral nutrition is reducing complications, mainly infectious complications because the function of the digestive system as one large immune system is preserved. Perioperative enteral nutrition is a necessary part of the modern treatment of surgical patients. In addition to the significant effect on the occurrence of postoperative complications, it is also important that this type of diet improves the psychological status of patients.

  5. Asteroid Geophysics and Quantifying the Impact Hazard (United States)

    Sears, D.; Wooden, D. H.; Korycanksy, D. G.


    Probably the major challenge in understanding, quantifying, and mitigating the effects of an impact on Earth is understanding the nature of the impactor. Of the roughly 25 meteorite craters on the Earth that have associated meteorites, all but one was produced by an iron meteorite and only one was produced by a stony meteorite. Equally important, even meteorites of a given chemical class produce a wide variety of behavior in the atmosphere. This is because they show considerable diversity in their mechanical properties which have a profound influence on the behavior of meteorites during atmospheric passage. Some stony meteorites are weak and do not reach the surface or reach the surface as thousands of relatively harmless pieces. Some stony meteorites roll into a maximum drag configuration and are strong enough to remain intact so a large single object reaches the surface. Others have high concentrations of water that may facilitate disruption. However, while meteorite falls and meteorites provide invaluable information on the physical nature of the objects entering the atmosphere, there are many unknowns concerning size and scale that can only be determined by from the pre-atmospheric properties of the asteroids. Their internal structure, their thermal properties, their internal strength and composition, will all play a role in determining the behavior of the object as it passes through the atmosphere, whether it produces an airblast and at what height, and the nature of the impact and amount and distribution of ejecta.

  6. The asteroid 2014 JO25 (United States)

    Vodniza, Alberto; Pereira, Mario


    The asteroid 2014 JO25 was discovered by A. D. Grauer at the Mt. Lemmon Survey on May 2014, and Joe Masiero used observations from the NEOWISE in 2014 to estimate a diameter of 650 meters [1]. However, using the radio telescope at Arecibo-Puerto Rico, astronomers obtained radar images on April 17-2017 and Edgar Rivera Valentín (scientist at Arecibo) said: “We found 2014 JO25 is a contact binary asteroid, two space rocks that were originally separate bodies, and each segment is about 640 meters and 670 meters, for a total of about 1.3 km long. Its rotation is of 3.5 hours” [2]. This asteroid flew past Earth on April 19 at a distance of about 4.6 lunar distances from the Earth. This was the closest approach by an asteroid since 4179 Toutatis. Toutatis flew past Earth on September 2004 at a distance of about 4 lunar distances from the Earth [3]. In April 12-2020 the asteroid will be at a minimum possible distance of 0.1617280 A.U from Earth [4]. From our observatory, located in Pasto-Colombia, we obtained a lot of pictures. Our data was published by the Minor Planet Center [5] and also appears at the web page of NEODyS [6]. Astrometry and photometry were carried out, and we calculated the orbital elements. We obtained the following orbital parameters: eccentricity=0.88454+/-0.00152, semi-major axis= 2.0573+/- 0.0216 A.U, orbital inclination=25.22+/-0.10 deg, longitude of the ascending node =30.6530+/-0.0032 deg, argument of perihelion=49.586+/-0.012 deg, mean motion = 0.33402+/-0.00527 deg/d, perihelion distance=0.237524+/-0.000644 A.U, aphelion distance=3.8770+/-0.0449 A.U, absolute magnitude =18.1. The parameters were calculated based on 164 observations. Dates: 2017 April: 22 to 24 with mean residual=0.22 arcseconds.The asteroid has an orbital period of 2.95 years.[1][2][3] https

  7. Colorimetry and magnitudes of asteroids (United States)

    Bowell, E.; Lumme, K.


    In the present paper, 1500 UBV observations are analyzed by a new rather general multiple scattering theory which provided clear insight into previously poorly-recognized optical nature of asteroid surfaces. Thus, phase curves are shown to consist of a surface-texture controlled component, due to singly scattered light, and a component due to multiple scattering. Phase curve shapes can be characterized by a single parameter, the multiple scattering factor, Q. As Q increases, the relative importance of the opposition effect diminishes. Asteroid surfaces are particulate and strikingly similar to texture, being moderately porous and moderately rough on a scale greater than the wavelength of light. In concequence, Q (and also the phase coefficient) correlate well with geometric albedo, and there exists a purely photometric means of determining albedos and diameters.

  8. Asteroids prospective energy and material resources

    CERN Document Server


    The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power.   Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth.   Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space.   This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions t...

  9. Comparison of Asteroids Observed in the SDSS with a Catalog of Known Asteroids


    Juric, M.; Ivezic, Z.; Lupton, H. R.; Quinn, T.; Tabachnik, S.


    We positionally correlate asteroids from existing catalogs with a sample of $\\about$18,000 asteroids detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS, Ivezi\\'{c} {\\em et al.} 2001). We find 2641 unique matches, which represent the largest sample of asteroids with both accurate multi-color photometry and known orbital parameters. The matched objects are predominantly bright, and demonstrate that the SDSS photometric pipeline recovers \\about90% of the known asteroids in the observed region. For t...

  10. Modern Asteroid Occultation Observing Methods (United States)

    Lucas, G. A.


    This presentation reviews current working methods for asteroid occultations developed by the International Occultation Timing Association (IOTA). Reduc- tion of multiple tracks or "chords" observed during stellar occultations pro- vides valuable measures of the relative sizes and shapes of asteroids. Tradi- tionally, predictions for asteroid occultations were prepared by regional IOTA computors, distributed annually in "hard copy" format to IOTA subscrib- ers and in publications such as Sky & Telescope magazine and the annual RASC Observers Handbook. IOTA - like many other organizations - is now using worldwide internet services and e-mail to distribute frequently-updated pre- dictions based upon the latest astrometry. The IOTA web pages provide an easily accessible, centralized source of information on lunar and solar sys- tem occultation events. IOTA's web pages feature a variety of articles on current activities, plans for observing campaigns and expeditions, and "how to do it" information on the latest technology and techniques. The latest up- dated predictions for asteroid events are made available as they are pro- duced, providing more accurate observing tracks and efficient coordination of observers. The IOTA e-mail list provides a dynamic forum for the exchange of technical information and com-munication of observing plans in a timely man- ner. Individuals may now generate customized occultation predictions using the WinOccult software package. The author presents some examples of recent occultation events, showing the benefits of coordinated observations. Also described are some of the latest innovations, featuring low-cost video camera equipment, devices for time insertion based on Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology, and a new approach using unattended secondary field station equipment to multiply the number of tracks observed.

  11. Figure of Merit for Asteroid Regolith Simulants (United States)

    Metzger, P.; Britt, D.; Covey, S.; Lewis, J. S.


    High fidelity asteroid simulant has been developed, closely matching the mineral and elemental abundances of reference meteorites representing the target asteroid classes. The first simulant is a CI class based upon the Orgueil meteorite, and several other simulants are being developed. They will enable asteroid mining and water extraction tests, helping mature the technologies for space resource utilization for both commercial and scientific/exploration activities in space.

  12. Asteroid Evolution: Role of Geotechnical Properties (United States)

    Sánchez, Paul


    This paper presents a brief review and latest results of the work that has been carried out by the Planetary Science community in order to understand the role of the geotechnical properties of granular asteroids (commonly known as ``rubble-pile'' asteroids) in their formation, evolution and possible disruption. As such, we will touch in aspects of the theoretical and numerical tools that have been used with this objective and how the obtained results compare to the observed asteroids.

  13. Enteric neurodegeneration in ageing. (United States)

    Camilleri, M; Cowen, T; Koch, T R


    The objective of this article is to review the clinical presentation and neurobiology of degeneration of the enteric nervous system with emphasis on human data where available. Constipation, incontinence and evacuation disorders are frequently encountered in the ageing population. Healthy lower gastrointestinal function is essential for successful ageing as it is critical to maintaining independence and autonomy to pursue further activity. One clinical expression of enteric neurodegeneration is constipation. However, the aetiology may be multifactorial as disturbances of epithelial, muscle or neural function may all result from neurodegeneration. There is evidence of loss of excitatory (e.g. cholinergic) enteric neurons and interstitial cells of Cajal, whereas inhibitory (including nitrergic) neurons appear unaffected. Understanding neurodegeneration in the enteric nervous system is key to developing treatments to reverse it. Neurotrophins have been shown to accelerate colonic transit and relieve constipation in the medium term; they are also implicated in maintenance programmes in adult enteric neurons through a role in antioxidant defence. However, their effects in ageing colon require further study. There is evidence that 5-HT(2) and 5-HT(4) mechanisms are involved in development, maintenance and survival of enteric neurons. Further research is needed to understand and potentially reverse enteric neurodegeneration.

  14. Anchoring a lander on an asteroid using foam stabilization Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has proposed several missions to land a craft on an asteroid and potentially to return samples from it. While large asteroids in the asteroid belt can exhibit a...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains the asteroid dynamical family classifications contained in Zappala, et al. (1995) [ZAPPALAETAL1995]. These are based on the heirarchical...

  16. Geotechnical Tests on Asteroid Simulant Orgueil (United States)

    Garcia, Alexander D'marco


    In the last 100 years, the global population has more than quadrupled to over seven billion people. At the same time, the demand for food and standard of living has been increasing which has amplified the global water use by nearly eight times from approximately 500 to 4000 cu km per yr from 1900 to 2010. With the increasing concern to sustain the growing population on Earth it is necessary to seek other approaches to ensure that our planet will have resources for generations to come. In recent years, the advancement of space travel and technology has allowed the idea of mining asteroids with resources closer to becoming a reality. During the duration of the internship at NASA Kennedy Space Center, several geotechnical tests were conducted on BP-1 lunar simulant and asteroid simulant Orgueil. The tests that were conducted on BP-1 was to practice utilizing the equipment that will be used on the asteroid simulant and the data from those tests will be omitted from report. Understanding the soil mechanics of asteroid simulant Orgueil will help provide basis for future technological advances and prepare scientists for the conditions they may encounter when mining asteroids becomes reality in the distant future. Distinct tests were conducted to determine grain size distribution, unconsolidated density, and maximum density. Once the basic properties are known, the asteroid simulant will be altered to different levels of compaction using a vibrator table to see how compaction affects the density. After different intervals of vibration compaction, a miniature vane shear test will be conducted. Laboratory vane shear testing is a reliable tool to investigate strength anisotropy in the vertical and horizontal directions of a very soft to stiff saturated fine-grained clayey soil. This test will provide us with a rapid determination of the shear strength on the undisturbed compacted regolith. The results of these tests will shed light on how much torque is necessary to drill

  17. Asteroid Families: Myth or Reality? (United States)

    Bus, S. J.; Binzel, R. P.; Burbine, T. H.


    Dynamical families among the asteroids are thought to result from the collisional disruption of larger parent bodies. Even with recent improvements in the calculation of proper elements and the use of better clustering algorithms, a grouping in orbital element space is not sufficient proof of a genetic association. Proof of a genetic link between these objects is possible only through physical studies of the individual family members. In the course of the Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey (SMASS), we have measured the spectral reflectance properties of more than 250 asteroids whose semi-major axes are between 2.7 and 2.82 AU. This region of the main-belt has been chosen for study due to the diversity of asteroid spectral types present, and for the number of dynamical families that have been identified (e.g., Williams 1992, Icarus 96, 251 and Zappala et al. 1994, Astron. J. 107, 772). We have focused our efforts on 10 families defined by Zappala et al. (1995, Icarus 116, 291) (Astrid, Ceres, Chloris, Dora, Henan, Hoffmeister, Liberatrix, Lydia, Merxia, Nemesis) and on the proposed high inclination Pallas family (e.g., Lemaitre and Morbidelli 1994, Cel. Mech. Dynam. Astron. 60, 29). Observations were obtained with a CCD spectrograph attached to the 2.4-m Hiltner telescope of the Michigan-Dartmouth-MIT Observatory and cover the wavelength range of 4400-9200 Angstroms. Of the >250 objects observed, approximately one-half are identified as family members while the other half are non-family members, where the latter are used to define the background population. For each of the eleven families studied, strong similarities are seen in the reflectance properties between the individual family members. This is in significant contrast to the relatively random distribution of C-type and S-type asteroids seen in the background population. Interlopers are found, but usually appear to be at the periphery of a family, highlighting the difficulty of establishing

  18. The enteric nervous system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sasselli, Valentina; Pachnis, Vassilis; Burns, Alan J


    The enteric nervous system (ENS), the intrinsic innervation of the gastrointestinal tract, consists of numerous types of neurons, and glial cells, that are distributed in two intramuscular plexuses that extend along the entire...

  19. Eccentricity distribution in the main asteroid belt (United States)

    Malhotra, Renu; Wang, Xianyu


    The observationally complete sample of the main belt asteroids now spans more than two orders of magnitude in size and numbers more than 64 000 (excluding collisional family members). We undertook an analysis of asteroids' eccentricities and their interpretation with simple physical models. We find that a century old conclusion that the asteroids' eccentricities follow a Rayleigh distribution holds for the osculating eccentricities of large asteroids, but the proper eccentricities deviate from a Rayleigh distribution; there is a deficit of eccentricities smaller than ∼0.1 and an excess of larger eccentricities. We further find that the proper eccentricities do not depend significantly on asteroid size but have strong dependence on heliocentric distance; the outer asteroid belt follows a Rayleigh distribution, but the inner belt is strikingly different. Eccentricities in the inner belt can be modelled as a vector sum of a primordial eccentricity vector of random orientation and magnitude drawn from a Rayleigh distribution of parameter ∼0.06, and an excitation of random phase and magnitude ∼0.13. These results imply that when a late dynamical excitation of the asteroids occurred, it was independent of asteroid size and was stronger in the inner belt than in the outer belt. We discuss implications for the primordial asteroid belt and suggest that the observationally complete sample size of main belt asteroids is large enough that more sophisticated model-fitting of the eccentricities is warranted and could serve to test alternative theoretical models of the dynamical excitation history of asteroids and its links to the migration history of the giant planets.

  20. Update on an Interstellar Asteroid (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    Whats the news coming from the research world on the interstellar asteroid visitor, asteroid 1I/Oumuamua? Read on for an update from a few of the latest studies.What is Oumuamua?In lateOctober2017, the discovery of minor planet 1I/Oumuamua was announced. This body which researchers first labeled asa comet and later revised to an asteroid had just zipped around the Sun and was already in the process of speeding away whenwe trained our telescopes on it. Its trajectory, however, marked it as being a visitor from outside our solar system: the first knownvisitorof its kind.Since Oumuamuasdiscovery, scientists have been gathering as many observations of this bodyas possible before it vanishes into the distance. Simultaneously, theorists have leapt at the opportunity to explain its presence and the implications its passage has on our understanding of our surroundings. Here we present just a few of the latest studies that have been published on this first detected interstellar asteroid including several timelystudies published in our new journal, Research Notes of the AAS.The galactic velocity of Oumuamua does not coincide with any of the nearest stars to us. [Mamajek 2018]Where Did Oumuamua Come From?Are we sure Oumuamua didnt originate in our solar system andget scattered into a weird orbit? Jason Wright (The Pennsylvania State University) demonstrates via a series of calculations that no known solar system body could have scattered Oumuamua onto its current orbit nor could any stillunknown object bound to our solar system.Eric Mamajek (Caltech and University of Rochester) showsthat thekinematics of Oumuamua areconsistent with what we might expect of interstellar field objects, though he argues that its kinematics suggest its unlikely to have originated from many of the neareststellar systems.What AreOumuamuas Properties?Oumuamuas light curve. [Bannister et al. 2017]A team of University of Maryland scientists led by Matthew Knight captured a light curve of Oumuamua using

  1. On the possibility of using small asteroids for deflecting near-Earth asteroids (United States)

    Akiyama, Yuki; Bando, Mai; Hokamoto, Shinji


    This paper presents the trajectory design and analysis of the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) deflection mission enabled by a kinetic impact of an intermediate asteroid. The sequential transfer trajectory is designed by solving two Lambert's problems that yield a chain collision between a spacecraft and an intermediate asteroid, followed by a collision between the intermediate asteroid and an NEA. The characteristics of the low-cost trajectories are then identified with respect to the optimal collision point. We show that the feasibility of the mission depends on the existence of an intermediate asteroid with small minimum orbit interception distance (MOID) with the NEA. Moreover the selection strategy of an intermediate asteroid that makes the mission feasible is discussed. We show that several asteroids exist that allow a 10 ton spacecraft with limited ΔV to be launched and impact the NEA 99442 Apophis allowing a deflection given several years warning time.

  2. Spitzer Survey of the Karin Cluster Asteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Alan W.; Mueller, M.; Lisse, C.; Cheng, A.; Osip, D.


    The Karin cluster is one of the youngest known families of main-belt asteroids, dating back to a collisional event only 5.8 Myr ago. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope we have sampled the thermal continua of 17 Karin cluster asteroids, down to the smallest members discovered so far, in order to

  3. [Asteroid hyalopathy (benson's disease): about a case]. (United States)

    Bienvenu, Yogolelo Asani; Angel, Musau Nkola; Leon, Kabamba Ngombe; Socrate, Kapalu Mwangala; Bruno, Iye Ombamba Kayimba; Gaby, Chenge Borasisi


    We here report a case of a 58 year-old diabetic male patient with asteroid hyalopathy, an affection rarely described in the literature. This study can help focus the attention of scientists on the pathologies of the vitreous disorders in diabetic patients as well as on other systemic diseases asteroid hyalopathy may be associated with.

  4. Basaltic Asteroids in the Solar System (United States)

    Duffard, René


    Basaltic asteroids are small bodies connected to the processes of heating and melting that may have led to the mineralogical differentiation in the interiors of the largest asteroids. Therefore, a precise knowledge of the inventory of basaltic asteroids may help to estimate how many differentiated bodies actually formed in the asteroid Main Belt and this in turn may provide important constraints to the primordial conditions of the solar nebula. The identification of basaltic asteroids in the asteroid Main Belt and the description of their surface mineralogy are necessary to understand the diversity in the collection of basaltic meteorites. In this work the current work of our team is presented: (i) The mineralogical characterization of the Vesta family members; (ii) The search of new basaltic asteroids in the Main Belt. In the first case, the objective is to characterize the material excavated from the craterization event/s in the crust of Vesta. This work is related to the possible findings of DAWN mission when it arrives to Vesta in 2011. In the second case, the objective is to find the link between the diversity of basaltic material in the meteorite collection and the asteroids.

  5. Asteroid-Deepsky Appulses in 2018 (United States)

    Warner, Brian D.


    The following list is a very small subset of the results of a search for asteroid-deepsky appulses for 2018, presenting only the highlights for the year based on close approaches of brighter asteroids to brighter DSOs. The complete set of predictions is available at

  6. Lightcurve Photometry of Six Asteroids (United States)

    Ferrero, Andrea


    Observations from 2012 January to March lead to the determination of the rotation periods for six main-belt asteroids: 33 Polyhymnia, P = 18.604 ± 0.004 h; 467 Laura, P = 37.4 ± 0.1 h; 825 Tanina, P = 6.940 ± 0.001 h; 1421 Esperanto, P = 21.982 ± 0.005 h; 3481 Xianglupeak, P = 5.137 ± 0.003 h; and 4350 Shibecha, which had two possible solutions, P = 2.890 ± 0.001 h and P = 5.778 ± 0.002 h.

  7. Planetary geology: Impact processes on asteroids (United States)

    Chapman, C. R.; Davis, D. R.; Greenberg, R.; Weidenschilling, S. J.


    The fundamental geological and geophysical properties of asteroids were studied by theoretical and simulation studies of their collisional evolution. Numerical simulations incorporating realistic physical models were developed to study the collisional evolution of hypothetical asteroid populations over the age of the solar system. Ideas and models are constrained by the observed distributions of sizes, shapes, and spin rates in the asteroid belt, by properties of Hirayama families, and by experimental studies of cratering and collisional phenomena. It is suggested that many asteroids are gravitationally-bound "rubble piles.' Those that rotate rapidly may have nonspherical quasi-equilibrium shapes, such as ellipsoids or binaries. Through comparison of models with astronomical data, physical properties of these asteroids (including bulk density) are determined, and physical processes that have operated in the solar system in primordial and subsequent epochs are studied.

  8. Measurement of Cohesion in Asteroid Regolith Materials (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Gaier, James; Waters, Deborah; Harvey, Ralph; Zeszut, Zoe; Carreno, Brandon; Shober, Patrick


    There is increasing evidence that a large fraction of asteroids, and even Phobos, have such low densities (asteroids are thought to be made up of unconsolidated smaller particles of varying size referred to as rubble piles. Images of the asteroid Itokawa reinforce this hypothesis. What holds the rubble piles together? Gravitational forces alone are not strong enough to hold together rubble pile asteroids, at least not those that are rapidly spinning Van der Waals forces and or Electrostatic forces must therefore be responsible for holding them together. Previous work suggests that electrostatic forces, which are orders of magnitude stronger are far more likely. Charge build-up is a likely consequence of the interaction of airless bodies with the solar wind plasma, analogous to what has been proposed to occur on the moon. Objective: Experimentally measure cohesive forces relevant to those holding rubble pile asteroids together

  9. The asteroids as outcomes of catastrophic collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinella, P. (Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Merate, Italy); Paolicchi, P.


    The role of catastrophic collisions in the evoloution of the asteroids is discussed in detail, employing extrapolations of experimental results on the outcome of high velocity-impacts. The probability of impacts with a given projectile-to-target mass ratio for asteroids of different sizes is derived, taking into account different mass distributions of the asteroid population at the beginning of the collision process. The extrapolations show that collisional breakup against solid-state cohesions must be a widespread process for asteroids. The influence of self-gravitation and transfer of angular momentum during collision is shown to depend strongly on the traget size, resulting in a variety of possible outcomes in the intermediate size range. Comparason of the theoretical results with observations of asteroid rotations and shapes yields favorable results.

  10. ENFit Enteral Nutrition Connectors. (United States)

    Guenter, Peggi; Lyman, Beth


    New enteral connectors are now available based on the development of standards using the International Organization of Standardization process to prevent misconnections between systems that should not connect. Enteral devices with the new patient access connectors, called ENFit, are being now introduced for the purpose of improving patient safety. Transitioning to these new connectors poses benefits and challenges for facilities or agencies implementing these new devices. Information from appropriate resources should be sought by clinicians who need to partner with their suppliers and clinical organizations to see how best to meet these challenges.

  11. Polarimetric observations of Hungaria asteroids (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Lazzaro, D.; Benavidez, P.


    Aims:We present the results of a polarimetric program at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (Casleo), San Juan, Argentina. The aim of this campaign is to estimate the polarimetric properties of asteroids belonging to the Hungaria dynamical group. Methods: The data were obtained with the Casprof polarimeter at the 2.15 m telescope. The Casprof polarimeter is a two-hole aperture polarimeter with rapid modulation. The campaign began in 2000, and data on a sample of 24 members of the Hungaria group were obtained. We use the slope - albedo or P_min - albedo relationships to get polarimetric albedos for 18 of these objects. Results: Only two Xe-type objects, 434 Hungaria and 3447 Burkhalter, shown a polarimetric behavior compatible with a high albedo object. The A-type asteroid 1600 Vyssotsky has a polarimetric behavior similar to what was observed by Fornasier et al. (2006) for 863 Benkolea, and four objects show P_min values consistent with dark surfaces. Based on observations carried out at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  12. Rosetta spacecraft meets asteroid Steins (United States)


    Steins is Rosetta’s first nominal scientific target. The spacecraft will rendezvous with the asteroid in the course of its first incursion into the asteroid belt located between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, while on its way to comet 67/P Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The study of asteroids is extremely important as they represent a sample of Solar System material at different stages of evolution - key to understanding the origin of our own planet and of our planetary neighbourhood. The closest approach to Steins is due to take place on 5 September at 20:58 CEST (Central European Summer Time), from a distance of 800 km, during which the spacecraft will not be communicating with Earth. First ground contact with the spacecraft and announcement of successful fly-by will take place at 22:23 CEST. The first data and images collected by Rosetta will be sent to Earth throughout the night of 5 to 6 September and will undergo preliminary processing in the morning of 6 September. The first images will be made available for broadcasters via a special satellite feed on Saturday 6 September (details will be given on To register for the events, please use the attached form. The press conference on 6 September will also be streamed on the ESA web: at Rosetta Steins Fly-By Doors open to the media 5 September 2008, 18:00, Building K ESA-ESOC Robert-Bosch Strasse 5, 64293 Darmstadt, Germany 18:00 - Doors open 18:00 - 19:00 Interview opportunities 19:00 - 20:15 Buffet dinner 20:15 - 20:30 The Steins Fly-By, Introduction by Paolo Ferri, Head of Solar and Planetary Missions Division (Mission Operations Dept.), ESA The crucial role of Flight Dynamics, by Trevor Morley, Rosetta Flight Dynamics Team, ESA 20:30 - 21:00 Live from Rosetta’s control room (loss of telemetry signal at 20:47) 22:23 - First telemetry on ground: signal of successful fly-by 23:00 - End of event Rosetta Steins Fly-By Press Conference 6 September 2008, 12

  13. 5. Enter Bernhard Riemann

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 6. Geometry Enter Bernhard Riemann. Kapil H Paranjape. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 6 June 1996 pp 33-40. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Author Affiliations.

  14. Asteroid Redirection Mission Evaluation Using Multiple Landers (United States)

    Bazzocchi, Michael C. F.; Emami, M. Reza


    In this paper, a low-thrust tugboat redirection method is assessed using multiple spacecraft for a target range of small near-Earth asteroids. The benefits of a landed configuration of tugboat spacecraft in formation are examined for the redirection of a near-Earth asteroid. The tugboat method uses a gimballed thruster with a highly collimated ion beam to generate a thrust on the asteroid. The target asteroid range focuses on near-Earth asteroids smaller than 150 m in diameter, and carbonaceous (C-type) asteroids, due to the volatiles available for in-situ utilization. The assessment focuses primarily on the three key parameters, i.e., the asteroid mass redirected, the timeframe for redirection, and the overall system cost. An evaluation methodology for each parameter is discussed in detail, and the parameters are employed to determine the expected return and feasibility of the redirection mission. The number of spacecraft employed is optimized along with the electrical power needed for each spacecraft to ensure the highest possible return on investment. A discussion of the optimization results and the benefits of spacecraft formation for the tugboat method are presented.

  15. Identifying asteroid families >2 Gyrs-old (United States)

    Bolin, Bryce T.; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Delbo, Marco; Walsh, Kevin J.


    There are only a few known Main Belt (MB) asteroid families with ages >2 Gyr. The lack of ancient families may be due to a bias in current techniques used to identify families. Ancient asteroid family fragments disperse in their orbital elements (a,e,i), due to secular resonances and the Yarkovsky effect (YE) making them difficult to identify. We have developed a new technique that is insensitive to the resonant spreading of fragments in e and i by searching for V-shaped correlations between family members in a vs 1/Diameter space. Our V-shape technique is demonstrated on known families and used to discover a 4 Gyr-old family linking most dark asteroids in the inner MB previously not included in any known family. In addition, the 4 Gyr-old family reveals asteroids with D >35 km that are do not belong to any asteroid family implying that they originally accreted from the protoplanetary disk.The V-shape detection tool is also a powerful analysis tool by finding the boundary of an asteroid family and fitting for its shape. Following the proposed relationship between thermal inertia (TI) with D, we find that asteroids YE drift rate might have a more complex size dependence than previous thought, leading to a curved family boundary in a vs 1/D space. The V-shape tool is capable of detecting this on synthetic families and was deployed on >30 families located throughout the MB to find this effect and quantify the YE size-dependent drift rate. We find that there is no correlation between family age and V-shape curvature. In addition, the V-shape curvature decreases for asteroid families with larger a suggesting that the relationship between TI and D is weaker in the outer MB.By examining families asteroid families have initial velocity fields scaling with 1/D supporting impact experiments.

  16. Migration of Asteroidal Dust Particles (United States)

    Ipatov, S. I.; Mather, J. C.; Taylor, P. A.


    We numerically investigated the migration of dust particles with initial velocities and positions same as those of the numbered asteroids using the Bulirsh-Stoer method of integration and took into account the gravitational influence of 8 planets, radiation pressure, Poynting-Robertson drag and solar wind drag, for values of the ratio between the radiation pressure force and the gravitational force β equal to 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.4. For silicate particles such values of β correspond to diameters of 40, 9, 4, 1.6, and 1 microns, respectively. For each β >= 0.05 we considered N=500 particles (N=250 for β =0.01). In our runs, planets were considered as material points, but, based on orbital elements obtained with a step of probability of a collision of a particle with a terrestrial planet during the lifetime of the particle. For smaller particles, the ratio of the number of particles that collided with the Sun to the total number of simulated particles and the probability of collisions of particles with the terrestrial planets are smaller. The probability of a collision of a migrating dust particle with the Earth for β =0.01 is greater by a factor of 220 than for β =0.4. The mean time ta during which an asteroidal dust particle had a semi-major axis 'a' in intervals with a fixed width is greater for smaller β (for the same initial number of particles) at a3.5 AU than at 'a' between 1 and 3 AU, and are usually maximum at 'a' about 2.3 AU. For β =0.01 the local maxima of ta corresponding to the 5:6, 6:7, 3:4, and 2:3 resonances with the Earth are greater than the maximum at 2.4 AU. The peaks in distribution of migrating asteroidal dust particles with semi-major axis corresponding to the n/(n+1) resonances with Earth and Venus and the gaps associated with the 1:1 resonances with these planets are more pronounced for larger particles. The spatial density of a simulated dust cloud and its luminosity (as seen from outside) were greater for smaller distance

  17. Spectroscopy of near-Earth asteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, René; Nathues, Andreas; Lagerkvist, Claes-Ingvar


    We present spectra and taxonomic classifications of 12 Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and 2 inner Main Belt asteroids. The observations were carried out with the ESO 3.5 m NTT and the Danish 1.54 m telescope at La Silla, Chile. Eleven of the investigated NEAs belong to the S class while only one C......-type has been identified. Two NEAs were observed at phase angles larger than 60 degrees introducing significant phase reddening. In order to allow for comparisons between spectra of asteroids observed at different phase angles we make attempts to correct for this effect. However, it turned out...

  18. Chemical, thermal and impact processing of asteroids (United States)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Newsom, H. E.; Herbert, F.; Zolensky, M.


    The geological effects of impacts, heating, melting, core formation, and aqueous alteration on asteroids are reviewed. A review of possible heat sources appears to favor an important role for electrical induction heating. The effects of each geologic process acting individually and in combination with others, are considered; it is concluded that there is much evidence for impacts during alteration, metamorphism and melting. These interactions vastly increased the geologic diversity of the asteroid belt. Subsequent impacts of cool asteroids did not reduce this diversity. Instead new rock types were created by mixing, brecciation and minor melting.

  19. PRIMitive Asteroids Spectroscopic Survey - PRIMASS: Current Status (United States)

    Pinilla-Alonso, Noemí; de León, Julia; Morate, David; de Prá, Mario; Lorenzi, Vania; Licandro, Javier; Campins, Humberto; Ali-Lagoa, Victor


    Primitive asteroids contain the most pristine material that gave birth to the rocky planets. Interest in spectral data from primitive asteroids that could be the source of the primitive near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) has increased in anticipation of the two sample-return missions that will reach their targets in the next four years and bring samples to the Earth within five years. Concurrently, the discovery of water ice on the surfaces of two primitive asteroids (24 Themis and 65 Cybele) placed the focus on the outer-belt (orbits with semi-major axis larger than 2.82 AU), where more asteroids could harbor water ice on, or below the surface.In 2010 we started a survey, called the PRIMitive Asteroids Spectroscopic Survey (PRIMASS), to collect spectra of primitive asteroids all through the Solar System. Up to now, PRIMASS library (PRIMASS-L) contains more than 530 spectra (0.4 - 2.5 μm) of primitive asteroids (> 90% of the asteroids had no spectroscopic data before) in the inner and outer belt. The aim of this survey is to provide the community with a comprehensive collection of data that enable us to study the surface composition of primitive asteroids by means of visible and near-infrared spectroscopy.Our plans for the close future include making PRIMASS-L publicly available in proper timing to be used by the teams of the OSIRIS-REx (NASA) and Hayabusa 2 (JAXA) missions. These missions will characterize two primitive near-Earth asteroids in detail, and the Earth-based libraries, as PRIMASS-L, will establish the broader framework and maximize the value of the spacecraft results. PRIMASS-L will also serve as a quality-check database for the Gaia spectroscopic products that will be published in its final release, by the end of the nominal mission in 2019.In parallel, we plan to continue observing at least for four more semesters (up to semester 2019A). After almost 10 years of data acquisition, the PRIMASS database will contain about 700 spectra of primitive asteroids

  20. ASTEROID OCCULTATIONS V13.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is intended to include all reported timings of observed asteroid, planet, and planetary satellite occultation events as well as occultation axes...

  1. ASTEROID OCCULTATIONS V10.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is intended to include all reported timings of observed asteroid, planet, and planetary satellite occultation events as well as occultation axes...

  2. ASTEROID RADAR V10.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is intended to include all published groundbased asteroid radar detections. The entries were collected by Steven J. Ostro, and selected data have been...

  3. Asteroid Occultations V1.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is intended to include all reported timings of observed asteroid, planet, and planetary satellite occultation events as well as occultation axes...

  4. ASTEROID RADAR V5.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is intended to include all groundbased asteroid radar detections. These entries were collected by Steven J. Ostro (1989) [OSTRO1989] and selected data...

  5. ASTEROID RADAR V13.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is intended to include all published groundbased asteroid radar detections. The entries were collected by Steven J. Ostro, and selected data have been...

  6. ASTEROID RADAR V1.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is intended to include all asteroid radar detections. An entry for each detection reports radar cross-section and circular polarization, if known, as...

  7. ASTEROID MASSES V3.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This collection of asteroid masses and densities was compiled from the published literature by Jim Baer, Steve Chesley, and Dan Britt. Size and shape information are...

  8. ASTEROID OCCULTATIONS V14.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is intended to include all reported timings of observed asteroid, planet, and planetary satellite occultation events as well as occultation axes...

  9. ASTEROID RADAR V14.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is intended to include all published groundbased asteroid radar detections. The entries were collected by Steven J. Ostro, and selected data have been...

  10. SAWYER ASTEROID SPECTRA V1.1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Partial spectral data for the plots presented in S. Sawyer's PhD Thesis, 'A High Resolution Spectroscopic Survey of Low Albedo Main Belt Asteroids', 1991.

  11. Radar detection of mini-asteroids


    Chernogor, Leonid F.


    Estimates of the possible early detection of decameter-size space bodies (mini-asteroids) by using the existing non-dedicated and dedicated (space surveillance) radars and also the upcoming radars are presented.

  12. Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) Program (United States)

    Helin, Eleanor F.; Pravdo, Steven H.; Rabinowitz, David L.; Lawrence, Kenneth J.


    The discoveries of near-Earth asteroids (NEA's) and comets have increased enormously over the last 10-20 years. This is a consequence in large par; of the success of programs that have systematically searched for these objects. These programs have been motivated by the relationships of NEA's to terrestrial impacts, meteorites, comets, and their relative accessibility to spacecraft missions. This paper will review the long-term Palomar Planet Crossing Asteroid Survey (PCAS) a photographic program and the current Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) system NASA's new electronic detection program. The primary goal of NEAT is to discover and inventory near-Earth asteroids and comets, collectively called near-Earth objects or NEO's, larger than 1 km in size. Details of the NEAT system and program results are presented and discussed.

  13. Chelyabinsk: Portrait of an asteroid airburst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kring, David A.; Boslough, Mark


    Video and audio from hundreds of smartphones and dashboard cameras combined with seismic, acoustic, and satellite measurements provide the first precise documentation of a 10 000-ton asteroid explosion.

  14. Shaping asteroid models using genetic evolution (SAGE) (United States)

    Bartczak, P.; Dudziński, G.


    In this work, we present SAGE (shaping asteroid models using genetic evolution), an asteroid modelling algorithm based solely on photometric lightcurve data. It produces non-convex shapes, orientations of the rotation axes and rotational periods of asteroids. The main concept behind a genetic evolution algorithm is to produce random populations of shapes and spin-axis orientations by mutating a seed shape and iterating the process until it converges to a stable global minimum. We tested SAGE on five artificial shapes. We also modelled asteroids 433 Eros and 9 Metis, since ground truth observations for them exist, allowing us to validate the models. We compared the derived shape of Eros with the NEAR Shoemaker model and that of Metis with adaptive optics and stellar occultation observations since other models from various inversion methods were available for Metis.

  15. VILAS ASTEROID SPECTRA V1.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains 85 published spectra of asteroids obtained by Faith Vilas during the years 1982 - 1992. These appeared in the following papers:...

  16. Asteroids Lightcurves Analysis: 2016 November - 2017 June (United States)

    Carbognani, Albino; Bacci, Paolo; Buzzi, Luca


    Twelve near-Earth asteroids were observed from 2016 November through 2017 June to find the synodic rotation period and lightcurve amplitudes for each asteroid. Results are reported for 2329 Orthos, (138846) 2000 VJ61, (326683) 2002 WP, (489337) 2006 UM, (494706) 2005 GL9, 2005 TF, 2017 BJ30, 2017 BQ6, 2017 CS, 2017 DC36, 2017 GK4, and 2017 JA2.

  17. The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment Mission and its Potential Contributions to Human Exploration of Asteroids (United States)

    Abell, Paul A.; Rivkin, Andy S.


    The joint ESA and NASA Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission will directly address aspects of NASA's Asteroid Initiative and will contribute to future human exploration. The NASA Asteroid Initiative is comprised of two major components: the Grand Challenge and the Asteroid Mission. The first component, the Grand Challenge, focuses on protecting Earth's population from asteroid impacts by detecting potentially hazardous objects with enough warning time to either prevent them from impacting the planet, or to implement civil defense procedures. The Asteroid Mission, involves sending astronauts to study and sample a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) prior to conducting exploration missions of the Martian system, which includes Phobos and Deimos. AIDA's primary objective is to demonstrate a kinetic impact deflection and characterize the binary NEA Didymos. The science and technical data obtained from AIDA will aid in the planning of future human exploration missions to NEAs and other small bodies. The dual robotic missions of AIDA, ESA's Asteroid Impact Monitor (AIM) and NASA's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART), will provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of the binary target Didymos both prior to and after the kinetic impact demonstration. The knowledge gained from this mission will help identify asteroidal physical properties in order to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk for future small body missions. The AIDA data will help fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning asteroid physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration considerations at similar small body destinations.

  18. Asteroid hyalosis--current state of knowledge. (United States)

    Jabłońska, Anna; Ciszewska, Joanna; Kęcik, Dariusz


    The search query into the Cochrane Library, Medline, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus and ScienceDirect enabled selection of research papers addressing the issue of asteroid hyalosis published in English between 1963 and January 2014. Asteroid hyalosis is a degenerative condition of the vitreous in which small, creamy or white, spherical particles (asteroid bodies) are randomly diffused within the vitreous. They consist mainly of calcium and phosphorus and have a structure of hydroxy lapatite. In 80.2-92.0% of cases the condition affects one eye only and it occurs in 0.36-1.96% of population, mostly in patients over 50 years of age and in males. Hypercholesterolemia and hypertension are systemic risk factors, but asteroid hyalosis is postulated to occur more often in retinitis pigmentosa and Leber amaurosis caused by mutations in lecithin retinol acyltransferase gene. Asteroid hyalosis also causes calcification of some intraocular lenses--mostly silicone ones. Vitreous of patients with asteroid hyalosis shows reduced gel liquefaction and anomalous vitreoretinal adhesion.

  19. Formation of asteroid pairs by rotational fission. (United States)

    Pravec, P; Vokrouhlický, D; Polishook, D; Scheeres, D J; Harris, A W; Galád, A; Vaduvescu, O; Pozo, F; Barr, A; Longa, P; Vachier, F; Colas, F; Pray, D P; Pollock, J; Reichart, D; Ivarsen, K; Haislip, J; Lacluyze, A; Kusnirák, P; Henych, T; Marchis, F; Macomber, B; Jacobson, S A; Krugly, Yu N; Sergeev, A V; Leroy, A


    Pairs of asteroids sharing similar heliocentric orbits, but not bound together, were found recently. Backward integrations of their orbits indicated that they separated gently with low relative velocities, but did not provide additional insight into their formation mechanism. A previously hypothesized rotational fission process may explain their formation-critical predictions are that the mass ratios are less than about 0.2 and, as the mass ratio approaches this upper limit, the spin period of the larger body becomes long. Here we report photometric observations of a sample of asteroid pairs, revealing that the primaries of pairs with mass ratios much less than 0.2 rotate rapidly, near their critical fission frequency. As the mass ratio approaches 0.2, the primary period grows long. This occurs as the total energy of the system approaches zero, requiring the asteroid pair to extract an increasing fraction of energy from the primary's spin in order to escape. We do not find asteroid pairs with mass ratios larger than 0.2. Rotationally fissioned systems beyond this limit have insufficient energy to disrupt. We conclude that asteroid pairs are formed by the rotational fission of a parent asteroid into a proto-binary system, which subsequently disrupts under its own internal system dynamics soon after formation.

  20. Precessing Asteroids ftrom Radius Vector Models? (United States)

    Drummond, Jack D.


    Examining a sample of asteroids (the first 99) for which radius vector models have been constructed from mostly lightcurves, located on a web site where such models are listed ( ; see Durech et al. (2010), DAMIT: a database of asteroid models, A&A, 513, A46), we fit their surfaces as triaxial ellipsoids and provide their three dimensions. In the process we also derive an Euler angular offset θ between each model's spin axis and its axis of maximum moment of inertia assuming a uniform distribution of mass. Most θ's conform to a chi-squared distribution having a maximum at 3° and a mean at 5°, and with the square root of the variance being 3°. However, seven models produce θ>20°, which we interpret as indicating possibly strong precessors, tumblers, or due to incorrect models: asteroids (68), (89), (125), (162), (167), (222), and (230). Nine others produce an excess over the distribution at 12°probability of an impact sufficient to change the angular momentum of the asteroid implied by θ during the damping time to return to rotation about the small axis is vanishingly small (less than 1 in 10000) for the 8 out of 16 asteroids with absolute dimensions. The most likely resolution, then, is that the rotational pole for the 16 asteroid models with high θ needs to be adjusted by θ degrees.

  1. Asteroid 'Bites the Dust' Around Dead Star (United States)


    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope set its infrared eyes upon the dusty remains of shredded asteroids around several dead stars. This artist's concept illustrates one such dead star, or 'white dwarf,' surrounded by the bits and pieces of a disintegrating asteroid. These observations help astronomers better understand what rocky planets are made of around other stars. Asteroids are leftover scraps of planetary material. They form early on in a star's history when planets are forming out of collisions between rocky bodies. When a star like our sun dies, shrinking down to a skeleton of its former self called a white dwarf, its asteroids get jostled about. If one of these asteroids gets too close to the white dwarf, the white dwarf's gravity will chew the asteroid up, leaving a cloud of dust. Spitzer's infrared detectors can see these dusty clouds and their various constituents. So far, the telescope has identified silicate minerals in the clouds polluting eight white dwarfs. Because silicates are common in our Earth's crust, the results suggest that planets similar to ours might be common around other stars.

  2. Seven Near-Earth Asteroids at Asteroids Observers (OBAS) - MMPD: 2017 Jan-May (United States)

    Fornas, Gonzalo; Carreño, Alfonso; Arce, Enrique; Flores, Angel; Mas, Vincente; Rodrigo, Onofre; Brines, Pedro; Fornas, Alvaro; Herrero, David; Lozano, Juan


    We report on the photometric analysis result of seven near-Earth asteroids (NEA) by Asteroides Observers (OBAS). This work is part of the Minor Planet Photometric Database effort that was initiated by a group of Spanish amateur astronomers. We have managed to obtain a number of accurate and complete lightcurves as well as some additional incomplete lightcurves to help analysis at future oppositions.

  3. International CJMT-1 Workshop on Asteroidal Science (United States)

    Ip, Wing-Huen


    An international workshop on asteroidal science was held between October 16 and 17, 2012, at the Macau University of Science and Technology gathering together experts on asteroidal study in China, Japan, Macao and Taiwan. For this reason, we have called it CJMT-1 Workshop. Though small in sizes, the asteroids orbiting mainly between the orbit of Mars and of Jupiter have important influence on the evolution of the planetary bodies. Topics ranging from killer asteroids to space resources are frequently mentioned in news reports with prominence similar to the search for water on Mars. This also means that the study of asteroids is very useful in exciting the imagination and interest in science of the general public. Several Asian countries have therefore developed long-term programs integrating ground-based observations and space exploration with Japan being the most advanced and ambitious as demonstrated by the very successful Hayabusa mission to asteroid 25143 Itokawa. In this volume we will find descriptions of the mission planning of Hayabusa II to the C-type near-Earth asteroid, 1999 JU3. Not to be outdone, China's Chang-E 2 spacecraft was re-routed to a flyby encounter with asteroid 4179 Toutatis in December 2012. It is planned that in the next CJMT workshop, we will have the opportunity to learn more about the in-depth data analysis of the Toutatis observations and the progress reports on the Hayabusa II mission which launch date is set to be July 2014. Last but not least, the presentations on the ground-based facilities as described in this volume will pave the way for coordinated observations of asteroidal families and Trojan asteroids - across Asia from Taiwan to Uzbekistan. Such international projects will serve as an important symbol of good will and peaceful cooperation among the key members of this group. Finally, I want to thank the Space Science Institute, Macao University of Science and Technology, for generous support, and its staff members

  4. Initial velocity V-shapes of young asteroid families (United States)

    Bolin, Bryce T.; Walsh, Kevin J.; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Delbó, Marco


    Ejection velocity fields of asteroid families are largely unconstrained due to the fact that members disperse relatively quickly on Myr time-scales by secular resonances and the Yarkovsky effect. The spreading of fragments in a by the Yarkovsky effect is indistinguishable from the spreading caused by the initial ejection of fragments. By examining families Asteroid families that are asteroid families including the 1993 FY12, Aeolia, Brangane, Brasilia, Clarissa, Iannini, Karin, Konig, Koronis(2), Theobalda and Veritas asteroid families. We find that the majority of asteroid families have initial ejection velocity fields consistent with ∼D-1 supporting laboratory impact experiments and computer simulations of disrupting asteroid parent bodies.

  5. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems (United States)

    ... page: // Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  6. Rosetta enters hibernation (United States)

    Ferri, Paolo; Accomazzo, Andrea; Hubault, Armelle; Lodiot, Sylvain; Pellon-Bailon, Jose-Luis; Porta, Roberto


    The International Rosetta Mission was launched on 2nd March 2004 on its 10 years journey to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Rosetta will reach the comet in 2014, orbit it for about 1.5 years down to distances of a few kilometres and deliver the Lander Philae onto its surface. Following the fly-by of Asteroid (21-)Lutetia in 2010, Rosetta continued its travel towards the planned comet encounter in 2014. In this phase Rosetta became the solar-powered spacecraft that reached the largest Sun distances in history of spaceflight, up to an aphelion at 5.3 AU in October 2012. At distances above 4.5 AU the spacecraft's solar generator power is not sufficient to keep all spacecraft systems active. Therefore in June 2011 the spacecraft was spun up to provide gyroscopic stabilisation, and most of its on-board units, including those used for attitude control and communications, were switched off. Over this "hibernation" phase of about 2.5 years the spacecraft will keep a minimum of autonomy active to ensure maintenance of safe thermal conditions. After Lutetia fly-by, flight controllers had to tackle two anomalies that had significant impacts on the mission operations. A leak in the reaction control subsystem was confirmed and led to the re-definition of the operational strategy to perform the comet rendezvous manoeuvres planned for 2011 and 2014. Anomalous jumps detected in the estimated friction torque of two of the four reaction wheels used for attitude control forced the rapid adoption of measures to slow down the wheels degradation. This included in-flight re-lubrication activities and changes in the wheels operational speed regime. Once the troubleshooting of the two anomalies was completed, and the related operational scenarios were implemented, the first large (790 m/s) comet rendezvous manoeuvre was executed, split into several long burns in January and February 2011. The second burn was unexpectedly interrupted due to the anomalous behaviour of two thrusters, causing

  7. Sensitivity of Asteroid Impact Risk to Uncertainty in Asteroid Properties and Entry Parameters (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorien; Mathias, Donovan; Dotson, Jessie L.; NASA Asteroid Threat Assessment Project


    A central challenge in assessing the threat posed by asteroids striking Earth is the large amount of uncertainty inherent throughout all aspects of the problem. Many asteroid properties are not well characterized and can range widely from strong, dense, monolithic irons to loosely bound, highly porous rubble piles. Even for an object of known properties, the specific entry velocity, angle, and impact location can swing the potential consequence from no damage to causing millions of casualties. Due to the extreme rarity of large asteroid strikes, there are also large uncertainties in how different types of asteroids will interact with the atmosphere during entry, how readily they may break up or ablate, and how much surface damage will be caused by the resulting airbursts or impacts.In this work, we use our Probabilistic Asteroid Impact Risk (PAIR) model to investigate the sensitivity of asteroid impact damage to uncertainties in key asteroid properties, entry parameters, or modeling assumptions. The PAIR model combines physics-based analytic models of asteroid entry and damage in a probabilistic Monte Carlo framework to assess the risk posed by a wide range of potential impacts. The model samples from uncertainty distributions of asteroid properties and entry parameters to generate millions of specific impact cases, and models the atmospheric entry and damage for each case, including blast overpressure, thermal radiation, tsunami inundation, and global effects. To assess the risk sensitivity, we alternately fix and vary the different input parameters and compare the effect on the resulting range of damage produced. The goal of these studies is to help guide future efforts in asteroid characterization and model refinement by determining which properties most significantly affect the potential risk.

