Sample records for sutra saturated-unsaturated transport

  1. SUTRA: A model for 2D or 3D saturated-unsaturated, variable-density ground-water flow with solute or energy transport (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Provost, A.M.


    SUTRA (Saturated-Unsaturated Transport) is a computer program that simulates fluid movement and the transport of either energy or dissolved substances in a subsurface environment. This upgraded version of SUTRA adds the capability for three-dimensional simulation to the former code (Voss, 1984), which allowed only two-dimensional simulation. The code employs a two- or three-dimensional finite-element and finite-difference method to approximate the governing equations that describe the two interdependent processes that are simulated: 1) fluid density-dependent saturated or unsaturated ground-water flow; and 2) either (a) transport of a solute in the ground water, in which the solute may be subject to: equilibrium adsorption on the porous matrix, and both first-order and zero-order production or decay; or (b) transport of thermal energy in the ground water and solid matrix of the aquifer. SUTRA may also be used to simulate simpler subsets of the above processes. A flow-direction-dependent dispersion process for anisotropic media is also provided by the code and is introduced in this report. As the primary calculated result, SUTRA provides fluid pressures and either solute concentrations or temperatures, as they vary with time, everywhere in the simulated subsurface system. SUTRA flow simulation may be employed for two-dimensional (2D) areal, cross sectional and three-dimensional (3D) modeling of saturated ground-water flow systems, and for cross sectional and 3D modeling of unsaturated zone flow. Solute-transport simulation using SUTRA may be employed to model natural or man-induced chemical-species transport including processes of solute sorption, production, and decay. For example, it may be applied to analyze ground-water contaminant transport problems and aquifer restoration designs. In addition, solute-transport simulation with SUTRA may be used for modeling of variable-density leachate movement, and for cross sectional modeling of saltwater intrusion in

  2. A finite-element simulation model for saturated-unsaturated, fluid-density-dependent ground-water flow with energy transport or chemically- reactive single-species solute transport (United States)

    Voss, C.I.


    SUTRA (Saturated-Unsaturated Transport) is a computer program which can be used to simulate the movement of fluid and the transport of either energy or dissolved substances in a subsurface environment. The model employs a two-dimensional hybrid finite-element and integrated-finite-difference method to approximate the governing equations that describe the two interdependent processes that are simulated by SUTRA: (1) fluid density-dependent saturated or unsaturated groundwater flow, and either (2a) transport of a solute in the groundwater, in which the solute may be subject to: equilibrium adsorption on the porous matrix, and both first-order and zero-order production or decay, or, (2b) transport of thermal energy in the groundwater and solid matrix of the aquifer. SUTRA provides, as the primary calculated results, fluid pressures and either solute concentrations or temperatures, as they vary with time, everywhere in the simulated subsurface system. SUTRA may also be used to simulate simpler subsets of the above process. SUTRA may be employed for areal and cross-sectional models of saturated groundwater flow systems, and for cross-sectional models of unsaturated zone flow. Solute transport simulation using SUTRA may be used to simulate natural or man-induced chemical transport, solute sorption, production and decay. SUTRA may be used for simulation of variable density leachate movement, and for cross-sectional simulation of salt-water intrusion in aquifers at near-well or regional scales, with either dispersed or relatively sharp transition zones between fresh water and salt water. SUTRA energy transport simulation may be employed to model thermal regimes in aquifers, subsurface heat conduction, aquifer thermal energy storage systems, geothermal reservoirs, thermal pollution of aquifers, and natural hydrogeologic convection systems. (USGS)

  3. HYDROBIOGEOCHEM: A coupled model of HYDROlogic transport and mixed BIOGEOCHEMical kinetic/equilibrium reactions in saturated-unsaturated media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, G.T.; Salvage, K.M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Gwo, J.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Zachara, J.M.; Szecsody, J.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    The computer program HYDROBIOGEOCHEM is a coupled model of HYDROlogic transport and BIOGEOCHEMical kinetic and/or equilibrium reactions in saturated/unsaturated media. HYDROBIOGEOCHEM iteratively solves the two-dimensional transport equations and the ordinary differential and algebraic equations of mixed biogeochemical reactions. The transport equations are solved for all aqueous chemical components and kinetically controlled aqueous species. HYDROBIOGEOCHEM is designed for generic application to reactive transport problems affected by both microbiological and geochemical reactions in subsurface media. Input to the program includes the geometry of the system, the spatial distribution of finite elements and nodes, the properties of the media, the potential chemical and microbial reactions, and the initial and boundary conditions. Output includes the spatial distribution of chemical and microbial concentrations as a function of time and space, and the chemical speciation at user-specified nodes.