  8. Asteroid mass estimation using Markov-chain Monte Carlo (United States)

    Siltala, Lauri; Granvik, Mikael


    Estimates for asteroid masses are based on their gravitational perturbations on the orbits of other objects such as Mars, spacecraft, or other asteroids and/or their satellites. In the case of asteroid-asteroid perturbations, this leads to an inverse problem in at least 13 dimensions where the aim is to derive the mass of the perturbing asteroid(s) and six orbital elements for both the perturbing asteroid(s) and the test asteroid(s) based on astrometric observations. We have developed and implemented three different mass estimation algorithms utilizing asteroid-asteroid perturbations: the very rough 'marching' approximation, in which the asteroids' orbital elements are not fitted, thereby reducing the problem to a one-dimensional estimation of the mass, an implementation of the Nelder-Mead simplex method, and most significantly, a Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach. We describe each of these algorithms with particular focus on the MCMC algorithm, and present example results using both synthetic and real data. Our results agree with the published mass estimates, but suggest that the published uncertainties may be misleading as a consequence of using linearized mass-estimation methods. Finally, we discuss remaining challenges with the algorithms as well as future plans.

  9. [Fiber and enteral nutrition]. (United States)

    Gómez Candela, C; de Cos Blanco, A I; Iglesias Rosado, C


    Dietary fibre is a mixture of various substances and is essential for maintaining appropriate intestinal functionality and it is currently considered to be a necessary part of a healthy diet. Current recommendations for fibre consumption by adults range from 20 to 35 g/day. Enteral nutrition is an emerging therapeutic variation in both hospital and domestic settings. To a great extent, this development has been made possible thanks to the design of new formulas that adapt better and better to the clinicla conditions or our patients. The type of fibre used in these preparations varies greatly. Some have only one source of fibre while others use differnet combinations. There are currently 32 formulas available on the Spanish market, without counting the modules or specific preparations of individual types of fibre. Despite the enormous advances in the knowledge of the beneficial effects of fibre, the fact of the matter is that enteral nutrition that we routinely prescribe in normal clinical practice does not contain fibre. The are several explanations for this, perhaps the most plausible is that these formulas may lead to problems in their administration and tolerance. It is necessary to choose the correct calibre of catheter and define the best infusion method and timing. Another difficulty may be the gastrointestinal tolerance of the formulas containing fibre. No large-scale problems of intolerance have however been described in healthy volunteers nor in patients with acute or chronic pathologies, although it is of fundamental importance to monitor the rhythm of depositions in all patients with enteral nutrition (EN) and ensure proper intake of liquids, which would also be useful to prevent occlusion of the catheter. The theoretical benefits of EN with fibre with a view to maintaining or improving normal intestinal structure and function are very varied. Nonetheless, it has noit yet been possible to prove many of these effects in controlled clinical trials. At the

  10. Enteral nutrition access devices. (United States)

    Kwon, Richard S; Banerjee, Subhas; Desilets, David; Diehl, David L; Farraye, Francis A; Kaul, Vivek; Mamula, Petar; Pedrosa, Marcos C; Rodriguez, Sarah A; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Song, Louis-Michel Wong Kee; Tierney, William M


    The ASGE Technology Committee provides reviews of existing, new, or emerging endoscopic technologies that have an impact on the practice of GI endoscopy. Evidence-based methodology is used, performing a MEDLINE literature search to identify pertinent clinical studies on the topic and a MAUDE (U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health) database search to identify the reported complications of a given technology. Both are supplemented by accessing the "related articles" feature of PubMed and by scrutinizing pertinent references cited by the identified studies. Controlled clinical trials are emphasized, but, in many cases, data from randomized, controlled trials are lacking. In such situations, large case series, preliminary clinical studies, and expert opinions are used. Technical data are gathered from traditional and Web-based publications, proprietary publications, and informal communications with pertinent vendors. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are drafted by 1 or 2 members of the ASGE Technology Committee, reviewed and edited by the committee as a whole, and approved by the ASGE Governing Board. When financial guidance is indicated, the most recent coding data and list prices at the time of publication are provided. For this review, the MEDLINE database was searched through August 2009 for articles related to endoscopy in patients requiring enteral feeding access by using the keywords "endoscopy," "percutaneous," "gastrostomy," "jejunostomy," "nasogastric," "nasoenteric," "nasojejunal," "transnasal," "feeding tube," "enteric," and "button." Technology Status Evaluation Reports are scientific reviews provided solely for educational and informational purposes. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are not rules and should not be construed as establishing a legal standard of care or as encouraging, advocating, requiring, or discouraging any particular treatment or payment for such treatment. Copyright 2010 American Society


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Alan W.; Drube, Line, E-mail: [German Aerospace Center (DLR) Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)


    Knowledge of the surface thermal inertia of an asteroid can provide insight into its surface structure: porous material has a lower thermal inertia than rock. We develop a means to estimate thermal inertia values of asteroids and use it to show that thermal inertia appears to increase with spin period in the case of main-belt asteroids (MBAs). Similar behavior is found on the basis of thermophysical modeling for near-Earth objects (NEOs). We interpret our results in terms of rapidly increasing material density and thermal conductivity with depth, and provide evidence that thermal inertia increases by factors of 10 (MBAs) to 20 (NEOs) within a depth of just 10 cm. Our results are consistent with a very general picture of rapidly changing material properties in the topmost regolith layers of asteroids and have important implications for calculations of the Yarkovsky effect, including its perturbation of the orbits of potentially hazardous objects and those of asteroid family members after the break-up event. Evidence of a rapid increase of thermal inertia with depth is also an important result for studies of the ejecta-enhanced momentum transfer of impacting vehicles (“kinetic impactors”) in planetary defense.

  12. Standard Triaxial Ellipsoid Asteroids from AO Observations (United States)

    Drummond, Jack D.; Merline, W. J.; Conrad, A.; Dumas, C.; Carry, B.


    As part of our study of resolved asteroids using adaptive optics (AO) on large telescopes (>8; m), we have identified several that can serve as Standard Triaxial Ellipsoid Asteroids (STEAs), suitable for radar and thermo-physical calibration. These objects are modeled well as triaxial ellipsoids, having: 1) small uncertainties on their three dimensions as determined with AO; 2) rotational poles well determined from both lightcurves and AO; and 3) good sidereal periods from lightcurves. Although AO allows the opportunity to find an asteroid's dimensions and rotational pole in one night, we have developed a method to combine AO observations from different oppositions to pool into a global solution. The apparent orientation and sizes of STEAs can be predicted to within a few degrees and a few km over decades. Currently, we consider 511 Davida, 52 Europa, 2 Pallas, and 15 Eunomia as STEAs. Asteroids that are not well modeled as ellipsoids, clearly showing departures from ellipsoid figures in AO images, include 129 Antigone and 41 Daphne. We will show movies of images and models of these asteroids.

  13. Martian cratering. II - Asteroid impact history. (United States)

    Hartmann, W. K.


    This paper considers the extent to which Martian craters can be explained by considering asteroidal impact. Sections I, II, and III of this paper derive the diameter distribution of hypothetical asteroidal craters on Mars from recent Palomar-Leiden asteroid statistics and show that the observed Martian craters correspond to a bombardment by roughly 100 times the present number of Mars-crossing asteroids. Section IV discusses the early bombardment history of Mars, based on the capture theory of Opik and probable orbital parameters of early planetesimals. These results show that the visible craters and surface of Mars should not be identified with the initial, accreted surface. A backward extrapolation of the impact rates based on surviving Mars-crossing asteroids can account for the majority of Mars craters over an interval of several aeons, indicating that we see back in time no further than part-way into a period of intense bombardment. An early period of erosion and deposition is thus suggested. Section V presents a comparison with results and terminology of other authors.

  14. Determining the Motions of Near Earth Asteroids Through Optical Observations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Douglas


    An Earth impact with an asteroid has potentially devastating consequences. In order to avoid global destruction, astronomers have been attempting to map out the orbits of all possibly hazardous Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs...

  15. The Asteroid Impact Mission - Deflection Demonstration (AIM - D2) (United States)

    Küppers, M.; Michel, P.; Carnelli, I.


    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is ESA's contribution to the international Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA) cooperation, targeting the demonstration of deflection of a hazardous near-earth asteroid. AIM will also be the first in-depth investigation of a binary asteroid and make measurements that are relevant for the preparation of asteroid resource utilisation. AIM is foreseen to rendezvous with the binary near-Earth asteroid (65803) Didymos and to observe the system before, during, and after the impact of NASA's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft. Here we describe the observations to be done by the simplified version Asteroid Impact Mission - Deflection Demonstration (AIM-D2) and show that most of the original AIM objectives can still be achieved.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) asteroid photometric observations classified according to the SDSS-based Asteroid Taxonomy, as developed by...

  17. Human Robotic Systems (HRS): Robotic Technologies for Asteroid Missions Element (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During 2014, the Robotic Technologies for Asteroid Missions activity has four tasks:Asteroid Retrieval Capture Mechanism Development and Testbed;Mission Operations...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains visible-wavelength (0.435-0.925 micron) spectra for 1341 main-belt asteroids observed during the second phase of the Small Main-belt Asteroid...

  19. Harvesting Near Earth Asteroid Resources Using Solar Sail Technology


    McInnes, Colin


    Near Earth asteroids represent a wealth of material resources to support future space ventures. These resources include water from C-type asteroids for crew logistic support; liquid propellants electrolytically cracked from water to fuel crewed vehicles and commercial platforms; and metals from M-type asteroids to support in-situ manufacturing. In this paper the role of solar sail technology will be investigated to support the future harvesting of near Earth asteroid resources. This will incl...

  20. The Potentially Dangerous Asteroid (101955 Bennu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Włodarczyk


    searching for close approaches with the earth, which can lead to possible impacts up to 2200. With the A2 nongravitational parameter in the motion of the asteroid (101955 Bennu we computed possible impact solutions using different JPL planetary and lunar ephemerides and different number of additional massive perturbed asteroids. The possible impact path of risk for 2175 is presented. Additionally, we computed possible impact solutions using the normal places method of the selection of Bennu’s astrometric observations. Moreover, we computed time evolution of the mean orbital elements and the orbital nodes of Bennu 5 kyr in the backwards and 1 kyr in the future using the Yarkovsky effects. We computed the mean motion and secular orbital resonances of the Bennu. We also computed the influence of the JPL planetary and lunar ephemerides DE403, DE405, DE406, DE414, and DE423 on the close approaches of the asteroid (101955 Bennu with the earth.

  1. Rock legends the asteroids and their discoverers

    CERN Document Server

    Murdin, Paul


    This book relates the history of asteroid discoveries and christenings, from those of the early pioneering giants of Hersehel and Piazzi to modern-day amateurs. Moving from history and anecdotal information to science, the book's structure is provided by the names of the asteroids, including one named after the author. Free from a need to conform to scientific naming conventions, the names evidence hero-worship, sycophancy, avarice, vanity, whimsy, erudition and wit, revealing the human side of astronomers, especially where controversy has followed the christening. Murdin draws from extensive historical records to explore the debate over these names. Each age reveals its own biases and preferences in the naming process. < Originally regarded as “vermin of the skies,” asteroids are minor planets, rocky scraps left over from the formation of the larger planets, or broken fragments of worlds that have collided. Their scientific classification as “minor” planets makes them seem unimportant, but over th...

  2. 78 FR 31977 - NASA Asteroid Initiative Call for Ideas (United States)


    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Asteroid Initiative Call for Ideas AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... announces a public forum to provide a status on the agency's asteroid initiative planning and to encourage...: This meeting will be streamed live online. Viewing options will be posted at

  3. Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) element of AIDA mission (United States)

    Cheng, A.; Michel, P.; Rivkin, A.; Barnouin, O.; Stickle, A.; Miller, P.; Chesley, S.; Richardson, D.


    The AIDA mission, an international cooperation between NASA and ESA, will be the first demonstration of a kinetic impactor spacecraft to deflect an asteroid. AIDA will perform the first hypervelocity impact on an asteroid where the impact conditions are fully known and the target properties are also characterized. AIDA will reduce risks for any future asteroid hazard mitigation.

  4. Dormant Comets in the Near-Earth Asteroid Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommert, Michael; Harris, Alan W.; Mueller, Michael; Hora, Joseph L.; Trilling, David E.; Knight, Matthew; Bottke, William F.; Thomas, Cristina; Delbo', Marco; Emery, Josh P.; Fazio, Giovanni; Smith, Howard A.


    The population of near-Earth objects comprises active comets and asteroids, covering a wide range of dynamical parameters and physical properties. Dormant (or extinct) comets, masquerading as asteroids, have long been suspected of supplementing the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population. We present a

  5. Determination of pole orientations and shapes of asteroids (United States)

    Magnusson, Per; Barucci, M. Antonietta; Drummond, Jack D.; Lumme, Kari; Ostro, Steven J.


    The principles of asteroid light-curve inversion are discussed together with basic principles involved in approaches for deriving asteroid pole and shape parameters from photometry data. The merits of various pole determination techniques are described and compared. Results obtained so far on the pole orientations and shapes of asteroids are presented.

  6. Shape and spin determination of Barbarian asteroids (United States)

    Devogèle, M.; Tanga, P.; Bendjoya, P.; Rivet, J. P.; Surdej, J.; Hanuš, J.; Abe, L.; Antonini, P.; Artola, R. A.; Audejean, M.; Behrend, R.; Berski, F.; Bosch, J. G.; Bronikowska, M.; Carbognani, A.; Char, F.; Kim, M.-J.; Choi, Y.-J.; Colazo, C. A.; Coloma, J.; Coward, D.; Durkee, R.; Erece, O.; Forne, E.; Hickson, P.; Hirsch, R.; Horbowicz, J.; Kamiński, K.; Kankiewicz, P.; Kaplan, M.; Kwiatkowski, T.; Konstanciak, I.; Kruszewki, A.; Kudak, V.; Manzini, F.; Moon, H.-K.; Marciniak, A.; Murawiecka, M.; Nadolny, J.; Ogłoza, W.; Ortiz, J. L.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Pallares, H.; Peixinho, N.; Poncy, R.; Reyes, F.; de los Reyes, J. A.; Santana-Ros, T.; Sobkowiak, K.; Pastor, S.; Pilcher, F.; Quiñones, M. C.; Trela, P.; Vernet, D.


    Context. The so-called Barbarian asteroids share peculiar, but common polarimetric properties, probably related to both their shape and composition. They are named after (234) Barbara, the first on which such properties were identified. As has been suggested, large scale topographic features could play a role in the polarimetric response, if the shapes of Barbarians are particularly irregular and present a variety of scattering/incidence angles. This idea is supported by the shape of (234) Barbara, that appears to be deeply excavated by wide concave areas revealed by photometry and stellar occultations. Aims: With these motivations, we started an observation campaign to characterise the shape and rotation properties of Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey (SMASS) type L and Ld asteroids. As many of them show long rotation periods, we activated a worldwide network of observers to obtain a dense temporal coverage. Methods: We used light-curve inversion technique in order to determine the sidereal rotation periods of 15 asteroids and the convergence to a stable shape and pole coordinates for 8 of them. By using available data from occultations, we are able to scale some shapes to an absolute size. We also study the rotation periods of our sample looking for confirmation of the suspected abundance of asteroids with long rotation periods. Results: Our results show that the shape models of our sample do not seem to have peculiar properties with respect to asteroids with similar size, while an excess of slow rotators is most probably confirmed. The light curves are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  7. [Modular enteral nutrition in pediatrics]. (United States)

    Murillo Sanchís, S; Prenafeta Ferré, M T; Sempere Luque, M D


    Modular Enteral Nutrition may be a substitute for Parenteral Nutrition in children with different pathologies. Study of 4 children with different pathologies selected from a group of 40 admitted to the Maternal-Childrens Hospital "Valle de Hebrón" in Barcelona, who received modular enteral nutrition. They were monitored on a daily basis by the Dietician Service. Modular enteral nutrition consists of modules of proteins, peptides, lipids, glucids and mineral salts-vitamins. 1.--Craneo-encephalic traumatisms with loss of consciousness, Feeding with a combination of parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition for 7 days. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended and modular enteral nutrition alone used up to a total of 43 days. 2.--55% burns with 36 days of hyperproteic modular enteral nutrition together with normal feeding. A more rapid recovery was achieved with an increase in total proteins and albumin. 3.--Persistent diarrhoea with 31 days of modular enteral nutrition, 5 days on parenteral nutrition alone and 8 days on combined parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended. 4.--Mucoviscidosis with a total of 19 days on modular enteral nutrition, 12 of which were exclusively on modular enteral nutrition and 7 as a night supplement to normal feeding. We administered proteic intakes of up to 20% of the total calorific intake and in concentrations of up to 1.2 calories/ml of the final preparation, always with a good tolerance. Modular enteral nutrition can and should be used as a substitute for parenteral nutrition in children with different pathologies, thus preventing the complications inherent in parenteral nutrition.

  8. Gravitational Capture of Asteroids by Gas Drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vieira Neto


    captured by the planet got its velocity reduced and could been trapped as an irregular satellite. It is well known that, depending on the time scale of the gas envelope, an asteroid will spiral and collide with the planet. So, we simulate the passage of the asteroid in the gas envelope with its density decreasing along the time. Using this approach, we found effective captures, and have a better understanding of the whole process. Finally, we conclude that the origin of the irregular satellites cannot be attributed to the gas drag capture mechanism alone.

  9. Manuel′s asteroid disruption technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel John


    Full Text Available A seventy-year-old male presented with dense asteroid hyalosis in both eyes. He had undergone cataract extraction in one eye 3 years ago, and the other eye had immature cataract. Both the autorefractor and dilated streak retinoscopy did not give readings and subjective visual improvement could not be achieved. Immediately following YAG posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitreous asteroid disruption, the vision improved to 20/20 with recordable auto refractor and streak retinoscopy values. Our initial experience indicates that the treatment is simple, safe and effective but needs controlled and prospective studies to confirm its long-term safety.

  10. Asteroidal Quadruples in non Rooted Path Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez Marisa


    Full Text Available A directed path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a directed tree. A rooted path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a rooted tree. Rooted path graphs are directed path graphs. Several characterizations are known for directed path graphs: one by forbidden induced subgraphs and one by forbidden asteroids. It is an open problem to find such characterizations for rooted path graphs. For this purpose, we are studying in this paper directed path graphs that are non rooted path graphs. We prove that such graphs always contain an asteroidal quadruple.

  11. Asteroidal and cometary dust flux in the inner solar system (United States)

    Borin, P.; Cremonese, G.; Marzari, F.; Lucchetti, A.


    Context. Meteoroids impacting terrestrial planets at high speed may have different effects. On bodies without atmospheres, such as the Moon and Mercury, they form impact craters and contribute to the gardening process through which the surface material is constantly mixed. The interaction of high-speed meteoroids with the atmosphere of Venus, the Earth, and Mars, may lead to the deposition in the ionosphere of species such as neutral Mg or Fe and their ionized atoms, caused by ablation processes during the entry. Aims: In this work we estimate and compare the flux and impact speeds onto the planets of the inner solar system by numerically integrating the orbital evolution of putative dust particles of asteroidal and cometary origin. Methods: The trajectories of dust particles of different sizes are computed with a numerical code that accounts for the gravitational forces due to all planets, the Poynting-Robertson drag and the solar wind drag. The flux of dust grains on each planet is estimated by calibrating the outcome of our model with the flux on the Earth reported previously. Results: We obtain new estimates of the flux and impact velocities for both asteroidal and cometary dust particles on Venus and Mars. For Venus we find that cometary grains enter the planet atmosphere at higher speeds, possibly contributing to the upper layers, while asteroidal grains would be relevant for the lower layers, possibly leading to a compositional gradient. This effect is also present for Mars, but it is less marked. We also find that analytical predictions, not taking radiative forces into account, of both flux and average impact speed are reliable for Mars but fail for Venus because of the complex dynamical evolution of grains in the inner solar system. Conclusions: Our results on the velocity distributions and fluxes of micrometeoroids on the terrestrial planets can be used to put stringent contraints on models that estimate either the superficial material mixing that is due

  12. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission: Overview and Status (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Brophy, John; Mazanek, Dan; Muirhead, Brian

    A major element of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) new Asteroid Initiative is the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM). This concept was first proposed in 2011 during a feasibility study at the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS)[1] and is under consideration for implementation by NASA. The ARM involves sending a high-efficiency (ISP 3000 s), high-power (40 kW) solar electric propulsion (SEP) robotic vehicle that leverages technology developed by NASA’s Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) to rendezvous with a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) and return asteroidal material to a stable lunar distant retrograde orbit (LDRO)[2]. There are two mission concepts currently under study, one that captures an entire 7 - 10 meter mean diameter NEA[3], and another that retrieves a 1 - 10 meter mean diameter boulder from a 100+ meter class NEA[4]. Once the retrieved asteroidal material is placed into the LDRO, a two person crew would launch aboard an Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic SEP vehicle. After docking, the crew would conduct two extra-vehicular activities (EVA) to collect asteroid samples and deploy instruments prior to Earth return. The crewed portion of the mission is expected to last approximately 25 days and would represent the first human exploration mission beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) since the Apollo program. The ARM concept leverages NASA’s activities in Human Exploration, Space Technology, and Planetary Defense to accomplish three primary objectives and several secondary objectives. The primary objective relevant to Human Exploration is to gain operational experience with vehicles, systems, and components that will be utilized for future deep space exploration. In regard to Space Technology, the ARM utilizes advanced SEP technology that has high power and long duration capabilities that enable future missions to deep space destinations, such as the Martian system. With respect to Planetary Defense, the ARM

  13. Asteroid Hazard: Core of the Problem (United States)

    Lupishko, D. F.; Lupishko, T. A.


    In the last decade the asteroid or comet impact hazard have come to be "'discovered' by the human society in parallel with many other problems that might threaten the future of civilization. The new data about small bodies of the Solar system, discovery of more and more of the geological structures on the Earth associated with catastrophic impacts of large asteroids, Shoemaker-Levy comet's crash into Jupiter in July 1994, all these provide dramatic evidence of the potential danger to humanity if a large cosmic body strikes the Earth. The problem of asteroid hazard has been transformed from a theoretical curiosity into very distinct reality and therefore the awareness of the threat to civilization from asteroid/comet impacts has increased. It is becoming more clear that collisions of large asteroids or comets with the Earth played a very important role in the evolution of life in the past, and perhaps such impact events would become a turning-point in the evolutionary history of the Earth's life in the future. The major role in this process belongs to the population of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) in unstable orbits which can approach or cross the Earth's orbit. More than 800 Earth-approaching and Earth-crossing asteroids (ECAs) have been discovered so far. Physical characteristics of these objects are on the average identical to those of the main-belt asteroids of comparable sizes. They have similar compositions, the same optical properties, similar shapes and the axis rotation. The principal differences of NEAs from main-belt asteroids are in their orbits and relatively small sizes. The largest NEA 1036 Ganymed is about 38 km in diameter though it belongs to the Amor-group asteroids which only approach the Earth's orbit. The largest among Earth-crossers is 1866 Sisyphus with diameter of eight kilometers. In the last years the NEAs are the subject of particular interest of scientists. From the point of view of fundamental science the problem of the NEAs origin, the

  14. Sensitivity of the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) to Launch Date and Asteroid Stay Time (United States)

    Mcguire, Melissa L.; Burke, Laura M.; McCarty, Steven L.; Strange, Nathan J.; Qu, Min; Shen, Haijun; Vavrina, Matthew A.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASAs) proposed Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is being designed to robotically capture and then redirect an asteroidal boulder mass into a stable orbit in the vicinity of the moon, where astronauts would be able to visit and study it. The current reference trajectory for the robotic portion, ARRM, assumes a launch on a Delta IV H in the end of the calendar year 2021, with a return for astronaut operations in cislunar space in 2026. The current baseline design allocates 245 days of stay time at the asteroid for operations and boulder collection. This paper outlines analysis completed by the ARRM mission design team to understand the sensitivity of the reference trajectory to launch date and asteroid stay time.

  15. Tidal stress and failure in the moon of binary asteroid systems: Application to asteroid (65803) Didymos (United States)

    Sophal Pou, Laurent; Garcia, Raphael F.; Mimoun, David; Murdoch, Naomi; Karatekin, Ozgur


    Rocky remnants left over from the early formation of the Solar System, asteroids are a target of choice for planetary science since much about the history of planetary formation and small body evolution processes can be learnt by studying them. Here we consider the case of the binary asteroid (65803) Didymos, the target of several mission proposals e.g., AIM [1] and DART [2]. A mission to Didymos would be a great opportunity for in-situ geophysical investigation, providing information on the surface and interior of asteroids. Such studies would improve our knowledge of binary asteroid formation and subsequent evolution of asteroids, thus of the history of the Solar System. As Didymos is a binary asteroid [3] with the main 800-meter diameter asteroid named Didymain and a 150-meter sized moon named Didymoon, both are subject to tidal stress. Recent investigations suggest that Didymoon is tidally locked and moves in a retrograde motion around Didymain along an elliptic orbit with a 0.03 eccentricity at most. In the case of an eccentric orbit, the tidal stress varies periodically and may be strong enough to cause tidal quakes on Didymoon at some points of the orbit. For this study, we modelled Didymoon as a spherical, layered body with different internal structures: a homogeneous model, and two models with a 1-meter and 10-meter regolith layer on top of a stronger internal core. Simulations show that, for a cohesionless body with an internal friction angle of 30°, tidal stress is strong enough to cause failure at the surface of Didymoon. A maximal stress is reached around the poles and for a mean anomaly of 90°. These results would mean that if tidal quakes occur on Didymoon, then they are likely to happen at these locations. An extension of these results to an ellipsoidal model of Didymoon is also presented for comparison with the spherical case and for application to other bodies. [1]: P. Michel et al., Science case for the asteroid impact mission (aim): A

  16. Twenty-one Asteroid Lightcurves at Asteroids Observers (OBAS) - MPPD: Nov 2016 - May 2017 (United States)

    Mas, Vicente; Fornas, G.; Lozano, Juan; Rodrigo, Onofre; Fornas, A.; Carreño, A.; Arce, Enrique; Brines, Pedro; Herrero, David


    We report on the analysis of photometric observations of 21 main-belt asteroids (MBA) done by Asteroids Observers (OBAS). This work is part of the Minor Planet Photometric Database task that was initiated by a group of Spanish amateur astronomers. We have managed to obtain a number of accurate and complete lightcurves as well as some additional incomplete lightcurves to help analysis at future oppositions.

  17. Detection of ice and organics on an asteroidal surface. (United States)

    Rivkin, Andrew S; Emery, Joshua P


    Recent observations, including the discovery in typical asteroidal orbits of objects with cometary characteristics (main-belt comets, or MBCs), have blurred the line between comets and asteroids, although so far neither ice nor organic material has been detected on the surface of an asteroid or directly proven to be an asteroidal constituent. Here we report the spectroscopic detection of water ice and organic material on the asteroid 24 Themis, a detection that has been independently confirmed. 24 Themis belongs to the same dynamical family as three of the five known MBCs, and the presence of ice on 24 Themis is strong evidence that it also is present in the MBCs. We conclude that water ice is more common on asteroids than was previously thought and may be widespread in asteroidal interiors at much smaller heliocentric distances than was previously expected.

  18. Asteroid modeling for testing spacecraft approach and landing. (United States)

    Martin, Iain; Parkes, Steve; Dunstan, Martin; Rowell, Nick


    Spacecraft exploration of asteroids presents autonomous-navigation challenges that can be aided by virtual models to test and develop guidance and hazard-avoidance systems. Researchers have extended and applied graphics techniques to create high-resolution asteroid models to simulate cameras and other spacecraft sensors approaching and descending toward asteroids. A scalable model structure with evenly spaced vertices simplifies terrain modeling, avoids distortion at the poles, and enables triangle-strip definition for efficient rendering. To create the base asteroid models, this approach uses two-phase Poisson faulting and Perlin noise. It creates realistic asteroid surfaces by adding both crater models adapted from lunar terrain simulation and multiresolution boulders. The researchers evaluated the virtual asteroids by comparing them with real asteroid images, examining the slope distributions, and applying a surface-relative feature-tracking algorithm to the models.

  19. Asteroid rotation control via a tethered solar sail (United States)

    Gao, Youtao; Wu, Jingyun


    The rotation of asteroids causes difficulties in the exploration of asteroids or prevention of asteroids impact on the Earth. We propose to use a solar sail to control, i.e., slow down or stop the rotational motion of an asteroid. First, the dynamic model of a tethered solar sail in the rotating gravitational field of an asteroid is presented. An optimal control method is employed to determine the control law of the tethered solar sail. The optimal control problem is converted into a nonlinear programming problem with the Gauss pseudospectral method. Simulation results show that this method can effectively slow down or even stop the rotation of an asteroid. A solar sail of 105 m2 can stop the rotation of the asteroid Apophis in 1000 days.

  20. Asteroid Risk Assessment: A Probabilistic Approach. (United States)

    Reinhardt, Jason C; Chen, Xi; Liu, Wenhao; Manchev, Petar; Paté-Cornell, M Elisabeth


    Following the 2013 Chelyabinsk event, the risks posed by asteroids attracted renewed interest, from both the scientific and policy-making communities. It reminded the world that impacts from near-Earth objects (NEOs), while rare, have the potential to cause great damage to cities and populations. Point estimates of the risk (such as mean numbers of casualties) have been proposed, but because of the low-probability, high-consequence nature of asteroid impacts, these averages provide limited actionable information. While more work is needed to further refine its input distributions (e.g., NEO diameters), the probabilistic model presented in this article allows a more complete evaluation of the risk of NEO impacts because the results are distributions that cover the range of potential casualties. This model is based on a modularized simulation that uses probabilistic inputs to estimate probabilistic risk metrics, including those of rare asteroid impacts. Illustrative results of this analysis are presented for a period of 100 years. As part of this demonstration, we assess the effectiveness of civil defense measures in mitigating the risk of human casualties. We find that they are likely to be beneficial but not a panacea. We also compute the probability-but not the consequences-of an impact with global effects ("cataclysm"). We conclude that there is a continued need for NEO observation, and for analyses of the feasibility and risk-reduction effectiveness of space missions designed to deflect or destroy asteroids that threaten the Earth. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Galahad: medium class asteroid sample return mission (United States)

    Cheng, Andrew; Rivkin, Andrew; Adler, Mark

    The Galahad asteroid sample return mission proposal to the NASA New Frontiers solicitation met all of the objectives for the Asteroid Rover/Sample Return mission as defined in that announcement. Galahad is in many ways similar to the Marco Polo and the OSIRIS-Rex proposals. All three missions plan bulk sample returns from primitive, C or B class Near Earth asteroids. Galahad in particular will rendezvous with and orbit the binary C-asteroid 1996 FG3, making extensive orbital measurements. It will then land and collect over 60 g of well-documented samples with geologic context for return to Earth. The samples are expected to provide abundant materials from the early solar system, including chondrules and CAIs, as well as a primitive assemblage of organics, presolar grains and probably hydrated minerals. Analyses of these samples will yield new understanding of the early solar system, planetary accretion, and the nature and origins of prebiotic organic material. We will discuss scientific and technical approaches to characterization of, landing on, and sample collection from small primitive bodies.

  2. Effective Scenarios for Exploring Asteroid Surfaces (United States)

    Clark, Pamela E.; Clark, C.; Weisbin, C.


    In response to the proposal that asteroids be the next targets for exploration, we attempt to develop scenarios for exploring previously mapped asteroid 433 Eros, harnessing our recent experience gained planning such activity for return to the lunar surface. The challenges faced in planning Apollo led to the development of a baseline methodology for extraterrestrial field science. What `lessons learned’ can be applied for asteroids? Effective reconnaissance (advanced mapping at deep regolith (ponds). Unlike the Moon, an asteroid lacks sufficient gravity and most likely the necessary stability to support `normal’ driving or walking. In fact, the crew delivery vehicle might not even be `tetherable’ and would most likely `station keep’ to maintain a position. The most convenient local mobility mechanism for astronauts/robots would be `hand over hand’ above the surface at a field station supplemented by a `tetherless’ (small rocket-pack) control system for changing station or return to vehicle. Thus, we assume similar mobility constraints (meters to hundreds of meters at a local station, kilometers between stations) as those used for Apollo. We also assume the vehicle could `station keep’ at more than one location separated by tens of kilometers distance.

  3. Asteroid thermal modeling: recent developments and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, A. W.; Mueller, M.


    A variety of thermal models are used for the derivation of asteroid physical parameters from thermal-infrared observations Simple models based on spherical geometry are often adequate for obtaining sizes and albedos when very little information about an object is available However sophisticated

  4. Spectral analyses of asteroids' linear features (United States)

    Longobardo, A.; Palomba, E.; Scully, J. E. C.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Capaccioni, F.; Tosi, F.; Zinzi, A.; Galiano, A.; Ammannito, E.; Filacchione, G.; Ciarniello, M.; Raponi, A.; Zambon, F.; Capria, M. T.; Erard, S.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Leyrat, C.; Dirri, F.; Nardi, L.; Raymond, C. A.


    Linear features are commonly found on small bodies and can have a geomorphic or tectonic origin. Generally, these features are studied by means of morphological analyses. Here we propose a spectroscopic analyses of linear features of different asteroids visited by space missions, in order to search for correspondence between spectral properties and origin of linear features.

  5. Asteroid-Generated Tsunami and Impact Risk (United States)

    Boslough, M.; Aftosmis, M.; Berger, M. J.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Gisler, G.; Jennings, B.; LeVeque, R. J.; Mathias, D.; McCoy, C.; Robertson, D.; Titov, V. V.; Wheeler, L.


    The justification for planetary defense comes from a cost/benefit analysis, which includes risk assessment. The contribution from ocean impacts and airbursts is difficult to quantify and represents a significant uncertainty in our assessment of the overall risk. Our group is currently working toward improved understanding of impact scenarios that can generate dangerous tsunami. The importance of asteroid-generated tsunami research has increased because a new Science Definition Team, at the behest of NASA's Planetary Defense Coordinating Office, is now updating the results of a 2003 study on which our current planetary defense policy is based Our group was formed to address this question on many fronts, including asteroid entry modeling, tsunami generation and propagation simulations, modeling of coastal run-ups, inundation, and consequences, infrastructure damage estimates, and physics-based probabilistic impact risk assessment. We also organized the Second International Workshop on Asteroid Threat Assessment, focused on asteroid-generated tsunami and associated risk (Aug. 23-24, 2016). We will summarize our progress and present the highlights of our workshop, emphasizing its relevance to earth and planetary science. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Rotation Properties of Small Jovian Trojan Asteroids (United States)

    French, Linda M.; Stephens, Robert D.; James, David; Coley, Daniel R.; Warner, Brian D.; Rohl, Derrick


    Jovian Trojan asteroids are of interest both as objects in their own right (we have no spectral analogs among meteorite samples) and as possible relics of Solar System formation. Asteroid lightcurves can give information about processes that have affected a group of asteroids; they can also give information about the density of the objects when enough lightcurves have been collected. We have been carrying out a survey of Trojan lightcurve properties for comparison with small asteroids and with comets. In a recent paper (French et al. 2015) we presented evidence that a significant number of Trojans have rotation periods greater than 24 hours. We will report our latest results and compare them with results of sparsely-sampled lightcurves from the Palomar Transient Factory (Waszczak et al. 2015). LF, RS, and DR were visiting astronomers at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, operated by AURA under contract with the NSF, and with the SMARTS Consortium at CTIO. This research was sponsored by NSF Planetary Astronomy grant 1212115.ReferencesFrench, L.M. et al. 2015. Icarus 254, pp. 1-17.Waszczak, A. et al. 2015. A.J. 150, Issue 3, I.D. 35.

  7. 3-µm Spectroscopy of Asteroid 16 Psyche (United States)

    Takir, Driss; Reddy, Vishnu; Sanchez, Juan; Shepard, Michael K.


    Asteroid 16 Psyche, an M-type asteroid, is thought to be one of the most massive exposed iron metal object in the asteroid belt. The high radar albedos of Psyche suggest that this differentiated asteroid is dominantly composed of metal. Psyche was previously found to be featureless in the 3-µm spectral region. However, in our study we found that this asteroid exhibits a 3-µm absorption feature, possibly indicating the presence of hydrated silicates.We have observed Psyche in the 3-µm spectral region, using the long-wavelength cross-dispersed (LXD:1.9-4.2 µm) mode of the SpeX spectrograph/imager at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). For data reduction, we used the IDL (Interactive Data Language)-based spectral reduction tool Spextool (v4.1). Psyche was observed over the course of three nights with an apparent visual magnitude of ~9.50: 8 December 2015 (3 sets), 9 December 2015 (1 set), and 10 March 2016 (1 set). These observations have revealed that Psyche may exhibit a 3-µm absorption feature, similar to the sharp group in the 2.9-3.3-µm spectral range. Psyche also exhibits an absorption feature similar to the one in Ceres and Ceres-like group in the spectral 3.3-4.0-µm range. These 3-µm observational results revealed that Psyche may not be as featureless as once thought in the 3-µm spectral region.Evidence for the 3-µm band was found on the surfaces of many M-type asteroids and a number of plausible alternative interpretations for the presence of this 3-µm band were previously suggested. These interpretations include the presence of anhydrous silicates containing structural OH, the presence of fluid inclusions, the presence of xenolithic hydrous meteorite components on asteroid surfaces from impacts, solar wind-implanted H, or the presence of troilite. The detection of the Ceres-like feature in the 3.3-4.0-µm spectral range, however, would rule out some of these alternative interpretations, especially the solar wind-implanted H.

  8. Study of the Asteroid 2009 DL46 (United States)

    Vodniza, Alberto Quijano


    2009 DL46 was discovered by the Catalina Sky Survey on 2009-February 28. This asteroid has a diameter of about 194 meters (119 to 268 meters) [1], and Brian Warner has obtained a rotation period of at least 10 hours [2]. The asteroid 2009 DL46 flew past Earth on May 24/2016 at a distance of about 6.2 lunar distances (0.0158293668567628 A.U) [3]. The NEOWISE mission had a great likelihood to observing this asteroid in early May. Radiotelescopes of Goldstone and Arecibo had planned to make observations of 2009 DL46. “Using the Goldstone facility, we had planned to make radar observations of 2009 DL46” said Landis, Rob R. (HQ-DG000). This asteroid is on list for possible human mission targets. From our Observatory, located in Pasto-Colombia, we captured several pictures, videos and astrometry data during several hours during three days. Our data was published by the Minor Planet Center (MPC) and also appears at the web page of NEODyS [4]. The pictures and data of the asteroid were captured with the following equipment: CGE PRO 1400 CELESTRON (f/11 Schmidt-Cassegrain Telescope) and STL-1001 SBIG camera.. Astrometry was carried out, and we calculated the orbital elements. Summary and conclusions: We obtained the following orbital parameters: eccentricity = 0.30731 +/- 0.00025, semi-major axis = 1.460279 +/- 0.000532 A.U, orbital inclination = 7.9503 +/- 0.0048 deg, longitude of the ascending node = 63.45053 +/- 0.00034 deg, argument of perihelion = 159.8804 +/- 0.0024 deg, mean motion = 0.558535 +/- 0.000305 deg/d, perihelion distance = 1.01151363 +/- 3.39e-6 A.U, aphelion distance = 1.90904 +/- 0.00106 A.U, absolute magnitude = 22.5. The parameters were calculated based on 83 observations. Dates: 2016 May: 18 to 21 with mean residual = 0.29 arcseconds. The asteroid has an orbital period of 1.76 years (644.53 days).[1][2][3] http

  9. OSIRIS-REx, Returning the Asteroid Sample (United States)

    Ajluni, Thomas, M.; Everett, David F.; Linn, Timothy; Mink, Ronald; Willcockson, William; Wood, Joshua


    This paper addresses the technical aspects of the sample return system for the upcoming Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) asteroid sample return mission. The overall mission design and current implementation are presented as an overview to establish a context for the technical description of the reentry and landing segment of the mission.The prime objective of the OSIRIS-REx mission is to sample a primitive, carbonaceous asteroid and to return that sample to Earth in pristine condition for detailed laboratory analysis. Targeting the near-Earth asteroid Bennu, the mission launches in September 2016 with an Earth reentry date of September 24, 2023.OSIRIS-REx will thoroughly characterize asteroid Bennu providing knowledge of the nature of near-Earth asteroids that is fundamental to understanding planet formation and the origin of life. The return to Earth of pristine samples with known geologic context will enable precise analyses that cannot be duplicated by spacecraft-based instruments, revolutionizing our understanding of the early Solar System. Bennu is both the most accessible carbonaceous asteroid and one of the most potentially Earth-hazardous asteroids known. Study of Bennu addresses multiple NASA objectives to understand the origin of the Solar System and the origin of life and will provide a greater understanding of both the hazards and resources in near-Earth space, serving as a precursor to future human missions to asteroids.This paper focuses on the technical aspects of the Sample Return Capsule (SRC) design and concept of operations, including trajectory design and reentry retrieval. Highlights of the mission are included below.The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft provides the essential functions for an asteroid characterization and sample return mission: attitude control propulsion power thermal control telecommunications command and data handling structural support to ensure successful

  10. Near Earth Asteroid Characterization for Threat Assessment (United States)

    Dotson, Jessie; Mathias, Donovan; Wheeler, Lorien; Wooden, Diane; Bryson, Kathryn; Ostrowski, Daniel


    Physical characteristics of NEAs are an essential input to modeling behavior during atmospheric entry and to assess the risk of impact but determining these properties requires a non-trivial investment of time and resources. The characteristics relevant to these models include size, density, strength and ablation coefficient. Some of these characteristics cannot be directly measured, but rather must be inferred from related measurements of asteroids and/or meteorites. Furthermore, for the majority of NEAs, only the basic measurements exist so often properties must be inferred from statistics of the population of more completely characterized objects. The Asteroid Threat Assessment Project at NASA Ames Research Center has developed a probabilistic asteroid impact risk (PAIR) model in order to assess the risk of asteroid impact. Our PAIR model and its use to develop probability distributions of impact risk are discussed in other contributions to PDC 2017 (e.g., Mathias et al.). Here we utilize PAIR to investigate which NEA characteristics are important for assessing the impact threat by investigating how changes in these characteristics alter the damage predicted by PAIR. We will also provide an assessment of the current state of knowledge of the NEA characteristics of importance for asteroid threat assessment. The relative importance of different properties as identified using PAIR will be combined with our assessment of the current state of knowledge to identify potential high impact investigations. In addition, we will discuss an ongoing effort to collate the existing measurements of NEA properties of interest to the planetary defense community into a readily accessible database.

  11. Geologic History of Asteroid 4 Vesta (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.


    Some types of meteorites - most irons, stony irons, some achondrites - hail from asteroids that were heated to the point where magmatism occurred within a very few million years of the formation of the earliest solids in the solar system. The largest clan of achondrites, the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites, represent the crust of their parent asteroid]. Diogenites are cumulate harzburgites and orthopyroxenites from the lower crust whilst eucrites are basalts, diabases and cumulate gabbros from the upper crust. Howardites are impact-engendered breccias mostly of diogenites and eucrites. There remains only one large asteroid with a basaltic crust, 4 Vesta, which is thought to be the source of the HED clan. Differentiation models for Vesta are based on HED compositions. Proto-Vesta consisted of chondritic materials containing Al-26, a potent, short-lived heat source. Inferences from compositional data are that Vesta was melted to high degree (=50%) allowing homogenization of the silicate phase and separation of a metallic core. Convection of the silicate magma ocean allowed equilibrium crystallization, forming a harzburgitic mantle. After convective lockup occurred, melt collected between the mantle and the cool thermal boundary layer and underwent fractional crystallization forming an orthopyroxene-rich (diogenite) lower crust. The initial thermal boundary layer of chondritic material was replaced by a mafic upper crust through impact disruption and foundering. The mafic crust thickened over time as additional residual magma intrudes and penetrates the mafic crust forming plutons, dikes, sills and flows of cumulate and basaltic eucrite composition. This magmatic history may have taken only 2-3 Myr. This magma ocean scenario is at odds with a model of heat and magma transport that indicates that small degrees of melt would be rapidly expelled from source regions, precluding development of a magma ocean. Constraints from radiogenic Mg-26 distibutions

  12. Gastro-enteritis in huisartsenpeilstations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, M.A.S. de; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Leeuwen, W.J. van; Vinje, J.; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duijnhoven, Y.T.P.H. van


    De incidentie van huisartsconsulten voor gastro-enteritis van 77 per 10.000 persoonjaren lijkt een lichte daling te vertonen t.o.v. de incidentie van 90 per 10.000 persoonjaren in een vergelijkbaar onderzoek in 1992-1993. De belangrijkste verwekkers van gastro-enteritis waarvoor de huisarts wordt

  13. Genetic Algorithm-based Optimization to Match Asteroid Energy Deposition Curves (United States)

    Tarano, Ana Maria; Mathias, Donovan; Wheeler, Lorien; Close, Sigrid


    An asteroid entering Earth’s atmosphere deposits energy along its path due to thermal ablation and dissipative forces that can be measured by ground-based and space-borne instruments. Inference of pre-entry asteroid properties and characterization of the atmospheric breakup is facilitated by using an analytic fragment-cloud model (FCM) in conjunction with a Genetic Algorithm (GA). This optimization technique is used to inversely solve for the asteroid’s entry properties, such as diameter, density, strength, velocity, entry angle, ablation coefficient, and strength scaling, from simulations using FCM. The previous parameters’ fitness evaluation involves minimizing residuals and comparing the incremental energy deposited to ascertain the best match between the physics-based calculated energy deposition and the observed meteors. This steady-state GA provided sets of solutions agreeing with literature, such as the meteor from Chelyabinsk, Russia in 2013 and Tagish Lake, Canada in 2000, which were used as case studies in order to validate the optimization routine. The assisted exploration and exploitation of this multi-dimensional search space enables inference and uncertainty analysis that can inform studies of near-Earth asteroids and consequently improve risk assessment.

  14. Enhanced Gravity Tractor Derived from the Asteroid Redirect Mission for Deflecting Hypothetical Asteroid 2017 PDC (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Reeves, David M.; Abell, Paul A.; Shen, Haijun; Qu, Min


    The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) concept would robotically visit a hazardous-size near-Earth asteroid (NEA) with a rendezvous spacecraft, collect a multi-ton boulder and regolith samples from its surface, demonstrate an innovative planetary defense technique known as the Enhanced Gravity Tractor (EGT), and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon, allowing astronauts to explore the returned material in the mid-2020s. Launch of the robotic vehicle to rendezvous with the ARM reference target, NEA (341843) 2008 EV5, would occur in late 2021 [1,2]. The robotic segment of the ARM concept uses a 40 kW Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) system with a specific impulse (Isp) of 2600 s, and would provide the first ever demonstration of the EGT technique on a hazardous-size asteroid and validate one method of collecting mass in-situ. The power, propellant, and thrust capability of the ARM robotic spacecraft can be scaled from a 40 kW system to 150 kW and 300 kW, which represent a likely future power level progression. The gravity tractor technique uses the gravitational attraction of a station-keeping spacecraft with the asteroid to provide a velocity change and gradually alter the trajectory of the asteroid. EGT utilizes a spacecraft with a high-efficiency propulsion system, such as Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP), along with mass collected in-situ to augment the mass of the spacecraft, thereby increasing the gravitational force between the objects [3]. As long as the spacecraft has sufficient thrust and propellant capability, the EGT force is only limited by the amount of in-situ mass collected and can be increased several orders of magnitude compared to the traditional gravity tractor technique in which only the spacecraft mass is used to generate the gravitational attraction force. This increase in available force greatly reduces the required deflection time. The collected material can be a single boulder, multiple boulders, regolith, or a

  15. Another Option for the Asteroid Sample of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (United States)

    Hou, Xiyun; Tang, Jingshi; Liu, Lin; Xin, Xiaosheng


    The asteroid redirect mission (ARM) consists of two phases: the asteroid redirect robotic mission (ARRM) and the asteroid redirect crewed mission (ARCM). The ARRM phase aims at capturing a boulder from the surface of an asteroid of hundred meters in diameter and returning it back to the Earth-Moon system. Currently, the option for the orbit of the returned sample is a large lunar distant retrograde orbit (LDRO) around the Moon. After the sample is returned to this LDRO, then the ARCM phase will send astronauts to the sample. The total energy cost consists of two parts: (1) from the orbit of an near-Earth asteroid to the LDRO, here as part I; (2) from the parking low Earth orbit (LEO) to the LDRO, here as part II. In the authors' work for stable motions in the real Earth-Moon system, we found that there are stable motions around the triangular libration points (TLP). Theoretically, these orbits can also be used as candidate orbits to hold the returned sample. Our previous preliminary works show that the energy of sending a manned probe from the LEO to these orbits is comparable to the option of sending it from the LEO to the LDRO. Besides, it's also possible for the sample to be returned from the orbit of a near-Earth asteroid to these stable orbits, with very small delta-V corrections. In this work, we'll study the energy cost of this option (i.e., using the stable orbits around the TLP as the orbits for the asteroid sample) in detail and compare this option with the LDRO option.

  16. Thermophysical properties of Almahata Sitta meteorites (asteroid 2008 TC3) for high-fidelity entry modeling (United States)

    Loehle, Stefan; Jenniskens, Peter; Böhrk, Hannah; Bauer, Thomas; Elsäßer, Henning; Sears, Derek W.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Shaddad, Muawia H.


    Asteroid 2008 TC3 was characterized in a unique manner prior to impacting Earth's atmosphere, making its October 7, 2008, impact a suitable field test for or validating the application of high-fidelity re-entry modeling to asteroid entry. The accurate modeling of the behavior of 2008 TC3 during its entry in Earth's atmosphere requires detailed information about the thermophysical properties of the asteroid's meteoritic materials at temperatures ranging from room temperature up to the point of ablation (T 1400 K). Here, we present measurements of the thermophysical properties up to these temperatures (in a 1 atm. pressure of argon) for two samples of the Almahata Sitta meteorites from asteroid 2008 TC3: a thick flat-faced ureilite suitably shaped for emissivity measurements and a thin flat-faced EL6 enstatite chondrite suitable for diffusivity measurements. Heat capacity was determined from the elemental composition and density from a 3-D laser scan of the sample. We find that the thermal conductivity of the enstatite chondrite material decreases more gradually as a function of temperature than expected, while the emissivity of the ureilitic material decreases at a rate of 9.5 × 10-5 K-1 above 770 K. The entry scenario is the result of the actual flight path being the boundary to the load the meteorite will be affected with when entering. An accurate heat load prediction depends on the thermophysical properties. Finally, based on these data, the breakup can be calculated accurately leading to a risk assessment for ground damage.

  17. Hungaria Asteroid Region Telescopic Spectral Survey (HARTSS) II: Spectral Homogeneity Among Hungaria Family Asteroids (United States)

    Lucas, Michael P.; Emery, Joshua; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Lindsay, Sean S.; MacLennan, Eric M.; Cartwright, Richard; Reddy, Vishnu; Sanchez, Juan A.; Thomas, Cristina A.; Lorenzi, Vania


    Spectral observations of asteroid family members provide valuable information regarding parent body interiors, the source regions of near-Earth asteroids, and the link between meteorites and their parent bodies. Hungaria family asteroids constitute the closest samples to the Earth from a collisional family (~1.94 AU), permitting observations of smaller fragments than accessible for Main Belt families. We have carried out a ground-based observational campaign - Hungaria Asteroid Region Telescopic Spectral Survey (HARTSS) - to record reflectance spectra of these preserved samples from the inner-most primordial asteroid belt. During HARTSS phase one (Lucas et al. [2017]. Icarus 291, 268-287) we found that ~80% of the background population is comprised of stony S-complex asteroids that exhibit considerable spectral and mineralogical diversity. In HARTSS phase two, we turn our attention to family members and hypothesize that the Hungaria collisional family is homogeneous. We test this hypothesis through taxonomic classification, albedo estimates, and spectral properties.During phase two of HARTSS we acquired near-infrared (NIR) spectra of 50 new Hungarias (19 family; 31 background) with SpeX/IRTF and NICS/TNG. We analyzed X-type family spectra for NIR color indices (0.85-J J-K), and a subtle ~0.9 µm absorption feature that may be attributed to Fe-poor orthopyroxene. Surviving fragments of an asteroid collisional family typically exhibit similar taxonomies, albedos, and spectral properties. Spectral analysis of X-type Hungaria family members and independently calculated WISE albedo determinations for 428 Hungaria asteroids is consistent with this scenario. Furthermore, ~1/4 of the background population exhibit similar spectral properties and albedos to family X-types.Spectral observations of 92 Hungaria region asteroids acquired during both phases of HARTSS uncover a compositionally heterogeneous background and spectral homogeneity down to ~2 km for collisional family

  18. New Estimates of the Mars-Crossing Asteroid Population (United States)

    Bottke, W. F.; Morbidelli, A.; Petit, J. M.; Jedicke, R.


    Recently, Bottke et al. (2000, Science 288, 2190) modeled the orbital and size distribution of the near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) using a combination of numerical integration results, observational biases, and the orbits and sizes of NEAs discovered by Spacewatch. They estimated there are ~ 900 H IMCs), the IS population located adjacent to the main belt. IMCs have orbital parameters q > 1.3 AU, 2.06 AU IMC population, we assume the IS and NEA regions are in steady state. This forces the combined inflow/outflow flux from the IS regions to equal the inflow/outflow flux from the NEA region. We estimate that the IMC outflow flux is the number of NEAs derived from the IMC region (250 H IMCs in the NEA region (3.85 Myr), or 64 H IMCs capable of evolving into NEAs multiplied by τ , the fractional decay rate of the IMC population per Myr. Since numerical integration results suggest τ = 0.018 Myr-1, we predict that the ``active" part of the IMC population contains 3500 H IMC bodies we integrated for 100 Myr, however, encountered Mars yet failed to enter the NEA region. Including this ``non-active" population in our estimates, we predict that the total IMC population contains ~ 5300 H < 18 bodies, nearly 6 times the estimated size of the NEA population. The accuracy and implications of this result will be discussed.

  19. Photometry and models of selected main belt asteroids: IX. Introducing interactive service for asteroid models (ISAM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marciniak, A.; Bartczak, P.; Santana-Ros, T.


    Context. The shapes and spin states of asteroids observed with photometric techniques can be reconstructed using the lightcurve inversion method. The resultant models can then be confirmed or exploited further by other techniques, such as adaptive optics, radar, thermal infrared, stellar occultat......Context. The shapes and spin states of asteroids observed with photometric techniques can be reconstructed using the lightcurve inversion method. The resultant models can then be confirmed or exploited further by other techniques, such as adaptive optics, radar, thermal infrared, stellar...... occultations, or space probe imaging. Aims. During our ongoing work to increase the set of asteroids with known spin and shape parameters, there appeared a need for displaying the model plane-of-sky orientations for specific epochs to compare models from different techniques. It would also be instructive...... to be able to track how the complex lightcurves are produced by various asteroid shapes. Methods. Basing our analysis on an extensive photometric observational dataset, we obtained eight asteroid models with the convex lightcurve inversion method. To enable comparison of the photometric models with those...

  20. Reverse Asteroids: Searching for an Effective Tool to Combat Asteroid Belt Misconceptions (United States)

    Summers, F.; Eisenhamer, B.


    The public 'knows' that asteroid belts are densely packed and dangerous for spaceships to cross. Visuals from "Star Wars" to, unfortunately, the recent "Cosmos" TV series have firmly established this astronomical misconception. However, even scientifically correct graphics, such as the Minor Planet Center's plot of the inner solar system, reinforces that view. Each pixel in the image is more than a million kilometers in width, making an accurate representation of the object density impossible.To address this widespread misconception, we are investigating an educational exercise built around a computer interactive that we call "Reverse Asteroids". In the arcade classic video game, the asteroids came to the player's spaceship. For our reverse implementation, we consider an inquiry-based activity in which the spaceship must go hunting for the asteroids, using a database of real objects in our solar system. Both 3D data visualization and basic statistical analysis play crucial roles in bringing out the true space density within the asteroid belt, and perhaps a reconciliation between imagination and reality. We also emphasize that a partnership of scientists and educators is fundamental to the success of such projects.

  1. Ancient asteroids enriched in refractory inclusions. (United States)

    Sunshine, J M; Connolly, H C; McCoy, T J; Bus, S J; La Croix, L M


    Calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) occur in all classes of chondritic meteorites and contain refractory minerals predicted to be the first condensates from the solar nebula. Near-infrared spectra of CAIs have strong 2-micrometer absorptions, attributed to iron oxide-bearing aluminous spinel. Similar absorptions are present in the telescopic spectra of several asteroids; modeling indicates that these contain approximately 30 +/- 10% CAIs (two to three times that of any meteorite). Survival of these undifferentiated, large (50- to 100-kilometer diameter) CAI-rich bodies suggests that they may have formed before the injection of radiogenic 26Al into the solar system. They have also experienced only modest post-accretionary alteration. Thus, these asteroids have higher concentrations of CAI material, appear less altered, and are more ancient than any known sample in our meteorite collection, making them prime candidates for sample return.

  2. Noble gases in ancient asteroidal atmospheres (United States)

    Swindle, Timothy D.


    Analytical and numerical results presented here suggest that acceleration of photoions by the solar wind motional field is a significant loss process for Xe on asteroids about 200 km in radius or larger, if the Xe is thermalized by its interactions with the surface. For Ar, photoion acceleration can only become important for asteroids nearly 500 km in radius. Thus photoion acceleration, previously invoked for lunar samples, could be responsible for excess fission-produced Xe found associated with solar wind Xe in howarditic meteorites. The lack of such Xe in other types of meteorites may reflect either smaller parent bodies or later times of regolith exposure. Similarly, the failure to observe solar-wind-associated radiogenic Ar-40 in meteorites is consistent with the much smaller likelihood that Ar will be photoionized.

  3. The Bering small vehicle asteroid mission concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Rene; Andersen, Anja; Haack, Henning


    targets. The dilemma obviously being the resolution versus distance and the statistics versus DeltaV requirements. Using advanced instrumentation and onboard autonomy, we have developed a space mission concept whose goal is to map the flux, size, and taxonomy distributions of asteroids. The main focus......The study of asteroids is traditionally performed by means of large Earth based telescopes, by means of which orbital elements and spectral properties are acquired. Space borne research, has so far been limited to a few occasional flybys and a couple of dedicated flights to a single selected target....... Although the telescope based research offers precise orbital information, it is limited to the brighter, larger objects, and taxonomy as well as morphology resolution is limited. Conversely, dedicated missions offer detailed surface mapping in radar, visual, and prompt gamma, but only for a few selected...

  4. Computation of Asteroid Proper Elements: Recent Advances (United States)

    Knežević, Z.


    The recent advances in computation of asteroid proper elements are briefly reviewed. Although not representing real breakthroughs in computation and stability assessment of proper elements, these advances can still be considered as important improvements offering solutions to some practical problems encountered in the past. The problem of getting unrealistic values of perihelion frequency for very low eccentricity orbits is solved by computing frequencies using the frequency-modified Fourier transform. The synthetic resonant proper elements adjusted to a given secular resonance helped to prove the existence of Astraea asteroid family. The preliminary assessment of stability with time of proper elements computed by means of the analytical theory provides a good indication of their poorer performance with respect to their synthetic counterparts, and advocates in favor of ceasing their regular maintenance; the final decision should, however, be taken on the basis of more comprehensive and reliable direct estimate of their individual and sample average deviations from constancy.

  5. Cratering statistics on asteroids: Methods and perspectives (United States)

    Chapman, C.


    Crater size-frequency distributions (SFDs) on the surfaces of solid-surfaced bodies in the solar system have provided valuable insights about planetary surface processes and about impactor populations since the first spacecraft images were obtained in the 1960s. They can be used to determine relative age differences between surficial units, to obtain absolute model ages if the impactor flux and scaling laws are understood, to assess various endogenic planetary or asteroidal processes that degrade craters or resurface units, as well as assess changes in impactor populations across the solar system and/or with time. The first asteroid SFDs were measured from Galileo images of Gaspra and Ida (cf., Chapman 2002). Despite the superficial simplicity of these studies, they are fraught with many difficulties, including confusion by secondary and/or endogenic cratering and poorly understood aspects of varying target properties (including regoliths, ejecta blankets, and nearly-zero-g rubble piles), widely varying attributes of impactors, and a host of methodological problems including recognizability of degraded craters, which is affected by illumination angle and by the ''personal equations'' of analysts. Indeed, controlled studies (Robbins et al. 2014) demonstrate crater-density differences of a factor of two or more between experienced crater counters. These inherent difficulties have been especially apparent in divergent results for Vesta from different members of the Dawn Science Team (cf. Russell et al. 2013). Indeed, they have been exacerbated by misuse of a widely available tool (Craterstats: hrscview.fu-, which incorrectly computes error bars for proper interpretation of cumulative SFDs, resulting in derived model ages specified to three significant figures and interpretations of statistically insignificant kinks. They are further exacerbated, and for other small-body crater SFDs analyzed by the Berlin group, by stubbornly adopting

  6. Technical aspects of enteral nutrition.


    Keymling, M


    Advances in technical aspects of enteral feeding such as the manufacture of tubes from polyurethane or silicone have helped promote the science of enteral nutrition. Nasoenteral tubes have few complications, apart from a high unwanted extubation rate and some reluctance from patients because of cosmetic unacceptability. Needle jejunostomy has low morbidity but can only be placed at laparotomy. Percutaneous gastrotomy (in all its different guises) has been established as a low risk procedure a...

  7. Recent Advances in Enteral Nutrition


    Ojo, Omorogieva; Brooke, Joanne


    There have been significant advances in the provision of enteral nutrition support in the acute and community healthcare settings. Enteral nutrition is beneficial to individuals who have functional guts but may not be able to meet their nutritional requirements via a normal diet. Most of these people have neurological conditions such as stroke, multiple sclerosis and dementia which could impact on swallowing reflexes, leading to dysphagia [1]. Others may have cancer, intellectual disability o...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, K.; Muinonen, K.; Poutanen, M. [Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, FI-02430 Masala (Finland); Bach, U. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Radioobservatorium Effelsberg, Max-Planck-Str. 28, D-53902 Bad Münstereifel-Effelsberg (Germany); Petrov, L., E-mail: [Astrogeo Center, Falls Church, VA 22043 (United States)


    Stellar occultations by asteroids observed at visual wavelengths have been an important tool for studying the size and shape of asteroids and for revising the orbital parameters of asteroids. At radio frequencies, a shadow of an asteroid on the Earth is dominated by diffraction effects. Here, we show, for the first time, that a single observation of an occultation of a compact radio source at a frequency of 5 GHz can be used to derive the effective size of the occulting object and to derive the distance between the observer and the center of the occultation path on the Earth. The derived diameter of the occulting object, asteroid (115) Thyra, is 75 ± 6 km. The observed occultation profile shows features that cannot be explained by diffraction of a single asteroid.

  9. Chang'e-2 spacecraft observations of asteroid 4179 Toutatis (United States)

    Ji, Jianghui; Jiang, Yun; Zhao, Yuhui; Wang, Su; Yu, Liangliang


    On 13 December 2012, Chang'e-2 completed a successful flyby of the near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis at a closest distance of 770 meters from the asteroid's surface. The observations show that Toutatis has an irregular surface and its shape resembles a ginger-root of a smaller lobe (head) and a larger lobe (body). Such bilobate shape is indicative of a contact binary origin for Toutatis. In addition, the high-resolution images better than 3 meters provide a number of new discoveries about this asteroid, such as an 800-meter depression at the end of the large lobe, a sharply perpendicular silhouette near the neck region, boulders, indicating that Toutatis is probably a rubble-pile asteroid. Chang'e-2 observations have significantly revealed new insights into the geological features and the formation and evolution of this asteroid. In final, we brief the future Chinese asteroid mission concept.

  10. Asteroid flux and impact cratering rate on Venus (United States)

    Shoemaker, E. M.; Wolfe, R. F.; Shoemaker, C. S.


    By the end of 1990, 65 Venus-crossing asteroids were recognized; these represent 59 percent of the known Earth-crossing asteroids. Further studies, chiefly numerical integrations of orbit evolution, may reveal one or two more Venus crossers among the set of discovered asteroids. A Venus crosser was defined as an asteroid whose orbit can intersect the orbit of Venus as a result of secular (long range) perturbations. Venus crossers revolving on orbits that currently overlap the orbit of Venus are called Venapol asteroids, and those on orbit that don't overlap are called Venamor asteroids; 42 Venapols and 23 Venamors were recognized. Collision probabilities with Venus for 60 of the known Venus crossers were determined.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Muthiah


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nutrients form the fuel for the body, which comes in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The body is intended to burn fuels in order to perform work. Starvation with malnutrition affects the postoperative patients and patients with acute pancreatitis. There is an increased risk of nosocomial infections and a delay in the wound healing may be noted. They are more prone for respiratory tract infections. Enteral Nutrition (EN delivers nutrition to the body through gastrointestinal tract. This also includes the oral feeding. This study will review the administration, rationale and assess the pros and cons associated with the early initiation of enteral feeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate if early commencement of enteral nutrition compared to traditional management (delayed enteral feeding is associated with fewer complications and improved outcome-  In patients undergoing elective/emergency gastrointestinal surgery.  In patients with acute pancreatitis. It is also used to determine whether a period of starvation (nil by mouth after gastrointestinal surgery or in the early days of acute pancreatitis is beneficial in terms of specific outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cohort interventional study was conducted using 100 patients from July 2012 to November 2012. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Patients admitted in my unit for GIT surgeries or acute pancreatitis constituted the test group, while patients admitted in other units for similar disease processes constituted the control group. RESULTS Our study concluded that early enteral feeding resulted in reduced incidence of surgical site infections. When the decreased length of stay, shorter convalescent period and the lesser post-interventional fatigue were taken into account, early enteral feeding has a definite cost benefit.CONCLUSION Early enteral feeding was beneficial associated with fewer

  12. Large asteroid families modelled by impact events (United States)

    Benavidez, P.; Durda, D.; Enke, B.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Richardson, D. C.; Asphaug, E.; Bottke, W. F.


    We present a study of large asteroid families modeled by impact events. To extend the work started by [1] and [2], we performed a new set of simulations in the gravity regime for monolithic and rubble-pile targets of 400 km diameter. Here we analyze and discuss if the studied families are best matched by the modeled size-frequency distribution (SFD) resulting from a monolithic or rubble-pile parent body.

  13. Consequences of Predicted or Actual Asteroid Impacts (United States)

    Chapman, C. R.


    Earth impact by an asteroid could have enormous physical and environmental consequences. Impactors larger than 2 km diameter could be so destructive as to threaten civilization. Since such events greatly exceed any other natural or man-made catastrophe, much extrapolation is necessary just to understand environmental implications (e.g. sudden global cooling, tsunami magnitude, toxic effects). Responses of vital elements of the ecosystem (e.g. agriculture) and of human society to such an impact are conjectural. For instance, response to the Blackout of 2003 was restrained, but response to 9/11 terrorism was arguably exaggerated and dysfunctional; would society be fragile or robust in the face of global catastrophe? Even small impacts, or predictions of impacts (accurate or faulty), could generate disproportionate responses, especially if news media reports are hyped or inaccurate or if responsible entities (e.g. military organizations in regions of conflict) are inadequately aware of the phenomenology of small impacts. Asteroid impact is the one geophysical hazard of high potential consequence with which we, fortunately, have essentially no historical experience. It is thus important that decision makers familiarize themselves with the hazard and that society (perhaps using a formal procedure, like a National Academy of Sciences study) evaluate the priority of addressing the hazard by (a) further telescopic searches for dangerous but still-undiscovered asteroids and (b) development of mitigation strategies (including deflection of an oncoming asteroid and on- Earth civil defense). I exemplify these issues by discussing several representative cases that span the range of parameters. Many of the specific physical consequences of impact involve effects like those of other geophysical disasters (flood, fire, earthquake, etc.), but the psychological and sociological aspects of predicted and actual impacts are distinctive. Standard economic cost/benefit analyses may not

  14. Polarimetry of M-type asteroids (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.


    Aims:Results of a polarimetric program at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (Casleo), San Juan, Argentina are presented. The aim of this campaign is to estimate the polarimetric properties of asteroids belonging to the X taxonomic class. In this paper results of the campaign for M-type objects are presented. Methods: The data have been obtained with Casprof and Torino polarimeters at the 2.15 m telescope. The Casprof polarimeter is a two-hole aperture polarimeter with rapid modulation and the Torino polarimeter is an instrument that allows simultaneous measurement of polarization in the U-, B-, V-, R-, and I-bands. Results: The campaign began in 2000, and data on a sample of 26 M-type asteroids were obtained. Most of these objects were polarimetricaly observed for the first time. Combining these data with those available in the literature, an estimate of the polarimetric parameters and albedo for 12 objects is presented. Furthermore, the data show that asteroids 21 Lutetia and 77 Frigga have a large inversion angle and 441 Bathilde a deep polarization minimum, implying a controversial taxonomic classification as M-type for these objects. Also, the polarimetric parameters estimated for the M-type asteroids showing in their spectra the 3 μm band and classified as W-type by Rivkin et al. (1995, Icarus, 117, 90; 2000, ApJ, 145, 351) could be different from those without that feature. Based on observations carried out at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina, and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan.

  15. A Probabilistic Asteroid Impact Risk Model (United States)

    Mathias, Donovan L.; Wheeler, Lorien F.; Dotson, Jessie L.


    Asteroid threat assessment requires the quantification of both the impact likelihood and resulting consequence across the range of possible events. This paper presents a probabilistic asteroid impact risk (PAIR) assessment model developed for this purpose. The model incorporates published impact frequency rates with state-of-the-art consequence assessment tools, applied within a Monte Carlo framework that generates sets of impact scenarios from uncertain parameter distributions. Explicit treatment of atmospheric entry is included to produce energy deposition rates that account for the effects of thermal ablation and object fragmentation. These energy deposition rates are used to model the resulting ground damage, and affected populations are computed for the sampled impact locations. The results for each scenario are aggregated into a distribution of potential outcomes that reflect the range of uncertain impact parameters, population densities, and strike probabilities. As an illustration of the utility of the PAIR model, the results are used to address the question of what minimum size asteroid constitutes a threat to the population. To answer this question, complete distributions of results are combined with a hypothetical risk tolerance posture to provide the minimum size, given sets of initial assumptions. Model outputs demonstrate how such questions can be answered and provide a means for interpreting the effect that input assumptions and uncertainty can have on final risk-based decisions. Model results can be used to prioritize investments to gain knowledge in critical areas or, conversely, to identify areas where additional data has little effect on the metrics of interest.

  16. Progress in clinical research of asteroid hyalosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xue Liu


    Full Text Available Asteroid Hyalosis(AHis a common clinical disease, which has been considered a benign disorder as it rarely impairs visual acuity. It was often discovered when the patient was treated for other eye diseases. The mechanism was unclear. Its characteristic B-ultrasound property makes the B-ultrasound a very helpful diagnostic technique. In the case of the patients with other fundus diseases associated with AH, optical coherence tomography(OCTand fluorescein angiography(FAmay be used to reduce the interference from asteroid bodies, therefore improve the fundus visibility. Recent studies have shown that AH can incorporate with many other eye diseases. For example, in patients with cataracts, asteroid hyalosis can cause surface calcification of silicone plate intraocular lenses, which in most cases may lead to the need for explantation of the calcified intraocular lenses. The efficacy of pars plana vitrectomy(PPV, the removal of some, or all, of the eye's vitreous humor for AH remains controversial. In this paper, we provide a review of the recent literature on AH disease: the etiology, diagnosis and treatment. We hope to thus improve the awareness and outcomes of AH disease.

  17. Asteroids in the High Cadence Transient Survey (United States)

    Peña, J.; Fuentes, C.; Förster, F.; Maureira, J. C.; San Martín, J.; Littín, J.; Huijse, P.; Cabrera-Vives, G.; Estévez, P. A.; Galbany, L.; González-Gaitán, S.; Martínez, J.; de Jaeger, Th.; Hamuy, M.


    We report on the serendipitous observations of solar system objects imaged during the High cadence Transient Survey 2014 observation campaign. Data from this high-cadence wide-field survey was originally analyzed for finding variable static sources using machine learning to select the most-likely candidates. In this work, we search for moving transients consistent with solar system objects and derive their orbital parameters. We use a simple, custom motion detection algorithm to link trajectories and assume Keplerian motion to derive the asteroid’s orbital parameters. We use known asteroids from the Minor Planet Center database to assess the detection efficiency of the survey and our search algorithm. Trajectories have an average of nine detections spread over two days, and our fit yields typical errors of {σ }a∼ 0.07 {au}, σ e ∼ 0.07 and σ i ∼ 0.°5 in semimajor axis, eccentricity, and inclination, respectively, for known asteroids in our sample. We extract 7700 orbits from our trajectories, identifying 19 near-Earth objects, 6687 asteroids, 14 Centaurs, and 15 trans-Neptunian objects. This highlights the complementarity of supernova wide-field surveys for solar system research and the significance of machine learning to clean data of false detections. It is a good example of the data-driven science that Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will deliver.

  18. Asteroid Detection Results Using the Space Surveillance Telescope (United States)


    Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited. Asteroid Detection Results Using the Space Surveillance Telescope...USA ABSTRACT From 1998-2013, MIT Lincoln Laboratory operated a highly successful near-Earth asteroid search program using...two 1-m optical telescopes located at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory Experimental Test Site (ETS) in Socorro, N.M. In 2014, the Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid

  19. Asteroid Lightcurves from Xingming Observatory: 2017 - 2017 June (United States)

    Tan, Hanjie; Yeh, Tingshuo; Li, Bin; Gao, Xing


    The lightcurves of main-belt asteroids 963, 1025, 2019, and 17814 and near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) 459872, 2014 JO25, and 2017 BS32 were obtained using Xingming Observatory (Code C42) from 2016 March to 2017 March. The absolute magnitudes of these asteroids range from H = 11.6 to 27.3, corresponding to a diameter range of 14 m to 14 km. The derived synodic rotation periods range between 0.1 to 10 h.

  20. Example Solar Electric Propulsion System asteroid tours using variational calculus (United States)

    Burrows, R. R.


    Exploration of the asteroid belt with a vehicle utilizing a Solar Electric Propulsion System has been proposed in past studies. Some of those studies illustrated multiple asteroid rendezvous with trajectories obtained using approximate methods. Most of the inadequacies of those approximations are overcome in this paper, which uses the calculus of variations to calculate the trajectories and associated payloads of four asteroid tours. The modeling, equations, and solution techniques are discussed, followed by a presentation of the results.

  1. Asteroid 951 Gaspra - Pre-Galileo physical model (United States)

    Magnusson, P.; Barucci, M. A.; Binzel, R. P.; Blanco, C.; Di Martino, M.; Goldader, J. D.; Gonano-Beurer, M.; Harris, A. W.; Michalowski, T.


    An effort is made to derive from Galileo's 1991 encounter of the S-type asteroid 951 Gaspra general lessons that will be applicable to prospective earth-based observations of other asteroids. Attention is accordingly given to the derivation of spin-vector and shape parameters en route to more detailed physical characterization of a given asteroid. A future encounter of Gaspra by Galileo will be required to verify the present model.

  2. The large crater on the small Asteroid (2867) Steins (United States)

    Burchell, M. J.; Leliwa-Kopystynski, J.


    The maximum size of impact craters on finite bodies marks the largest impact that can occur short of impact induced disruption of the body. Recently attention has started to focus on large craters on small bodies such as asteroids and rocky and icy satellites. Here the large crater on the recently imaged Asteroid (2867) Steins (with crater diameter to mean asteroid radius ratio of 0.79) is shown to follow a limit set by other similar sized bodies with moderate macroporosity (i.e. fractured asteroids). Thus whilst large, the crater size is not novel, nor does it require Steins to possess an extremely large porosity. In one of the components of the binary Asteroid (90) Antiope there is the recently reported presence of an extremely large depression, possibly a crater, with depression diameter to mean asteroid radius ratio of ˜(1.4-1.62). This is consistent with the maximum size of a crater expected from previous observations of very porous rocky bodies (i.e. rubble-pile asteroids). Finally, a relationship between crater diameter (normalised to body radius) is proposed as a function of body porosity which suggests that the doubling of porosity between fractured asteroids and rubble-pile asteroids, nearly doubles the size ( D/ R value) of the largest crater sustainable on a rocky body.

  3. The Origin of Asteroid 162173 (1999 JU3) (United States)

    Comfort, Christine; Campins, H.; de Leon, J.; Morbidelli, A.; Licandro, J.; Gayon-Markt, J.; Delbo, M.; Michel, P.


    Near-Earth asteroid (162173) 1999 JU3 (henceforth JU3) is a potentially hazardous asteroid and the target of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Hayabusa-2 sample return mission. JU3 is also a backup target for two other sample return missions: NASA’s OSIRIS-REx and the European Space Agency’s Marco Polo-R. We use dynamical information to identify an inner-belt, low-inclination origin through the ν6 resonance, more specifically the region with 2.15 AU < a < 2.5 AU and i < 8 degrees. The geometric albedo of JU3 is 0.07 ± 0.01, and this inner-belt region contains four well- defined low-albedo asteroid families (Clarissa, Erigone, Polana and Sulamitis), plus a recently identified background population of low-albedo asteroids outside these families. Only two of these five groups, the background and the Polana family, deliver JU3-sized asteroids to the ν6 resonance, and the background delivers significantly more JU3-sized asteroids. The available spectral evidence is also diagnostic; the visible and near-infrared spectra of JU3 indicate it is a C-type asteroid, which is compatible with members of the background, but not with the Polana family because it contains primarily of B-type asteroids. Hence, this background population of low-albedo asteroids is the most likely source of JU3.

  4. Collision rates and impact velocities in the Main Asteroid Belt (United States)

    Farinella, Paolo; Davis, Donald R.


    Wetherill's (1967) algorithm is presently used to compute the mutual collision probabilities and impact velocities of a set of 682 asteroids with large-than-50-km radius representative of a bias-free sample of asteroid orbits. While collision probabilities are nearly independent of eccentricities, a significant decrease is associated with larger inclinations. Collisional velocities grow steeply with orbital eccentricity and inclination, but with curiously small variation across the asteroid belt. Family asteroids are noted to undergo collisions with other family members 2-3 times more often than with nonmembers.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Submillimeter lightcurves of large asteroids Ceres, Davida, Io, Juno, Pallas, Vesta, and Victoria, observed at the Heinrich-Hertz Submillimeter Telescope from...

  6. Compositional Variegation of Large-Diameter Low-Albedo Asteroids (United States)

    Vilas, F.; Jarvis, K. S.; Anz-Meador, T. D.; Thibault, C. A.; Sawyer, S. R.; Fitzsimmons, A.


    Asteroids showing signs of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism in visible/near IR spectroscopy and photometry (C, G, F, B, and P classes) ranging from 0.37 - 0.90mu m dominate the asteroid population at heliocentric distances of 2.6 - 3.5 AU. Age dating of meteorites indicates that the Solar System was subjected to a major heating event 4.5 Gyr ago. Recent meteoritic research has produced evidence of a carbonaceous chondrite subjected to two separate aqueous alteration events with a metamorphic heating inbetween (Krot et al., 1997, submitted). Models of the effects of heating by electromagnetic induction or decay of short-lived radionuclides combined with models of the early collisional history of the Solar System after Jupiter's formation indicate that asteroids observed today can be divided into two groups by diameter. Those asteroids having diameters greater than 100 km were mixed by multiple collisions but remain as gravitationally bound rubble piles. Asteroids with diameters less than 100 km should show more compositional diversity. Vilas and Sykes (1996, Icarus, v. 124, 483) have shown using ECAS photometry that this compositional difference exists. Those asteroids having diameters greater than 100 km should be individually homogeneous, with spectral differences showing the combined effects of a primordial compositional gradient in the asteroid belt with thermal metamorphism. We address the significance of spatially-resolved spectra of 42 asteroids to the collective origin of these asteroids.

  7. The Nature of C Asteroid Regolith from Meteorite Observations (United States)

    Zolensky, M.; Mikouchi, T.; Hagiya, K.; Ohsumi, K.; Komatsu, M.; Jenniskens, P.; Le, L.; Yin, Q.-Z; Kebukawa, Y.; Fries, M.


    Regolith from C (and related) asteroid bodies are a focus of the current missions Dawn at Ceres, Hayabusa 2 and OSIRIS REx. An asteroid as large as Ceres is expected to be covered by a mature regolith, and as Hayabusa demonstrated, flat and therefore engineeringly-safe ponded deposits will probably be the sampling sites for both Hayabusa 2 and OSIRIS REx. Here we examine what we have learned about the mineralogy of fine-grained asteroid regolith from recent meteorite studies and the examination of the samples harvested from asteroid Itokawa by Hayabusa.

  8. Photometry and models of selected main belt asteroids. VIII. Low-pole asteroids (United States)

    Marciniak, A.; Michałowski, T.; Polińska, M.; Bartczak, P.; Hirsch, R.; Sobkowiak, K.; Kamiński, K.; Fagas, M.; Behrend, R.; Bernasconi, L.; Bosch, J.-G.; Brunetto, L.; Choisay, F.; Coloma, J.; Conjat, M.; Farroni, G.; Manzini, F.; Pallares, H.; Roy, R.; Kwiatkowski, T.; Kryszczyńska, A.; Rudawska, R.; Starczewski, S.; Michałowski, J.; Ludick, P.


    Context. The set of more than 100 asteroids, for which spin parameters have been modelled using an amplitude, magnitude or epoch methods, showed a pronounced gap in the distribution of the asteroid spin axes. These spin axes are rarely aligned with the ecliptic plane. Aims: The number of asteroids with known spin parameters should be increased to allow for statistical investigations. Methods: We gathered extensive photometric datasets on four selected main-belt asteroids to model their spin and shape parameters using the lightcurve inversion method. Our only criterion of selection was their observability for small telescopes. Results: All four of the modelled asteroids happened to have rotational poles that lie close to the ecliptic plane (periods and J2000 north pole coordinates): (94) Aurora - P = 7.226191 h, λp1 = 58°, βp1 = + 16°; λp2 = 242°, βp2 = + 4°; (174) Phaedra - P = 5.750249 h, λp = 265°, βp = + 5°; (679) Pax - P = 8.456016 h, λp1 = 42°, βp1 = -5°; λp2 = 220°, βp2 = + 32° (pole 2 preferred after comparison with AO-resolved observations); (714) Ulula - P = 6.998376 h, λp1 = 42°, βp1 = -9°; λp2 = 227°, βp2 = -14°. Conclusions: This work suggests that asteroid spin axes do not avoid the ecliptic plane, contrary to what the classical modelling suggested. Composite lightcurves (Figs. 1-26), and aspect data (Table 1) are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgPhotometric data are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  9. The software IDA for investigation of asteroid dynamics and its use for study of some asteroid motion (Abstract) (United States)

    Galushina, T.; Bykova, L.; Letner, O.; Baturin, A.


    This work is devoted to description of the application suite IDA that is designed for investigation of dynamics and probability orbital evolution of asteroids. IDA allows to predict asteroid motion, to reveal close encounters, possible collisions and orbital resonance with planets, to estimate impact probability, to demonstrate asteroid and planets motion on a computer screen and to solve some additional problems. The features of the suite are multifunctionality, high efficiency and a convenient interface. The application suite IDA consists of following subsystems: subsystem "Assol" which allows to study orbital evolution of the nominal orbit and to demonstrate the asteroid and planets motion on a computer screen; subsystem "Observations" which intended to asteroid orbit fitting to positional observations and construction of initial probability domain with non-linear methods; subsystem "Distribution" which developed for the visualization of distribution of observations along an asteroid orbit; subsystem "Clones ensemble" which allows to construct an initial probability domain with the linear method; subsystem "Evolution" which designed for the study of the orbital evolution of an ensemble of asteroid clones; subsystem "Megno" which intended to estimate of predictability time of asteroid motion by means of average MEGNO parameter. The results of the motion investigation of the asteroid 2012 MF7 are given to demonstrate use of the application suite. This object has nonzero collision probability with the Earth in 2046.

  10. Meat-based enteral nutrition (United States)

    Derevitskay, O. K.; Dydykin, A. S.


    Enteral nutrition is widely used in hospitals as a means of nutritional support and therapy for different diseases. Enteral nutrition must fulfil the energy needs of the body, be balanced by the nutrient composition and meet patient’s nutritional needs. Meat is a source of full-value animal protein, vitamins and minerals. On the basis of this research, recipes and technology for a meat-based enteral nutrition product were developed. The product is a ready-to-eat sterilised mixture in the form of a liquid homogeneous mass, which is of full value in terms of composition and enriched with vitamins and minerals, consists of particles with a size of not more than 0.3 mm and has the modified fat composition and rheological characteristics that are necessary for passage through enteral feeding tubes. The study presents experimental data on the content of the main macro- and micro-nutrients in the developed product. The new product is characterised by a balanced fatty acid composition, which plays an important role in correction of lipid metabolism disorders and protein-energy deficiency, and it is capable of satisfying patients’ daily requirements for vitamins and the main macro- and microelements when consuming 1500-2000 ml. Meat-based enteral nutrition can be used in diets as a standard mixture for effective correction of the energy and anabolic requirements of the body and support of the nutritional status of patients, including those with operated stomach syndrome.

  11. BAOBAB (Big And Outrageously Bold Asteroid Belt) Project (United States)

    Mcfadden, L. A.; Thomas, C. A; Englander, J. A.; Ruesch, O.; Hosseini, S.; Goossens, S. J.; Mazarico, E. M.; Schmerr, N.


    One of the intriguing results of NASA's Dawn mission is the composition and structure of the Main Asteroid Belt's only known dwarf planet, Ceres [1]. It has a top layer of dehydrated clays and salts [2] and an icy-rocky mantle [3,4]. It is widely known that the asteroid belt failed to accrete as a planet by resonances between the Sun and Jupiter. About 20-30 asteroids >100 km diameter are probably differentiated protoplanets [5]. 1) how many more and which ones are fragments of protoplanets? 2) How many and which ones are primordial rubble piles left over from condensation of the solar nebula? 3) How would we go about gaining better and more complete characterization of the mass, interior structure and composition of the Main Belt asteroid population? 4) What is the relationship between asteroids and ocean worlds? Bulk parameters such as the mass, density, and porosity, are important to characterize the structure of any celestial body, and for asteroids in particular, they can shed light on the conditions in the early solar system. Asteroid density estimates exist but currently they are often based on assumed properties of taxonomic classes, or through astronomical survey data where interactions with asteroids are weak at best resulting in large measurement uncertainty. We only have direct density estimates from spacecraft encounters for a few asteroids at this time. Knowledge of the asteroids is significant not only to understand their role in solar system workings, but also to assess their potential as space resources, as impact hazards on Earth, or even as harboring life forms. And for the distant future, we want to know if the idea put forth in a contest sponsored by Physics Today, to surface the asteroids into highly reflecting, polished surfaces and use them as a massively segmented mirror for astrophysical exploration [6], is feasible.

  12. Bayesian modeling of the mass and density of asteroids (United States)

    Dotson, Jessie L.; Mathias, Donovan


    Mass and density are two of the fundamental properties of any object. In the case of near earth asteroids, knowledge about the mass of an asteroid is essential for estimating the risk due to (potential) impact and planning possible mitigation options. The density of an asteroid can illuminate the structure of the asteroid. A low density can be indicative of a rubble pile structure whereas a higher density can imply a monolith and/or higher metal content. The damage resulting from an impact of an asteroid with Earth depends on its interior structure in addition to its total mass, and as a result, density is a key parameter to understanding the risk of asteroid impact. Unfortunately, measuring the mass and density of asteroids is challenging and often results in measurements with large uncertainties. In the absence of mass / density measurements for a specific object, understanding the range and distribution of likely values can facilitate probabilistic assessments of structure and impact risk. Hierarchical Bayesian models have recently been developed to investigate the mass - radius relationship of exoplanets (Wolfgang, Rogers & Ford 2016) and to probabilistically forecast the mass of bodies large enough to establish hydrostatic equilibrium over a range of 9 orders of magnitude in mass (from planemos to main sequence stars; Chen & Kipping 2017). Here, we extend this approach to investigate the mass and densities of asteroids. Several candidate Bayesian models are presented, and their performance is assessed relative to a synthetic asteroid population. In addition, a preliminary Bayesian model for probablistically forecasting masses and densities of asteroids is presented. The forecasting model is conditioned on existing asteroid data and includes observational errors, hyper-parameter uncertainties and intrinsic scatter.

  13. Asteroid mass estimation with Markov-chain Monte Carlo (United States)

    Siltala, Lauri; Granvik, Mikael


    Estimates for asteroid masses are based on their gravitational perturbations on the orbits of other objects such as Mars, spacecraft, or other asteroids and/or their satellites. In the case of asteroid-asteroid perturbations, this leads to a 13-dimensional inverse problem at minimum where the aim is to derive the mass of the perturbing asteroid and six orbital elements for both the perturbing asteroid and the test asteroid by fitting their trajectories to their observed positions. The fitting has typically been carried out with linearized methods such as the least-squares method. These methods need to make certain assumptions regarding the shape of the probability distributions of the model parameters. This is problematic as these assumptions have not been validated. We have developed a new Markov-chain Monte Carlo method for mass estimation which does not require an assumption regarding the shape of the parameter distribution. Recently, we have implemented several upgrades to our MCMC method including improved schemes for handling observational errors and outlier data alongside the option to consider multiple perturbers and/or test asteroids simultaneously. These upgrades promise significantly improved results: based on two separate results for (19) Fortuna with different test asteroids we previously hypothesized that simultaneous use of both test asteroids would lead to an improved result similar to the average literature value for (19) Fortuna with substantially reduced uncertainties. Our upgraded algorithm indeed finds a result essentially equal to the literature value for this asteroid, confirming our previous hypothesis. Here we show these new results for (19) Fortuna and other example cases, and compare our results to previous estimates. Finally, we discuss our plans to improve our algorithm further, particularly in connection with Gaia.

  14. Enteric Neurobiology: Discoveries and Directions. (United States)

    Wood, Jackie D

    Discovery and documentation of noncholinergic-nonadrenergic neurotransmission in the enteric nervous system started a revolution in mechanisms of neural control of the digestive tract that continues into a twenty-first century era of translational gastroenterology, which is now firmly embedded in the term, neurogastroenterology. This chapter, on Enteric Neurobiology: Discoveries and Directions, tracks the step-by-step advances in enteric neuronal electrophysiology and synaptic behavior and progresses to the higher order functions of central pattern generators, hard wired synaptic circuits and libraries of neural programs in the brain-in-the-gut that underlie the several different patterns of motility and secretory behaviors that occur in the specialized, serially-connected compartments extending from the esophagus to the anus.

  15. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Nominal Design and Performance (United States)

    Condon, Gerald; williams, Jacob


    In 2010, the President announced that, in 2025, the U.S. intended to launch a human mission to an asteroid [1]. This announcement was followed by the idea of a Capability Driven Framework (CDF) [2], which is based on the idea of evolving capabilities from less demanding to more demanding missions to multiple possible destinations and with increased flexibility, cost effectiveness and sustainability. Focused missions, such as a NASA inter-Center study that examined the viability and implications of sending a crew to a Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) [3], provided a way to better understand and evaluate the utility of these CDF capabilities when applied to an actual mission. The long duration of the NEA missions were contrasted with a concept described in a study prepared for the Keck Institute of Space Studies (KISS) [4] where a robotic spacecraft would redirect an asteroid to the Earth-Moon vicinity, where a relatively short duration crewed mission could be conducted to the captured asteroid. This mission concept was included in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) fiscal year 2014 budget request, as submitted by the NASA Administrator [5]. NASA studies continued to examine the idea of a crewed mission to a captured asteroid in the Earth-Moon vicinity. During this time was an announcement of NASA's Asteroid Grand Challenge [6]. Key goals for the Asteroid Grand Challenge are to locate, redirect, and explore an asteroid, as well as find and plan for asteroid threats. An Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) study was being conducted, which supports this Grand Challenge by providing understanding in how to execute an asteroid rendezvous, capture it, and redirect it to Earth-Moon space, and, in particular, to a distant retrograde orbit (DRO). Subsequent to the returning of the asteroid to a DRO, would be the launch of a crewed mission to rendezvous with the redirected asteroid. This report examines that crewed mission by assessing the Asteroid Redirect Crewed

  16. Photometry and models of selected main belt asteroids. IX. Introducing interactive service for asteroid models (ISAM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marciniak, A.; Bartczak, P.; Santana-Ros, T.; Michalowski, T.; Antonini, P.; Behrend, R.; Bembrick, C.; Bernasconi, L.; Borczyk, W.; Colas, F.; Coloma, J.; Crippa, R.; Esseiva, N.; Fagas, M.; Fauvaud, M.; Fauvaud, S.; Ferreira, D. D. M.; Hein - Bertelsen, R.P.; Higgins, D.; Hirsch, R.; Kajava, J. J. E.; Kaminski, K.; Kryszczynska, A.; Kwiatkowski, T.; Manzini, F.; Michalowski, J.; Michalowski, M. J.; Paschke, A.; Polinska, M.; Poncy, R.; Roy, R.; Santacana, G.; Sobkowiak, K.; Stasik, M.; Starczewski, S.; Velichko, F.; Wucher, H.; Zafar, T.

    Context. The shapes and spin states of asteroids observed with photometric techniques can be reconstructed using the lightcurve inversion method. The resultant models can then be confirmed or exploited further by other techniques, such as adaptive optics, radar, thermal infrared, stellar

  17. Albedo and Diameter Distributions of Asteroid Families Using the Spitzer Asteroid Catalog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enga, Marie-Therese; Trilling, D.; Mueller, M.; Wasserman, L.; Sykes, M.; Blaylock, M.; Stansberry, J.; Bhattacharya, B.; Spahr, T.


    The Spitzer Asteroid Catalog contains flux measurements of asteroidsserendipitously observed in publicly available Spitzer data. At present,this catalog contains some 10,000 measurements at 24 microns only, andwill ultimately contain 100,000 measurements or more. These measurements, along with with

  18. Asteroids as tracers of solar system formation: Probing the interior of primordial main belt asteroids (United States)

    Vernazza, P.


    Asteroids in our solar system are metallic, rocky and/or icy objects, ranging in size from a few meters to a few hundreds of kilometers. Whereas we now possess constraints for the surface composition of most D>100 km primordial main-belt asteroids, little is known regarding their internal structure. Yet, this is a fundamental property whose characteristics result directly from (a) their formation location, (b) their time of formation, and (c) their collisional history. Characterizing the internal structure of the main compositional classes of asteroids would therefore allow us to address entirely new questions regarding the earliest stages of planetesimal formation and their subsequent collisional and dynamical evolution. To achieve this goal, we will - via an ESO Large Program (LP) that was awarded 152h on VLT/SPHERE (the observations will be spread over 4 semesters from April 1st, 2017 till March 30, 2019 in service mode) - carry out disk-resolved observations of a substantial fraction of all D>100 km main-belt asteroids (sampling the four main compositional classes) at high angular resolution with VLT/SPHERE throughout their rotation. These observations will enable us to derive their volume (via their 3-D shape) which combined with already existing mass estimates will allow us to determine their bulk density and hence to characterize their internal structure. Such information will, in turn, provide unprecedented constraints on solar system formation models such as the Nice and Grand Tack models.

  19. Investigating the origin of the asteroids and early findings on Vesta historical studies in asteroid research

    CERN Document Server

    Cunningham, Clifford J


    This book assesses the origin of asteroids by analyzing the discovery of Vesta in 1807. Wilhelm Olbers, who discovered Vesta, suggested that the asteroids were the result of a primordial planet’s explosion. Cunningham studies that idea in detail through the writings of Sir David Brewster in Scotland, the era's most prolific writer about the asteroids. He also examines the link between meteorites and asteroids, revealing a synergy between Ernst Chladni, Romantic symbolism, and the music of the spheres. Vesta was a lightning rod for controversy throughout the nineteenth century with observers arguing over its size and color, and the astounding notion that it was self-luminous. It was also a major force for change, as new methods in the field of celestial mechanics were developed to study the orbital perturbations it is subject to. A large selection of private correspondence and scientific papers complete the first comprehensive historical study of Vesta ever published. With a synoptic look at the four astero...

  20. Meteoroid Impact Detection for Exploration of Asteroids (MIDEA): Meteoroid Impact Rates on Potential Asteroid Targets (United States)

    Lee, N.; Close, S.