  4. SUTRA (Saturated-Unsaturated Transport). A Finite-Element Simulation Model for Saturated-Unsaturated, Fluid-Density-Dependent Ground-Water Flow with Energy Transport or Chemically-Reactive Single-Species Solute Transport. (United States)


    is evaluated. More information on finite- element integration and assembly may be found in numerical methods texts such as Wang and Anderson (1982...Water Resources, v. 5, no. 1, p. 47-55. Wang , H. F., and Anderson, M. P., 1982, Introduction to Groundwater Modeling, Freeman and Co., San Francisco... JIrE ~l;=UITER54u!TrER()*F (IL) 01 330 ... 120) CJNTI;NUE 01340 ... - Ql1350 .. . .. ET VALuES F)R DENSITY AN) VISCOSITY 01 360.. SRm-IT = FUNCTIJN

  5. Users` manual for LEHGC: A Lagrangian-Eulerian Finite-Element Model of Hydrogeochemical Transport Through Saturated-Unsaturated Media. Version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Gour-Tsyh [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Carpenter, S.L. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Hopkins, P.L.; Siegel, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The computer program LEHGC is a Hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian Finite-Element Model of HydroGeo-Chemical (LEHGC) Transport Through Saturated-Unsaturated Media. LEHGC iteratively solves two-dimensional transport and geochemical equilibrium equations and is a descendant of HYDROGEOCHEM, a strictly Eulerian finite-element reactive transport code. The hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian scheme improves on the Eulerian scheme by allowing larger time steps to be used in the advection-dominant transport calculations. This causes less numerical dispersion and alleviates the problem of calculated negative concentrations at sharp concentration fronts. The code also is more computationally efficient than the strictly Eulerian version. LEHGC is designed for generic application to reactive transport problems associated with contaminant transport in subsurface media. Input to the program includes the geometry of the system, the spatial distribution of finite elements and nodes, the properties of the media, the potential chemical reactions, and the initial and boundary conditions. Output includes the spatial distribution of chemical element concentrations as a function of time and space and the chemical speciation at user-specified nodes. LEHGC Version 1.1 is a modification of LEHGC Version 1.0. The modification includes: (1) devising a tracking algorithm with the computational effort proportional to N where N is the number of computational grid nodes rather than N{sup 2} as in LEHGC Version 1.0, (2) including multiple adsorbing sites and multiple ion-exchange sites, (3) using four preconditioned conjugate gradient methods for the solution of matrix equations, and (4) providing a model for some features of solute transport by colloids.

  6. A New Robust Solver for Saturated-Unsaturated Richards' Equation (United States)

    Barajas-Solano, D. A.; Tartakovsky, D. M.


    We present a novel approach for the numerical integration of the saturated-unsaturated Richards' equation, a degenerate parabolic partial differential equation that models flow in porous media. The method is based on the mixed (pore pressure-water content) form of RE, written as a set of differential algebraic equations (DAEs) of index-1 for the fully saturated case and index-2 for the partially saturated case. A DAE-based approach allows us to overcome the numerical challenges posed by the degenerate nature of the Richards' equation. The resulting set of DAEs is solved using the stiffly-accurate, single-step, 3-stage implicit Runge-Kutta method Radau IIA, chosen for its favorable accuracy and stability properties, and its ease of implementation. For each time step a nonlinear system of equations on the intermediate Runge-Kutta states of the pore pressure is solved, written so to ensure that the next step pore pressure and water content correspond to one another correctly. The implementation of our approach compares favorably to state-of-the-art DAE-based solvers in both one- and two-dimensional simulations. These solvers use multi-step backward difference formulas together with a pressure-based form of Richards' equation. To the best of our knowledge, our method is the first instance of a successful DAE-based solver that uses the mixed form of Richards' equation. We consider this a promising line of research, with future work to be done on the use of globally convergent methods for the solution of the occurring nonlinear systems of equations.