    Meteoroid impacts on asteroid surfaces produce a plasma that can be sampled by a nearby spacecraft. This plasma provides a mechanism for exploring the surface composition of asteroids using a constellation of free-flying, ultralight sensors. The requirements for detection of the expanding impact plasma is that the meteoroid is large and fast enough to produce sufficient charge, and that the asteroid surface is electrically biased so that the electrons are captured and positive ions are ejected. For a sensor positioned at a distance of 100-500 m, nanogram-sized meteoroids impacting at speeds greater than 20 km/s onto a sunlit surface can produce a detectable signal. We used NASA's Meteoroid Engineering Model (MEM) and the Grün interplanetary flux model to estimate the impact rate of meteoroids on a selection of asteroid candidates. These include near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as well as several bodies in the main belt. Orbital trajectories were obtained using JPL's Horizons interface, and the sunward-facing meteoroid flux was computed using MEM for µg-sized meteoroids at speeds of 20 km/s or greater. The Grün model was used to scale the flux to ng-sized meteoroids. The figure below shows the maximum and minimum impact rate for each of the target bodies, ordered by their orbital semi-major axis. The NEAs have maximum rates of 0.18 to 0.30 m-2 day-1, corresponding to an impact on each square meter every 3.3 to 5.4 days. The main-belt bodies are impacted far less frequently. However, 1999 JD8, which has a high eccentricity of 0.47, has a maximum impact rate about ten times greater than Elst-Pizarro, despite having a similar semi-major axis. Because of the gossamer nature of the ultralight sensors envisioned for this exploration concept, mission duration is limited by degradation of the electronics. The impacts predicted for NEAs and for some high-eccentricity asteroids in the main belt are frequent enough to allow an asteroid to be well characterized in under a month.

  1. Compositional differences between meteorites and near-Earth asteroids. (United States)

    Vernazza, P; Binzel, R P; Thomas, C A; DeMeo, F E; Bus, S J; Rivkin, A S; Tokunaga, A T


    Understanding the nature and origin of the asteroid population in Earth's vicinity (near-Earth asteroids, and its subset of potentially hazardous asteroids) is a matter of both scientific interest and practical importance. It is generally expected that the compositions of the asteroids that are most likely to hit Earth should reflect those of the most common meteorites. Here we report that most near-Earth asteroids (including the potentially hazardous subset) have spectral properties quantitatively similar to the class of meteorites known as LL chondrites. The prominent Flora family in the inner part of the asteroid belt shares the same spectral properties, suggesting that it is a dominant source of near-Earth asteroids. The observed similarity of near-Earth asteroids to LL chondrites is, however, surprising, as this meteorite class is relatively rare ( approximately 8 per cent of all meteorite falls). One possible explanation is the role of a size-dependent process, such as the Yarkovsky effect, in transporting material from the main belt.

  2. Thermal fatigue as the origin of regolith on small asteroids. (United States)

    Delbo, Marco; Libourel, Guy; Wilkerson, Justin; Murdoch, Naomi; Michel, Patrick; Ramesh, K T; Ganino, Clément; Verati, Chrystele; Marchi, Simone


    Space missions and thermal infrared observations have shown that small asteroids (kilometre-sized or smaller) are covered by a layer of centimetre-sized or smaller particles, which constitute the regolith. Regolith generation has traditionally been attributed to the fall back of impact ejecta and by the break-up of boulders by micrometeoroid impact. Laboratory experiments and impact models, however, show that crater ejecta velocities are typically greater than several tens of centimetres per second, which corresponds to the gravitational escape velocity of kilometre-sized asteroids. Therefore, impact debris cannot be the main source of regolith on small asteroids. Here we report that thermal fatigue, a mechanism of rock weathering and fragmentation with no subsequent ejection, is the dominant process governing regolith generation on small asteroids. We find that thermal fragmentation induced by the diurnal temperature variations breaks up rocks larger than a few centimetres more quickly than do micrometeoroid impacts. Because thermal fragmentation is independent of asteroid size, this process can also contribute to regolith production on larger asteroids. Production of fresh regolith originating in thermal fatigue fragmentation may be an important process for the rejuvenation of the surfaces of near-Earth asteroids, and may explain the observed lack of low-perihelion, carbonaceous, near-Earth asteroids.

  3. Taxonomic Classification of Asteroids via Broadband Near-Infrared Photometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, Eric; Thomas, C.; Trilling, D.; Emery, J.; Delbo, M.; Mueller, M.; Dave, R.


    For faint asteroids, it is not practical to obtain near-infrared spectra. However, it may be possible to use broadband photometry to infer spectral classifications and study composition. As a test of this, we processed SpeX near-infrared asteroid spectral data to simulate colors that would be


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains low-resolution (R~150) near-infrared (0.7-2.5 microns) spectra of 27 asteroids, 5 Mars-crossing and 22 near-Earth asteroids, observed with the...

  5. Origin of asteroid rotation rates in catastrophic impacts. (United States)

    Love, S G; Ahrens, T J


    The rotation rates of asteroids, which are deduced from periodic fluctuations in their brightnesses, are controlled by mutual collisions. The link between asteroid spin and collision history is usually made with reference to impact experiments on centimetre-scale targets, where material strength governs the impact response. Recent work, however, indicates that for objects of the size of most observed asteroids (> or = 1 km in diameter), gravity rather than intrinsic strength controls the dynamic response to collisions. Here we explore this idea by modelling the effect of impacts on large gravitating bodies. We find that the fraction of a projectile's angular momentum that is retained by a target asteroid is both lower and more variable than expected from laboratory experiments, with spin evolution being dominated by 'catastrophic' collisions that eject approximately 50 per cent of the target's mass. The remnant of an initially non-rotating silicate asteroid that suffers such a collision rotates at a rate of approximately 2.9 per day, which is close to the observed mean asteroid rotation rate of approximately 2.5 d-1. Moreover, our calculations suggest that the observed trend in the mean spin frequency for different classes of asteroids (2.2 d-1 for C-type asteroids, 2.5 d-1 for S-type, and 4.0 d-1 for M-type) is due to increasing mean density, rather than increasing material strength.

  6. Delivery of organics to Mars through asteroid and comet impacts (United States)

    Frantseva, K.; Mueller, M.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; ten Kate, I. L.; Greenstreet, S.


    Preliminary results show that the asteroid-borne organic flux on Mars is comparable to the IPD rate; asteroids certainly cannot be neglected. Comets, on the other hand, contribute only 0.01% of the IDP-borne rate and can be neglected in the process of organic delivery to Mars.

  7. Modeling Asteroid Dynamics using AMUSE: First Test Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantseva, Kateryna; Mueller, Michael; van der Tak, Floris; Helmich, Frank P.


    We are creating a dynamic model of the current asteroid population. The goal is to reproduce measured impact rates in the current Solar System, from which we'll derive delivery rates of water and organic material by tracing low-albedo C-class asteroids (using the measured albedo distribution from

  8. Physical Properties of Near-Earth Asteroid 2011 MD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommert, M.; Farnocchia, D.; Hora, J. L.; Chesley, S. R.; Trilling, D. E.; Chodas, P. W.; Mueller, M.; Harris, A. W.; Smith, H. A.; Fazio, G. G.


    We report on observations of near-Earth asteroid 2011 MD with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We have spent 19.9 h of observing time with channel 2 (4.5 {\\mu}m) of the Infrared Array Camera and detected the target within the 2{\\sigma} positional uncertainty ellipse. Using an asteroid thermophysical

  9. Lightcurve Analysis of the Near-Earth Asteroid 6063 Jason (United States)

    Warner, Brian D.; Aznar Macias, Amadeo; Benishek, Vladimir; Oey, Julian; Gross, Roger


    CCD photometric observations of the near-Earth asteroid 6063 Jason were made in 2017 June. A collaboration of five observers at widely-separated longitudes proved critical in finding a synodic period of 48.6 h, nearly commensurate with an Earth day, and confirming that the asteroid is most likely tumbling.

  10. Solar sail orbital motion about asteriods and binary asteroid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, M.J.; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Sims, J.A.; Leve, F.A.; McMahon, J.W.; Guo, Y.


    While SRP is often considered an undesirable effect, especially for missions to small bodies like asteroids and binary asteroid systems, this paper utilizes the SRP on a solar sail to generate artificial equilibrium points (AEPs) and displaced periodic orbits in these systems. While the solar sail

  11. Independent sets in asteroidal triple-free graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Haitze J.; Kloks, Ton; Kloks, A.J.J.; Kratsch, Dieter; Müller, Haiko


    An asteroidal triple is a set of three vertices such that there is a path between any pair of them avoiding the closed neighborhood of the third. A graph is called AT-free if it does not have an asteroidal triple. We show that there is an O(n 2 · (¯m+1)) time algorithm to compute the maximum

  12. 78 FR 51750 - NASA Asteroid Initiative Idea Synthesis Workshop (United States)


    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Asteroid Initiative Idea Synthesis Workshop AGENCY: National Aeronautics and... posted at prior to the event. Due... starting Monday, August 19. Registration NASA will invite many of the RFI submitters to attend the workshop...

  13. Capture orbits around asteroids by hitting zero-velocity curves (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Hongwei; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Guangfu


    The problem of capturing a spacecraft from a heliocentric orbit into a high parking orbit around binary asteroids is investigated in the current study. To reduce the braking Δ V, a new capture strategy takes advantage of the three-body gravity of the binary asteroid to lower the inertial energy before applying the Δ V. The framework of the circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP) is employed for the binary asteroid system. The proposed capture strategy is based on the mechanism by which inertial energy can be decreased sharply near zero-velocity curves (ZVCs). The strategy has two steps, namely, hitting the target ZVC and raising the periapsis by a small Δ V at the apoapsis. By hitting the target ZVC, the positive inertial energy decreases and becomes negative. Using a small Δ V, the spacecraft inserts into a bounded orbit around the asteroid. In addition, a rotating mass dipole model is employed for elongated asteroids, which leads to dynamics similar to that of the CR3BP. With this approach, the proposed capture strategy can be applied to elongated asteroids. Numerical simulations validate that the proposed capture strategy is applicable for the binary asteroid 90 Antiope and the elongated asteroid 216 Kleopatra.

  14. Dynamical evolution of differentiated asteroid families (United States)

    Martins-Filho, W. S.; Carvano, J.; Mothe-Diniz, T.; Roig, F.


    The project aims to study the dynamical evolution of a family of asteroids formed from a fully differentiated parent body, considering family members with different physical properties consistent with what is expected from the break up of a body formed by a metallic nucleus surrounded by a rocky mantle. Initially, we study the effects of variations in density, bond albedo, and thermal inertia in the semi-major axis drift caused by the Yarkovsky effect. The Yarkovsky effect is a non-conservative force caused by the thermal re-radiation of the solar radiation by an irregular body. In Solar System bodies, it is known to cause changes in the orbital motions (Peterson, 1976), eventually bringing asteroids into transport routes to near-Earth space, such as some mean motion resonances. We expressed the equations of variation of the semi-major axis directly in terms of physical properties (such as the mean motion, frequency of rotation, conductivity, thermal parameter, specific heat, obliquity and bond albedo). This development was based on the original formalism for the Yarkovsky effect (i.e., Bottke et al., 2006 and references therein). The derivation of above equations allowed us to closely study the variation of the semi-major axis individually for each physical parameter, clearly showing that the changes in semi-major axis for silicate bodies is twice or three times greater than for metal bodies. The next step was to calculate the orbital elements of a synthetic family after the break-up. That was accomplished assuming that the catastrophic disruption energy is given by the formalism described by Stewart and Leinhardt (2009) and assuming an isotropic distribution of velocities for the fragments of the nucleus and the mantle. Finally, the orbital evolution of the fragments is implemented using a simpletic integrator, and the result compared with the distribution of real asteroid families.

  15. New active asteroid 313P/Gibbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewitt, David; Hui, Man-To; Li, Jing [Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Agarwal, Jessica [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Str. 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Peixinho, Nuno [Unidad de Astronomía, Fac. de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Antofagasta, Avda. U. de Antofagasta 02800, Antofagasta (Chile); Weaver, Harold [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, Maryland, MD 20723 (United States); Mutchler, Max [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Larson, Stephen, E-mail: [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd. Tucson AZ 85721-0092 (United States)


    We present initial observations of the newly discovered active asteroid 313P/Gibbs (formerly P/2014 S4), taken to characterize its nucleus and comet-like activity. The central object has a radius ∼0.5 km (geometric albedo 0.05 assumed). We find no evidence for secondary nuclei and set (with qualifications) an upper limit to the radii of such objects near 20 m, assuming the same albedo. Both aperture photometry and a morphological analysis of the ejected dust show that mass-loss is continuous at rates ∼0.2–0.4 kg s{sup −1}, inconsistent with an impact origin. Large dust particles, with radii ∼50–100 μm, dominate the optical appearance. At 2.4 AU from the Sun, the surface equilibrium temperatures are too low for thermal or desiccation stresses to be responsible for the ejection of dust. No gas is spectroscopically detected (limiting the gas mass-loss rate to <1.8 kg s{sup −1}). However, the protracted emission of dust seen in our data and the detection of another episode of dust release near perihelion, in archival observations from 2003, are highly suggestive of an origin by the sublimation of ice. Coincidentally, the orbit of 313P/Gibbs is similar to those of several active asteroids independently suspected to be ice sublimators, including P/2012 T1, 238P/Read, and 133P/Elst–Pizarro, suggesting that ice is abundant in the outer asteroid belt.

  16. Non-Vestoid candidate asteroids in the inner main belt (United States)

    Oszkiewicz, Dagmara A.; Skiff, Brian A.; Moskovitz, Nick; Kankiewicz, Paweł; Marciniak, Anna; Licandro, Javier; Galiazzo, Mattia A.; Zeilinger, Werner W.


    Context. Most howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) meteorites (analogues to V-type asteroids) are thought to originate from the asteroid (4) Vesta. However some HEDs show distinct oxygen isotope ratios and therefore are thought to originate from other asteroids. In this study we try to identify asteroids that may represent parent bodies of those mismatching HEDs. Aims: The main goal of this study is to test the hypothesis that there might be V-type asteroids in the inner main asteroid belt unrelated to (4) Vesta. In order to evolve outside the Vesta family and became Vesta fugitives, asteroids should produce the correct Yarkovsky drift. The direction of which is dependent on asteroid sense of rotation. Therefore we focus on determining sense of rotation for asteroids outside the Vesta family to better understand their origin. Methods: We performed photometric observations using the 1.1 m and 1.8 m telescopes at Lowell Observatory to determine rotational synodic periods of selected objects before, at, and after opposition. Prograde rotators show a minimum in synodic period at opposition while retrograde rotators show a maximum. This is known as the "drifting minima" method. Changes in the rotational period are on the order of seconds and fractions of seconds and depend on the rotational pole of the object and the asteroid-observer-Sun geometry at opposition. Results: We have determined sense of rotation for eight asteroids and retrieved spin states for three objects from literature. For one asteroid we were not able to determine the sense of rotation. In total our sample includes 11 V-type asteroids and one S-type (test object). We have revised rotation periods for three objects. Five V-types in our sample can be explained by migration from the Vesta family. Two show spin states that are inconsistent with migration from Vesta. The origin of the remaining objects is ambiguous. Conclusions: We found two objects with rotations inconsistent with migration from Vesta

  17. Nutrición enteral


    Barrachina Bellés, Lidón; García Hernández, Misericordia; Oto Cavero, Isabel


    Este trabajo nos introduce en la administración de la nutrición enteral, haciendo una revisión de los aspectos a tener en cuenta tanto en sus indicaciones, vias, tipos, métodos, cuidados y complicaciones más importantes.

  18. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia (United States)

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David


    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  19. Microspine Gripping Mechanism for Asteroid Capture (United States)

    Merriam, Ezekiel G.; Berg, Andrew B.; Willig, Andrew; Parness, Aaron; Frey, Tim; Howell, Larry L.


    This paper details the development and early testing of a compliant suspension for a microspine gripper device for asteroid capture or micro-gravity percussive drilling. The microspine gripper architecture is reviewed, and a proposed microspine suspension design is presented and discussed. Prototyping methods are discussed, as well as testing methods and results. A path forward is identified from the results of the testing completed thus far. Key findings include: the microspine concept has been established as a valid architecture and the compliant suspension exhibits the desired stiffness characteristics for good gripping behavior. These developments will aid in developing the capability to grasp irregularly shaped boulders in micro-gravity.

  20. Photometry of Damocloid Asteroid 2006 BZ8 (United States)

    Hergenrother, Carl W.


    Photometry of the Damocloid asteroid 2006 BZ8 was obtained on two nights in 2006 February with the University of Arizona Kuiper 1.54-m telescope. Lightcurve analysis yielded a rotation period of 5.960 ± 0.003 h and amplitude of 0.35 magnitudes. An analysis of photometry reported by the Catalina Sky Survey, Mount Lemmon Survey. and Siding Spring Survey to the Minor Planet Center found a steep phase function slope of b_V = 0.054 ± 0.008 which is consistent with 2006 BZ8 being a very low albedo object.

  1. Asteroid Ida - 6 Views Showing Rotation (United States)


    This composite image shows the asteroid 243 Ida as seen from the Galileo spacecraft during its approach on August 28, 1993. The six views were shuttered through the camera's green filter and show Ida's rotation over a period of about 3 hours 18 minutes. The asteroid makes a complete rotation every 4 hours 38 minutes; therefore, this set of images spans about 3/4 of Ida's rotation period and shows most of Ida's surface. By combining the information in these views with that from the highest resolution images returned from the spacecraft in September 1993, the size and shape of this irregular body can now be determined accurately The asteroid appears to be about 58 kilometers (36 miles) long and about 23 kilometers wide, with a very irregular shape and volume of some 16,000 cubic kilometers. The images are arranged in chronological order from a time 3 hours 51 minutes before closest approach (upper left), through upper right, middle left, middle right lower left and lower right (33 minutes before closest approach). The six images show Ida at the same scale throughout. Ida's rotation axis is roughly vertical in these images, and the rotation causes the right-hand end of Ida to move toward the viewer as time progresses. The first image was taken from a range of about 171,000 km (106,000 miles) and provides an image resolution of about 1,700 meters per pixel (the highest resolution achieved for Ida is about 25 meters per pixel). The second, taken 70 minutes later, is from 119,000 kilometers, followed by 102,000 kilometers, 85,000 kilometers, 50,000 kilometers, and 25,000 kilometers. The features on Ida are less sharp in the earlier views because of the greater distances. Prominent in the middle three views is a deep depression across the short axis of the Asteroid. This feature tends to support the idea that Ida may have originally been formed from two or more separate large objects that collided softly and stuck together. Also visible in the lower left view is an

  2. NASA's Near Earth Asteroid Scout Mission (United States)

    Johnson, Les; McNutt, Leslie; Castillo-Rogez, Julie


    NASA is developing solar sail propulsion for a near-term Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) reconnaissance mission and laying the groundwork for their future use in deep space science and exploration missions. The NEA Scout mission, funded by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program and managed by NASA MSFC, will use the sail as primary propulsion allowing it to survey and image one or more NEA's of interest for possible future human exploration. NEA Scout uses a 6U cubesat (to be provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory), an 86 m2 solar sail and will weigh less than 14 kilograms. The solar sail for NEA Scout will be based on the technology developed and flown by the NASA NanoSail-D and The Planetary Society's Lightsail-A. Four 7 m stainless steel booms wrapped on two spools (two overlapping booms per spool) will be motor deployed and pull the sail from its stowed volume. The sail material is an aluminized polyimide approximately 3 microns thick. NEA Scout will launch on the Space Launch System (SLS) first mission in 2018 and deploy from the SLS after the Orion spacecraft is separated from the SLS upper stage. The NEA Scout spacecraft will stabilize its orientation after ejection using an onboard cold-gas thruster system. The same system provides the vehicle Delta-V sufficient for a lunar flyby. After its first encounter with the moon, the 86 m2 sail will deploy, and the sail characterization phase will begin. A mechanical Active Mass Translation (AMT) system, combined with the remaining ACS propellant, will be used for sail momentum management. Once the system is checked out, the spacecraft will perform a series of lunar flybys until it achieves optimum departure trajectory to the target asteroid. The spacecraft will then begin its two year-long cruise. About one month before the asteroid flyby, NEA Scout will pause to search for the target and start its approach phase using a combination of radio tracking and optical navigation. The solar sail will provide

  3. Spin rate distribution of small asteroids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravec, Petr; Harris, A. W.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Warner, B. D.; Kušnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Pray, D. P.; Higgins, D.; Oey, J.; Galád, Adrián; Gajdoš, Š.; Kornoš, L.; Világi, J.; Husárik, M.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Shevchenko, V. G.; Chiorny, V. G.; Gaftonyuk, N. M.; Cooney jr., W. R.; Gross, J.; Terrell, D.; Stephens, R.; Dyvig, R.; Reddy, V.; Ries, J.G.; Colas, F.; Lecacheux, J.; Durkee, R.; Masi, G.; Koff, R.; Goncalves, R.


    Roč. 197, č. 2 (2008), s. 497-504 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/05/0604 Grant - others:NASA(US) NAG5-13244; NASA(US) NNG06GI32G; VEGA(SK) 1/3074/06; VEGA(SK) 1/3067/06; VEGA(SK) 2/7009/27 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids rotation * photometry * near-Earth objects Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.268, year: 2008

  4. Period Determination of Six Main Belt Asteroids (United States)

    Ferrero, Andrea


    Observations of six main-belt asteroids (MBA) produced lightcurve parameters of: 487 Venetia, P = 13.34 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.20 mag; 684 Hildburg, P = 15.89 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.22 mag; 772 Tanete, P = 8.629 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.18 mag.; 1181 Lilith, P = 15.04 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.11 mag.; 1246 Chaka, P = 25.44 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.25 mag.; and 2834 Christy Carol, P = 12.79 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.39 mag.

  5. First Galileo image of asteroid 243 Ida (United States)

    Chapman, C. R.; Belton, M. J. S.; Veverka, J.; Neukum, G.; Head, J.; Greeley, Ronald; Klaasen, K.; Morrison, D.


    The second spacecraft encounter with an asteroid has yielded an unprecedentedly high resolution portrait of 243 Ida. On 28 Aug. 1993, Galileo obtained an extensive data set on this small member of the Koronis family. Most of the data recorded on the tape recorder will be returned to Earth in spring 1994. A five-frame mosaic of Ida was acquired with good illumination geometry a few minutes before closest approach; it has a resolution of 31 to 38 m/pixel amd was played back during Sept. 1993. Preliminary analyses of this single view of Ida are summarized.

  6. An automatic approach to exclude interlopers from asteroid families (United States)

    Radović, Viktor; Novaković, Bojan; Carruba, Valerio; Marčeta, Dušan


    Asteroid families are a valuable source of information to many asteroid-related researches, assuming a reliable list of their members could be obtained. However, as the number of known asteroids increases fast it becomes more and more difficult to obtain a robust list of members of an asteroid family. Here, we are proposing a new approach to deal with the problem, based on the well-known hierarchical clustering method. An additional step in the whole procedure is introduced in order to reduce a so-called chaining effect. The main idea is to prevent chaining through an already identified interloper. We show that in this way a number of potential interlopers among family members is significantly reduced. Moreover, we developed an automatic online-based portal to apply this procedure, I.e. to generate a list of family members as well as a list of potential interlopers. The Asteroid Families Portal is freely available to all interested researchers.

  7. Control of the motion of near-Earth asteroids (United States)

    Ledkov, A. A.; Eismont, N. A.; Boyarskii, M. N.; Fedyaev, K. S.; Nazirov, R. R.


    Amethod for preventing the collisions of hazardous celestial objects with the Earth by diverting them from the trajectory of their encounter with the Earth is investigated. For this purpose, we propose to use small near-Earth asteroids that are transferred to the trajectories of a gravity-assist maneuver near the Earth by imparting a comparatively small velocity impulse to them. As a result of such a maneuver, a small asteroid is thrown into the hazardous object's interception orbit. The asteroids suitable for achieving this goal are chosen by solving Lambert's problem. The same concept is investigated for the problem of transferring asteroids to orbits resonant with the Earth's orbit so as to open up the possibility of regular missions to such asteroids with the goal of studying them and using their resources. The choice is made by minimizing the mentioned velocity impulse, whose admissible value is assumed to be within the limits that do not exceed 20 m s-1.

  8. Future exploration of the asteroids. [by space probes (United States)

    Morrison, D.; Niehoff, J.


    Future possibilities for the further study of the asteroids are reviewed, with particular attention paid to space missions for their direct exploration. The role of traditional ground-based and earth orbiting techniques is examined briefly, and it is concluded that although astronomical techniques are presently at their peak, and despite the opportunities provided by the Infrared Astronomical satellite, the Space Telescope and Spacelab Infrared Telescope Facility, the next major step will require direct exploration by space probes to obtain information on asteroid surface chemistry, geology and bulk properties. Various mission modes and propulsion systems for a first multi-target asteroid mission are discussed, including flyby, rendezvous, landing and sample return, and ion-drive propulsion systems. Science payloads for a basic rendezvous mission are considered, and target selection for multi-asteroid flyby tours and rendezvous tours is discussed. Consideration is also given to sample return missions for the evaluation of the asteroid as potential resources.

  9. A Framework for Inferring Taxonomic Class of Asteroids. (United States)

    Dotson, J. L.; Mathias, D. L.


    Introduction: Taxonomic classification of asteroids based on their visible / near-infrared spectra or multi band photometry has proven to be a useful tool to infer other properties about asteroids. Meteorite analogs have been identified for several taxonomic classes, permitting detailed inference about asteroid composition. Trends have been identified between taxonomy and measured asteroid density. Thanks to NEOWise (Near-Earth-Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer) and Spitzer (Spitzer Space Telescope), approximately twice as many asteroids have measured albedos than the number with taxonomic classifications. (If one only considers spectroscopically determined classifications, the ratio is greater than 40.) We present a Bayesian framework that provides probabilistic estimates of the taxonomic class of an asteroid based on its albedo. Although probabilistic estimates of taxonomic classes are not a replacement for spectroscopic or photometric determinations, they can be a useful tool for identifying objects for further study or for asteroid threat assessment models. Inputs and Framework: The framework relies upon two inputs: the expected fraction of each taxonomic class in the population and the albedo distribution of each class. Luckily, numerous authors have addressed both of these questions. For example, the taxonomic distribution by number, surface area and mass of the main belt has been estimated and a diameter limited estimate of fractional abundances of the near earth asteroid population was made. Similarly, the albedo distributions for taxonomic classes have been estimated for the combined main belt and NEA (Near Earth Asteroid) populations in different taxonomic systems and for the NEA population specifically. The framework utilizes a Bayesian inference appropriate for categorical data. The population fractions provide the prior while the albedo distributions allow calculation of the likelihood an albedo measurement is consistent with a given taxonomic

  10. Super-catastrophic disruption of asteroids at small perihelion distances. (United States)

    Granvik, Mikael; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Jedicke, Robert; Bolin, Bryce; Bottke, William F; Beshore, Edward; Vokrouhlický, David; Delbò, Marco; Michel, Patrick


    Most near-Earth objects came from the asteroid belt and drifted via non-gravitational thermal forces into resonant escape routes that, in turn, pushed them onto planet-crossing orbits. Models predict that numerous asteroids should be found on orbits that closely approach the Sun, but few have been seen. In addition, even though the near-Earth-object population in general is an even mix of low-albedo (less than ten per cent of incident radiation is reflected) and high-albedo (more than ten per cent of incident radiation is reflected) asteroids, the characterized asteroids near the Sun typically have high albedos. Here we report a quantitative comparison of actual asteroid detections and a near-Earth-object model (which accounts for observational selection effects). We conclude that the deficit of low-albedo objects near the Sun arises from the super-catastrophic breakup (that is, almost complete disintegration) of a substantial fraction of asteroids when they achieve perihelion distances of a few tens of solar radii. The distance at which destruction occurs is greater for smaller asteroids, and their temperatures during perihelion passages are too low for evaporation to explain their disappearance. Although both bright and dark (high- and low-albedo) asteroids eventually break up, we find that low-albedo asteroids are more likely to be destroyed farther from the Sun, which explains the apparent excess of high-albedo near-Earth objects and suggests that low-albedo asteroids break up more easily as a result of thermal effects.

  11. Galileo photometry of asteroid 243 Ida (United States)

    Helfenstein, P.; Veverka, J.; Thomas, P.C.; Simonelli, D.P.; Klaasen, K.; Johnson, T.V.; Fanale, F.; Granahan, J.; McEwen, A.S.; Belton, M.; Chapman, C.


    Galileo imaging observations over phase angles 19.5?? to 109.8?? are combined with near-opposition Earth-based data to derive the photometric properties of Ida. To first order these properties are uniform over the surface and well modeled at ?? = 0.55 ??m by Hapke parameters ????0 = 0.22, h = 0.020, B0 = 1.5, g = -0.33, and ?? = 18?? with corresponding geometric albedo p = 0.21??0.030.01 and Bond albedo AB = 0.081??0.0170.008. Ida's photometric properties are more similar to those of "average S-asteroids" (P. Helfenstein and J. Veverka 1989, Asteroids II, Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson) than are those of 951 Gaspra. Two primary color units are identified on Ida: Terrain A exhibits a spectrum with relatively shallower 1-??m absorption and a relatively steeper red spectral slope than average Ida, while Terrain B has a deeper 1-??m absorption and a less steep red slope. The average photometric properties of Ida and Terrain A are similar while those of Terrain B differ mostly in having a slightly higher value of ????0 (0.22 versus 0.21), suggesting that Terrain B consists of slightly brighter, more transparent regolith particles. Galileo observations of Ida's satellite Dactyl over phase angles 19.5?? to 47.6?? suggest photometric characteristics similar to those of Ida, the major difference being Dactyl's slightly lower albedo (0.20 compared to 0.21). ?? 1990 Academic Press, Inc.

  12. Can Asteroid Airbursts Cause Dangerous Tsunami?.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    I have performed a series of high-resolution hydrocode simulations to generate “source functions” for tsunami simulations as part of a proof-of-principle effort to determine whether or not the downward momentum from an asteroid airburst can couple energy into a dangerous tsunami in deep water. My new CTH simulations show enhanced momentum multiplication relative to a nuclear explosion of the same yield. Extensive sensitivity and convergence analyses demonstrate that results are robust and repeatable for simulations with sufficiently high resolution using adaptive mesh refinement. I have provided surface overpressure and wind velocity fields to tsunami modelers to use as time-dependent boundary conditions and to test the hypothesis that this mechanism can enhance the strength of the resulting shallow-water wave. The enhanced momentum result suggests that coupling from an over-water plume-forming airburst could be a more efficient tsunami source mechanism than a collapsing impact cavity or direct air blast alone, but not necessarily due to the originally-proposed mechanism. This result has significant implications for asteroid impact risk assessment and airburst-generated tsunami will be the focus of a NASA-sponsored workshop at the Ames Research Center next summer, with follow-on funding expected.

  13. RGB Colors of the Jovian Trojan Asteroids (United States)

    Chen, Haoyuan; Zhang, Xiaofei; University of Western Australia, Youth Astronomy Teachers' Link


    We use SPIRIT I&II telescopes which has 43cm diameter, to observe around 50 Jovian Trojan asteroids. Due to the limiting magnitude of our equipment, We only choose some bright asteriods as our targets.To testify the feasibility of using RGB Bayer filter system for research project, we use the RGB Bayer filter system instead of the Johnson-Cousins BVR filters system. Once proved, the photometry data will be significantly enlarged. More collected data can be used on scientific researches and more scholars can do relevant researches by using the RGB Bayer filter system. What we did is using a software called Astrometrica to measure the magnitude of the asteroids under RGB filter. Then we transform the RGB data to BVR data. Later on we calculate the color index by using those BVR data from our calculations. The final step to do the statistic work and make graphs, and compare it with the former research data. We are aim to find same result as the research before, or why there are differnt result.We are still in the process of handling the data, so the final result will be released at the conference. This project is based on data acquired using the SPIRIT robotic telescopes at The University of Western Australia. We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Paul Luckas, SPIRIT Program Manager.The project is supported by The University of Western Australia, Youth Astronomy Teachers' Link.

  14. Distant retrograde orbits and the asteroid hazard (United States)

    Perozzi, Ettore; Ceccaroni, Marta; Valsecchi, Giovanni B.; Rossi, Alessandro


    Distant Retrograde Orbits (DROs) gained a novel wave of fame in space mission design because of their numerous advantages within the framework of the US plans for bringing a large asteroid sample in the vicinity of the Earth as the next target for human exploration. DROs are stable solutions of the three-body problem that can be used whenever an object, whether of natural or artificial nature, is required to remain in the neighborhood of a celestial body without being gravitationally captured by it. As such, they represent an alternative option to Halo orbits around the collinear Lagrangian points L1 and L2. Also known under other names ( e.g., quasi-satellite orbits, cis-lunar orbits, family- f orbits) these orbital configurations found interesting applications in several mission profiles, like that of a spacecraft orbiting around the small irregularly shaped satellite of Mars Phobos or the large Jovian moon Europa. In this paper a basic explanation of the DRO dynamics is presented in order to clarify some geometrical properties that characterize them. Their accessibility is then discussed from the point of view of mission analysis under different assumptions. Finally, their relevance within the framework of the present asteroid hazard protection programs is shown, stressing the significant increase in warning time they would provide in the prediction of impactors coming from the direction of the Sun.

  15. CERN openlab enters fifth phase

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrew Purcell


    CERN openlab is a unique public-private partnership between CERN and leading ICT companies. At the start of this year, openlab officially entered its fifth phase, which will run until the end of 2017. For the first time in its history, it has extended beyond the CERN community to include other major European and international research laboratories.   Founded in 2001 to develop the innovative ICT systems needed to cope with the unprecedented computing challenges of the LHC, CERN openlab unites science and industry at the cutting edge of research and innovation. In a white paper published last year, CERN openlab set out the main ICT challenges it will tackle during its fifth phase, namely data acquisition, computing platforms, data storage architectures, computer management and provisioning, networks and connectivity, and data analytics. As it enters its fifth phase, CERN openlab is expanding to include other research laboratories. "Today, research centres in other disciplines are also st...

  16. [Enteral feeding in adults: indications]. (United States)

    Matuchansky, C


    In this overview article the author examines successively: (1) the effects expected from enteral nutrition in adults: general and/or local nutritional effects, temporary arrest in progressive intestinal lesions, partial intestinal function replacement; (2) indications in gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal pathologies and modalities of application to each indication (route of administration, elemental, semi-elemental or polymeric nutrients, incremental or non-incremental calorie intake, necessity or lack of necessity for addition of fibres, value of ambulatory methods); (3) results according to indications: chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases, notably Crohn's disease, short small bowel syndromes, fistulae and stomies, preoperative period in gastrointestinal surgery, support of heavy treatments in non-terminal cancers, hypermetabolic states, notably stress; (4) absolute or relative contraindications of enteral nutrition.

  17. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul


    .5 g protein/kg ideal body weight/d. Plasma gut peptide responses were monitored in 15 subjects. RESULTS: In comparison with basal fasting trypsin secretion rates (mean = 134 [standard error = 22] U/h), duodenal feeding with the polymeric and elemental formulae stimulated trypsin secretion (mean = 408...... in enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation, with particular reference to trypsin, because the avoidance of trypsin stimulation may optimize enteral feeding in acute pancreatitis. METHODS: The pancreatic secretory responses to feeding were studied in 36 healthy volunteers by standard double...... [standard error = 51] U/h; P standard error = 34] U/h) and mid-distal jejunal (mean = 119 [standard error = 16] U/h) did not. Stimulation was associated with an increase in plasma cholecystokinin, whereas distal jejunal feeding resulted in an increase...

  18. Enteral alimentation: administration and complications. (United States)

    Benya, R; Mobarhan, S


    Tube feeding is commonly used for providing essential calories and nutrients to the patient otherwise unable to eat. In the last two decades there has been significant expansion in the number and quality of enteral formulas. In this review, we evaluate the indications for each major class of formula, and survey complications associated with formulas and devices that deliver formula. Recommendations for future research are listed.

  19. A Map Enters the Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    'modes of mattering'. In this paper I explore what difference digital cartography can make to STS practice. I draw on three examples from my own work where digitally mediated maps have entered the conversation and made critical, often surprising, differences to the research process. In my first example...... it was trying to chart. I use these examples to discuss the potential modes of mattering afforded by digital cartography in STS....

  20. Self-organizing control strategy for asteroid intelligent detection swarm based on attraction and repulsion (United States)

    An, Meiyan; Wang, Zhaokui; Zhang, Yulin


    The self-organizing control strategy for asteroid intelligent detection swarm, which is considered as a space application instance of intelligent swarm, is developed. The leader-follower model for the asteroid intelligent detection swarm is established, and the further analysis is conducted for massive asteroid and small asteroid. For a massive asteroid, the leader spacecraft flies under the gravity field of the asteroid. For a small asteroid, the asteroid gravity is negligible, and a trajectory planning method is proposed based on elliptic cavity virtual potential field. The self-organizing control strategy for the follower spacecraft is developed based on a mechanism of velocity planning and velocity tracking. The simulation results show that the self-organizing control strategy is valid for both massive asteroid and small asteroid, and the exploration swarm forms a stable configuration.

  1. Water Reservoirs in Small Planetary Bodies: Meteorites, Asteroids, and Comets (United States)

    Alexander, Conel M. O'D.; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Altwegg, Kathrin


    Asteroids and comets are the remnants of the swarm of planetesimals from which the planets ultimately formed, and they retain records of processes that operated prior to and during planet formation. They are also likely the sources of most of the water and other volatiles accreted by Earth. In this review, we discuss the nature and probable origins of asteroids and comets based on data from remote observations, in situ measurements by spacecraft, and laboratory analyses of meteorites derived from asteroids. The asteroidal parent bodies of meteorites formed ≤ 4 Ma after Solar System formation while there was still a gas disk present. It seems increasingly likely that the parent bodies of meteorites spectroscopically linked with the E-, S-, M- and V-type asteroids formed sunward of Jupiter's orbit, while those associated with C- and, possibly, D-type asteroids formed further out, beyond Jupiter but probably not beyond Saturn's orbit. Comets formed further from the Sun than any of the meteorite parent bodies, and retain much higher abundances of interstellar material. CI and CM group meteorites are probably related to the most common C-type asteroids, and based on isotopic evidence they, rather than comets, are the most likely sources of the H and N accreted by the terrestrial planets. However, comets may have been major sources of the noble gases accreted by Earth and Venus. Possible constraints that these observations can place on models of giant planet formation and migration are explored.

  2. Spitzer identification of potentially active Near-Earth Asteroids (United States)

    Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Hora, Joseph; Smith, Howard; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Josh; Farnocchia, Davide; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Migo


    The separation between asteroids and comets has become less clear with the discovery of a small group of asteroids that display comet-like activity. While the activity is attributed to different mechanisms, some objects seem to activate close to the Sun. Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) come close to the Earth and the Sun, constituting a natural laboratory for the study of thermally induced activity. Two NEA sub-populations are especially suspected of being potentially active: dormant comets and near-Sun asteroids. We propose 12.4 hrs of Spitzer IRAC observations of 3 near-Sun asteroids and one dormant comet (3552) Don Quixote, about which we have already published. Our goals are (1) to search for activity in Don Quixote, which showed CO/CO2 activity during its previous apparition and (2) to search for activity and measure the diameters and albedos of the near-Sun asteroids. In combination with a funded ground-based observing program, our results will provide significant legacy value to the investigation of activity in near-Earth asteroids.

  3. Multiple-hopping trajectories near a rotating asteroid (United States)

    Shen, Hong-Xin; Zhang, Tian-Jiao; Li, Zhao; Li, Heng-Nian


    We present a study of the transfer orbits connecting landing points of irregular-shaped asteroids. The landing points do not touch the surface of the asteroids and are chosen several meters above the surface. The ant colony optimization technique is used to calculate the multiple-hopping trajectories near an arbitrary irregular asteroid. This new method has three steps which are as follows: (1) the search of the maximal clique of candidate target landing points; (2) leg optimization connecting all landing point pairs; and (3) the hopping sequence optimization. In particular this method is applied to asteroids 433 Eros and 216 Kleopatra. We impose a critical constraint on the target landing points to allow for extensive exploration of the asteroid: the relative distance between all the arrived target positions should be larger than a minimum allowed value. Ant colony optimization is applied to find the set and sequence of targets, and the differential evolution algorithm is used to solve for the hopping orbits. The minimum-velocity increment tours of hopping trajectories connecting all the landing positions are obtained by ant colony optimization. The results from different size asteroids indicate that the cost of the minimum velocity-increment tour depends on the size of the asteroids.

  4. THE ORIGIN OF ASTEROID 162173 (1999 JU{sub 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campins, Humberto [Physics Department, University of Central Florida, P.O. Box 162385, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States); De Leon, Julia [Department of Edaphology and Geology, University of La Laguna, E-38071 Tenerife (Spain); Morbidelli, Alessandro; Gayon-Markt, Julie; Delbo, Marco; Michel, Patrick [Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis (UNS), CNRS UMR7293, F-06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Licandro, Javier [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), C/Via Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna (Spain)


    Near-Earth asteroid (162173) 1999 JU{sub 3} (henceforth JU{sub 3}) is a potentially hazardous asteroid and the target of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency's Hayabusa-2 sample return mission. JU{sub 3} is also a backup target for two other sample return missions: NASA's OSIRIS-REx and the European Space Agency's Marco Polo-R. We use dynamical information to identify an inner-belt, low-inclination origin through the {nu}{sub 6} resonance, more specifically, the region with 2.15 AU < a < 2.5 AU and i < 8 Degree-Sign . The geometric albedo of JU{sub 3} is 0.07 {+-} 0.01, and this inner-belt region contains four well-defined low-albedo asteroid families (Clarissa, Erigone, Polana, and Sulamitis), plus a recently identified background population of low-albedo asteroids outside these families. Only two of these five groups, the background and the Polana family, deliver JU{sub 3}-sized asteroids to the {nu}{sub 6} resonance, and the background delivers significantly more JU{sub 3}-sized asteroids. The available spectral evidence is also diagnostic; the visible and near-infrared spectra of JU{sub 3} indicate it is a C-type asteroid, which is compatible with members of the background, but not with the Polana family because it contains primarily B-type asteroids. Hence, this background population of low-albedo asteroids is the most likely source of JU{sub 3}.

  5. In search of the source of asteroid (101955) Bennu: Applications of the stochastic YORP model (United States)

    Bottke, William F.; Vokrouhlický, David; Walsh, Kevin J.; Delbo, Marco; Michel, Patrick; Lauretta, Dante S.; Campins, Humberto; Connolly, Harold C.; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Chelsey, Steven R.


    Asteroid (101955) Bennu, the target of NASA's OSIRIS-REx sample return mission, is a D ≈0.5 km diameter low albedo near-Earth object. It has a spectral signature consistent with primitive carbonaceous chondrites, and an orbit similar to that of the Earth. A plausible evolution scenario for Bennu is that it migrated inward across the inner main belt from a low albedo family by Yarkovsky thermal forces over many hundreds of Myr. Eventually, it entered a resonance that took it into the terrestrial planet region, where a combination of planetary encounters and resonances took it to its current orbit over a few Myr to tens of Myr. When it departed the main belt, Bennu probably had an eccentricity 0.1Marco-Polo-R target, the 1.9 km asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3, however, has a 85-83+4 % probability of coming from the Eulalia family and a 15-4+83 % probability of coming from the New Polana family. The reason for this switch is that 1996 FG3 may have been part of Yarkovsky/YORP-produced wave of like-sized bodies that is only now reaching the terrestrial planet region. We suggest that the top-like shape of Bennu is a byproduct of mass wasting and/or mass shedding events produced by YORP spin up during its long journey across the inner main belt.

  6. Detecting stars, galaxies, and asteroids with Gaia (United States)

    de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Allen, M.; Azaz, S.; Krone-Martins, A.; Prod'homme, T.; Hestroffer, D.


    Context. Gaia is Europe's space astrometry mission, aiming to make a three-dimensional map of 1000 million stars in our Milky Way to unravel its kinematical, dynamical, and chemical structure and evolution. Aims: We present a study of Gaia's detection capability of objects, in particular non-saturated stars, double stars, unresolved external galaxies, and asteroids. Gaia's on-board detection software autonomously discriminates stars from spurious objects like cosmic rays and solar protons. For this, parametrised criteria of the shape of the point spread function are used, which need to be calibrated and tuned. This study aims to provide an optimum set of parameters for these filters. Methods: We developed a validated emulation of the on-board detection software, which has 20 free, so-called rejection parameters which govern the boundaries between stars on the one hand and sharp (high-frequency) or extended (low-frequency) events on the other hand. We evaluate the detection and rejection performance of the algorithm using catalogues of simulated single stars, resolved and unresolved double stars, cosmic rays, solar protons, unresolved external galaxies, and asteroids. Results: We optimised the rejection parameters, improving - with respect to the functional baseline - the detection performance of single stars and of unresolved and resolved double stars, while, at the same time, improving the rejection performance of cosmic rays and of solar protons. The optimised rejection parameters also remove the artefact of the functional-baseline parameters that the reduction of the detection probability of stars as a function of magnitude already sets in before the nominal faint-end threshold at G = 20 mag. We find, as a result of the rectangular pixel size, that the minimum separation to resolve a close, equal-brightness double star is 0.23 arcsec in the along-scan and 0.70 arcsec in the across-scan direction, independent of the brightness of the primary. To resolve double

  7. Spectral Mapping at Asteroid 101955 Bennu (United States)

    Clark, Beth Ellen; Hamilton, Victoria E.; Emery, Joshua P.; Hawley, C. Luke; Howell, Ellen S.; Lauretta, Dante; Simon, Amy A.; Christensen, Philip R.; Reuter, Dennis


    The OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return mission was launched in September 2016. The main science surveys of asteroid 101955 Bennu start in March 2019. Science instruments include a Visible-InfraRed Spectrometer (OVIRS) and a Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES) that will produce observations that will be co-registered to the tessellated shape model of Bennu (the fundamental unit of which is a triangular facet). One task of the science team is to synthesize the results in real time during proximity operations to contribute to selection of the sampling site. Hence, we will be focused on quickly producing spectral maps for: (1) mineral abundances; (2) band strengths of minerals and chemicals (including a search for the subtle ~5% absorption feature produced by organics in meteorites); and (3) temperature and thermal inertia values. In sum, we will be producing on the order of ~60 spectral maps of Bennu’s surface composition and thermophysical properties. Due to overlapping surface spots, simulations of our spectral maps show there may be an opportunity to perform spectral super-resolution. We have a large parameter space of choices available in creating spectral maps of Bennu, including: (a) mean facet size (shape model resolution), (b) percentage of overlap between subsequent spot measurements, (c) the number of spectral spots measured per facet, and (d) the mathematical algorithm used to combine the overlapping spots (or bin them on a per-facet basis). Projection effects -- caused by irregular sampling of an irregularly shaped object with circular spectrometer fields-of-view and then mapping these circles onto triangular facets -- can be intense. To prepare for prox ops, we are simulating multiple mineralogical “truth worlds” of Bennu to study the projection effects that result from our planned methods of spectral mapping. This presentation addresses: Can we combine the three planned global surveys of the asteroid (to be obtained at different phase angles) to

  8. OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission (United States)

    Drake, M. J.; Lauretta, D. S.; Team, O.


    OSIRIS-REx is an asteroid sample return mission to organic-rich asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36. The mission seeks to address deep questions: where did we come from; what is our destiny? Earth sterilized itself during its formation, yet here we are today. Where did the organics come from? To do so, we will return at least 60g of pristine, uncontaminated, organic-rich regolith for study on Earth by advanced analytical equipment. Because it is relatively easy for us to get the RQ36, it is relatively easy for it to get to us, making I the most potentially hazardous asteroid know to humanity with a 1:1800 probability of impacting the Earth in 2180. We will study the Yarkovsky effect, thermal forces that cause small objects to deviate from keplerian orbits, with the goal of understanding how to mitigate against a civilization-ending or species-ending impact catastrophe. The mission launches in September, 2016, arrives at RQ36 in November of 2019, and spends about a year conducting detailed studies of RQ36 in order to select the best sampling site. Sampling is achieved by approaching the surface ay 10 cm/sec and agitating the regolith with nitrogen gas on contact. The agitated regolith is collected in a sample head, which is stowed in the Sample return capsule for return to Earth at the UTTR Test range in Utah in September 2023. Two years of funded studies are carried out by the U.S. and world community before end of mission in 2025, after which samples will still be available through the NASA-JSC Curation Facility. OSIRIS-REx will return samples never before available for study on Earth, probably using some instruments yet to be invented. In addition, OSIRIS-REx will provide "ground truth" for telescope observations of airless bodies by returning a pristine sample of the surface of RQ36. OSIRIS-REx will evaluate resources available to future human missions, both materials and technologies such as proximity operations. And we will learn how to mitigate against impact


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, C. R.; Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Kramer, E.; Sonnett, S.; Stevenson, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Wright, E. L., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)


    We present preliminary diameters and albedos for 7956 asteroids detected in the first year of the NEOWISE Reactivation mission. Of those, 201 are near-Earth asteroids and 7755 are Main Belt or Mars-crossing asteroids. 17% of these objects have not been previously characterized using the Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or “NEOWISE” thermal measurements. Diameters are determined to an accuracy of ∼20% or better. If good-quality H magnitudes are available, albedos can be determined to within ∼40% or better.