  7. Clinical hypnosis and Patanjali yoga sutras (United States)

    Chowdhary, Shitika; Gopinath, Jini K.


    The trance states in yoga and hypnosis are associated with similar phenomena like relaxation, disinclination to talk, unreality, misrepresentation, alterations in perception, increased concentration, suspension of normal reality testing, and the temporary nature of the phenomena. While some researchers consider yoga to be a form of hypnosis, others note that there are many similarities between the trance in yoga and the hypnotic trance. The present study aimed to find similarities between the trance states of hypnosis and Patanjali's yoga sutras. The trance states were compared with the understanding of the phenomena of trance, and the therapeutic techniques and benefits of both. An understanding of the concept of trance in Patanjali's yoga sutras was gained through a thematic analysis of the book Four Chapters on Freedom by Swami Satyananda Saraswati. This led to an understanding of the concept of trance in the yoga sutras. The obtained concepts were compared to the concepts of trance in hypnosis (obtained through the literature on hypnosis) to investigate whether or not there exist similarities. The findings of the study show that there are similarities between the trance in hypnosis and the trance in Patanjali's yoga sutras in the induction and deepening of the trance states in hypnosis and that of Samadhi, the phenomena present in hypnosis and the kinds of siddhis that are obtained through Samadhi, and the therapeutic techniques and the therapeutic process in Patanjali's yoga sutra and hypnosis. PMID:23858248

  8. SUTRA model used to evaluate the role of uplift and erosion in the persistence of saline groundwater in the shallow subsurface (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A modified version of the three-dimensional, variable-density solute-transport model (SUTRA) was developed to simulate the effects of erosion and uplift on the...

  9. Heat coma temperature, relative contents of saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and reproductive maturation in the oceanic sea skaters Halobates micans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Takenaka, S.; Katagiri, C.; Košťál, Vladimír; Harada, T.


    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2014), s. 633-637 ISSN 1226-8615 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : oceanic sea skater s * saturated/unsaturated lipids * reproductive maturation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.946, year: 2014

  10. Supplementation with bypass fat in silvopastoral systems diminishes the ratio of milk saturated/unsaturated fatty acids. (United States)

    Mahecha, L; Angulo, J; Salazar, B; Cerón, M; Gallo, J; Molina, C H; Molina, E J; Suárez, J F; Lopera, J J; Olivera, M


    This study was conducted to evaluate if supplementing bypass fat to cows under silvopastoral systems, increases the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in milk, thus improving the saturated/ unsaturated ratio without a negative effect on total milk yield in fat or protein. Two concentrations of two different sources of bypass fat were evaluated for 40 days, each in a group of 24 multiparous Lucerna (Colombian breed) cows. A cross-over design of 8 Latin squares 3 x 3 was used. The variables submitted to analysis were body condition, daily milk production and milk composition. Body condition, milk yield and milk quality were not different but there was a significant decrease in the amount of saturated fatty acid in both experiments while the unsaturated fat increased significantly in experiment 1 and remained stable in experiment 2. Results, such as these have as far as we know, not been reported previously and they provide an approach for the improvement of milk as a "functional food".

  11. Biological and structural effects of the conjugation of an antimicrobial decapeptide with saturated, unsaturated, methoxylated and branched fatty acids. (United States)

    Húmpola, María Verónica; Rey, María Carolina; Carballeira, Nestor M; Simonetta, Arturo Carlos; Tonarelli, Georgina Guadalupe


    The increasing bacterial resistance against conventional antibiotics has led to the search for new antimicrobial drugs with different modes of action. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and lipopeptides are promising candidates to treat infections because they act on bacterial membranes causing rapid destruction of sensitive bacteria. In this study, a decapeptide named A2 (IKQVKKLFKK) was conjugated at the N-terminus with saturated, unsaturated, methoxylated and methyl -branched fatty acids of different chain lengths (C8 - C20), the antimicrobial and structural properties of the lipopeptides being then investigated. The attachment of the fatty acid chain significantly improved the antimicrobial activity of A2 against bacteria, and so, endowed it with moderated antifungal activity against yeast strains belonging to genus Candida. Lipopeptides containing hydrocarbon chain lengths between C8 and C14 were the best antibacterial compounds (MIC = 0.7 to 5.8 μM), while the most active compounds against yeast were A2 conjugated with methoxylated and enoic fatty acids (11.1 to 83.3 μM). The improvement in antimicrobial activity was mainly related to the amphipathic secondary structure adopted by A2 lipopeptides in the presence of vesicles that mimic bacterial membranes. Peptide conjugation with long hydrocarbon chains (C12 or more), regardless of their structure, significantly increased toxicity towards eukaryotic cells, resulting in a loss of selectivity. These findings suggest that A2-derived lipopeptides are potential good candidates for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria and opportunistic pathogenic yeast belonging to genus Candida. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. OA03.11. A comparative study of guggulu chitrak kshar – sutra and snuhi apamarg kshar – sutra in the management of fistula in ano (United States)

    Gond, Pushpa; Kumar, Ashok; Rajeshwari, PN; Choudhary, PC; Kumar, Jitendra


    Purpose: Fistula in ano is a condition which has been recognized as difficult surgical diseases in all the ancient and modern medical sciences of the world. In Ayurvedic texts fistulainano is described as Bhagandar. This disease is recurrent in nature which makes it more difficult for treatment. So it produces inconvenience in routine life. KsharSutra has been proved as a big revolution in the treatment of fistulainano. It is the need to do further researches to get more efficient Kshar Sutra. Method: The present study was clinical, randomised, single blind trial. In the present research work Guggulu Chitraka KsharSutra has been taken for comparative study wth snuhi apamarga ksharsutra. Thirty patients cases of fistulainano were selected from OPD/IPD of Shalya Tantra department of National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur. Total patients were divided into two equal groups. The patients of group A were treated with Snuhi Apamarga KsharSutra and the patients of group B were treated with Guggulu Chitraka KsharSutra. Result: In the study the effect of Guggulu Chitraka KsharSutra was found better in pain, itching, pus discharge, tenderness and burning sensation and the rate of Unit Cutting Time was slightly higher as Snuhi Apamarga KsharSutra. Conclusion: Though U.C.T of Guggulu Chitrak Kshara Sutra is slightly higher than Snuhi Apamarga Kshar Sutra, but in assessment parameter Guggulu Chitrak Kshar Sutra has been shown significant result. With guggulu chitrak ksharsutra post ligation complications like hypertrophied scar etc are not seen and this is easily available and cost effective.

  13. FECWATER: user's manual of a Finite-Element Code for simulating WATER flow through saturated-unsaturated porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, G.T.; Strand, R.H.


    This report presents the user's manual of FECWATER, a Finite-Element code for simulating WATER flow through saturated-unsaturated porous media. The code is designed for generic application. For each site-specific application, 14 cards are required to specify the size of arrays and 6 cards are used to assign the control numbers in the main program. In addition, user's supply functions must be given to specify the soil property relationships between moisture content, water capacity, and hydraulic conductivity and pressure head, if they are not given in tabular form. Input data to the code includes the program control indices, properties of the porous media, the geometry in the form of elements and nodes, boundary and initial conditions, and rainfall information. Principal output includes the spatial distribution of pressure head, total head, moisture-content, and Darcy's velocity components at any desired time. Fluxes through various types of boundaries are output. In addition, diagnostic variables, such as the number of non-convergent nodes, residuals, and rainfall-seepage nodes, may be printed, if required. This user's manual should be used in conjunction with references listed in the bibliography.

  14. SUTRA model used to evaluate the freshwater flow system on Roi-Namur, Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A three-dimensional, groundwater model (SUTRA) was developed to understand the effects of seawater washover on the freshwater lens of Roi-Namur, Kwajalein Atoll,...