  10. Photometry and shape modeling of Mars crosser asteroid (1011 Laodamia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolovska G.


    Full Text Available An analysis of photometric observations of Mars crosser asteroid 1011 Laodamia conducted at Bulgarian National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen over a twelve year interval (2002, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2011, 2012 and 2013 is made. Based on the obtained lightcurves the spin vector, sense of rotation, and preliminary shape model of (1011 Laodamia have been determined using the lightcurve inversion method. The aim of this investigation is to increase the set of asteroids with known spin and shape parameters and to contribute in improving the model in combination with other techniques and sparse data produced by photometric asteroid surveys such as Pan-STARRS or GAIA.

  11. Asteroid Shape Models Refined By Stellar Occultation Silhouettes (United States)

    Durech, J.; Kaasalainen, M.


    We present shape models of asteroids 2 Pallas, 3 Juno, 39 Laetitia, 41 Daphne, 52 Europa, 85 Io, 129 Antigone, and 208 Lacrimosa derived from their lightcurves and stellar occultation silhouettes. Lightcurve inversion shape models and rotation states of those asteroids were already published. The occultation silhouettes give direct information about the size and shape of asteroid's projected cross-section. We process the lightcurve and occultation data simultaneously and derive more detailed shape models, remove possible ambiguities in the pole directions, and calibrate the models to absolute dimensions.

  12. V-type asteroids in the middle main belt (United States)

    Roig, F.; Nesvorný, D.; Gil-Hutton, R.; Lazzaro, D.


    V-type asteroids are bodies whose surfaces are constituted of basalt. In the Main Asteroid Belt, most of these asteroids are assumed to come from the basaltic crust of Asteroid (4) Vesta. This idea is mainly supported by (i) the fact that almost all the known V-type asteroids are in the same region of the belt as (4) Vesta, i.e., the inner belt (semi-major axis 2.1astro-ph/0609420], located at ˜2.54 AU, raises the question of whether it came from (4) Vesta or not. In this paper, we present spectroscopic observations indicating the existence of another V-type asteroid at ˜2.53 AU, (40521) 1999RL95, and we investigate the possibility that these two asteroids evolved from the Vesta family to their present orbits by a semi-major axis drift due to the Yarkovsky effect. The main problem with this scenario is that the asteroids need to cross the 3/1 mean motion resonance with Jupiter, which is highly unstable. Combining N-body numerical simulations of the orbital evolution, that include the Yarkovsky effect, with Monte Carlo models, we compute the probability that an asteroid of a given diameter D evolves from the Vesta family and crosses over the 3/1 resonance, reaching a stable orbit in the middle belt. Our results indicate that an asteroid like (21238) 1995WV7 has a low probability (˜1%) of having evolved through this mechanism due to its large size ( D˜5 km), because the Yarkovsky effect is not sufficiently efficient for such large asteroids. However, the mechanism might explain the orbits of smaller bodies like (40521) 1999RL95 ( D˜3 km) with ˜70-100% probability, provided that we assume that the Vesta family formed ≳3.5 Gy ago. We estimate the debiased population of V-type asteroids that might exist in the same region as (21238) and (40521) ( 2.51 km may come from the Vesta family by crossing over the 3/1 resonance. The remaining 70-90% must have a different origin.

  13. Sample return from asteroids --- Hayabusa2 and the next (United States)

    Yoshikawa, M.; Kuninaka, H.; Inaba, N.; Tsuda, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Mori, O.; Yano, H.; Nakamura, R.; Kawaguchi, J.


    In 2006, a few years before the Earth return of Hayabusa, which is the first asteroid sample-return mission in the world, we started to consider the next asteroid sample-return mission, Hayabusa2. Hayabusa was a mission for engineering, but Hayabusa2 focuses also on the science. The scientific purpose of Hayabusa2 is to learn about the origin and evolution of the solar system, especially, the origin of water and organic matters. It is considered that C-type asteroids contain more organic matters and hydrated minerals than S-type asteroids like Itokawa. Therefore, the C-type asteroid (162173) 1999 JU_3 was selected as the target. From the technological point of view, the purpose of Hayabusa2 is to make a more reliable and robust system for sample-return exploration. The scale of the spacecraft is similar to Hayabusa, but many parts are modified so that we will not have to face the trouble that we experienced in Hayabusa. We will try new things, too. One of them is the impactor, which creates a small crater on the surface of the asteroid. Then, we can sample the sub-surface material as shown in the figure. We are now preparing the spacecraft for launch at the end of 2014. Hayabusa2 will arrive at the asteroid in June 2018. It will stay there for about one and half years. Then, it will leave the asteroid in December 2019, and will come back to the Earth in December 2020 [1]. We have already started to consider the next sample-return mission after Hayabusa2. In this future mission, the target asteroid is a Jupiter Trojan, which is a more primitive asteroid (D/P-type asteroid) than the S-type Itokawa and C-type 1999 JU_3. We use the solar-power-sail technique, which was demonstrated successfully by IKAROS. IKAROS means Interplanetary Kite-craft Accelerated by Radiation Of the Sun, and it was the first interplanetary solar sail in the world. The science purpose of this Jupiter Trojan mission is to study the various kinds of issues related to the planetary formation, such

  14. An ancient core dynamo in asteroid Vesta. (United States)

    Fu, Roger R; Weiss, Benjamin P; Shuster, David L; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Grove, Timothy L; Suavet, Clément; Lima, Eduardo A; Li, Luyao; Kuan, Aaron T


    The asteroid Vesta is the smallest known planetary body that has experienced large-scale igneous differentiation. However, it has been previously uncertain whether Vesta and similarly sized planetesimals formed advecting metallic cores and dynamo magnetic fields. Here we show that remanent magnetization in the eucrite meteorite Allan Hills A81001 formed during cooling on Vesta 3.69 billion years ago in a surface magnetic field of at least 2 microteslas. This field most likely originated from crustal remanence produced by an earlier dynamo, suggesting that Vesta formed an advecting liquid metallic core. Furthermore, the inferred present-day crustal fields can account for the lack of solar wind ion-generated space weathering effects on Vesta.

  15. Maturation of the Asteroid Threat Assessment Project (United States)

    Arnold, J. O..; Burkhard, C. D.


    As described at IPPW 12 [1], NASA initiated a new research activity focused on Planetary Defense (PD) on October 1, 2014. The overarching function of the Asteroid Threat Assessment Project (ATAP) is to provide capabilities to assess impact damage of any Near-Earth Object (NEO) that could inflict on the Earth. The activity includes four interrelated efforts: Initial Conditions (at the atmospheric entry interface); Entry Modeling (energy deposition in the atmosphere); Hazards (on the surface including winds, over pressures, thermal exposures, craters, tsunami and earthquakes) and Risk (physics-based). This paper outlines progress by ATAP and highlights achievements that are complimentary to activities of interest to the International Planetary Probe community. The ATAPs work is sponsored by NASAs Planetary Defense Coordination Office (PDCO), a part of the agency's Science Mission Directorate [1] Arnold, J. O., et. al., Overview of a New NASA Activity Focused on Planetary Defense, IPPW 12 Cologne Germany, June 15-19. 2015.

  16. Heavy Metal - Exploring a magnetised metallic asteroid (United States)

    Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Andrews, David; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Masters, Adam; Thomas, Nicolas; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Herique, Alain; Retherford, Kurt; Tortora, Paolo; Trigo-Rodriguez, Joseph; Ivchenko, Nickolay; Simon, Sven


    We propose a spacecraft mission (Heavy Metal) to orbit and explore (16) Psyche - the largest M-class metallic asteroid in the main belt. Recent estimates of the shape, 279×232×189 km and mass, 2.7×10(19) kg make it one of the largest and densest of asteroids, and together with the high surface radar reflectivity and the spectral data measured from Earth it is consistent with a bulk composition rich in iron-nickel. The M5 mission Heavy Metal will investigate if (16) Psyche is the exposed metallic core of a planetesimal, formed early enough to melt and differentiate. High-resolution mapping of the surface in optical, IR, UV and radar wavebands, along with the determination of the shape and gravity field will be used to address the formation and subsequent evolution of (16) Psyche, determining the origin of metallic asteroids. It is conceivable that a cataclysmic collision with a second body led to the ejection of all or part of the differentiated core of the parent body. Measurements at (16) Psyche therefore provide a possibility to directly examine an iron-rich planetary core, similar to that expected at the center of all the major planets including Earth. A short-lived dynamo producing a magnetic field early in the life of (16) Psyche could have led to a remnant field (of tens of micro Tesla) being preserved in the body today. (16) Psyche is embedded in the variable flow of the solar wind. Whereas planetary magnetospheres and induced magnetospheres are the result of intense dynamo fields and dense conductive ionospheres presenting obstacles to the solar wind, (16) Psyche may show an entirely new 'class' of interaction as a consequence of its lack of a significant atmosphere, the extremely high bulk electrical conductivity of the asteroid, and the possible presence of intense magnetic fields retained in iron-rich material. The small characteristic scale of (16) Psyche ( 200 km) firmly places any solar wind interaction in the "sub-MHD" scale, in which kinetic

  17. First images of asteroid 243 Ida (United States)

    Belton, M.J.S.; Chapman, C.R.; Veverka, J.; Klaasen, K.P.; Harch, A.; Greeley, R.; Greenberg, R.; Head, J. W.; McEwen, A.; Morrison, D.; Thomas, P.C.; Davies, M.E.; Carr, M.H.; Neukum, G.; Fanale, F.P.; Davis, D.R.; Anger, C.; Gierasch, P.J.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Pilcher, C.B.


    The first images of the asteroid 243 Ida from Galileo show an irregular object measuring 56 kilometers by 24 kilometers by 21 kilometers. Its surface is rich in geologic features, including systems of grooves, blocks, chutes, albedo features, crater chains, and a full range of crater morphologies. The largest blocks may be distributed nonuniformly across the surface; lineaments and dark-floored craters also have preferential locations. Ida is interpreted to have a substantial regolith. The high crater density and size-frequency distribution (-3 differential power-law index) indicate a surface in equilibrium with saturated cratering. A minimum model crater age for Ida - and therefore for the Koronis family to which Ida belongs - is estimated at 1 billion years, older than expected.

  18. Fixing Images Observation Dates Thanks to Asteroids (United States)

    Derriere, S.


    An important piece of metadata for any astronomical image is the date and time at which it was observed (and the exposure time). Unfortunately, the values of the observation epoch found in the FITS headers of digitized photographic plates, for example, are not always accurate. There can be many different sources of error: mistakes in the original observation log, errors when converting between different dates and time format (calendar date, Julian days, decimal years, etc.). We present in this paper an analysis of the different values that can be found for the observation epoch of several image sets in various metadata sources. We show how the presence of known asteroids in the field of view can be used to recover the correct time values with a good accuracy.

  19. Thermally induced rock breakdown on asteroid Itokawa (United States)

    Kitazato, Kohei; Hirata, Naru; Demura, Hirohide; Inasawa, Tomoki; Abe, Masanao; Yamamoto, Yukio; Miura, Akira; Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro


    On airless bodies of the inner solar system, changes in surface temperature due to insolation yield thermal cracking of rocks. This has been considered as a leading cause of rock breakdown, crater degradation and regolith production. However, it is poorly understood what thermal conditions are actually required to cause damage in rocks. Here we present a new evidence of thermally induced rock breakdown found on asteroid Itokawa. We analyzed the visible and near-infrared spectra of Shirakami and Muses-C regio, both of which are located within the concave part of Itokawa, and found that less space weathered debris generated from Shirakami are deposited on Muses-C regio. In addition, we performed thermophysical analysis to calculate the thermal conditions of Itokawa surface, which indicates that the rock breakdown on Shirakami would be caused by rapid temperature changes related to shadowing.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perna, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Fornasier, S.; Deshapriya, J. D. P. [LESIA—Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Dotto, E.; Ieva, S.; Epifani, E. Mazzotta [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Roma) (Italy); Bernardi, F. [SpaceDyS, via Mario Giuntini 63, I-56023 Cascina (Pisa) (Italy); Luise, F. De [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, via Mentore Maggini snd, I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Perozzi, E. [Deimos Space, Strada Buchesti 75-77, Bucharest (Romania); Rossi, A. [IFAC—CNR, via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Micheli, M., E-mail: [ESA—NEOCC, ESRIN, via Galileo Galilei 64, I-00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy)


    Through their delivery of water and organics, near-Earth objects (NEOs) played an important role in the emergence of life on our planet.  However, they also pose a hazard to the Earth, as asteroid impacts could significantly affect our civilization. Potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) are those that, in principle, could possibly impact the Earth within the next century, producing major damage. About 1600 PHAs are currently known, from an estimated population of 4700 ± 1450. However, a comprehensive characterization of the PHA physical properties is still missing. Here we present spectroscopic observations of 14 PHAs, which we have used to derive their taxonomy, meteorite analogs, and mineralogy. Combining our results with the literature, we investigated how PHAs are distributed as a function of their dynamical and physical properties. In general, the “carbonaceous” PHAs seem to be particularly threatening, because of their high porosity (limiting the effectiveness of the main deflection techniques that could be used in space) and low inclination and minimum orbit intersection distance (MOID) with the Earth (favoring more frequent close approaches). V-type PHAs also present low MOID values, which can produce frequent close approaches (as confirmed by the recent discovery of a limited space weathering on their surfaces). We also identified those specific objects that deserve particular attention because of their extreme rotational properties, internal strength, or possible cometary nature. For PHAs and NEOs in general, we identified a possible anti-correlation between the elongation and the rotational period, in the range of P{sub rot} ≈ 5–80 hr. This would be compatible with the behavior of gravity-dominated aggregates in rotational equilibrium. For periods ≳80–90 hr, such a trend stops, possibly under the influence of the YORP effect and collisions. However, the statistics is very low, and further observational and theoretical work is required

  1. Asteroid Ida - Limb at Closest Approach (United States)


    The Galileo imaging system captured this picture of the limb of the asteroid 243 Ida about 46 seconds after its closest approach on August 28, 1993, from a range of only 2480 kilometers. It is the highest-resolution image of an asteroid's surface ever captured and shows detail at a scale of about 25 meters per pixel. This image is one frame of a mosaic of 15 frames shuttered near Galileo's closest approach to Ida. Since the exact location of Ida in space was not well-known prior to the Galileo flyby, this mosaic was estimated to have only about a 50 percent chance of capturing Ida. Fortunately, this single frame did successfully image a part of the sunlit side of Ida. The area seen in this frame shows some of the same territory seen in a slightly lower resolution full disk mosaic of Ida returned from the spacecraft in September, 1993, but from a different perspective. Prominent in this view is a 2 kilometer deep 'valley' seen in profile on the limb. This limb profile and the stereoscopic effect between this image and the full disk mosaic will permit detailed refinement of Ida's shape in this region. This high resolution view shows many small craters and some grooves on the surface of Ida, which give clues to understanding the history of this heavily impacted object. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  2. Enteric campylobacter: purging its secrets? (United States)

    Crushell, Ellen; Harty, Sinead; Sharif, Farhana; Bourke, Billy


    Campylobacterial infections are the most common cause of bacterial enterocolitis in humans. Among children, especially in developing countries, Campylobacter infections can cause severe life-threatening diarrheal disease. Although usually associated with a benign outcome in the developed world, the burden of illness posed by Campylobacter infections is enormous, and serious neurologic sequelae also can occur. For a variety of reasons our understanding of the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of Campylobacter infection has lagged far behind that of other enteric pathogens. However, recent completion of the genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni promises to open up the Campylobacter research field with the prospect of developing novel therapeutic and preventive strategies.

  3. Evolving trends in enteral alimentation. (United States)

    Ponsky, J L


    Nutrition has become a cornerstone of surgical patient care. With better understanding of metabolic and compositional requirements, great advances have been made in the area of total parenteral nutrition. Recent attention to full utilization of alimentary tract function has prompted a resurgence of interest in dietary formulas and methods of delivery. Three new approaches to the alimentary tract provide better access for feeding. Needle catheter jejunostomy allows early alimentary tract utilization following operations, while percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and jejunostomy provide long-term solutions to the provision of enteral alimentation. Future utilization of these techniques will certainly lead to better patient care.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes names, designations, and discovery circumstances for the numbered asteroids, sorted in order of catalog number. A similar file sorted in...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a tabulation of catalog numbers, names, and IAU principle provisional designations for asteroids. The entries are ordered by catalog number, alphabetical...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes names, designations, and discovery circumstances for the numbered asteroids, sorted in order of number. This data set supercedes past versions...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains low-resolution (R~150) near-infrared (0.7-2.5 microns) spectra of 90 main belt asteroids observed with the SpeX instrument on the NASA...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) project began as a collaborative effort with the United States Air Force (USAF) in December 1995. It concentrated on the...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A database of asteroid magnitude-phase relations compiled at the Institute of Astronomy of Kharkiv Kharazin University by Shevchenko et al., including observations...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The eight color asteroid survey provides reflection spectra for minor planets using eight filter passbands. This dataset includes mean data averaged for each of 589...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The eight color asteroid survey provides reflection spectra for minor planets using eight filter passbands. A system of standard stars was established to aid in the...

  12. EIGHT COLOR ASTEROID SURVEY V2.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The eight color asteroid survey provides reflectance spectra for minor planets using eight filter passbands. This dataset includes the primary data obtained for 589...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Eight Color Asteroid Survey provides reflectance spectra for minor planets in eight filter passbands. This dataset contains the response curves of the eight...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The eight color asteroid survey provides reflection spectra for minor planets using eight filter passbands. This dataset includes the primary data obtained for 589...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a comprehensive tabulation of asteroid spin vector determinations, compiled by Agnieszka Kryszczynska and based on the earlier compilation by Per Magnusson....


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a compilation of published rotational parameters derived from lightcurve data for asteroids, through Feb. 15 2008. In addition to reported rotational...

  17. Diagnosis of Choroidal Melanoma in Dense Asteroid Hyalosis. (United States)

    Motiani, Meghna V; McCannel, Colin A; Almanzor, Robert; McCannel, Tara A


    To demonstrate the utility of Optos ultra-wide field imaging in the diagnosis and management of choroidal melanoma in the setting of asteroid hyalosis. Observational case report. A 52-year-old female was referred for evaluation of floaters, photopsias, and blurry vision in the right eye. Clinical examination revealed dense asteroid hyalosis obscuring the fundus, and a limited view of a pigmented choroidal lesion in the nasal periphery. Optos ultra-wide field fluorescein angiography and ultrasonography facilitated the diagnosis of a choroidal melanoma. The patient underwent Iodine-125 brachytherapy for local tumor control and excellent tumor response was confirmed with serial follow-up Optos imaging and ultrasonography. Ultra-wide field fundus fluorescein angiography facilitated the diagnosis of a choroidal melanoma, which was obscured by dense asteroid hyalosis, allowing for local tumor control with brachytherapy. Optos wide-field imaging may be a valuable tool for detecting potentially life-threatening lesions in the setting of asteroid hyalosis.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains photometric lightcurves of near-earth asteroids obtained by Petr Pravec and his collaborators at Ondrejov Observatory. Lightcurves for 42...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains asteroid dynamical family memberships for 55 families, calculated by David Nesvorny using his code based on the Hierarchical Clustering Method...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains an updated compilation of asteroid families and clusters, resulting from the application of the Hierarchical Clustering Method (HCM) on a set...

  1. Radar observations of near-Earth asteroids from Arecibo Observatory (United States)

    Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Zambrano Marin, Luisa Fernanda; Virkki, Anne; Aponte Hernandez, Betzaida


    The Arecibo S-Band (2.38 GHz, 12.6 cm, 1 MW) planetary radar system at the 305-m William E. Gordon Telescope in Arecibo, Puerto Rico is the most active and most sensitive planetary radar facility in the world. Since October 2015, we have detected 56 near-Earth asteroids, of which 17 are classified as potentially hazardous to Earth and 22 are compliant with the Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Target Study (NHATS) as possible future robotic- or human-mission destinations. We will present a sampling of the asteroid zoo observed by the Arecibo radar since the 2015 DPS meeting. This includes press-noted asteroids 2015 TB145, the so-called "Great Pumpkin", and 2003 SD220, the so-called "Christmas Eve asteroid".


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains reduced composite visual and near-infrared spectra of thirty M-type asteroids, observed over the years 2004-2008 and presented in Fornasier et...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Photometric spectra covering the range 0.32 - 1.08 micrometers for 285 numbered asteroids, as published in Chapman & Gaffey (1979b) and McFadden, et al. (1984).

  4. Positive branch of asteroid polarization: Observational data and computer modeling (United States)

    Petrov, D. V.; Kiselev, N. N.


    Observations of near-Earth asteroids at large phase angles made it possible to obtain a more complete (for ground-based observations) phase dependence of the polarization of the E-type asteroids' radiation including the maximum of the positive branch of the linear polarization degree. It is shown that the position of the polarization maximum of high-albedo asteroids is noticeably shifted to the decrease of phase angles compared with S-type asteroids. Model calculations of polarimetric properties of random Gaussian particles that simulate dust particles on the regolith surface are carried out. Model calculations show a qualitatively similar behavior pattern of parameters of the positive polarization branch. The influence of the refractive index of individual scattering particles on the size and position of the maximum of the positive branch of the linear polarization degree is investigated within the considered model.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a collection of 3-micron spectra of 33 asteroids and Phobos and Deimos obtained by Andy Rivkin and collaborators. Nearly all these data have been...

  6. The application suite IDA> for investigation of dynamics of asteroids (United States)

    Bykova, L. E.; Galushina, T. Yu.; Baturin, A. P.


    This paper is devoted to description of the application suite IDA> that is designed for investigation of dynamics and probability orbital evolution of asteroids. The features of this suite are multifunctionality, high efficiency and convenient interface.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data presented with this data set include: (a) 8210 individual sightings associated with 2004 asteroids, (b) averaged radiometric diameters and geometric albedos...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is comprised of asteroid flux data measured in 26 filters using the McCord dual beam photometer. Of the 26 filters used for the full dataset, a maximum...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset includes average near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra for 68 main-belt asteroids that were observed at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF),...

  10. Modeling Asteroid Dynamics using AMUSE: First Test Cases (United States)

    Frantseva, Kateryna; Mueller, Michael; van der Tak, Floris; Helmich, Frank P.


    We are creating a dynamic model of the current asteroid population. The goal is to reproduce measured impact rates in the current Solar System, from which we'll derive delivery rates of water and organic material by tracing low-albedo C-class asteroids (using the measured albedo distribution from WISE catalog), the parent bodies of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Ultimately, we aim at studying the role of "exo-asteroids" in the delivery of water to exoplanets.Our model is set up using the Astrophysical Multipurpose Software Environment (AMUSE; AMUSE provides a common Python wrapper around numerous astrophysical codes including N-body gravity codes such as Mercury and Huayno.We report first results towards a validation of our model: long-term integrations of the planets alone as well as studies of the depletion of the Kirkwood gaps in the asteroid belt. Further model developments will be discussed.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains albedos for 57 asteroids determined from diameters obtained from stellar occultations. These albedos are from Shevchenko and Tedesco (2006).


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data presented with this data set include: (a) 8210 individual sightings associated with 2004 asteroids, (b) averaged radiometric diameters and geometric albedos...

  13. Optimal Impulse conditions for Deflecting Earth Crossing Asteroids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elder, Jeffrey


    .... The solution is based on two dimensional, two body, Earth intersecting elliptical orbits. Given the asteroid eccentricity, time prior to impact and impulse magnitude and direction, an analysis of impulse to minimum separation distance is generated...

  14. The challenge of enteric fever. (United States)

    Waddington, Claire S; Darton, Thomas C; Pollard, Andrew J


    Enteric fever, a non-specific, systemic infection caused by S. Typhi or Paratyphi A, B or C, is common in resource-limited regions of the world, where poor sanitation infrastructure facilitates faeco-oral transmission. Prompt treatment with appropriate antibiotics minimises illness severity, but presentation to health care facilities is often delayed because of the non-specific nature of the symptoms and the lack of reliable diagnostic tests. Disease prevention requires significant investment in provision of clean water and sanitation in the long term; vaccination offers a more realistic strategy for medium term control. However, implementation of existing vaccines and development of more efficacious vaccines has been hindered by the lack of an established correlate of protection and under appreciation of the true disease burden. Human microbial infection studies could provide a vehicle for the rapid evaluation of novel vaccines and investigation of the immunobiology of enteric infection. Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Drug distribution in enteric microparticles. (United States)

    Nilkumhang, Suchada; Alhnan, Mohamed A; McConnell, Emma L; Basit, Abdul W


    The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of three fluorescent drug or drug-like molecules in enteric microparticles. Microparticles were prepared using the pH-responsive methylmethacrylate polymer Eudragit L by an emulsion solvent evaporation process. In the process drug and polymer are dissolved in ethanol, and dispersed in a liquid paraffin external phase using sorbitan sesquioleate as stabiliser. The incorporation and distribution of riboflavin, dipyridamole and acridine orange into these microparticles were investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The influence of the physicochemical properties of the molecules (solubility in the inner phase, partition coefficient [ethanol/paraffin]) on the distribution, encapsulation efficiency and pH-responsive dissolution behaviour of the microparticles were examined. The drug that tended to partition in ethanol rather than liquid paraffin (riboflavin) was efficiently encapsulated and evenly distributed. In contrast, compounds which partitioned in favour of the liquid paraffin localised towards the surface of the microparticles and exhibited lower encapsulation efficiency (dipyridamole and acridine orange). All three sets of drug-loaded microparticles showed a limited release in acid (distribution appeared to have a minimum effect on drug release. This microparticle technology has the potential to provide effective enteric drug release with a wide variety of molecules.

  16. [New nutrients in enteral nutrition]. (United States)

    Vázquez Martínez, C


    1. Medical and surgical stress (major surgery, sepsis, injuries,...) increases requirements of certain essential nutrients and others considered non-essential or semi-essential. 2. Some nutrients such as glutamine, arginine, omega 3 fatty acids nucleotides, ... have a considerable influence on the immune function (delayed hypersensitivity, lymphocyte sub-population counts, immunological tests,..) and improve certain metabolic and nutritional indices (nitrogen balance, medium and short life proteins,...). For this reason, they are called "immunonutrients" or "immunity regulators". 3. The supply of special enteral formulas for situations of immunological compromise, with the addition of one or more of the nutrients considered today as "immunity regulators" has increased since 1988 in both absolute and percentage terms. 4. These nutrient-enriched enteral formulas improve the rate of infections, reduce the number of days on ventilator equipment, the length of hospital stays for critical patients, with a more marked effect on surgical patients. 5. The evidence seems today to support the use of enriched formulas with critical patients. Nonetheless, some caution must be maintained as it has not been possible to show any reduction in the mortality of the cases studied nor, in short, in the prognosis of patients affected by situations of hypercatabolism and reduced immunity. 6. We feel that their use should, therefore, be carried out in accordance with the protocols and in patients expected to survive, where the evolution reveals severe catabolism unhindered by conventional therapy.

  17. Evaluation of Statens Serum Institut Enteric Medium for Detection of Enteric Pathogens


    Blom, Marianne; Meyer, Aase; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Gaarslev, Knud; Espersen, Frank


    The efficacy of the Statens Serum Institut (SSI) enteric medium for isolation and direct identification of enteric pathogens was evaluated. Six different biochemical reactions can be read by using the SSI enteric medium, allowing direct identification of a range of enteric pathogens. All 248 gram-negative bacterial species that were tested grew on the SSI enteric medium. Only 10 of 248 bacteria (4%) showed discrepant results in the biochemical reactions, and none of these were enteric pathoge...

  18. Some Dynamic Characteristics of Binary Near-Earth Asteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanenko, N.V.


    Full Text Available Tidal acceleration exerted by the terrestrial planets and Jupiter’s are determined, orbital resonances to evaluate the motion stability in binary asteroid systems are calculated. Radius of the Hill sphere surrounding the main component in approximation of the planetary three-body problem — the Sun-main component-satellite is calculated. Escape velocities from the surface of the asteroid satellites are found and the conclusion on the possibility of substance loss is made.

  19. Comment on "ancient asteroids enriched in refractory inclusions". (United States)

    Hezel, Dominik C; Russell, Sara S


    Sunshine et al. (Reports, 25 April 2008, p. 514) reported that certain asteroids contain 30 +/- 10 volume percent calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). We contend that the amount of CAIs in CV chondrites is two to three times as low as the 10 volume percent assumed by the authors; thus, we question whether the CAI-rich bodies they studied are indeed older than known asteroids or formed before the injection of (26)Al into the solar nebula.

  20. A radar survey of M- and X-class asteroids (United States)

    Shepard, Michael K.; Clark, Beth Ellen; Nolan, Michael C.; Howell, Ellen S.; Magri, Christopher; Giorgini, Jon D.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Ostro, Steven J.; Harris, Alan W.; Warner, Brian; Pray, Donald; Pravec, Petr; Fauerbach, Michael; Bennett, Thomas; Klotz, Alain; Behrend, Raoul; Correia, Horacio; Coloma, Josep; Casulli, Silvano; Rivkin, Andrew


    We observed ten M- and X-class main-belt asteroids with the Arecibo Observatory's S-band (12.6 cm) radar. The X-class asteroids were targeted based on their albedos or other properties which suggested they might be M-class. This work brings the total number of main-belt M-class asteroids observed with radar to 14. We find that three of these asteroids have rotation rates significantly different from what was previously reported. Based on their high radar albedo, we find that only four of the fourteen—16 Psyche, 216 Kleopatra, 758 Mancunia, and 785 Zwetana—are almost certainly metallic. 129 Antigone has a moderately high radar albedo and we suggest it may be a CH/CB/Bencubbinite parent body. Three other asteroids, 97 Klotho, 224 Oceana, and 796 Sarita have radar albedos significantly higher than the average main belt asteroid and we cannot rule out a significant metal content for them. Five of our target asteroids, 16 Psyche, 129 Antigone, 135 Hertha, 758 Mancunia, and 785 Zwetana, show variations in their radar albedo with rotation. We can rule out shape and composition in most cases, leaving variations in thickness, porosity, or surface roughness of the regolith to be the most likely causes. With the exception of 129 Antigone, we find no hydrated M-class asteroids (W-class; Rivkin, A.S., Howell, E.S., Lebofsky, L.A., Clark, B.E., Britt, D.T., 2000. Icarus 145, 351-368) to have high radar albedos.

  1. Extrasolar Asteroid Mining as Forensic Evidence for Extraterrestrial Intelligence


    Forgan, Duncan; Elvis, Martin


    The development of civilisations like ours into spacefaring, multi-planet entities requires significant raw materials to construct vehicles and habitats. Interplanetary debris, including asteroids and comets, may provide such a source of raw materials. In this article we present the hypothesis that extraterrestrial intelligences (ETIs) engaged in asteroid mining may be detectable from Earth. Considering the detected disc of debris around Vega as a template, we explore the observational signat...

  2. Asteroid Impact Risk: Ground Hazard versus Impactor Size (United States)

    Mathias, Donovan; Wheeler, Lorien; Dotson, Jessie L.; Aftosmis, Michael; Tarano, Ana Maria


    The Asteroid Threat Assessment Project at NASA Ames Research Center has developed a Probabilistic Asteroid Impact Risk (PAIR) model to assess the level of risk posed by potential asteroid strikes on Earth. The PAIR model combines analytic models of asteroid entry and damage in a probabilistic Monte Carlo framework to assess the ensemble risk posed by a wide range of potential impacts. The model samples from uncertainty distributions of asteroid properties and entry parameters to generate millions of specific impact cases, and models the atmospheric entry and damage for each case.We present the recent results of an expanded asteroid impact risk assessment. The expanded assessment models 60 million impact cases, covering asteroid sizes from 20m up to 10km in diameter, and evaluates damage due to local blast overpressure and thermal radiation, tsunami inundation, and global effects for each case. Advancements include: (a) incorporation of a tsunami model that is able to estimate specific flood damage for each ocean strike, accounting for local ocean depth, coastal topography, and populations; (b) use of improved height-of-burst maps for estimating the blast overpressure footprints, developed based on high-fidelity blast propagation simulations; and (c) representation of multiple damage levels for local blast overpressure and thermal radiation exposure. Results demonstrate the relative contributions of the various hazard sources to the total risk, and the significance of including lower damage levels in risk assessment metrics. The annualized expected risk is dominated by the global-effects causing large (> 1 km) object impacts. Local damage, due to blast overpressure and thermal radiation, expectations peak for impactors in the few hundred-meter size range, but the annualized damage is an order of magnitude less than that of the larger objects. Asteroid generated tsunami poses very little ensemble risk compared to both local land and global scenarios.

  3. Spectral properties of near-Earth asteroids on cometary orbits (United States)

    Popescu, M.; Vaduvescu, O.; de Leon, J.; Boaca, I. L.; Gherase, R. M.; Nedelcu, D. A.; INT students, I. N. G.


    We studied the spectral distributions of near-Earth asteroids on cometary orbits (NEACOs) in order to identify potential dormant or extinct comets among these objects. We present the spectral observations for 19 NEACOs obtained with Isaac Newton Telescope and Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Although initially classified as asteroid, one of our targets - 2007 VA85 was confirmed to be active comet 333P/LINEAR on its 2016 appearance. We found that the NEACOs population is a mixing of different compositional classes.

  4. Spectral decomposition of asteroid Itokawa based on principal component analysis (United States)

    Koga, Sumire C.; Sugita, Seiji; Kamata, Shunichi; Ishiguro, Masateru; Hiroi, Takahiro; Tatsumi, Eri; Sasaki, Sho


    The heliocentric stratification of asteroid spectral types may hold important information on the early evolution of the Solar System. Asteroid spectral taxonomy is based largely on principal component analysis. However, how the surface properties of asteroids, such as the composition and age, are projected in the principal-component (PC) space is not understood well. We decompose multi-band disk-resolved visible spectra of the Itokawa surface with principal component analysis (PCA) in comparison with main-belt asteroids. The obtained distribution of Itokawa spectra projected in the PC space of main-belt asteroids follows a linear trend linking the Q-type and S-type regions and is consistent with the results of space-weathering experiments on ordinary chondrites and olivine, suggesting that this trend may be a space-weathering-induced spectral evolution track for S-type asteroids. Comparison with space-weathering experiments also yield a short average surface age (track, strongly suggesting that space weathering has begun saturated on this young asteroid. The freshest spectrum found on Itokawa exhibits a clear sign for space weathering, indicating again that space weathering occurs very rapidly on this body. We also conducted PCA on Itokawa spectra alone and compared the results with space-weathering experiments. The obtained results indicate that the first principal component of Itokawa surface spectra is consistent with spectral change due to space weathering and that the spatial variation in the degree of space weathering is very large (a factor of three in surface age), which would strongly suggest the presence of strong regional/local resurfacing process(es) on this small asteroid.

  5. The Big Splash: Tsunami from Large Asteroid and Comet Impacts (United States)

    Hills, J.; Goda, M.

    Asteroid and comet impacts produce a large range of damage. Tsunami may produce most of the economic damage in large asteroid impacts. Large asteroid impacts produce worldwide darkness lasting several months that may kill more people by mass starvation, especially in developing countries, than would tsunami, but the dust should not severely affect economic infrastructure. The tsunami may even kill more people in developed countries with large coastal populations, such as the United States, than the starvation resulting from darkness. We have been determining which regions of Earth are most susceptible to asteroid tsunami by simulating the effect of a large asteroid impact into mid-ocean. We have modeled the effect of midAtlantic and midPacific impacts that produce craters 300 to 150 km in diameter. A KT-size impactor would cause the larger of these craters. We used a computer code that has successfully determined the runup and inundation from historical earthquake-generated tsunami. The code has been progressively improved to eliminate previous problems at the domain boundaries, so it now runs until the tsunami inundation is complete. We find that the larger of these two midAtlantic impacts would engulf the entire Florida Peninsula. The smaller one would inundate the eastern third of the peninsula while a tsunami passing through the Gulf of Cuba would inundate the West Coast of Florida. Impacts at three different sites in the Pacific show the great vulnerability of Tokyo and its surroundings to asteroid tsunami. Mainland Asia is relatively protected from asteroid tsunami. In Europe, the Iberian Peninsula and the Atlantic Providences of France are highly vulnerable to asteroid tsunami.

  6. Monoclonal antibodies to Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis antigens.


    Jiménez, T; Díaz, A M; Zlotnik, H


    Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis whole-cell extracts were used as antigens to generate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Six stable hybrid cell lines secreting anti-Nocardia spp. MAbs were obtained. These were characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot (immunoblot), and immunofluorescence assay. Although all the MAbs exhibited different degrees of cross-reactivity with N. asteroides and N. brasiliensis antigens as well as with culture-filtrate antigens from Myco...

  7. Role of nerves in enteric infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spiller, R C


    Peripheral and central effects of enteric infection are considered. Nerves play a vital part in the immediate response to enteric infection, promoting pathogen expulsion by orchestrating intestinal secretion and propulsive motor patterns...

  8. The composition of the Eureka family of Martian Trojan asteroids (United States)

    Borisov, Galin; Christou, Apostolos; Bagnulo, Stefano


    The so-called Martian Trojan asteroids orbit the Sun just inside the terrestrial planet region. They are thought to date from the earliest period of the solar system's history (Scholl et al, Icarus, 2005). Recently, Christou (Icarus, 2013) identified an orbital concentration of Trojans, named the "Eureka" cluster after its largest member, 5261 Eureka. This asteroid belongs to the rare olivine-rich A taxonomic class (Rivkin et al, Icarus, 2007; Lim et al, DPS/EPSC 2011). Unlike asteroids belonging to other taxonomies (e.g. C or S), no orbital concentrations or families of A-types are currently known to exist. These asteroids may represent samples of the building blocks that came together to form Mars and the other terrestrial planets but have since been destroyed by collisions (Sanchez et al, Icarus, 2014, and references therein).We have used the X-SHOOTER echelle spectrograph on the ESO VLT KUEYEN to obtain vis-NIR reflectance spectra of asteroids in the cluster and test their genetic relationship to Eureka. During the presentation we will show the spectra, compare them with available spectra for Eureka itself and discuss the implications for the origin of this cluster and for other olivine-dominated asteroids in the Main Belt.Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla-Paranal Observatory under programme ID 296.C-5030 (PI: A. Christou). Astronomical Research at Armagh Observatory is funded by the Northern Ireland Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure (DCAL).

  9. Software Development for Asteroid and Variable Star Research (United States)

    Sweckard, Teaghen; Clason, Timothy; Kenney, Jessica; Wuerker, Wolfgang; Palser, Sage; Giles, Tucker; Linder, Tyler; Sanchez, Richard


    The process of collecting and analyzing light curves from variable stars and asteroids is almost identical. In 2016 a collaboration was created to develop a simple fundamental way to study both asteroids and variable stars using methods that would allow the process to be repeated by middle school and high school students.Using robotic telescopes at Cerro Tololo (Chile), Yerkes Observatory (US), and Stone Edge Observatory (US) data were collected on RV Del and three asteroids. It was discovered that the only available software program which could be easily installed on lab computers was MPO Canopus. However, after six months it was determined that MPO Canopus was not an acceptable option because of the steep learning curve, lack of documentation and technical support.Therefore, the project decided that the best option was to design our own python based software. Using python and python libraries we developed code that can be used for photometry and can be easily changed to the user's needs. We accomplished this by meeting with our mentor astronomer, Tyler Linder, and in the beginning wrote two different programs, one for asteroids and one for variable stars. In the end, though, we chose to combine codes so that the program would be capable of performing photometry for both moving and static objects.The software performs differential photometry by comparing the magnitude of known reference stars to the object being studied. For asteroids, the image timestamps are used to obtain ephemeris of the asteroid from JPL Horizons automatically.

  10. The effect of asteroid topography on surface ablation deflection (United States)

    McMahon, Jay W.; Scheeres, Daniel J.


    Ablation techniques for deflecting hazardous asteroids deposit energy into the asteroid's surface, causing an effective thrust on the asteroid as the ablating material leaves normal to the surface. Although it has long been recognized that surface topography plays an important role in determining the deflection capabilities, most studies to date have ignored this aspect of the model. This paper focuses on understanding the topography for real asteroid shapes, and how this topography can change the deflection performance of an ablation technique. The near Earth asteroids Golevka, Bennu, and Itokawa are used as the basis for this study, as all three have high-resolution shape models available. This paper shows that naive targeting of an ablation method without accounting for the surface topography can lower the deflection performance by up to 20% in the cases studied in terms of the amount of acceleration applied in the desired direction. If the ablation thrust level is assumed to be 100 N, as used elsewhere in the literature, this misapplication of thrust translates to tens of kilometers per year in decreased semimajor axis change. However, if the ablation method can freely target any visible point on the surface of the asteroid, almost all of this performance can be recovered.

  11. Periodic motion near non-principal-axis rotation asteroids (United States)

    Shang, Haibin; Wu, Xiaoyu; Qin, Xiao; Qiao, Dong


    The periodic motion near non-principal-axis (NPA) rotation asteroids is proved to be markedly different from that near uniformly rotating bodies due to the complex spin state with precession, raising challenges in terms of the theoretical implications of dynamical systems. This paper investigates the various periodic motions near the typical NPA asteroid 4179 Toutatis, which will contribute to the understanding of the dynamical environments near the widespread asteroids in the Solar system. A novel method with the incorporation of the ellipsoid-mascon gravitational field model and global optimization is developed to efficiently locate periodic solutions in the system. The numerical results indicate that abundant periodic orbits appear near the NPA asteroids. These various orbits are theoretically classified into five topological types with special attention paid to the cycle stability. Although the concept of classical family disappears in our results, some orbits with the same topological structure constitute various generalized `families' as the period increases. Among these `families' a total of 4 kinds of relationships between orbits, including rotation, evolution, distortion and quasi-symmetry, are found to construct the global mapping of these types. To cover the rotation statuses of various NPA asteroids, this paper also discusses the variation of periodic orbits with diverse asteroid spin rates, showing that the scales of some orbits expand, shrink or almost annihilate as the system period changes; meanwhile, their morphology and topology remain unchanged.

  12. Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition


    Seres, David S.; Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra


    It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition.

  13. Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition (United States)

    Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra


    It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition. PMID:23503324

  14. Science case for the Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM): A component of the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission (United States)

    Michel, Patrick; Cheng, A.; Küppers, M.; Pravec, P.; Blum, J.; Delbo, M.; Green, S. F.; Rosenblatt, P.; Tsiganis, K.; Vincent, J. B.; Biele, J.; Ciarletti, V.; Hérique, A.; Ulamec, S.; Carnelli, I.; Galvez, A.; Benner, L.; Naidu, S. P.; Barnouin, O. S.; Richardson, D. C.; Rivkin, A.; Scheirich, P.; Moskovitz, N.; Thirouin, A.; Schwartz, S. R.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Yu, Y.


    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is a joint cooperation between European and US space agencies that consists of two separate and independent spacecraft that will be launched to a binary asteroid system, the near-Earth asteroid Didymos, to test the kinetic impactor technique to deflect an asteroid. The European Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is set to rendezvous with the asteroid system to fully characterize the smaller of the two binary components a few months prior to the impact by the US Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft. AIM is a unique mission as it will be the first time that a spacecraft will investigate the surface, subsurface, and internal properties of a small binary near-Earth asteroid. In addition it will perform various important technology demonstrations that can serve other space missions. The knowledge obtained by this mission will have great implications for our understanding of the history of the Solar System. Having direct information on the surface and internal properties of small asteroids will allow us to understand how the various processes they undergo work and transform these small bodies as well as, for this particular case, how a binary system forms. Making these measurements from up close and comparing them with ground-based data from telescopes will also allow us to calibrate remote observations and improve our data interpretation of other systems. With DART, thanks to the characterization of the target by AIM, the mission will be the first fully documented impact experiment at asteroid scale, which will include the characterization of the target's properties and the outcome of the impact. AIDA will thus offer a great opportunity to test and refine our understanding and models at the actual scale of an asteroid, and to check whether the current extrapolations of material strength from laboratory-scale targets to the scale of AIDA's target are valid. Moreover, it will offer a first check of the

  15. Asteroid Sample Return Missions of Japan : Past, Present, and Future (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Makoto

    In Japan, sample return mission from asteroids is regarded as one of the most important space missions for both science and engineering. Therefore, we had done Hayabusa mission, which is the first asteroid sample return mission in the world. The second asteroid sample return mission Hayabusa2 is now preparing and it will be launched soon. Hayabusa and Hayabusa2 are very challenging missions, but a much more challenging mission is now under consideration. That is a sample return mission from a Jupiter Trojan asteroid by a solar power sail. In this paper, we report the current status of these three missions. Hayabusa was launched in May 2003, arrived at its target asteroid (25143) Itokawa in September 2005, and came back to the Earth in June 2010. After seven-year space trip, Hayabusa was successful to bring back the surface material of Itokawa, although the amount of the sample was much less than that was expected. We constructed the curation facility in JAXA Sagamihara Campus, and we have picked up about 400 particles from the sample catcher up to now. In 2012 and 2013, we had two international AOs (Announcement of Opportunity) of Itokawa particles, and we distributed the samples to about 30 research groups all over the world. Many results of the sample analysis have already been reported and the analyses are still going on. From a few years before the earth return of Hayabusa, we started considering the next asteroid sample return mission, Hayabusa2. Hayabusa was a mission for engineering, but Hayabusa2 focuses also on the science. The scientific purpose of Hayabusa2 is to know the origin and evolution of the solar system, especially the origin of water and organic matters. It is considered that C-type asteroids contain more organic matters and hydrated minerals than S-type asteroids like Itokawa. Therefore, C-type asteroid (162173) 1999 JU3 was selected as the target. From the technological point of view, the purpose of Hayabusa2 is to make more reliable and

  16. Large Halloween asteroid at lunar distance (United States)

    Müller, T. G.; Marciniak, A.; Butkiewicz-Bąk, M.; Duffard, R.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Käufl, H. U.; Szakáts, R.; Santana-Ros, T.; Kiss, C.; Santos-Sanz, P.