  15. A lemma science of mind: the potential of the Kegon (Flower Ornament) Sutra. (United States)

    Nakazawa, Shin'ichi


    The paper argues for a new perspective on the relationship between Buddhism and European psychology, or sciences of the mind, based in the Kegon Sutra, a text that emerged in the early stages of Mahayana Buddhism (3rd - 5th century CE). The basis of European science is logos intellection, formalized by Aristotle as following three laws: the law of identity, the law of contradiction and the law of the excluded middle. Logic in the Buddhist tradition, by contrast, is based in lemma (meaning to understand as a whole not with language, but with intuition). Lemma-based science born in the Buddhist tradition shows that rational perception is possible even without the three laws of logos. The Kegon Sutra, which explains what Buddha preached only a week after he attained enlightenment, is unified under the logic of lemma and can be seen as an effort to create a 'lemma science of the mind'. The fundamental teaching of the Kegon Sutra is explored, and its principles are compared with primary process thinking and the unconscious as outlined by Freud and Jung. Jung's research of Eastern texts led him to create a science of the mind that went further than Freud: his concept of synchronicity is given by way of example and can be seen anew within the idea of a lemma-based science. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  16. Rui Zink: Sutra dolazi voda / s portugalskog prevela Una Krizmanić Ožegović

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zink


    Full Text Available Sutra dolazi voda. Naše naselje će nestati. Nije ni prvo ni zadnje. Ali je naše. I nestat će. Progutat će ga voda. I nas s njime. Kad bi barem postojala neka brana da se iskoristi prirodna energija i jednim velikim hidroelektranskim pothvatom oživi poljoprivreda. Ali ne. Žrtvovani smo uzalud. To je tek jedan u nizu strateških poteza kojim Europa ustupa oceanu još jedan dio svog teritorija – i ljudi – premda zauzvrat ne dobiva ništa. Znam, ne bih to trebao reći. Znam da postoje razlozi, opravdani razlozi, za ovo što nam se događa. Ako već nisu religijske prirode, onda su barem ekonomske; dođe na isto, na neki način i jedni i drugi su sveti. Ovo je bila loša godina i Zajednica mora stegnuti remen. Najmlađi misle da se sve može popuniti iz proračuna. Ali ne može. Kao kod kolača – u kritičnom trenutku više nema, kolač se više ne može rezati, koliko god kriške bile tanke. Znali smo odavno da se bez potpore Novog Bruxellesa nalazimo na vrhu ljestvice za odstrel – možemo mi i bez tog priznanja, ako se nas pita. Narod je zaslužio više sreće, ali nismo ni prvi – a sigurno ni zadnji – koje će progutati voda.

  17. Richard Francis Burton e a inserÃÃo do kama-sutras como um manual sexual entre os vitorianos (Inglaterra, 1883)


    Felipe Salvador Weissheimer


    Dentre os vÃrios âKama-sutrasâ difundidos no mercado, a versÃo clÃssica foi escrita por Vatsyayana (sÃculo I-IV, aproximadamente) e publicada na Inglaterra em 1883 pela Sociedade Hindu Kama-Shastra. Richard Francis Burton foi o membro de maior importÃncia na Sociedade Hindu Kama-Shastra, pois, alÃm de fomentar a publicaÃÃo, auxiliou na traduÃÃo, editou e enunciou vÃrios comentÃrios ao longo da obra. Em seus comentÃrios, percebemos que o projeto da traduÃÃo e publicaÃÃo do Kama-sutras visava e...

  18. Effect of an offshore sinkhole perforation in a coastal confined aquifer on submarine groundwater discharge (United States)

    Fratesi, S.E.; Leonard, V.; Sanford, W.E.


    In order to explore submarine groundwater discharge in the vicinity of karst features that penetrate the confining layer of an offshore, partially confined aquifer, we constructed a three-dimensional groundwater model using the SUTRA (Saturated-Unsaturated TRAnsport) variable-density groundwater flow model. We ran a parameter sensitivity analysis, testing the effects of recharge rates, permeabilities of the aquifer and confining layer, and thickness of the confining layer. In all simulations, less than 20% of the freshwater recharge for the entire model exits through the sinkhole. Recirculated seawater usually accounts for 10-30% of the total outflow from the model. Often, the sinkhole lies seaward of the transition zone and acts as a recharge feature for recirculating seawater. The permeability ratio between aquifer and confining layer influences the configuration of the freshwater wedge the most; as confining layer permeability decreases, the wedge lengthens and the fraction of total discharge exiting through the sinkhole increases. Copyright ?? 2007 IAHS Press.