    The near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 2015 TB145 had a very close encounter with Earth at 1.3 lunar distances on October 31, 2015. We obtained 3-band mid-infrared observations of this asteroid with the ESO VLT-VISIR instrument covering approximately four hours in total. We also monitored the visual lightcurve during the close-encounter phase. The NEA has a (most likely) rotation period of 2.939 ± 0.005 h and the visual lightcurve shows a peak-to-peak amplitude of approximately 0.12 ± 0.02 mag. A second rotation period of 4.779 ± 0.012 h, with an amplitude of the Fourier fit of 0.10 ± 0.02 mag, also seems compatible with the available lightcurve measurements. We estimate a V-R colour of 0.56 ± 0.05 mag from different entries in the MPC database. A reliable determination of the object's absolute magnitude was not possible. Applying different phase relations to the available R-/V-band observations produced HR = 18.6 mag (standard H-G calculations) or HR = 19.2 mag and HV = 19.8 mag (via the H-G12 procedure for sparse and low-quality data), with large uncertainties of approximately 1 mag. We performed a detailed thermophysical model analysis by using spherical and partially also ellipsoidal shape models. The thermal properties are best explained by an equator-on (±≈30°) viewing geometry during our measurements with a thermal inertia in the range 250-700 J m-2 s-0.5 K-1 (retrograde rotation) or above 500 J m-2 s-0.5 K-1 (prograde rotation). We find that the NEA has a minimum size of approximately 625 m, a maximum size of just below 700 m, and a slightly elongated shape with a/b ≈ 1.1. The best match to all thermal measurements is found for: (I) thermal inertia Γ = 900 J m-2 s-0.5 K-1; Deff = 644 m, pV = 5.5% (prograde rotation with 2.939 h); regolith grain sizes of ≈50-100 mm; (II) thermal inertia Γ = 400 J m-2 s-0.5 K-1; Deff = 667 m, pV = 5.1% (retrograde rotation with 2.939 h); regolith grain sizes of ≈10-20 mm. A near-Earth asteroid model (NEATM) confirms

  17. Spectroscopy of asteroid pairs - new observations support previous conclusions (United States)

    Polishook, David; Oszkiewicz, Dagmara Anna; None Kwiatkowski, Tomasz


    Asteroid pairs were split due to fast rotation of a strengthless body. Study them can reveal fundamental principles in asteroid interiors and evolution. We continue our spectroscopic survey of asteroid pairs in the near-IR range (IRTF) and work on completing the spectral coverage in the visible wavelength (SALT, NOT).Our new observations support our previous conclusions (Polishook et al. 2014):1. Primary and secondary members have very similar reflectance spectra supporting the claim that every pair originated from a single progenitor. We measured 2 more pairs that present the same taxonomy (4905-7813, 15107-291188). This increases to 22 the number of asteroid pairs with spectral similarities and supports the claim of a single progenitor for each pair to a significance of over 5 sigma.2. Rotational fission is not a function of the asteroid composition rather the asteroid’s structure. We present new reflectance spectra of S- and C-complex pairs that differ in their composition.3. Some asteroid pairs present spectral parameters that imply a fresh, non-weathered surface. This includes spectral slope, and a deep and wide absorption band at 1 micron. Among these, the asteroid 8306 can now be re-classified as a Q-type asteroid, a common class in the near-Earth environment, but rare in the main belt. 8306 is the 4th Q-type discovered within asteroid pairs (all locate in the main belt).4. A secondary member of an asteroid pair composed of ordinary chondrite (S-complex) might present a reflectance spectrum with lower spectral slope compared to its primary member. This is seen in the new measured reflectance spectrum of secondary 291188). This result supports the theory of Jacobson & Scheeres (2011) of continuous disintegration of the secondaries while still in the vicinity of their primaries.5. With time, the fresh surface becomes weathered. Dynamical calculations limit the disintegration time of the progenitor of the pair 4905-7813 to 1.65 millions years ago, what makes

  18. OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission Image Analysis (United States)

    Chevres Fernandez, Lee Roger; Bos, Brent


    NASA’s Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission constitutes the “first-of-its-kind” project to thoroughly characterize a near-Earth asteroid. The selected asteroid is (101955) 1999 RQ36 (a.k.a. Bennu). The mission launched in September 2016, and the spacecraft will reach its asteroid target in 2018 and return a sample to Earth in 2023. The spacecraft that will travel to, and collect a sample from, Bennu has five integrated instruments from national and international partners. NASA's OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission spacecraft includes the Touch-And-Go Camera System (TAGCAMS) three camera-head instrument. The purpose of TAGCAMS is to provide imagery during the mission to facilitate navigation to the target asteroid, confirm acquisition of the asteroid sample and document asteroid sample stowage. Two of the TAGCAMS cameras, NavCam 1 and NavCam 2, serve as fully redundant navigation cameras to support optical navigation and natural feature tracking. The third TAGCAMS camera, StowCam, provides imagery to assist with and confirm proper stowage of the asteroid sample. Analysis of spacecraft imagery acquired by the TAGCAMS during cruise to the target asteroid Bennu was performed using custom codes developed in MATLAB. Assessment of the TAGCAMS in-flight performance using flight imagery was done to characterize camera performance. One specific area of investigation that was targeted was bad pixel mapping. A recent phase of the mission, known as the Earth Gravity Assist (EGA) maneuver, provided images that were used for the detection and confirmation of “questionable” pixels, possibly under responsive, using image segmentation analysis. Ongoing work on point spread function morphology and camera linearity and responsivity will also be used for calibration purposes and further analysis in preparation for proximity operations around Bennu. Said analyses will provide a broader understanding

  19. The first confirmation of V-type asteroids among the Mars crosser population


    Ribeiro, A. O.; Roig, F.; Cañada-Assandri, M.; Carvano, J. M. F.; Jasmin, F. L.; Alvarez-Candal, A.; Gil-Hutton, R.


    The Mars crossing region constitutes a path to deliver asteroids from the Inner Main Belt to the Earth crossing space. While both the Inner Main Belt and the population of Earth crossing asteroids contains a significant fraction of asteroids belonging to the V taxonomic class, only two of such V-type asteroids has been detected in the Mars crossing region up to now. In this work, we searched for asteroids belonging to the V class among the population of Mars crossing asteroids, in order to su...

  20. AsteroidFinder - the space-borne telescope to search for NEO Asteroids (United States)

    Hartl, M.; Mosebach, H.; Schubert, J.; Michaelis, H.; Mottola, S.; Kührt, E.; Schindler, K.


    This paper presents the mission profile as well as the optical configuration of the space-borne AsteroidFinder telescope. Its main objective is to retrieve asteroids with orbits interior to the earth's orbit. The instrument requires high sensitivity to detect asteroids with a limiting magnitude of equal or larger than 18.5mag (V-Band) and astrometric accuracy of 1arcsec (1σ). This requires a telescope aperture greater than 400cm2, high image stability, detector with high quantum efficiency (peak > 90%) and very low noise, which is only limited by zodiacal background. The telescope will observe the sky between 30° and 60° in solar elongation. The telescope optics is based on a Cook type TMA. An effective 2°×2° field of view (FOV) is achieved by a fast F/3.4 telescope with near diffraction-limited performance. The absence of centre obscuration or spiders in combination with an accessible intermediate field plane and exit pupil allow for efficient stray light mitigation. Design drivers for the telescope are the required point spread function (PSF) values, an extremely efficient stray light suppression (due to the magnitude requirement mentioned above), the detector performance, and the overall optical and mechanical stability for all orientations of the satellite. To accommodate the passive thermal stabilization scheme and the necessary structural stability, the materials selection for the telescope main structure and the mirrors are of vital importance. A focal plane with four EMCCD detectors is envisaged. The EMCCD technology features shorter integration times, which is in favor regarding the pointing performance of the satellite. The launch of the mission is foreseen for the year 2013 with a subsequent mission lifetime of at least 1 year.

  1. Dealing with the Asteroid Impact Hazard (United States)

    Morrison, David


    The small fraction of the asteroids with Earth-crossing or Earth-approaching orbits is of special interest to us because many will eventually impact our planet. The time-averaged impact flux as a function of projectile energy can be derived from lunar cratering statistics, although we have little information on the possible variability of this flux over time. The effects of impacts of various energies can be modeled, using data from historic impacts (such as the KT impactor 65 million years ago), nuclear explosive testing, and the observed 1994 bombardment of Jupiter by fragments of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9. It is of particular interest to find from such models that the terrestrial environment is highly vulnerable to perturbation from impacts, so that even such a small event as the KT impact (by a projectile roughly 15 km in diameter) can lead to a mass extinction. Combining the impact flux with estimates of environmental and ecological effects reveals that the greatest contemporary hazard is associated with impactors near one million megatons energy. The current impact hazard is significant relative to other natural hazards, and arguments can be developed to illuminate a variety of public policy issues. These include the relative risk of different impact scenarios and the associated costs and probability of success of countermeasures. It is generally agreed that the first step is to survey and catalogue the thousand-or-so Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), and we review the status of the Spaceguard NEA Survey. We compare the efficiency of various ground and space-based approaches and consider the challenges of international coordination and the problems and opportunities associated with communicating the results with the press and the public. It is also important to reflect on how the impact hazard might be dealt with by both national governments and international decision-making bodies, and to anticipate ways of mitigating the danger if a NEA were located on an apparent

  2. Volatile Characterization on Near Earth Asteroids (United States)

    McGraw, Lauren; Emery, Joshua P.; Thomas, Cristina A.; Rivkin, Andrew S.; Wigton, Nathanael R.


    Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) are excellent laboratories for processes that affect the surfaces of airless bodies. Most NEAs are not expected to contain surface volatiles such as OH/H2O since they formed in the anhydrous regions of the solar system and since their surface temperatures are high enough to evaporate such volatiles. However, OH/H2O has been discovered on other seemingly dry bodies in the inner solar system, such as the Moon and Vesta. Possible sources for OH/H2O on these bodies include carbonaceous chondrite impacts and interactions with protons implanted by solar wind. NEAs should be subjected to the same processes as other “dry” bodies in the inner solar system so are hypothesized to also contain OH/H2O on their surfaces. We observed NEAs using SpeX on NASA’s Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Spectra were collected using both prism (0.7-2.52 µm) and LXD_short (1.67-4.2 µm) modes in order to accurately characterize asteroid type and the 3-µm region, where the OH/H2O signature is present. We have made 19 observations of 13 NEAs as part of this ongoing project, with five more observations scheduled for this Fall. Of those, at least 3 NEAs exhibit an absorption feature in the 3-µm region: (433) Eros, (1036) Ganymed, and (3122) Florence. Eros and Ganymed have both been observed multiple times and by multiple observers (e.g., Rivkin et al. 2017), including two observations of Eros in Fall 2016, and Florence will be observed again in early September. Of the other 10 NEAs studied, eight do not exhibit a 3-µm spectral feature. The spectra for 1998 XB and 2014 JO25 are too noisy to definitively determine the presence of volatiles. Characterizing the shape of the 3-µm absorption feature can yield information on the source of the OH/H2O on the surface. Shallow features that gradually slope upward towards the continuum, such as is present in the spectra of Eros and Ganymed, indicate the presence of OH, which is inferred to have formed

  3. IMPS albedo and diameter for Asteroid 243 Ida (United States)

    Veeder, G. J.; Tedesco, E. F.


    243 Ida is the second asteroid target of the Galileo mission. The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) detected Ida several times during its 1983 sky survey. The IRAS Minor Planet Survey (IMPS) yields a total of 13 usable observations during 6 sightings of Ida. These data result in a geometric visual albedo of 0.24 and a mean diameter of 28 km for Ida. The IMPS catalog updates and extends the IRAS Asteroid and Comet Survey through asteroid number 4679. File versions of IMPS final products will be available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). The input for IMPS processing includes updated visual absolute magnitudes and orbital elements for each asteroid. H and G are 9.94 and 0.15 for Ida. IMPS also includes a correction for low flux densities (less than approximately 1 Jansky). In the case of Ida, 3 observations at 12 microns, 6 at 25 microns, and 4 at 60 microns were considered acceptable for analysis. Most of these do have flux densities less than 1 Jansky with a value of approximately 5 for their estimated SNR. The 25 microns observations as plotted in the figure are consistent with the variation expected for the cross section of Ida with rotation. Ida is a main belt asteroid with an S taxonomic classification. The spectra of S asteroids tend to be dominated by pyroxene with visual albedos from 0.1 to 0.3. The IMPS average albedo of 0.24 (plus or minus 0.07) for 243 Ida is in the upper range observed for S asteroids.

  4. Discovery of a Satellite around a Near-Earth Asteroid (United States)


    In the course of the major observational programme of asteroids by the Institute of Planetary Exploration of the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) [1] in Berlin, two of the staff astronomers, Stefano Mottola and Gerhard Hahn , have discovered a small satellite (moon) orbiting the asteroid (3671) Dionysus. The new measurements were obtained with the DLR CCD Camera attached at the 60-cm Bochum telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory in Chile. This is only the second known case of an asteroid with a moon. Moons and planets Until recently, natural satellites were only known around the major planets . The Moon orbits the Earth, there are two tiny moons around Mars, each of the giant planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune has many more, and even the smallest and outermost, Pluto, is accompanied by one [2]. However, the new discovery now strengthens the belief of many astronomers that some, perhaps even a substantial number of the many thousands of minor planets (asteroids) in the solar system may also possess their own moons. The first discovery of a satellite orbiting an asteroid was made by the NASA Galileo spacecraft, whose imagery, obtained during a fly-by of asteroid (253) Ida in August 1993, unveiled a small moon that has since been given the name Dactyl. (3671) Dionysus: an Earth-crossing asteroid In the framework of the DLR asteroid monitoring programme, image sequences are acquired to measure an asteroid's brightness variations caused by the changing amount of sunlight reflected from the asteroid's illuminated surface as it spins, due to its irregular shape. The brightness variations may be used to derive the asteroid's rotational properties, such as speed of rotation and spin axis orientation. Asteroid Dionysus [3] was put on the observing list because it belongs to a special class of asteroids, the members of which occasionally come very close to the Earth and have a small, but non-negligible chance of colliding with our planet. Most of

  5. Asteroid hyalosis: clinical review of 58 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nuno Vargas Galveia


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Understand the behavior, functional repercussion and relationship with epidemiological factors of asteroid hyalosis (AH and retrospective observational case series. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients diagnosed with AH (24 women and 34 men were studied. All patients were submitted to a thorough ophthalmological examination. RESULTS: We observed a statistical association between the presence of AH and male sex (p=0,042. An increase in prevalence of this pathology was observed with increasing age. We determined an odds ration of 5,24 of a patient over 50 years old having AH, when compared to patients bellow this threshold. Eighty-six percent of patients had unilateral vitreous deposits. We measured a lower IOP in the affected eye, with the difference being in average 2,68 ± 1,45 mmHg (p=0,037. We observed no statistical association between AH and age related macular degeneration, diabetes or glaucoma. Five eyes were submitted to facoemulsification combined with pars plana vitrectomy with an average gain of 7 lines (Snellen in visual acuity (p=0,03. CONCLUSION: In our sample a clear association between AH, ageing and male sex was observed. The majority of patients had unilateral vitreous deposits. Vitrectomy in association with facoemulsification is a safe and effective intervention in this group of patients.

  6. Un asteroide proveniente de la Luna (United States)

    Tancredi, G.

    El descubrimiento de un débil objeto en movimiento por el telescopio Spacewatch (un instrumento dedicado a la búsqueda de Asteroides Cercanos a la Tierra) en 1991, ha generado una gran controversia en la comunidad planetaria. El objeto, denominado 1991 VG, tiene elementos orbitales llamativamente similares a los de la Tierra, lo que ha llevado a B. G. Marsden a aventurar:``El objeto podría ser una nave espacial en retorno (IAUC 5387)". Luego de analizar las características dinámicas de 1991 VG y las diferentes hipótesis sobre su origen, favorecemos la alternativa de que el objeto es un gran fragmento de material eyectado de la Luna durante un reciente impacto (en las últimas decenas de miles de años). El hallazgo en 1983 en la Antártida de meteoritos con composición tipo lunar, confirma la posibilidad de que material de la superficie del satélite puede ser eyectado a velocidades superiores a la de escape del sistema Tierra-Luna y alcance órbitas heliocéntricas. Los elementos orbitales de 1991 VG corresponden a los valores alcanzados por partículas que apenas escapan de la gravedad lunar y entran en órbitas heliocéntricas a través del punto Lagrangiano exterior del sistema Tierra-Sol.

  7. Enteral tube feeding in adults. (United States)

    Scott, R; Bowling, T E


    Enteral tube feeding is usually a relatively straightforward method of nutritional support, and should be facilitated by a multiprofessional team. For short-term use (tube is indicated but if longer term feeding is required then a gastrostomy is appropriate, usually inserted endoscopically (a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube). The most common serious complication of a nasogastric tube is not identifying a misplaced tube within the lungs: there are clear recommendations from the National Patient Safety Agency as to how to check tube placement. Nasojejunal tubes are required in patients with gastroparesis. Tube blockage is common and is prevented by careful and regular flushing. Diarrhoea is the most complication of feeding and is often related to other medication. Clinicians need an algorithm for systematically dealing with such a problem. Refeeding syndrome may occur in malnourished patients and is characterised by low levels of potassium, phosphate, and/or magnesium, as well as disorders of water and salt balance. Identifying the at-risk patient with careful monitoring is crucial.

  8. CERN openlab enters new phase

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony


    The newest phase of CERN’s openlab framework was inaugurated this week during a meeting of the openlab partners. This phase will last three years and will bring together existing openlab partners and a new contributor: Huawei.   Group picture taken at the first CERN openlab IV annual Board of Sponsors meeting, in the presence of the CERN Director-General, the partners and the openlab team members. © Fons Rademakers (CERN Photo Club). Eleven years ago, the creation of the CERN openlab created a long-term link between industrial partners and the Organization. Its framework has allowed industry to carry out large-scale IT research and development in an open atmosphere – an “Open Lab”, if you will. For CERN, openlab has contributed to giving the computing centre and, more broadly, the LHC community, the opportunity to ensure that the next generation of services and products is suitable to their needs. Now entering its fourth phase, openlab will ...

  9. Extending the enteric nervous system. (United States)

    Sbarbati, Andrea; Osculati, Francesco


    The work reviews the evidence suggesting that lingual components of the autonomic system may be considered the most rostral portion of the enteric nervous system (ENS) defining the concept of lingual ENS (LENS). The LENS is not dissimilar from the more distally located portions of the ENS, however, it is characterized by a massive sensory input generated by collaterals of gustatory and trigeminal fibers. The different neuronal subpopulations that compose the LENS operate reflexes involved in regulation of secretion and vasomotility. Systemic reflexes on the digestive and respiratory apparatus are operated by means of neural connections through the pharynx or larynx. The LENS can modulate the activity of distally located organs by means of the annexed glands.The LENS seems therefore to be a "chemical eye" located at the beginning of the digestive apparatus which analyses the foods before their ingestion and diffuses this information distally. The definition of the LENS supports the concept of an elevated degree of autonomy in the ENS and puts in a new light the role of the gustatory system in modulation of the digestive functions. For its characteristics, the LENS appears to be an ideal model to study the elementary connectivity of the ENS.

  10. Powerful New Technique to Measure Asteroids' Sizes and Shapes (United States)


    A team of French and Italian astronomers have devised a new method for measuring the size and shape of asteroids that are too small or too far away for traditional techniques, increasing the number of asteroids that can be measured by a factor of several hundred. This method takes advantage of the unique capabilities of ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). ESO PR Photo 04a/09 Asteroid Barbara (artist's impression) "Knowledge of the sizes and shapes of asteroids is crucial to understanding how, in the early days of our Solar System, dust and pebbles collected together to form larger bodies and how collisions and re-accumulation have since modified them," says Marco Delbo from the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France, who led the study. Direct imaging with adaptive optics on the largest ground-based telescopes such as the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile (see ESO 21/05 and 18/07), and space telescopes, or radar measurements (ESO 11/07) are the currently favoured methods of asteroid measurement. However, direct imaging, even with adaptive optics, is generally limited to the one hundred largest asteroids of the main belt, while radar measurements are mostly constrained to observations of near-Earth asteroids that experience close encounters with our planet. Delbo and his colleagues have devised a new method that uses interferometry to resolve asteroids as small as about 15 km in diameter located in the main asteroid belt, 200 million kilometres away. This is equivalent to being able to measure the size of a tennis ball a distance of a thousand kilometres. This technique will not only increase the number of objects that can be measured dramatically, but, more importantly, bring small asteroids that are physically very different from the well studied larger ones into reach. The interferometric technique combines the light from two or more telescopes. Astronomers proved their method using ESO's VLTI, combining the light of two of the VLT's 8.2-metre

  11. The Calar Alto Serendipitous Asteroid Discovery and Observation program --- CASADO (United States)

    Hellmich, S.; Debschütz, L.; Hafemeister, L.; Gerull, O.; Proffe, G.; Mottola, S.; Hahn, G.


    In the past years much effort was put into programs for asteroid discovery. Large-scale programs like LINEAR[1] and Catalina Sky Survey were introduced and powerful telescopes like Pan-STARRS[3] were built only for the purpose of finding asteroids, to name just a few. Thus, the rate of asteroid discoveries literally exploded. Although by far the largest number of observations is done by the big surveys also smaller observation programs can provide valuable data. Telescopes, whether they hunt asteroids or do other tasks, image them all the time. By searching the images for serendipitously observed asteroids one can contribute to refine orbits of already known asteroids, find new objects and sometimes even determine basic physical properties which are unknown for most of the known asteroids. In October 2012 we started CASADO, a program for secondary usage of the data collected within a long term observation program carried out at the 1.23m telescope at Calar Alto. The telescope is equipped with a 4k by 4k CCD covering a field of view of about 22 by 22 arcmin. We use the telescope for 100 nights per year mainly for photometric observations of Jupiter Trojans[4] but also main-belt objects, satellites of Jupiter and comets are sometimes observed. In a typical observation campaign, we focus on about 15 to 20 minor bodies of which we repetitively observe 10 to 15 during a single night. To search the fields for serendipitously-observed objects we implemented a semi-automated software which performs the astrometric calibration, searches the images for moving objects, identifies already known asteroids and prepares MPC reports. By calculating preliminary orbital elements for the newly-discovered objects using OpenOrb[2] we are also able to compute ephemeris and reliably link the observations of these objects over multiple nights. Not only do we process the images of ongoing campaigns, but also went back in time to July 2011. While the astrometry of the objects which have

  12. Dust arcs in the region of Jupiter's Trojan asteroids (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Schmidt, Jürgen


    Aims: The surfaces of the Trojan asteroids are steadily bombarded by interplanetary micrometeoroids, which releases ejecta of small dust particles. These particles form the faint dust arcs that are associated with asteroid clouds. Here we analyze the particle dynamics and structure of the arc in the region of the L4 Trojan asteroids. Methods: We calculate the total cross section of the L4 Trojan asteroids and the production rate of dust particles. The motion of the particles is perturbed by a variety of forces. We simulate the dynamical evolution of the dust particles, and explore the overall features of the Trojan dust arc. Results: The simulations show that the arc is mainly composed of grains in the size range 4-10 microns. Compared to the L4 Trojan asteroids, the dust arc is distributed more widely in the azimuthal direction, extending to a range of [30, 120] degrees relative to Jupiter. The peak number density does not develop at L4. There exist two peaks that are azimuthally displaced from L4.

  13. Polarimetry: a primary tool for the physical characterization of asteroids (United States)

    Cellino, A.; Bagnulo, S.


    Asteroid polarimetry has taken profit in recent years of a renewed interest triggered by exciting results from observing campaigns and theoretical studies. One of the most important applications of polarimetry to asteroid studies is the derivation of the geometric albedo and of the typical sizes of the particles forming the regolith layer covering the surface. Moreover, the serendipitous discovery of a new class of asteroids displaying unusual polarimetric properties, the so-called "Barbarians", has been followed by increasing evidence that these objects can be extremely primitive and may be interpreted as remnants of the very first generation of solid bodies accreted in the inner Solar System. In addition, some results of asteroid polarimetry are going to be interpreted, for the first time, in terms of some "ground truth" evidence, made possible by in situ observations of the surface of the asteroid (4) Vesta by the Dawn space probe. Finally, some preliminary evidence suggests that spectro-polarimetry is going to become a major tool for the physical characterization of the small bodies of the solar system.

  14. The impact and recovery of asteroid 2008 TC(3). (United States)

    Jenniskens, P; Shaddad, M H; Numan, D; Elsir, S; Kudoda, A M; Zolensky, M E; Le, L; Robinson, G A; Friedrich, J M; Rumble, D; Steele, A; Chesley, S R; Fitzsimmons, A; Duddy, S; Hsieh, H H; Ramsay, G; Brown, P G; Edwards, W N; Tagliaferri, E; Boslough, M B; Spalding, R E; Dantowitz, R; Kozubal, M; Pravec, P; Borovicka, J; Charvat, Z; Vaubaillon, J; Kuiper, J; Albers, J; Bishop, J L; Mancinelli, R L; Sandford, S A; Milam, S N; Nuevo, M; Worden, S P


    In the absence of a firm link between individual meteorites and their asteroidal parent bodies, asteroids are typically characterized only by their light reflection properties, and grouped accordingly into classes. On 6 October 2008, a small asteroid was discovered with a flat reflectance spectrum in the 554-995 nm wavelength range, and designated 2008 TC(3) (refs 4-6). It subsequently hit the Earth. Because it exploded at 37 km altitude, no macroscopic fragments were expected to survive. Here we report that a dedicated search along the approach trajectory recovered 47 meteorites, fragments of a single body named Almahata Sitta, with a total mass of 3.95 kg. Analysis of one of these meteorites shows it to be an achondrite, a polymict ureilite, anomalous in its class: ultra-fine-grained and porous, with large carbonaceous grains. The combined asteroid and meteorite reflectance spectra identify the asteroid as F class, now firmly linked to dark carbon-rich anomalous ureilites, a material so fragile it was not previously represented in meteorite collections.

  15. Asteroid astrometry with Gaia: stellar occultations and beyond (United States)

    Tanga, Paolo; Spoto, Federica; Hestroffer, Daniel; Altmann, Martin; Bouquillon, Sebastien; Desmars, Josselin


    The first data release of star astrometry by Gaia (Sept. 2016) has given an anticipation of the mission capabilities. By providing positions with uncertainties at the level of few milli-arcsec (mas) a new frame to calibrate ground-based observations has immediately become available, thus disclosing a new possibility of exploitation for archive data. We will discuss, in particular, the new role of stellar occulations.Successful observations of occultations have been used in the past to provide accurate shape and size of the targets and to calibrate other size determination methods. Now, a new possibility of exploitation exists, as occultation astrometry provides the possibility of measuring precise asteroid position, at the level of Gaia accuracy. This approach will have an increasing impact, also thanks to the much improved prediction accuracy that Gaia is going to provide, for smaller asteroids and fainter target stars.The scientific goals of improving asteroid astrometry are multiple. For instance, reaching sensitivity to Yarkovsky drift in the Main Belt might become possible, by occultation astrometry performed on smaller asteroids, thanks to future Gaia predictions.The second data release (April 2018) will also contain astrometry of asteroids observed directly by Gaia. The properties of this new data set, that will permit direct orbit improvement, will be illustrated.

  16. Constraining Binary Asteroid Mass Distributions Based On Mutual Motion (United States)

    Davis, Alex B.; Scheeres, Daniel J.


    The mutual gravitational potential and torques of binary asteroid systems results in a complex coupling of attitude and orbital motion based on the mass distribution of each body. For a doubly-synchronous binary system observations of the mutual motion can be leveraged to identify and measure the unique mass distributions of each body. By implementing arbitrary shape and order computation of the full two-body problem (F2BP) equilibria we study the influence of asteroid asymmetries on separation and orientation of a doubly-synchronous system. Additionally, simulations of binary systems perturbed from doubly-synchronous behavior are studied to understand the effects of mass distribution perturbations on precession and nutation rates such that unique behaviors can be isolated and used to measure asteroid mass distributions. We apply our investigation to the Trojan binary asteroid system 617 Patroclus and Menoetius (1906 VY), which will be the final flyby target of the recently announced LUCY Discovery mission in March 2033. This binary asteroid system is of particular interest due to the results of a recent stellar occultation study (DPS 46, id.506.09) that suggests the system to be doubly-synchronous and consisting of two-similarly sized oblate ellipsoids, in addition to suggesting the presence mass asymmetries resulting from an impact crater on the southern limb of Menoetius.

  17. Compositional Variation in Large-Diameter Low-Albedo asteroids (United States)

    Vilas, F.; Jarvis, K. S.; Thibault, C. A.; Sawyer, S. R.


    Age dating of meteorites indicates that the Solar System was subjected to a major heating event 4.5 Gyr ago. Models of the effects of heating by electromagnetic induction or decay of short-lived radionuclides combined with models of the early collisional history of the Solar System after Jupiter's formation indicate that asteroids observed today can be divided into two groups by diameter. Those asteroids having diameters greater than 100 km were mixed by multiple collisions but remain as gravitationally bound rubble piles. Asteroids with diameters less than 100 km should show more compositional diversity. Vilas and Sykes (1996, Icarus, 124) have shown using ECAS photometry that this compositional difference exists. The larger diameter group should be individually homogenous, with spectral differences showing the combined effects of a primordial compositional gradient in the asteroid belt with thermal metamorphism. We address the significance of 36 rotationally-resolved spectra of larger-diameter low-albedo asteroids of the C class (and subclasses B, F, G) and P class in the visible and Near-IR spectral regions. This work was supported by the NASA Planetary Astronomy program.

  18. Candidate Binary Trojan and Hilda Asteroids from Rotational Light Curves (United States)

    Sonnett, Sarah M.; Mainzer, Amy K.; Grav, Tommy; Masiero, Joseph R.; Bauer, James M.; Kramer, Emily A.


    Jovian Trojans (hereafter, Trojans) are asteroids in stable orbits at Jupiter's L4 and L5 Lagrange points, and Hilda asteroids are inwards of the Trojans in 3:2 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter. Due to their special dynamical properties, observationally constraining the formation location and dynamical histories of Trojans and HIldas offers key input for giant planet migration models. A fundamental parameter in assessing formation location is the bulk density - with low-density objects associated with an ice-rich formation environment in the outer solar system and high-density objects typically linked to the warmer inner solar system. Bulk density can only be directly measured during a close fly-by or by determining the mutual orbits of binary asteroid systems. With the aim of determining densities for a statistically significant sample of Trojans and Hildas, we are undertaking an observational campaign to confirm and characterize candidate binary asteroids published in Sonnett et al. (2015). These objects were flagged as binary candidates because their large NEOWISE brightness variations imply shapes so elongated that they are not likely explained by a singular equilibrium rubble pile and instead may be two elongated, gravitationally bound asteroids. We are obtaining densely sampled rotational light curves of these possible binaries to search for light curve features diagnostic of binarity and to determine the orbital properties of any confirmed binary systems by modeling the light curve. We compare the We present an update on this follow-up campaign and comment on future steps.

  19. Hayabusa2 Sampler: Collection of Asteroidal Surface Material (United States)

    Sawada, Hirotaka; Okazaki, Ryuji; Tachibana, Shogo; Sakamoto, Kanako; Takano, Yoshinori; Okamoto, Chisato; Yano, Hajime; Miura, Yayoi; Abe, Masanao; Hasegawa, Sunao; Noguchi, Takaaki


    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) launched the asteroid exploration probe "Hayabusa2" in December 3rd, 2014, following the 1st Hayabusa mission. With technological and scientific improvements from the Hayabusa probe, we plan to visit the C-type asteroid 162137 Ryugu (1999 JU3), and to sample surface materials of the C-type asteroid that is likely to be different from the S-type asteroid Itokawa and contain more pristine materials, including organic matter and/or hydrated minerals, than S-type asteroids. We developed the Hayabusa2 sampler to collect a minimum of 100 mg of surface samples including several mm-sized particles at three surface locations without any severe terrestrial contamination. The basic configuration of the sampler design is mainly as same as the 1st Hayabusa (Yano et al. in Science, 312(5778):1350-1353, 2006), with several minor but important modifications based on lessons learned from the Hayabusa to fulfill the scientific requirements and to raise the scientific value of the returned samples.

  20. Equilibria near asteroids for solar sails with reflection control devices (United States)

    Gong, Shengping; Li, Junfeng


    Solar sails are well-suited for long-term, multiple-asteroid missions. The dynamics of solar sails near an asteroid have not yet been studied in detail. In this paper, out-of-plane artificial equilibria in a Sun-asteroid rotating frame and hovering points in a body-fixed rotating frame are studied (using a solar sail equipped with reflection control devices). First, the dynamics and the stability of out-of-plane artificial equilibria are studied as an elliptical restricted three body problem. Next, the body-fixed hovering problem is discussed as a two-body problem. Hovering flight is only possible for certain values of the latitude of the asteroid's orbit. In addition, the feasible range of latitudes is determined for each landmark on the asteroid's surface. The influence of the sail lightness number on the feasible range is also illustrated. Several special families of hovering points are discussed. These points include points above the equator and poles and points with an altitude equal to the radius of the synchronous orbit. In both of these types of problems, the solar sail (equipped with reflection control devices) can equilibrate over a large range of locations.

  1. Near-Earth Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM) Study (United States)

    Brophy, John R.; Muirhead, Brian


    The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) concept brings together the capabilities of the science, technology, and the human exploration communities on a grand challenge combining robotic and human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. This paper addresses the key aspects of this concept and the options studied to assess its technical feasibility. Included are evaluations of the expected number of potential targets, their expected discovery rate, the necessity to adequately characterize candidate mission targets, the process to capture a non-cooperative asteroid in deep space, and the power and propulsion technology required for transportation back to the Earth-Moon system. Viable options for spacecraft and mission designs are developed. Orbits for storing the retrieved asteroid that are stable for more than a hundred years, yet allow for human exploration and commercial utilization of a redirected asteroid, are identified. The study concludes that the key aspects of finding, capturing and redirecting an entire small, near-Earth asteroid to the Earth-Moon system by the first half of the next decade are technically feasible. The study was conducted from January 2013 through March 2013 by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in collaboration with Glenn Research Center (GRC), Johnson Space Center (JSC), Langley Research Center (LaRC), and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  2. The WISE Survey of the Albedo Distribution of Main Belt Asteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masiero, J.; Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Delbó, M.; Mueller, M.; WISE Team, [No Value


    Using date from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) we investigate the albedo distribution across the main belt of asteroids. When complete WISE will measure albedos and diameters for ~100,000 asteroids.

  3. Robotic Asteroid Prospector (RAP) Staged from L-1: Start of the Deep Space Economy Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objectives of the Robotic Asteroid Prospector (RAP) project are to examine and evaluate the feasibility of asteroid mining in terms of means, methods, and...

  4. [Enteral feeding tubes for critically ill patients]. (United States)

    Braun, J; Bein, T; Wiese, C H R; Graf, B M; Zausig, Y A


    The use of enteral feeding tubes is an important part of early enteral feeding in intensive care medicine. In other faculties with non-critically ill patients, such as (oncologic) surgery, neurology, paediatrics or even in palliative care medicine feeding tubes are used under various circumstances as a temporary or definite solution. The advantage of enteral feeding tubes is the almost physiologic administration of nutrition, liquids and medication. Enteral nutrition is thought to be associated with a reduced infection rate, increased mucosal function, improved immunologic function, reduced length of hospital stay and reduced costs. However, the insertion and use of feeding tubes is potentially dangerous and may be associated with life-threatening complications (bleeding, perforation, peritonitis, etc.). Therefore, the following article will give a summary of the different types of enteral feeding tubes and their range of application. Additionally, a critical look on indication and contraindication is given as well as how to insert an enteral feeding tube.

  5. Asteroid Pond Mineralogy: View from a Cognate Clast in LL3 NWA 8330 (United States)

    Zolensky, M.; Le, L.


    All asteroids surfaces imaged at the cm-scale reveal the presence of pond deposits. These ponds are important because it is likely all asteroid sample return missions will sample them, being the safest (very flat) places to touch down. Therefore, it is essential to understand the differences between the material at the pond surfaces and the host asteroid. Fortunately, some fine-grained cognate lithologies in chondrites show sedimentary features indicating that they sample asteroid ponds.

  6. Effect on the Reference Catalog System on the Asteroid Positions in the MPC Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maigurova, N.V.


    Full Text Available The results of analysis of the selected MPC asteroid positions are presented. Systematic errors in star positions, arising through the use of different reference catalogs, and astrometric weighting problems are discussed using observations of the 12 selected asteroids. The observational series for these asteroids include 30-year period obtained with Mykolaiv Zone Astrograph during 1960-1990. The analysis of the residuals (O-CRА,Dec of the selected asteroids has been performed.

  7. Galileo Photometry of Asteroid 951 Gaspra (United States)

    Helfenstein, P.; Veverka, J.; Thomas, P.C.; Simonelli, D.P.; Lee, P.; Klaasen, K.; Johnson, T.V.; Breneman, H.; Head, J.W.; Murchie, S.; Fanale, F.; Robinson, M.; Clark, B.; Granahan, J.; Garbeil, H.; McEwen, A.S.; Kirk, R.L.; Davies, M.; Neukum, G.; Mottola, S.; Wagner, R.; Belton, M.; Chapman, C.; Pilcher, C.


    Galileo images of Gaspra make it possible for the first time to determine a main-belt asteroid's photometric properties accurately by providing surface-resolved coverage over a wide range of incidence and emission angles and by extending the phase angle coverage to phases not observable from Earth. We combine Earth-based telescopic photometry over phase angles 2?? ??? ?? ??? 25?? with Galileo whole-disk and disk-resolved data at 33?? ??? ?? ??? 51?? to derive average global photometric properties in terms of Hapke's photometric model. The microscopic texture and particle phase-function behavior of Gaspra's surface are remarkably like those of other airless rocky bodies such as the Moon. The macroscopic surface roughness parameter, ??̄ = 29??, is slightly larger than that reported for typical lunar materials. The particle single scattering albedo, ??́0 = 0.36 ?? 0.07, is significantly larger than for lunar materials, and the opposition surge amplitude, B0 = 1.63 ?? 0.07, is correspondingly smaller. We determine a visual geometric albedo pv = 0.22 ?? 0.06 for Gaspra, in close agreement with pv = 0.22 ?? 0.03 estimated from Earth-based observations. Gaspra's phase integral is 0.47, and the bolometric Bond albedo is estimated to be 0.12 ?? 0.03. An albedo map derived by correcting Galileo images with our average global photometric function reveals subdued albedo contrasts of ??10% or less over Gaspra's northern hemisphere. Several independent classification algorithms confirm the subtle spectral heterogeneity reported earlier (S. Mottola, M. DiMartino, M. Gonano-Beurer, H. Hoffman, and G. Neukum, 1993, Asteroids, Comets, Meteors, pp. 421-424; M. J. S. Belton et al., 1992, Science 257, 1647-1652). Whole-disk colors (0.41 ??? ?? ??? 0.99 ??m) vary systematically with longitude by about ??5%, but color differences as large as 30% occur locally. Colors vary continuously between end-member materials whose areal distribution correlates with regional topography. Infrared

  8. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Asteroid(4) Vesta (United States)

    Li, Jian-Yang; Bodewits, Dennis; Feaga, Lori M.; Landsman, Wayne; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Mutchler, Max J.; Russell, Christopher T.; McFadden, Lucy A.; Raymond, Carol A.


    We report a comprehensive review of the UV-visible spectrum and rotational lightcurve of Vesta combining new observations by Hubble Space Telescope and Swift with archival International Ultraviolet Explorer observations. The geometric albedos of Vesta from 220 nm to 953 nm arc derived by carefully comparing these observations from various instruments at different times and observing geometries. Vesta has a rotationally averaged geometric albedo of 0.09 at 250 nm, 0.14 at 300 nm, 0.26 at 373 nm, 0.38 at 673 nm, and 0.30 at 950 nm. The linear spectral slope in the ultraviolet displays a sharp minimum ncar sub-Earth longitude of 20deg, and maximum in the eastern hemisphere. This is completely consistent with the distribution of the spectral slope in the visible wavelength. The uncertainty of the measurement in the ultraviolet is approx.20%, and in the visible wavelengths better than 10%. The amplitude of Vesta's rotational lightcurves is approx.10% throughout the range of wavelengths we observed, but is smaller at 950 nm (approx.6%) ncar the 1-micron mafic band center. Contrary to earlier reports, we found no evidence for any difference between the phasing of the ultraviolet and visible/ncar-infrared lightcurves with respect to sub-Earth longitude. Vesta's average spectrum between 220 and 950 nm can well be described by measured reflectance spectra of fine particle howardite-like materials of basaltic achondrite meteorites. Combining this with the in-phase behavior of the ultraviolet, visible. and ncar-infrared lightcurves, and the spectral slopes with respect to the rotational phase, we conclude that there is no global ultraviolet/visible reversal on Vesta. Consequently, this implies lack of global space weathering on Vesta. Keyword,: Asteroid Vesta; Spectrophotometry; Spectroscopy; Ultraviolet observations; Hubble Space Telescope observations

  9. Application and Preparation of Enteric Coating Materials (United States)

    Zhou, M. M.; Wang, L.; Zhang, X. L.; Zhou, H. J.; Chen, X. Q.; Li, Y. T.; Yang, S. L.


    In this paper, polymethacrylate enteric coated materials based on the equal mass of methyl acrylic acid and ethyl acrylate as the main raw materials were synthesized through emulsion polymerization. Omeprazole Enteric-coated Capsules were prepared by the fluidized bed coating technology using above materials as enteric layer and in vitro enteric test was considered according to standard. The results showed that the material had good coverage in the surface of omeprazole isolated pellets, excellent acid resistance in artificial gastric acid environment, and reached the disintegration effect in the buffer solution of 20min. Moreover the drug release reached 88.2% and had excellent long-term storage.

  10. An Investigation of the Ranges of Validity of Asteroid Thermal Models for Near-Earth Asteroid Observations (United States)

    Mommert, M.; Jedicke, R.; Trilling, D. E.


    The majority of known asteroid diameters are derived from thermal-infrared observations. Diameters are derived using asteroid thermal models that approximate their surface temperature distributions and compare the measured thermal-infrared flux with model-dependent predictions. The most commonly used thermal model is the Near-Earth Asteroid Thermal Model (NEATM), which is usually perceived as superior to other models like the Fast-Rotating Model (FRM). We investigate the applicability of the NEATM and the FRM to thermal-infrared observations of Near-Earth Objects using synthetic asteroids with properties based on the real Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) population. We find the NEATM to provide more accurate diameters and albedos than the FRM in most cases, with a few exceptions. The modeling results are barely affected by the physical properties of the objects, but we find a large impact of the solar phase angle on the modeling results. We conclude that the NEATM provides statistically more robust diameter estimates for NEAs observed at solar phase angles less than ∼65°, while the FRM provides more robust diameter estimates for solar phase angles greater than ∼65°. We estimate that <5% of all NEA diameters and albedos derived up to date are affected by systematic effects that are of the same order of magnitude as the typical thermal model uncertainties. We provide statistical correction functions for diameters and albedos derived using the NEATM and FRM as a function of solar phase angle.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, C. R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Kramer, E.; Sonnett, S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wright, E. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States)


    The rapid accumulation of thermal infrared observations and shape models of asteroids has led to increased interest in thermophysical modeling. Most of these infrared observations are unresolved. We consider what fraction of an asteroid’s surface area contributes the bulk of the emitted thermal flux for two model asteroids of different shapes over a range of thermal parameters. The resulting observed surface in the infrared is generally more fragmented than the area observed in visible wavelengths, indicating high sensitivity to shape. For objects with low values of the thermal parameter, small fractions of the surface contribute the majority of thermally emitted flux. Calculating observed areas could enable the production of spatially resolved thermal inertia maps from non-resolved observations of asteroids.

  12. Asteroid Observations with NCSFCT’s AZT-8 Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhukhov, O.M.


    Full Text Available The asteroid observations of the small Solar System bodies were carried out with the AZT-8 telescope (D=0.7 m, f/4 of the National Center of Space Facilities Control and Testing (NCSFCT during 2010-2013. The telescope is located near Yevpatoria, the observatory code according IAU is B17. The observational program included perturbed main belt asteroids and NEO’s for the GAIA FUN-SSO Company. The MPC database contains more than 4500 asteroids positions and magnitudes obtained during this period at AZT-8 telescope. The article presents analysis of the positional accuracy of B17 observations obtained from the comparison with the JPL HORIZONS ephemeris, and data from AstDyS-2 and NEODyS-2 web services.

  13. Contribution of Asteroid Generated Tsunami to the Impact Hazard (United States)

    Morrison, David; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj


    The long-standing uncertainty about the importance of asteroid-generated tsunami was addressed at a workshop in August 2016, co-sponsored by NASA and NOAA. Experts from NASA, NOAA, the DoE tri-labs (LLNL, SNL, and LANL), DHS, FEMA, and academia addressed the hazard of tsunami created by asteroid impacts, focusing primarily on NEAs with diameter less than 250m. Participants jointly identified key issues and shared information for nearly a year to coordinate their results for discussion at the workshop. They used modern computational tools to examine 1) Near-field wave generation by the impact; 2) Long-distance wave propagation; 3) Damage from coastal run-up and inundation, and associated hazard. The workshop resulted in broad consensus that the asteroid impact tsunami threat is not as great as previously thought.

  14. The violent collisional history of asteroid 4 Vesta. (United States)

    Marchi, S; McSween, H Y; O'Brien, D P; Schenk, P; De Sanctis, M C; Gaskell, R; Jaumann, R; Mottola, S; Preusker, F; Raymond, C A; Roatsch, T; Russell, C T


    Vesta is a large differentiated rocky body in the main asteroid belt that accreted within the first few million years after the formation of the earliest solar system solids. The Dawn spacecraft extensively imaged Vesta's surface, revealing a collision-dominated history. Results show that Vesta's cratering record has a strong north-south dichotomy. Vesta's northern heavily cratered terrains retain much of their earliest history. The southern hemisphere was reset, however, by two major collisions in more recent times. We estimate that the youngest of these impact structures, about 500 kilometers across, formed about 1 billion years ago, in agreement with estimates of Vesta asteroid family age based on dynamical and collisional constraints, supporting the notion that the Vesta asteroid family was formed during this event.

  15. Possible explanation of total ablation of the 1908 Tunguska asteroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanein, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Alekseev, V.A.; Konkashbaev, A.I.; Konkashbaev, I.K.; Nikandrov, L.B. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Research, Troitsk (Russian Federation)


    Damage to the Earth`s surface from colliding asteroids and comets is of great concern, and the first conference on this subject, ``Space Protection of the Earth,`` took place September 26--30, 1995 (Snezhinsk, Chelyabinsk region, Russia). The explosion over Tunguska, Central Siberia, in 1908 is believed to be due to breakup of a stony asteroids. However, because no significant fragments have been located in the area of the explosion, the nature of the object over Tunguska remains to be determined. Recent theoretical models and results of experiments performed to evaluate material erosion in high-heat-load environments are used to analyze the interaction between the Tunguska object and Earth`s atmosphere. Models and laboratory experimental data that indicate the possibility of full destruction of such large-sized asteroid objects are presented.

  16. Flight status of robotic asteroid sample return mission Hayabusa2 (United States)

    Tsuda, Yuichi; Nakazawa, Satoru; Kushiki, Kenichi; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Kuninaka, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Seiichiro


    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency launched the asteroid sample return spacecraft ;Hayabusa2; on December 3, 2014. Hayabusa2 will reach the C-type asteroid 1999 JU3 in 2018, and return back to the Earth in 2020. Sample collections from three sites, four surface rovers deployment and a 4 MJ-class kinetic impact crater generation are planned in the 1.5 years of the asteroid-proximity operation. The mission objective of Hayabusa2 has three aspects, science, engineering and exploration, all of which would be expanded by the successful round-trip journey. This paper describes the outline of the Hayabusa2 mission and the current flight status after the seven month of the interplanetary cruise.

  17. Analysis of the orbital motion of the asteroid Apophis' satellite (United States)

    Ivashkin, V. V.; Lang, A.


    We have analyzed the orbital disturbed spacecraft motion near an asteroid. The equations of the asteroidocentric spacecraft motion have been used with regard to three perturbations from celestial bodies, the asteroid's nonsphericity, and solar radiation pressure. It has been shown that the orbital parameters of the main spacecraft and a small satellite with a radio beacon can be selected such that the orbits are rather stable for a fairly long period of time, i.e., a few weeks for the main spacecraft with an orbit initial radius of 0.5 km and a few years before approaching Apophis with the Earth in 2029, for a small satellite at an orbit initial radius of 1.5 km. The initial orientation of the spacecraft orbital plane perpendicular to the sunward direction is optimal from the point of view of the stability of the spacecraft flight near an asteroid.

  18. Asteroid Differentiation: Melting and Large-Scale Structure (United States)

    Scheinberg, A.; Fu, R. R.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Weiss, B. P.

    The diversity of mineralogies and textures in the asteroidal meteorite collection promises a similarly diverse array of parent bodies and relatives as we continue exploring the asteroid belt. The presence of metamorphosed and igneous meteorites demonstrates that even some small bodies were heated significantly, permitting a variety of complexly interacting processes and heterogeneities within an individual planetesimal. In particular, chondritic meteorites could even originate from the same parent body as some highly differentiated meteorites. The histories and present-day features of the asteroids depend on their initial composition and the timing and duration of the accretion process. We first discuss the energy sources driving thermal modification of planetesimals and summarize the processes involved in differentiation as hydrous, metal, and silicate melting occurs. Then we outline the aftermath of differentiation as the body cools, and close with a discussion of magnetic, geophysical, and meteoritic evidence for differentiation in planetesimals.

  19. Chelyabinsk meteorite explains unusual spectral properties of Baptistina Asteroid Family

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Vishnu; Bottke, William; Cloutis, Ed; Izawa, Matt; O'Brien, Dave; Mann, Paul; Cuddy, Matt; Corre, Lucille Le; Gaffey, Michael; Fujihara, Gary


    We investigated the spectral and compositional properties of Chelyabinsk meteorite to identify its possible parent body in the main asteroid belt. Our analysis shows that the meteorite contains two spectrally distinct but compositionally indistinguishable components of LL5 chondrite and shock blackened/impact melt material. Our X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that the two lithologies of the Chelyabinsk meteorite are extremely similar in modal mineralogy. The meteorite is compositionally similar to LL chondrite and its most probable parent asteroid in the main belt is a member of the Flora family. Intimate mixture of LL5 chondrite and shock blackened/impact melt material from Chelyabinsk provides a spectral match with (8) Flora, the largest asteroid in the Flora family. The Baptistina family and Flora family overlap each other in dynamical space. Mineralogical analysis of (298) Baptistina and 9 small family members shows that their surface compositions are similar to LL chondrites, although their absorptio...

  20. Near-field effects of asteroid impacts in deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisler, Galen R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weaver, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gittings, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Our previous work has shown that ocean impacts of asteroids below 500 m in diameter do not produce devastating long-distance tsunamis. Nevertheless, a significant portion of the ocean lies close enough to land that near-field effects may prove to be the greatest danger from asteroid impacts in the ocean. Crown splashes and central jets that rise up many kilometres into the atmosphere can produce, upon their collapse, highly non-linear breaking waves that could devastate shorelines within a hundred kilometres of the impact site. We present illustrative calculations, in two and three dimensions, of such impacts for a range of asteroid sizes and impact angles. We find that, as for land impacts, the greatest dangers from oceanic impacts are the short-term near-field, and long-term atmospheric effects.

  1. Identification and Calculation of the Three-Dimensional Orbit of an Asteroid (United States)

    Pereira, Vincent; Millan, Justin; Martin, Emerick


    Asteroids are clumps of rock, the sizes of which range from less than a kilometer to a few hundred kilometers in diameter. They are generally found in the unusually large gap between Mars and Jupiter. There are probably more than 40,000 asteroids in this gap called the "asteroid belt." In this paper we describe our efforts in confirming…

  2. Lightcurve Analysis for Near-Earth Asteroid (143404) 2003 BD44 (United States)

    Polakis, Tom; Warner, Brian D.; Skiff, Brian A.


    The synodic rotation period has been determined for the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) (143404) 2003 BD44. The asteroid was observed during three intervals with a rotation period on the order of 79 h determined in each case. The lightcurve exhibited rapidly changing morphology as the asteroid approached. Data have submitted to the ALCDEF database.

  3. Surface Properties of Asteroids from Mid-Infrared Observations and Thermophysical Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael

    The subject of this work is the physical characterization of asteroids, focusing on the thermal inertia of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Thermal inertia governs the Yarkovsky effect, a non-gravitational force which significantly alters the orbits of asteroids up to \\sim 20 km in diameter. Yet, very

  4. Thermal inertia of near-Earth asteroids and implications for the magnitude of the Yarkovsky effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delbo', Marco; dell'Oro, Aldo; Harris, Alan W.; Mottola, Stefano; Mueller, Michael


    Thermal inertia determines the temperature distribution over the surface of an asteroid and therefore governs the magnitude the Yarkovsky effect. The latter causes gradual drifting of the orbits of km-sized asteroids and plays an important role in the delivery of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) from the

  5. Thermal Inertia of near-Earth Asteroids and Strength of the Yarkovsky Effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delbo, Marco; Dell'Oro, A.; Harris, A. W.; Mottola, S.; Mueller, M.


    Thermal inertia is the physical parameter that controls the temperature distribution over the surface of an asteroid. It affects the strength of the Yarkovsky effect, which causes orbital drift of km-sized asteroids and is invoked to explain the delivery of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) from the main

  6. Crater production on Venus and Earth by asteroid and comet impact (United States)

    Shoemaker, Eugene M.; Wolfe, Ruth F.


    New calculations of the collision probabilities of asteroids and comets with Venus were carried out based on the orbits of the known Venus-crossing asteroids and comets. For comparison, asteroid and comet collision probabilities and cratering rates on the Earth and Moon were recalculated and the estimated cratering rates on Venus were normalized to those of the Earth.

  7. Spin vectors of asteroids 21 Lutetia, 196 Philomela, 250 Bettina, 337 Devosa, and 804 Hispania (United States)

    Michalowski, Tadeusz


    Such parameters as shape, orientation of spin axis, prograde or retrograde rotation are important for understanding the collisional evolution of asteroids since the primordial epochs of solar system history. These parameters remain unknown for most asteroids and poorly constrained for all but a few. This work presents results for five asteroids: 21, 196, 250, 337, and 804.

  8. Collision lifetimes and impact statistics of near-Earth asteroids (United States)

    Bottke, W. F., Jr.; Nolan, M. C.; Greenberg, R.


    We have examined the lifetimes of Near-Earth asteroids (NEA's) by directly computing the collision probabilities with other asteroids and with the terrestrial planets. We compare these to the dynamical lifetimes, and to collisional lifetimes assumed by other workers. We discuss the implications of the differences. The lifetimes of NEA's are important because, along with the statistics of craters on the Earth and Moon, they help us to compute the number of NEA's and the rate at which new NEA's are brought to the vicinity of the Earth. Assuming that the NEA population is in steady-state, the lifetimes determine the flux of new bodies needed to replenish the population. Earlier estimates of the lifetimes ignored (or incompletely accounted for) the differences in the velocities of asteroids as they move in their orbits, so our results differ from (for example) Greenberg and Chapman (1983, Icarus 55, 455) and Wetherill (1988, Icarus 76, 1) by factors of 2 to 10. We have computed the collision rates and relative velocities of NEA's with each other, the main-belt asteroids, and the terrestrial planets, using the corrected method described by Bottke et. al. (1992, GRL, in press). We find that NEA's typically have shorter collisional lifetimes than do main-belt asteroids of the same size, due to their high eccentricities, which typically give them aphelia in the main belt. Consequently, they spend a great deal of time in the main belt, and are moving much slower than the bodies around them, making them 'sitting ducks' for impacts with other asteroids. They cross the paths of many objects, and their typical collision velocities are much higher (10-15 km/s) than the collision velocities (5 km/s) among objects within the main belt. These factors combine to give them substantially shorter lifetimes than had been previously estimated.

  9. NASA's asteroid redirect mission: Robotic boulder capture option (United States)

    Abell, P.; Nuth, J.; Mazanek, D.; Merrill, R.; Reeves, D.; Naasz, B.


    NASA is examining two options for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will return asteroid material to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) using a robotic solar-electric-propulsion spacecraft, called the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). Once the ARV places the asteroid material into the LDRO, a piloted mission will rendezvous and dock with the ARV. After docking, astronauts will conduct two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to inspect and sample the asteroid material before returning to Earth. One option involves capturing an entire small (˜4--10 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA) inside a large inflatable bag. However, NASA is also examining another option that entails retrieving a boulder (˜1--5 m) via robotic manipulators from the surface of a larger (˜100+ m) pre-characterized NEA. The Robotic Boulder Capture (RBC) option can leverage robotic mission data to help ensure success by targeting previously (or soon to be) well-characterized NEAs. For example, the data from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Hayabusa mission has been utilized to develop detailed mission designs that assess options and risks associated with proximity and surface operations. Hayabusa's target NEA, Itokawa, has been identified as a valid target and is known to possess hundreds of appropriately sized boulders on its surface. Further robotic characterization of additional NEAs (e.g., Bennu and 1999 JU_3) by NASA's OSIRIS REx and JAXA's Hayabusa 2 missions is planned to begin in 2018. This ARM option reduces mission risk and provides increased benefits for science, human exploration, resource utilization, and planetary defense.

  10. Spatial Reasoning Training Through Light Curves Of Model Asteroids (United States)

    Ziffer, Julie; Nakroshis, Paul A.; Rudnick, Benjamin T.; Brautigam, Maxwell J.; Nelson, Tyler W.


    Recent research has demonstrated that spatial reasoning skills, long known to be crucial to math and science success, are teachable. Even short stints of training can improve spatial reasoning skills among students who lack them (Sorby et al., 2006). Teaching spatial reasoning is particularly valuable to women and minorities who, through societal pressure, often doubt their spatial reasoning skill (Hill et al., 2010). We have designed a hands on asteroid rotation lab that provides practice in spatial reasoning tasks while building the student’s understanding of photometry. For our tool, we mount a model asteroid, with any shape of our choosing, on a slowly rotating motor shaft, whose speed is controlled by the experimenter. To mimic an asteroid light curve, we place the model asteroid in a dark box, shine a movable light source upon our asteroid, and record the light reflected onto a moveable camera. Students may then observe changes in the light curve that result from varying a) the speed of rotation, b) the model asteroid’s orientation with respect to the motor axis, c) the model asteroid’s shape or albedo, and d) the phase angle. After practicing with our tool, students are asked to pair new objects to their corresponding light curves. To correctly pair objects to their light curves, students must imagine how light scattering off of a three dimensional rotating object is imaged on a ccd sensor plane, and then reduced to a series of points on a light curve plot. Through the use of our model asteroid, the student develops confidence in spatial reasoning skills.

  11. Spin states of asteroids in the Eos collisional family (United States)

    Hanuš, J.; Delbo', M.; Alí-Lagoa, V.; Bolin, B.; Jedicke, R.; Ďurech, J.; Cibulková, H.; Pravec, P.; Kušnirák, P.; Behrend, R.; Marchis, F.; Antonini, P.; Arnold, L.; Audejean, M.; Bachschmidt, M.; Bernasconi, L.; Brunetto, L.; Casulli, S.; Dymock, R.; Esseiva, N.; Esteban, M.; Gerteis, O.; de Groot, H.; Gully, H.; Hamanowa, Hiroko; Hamanowa, Hiromi; Krafft, P.; Lehký, M.; Manzini, F.; Michelet, J.; Morelle, E.; Oey, J.; Pilcher, F.; Reignier, F.; Roy, R.; Salom, P. A.; Warner, B. D.


    Eos family was created during a catastrophic impact about 1.3 Gyr ago. Rotation states of individual family members contain information about the history of the whole population. We aim to increase the number of asteroid shape models and rotation states within the Eos collision family, as well as to revise previously published shape models from the literature. Such results can be used to constrain theoretical collisional and evolution models of the family, or to estimate other physical parameters by a thermophysical modeling of the thermal infrared data. We use all available disk-integrated optical data (i.e., classical dense-in-time photometry obtained from public databases and through a large collaboration network as well as sparse-in-time individual measurements from a few sky surveys) as input for the convex inversion method, and derive 3D shape models of asteroids together with their rotation periods and orientations of rotation axes. We present updated shape models for 15 asteroids and new shape model determinations for 16 asteroids. Together with the already published models from the publicly available DAMIT database, we compiled a sample of 56 Eos family members with known shape models that we used in our analysis of physical properties within the family. Rotation states of asteroids smaller than ∼ 20 km are heavily influenced by the YORP effect, whilst the large objects more or less retained their rotation state properties since the family creation. Moreover, we also present a shape model and bulk density of asteroid (423) Diotima, an interloper in the Eos family, based on the disk-resolved data obtained by the Near InfraRed Camera (Nirc2) mounted on the W.M. Keck II telescope.

  12. A Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout for the AIDA Mission (United States)

    Ho, Tra Mi; Lange, Caroline; Grimm, Christian; Thimo Grundmann, Jan; Rößler, Johannes; Schröder, Silvio; Skoczylas, Thomas; Ziach, Christian; Biele, Jens; Cozzoni, Barbara; Krause, Christian; Küchemann, Oliver; Maibaum, Michael; Ulamec, Stephan; Lange, Michael; Mierheim, Olaf; Maier, Maximilian; Herique, Alain; Mascot Study Team


    The Asteroid Impact Deflection, AIDA, mission is composed of a kinetic impactor, DART and an observer, the Asteroid Impact Monitor, AIM, carrying among other payload a surface package, MASCOT2 (MSC2). Its proposed concept is based on the MASCOT lander onboard the HAYABUSA2 Mission (JAXA) to near-Earth asteroid (162173) Ryugu. MASCOT is a compact platform ('shoe box size') carrying a suite of 4 scientific instruments and has a landed mass of ~10kg. Equipped with a mobility mechanism, the MASCOT lander is able to upright and relocate on the targeted asteroid; thus providing in-situ data at more than one site. In the context of the AIDA Mission, the MASCOT2 lander would be carried by the AIM spacecraft and delivered onto Didymoon, the secondary object in the (65803) Didymos binary near-Earth asteroid system. Since the mission objectives of the AIM mission within the joint AIDA mission concept differ from JAXA's sample return mission HAYABUSA2, several design changes need to be studied and implemented. To support one of the prime objectives of the AIM mission, the characterization of the bulk physical properties of Didymoon, the main scientific payload of MSC2 is a low-frequency radar (LFR) to investigate the internal structure of the asteroid moon. Since the total science payload on MASCOT2 is limited to approximately 2.3 kg, the mass remaining for a suite of other experiments is in the range of 0.1 to 0.5 kg per instrument. Further requirements have a significant impact on the MSC2 design which will be presented. Among these are the much longer required operational lifetime than for MASCOT on HAYABUSA2, and different conditions on the target body such as an extremely low gravity due to its small size of Ø_[Didymoon] ~ 150m.

  13. [New home enteral nutrition via jejunostomy using semi-solid enteral formula]. (United States)

    Ogasawara, Mihoko; Makishima, Junko; Maruyama, Makishima Michio


    Home enteral nutrition via jejunostomy requires considerable time for infusion to the patients. A new method using semisolid enteral formula dramatically reduces the time of infusion. This method makes use of pectin and liquid enteral formula. The authors applied this method in two patients with total gastrectomy being given enteral nutrition at home. There were no complications such as diarrhea or abdominal pain. This new method of home enteral nutrition could enhance the patients' quality of life (QOL) by reducing the time of infusion of enteral nutrition.

  14. Asteroid bombardment and the core of Theia as possible sources for the Earth's late veneer component (United States)

    Sleep, Norman H.


    The silicate Earth contains Pt-group elements in roughly chondritic relative ratios, but with absolute concentrations veneer implies addition of chondrite-like material with 0.3-0.7% mass of the Earth's mantle or an equivalent planet-wide thickness of 5-20 km. The veneer thickness, 200-300 m, within the lunar crust and mantle is much less. One hypothesis is that the terrestrial veneer arrived after the moon-forming impact within a few large asteroids that happened to miss the smaller Moon. Alternatively, most of terrestrial veneer came from the core of the moon-forming impactor, Theia. The Moon then likely contains iron from Theia's core. Mass balances lend plausibility. The lunar core mass is ˜1.6 × 1021 kg and the excess FeO component in the lunar mantle is 1.3-3.5 × 1021 kg as Fe, totaling 3-5 × 1021 kg or a few percent of Theia's core. This mass is comparable to the excess Fe of 2.3-10 × 1021 kg in the Earth's mantle inferred from the veneer component. Chemically in this hypothesis, Fe metal from Theia's core entered the Moon-forming disk. H2O and Fe2O3 in the disk oxidized part of the Fe, leaving the lunar mantle near a Fe-FeO buffer. The remaining iron metal condensed, gathered Pt-group elements eventually into the lunar core. The silicate Moon is strongly depleted in Pt-group elements. In contrast, the Earth's mantle contained excess oxidants, H2O and Fe2O3, which quantitatively oxidized the admixed Fe from Theia's core, retaining Pt-group elements. In this hypothesis, asteroid impacts were relatively benign with ˜1 terrestrial event that left only thermophile survivors.

  15. Low Thrust Mission Trajectories to Near Earth Asteroids (United States)

    Saripalli, Pratik; Cardiff, Eric


    The discovery of 2016 HO3 and its classification as a quasi-satellite has sparked a stronger interest towards Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs). This work presents low-thrust low-power mission designs to various NEAs using an EELV Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA). A global trajectory optimizer (EMTG) was used to generate mission solutions to a select 13 NEAs using a 200 watt BHT-200 thruster as a proof of concept. The missions presented here demonstrate that a low-cost electric propulsion ESPA mission to NEAs is a feasible concept for many asteroids.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Jura, M.; Zuckerman, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles CA 90095-1562 (United States); Dufour, P., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institut de Recherche sur les Exoplanètes (iREx), Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada)


    We report high-resolution spectroscopic observations of WD 1145+017—a white dwarf that was recently found to be transitted by multiple asteroid-sized objects within its tidal radius. We discovered numerous circumstellar absorption lines with linewidths of ∼300 km s{sup −1} from Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni, possibly from several gas streams produced by collisions among the actively disintegrating objects. The atmosphere of WD 1145+017 is polluted with 11 heavy elements, including O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, V:, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni. Evidently, we are witnessing the active disintegration and subsequent accretion of an extrasolar asteroid.

  17. M-type asteroids - Rotational properties of 16 objects (United States)

    Dotto, E.; Barucci, M. A.; Fulchignoni, M.; di Martino, M.; Rotundi, A.; Burchi, R.; di Paolantonio, A.


    We present the results of photometric observations of 16 M-type asteroids performed from 1984 through 1990. We determine for the first time a reliable rotational period for the asteroids 369 Aeria, 785 Zwetana, and 798 Ruth. We estimate the shape and the pole coordinates of 135 Hertha and 250 Bettina and also check those of 16 Psyche, 21 Lutetia, 22 Kalliope, 129 Antigone and 216 Kleopatra. Composite lightcurves are derived for nine of the observed objects (83 Beatrix, 97 Klotho, 110 Lydia, 129 Antigone, 135 Hertha, 216 Kleopatra, 369 Aeria, 785 Zwetana and 798 Ruth).

  18. Lightcurves and phase relations of asteroid 55 Pandora (United States)

    Shevchenko, V. G.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Lupishko, D. F.; Harris, A. W.; Chernova, G. P.


    Photoelectric observations of the asteroid 55 Pandora were carried out in Feb. - Mar. 1989 (6 nights) in range of phase angles Delta alpha = (2.5 - 1.4) deg, and in Sep. - Nov. 1991 (15 nights) Delta alpha = (0.5 - 16.3) deg. Average amplitudes of lightcurves in these oppositions are 0.22 m and 0.10 m, respectively. The value of linear phase coefficients and the absence of spike-effect of alpha less than 2 deg indicate that Pandora is a typical M-asteroid and the high albedo measured by IRAS-satellite is not real.

  19. The Origin of Near-Earth Asteroid 1999 JU3 (United States)

    Campins, H.; Morbidelli, A.; de León, J.; Tsiganis, K.; Licandro, J.


    Near-Earth asteroid 161273 (1999 JU3) is the primary target of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency's Hyabusa-2 sample return mission. This object is also considered a potential target for two other sample return missions: the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's OSIRISREx and the European Space Agency's Marco Polo- R. This asteroid is likely to have originated in the main-belt and in this work. Our initial dynamical considerations indicate that the source of 1999 JU3 is in the inner-belt (a < 2.5 AU). We are in the process of using spectral information and albedo to constrain the source further.

  20. Guide to the universe asteroids, comets, and dwarf planets

    CERN Document Server

    Rivkin, Andrew


    This volume in the Greenwood Guides to the Universe series covers asteroids, comets, and dwarf planets-those small bodies that revolve the Sun-and provides readers with the most up-to-date understanding of the current state of scientific knowledge about them. Scientifically sound, but written with the student in mind, Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets is an excellent first step for researching the exciting scientific discoveries of the smallest celestial bodies in the solar system.||The book will introduce students to all of the areas of research surrounding the subject, answering many intr

  1. Size Sorting on the Rubble-Pile Asteroid Itokawa. (United States)

    Shinbrot, Troy; Sabuwala, Tapan; Siu, Theo; Vivar Lazo, Miguel; Chakraborty, Pinaki


    Photographs of the asteroid Itokawa reveal unexpectedly strong size segregation between lowlands populated almost entirely by small pebbles and highlands consisting of larger boulders. We propose that this segregation may be caused by a simple and unexplored effect: pebbles accreting onto the asteroid rebound from boulders, but sink into pebbly regions. By number, overwhelmingly more particles on Itokawa are pebbles, and collisions involving these pebbles must unavoidably cause pebbly regions to grow. We carry out experiments and simulations that demonstrate that this mechanism of size sorting based on simple counting of grains produces strong lateral segregation that reliably obeys an analytic formula.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Adam H.; Margot, Jean-Luc [University California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    We describe our implementation of a global-parameter optimizer and Square Root Information Filter into the asteroid-modeling software shape. We compare the performance of our new optimizer with that of the existing sequential optimizer when operating on various forms of simulated data and actual asteroid radar data. In all cases, the new implementation performs substantially better than its predecessor: it converges faster, produces shape models that are more accurate, and solves for spin axis orientations more reliably. We discuss potential future changes to improve shape's fitting speed and accuracy.

  3. MarcoPolo-R near earth asteroid sample return mission


    Michel, P.; Böhnhardt, H.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Cerroni, P.; Dotto, E.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Lara, L.-M.; Licandro, J.; Marty, B.; Muinonen, K.; Nathues, A.; Oberst, J.; Robert, F.; Saladino, R.; Ulamec, S.


    MarcoPolo-R is a sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) proposed in collaboration with NASA. It will rendezvous with a primitive NEA, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a unique sample to Earth unaltered by the atmospheric entry process or terrestrial weathering. MarcoPolo-R will return bulk samples (up to 2 kg) from an organic-rich binary asteroid to Earth for laboratory analyses, allowing us to: explore the origin of planetary materials and...

  4. Delivery of asteroids and meteorites to the inner solar system (United States)

    Greenberg, Richard; Nolan, Michael C.


    Two major models of asteroid/meteorite demographics are described and reviewed critically: the collisional model of Greenberg and Chapman (1983), and the orbital evolution model of Wetherill (1985). It is shown that each of the two models tends to gloss over the central processes in the other and tends to ignore (and to some degree violate) the key observables that constrain the other model. The uncertainties that prevent definite acceptance of any particular model for the delivery of asteroidal material to the earth are described.

  5. Nocardia asteroides canaliculitis: A case report of uncommon aetiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi M


    Full Text Available Ocular nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection and is believed to be a rare entity. We describe a rare case report of a patient with culture-positive Nocardia asteroides canaliculitis who presented with complaints of watering, purulent discharge and painful swelling of left lower eye lid. A purulent tenacious material was expressed from the punctum of lower eye lid and subjected to microbiological investigations such as smears and cultures. Smears and culture proved the presence of Nocardia asteroides in the sample collected from punctum.

  6. Secular resonance of asteroids and the second fundamental model (United States)

    Sidlichovsky, M.


    A nonlinear theory of the secular resonance of asteroids has been developed, in which the problem is reduced to the second fundamental model of resonance. The position of the secular resonance surface for the nu6 resonance obtained from this theory is in good agreement with the results of Williams and Faulkner (1981). It is found that when the semimajor axis of the asteroid is in the range between 2 and 3.1 AU, the eccentricity increase due to secular resonance is at least that necessary for the Mars crosser.

  7. Size Sorting on the Rubble-Pile Asteroid Itokawa (United States)

    Shinbrot, Troy; Sabuwala, Tapan; Siu, Theo; Vivar Lazo, Miguel; Chakraborty, Pinaki


    Photographs of the asteroid Itokawa reveal unexpectedly strong size segregation between lowlands populated almost entirely by small pebbles and highlands consisting of larger boulders. We propose that this segregation may be caused by a simple and unexplored effect: pebbles accreting onto the asteroid rebound from boulders, but sink into pebbly regions. By number, overwhelmingly more particles on Itokawa are pebbles, and collisions involving these pebbles must unavoidably cause pebbly regions to grow. We carry out experiments and simulations that demonstrate that this mechanism of size sorting based on simple counting of grains produces strong lateral segregation that reliably obeys an analytic formula.

  8. Abdominal abscesses with enteric communications: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chintapalli, K.; Thorsen, M.K.; Foley, W.D.; Unger, G.F.


    CT examinations of four proven abdominal abscesses with enteric communications are reported. All the patients received oral contrast (3% Gastrografin solution). Three patients recieved rectal contrast. The patient who did not receive rectal contrast had a prior abdominoperineal resection. Contrast material was administered intravenously unless there was a contraindication or a suspected enteric vesical fistula. A representative case is described.

  9. Noncommunicating Isolated Enteric Duplication Cyst in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noncommunicating isolated enteric duplications in the abdomen are an extremely rare variant of enteric duplications with their own blood supply. We report a case of a noncommunicating isolated ileal duplication in a 10-month-old boy. He was admitted because of severe abdominal distension and developed irritability ...

  10. Enteral Nutrition and Acute Pancreatitis: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanier, B.W.M.; Bruno, M.J.; Mathus-Vliegen, E.M.H.


    Introduction. In patients with acute pancreatitis (AP), nutritional support is required if normal food cannot be tolerated within several days. Enteral nutrition is preferred over parenteral nutrition. We reviewed the literature about enteral nutrition in AP. Methods. A MEDLINE search of the English

  11. Enteral nutrition and acute pancreatitis: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.W.M. Spanier (Marcel); M.J. Bruno (Marco); E.M.H. Mathus-Vliegen (Elisabeth)


    textabstractIntroduction. In patients with acute pancreatitis (AP), nutritional support is required if normal food cannot be tolerated within several days. Enteral nutrition is preferred over parenteral nutrition. We reviewed the literature about enteral nutrition in AP. Methods. A MEDLINE search of

  12. Understanding and controlling the enteric nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckxstaens, G. E.


    The enteric nervous system or the `Little Brain' of the gut controls gastrointestinal motility and secretion, and is involved in visceral sensation. In this chapter, new developments in understanding the function of the enteric nervous system are described. In particular, the interaction of this

  13. Enteral nutrition in the critically ill. (United States)

    Koruda, M J; Guenter, P; Rombeau, J L


    Although total parenteral nutrition has greatly influenced the clinical management of the critically ill, enteral nutrition can provide much needed support in the intensive care unit. In order to employ the best enteral nutrition, one must understand its rationale, delivery principles, equipment, feeding techniques, and diets, as well as patient selection and monitoring.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilas, Faith [MMT Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States); Hendrix, Amanda R., E-mail: [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 E. Fort Lowell Rd., Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)


    Evidence for the manifestation of space weathering in S-complex asteroids as a bluing of the UV/blue reflectance spectrum is extended using high resolution CCD reflectance spectra of 21 main-belt, 1 Mars-crossing, and 3 near-Earth asteroids covering a wavelength range of 320–620 nm. Demonstration of the transition of iron-bearing materials from volume scattering to surface (Fresnel) scattering is apparent as an abrupt downturn at wavelengths just short of 400 nm in reflectance spectra of fresh asteroid surfaces. The weathering away of this downturn is demonstrated by its absence in reflectance spectra of mature S-complex asteroids, consistent with an increase in npFe{sup 0} on the material's surface. Modeling of the effects of the addition of small amounts of npFe{sup 0} to particles from both a hypothetical mineral and a terrestrial basalt shows that evidence of the addition of 0.0001% npFe{sup 0} affects the reflectance at UV/blue wavelengths, while the addition of 0.01% is required to see the visible/near-infrared reddening and diminution of absorption features. Thus, the UV/blue reflectance characteristics allow earlier detection of the onset of space weathering effects. Combining UV/blue spectral characteristics of asteroids and ordinary chondrite meteorites with estimated ages of the young Datura family, we establish a method of dating asteroid surface ages during the early stages of space weathering. We demonstrate by dating the surface of NEA 163249 2002 GT to be 109 (±18) to 128 (±10) Kyr.

  15. UV signatures of carbonaceous species on low-albedo asteroids (United States)

    Hendrix, A.; Vilas, F.


    Asteroids in the low-albedo classes (C, B, G, F) are known to have spectra that are relatively feature-free in the visible/near-infrared (VNIR) spectral region, making them classically difficult to study in terms of surface mineralogy. Many of these bodies exhibit a 3-micron absorption band (e.g., [1]), which can be used to study hydration and organics. The primary other spectrally active region --- less well studied so far --- is the ultraviolet (UV). In this study, we utilize UV spectra of low-albedo asteroids (C, B, G, and F class) to study surface composition. In particular, we investigate implications for the presence of carbonaceous compounds, including tholins and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), which have unique spectral features in the UV. Low-albedo asteroids are typically rather bland spectrally at VNIR wavelengths. Many of these objects exhibit an absorption band near 3 microns, indicative of some type of hydration (OH and-or H_2O). A subset of the asteroids with the 3-micron features also exhibit absorption near 0.7 microns, due to a ferrous-ferric charge-transfer transition likely resulting from aqueous alteration (the interaction of material with liquid water formed by melting of water upon a heating event). Some asteroids likely do not exhibit these features due to a history of heating experienced at some point in the asteroid's evolution. Despite having little spectral activity in the VNIR, all low-albedo asteroids absorb at wavelengths shorter than ˜500 nm. This has been generally attributed to a ferric-iron intervalence charge-transfer transition absorption. Carbon-bearing phases have long been assumed to be important on low-albedo asteroids (e.g., [2]) due to the dark, mostly-featureless VNIR spectra of these bodies. However, there are many forms of carbonaceous species and the species are expected to undergo phase modifications (e.g., due to thermal, aqueous, and radiation processes) that affect the spectra [3,7]. Tholins are residues

  16. Consequences of impacts of small asteroids and comets with Earth (United States)

    Hills, J. G.


    The fragmentation of a small asteroid in the atmosphere greatly increases its cross sections for aerodynamic braking and energy dissipation. At a typical impact velocity of 22 km/s, the atmosphere absorbs more than half the kinetic energy of stony meteoroids with diameters, D(sub m), less than 220 m and iron meteoroids with D(sub m) less than 80 m. The corresponding diameter for comets with impact velocity 50 km/s is D(sub m) less than 1600 m. Most of the atmospheric energy dissipation occurs in a fraction of a scale height, so large meteors appear to 'explode' or 'flare' at the end of their visible paths. This dissipation of energy in the atmosphere protects the earth from direct impact damage (e.g., craters), but it produces a blast wave that can do considerable damage. The area of destruction around the impact point in which the over-pressure in the blast wave exceeds 4 lb/sq in = 2.8 x 10(exp 5) dynes/cu cm, which is enough to knock over trees and destroy buildings, increases rapidly from zero for chondritic meteoroids less than 56 m in diameter (15 megatons) to about 200 sq km for those 80 m in diameter (48 megatons); the probable diameter of the tunguska impactor of 1908 is about 80 m. Crater formation and earthquakes are not significant in land impacts by stony asteroids less than about 200 m in diameter because of the air protection. A tsunami is probably the most devastating type of damage for asteroids 200 m to 1 km in diameter. An impact by an asteroid this size anywhere in the Atlantic would devastate coastal areas on both sides of the ocean. An asteroid a few kilometers across would produce a tsunami that would reach the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains in the upper half of the East Coast of the United States. Most of Florida is protected from a tsunami by the gradual slope of the ocean off its coast, which causes most of the tsunami energy to be reflected back into the Atlantic. The atmosphere plume produced by asteroids with diameters exceeding

  17. Short term impact risk assessment for asteroids 2011 AG5 (United States)

    Bancelin, D.; Pravec, P.; Nolan, M.


    Among the potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) in orbit around the Earth, some of them can become a real threat. The most famous PHA presently known is asteroid (99942) Apophis which briefly presented an unusually high impact probability (up to 2.3 %) for a collision with the Earth in 2029. It remains the only asteroid to have reached level 4 of the Torino Scale. Even if Apophis is not a threat anymore, other PHAs are still monitored and now, only one asteroid is scaled to 1 with the highest impact probability. Asteroid 2011 AG5 has 1 chance over 500 to hit the Earth on 2040. This asteroid is challenging because it will remain of faint magnitude around 23.0 until its close encounter with the Earth in February 2023. It will come close to the Earth by 0.012 AU. Intensive ground-based (optical and mainly radar measurements) will be performed. Before this date, optical measurements would be possible (provided that large telescopes are used) and orbital refinement could be performed in order to improve the orbital uncertainty of this asteroid. Nevertheless, no physical data can be derived before 2023 and therefore, the influence of non gravitational forces, mainly Yarkovsky effect, can not be precisely determined. This non gravitational effect produces a secular drift da/dt (positive or negative) of the semi-major axis due to the anisotropic re-emission of the incident solar radiation. We propose here a dynamical study of the asteroid 2011 AG5. We discuss first the location of primary and secondary keyholes in the target plane of 2023 as well as the quantification of the impact probability. Secondary keyholes are due to two consecutive close encounters, the second usually happening near a keyhole or a resonant return. Then, we will address how those quantities evolve with future dedicated ground-based measurements. In a second part, we will discuss non gravitational perturbations through Yarkovsky effect. Assuming that this asteroid is a C or S-type, we can

  18. Water quality indicators: bacteria, coliphages, enteric viruses. (United States)

    Lin, Johnson; Ganesh, Atheesha


    Water quality through the presence of pathogenic enteric microorganisms may affect human health. Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and coliphages are normally used as indicators of water quality. However, the presence of above-mentioned indicators do not always suggest the presence of human enteric viruses. It is important to study human enteric viruses in water. Human enteric viruses can tolerate fluctuating environmental conditions and survive in the environment for long periods of time becoming causal agents of diarrhoeal diseases. Therefore, the potential of human pathogenic viruses as significant indicators of water quality is emerging. Human Adenoviruses and other viruses have been proposed as suitable indices for the effective identification of such organisms of human origin contaminating water systems. This article reports on the recent developments in the management of water quality specifically focusing on human enteric viruses as indicators.

  19. A photometric model for asteroid (21) Lutetia (United States)

    Hasselmann, P.; Leyrat, C.; Fornasier, S.; Barucci, M.; Lazzaro, D.


    (21) Lutetia has been successfully observed (July 10, 2010) by the ESA Rosetta spacecraft during its journey toward the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (Sierks et al. 2011, Coradini et al. 2011). All the available data show intriguing characteristics with a complex surface composition interpretation (Barucci et al. 2012). The quite high mean density estimation (3.4±0.3, Pätzold et al. 2011) together with the unmatching density derived from the most probable surface compositions raise a hypothesis of (21) Lutetia having a metal core (Weiss et al 2012). The surface geology of (21) Lutetia is also highly complex with significant interactions between ancient and more recent structures (Thomas et al; 2012). The large craters and lineaments show that the object was heavily battered in the past, probably losing almost all of its crust in the process (Massironi et al 2012). If (21) Lutetia is a partially differentiated asteroid with an impact-stripped crust, a complete study of variegations might help in elucidating this event. Regions or strips of different albedo might indicate heavier- or lighter-battered surface histories. Albedo variations have been detected by Leyrat et al. (2012) in the visible wavelengths. In this work, we present a deeper analysis of the Lutetia photometric properties. For such analysis, a full set of pipelines was developed in the Python 2.7.6 language. Images obtained by the OSIRIS cameras, NAC and WAC, were used alongside the shape model provided by L. Jorda to derive for each facet the luminance angles and the correct I/F. The pipeline takes image pixels and matches with facets on different observational conditions. Facets are iteratively fitted by a phase function and a disk function. Several phase functions were tested as Akimov (1976), Kaasalainen (Kaasalainen et al. 2003), Schroder (Schroder et al; 2013) and polynomial and were implemented; for disk function, McEwen (1991), Akimov and Minnaert (1941) were used. The method can be also

  20. Enteral and parenteral nutrition in patients with enteric fistulas and short bowel syndrome. (United States)

    Rombeau, J L; Rolandelli, R H


    Significant advances in the use of enteral and parenteral nutrition in patients with either enteric fistulas or short bowel syndrome include increased usage of enteral nutrition because of its trophic effects on the gut and increased usage of both enteral and parenteral nutrition in the home setting. Current investigations are directed toward identifying gut-specific fuels and dietary and pharmacologic enhancement of nutrient utilization.

  1. Identification of a primordial asteroid family constrains the original planetesimal population. (United States)

    Delbo', Marco; Walsh, Kevin; Bolin, Bryce; Avdellidou, Chrysa; Morbidelli, Alessandro


    A quarter of known asteroids is associated with more than 100 distinct asteroid families, meaning that these asteroids originate as impact fragments from the family parent bodies. The determination of which asteroids of the remaining population are members of undiscovered families, or accreted as planetesimals from the protoplanetary disk, would constrain a critical phase of planetary formation by unveiling the unknown planetesimal size distribution. We discovered a 4-billion-year-old asteroid family extending across the entire inner part of the main belt whose members include most of the dark asteroids previously unlinked to families. This allows us to identify some original planetesimals, which are all larger than 35 kilometers, supporting the view of asteroids being born big. Their number matches the known distinct meteorite parent bodies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  2. Assessment of the Gaussian Covariance Approximation over an Earth-Asteroid Encounter Period (United States)

    Mattern, Daniel W.


    In assessing the risk an asteroid may pose to the Earth, the asteroids state is often predicted for many years, often decades. Only by accounting for the asteroids initial state uncertainty can a measure of the risk be calculated. With the asteroids state uncertainty growing as a function of the initial velocity uncertainty, orbit velocity at the last state update, and the time from the last update to the epoch of interest, the asteroids position uncertainties can grow to many times the size of the Earth when propagated to the encounter risk corridor. This paper examines the merits of propagating the asteroids state covariance as an analytical matrix. The results of this study help to bound the efficacy of applying different metrics for assessing the risk an asteroid poses to the Earth. Additionally, this work identifies a criterion for when different covariance propagation methods are needed to continue predictions after an Earth-encounter period.

  3. Identification of a primordial asteroid family constrains the original planetesimal population (United States)

    Delbo', Marco; Walsh, Kevin; Bolin, Bryce; Avdellidou, Chrysa; Morbidelli, Alessandro


    A quarter of known asteroids is associated with more than 100 distinct asteroid families, meaning that these asteroids originate as impact fragments from the family parent bodies. The determination of which asteroids of the remaining population are members of undiscovered families, or accreted as planetesimals from the protoplanetary disk, would constrain a critical phase of planetary formation by unveiling the unknown planetesimal size distribution. We discovered a 4-billion-year-old asteroid family extending across the entire inner part of the main belt whose members include most of the dark asteroids previously unlinked to families. This allows us to identify some original planetesimals, which are all larger than 35 kilometers, supporting the view of asteroids being born big. Their number matches the known distinct meteorite parent bodies.

  4. ASIME 2016 White Paper: Answers to Questions from the Asteroid Miners (United States)

    Galache, Jl; Graps, A. L.; Asime 2016 Contributors, 30


    The aim of the Asteroid Science Intersections with In-Space Mine Engineering (ASIME) 2016 conference on September 21-22, 2016 in Luxembourg City was to provide an environment for the detailed discussion of the specific properties of asteroids, with the engineering needs of space missions that utilise asteroids. The ASIME 2016 Conference produced a layered record of discussions from the asteroid scientists and the asteroid miners to understand each other's key concerns and to address key scientific questions from the asteroid mining companies: Planetary Resources, Deep Space Industries and TransAstra. These Questions were the focus of the two-day conference, were addressed by scientists inside and outside of the ASIME 2016 Conference and were the focus of this White Paper. The answers in this White Paper point to the Science Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) for advancing the asteroid in-space resource utilisation domain.

  5. WISE Albedos for Tens of Thousands of Main Belt Asteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R.; Dailey, J.; Delbo, M.; Grav, T.; McMillan, R. S.; Mueller, M.; Walker, R.; Wright, E.; WISE Science Team, [No Value


    Using thermal IR data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission we have calculated diameters for tens of thousands of previously known Main Belt asteroids. Using archival optical observations we have also determined albedos for each object. We present our results from this

  6. The Dipole Segment Model for Axisymmetrical Elongated Asteroids (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangyuan; Zhang, Yonglong; Yu, Yang; Liu, Xiangdong


    Various simplified models have been investigated as a way to understand the complex dynamical environment near irregular asteroids. A dipole segment model is explored in this paper, one that is composed of a massive straight segment and two point masses at the extremities of the segment. Given an explicitly simple form of the potential function that is associated with the dipole segment model, five topological cases are identified with different sets of system parameters. Locations, stabilities, and variation trends of the system equilibrium points are investigated in a parametric way. The exterior potential distribution of nearly axisymmetrical elongated asteroids is approximated by minimizing the acceleration error in a test zone. The acceleration error minimization process determines the parameters of the dipole segment. The near-Earth asteroid (8567) 1996 HW1 is chosen as an example to evaluate the effectiveness of the approximation method for the exterior potential distribution. The advantages of the dipole segment model over the classical dipole and the traditional segment are also discussed. Percent error of acceleration and the degree of approximation are illustrated by using the dipole segment model to approximate four more asteroids. The high efficiency of the simplified model over the polyhedron is clearly demonstrated by comparing the CPU time.

  7. Radar Observations of Main-Belt M-class Asteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shepard, Michael K.; Clark, B. E.; Ockert-Bell, M.; Nolan, M. C.; Howell, E. S.; Magri, C.; Giorgini, J. D.; Benner, L. A. M.; Ostro, S. J.; Harris, A. W.; Warner, B. D.; Stephens, R. D.; Mueller, M.


    Using the S-band radar at Arecibo Observatory, we have observed 19 Tholen M-class asteroids. The mean radar albedo for all our targets is 0.28 ± 0.13, considerably higher than the mean radar albedo of every other class (Magri et al. 2007, Icarus 186, 126-151). We find approximately one-third (six)

  8. The Cool Surfaces of Binaries Near-Earth Asteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delbo, Marco; Walsh, K.; Mueller, M.


    We present results from thermal-infrared observations of binary near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). These objects, in general, have surface temperatures cooler than the average values for non-binary NEAs. We discuss how this may be evidence of higher-than-average surface thermal inertia. The comparison of

  9. A Martian origin for the Mars Trojan asteroids (United States)

    Polishook, D.; Jacobson, S. A.; Morbidelli, A.; Aharonson, O.


    Seven of the nine known Mars Trojan asteroids belong to an orbital cluster1,2 named after its largest member, (5261) Eureka. Eureka is probably the progenitor of the whole cluster, which formed at least 1 Gyr ago3. It has been suggested3 that the thermal YORP (Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack) effect spun up Eureka, resulting in fragments being ejected by the rotational-fission mechanism. Eureka's spectrum exhibits a broad and deep absorption band around 1 μm, indicating an olivine-rich composition4. Here we show evidence that the Trojan Eureka cluster progenitor could have originated as impact debris excavated from the Martian mantle. We present new near-infrared observations of two Trojans ((311999) 2007 NS2 and (385250) 2001 DH47) and find that both exhibit an olivine-rich reflectance spectrum similar to Eureka's. These measurements confirm that the progenitor of the cluster has an achondritic composition4. Olivine-rich reflectance spectra are rare amongst asteroids5 but are seen around the largest basins on Mars6. They are also consistent with some Martian meteorites (for example, Chassigny7) and with the material comprising much of the Martian mantle8,9. Using numerical simulations, we show that the Mars Trojans are more likely to be impact ejecta from Mars than captured olivine-rich asteroids transported from the main belt. This result directly links specific asteroids to debris from the forming planets.

  10. Lightcurves from the Initial Discovery of Four Hungaria Binary Asteroids (United States)

    Warner, Brian D.; Pravec, Petr; Kusnirak, Peter; Harris, Alan W.; Cooney, Walter R., Jr.; Gross, John; Terrell, Dirk; Nudds, Shannon; Vilagi, Josef; Gajdos, Stefan; Masi, Gianluca; Pray, Donald P.; Dyvig, Ron; Reddy, Vishnu


    Lightcurves from the initial discovery of four Hungaria binary asteroids are presented: 3309 Brorfeld, (5477) 1989 UH2, 9069 Hovland, and (76818) 2000 RG79. Announcements and some web postings were made at the time of the discoveries but the lightcurves were not formally published.

  11. The H and G magnitude system for asteroids (United States)

    Dymock, R.


    This article is based on a presentation given at the Observers' Workshop held at the Open University in Milton Keynes on 2007 February 24. It can be viewed on the Asteroids and Remote Planets Section website at

  12. Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission: Robotic Boulder Capture Option Overview (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Belbin, Scott P.; Reeves, David M.; Earle, Kevin D.; Naasz, Bo J.; Abell, Paul A.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently studying an option for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) that would capture a multi-ton boulder (typically 2-4 meters in size) from the surface of a large (is approximately 100+ meter) Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) and return it to cislunar space for subsequent human and robotic exploration. This alternative mission approach, designated the Robotic Boulder Capture Option (Option B), has been investigated to determine the mission feasibility and identify potential differences from the initial ARRM concept of capturing an entire small NEA (4-10 meters in size), which has been designated the Small Asteroid Capture Option (Option A). Compared to the initial ARRM concept, Option B allows for centimeter-level characterization over an entire large NEA, the certainty of target NEA composition type, the ability to select the boulder that is captured, numerous opportunities for mission enhancements to support science objectives, additional experience operating at a low-gravity planetary body including extended surface contact, and the ability to demonstrate future planetary defense strategies on a hazardous-size NEA. Option B can leverage precursor missions and existing Agency capabilities to help ensure mission success by targeting wellcharacterized asteroids and can accommodate uncertain programmatic schedules by tailoring the return mass.

  13. Ground Hazards from 100 - 300 m Asteroid Impacts (United States)

    Robertson, Darrel; Stern, Eric; Mathias, Donovan


    Observation programs have found over 15 000 of the estimated 1 million asteroids larger than 30 m in diameter. Current estimates suggest one such object will strike the Earth, on average, each century. As observation and tracking capabilities improve it is increasingly likely we will find asteroids on a collision course before they hit us. The ability to accurately predict ground damage from an impact is useful in determining appropriate response, whether through in-space mitigation or civil defense measures. For cases where in-space mitigation is unlikely, the specific damage consequences help emergency planners reduce casualties. The current work extends the understanding of impact damage by comparing the damage caused by blast overpressure, thermal radiation, and seismic waves due to 100 - 300 m diameter asteroids which are large enough to impact the ground yet small enough that global effects are not the primary concern. Land impacts were simulated with the ALE3D hydrocode to determine the amount of incident kinetic energy converted to each of the potential hazards. The resulting damage areas are compared considering the effects of asteroid size and composition as well as ground composition and porosity. We compare the simulation results to semi-analytical models from the literature.

  14. Delivery of Organic Material and Water through Asteroid Impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael; Frantseva, Kateryna; van der Tak, Floris; Helmich, Frank P.


    Meteorites, specifically carbonaceous chondrites, are frequently invoked as the primary source of Earth's water and organic materials, crucial ingredients for the formation of life. We have started developing a dynamical model of the delivery of their parent bodies, primitive low-albedo asteroids,


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Nofi, Larissa A., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)


    From a single 3.8 hr observation of the asteroid (4) Vesta at 13.°7 phase angle with the POlarimeter at Lick for Inclination Studies of Hot jupiters 2 (POLISH2) at the Lick Observatory Shane 3 m telescope, we confirm rotational modulation of linear polarization in the B and V bands. We measure the peak-to-peak modulation in the degree of linear polarization to be ΔP = (294 ± 35) × 10{sup −6} (ppm) and time-averaged ΔP/P = 0.0575 ± 0.0069. After rotating the plane of linear polarization to the scattering plane, asteroidal rotational modulation is detected with 12σ confidence and observed solely in Stokes Q/I. POLISH2 simultaneously measures Stokes I, Q, U (linear polarization), and V (circular polarization), but we detect no significant circular polarization with a 1σ upper limit of 78 ppm in the B band. Circular polarization is expected to arise from multiple scattering of sunlight by rough surfaces, and it has previously been detected in nearly all other classes of solar system bodies except for asteroids. Subsequent observations may be compared with surface albedo maps from the Dawn Mission, which may allow the identification of compositional variation across the asteroidal surface. These results demonstrate the high accuracy achieved by POLISH2 at the Lick 3 m telescope, which is designed to directly detect scattered light from spatially unresolvable exoplanets.

  16. Asteroid Generated Tsunami Workshop: Summary of NASA/NOAA Workshop (United States)

    Morrison, David; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj


    A two-day workshop on tsunami generated by asteroid impacts in the ocean resulted in a broad consensus that the asteroid impact tsunami threat is not as great as previously thought, that airburst events in particular are unlikely to produce significant damage by tsunami, and that the tsunami contribution to the global ensemble impact hazard is substantially less than the contribution from land impacts. The workshop, led by Ethiraj Venkatapathy and David Morrison of NASA Ames, was organized into three sessions: 1) Near-field wave generation by the impact; 2) Long distance wave propagation; 3) Damage from coastal run-up and inundation, and associated hazard. Workshop approaches were to compare simulations to understand differences in the results and gain confidence in the modeling for both formation and propagation of tsunami from asteroid impacts, and to use this information for preliminary global risk assessment. The workshop focus was on smaller asteroids (diameter less than 250m), which represent the most frequent impacts.

  17. Asteroids, comets, meteors, and their interrelations. Part II: Editorial review (United States)

    Muinonen, Karri; Granvik, Mikael; Penttilä, Antti; Gritsevich, Maria


    The Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2014 (ACM 2014) conference was organized in Helsinki in June 30-July 4, 2014, with the first collection of the peer-reviewed papers published in December 2015 in the Special Issue of Planetary and Space Science (Muinonen et al., 2015). The present issue contains the second collection of papers from ACM 2014.

  18. Binary asteroid population. 3. Secondary rotations and elongations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravec, Petr; Scheirich, Peter; Kušnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Galád, Adrián; Naidu, S.P.; Pray, D. P.; Világi, J.; Gajdoš, Š.; Kornoš, L.


    Roč. 267, March (2016), s. 267-295 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0229; GA ČR GA15-07193S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : asteroids * rotation * dynamics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.131, year: 2016

  19. Physical modeling of near-Earth Asteroid (29075) 1950 DA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Busch, M.W.; Giorgini, J. D.; Ostro, S. J.; Benner, L. A. M.; Jurgens, R. F.; Rose, R.; Hicks, M. D.; Pravec, Petr; Kušnirák, Peter; Ireland, M.J.; Scheeres, D.J.; Broschart, S.B.; Magri, C.; Nolan, M. C.; Hine, A. A.; Margot, J. L.


    Roč. 190, č. 2 (2007), s. 608-621 ISSN 0019-1035 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA208/99/0255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids * composition * dynamics * rotation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.869, year: 2007

  20. SEVEN COLOR ASTEROID SURVEY V1.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Seven-color Asteroid Survey (SCAS) was conducted at the IRTF on Mauna Kea, Hawaii from 1992 to 1994. It consists of photometry in seven filters from 0.9 to 2.3...

  1. On the Title of Moriarty's 'Dynamics of an Asteroid'

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Alejandro


    We propose an explanation of the title of Prof. James Moriarty's treatise_Dynamics of an Asteroid_, a scientific work mentioned by Sherlock Holmes in_The Valley of Fear_ and prominently featured in Guy Ritchie's 2011 film_Sherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows_. Our views on the subject differ from those expressed in Isaac Asimov's "The Ultimate Crime".

  2. 78 FR 64253 - NASA Asteroid Initiative Idea Synthesis Workshop (United States)


    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Asteroid Initiative Idea Synthesis Workshop AGENCY: National Aeronautics and..., 2013. ] Registration NASA will invite many of the RFI submitters to attend the workshop to share their... them in the invitation email. Anyone who is not invited to present at the workshop will be able to...

  3. Polarimetric Study of Near-Earth Asteroid (1566) Icarus (United States)

    Ishiguro, Masateru; Kuroda, Daisuke; Watanabe, Makoto; Bach, Yoonsoo P.; Kim, Jooyeon; Lee, Mingyeong; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko; Naito, Hiroyuki; Ohtsuka, Katsuhito; Hanayama, Hidekazu; Hasegawa, Sunao; Usui, Fumihiko; Urakawa, Seitaro; Imai, Masataka; Sato, Mitsuteru; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi


    We conducted a polarimetric observation of the fast-rotating near-Earth asteroid (1566) Icarus at large phase (Sun-asteroid-observer’s) angles α = 57°-141° around the 2015 summer solstice. We found that the maximum values of the linear polarization degree are P max = 7.32 ± 0.25% at phase angles of α max = 124° ± 8° in the V-band and P max = 7.04 ± 0.21% at α max = 124° ± 6° in the R C-band. Applying the polarimetric slope-albedo empirical law, we derived a geometric albedo of p V = 0.25 ± 0.02, which is in agreement with that of Q-type taxonomic asteroids. α max is unambiguously larger than that of Mercury, the Moon, and another near-Earth S-type asteroid (4179) Toutatis but consistent with laboratory samples with hundreds of microns in size. The combination of the maximum polarization degree and the geometric albedo is in accordance with terrestrial rocks with a diameter of several hundreds of micrometers. The photometric function indicates a large macroscopic roughness. We hypothesize that the unique environment (I.e., the small perihelion distance q = 0.187 au and a short rotational period of T rot = 2.27 hr) may be attributed to the paucity of small grains on the surface, as indicated on (3200) Phaethon.

  4. Close Encounters of Asteroids and Comets to Planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, J.G.; Goda, M.P.; Solem, J.C.


    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors find by numerical simulations that the elongated-potato shape that is characteristic of Earth-crossing asteroids (ECAs) is likely the result of previous close tidal encounters with Earth. Some meteoroids graze the atmosphere of Earth before returning to space (at reduced speed). They used a spherical atmospheric model to study such grazers to find the condition under which they are captured into gravitationally bound orbits around Earth. They find that for about every thousand iron asteroids that hit the Earth, one is captured into a gravitational-bound orbit. Some fraction of these captured objects will have their orbits stabilized for many revolutions by tidal encounters with the Moon and the sun. They have also studied how the damage produced by such grazing and near-grazing asteroids differs from that produced by asteroids that hit Earth more directly.

  5. Arecibo Radar Observations of Near-Earth Asteroids (United States)

    Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Virkki, Anne; Saran Bhiravarasu, Sriram; Venditti, Flaviane; Zambrano-Marin, Luisa Fernanda; Aponte-Hernandez, Betzaida


    The Arecibo S-Band (2.38 GHz, 12.6 cm; 1 MW) planetary radar system at the 305-m William E. Gordon Telescope in Arecibo, Puerto Rico is the most active, most powerful, and most sensitive planetary radar facility in the world. As such, Arecibo is vital for post-discovery characterization and orbital refinement of near-Earth asteroids. Since August 2016, the program has observed 100 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), of which 38 are classified as potentially hazardous to Earth and 31 are compliant with the NASA Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). Arecibo observations are critical for identifying NEAs that may be on a collision course with Earth in addition to providing detailed physical characterization of the objects themselves in terms of size, shape, spin, and surface properties, which are valuable for assessing impact mitigation strategies. Here, we will present a sampling of the asteroid zoo observed by Arecibo, including press-noted asteroids 2014 JO25 and the (163693) Atira binary system.

  6. Serendipitous observations of asteroids in Herschel PACS and SPIRE maps (United States)

    Szakáts, R.; Kiss, Cs.; Marton, G.; Varga-Verebélyi, E.; Müller, T.; Pál, A.


    We present our methods and results in finding serendipitous solar system objects on Herschel PACS and SPIRE maps. We can use this data to supplement the Herschel PACS and SPIRE point source catalogs with flags of possible contamination and to obtain thermal infrared fluxes for these asteroids.

  7. Evolution of planet crossing asteroids in the inner Main Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, A O; Roig, F, E-mail: [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, 20921-400, RJ (Brazil)


    We studied the dynamical evolution of asteroids in terrestrial planet crossing orbits, located between 2.1 and 2.5 AU. The evolution is analyzed by direct numerical integration of massless particles under the gravitational influence of all planets from Venus to Neptune. The simulations include the Yarkovsky effect, introduced as a non conservative force that produces a slow variation of the average orbital semimajor axis. Our analysis focuses on the test particles that can reach the middle and outer regions of the Main Belt (semimajor axis > 2.5 AU) during their evolution, since these may be relevant for understanding the transport mechanisms of asteroids from the inner Belt. These mechanisms could help to explain, for example, the existence of basaltic asteroids beyond 2.5 AU assuming that these bodies originate in the Vesta family, located at {approx} 2.3 AU. We found that, although some orbits that reach the middle and outer regions of the Belt can become temporarily detached from the planet crossing regime, and may have their orbital eccentricities damped due to capture at some mean motion resonances, such orbits survive for only a few hundred thousand years and, ultimately, the test particles return to the planet crossing regime being eventually discarded by close encounters with the planets. These results seem to indicate that a transport mechanism based only on planetary encounters and resonant capture might not be efficient enough to justify the presence of basaltic asteroids beyond 2.5 AU.

  8. NASA’s Asteroid Redirect Mission: The Boulder Capture Option (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Nuth, Joseph A.; Mazanek, Dan D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Reeves, David M.; Naasz, Bo J.


    NASA is examining two options for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will return asteroid material to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) using a robotic solar-electric-propulsion spacecraft, called the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). Once the ARV places the asteroid material into the LDRO, a piloted mission will rendezvous and dock with the ARV. After docking, astronauts will conduct two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to inspect and sample the asteroid material before returning to Earth. One option involves capturing an entire small (˜4-10 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA) inside a large inflatable bag. However, NASA is examining another option that entails retrieving a boulder (˜1-5 m) via robotic manipulators from the surface of a larger (˜100+ m) pre-characterized NEA. This option can leverage robotic mission data to help ensure success by targeting previously (or soon to be) well-characterized NEAs. For example, the data from the Hayabusa mission has been utilized to develop detailed mission designs that assess options and risks associated with proximity and surface operations. Hayabusa’s target NEA, Itokawa, has been identified as a valid target and is known to possess hundreds of appropriately sized boulders on its surface. Further robotic characterization of additional NEAs (e.g., Bennu and 1999 JU3) by NASA’s OSIRIS REx and JAXA’s Hayabusa 2 missions is planned to begin in 2018. The boulder option is an extremely large sample-return mission with the prospect of bringing back many tons of well-characterized asteroid material to the Earth-Moon system. The candidate boulder from the target NEA can be selected based on inputs from the world-wide science community, ensuring that the most scientifically interesting boulder be returned for subsequent sampling. This boulder option for NASA’s ARM can leverage knowledge of previously characterized NEAs from prior robotic missions, which provides more certainty of the target NEA

  9. Visible-Wavelength Integrated Spectroscopy of Binary Asteroids (United States)

    Reiss, A. E.; Marchis, F.; Emery, J. P.


    Binary asteroid systems consist of two small planetary bodies orbiting a common center of mass. To date, approximately 65 systems have been imaged using adaptive optics, Hubble Space Telescope observations, and various radar imaging methods. An additional 100 binaries are suspected to exist based on light curve analysis and new discoveries are being announced every month. One important task involved in the study of these systems is the classification of their surface mineralogy. The compositional characterization of asteroid surfaces requires observations across a wide wavelength range. A number of rigorous classification methods have been used to group asteroids into classes based on their observed characteristics. Most recently, a feature-based taxonomy was developed by Bus and Binzel [Bus S. J. and Binzel R. P. (2002) Icarus 158, 146-177]. Bus and Binzel decomposed the visible-wavelength (0.44 - 0.92 μm) spectra of asteroids into three major groups—complexes C-, S-, and X-. Each complex was then further refined into 26 sub-classes associated with distinct mineralogical surface features. Using the Shane 3-meter telescope at Lick Observatory, we observed twelve binary asteroid systems with the KAST double spectrograph. The primary observations were conducted on three nights between May and July of 2009 as a part of an observation program to complete the Virtual Observatory Binary Asteroids Database (VOBAD). The spectrograph at the Shane telescope provides wavelength coverage between 0.3 and 1.0 μm using both blue (0.3-0.57 μm) and red (0.53-1.0 μm) channels, with each spectrograph optimized for its wavelength range. Using this instrument, we obtained a comprehensive measurement of our targets' visible spectra, exceeding the wavelength range over which Bus and Binzel taxonomy is based. We obtained visible-wavelength (0.3 - 1.0 μm) spectra for twelve binary asteroid systems, including six objects not previously classified using Bus and Binzel taxonomic

  10. Enteral fluid therapy in large animals. (United States)

    Rainger, J E; Dart, A J


    Enteral fluids administered alone, or in conjunction with intravenous fluids, are reported to be useful for the treatment of dehydration and electrolyte loss associated with diarrhoea in a number of species, following exercise in horses and for feed impaction of the large intestine of horses. Enteral fluids are suitable for treatment of mild to moderately dehydrated patients with some intact intestinal epithelium and motile small intestine. In patients that will drink voluntarily or tolerate nasal intubation the use of enteral fluids may avoid the complications associated with intravenous fluid administration. However the labour costs associated with repeated nasal intubation in intensively managed patients requiring large volumes of fluids may make the use of enteral fluids less economical than intravenous fluid administration. Enteral fluid use alone is contraindicated in patients that are severely dehydrated and/or in hypovolaemic shock, however, if used in conjunction with intravenous fluids, the effects of villous atrophy and malnutrition may be ameliorated and the duration of hospitalisation shortened. There is a variety of commercially available enteral fluids available to veterinary practitioners. While the key components of these fluids are sodium, chloride and carbohydrates, the amounts of ions and other ingredients such as potassium, alkalising agents, amino acids and shortchain fatty acids may vary. The species of the animal, the underlying condition, and the constituents of the fluid, should influence the choice of an enteral fluid.

  11. Two cubesat mission to study the Didymos asteroid system (United States)

    Wahlund, J.-E.; Vinterhav, E.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Hallmann, M.; Barabash, S.; Ivchenko, N.


    Among the growing interest about asteroid impact hazard mitigation in our community the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission will be the first space experiment to use a kinetic impactor to demonstrate its capability as reliable deflection system [1]. As a part of the AIDA mission, we have proposed a set of two three-axis stabilized 3U CubeSats (with up to 5 science sensors) to simultaneously rendezvous at close range (camera (NAC) and a Video Emission Spectrometer (VES) with a diffraction grating for allowing a sequential chemical study of the emission spectra associated with the impact flare and the expanding plume. Consequently, the different envisioned instruments onboard the CubeSats can provide significant insight into the complex response of asteroid materials during impacts that has been theoretically studied using different techniques [2]. The two CubeSats will remain stowed in CubeSat dispensers aboard the main AIM spacecraft. They will be deployed and commissioned before the AIM impactor reaches the secondary and record the impact event from a closer vantage point than the main spacecraft. The two CubeSats are equipped with relative navigation systems capable of estimating the spacecraft position relative to the asteroids and propulsion system that allow them to operate close to the asteroid bodies. The two CubeSats will rely on mapping data relayed via the AIM main spacecraft but operate autonomously and individually based on schedules and navigation maps uploaded from ground. AIDA's target is the binary Apollo asteroid 65803 Didymos that is also catalogued as Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) because it experiences close approaches to Earth. Didymos' primary has a diameter of ˜800 meters and the secondary is ˜150 m across. Both bodies are separated about 1.1 km [3]. The rotation period and asymmetry of the secondary object is unknown, and it might be tidally locked to the larger primary body. At least the primary body is expected

  12. An Overview of NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) Concept (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) as a capability demonstration for future human exploration, including use of high-power solar electric propulsion, which allows for the efficient movement of large masses through deep space. The ARM will also demonstrate the capability to conduct proximity operations with natural space objects and crewed operations beyond the security of quick Earth return. The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), currently in formulation, will visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, conduct a demonstration of a slow push planetary defense technique, and redirect the multi-ton boulder into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts aboard an Orion spacecraft will dock with the robotic vehicle to explore the boulder and return samples to Earth. The ARM is part of NASA's plan to advance technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. The ARM and subsequent availability of the asteroidal material in cis-lunar space, provide significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). NASA established the Formulation Assessment and Support Team (FAST), comprised of scientists, engineers, and technologists, which supported ARRM mission requirements formulation, answered specific questions concerning potential target asteroid physical properties, and produced a publically available report. The ARM Investigation Team is being organized to support ARM implementation and execution. NASA is also open to collaboration with its international partners and welcomes further discussions. An overview of the ARM robotic and crewed segments, including mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, and a discussion

  13. Physical Characterization of Asteroids Candidates of Marco Polo Mission (United States)

    Birlan, Mirel; Binzel, R. P.; Nedelcu, D.; Vernazza, P.; Barucci, A.; Gasc, S.; Fulchignoni, M.; Dotto, E.


    The principal scientific objective of the Marco Polo mission is to return unaltered NEO materials. Marco Polo will allow us to analyze the samples in terrestrial laboratories, thereby obtaining measurements that cannot yet beperformed from a robotic spacecraft. The selection of the target asteroids for the mission has important consequences in terms of mission design, constraints, and operational requirements. A list of asteroids as possible targets for the Marco Polo mission has been drawn, taken into account both dynamical and physical constraints. The key parameters of this list were the accessibility of the object (the delta-V amount for the encounter with the target) and the desirable, primitive composition requirements of the target deduced from the groundbased data (mainly from colors and spectroscopy). While the accessibility is dealing with space technological achievements, the primitive composition of the target is oriented toward the research on asteroids belonging to D-, T-, or C-type classes. For some of the possible targets, the physical data are sparse and reveals only partial knowledge of these objects while for some of them no spectroscopic investigations are yet available in the IR spectral region. To improve the situation, observations of asteroids 1917, 8567, 16960, 156452, 163000, 164400, and 2001 SG286 were obtained using SpeX/IRTF in the 0.8-2.5µm spectral region. The analysis of their NIR spectra reveals that many of these objects belong to the S-type complex (DeMeo, Icarus 202, 2009). The exception is the asteroid 2001 SG286, for which the spectrum is flat, similar to C-complex. The analysis of slopes, band strengths, and the most probable mineralogical and meteorite analog models will be presented.

  14. Silicate Phases on the Surfaces of Trojan Asteroids (United States)

    Martin, Audrey; Emery, Joshua P.; Lindsay, Sean S.


    Determining the origin of asteroids provides an effective means of constraining the solar system’s dynamic past. Jupiter Trojan asteroids (hereafter Trojans) may help in determining the amount of radial mixing that occurred during giant planet migration. Previous studies aimed at characterizing surface composition show that Trojans have low albedo surfaces and are spectrally featureless in the near infrared. The thermal infrared (TIR) wavelength range has advantages for detecting silicates on low albedo asteroids such as Trojans. The 10 μm region exhibits strong features due to the Si-O fundamental molecular vibrations. Silicates that formed in the inner solar system likely underwent thermal annealing, and thus are crystalline, whereas silicates that accreted in the outer solar system experienced less thermal processing, and therefore are more likely to have remained in an amorphous phase. We hypothesize that the Trojans formed in the outer solar system (i.e., the Kuiper Belt), and therefore will have a more dominant amorphous spectral silicate component. With TIR spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we identify mineralogical features from the surface of 11 Trojan asteroids. Fine-grain mixtures of crystalline pyroxene and olivine exhibit a 10 μm feature with sharp cutoffs between about 9 μm and 12 μm, which create a broad flat plateau. Amorphous phases, when present, smooth the sharp emission features, resulting in a dome-like shape. Preliminary results indicate that the surfaces of analyzed Trojans contain primarily amorphous silicates. Emissivity spectra of asteroids 1986 WD and 4709 Ennomos include small peaks in the 10 μm region, diagnostic of small amounts of crystalline olivine. One explanation is that Trojans formed in the same region as Kuiper Belt objects, and when giant planet migration ensued, they were swept into Jupiter’s stable Lagrange points where they are found today. As such, it is possible that an ancestral group of Kuiper Belt

  15. Overview and Updated Status of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Reeves, David M.; Chodas, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley N.; Ticker, Ronald


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder and regolith samples from its surface, demonstrate a planetary defense technique known as the enhanced gravity tractor, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA's plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s and other destinations, as well as provide other broader benefits. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. Current plans are for the robotic mission to be launched in late 2021 with the crewed mission segment conducted using an Orion capsule via a Space Launch System rocket in 2026. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is providing accommodations for payloads to be carried on the robotic segment of the mission and also organizing an ARM Investigation Team. The Investigation Team will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals from US industry, government, academia, and international institutions to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. The presentation will provide a mission overview and the most recent update concerning the robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, and potential

  16. The young Datura asteroid family. Spins, shapes, and population estimate (United States)

    Vokrouhlický, D.; Pravec, P.; Durech, J.; Bolin, B.; Jedicke, R.; Kušnirák, P.; Galád, A.; Hornoch, K.; Kryszczyńska, A.; Colas, F.; Moskovitz, N.; Thirouin, A.; Nesvorný, D.


    Context. Asteroid families are the outcomes of disruption or cratering events on a size and energy scales that are not reproducible in laboratory experiments. Overall structure, as well as properties of individual members, in the old families could have been changed since their formation. Therefore young families preserve best the characteristics of the initial event. Aims: We study the most suitable known asteroid family with an age of less than 1 Myr, the Datura family. We aim (I) to obtain information about rotation state and shape of the largest members in the family; and (II) to constrain its debiased population down to couple of hundreds of meters in size. Methods: We have analyzed the up-to-date catalog of orbital elements of main belt asteroids. We evaluated the detection efficiency of Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) in regard to detections of members in the Datura family, and we have used our photometric observations and lightcurve inversion methods to determine the rotation states and shapes of the largest members of the family. Results: We determined rotation periods of the seven largest members of the Datura family, and we also derived accurate mean absolute magnitudes for six of them. Except for the largest fragment (1270) Datura, the asteroids tend to have long rotation periods and large amplitude of the lightcurve, witnessing an elongated shape. For the four largest asteroids, our observations allow us to resolve rotation pole and a rough shape. All of them are prograde-rotating and have the latitude of the rotation pole >50°. Our search in orbital catalogs resulted in the discovery of many small, sub-kilometer members of the Datura family. Using the CSS detection efficiency, we inverted this information into the debiased population of Datura family members. We show that the mass and angular momentum content in small fragments is negligible compared to the largest fragment (1270) Datura. These findings may help to constrain the formation mechanism of the

  17. Habitation Concepts and Tools for Asteroid Missions and Commercial Applications (United States)

    Smitherman, David


    In 2009 studies were initiated in response to the Augustine Commission s review of the Human Spaceflight Program to examine the feasibility of additional options for space exploration beyond the lunar missions planned in the Constellation Program. One approach called a Flexible Path option included possible human missions to near-Earth asteroids. This paper presents an overview of possible asteroid missions with emphasis on the habitation options and vehicle configurations conceived for the crew excursion vehicles. One launch vehicle concept investigated for the Flexible Path option was to use a dual launch architecture that could serve a wide variety of exploration goals. The dual launch concept used two medium sized heavy lift launch vehicles for lunar missions as opposed to the single Saturn V architecture used for the Apollo Program, or the one-and-a-half vehicle Ares I / Ares V architecture proposed for the Constellation Program. This dual launch approach was studied as a Flexible Path option for lunar missions and for possible excursions to other destinations like geosynchronous earth orbiting satellites, Lagrange points, and as presented in this paper, asteroid rendezvous. New habitation and exploration systems for the crew are presented that permit crew sizes from 2 to 4, and mission durations from 100 to 360 days. Vehicle configurations are presented that include habitation systems and tools derived from International Space Station (ISS) experience and new extra-vehicular activity tools for asteroid exploration, Figure 1. Findings from these studies and as presented in this paper indicate that missions to near-Earth asteroids appear feasible in the near future using the dual launch architecture, the technologies under development from the Constellation Program, and systems derived from the current ISS Program. In addition, the capabilities derived from this approach that are particularly beneficial to the commercial sector include human access to

  18. On the Emmenthal distribution of highly inclined asteroids (United States)

    Carruba, V.; Machuca, J. F.


    Highly inclined asteroids are objects with sin (i) > 0.3. Among highly inclined asteroids, we can distinguish between objects with inclinations smaller than that of the centre of the ν6= g - g6 secular resonance and objects at higher inclinations. Using the current mechanisms of dynamical mobility, it is not easy to increase the values of an asteroid with an initial small inclination to values higher than that of the centre of the ν6 resonance. The presence of highly inclined objects might therefore be related to the early phases of the Solar system. It has been observed that several dynamically stable regions are characterized by a very low number density of objects, unlike low-inclined bodies that tend to occupy all the dynamically viable regions. The distribution of asteroids at a high inclination in the domain of proper elements in dynamically stable regions resembles an Emmenthal cheese, with regions of low number density close to highly populated areas. While this phenomenon has been observed qualitatively in the past, no quantitative study has yet been carried out on the extent and long-term stability of these regions. In this paper, we identify two dynamically stable regions characterized by very low values of number density and permanence times of 100 Myr or more when the Yarkovsky force is considered. We show that the low number density of objects in these areas cannot be produced as a statistical fluctuation of any simple one-dimensional statistical distribution, such as the Poissonian, uniform and Gaussian distributions, or of a tri-dimensional distribution, such as the tri-variate normal distribution. The presence of unoccupied dynamically stable regions could indicate that the primordial asteroidal population might not have reached all available zones at high-i. This sets constraints on the scenarios for the early phases of the history of our Solar system.

  19. NIR spectral and mineralogic studies of nine Vp-type asteroids: 7 likely Vestoids and 2 likely new outer belt basaltic asteroid candidates (United States)

    Hardersen, Paul S.; Reddy, Vishnu; Nowinski, Matt; Dievendorf, Maggie


    Nine additional Vp-type asteroids as candidate basaltic asteroids were observed at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) from January 15-19, 2015 UT, as part of a continuing NASA Planetary Astronomy Program grant to better characterize the abundance and distribution of basaltic asteroids in the main asteroid belt. The Vp-type asteroids, which are classified based on Sloan ugriz colors and the subsequent coarse visible-wavelength spectra that results, includes: (2168) Swope, (3715) Stohl, (3849) Incidentia, (5754) 1999 FR2, (10666) Feldberg, (19165) 1991 CD, (34698) 2001 OD22, and (36118) 1999 RE135. The first seven of these Vp-type asteroids either reside near (4) Vesta dynamical space or are located within the 3:1 mean-motion resonance. The latter two Vp-type asteroids are located beyond the 3:1 mean-motion resonance. NIR spectra were obtained using SpeX in prism mode (0.7 to 2.5 microns) at the parallactic angle using the 0.8 arsec slit. Seven of the Vp-type asteroids were observed on two nights while (2168) Swope was observed on three nights and (19165) 1991 CD was observed on a single night. Average near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra of the asteroids were analyzed using MATLAB-based (Reddy et al., 2011) and IDL-based SARA (Lindsay et al., 2013) routines to isolate absorption features and measure band centers, band areas, and band depths. Temperature corrections were applied to band centers to allow comparison with HED meteorite band parameters. Initial results indicate that all nine asteroids exhibit similar spectral band centers and Band Area Ratios (BAR) across different nights with little or no significant variation. The MATLAB and SARA analysis routines also produce similar results for all nine asteroids. All nine asteroids exhibit BAR values consistent with basaltic achondrites or exhibit larger values beyond the BAR zone as found in Gaffey et al. (1993). WISE-derived albedos for these asteroids range from 24-50%. Initial analysis indicates that

  20. Pneumatosis intestinalis associated with enteral tube feeding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zorgdrager, Marcel; Pol, Robert


    ...). Explorative laparotomy showed an omental band adhesion without signs of ischaemia. After a short period of total parenteral nutrition PI resolved almost completely and enteral tube feeding could be continued once again...

  1. Endoscopic placement of enteral feeding tubes. (United States)

    Rafferty, Gerard P; Tham, Tony Ck


    Malnutrition is common in patients with acute and chronic illness. Nutritional management of these malnourished patients is an essential part of healthcare. Enteral feeding is one component of nutritional support. It is the preferred method of nutritional support in patients that are not receiving adequate oral nutrition and have a functioning gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This method of nutritional support has undergone progression over recent times. The method of placement of enteral feeding tubes has evolved due to development of new feeding tubes and endoscopic technology. Enteral feeding can be divided into methods that provide short-term and long-term access to the GIT. This review article focuses on the current range of methods of gaining access to the GIT to provide enteral feed.

  2. American Society for Parenteral & Enteral Nutrition (United States)

    ... Center Advertising and Sponsorship Learn More ASPEN Enteral Nutrition by the Numbers: EN Data Across the Healthcare Continuum Learn More The ASPEN Adult Nutrition Support Core Curriculum, 3rd Edition Has Arrived! The ...

  3. Duck Virus Enteritis - A Contingency Plan (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Duck plague, also known as duck virus enteritis (DVE) is a highly contagious, extremely deadly epizootic virus with a potential for devastating continental waterfowl...

  4. [Indications and practice of enteral nutrition]. (United States)

    Hallay, Judit; Nagy, Dániel; Fülesdi, Béla


    Malnutrition in hospitalised patients has a significant and disadvantageous impact on treatment outcome. If possible, enteral nutrition with an energy/protein-balanced nutrient should be preferred depending on the patient's condition, type of illness and risk factors. The aim of the nutrition therapy is to increase the efficacy of treatment and shorten the length of hospital stay in order to ensure rapid rehabilitation. In the present review the authors summarize the most important clinical and practical aspects of enteral nutrition therapy.

  5. Medication administration through enteral feeding tubes. (United States)

    Williams, Nancy Toedter


    An overview of enteral feeding tubes, drug administration techniques, considerations for dosage form selection, common drug interactions with enteral formulas, and methods to minimize tube occlusion is given. Enteral nutrition through a feeding tube is the preferred method of nutrition support in patients who have a functioning gastrointestinal tract but who are unable to be fed orally. This method of delivering nutrition is also commonly used for administering medications when patients cannot swallow safely. However, several issues must be considered with concurrent administration of oral medications and enteral formulas. Incorrect administration methods may result in clogged feeding tubes, decreased drug efficacy, increased adverse effects, or drug-formula incompatibilities. Various enteral feeding tubes are available and are typically classified by site of insertion and location of the distal tip of the feeding tube. Liquid medications, particularly elixirs and suspensions, are preferred for enteral administration; however, these formulations may be hypertonic or contain large amounts of sorbitol, and these properties increase the potential for adverse effects. Before solid dosage forms are administered through the feeding tube, it should be determined if the medications are suitable for manipulation, such as crushing a tablet or opening a capsule. Medications should not be added directly to the enteral formula, and feeding tubes should be properly flushed with water before and after each medication is administered. To minimize drug-nutrient interactions, special considerations should be taken when administering phenytoin, carbamazepine, warfarin, fluoroquinolones, and proton pump inhibitors via feeding tubes. Precautions should be implemented to prevent tube occlusions, and immediate intervention is required when blockages occur. Successful drug delivery through enteral feeding tubes requires consideration of the tube size and placement as well as careful

  6. Endoscopic placement of enteral feeding tubes


    Rafferty, Gerard P; Tham, Tony CK


    Malnutrition is common in patients with acute and chronic illness. Nutritional management of these malnourished patients is an essential part of healthcare. Enteral feeding is one component of nutritional support. It is the preferred method of nutritional support in patients that are not receiving adequate oral nutrition and have a functioning gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This method of nutritional support has undergone progression over recent times. The method of placement of enteral feedin...

  7. Correlates of protection for enteric vaccines. (United States)

    Holmgren, Jan; Parashar, Umesh D; Plotkin, Stanley; Louis, Jacques; Ng, Su-Peing; Desauziers, Eric; Picot, Valentina; Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra


    An immunological Correlate of Protection (CoP) is an immune response that is statistically interrelated with protection. Identification of CoPs for enteric vaccines would help design studies to improve vaccine performance of licensed vaccines in low income settings, and would facilitate the testing of future vaccines in development that might be more affordable. CoPs are lacking today for most existing and investigational enteric vaccines. In order to share the latest information on CoPs for enteric vaccines and to discuss novel approaches to correlate mucosal immune responses in humans with protection, the Foundation Mérieux organized an international conference of experts where potential CoPs for vaccines were examined using case-studies for both bacterial and viral enteric pathogens. Experts on the panel concluded that to date, all established enteric vaccine CoPs, such as those for hepatitis A, Vi typhoid and poliovirus vaccines, are based on serological immune responses even though these may poorly reflect the relevant gut immune responses or predict protective efficacy. Known CoPs for cholera, norovirus and rotavirus could be considered as acceptable for comparisons of similarly composed vaccines while more work is still needed to establish CoPs for the remaining enteric pathogens and their candidate vaccines. Novel approaches to correlate human mucosal immune responses with protection include the investigation of gut-originating antibody-secreting cells (ASCs), B memory cells and follicular helper T cells from samples of peripheral blood during their recirculation. Copyright © 2017.

  8. Earth encounters as the origin of fresh surfaces on near-Earth asteroids. (United States)

    Binzel, Richard P; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Merouane, Sihane; Demeo, Francesca E; Birlan, Mirel; Vernazza, Pierre; Thomas, Cristina A; Rivkin, Andrew S; Bus, Schelte J; Tokunaga, Alan T


    Telescopic measurements of asteroids' colours rarely match laboratory reflectance spectra of meteorites owing to a 'space weathering' process that rapidly reddens asteroid surfaces in less than 10(6) years. 'Unweathered' asteroids (those having spectra matching the most commonly falling ordinary chondrite meteorites), however, are seen among small bodies the orbits of which cross inside Mars and the Earth. Various explanations have been proposed for the origin of these fresh surface colours, ranging from collisions to planetary encounters. Less reddened asteroids seem to cross most deeply into the terrestrial planet region, strengthening the evidence for the planetary-encounter theory, but encounter details within 10(6) years remain to be shown. Here we report that asteroids displaying unweathered spectra (so-called 'Q-types') have experienced orbital intersections closer than the Earth-Moon distance within the past 5 x 10(5) years. These Q-type asteroids are not currently found among asteroids showing no evidence of recent close planetary encounters. Our results substantiate previous work: tidal stress, strong enough to disturb and expose unweathered surface grains, is the most likely dominant short-term asteroid resurfacing process. Although the seismology details are yet to be worked out, the identification of rapid physical processes that can produce both fresh and weathered asteroid surfaces resolves the decades-long puzzle of the difference in colour of asteroids and meteorites.

  9. Direct and indirect capture of near-Earth asteroids in the Earth-Moon system (United States)

    Tan, Minghu; McInnes, Colin; Ceriotti, Matteo


    Near-Earth asteroids have attracted attention for both scientific and commercial mission applications. Due to the fact that the Earth-Moon L1 and L2 points are candidates for gateway stations for lunar exploration, and an ideal location for space science, capturing asteroids and inserting them into periodic orbits around these points is of significant interest for the future. In this paper, we define a new type of lunar asteroid capture, termed direct capture. In this capture strategy, the candidate asteroid leaves its heliocentric orbit after an initial impulse, with its dynamics modeled using the Sun-Earth-Moon restricted four-body problem until its insertion, with a second impulse, onto the L2 stable manifold in the Earth-Moon circular restricted three-body problem. A Lambert arc in the Sun-asteroid two-body problem is used as an initial guess and a differential corrector used to generate the transfer trajectory from the asteroid's initial obit to the stable manifold associated with Earth-Moon L2 point. Results show that the direct asteroid capture strategy needs a shorter flight time compared to an indirect asteroid capture, which couples capture in the Sun-Earth circular restricted three-body problem and subsequent transfer to the Earth-Moon circular restricted three-body problem. Finally, the direct and indirect asteroid capture strategies are also applied to consider capture of asteroids at the triangular libration points in the Earth-Moon system.

  10. Discovery of the first asteroid, Ceres historical studies in asteroid research

    CERN Document Server

    Cunningham, Clifford


    Based on extensive primary sources, many never previously translated into English, this is the definitive account of the origins of Ceres as it went from being classified as a new planet to reclassification as the first of a previously unknown group of celestial objects. Cunningham opens this critical moment of astronomical discovery to full modern analysis for the first time. This book includes all the voluminous correspondence, translated into English, between the astronomers of Europe about the startling discovery of Ceres by Piazzi in 1801. It covers the period up to March 1802, at which time Pallas was discovered. Also included are Piazzi's two monographs about Ceres, and the sections of two books dealing with Ceres, one by Johann Bode, the other by Johann Schroeter. The origin of the word 'asteroid' is explained, along with several chapters on the antecedents of the story going back to ancient Greek times. The formulation of Bode's Law is given, as are the details on the efforts of Baron von Zach to org...

  11. Exploring the collisional evolution of the asteroid belt (United States)

    Bottke, W.; Broz, M.; O'Brien, D.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Morbidelli, A.


    The asteroid belt is a remnant of planet-formation processes. By modeling its collisional and dynamical history, and linking the results to constraints, we can probe how the planets and small bodies formed and evolved. Some key model constraints are: (i) The wavy shape of the main-belt size distribution (SFD), with inflection points near 100-km, 10--20-km, 1 to a few km, and ˜0.1-km diameter; (ii) The number of asteroid families created by the catastrophic breakup of large asteroid bodies over the last ˜ 4 Gy, with the number of disrupted D > 100 km bodies as small as ˜20 or as large as 60; (iii) the flux of small asteroids derived from the main belt that have struck the Moon over the last 3.5 Ga --- crater SFDs on lunar terrains with known ages suggest the D value may seem strange, considering the solar system is only 4.56 Gy old. One way to interpret it is that the main belt once had more mass that was eliminated by early dynamical processes between 4--4.56 Ga. This would allow for more early grinding, and it would suggest the main belt's wavy-shaped SFD is a ''fossil'' from a more violent early epoch. Simulations suggest that most D > 100 km bodies have been significantly battered, but only a fraction have been catastrophically disrupted. Conversely, most small asteroids today are byproducts of fragmentation events. These results are consistent with growing evidence that most of the prominent meteorite classes were produced by young asteroid families. The big question is how to use what we know to determine the main belt's original size and state. This work is ongoing, but dynamical models hint at many possibilities, including both the late arrival and late removal of material from the main belt. In addition, no model has yet properly accounted for the bombardment of the primordial main belt by leftover planetesimals in the terrestrial planet region. It is also possible to use additional constraints, such as the apparent paucity of Vesta-like or V

  12. TNO/Centaurs grouping tested with asteroid data sets (United States)

    Fulchignoni, M.; Birlan, M.; Barucci, M. A.


    Recently, we have discussed the possible subdivision in few groups of a sample of 22 TNO and Centaurs for which the BVRIJ photometry were available (Barucci et al., 2001, A&A, 371,1150). We obtained this results using the multivariate statistics adopted to define the current asteroid taxonomy, namely the Principal Components Analysis and the G-mode method (Tholen & Barucci, 1989, in ASTEROIDS II). How these methods work with a very small statistical sample as the TNO/Centaurs one? Theoretically, the number of degrees of freedom of the sample is correct. In fact it is 88 in our case and have to be larger then 50 to cope with the requirements of the G-mode. Does the random sampling of the small number of members of a large population contain enough information to reveal some structure in the population? We extracted several samples of 22 asteroids out of a data-base of 86 objects of known taxonomic type for which BVRIJ photometry is available from ECAS (Zellner et al. 1985, ICARUS 61, 355), SMASS II (S.W. Bus, 1999, PhD Thesis, MIT), and the Bell et al. Atlas of the asteroid infrared spectra. The objects constituting the first sample were selected in order to give a good representation of the major asteroid taxonomic classes (at least three samples each class): C,S,D,A, and G. Both methods were able to distinguish all these groups confirming the validity of the adopted methods. The S class is hard to individuate as a consequence of the choice of I and J variables, which imply a lack of information on the absorption band at 1 micron. The other samples were obtained by random choice of the objects. Not all the major groups were well represented (less than three samples per groups), but the general trend of the asteroid taxonomy has been always obtained. We conclude that the quoted grouping of TNO/Centaurs is representative of some physico-chemical structure of the outer solar system small body population.

  13. Space Weathering of Silicate Asteroids: An Observational Investigation (United States)

    MacLennan, Eric M.; Emery, Joshua; Lindsay, Sean S.


    Solar wind exposure and micrometeoroid bombardment are known to cause mineralogical changes in the upper few microns of silicate grains (by forming amorphous “composition” rims with embedded nano-phase Fe0). These processes, jointly called space weathering (SW), affect the light-scattering properties and subsequently the geometric albedo and spectral parameters (spectral slope and band depth). Earth’s Moon exhibits the well known “lunar-style” of SW: albedo decrease, spectral slope increase, and absorption band suppression. However, space mission images of (243) Ida and (433) Eros suggest that different SW “styles” exist among the silicate-bearing (olivine and pyroxene) S-complex asteroids, which exhibit diagnostic absorption features near 1 & 2 μm. While Eros generally shows only albedo differences between younger and older locations, Ida’s surface only shows changes in spectral slope and band depth. It is not clear if these SW styles are unique to Ida and Eros or if they can be observed throughout the entire asteroid population.We hypothesize that the SW styles seen on Eros and Ida also exist on other asteroid surfaces. Additionally, we hypothesize that increased solar wind exposure, smaller regolith particles, higher olivine abundance, and older asteroid surfaces will increase the observed degree of SW. Our dataset includes publicly available Visible (0.4-0.8 μm) and Near Infrared (~0.7-2.5 μm) reflectance spectra of silicate-bearing asteroids (those with 1 & 2 μm bands) from the PDS and the SMASS, S3OS2 and MIT-UH-IRTF spectral surveys. We have also conducted a spectral survey with the IRTF/SpeX targeting 52 silicate asteroids for which we have constraints for regolith grain sizes from interpretation of thermal-IR data. The relevant band parameters to SW and to interpreting mineralogical properties are calculated using the band analysis code, SARA. Geometric albedos are calculated using thermal-IR data from WISE/NEOWISE. Using these derived

  14. Deep Interior: The first comprehensive geophysical investigation of an asteroid (United States)

    Asphaug, E.; Belton, M.; Klaasen, K.; McFadden, L.; Ostro, S.; Safaeinili, A.; Scheeres, D.; Sunshine, J.; Yeomans, D.

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) come closer to Earth than any other celestial body, and their compositions are represented on Earth by thousands of well-studied meteorites. Yet we understand neither their origin, evolution, nor their geophysical behavior. These secrets are locked up in their unexplored interiors. Goal 1 of the NASA Strategic Plan emphasizes the requirement to catalogue and understand NEOs down to 1 km diameter. Goal 4 urges us to understand natural processes at work in the low gravity environment. Goal 5 expresses the need to explore the solar system and to learn how planets originated and evolved. In response to the NASA Strategic Plan we are proposing a NASA Discovery mission whose primary science objective is to greatly advance the realization of these Goals by conducting the first investigation of the global geophysics of an asteroid. Radio reflection data from 5 km orbit about a 1 km NEO will provide a tomographic 3D image of electromagnetic properties. Mechanical properties will be examined in the simplest possible way, using explosions to initiate seismic cratering events and to expose diverse interior units for spectroscopic analysis. Deep Interior is the lowest-risk, lowest cost path towards attaining the required characterization of NEOs. It breaks new ground for future missions to asteroids and comets and facilitates the design of reliable NEO technologies. Our science goals are as follows, and the techniques (radio science, imaging, IR spectroscopy, active surface science) will be described at this meeting: Asteroid Interiors. Radio, gravity, and seismology experiments give a complete first picture of an asteroid's deep interior, resolving inclusions, voids and unit boundaries at ˜ 30 m scales, and determining global and regional mechanical properties. Surface Geophysics. Blast experiments explore the structure and mechanics of the upper meters, demonstrate microgravity cratering, trigger natural geomorphic events, and expose subsurface

  15. Single-layer closure of typhoid enteric perforation: Our experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Typhoid enteritis is rare in developed countries. The increasing prevalence of typhoid fever with enteric perforation in our environment is alarming. Peritonitis follows enteric perforation due to typhoid enteritis. Surgical treatments and repair of the perforated areas due to typhoid enteritis varies between ...

  16. Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J.L.; Taat, C.W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W.H.; Becker, A.E. (Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands))


    In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were quantified by counting their number per unit length of muscularis mucosa. Results in radiation enteritis were compared with matched control specimens by using Student's t test. Chromogranin immunostaining showed a statistically significant increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis specimens compared with controls both in small and large intestine (ileum, 67.5 +/- 23.5 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 17.0 +/- 6.1 in controls; colon, 40.9 +/- 13.7 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 9.5 +/- 4.1 in controls--p less than 0.005 in both instances). Increase of endocrine cells was demonstrated also by Grimelius' staining; however, without reaching statistical significance. It is not clear whether or not the increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis reported in this study is caused by a hyperplastic response or by a sparing phenomenon. We should consider that increased endocrine cells, when abnormally secreting their products, may be involved in some of the clinical features of radiation enteropathy. In addition, as intestinal endocrine cells produce trophic substances to the intestine, their increase could be responsible for the raised risk of developing carcinoma of the intestine in long standing radiation enteritis.

  17. A Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout (MASCOT) on board the Hayabusa 2 Mission to the near Earth asteroid (162173) Ryugu (United States)

    Jaumann, R.; Bibring, J. P.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Grott, M.; Ho, T. M.; Ulamec, S.; Schmitz, N.; Auster, H. U.; Biele, J.; Kuninaka, H.; Okada, T.; Yoshikawa, M.; Watanabe, S.; Spohn, T.; Koncz, A.; Hercik, D.; Michaelis, H.; Fujimoto, M.


    MASCOT is part of JAXA's Hayabusa 2 asteroid sample return mission that has been launched to asteroid (162173) Ryugu (1,2,3) on Dec 3rd, 2014. It is scheduled to arrive at Ryugu in 2018, and return samples to Earth in 2020. The German Aerospace Center (DLR) developed the lander MASCOT with contributions from CNES (France) (2,3). Ryugu has been classified as a Cg-type (4), believed to be a primitive volatile-rich remnant from the early solar system. Its visible geometric albedo is 0.07±0.01with a diameter of 0.87±0.03 km (5). The thermal inertia indicates thick dust with a cm-sized, gravel-dominated surface layer (5,6). Ryugu shows a retrograde rotation with a period of 7.63±0.01h. Spectral observations indicate iron-bearing phyllosilicates (1) on parts of the surface, suggesting compositional heterogeneity. MASCOT will enable to in-situ map the asteroid's geomorphology, the intimate structure, texture and composition of the regolith (dust, soil and rocks), and its thermal, mechanical, and magnetic properties in order to provide ground truth for the orbiter remote measurements, support the selection of sampling sites, and provide context information for the returned samples (2,3). MASCOT comprises a payload of four scientific instruments: camera, radiometer, magnetometer and hyperspectral microscope (2,3). Characterizing the properties of asteroid regolith in-situ will deliver important ground truth for further understanding telescopic and orbital observations as well as samples of asteroids. MASCOT will descend and land on the asteroid and will change its position by hopping (3). (1) Vilas, F., Astro. J. 1101-1105, 2008; (2) Jaumann, R., et al., SSR, DOI 10.1007/s11214-016-0263-2, 2016; (3) Ho, T.-M. et al., SSR, DOI 10.1007/s11214-016-0251-6, 2016; (4) Bus, S.J., Binzel, R.P. Icarus 158, 2002; (5) Hasegawa, T.G., et al., Astron. Soc. Japan 60, 2008; (6) T.G. Müller, T.G., et al., doi 10.1051/0004-6361/201015599, 2011.

  18. El cuerpo asteroide de la esporotricosis. Especificad y diferenciación de otras formas de asteroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerzaín Rodríguez Toro


    Full Text Available El análisis de 86 biopsias de esporotricosis y de biopsias de otras enfermedades granulomatosas, así como los conceptos de la literatura, permiten concluir que hay dos tipos de cuerpos asteroides: 1. lntracitoplasmáticos, situados dentro de una vacuola, en células gigantes multinucleadas de diversas enfermedades granulomatosas. Son eosinófilos y constan de radiaciones aciculares, estelares, que parten de un centro amorfo. Los ilustramos en casos de lepra lepromatosa, sarcoidosis, paracoccidioidomicosis, labomicosis y granulomas a cuerpos extraños. Son morfológicamente idénticos, inespecíficos, no ayudan a ningún diagnóstico y se originan por fagocitosis de colágeno (59 o por modificaciones del citocentro (60. 2. Cuerpos asteroides resultantes del fenómeno de Splendore-Hoeppli, que es una reacción antígeno-anticuerpo (38-40. 44 el más conspicuo de los cuales es el cuerpo asteroide esporotricósico (CAE, extracelular, situado en el centro del granuloma supurado y que consiste en una levadura central rodeada de espículas intensamente eosinófilas. Es pues específico, morfológicamente característico, permite el diagnóstico concluyente de la enfermedad y en nuestros casos lo observamos en el 20% de las biopsias. La referencia al CAE como una estructura inespecífica (47.58.61 no tiene en cuenta la morfología y la patogenia involucradas en la formación de los cuerpos asteroides. En algunas micosis como aspergilosis, candidiasis sistémica. paracoccidioidomicosis lobomicosis. granuloma tricofítico, se pueden ver imágenes asteroides alrededor de una levadura, pero la morfología general del cuadro histológico no guarda parecido alguno con la esporotricosis. Es posible ver en una biopsia cuerpos asteroides de ambos tipos y el patólogo debe ser capaz de darles el significado apropiado.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, C. R.; Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Kramer, E. A.; Masiero, J.; Sonnett, S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Wright, E. L., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)


    The Near-Earth Object Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE) mission continues to detect, track, and characterize minor planets. We present diameters and albedos calculated from observations taken during the second year since the spacecraft was reactivated in late 2013. These include 207 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and 8885 other asteroids. Of the NEAs, 84% NEAs did not have previously measured diameters and albedos by the NEOWISE mission. Comparison of sizes and albedos calculated from NEOWISE measurements with those measured by occultations, spacecraft, and radar-derived shapes shows accuracy consistent with previous NEOWISE publications. Diameters and albedos fall within ±∼20% and ±∼40%, 1-sigma, respectively, of those measured by these alternate techniques. NEOWISE continues to preferentially discover near-Earth objects which are large (>100 m), and have low albedos.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Wahhaj, Z.; Dumas, C.; Marsset, M. [European Southern Observatory, Santiago (Chile); Beauvalet, L. [National Observatory, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Marchis, F.; Nielsen, E. L. [Carl Sagan Center at the SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA (United States); Vachier, F., E-mail: [Institut de Mécanique Céleste et de Calcul des Éphémérides, Paris (France)


    We present the discovery of a new satellite of asteroid (130) Elektra—S/2014 (130) 1—in differential imaging and in integral field spectroscopy data over multiple epochs obtained with Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research/Very Large Telescope. This new (second) moonlet of Elektra is about 2 km across, on an eccentric orbit, and about 500 km away from the primary. For a comparative study, we also observed another triple asteroid system, (93) Minerva. For both systems, component-resolved reflectance spectra of the satellites and primary were obtained simultaneously. No significant spectral difference was observed between the satellites and the primary for either triple system. We find that the moonlets in both systems are more likely to have been created by sub-disruptive impacts as opposed to having been captured.