  19. A state-dependent parameterization of saturated-unsaturated zone interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaart, P.W.; Teuling, A.J.; Troch, P.A.A.


    The relevance of groundwater as an important source of root zone moisture by means of capillary rise is increasingly being recognized. This is partly reflected in many current land surface schemes, which increasingly replace a one-way (i.e., downward) drainage of water by a two-way interaction flux

  20. Transfer model of water-soluble material in saturated/unsaturated ground (United States)

    Nomura, Shun; Kawai, Katsuyuki; Kakui, Shunsuke; Tachibana, Shinya; Kanazawa, Shinichi; Iizuka, Atsushi

    The ground pollution is one of the most serious environmental issues all over the world now. Industrial wastes discharged from various human activities infiltrate to the ground, diffuse and damage to plants and animals indirectly. Therefore, it is strongly requested to know the transfer behavior of contaminant movement in the ground. In this study, continuous equations and advection-dispersion equation are derived from mass conservation laws in soil, water, air and dissolved material phases. These governing equations are applied to the constitutive model for unsaturated soil and formulated in the framework of the initial boundary value problems with the finite element method The soil/water/air coupled analysis program, DACSAR-M_ad, applied mass transfer equation to is coded. Here, the mass within the ground due to loading is simulated with this code.

  1. A free boundary problem describing the saturated-unsaturated flow in a porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Marinoschi


    Full Text Available This paper presents a functional approach to a nonlinear model describing the complete physical process of water infiltration into an unsaturated soil, including the saturation occurrence and the advance of the wetting front. The model introduced in this paper involves a multivalued operator covering the simultaneous saturated and unsaturated flow behaviors and enhances the study of the displacement of the free boundary between these two flow regimes. The model resides in Richards' equation written in pressure form with an initial condition and boundary conditions which in this work express the inflow due to the rain on the soil surface on the one hand, and characterize a certain permeability corresponding to the underground boundary, on the other hand. Existence, uniqueness, and regularity results for the transformed model in diffusive form, that is, for the moisture of the soil, and the existence of the weak solution for the pressure form are proved in the 3D case. The main part of the paper focuses on the existence of the free boundary between the saturated and unsaturated parts of the soil, and this is proved, in the 1D case, for certain stronger assumptions on the initial data and boundary conditions.

  2. An Aspect of the History of Medicine in Ancient Korea as Examined through Silla Buddhist Monks'Annotations on the "Chapter on Eliminating Disease"in the Sutra of Golden Light (Suvarnabhāsa-sūtra). (United States)

    Oh, Chaekun; Jeon, Jongwook; Shin, Dongwon


    Nearly nothing is known of medicine in ancient Korea due to insufficient materials. With several extant prescriptions and esoteric methods of treating diseases alone, it is impossible to gauge in depth the management of medicine during this period. If one exception were to be cited, that would be the fact that the annotations for understanding the contents on Indian medicine in the "Chapter on Eliminating Disease" in the Sutra of Golden Light, a Buddhist sutra originating from India, reflected the medical knowledge of Buddhist monks from Silla (57 BC-935 AD) who were active immediately after the nation's unification of the two other kingdoms on the Korean Peninsula (668 AD) such as Wonhyo (617-686 AD), Gyeongheung (620?-700? AD), and Seungjang (684-? AD). Along with those by other monks, these annotations are collected in the Mysterious Pivot of the Sutra of Golden Light, which was compiled by Gangyō(835-871 AD), a Japanese monk from the Heian era (794-1185 AD). Representative versions of the "Chapter on Eliminating Disease" in the Sutra of Golden Light include: a classical Chinese translation by the Indian monk Dharmakṣema (385-433 AD); the eight-volume edition by Chinese monk Baogui, which differs little from the preceding work in terms of the contents of the "Chapter on Eliminating Disease"; and the ten-volume edition by Yijing (635-713 AD), who had full-fledged knowledge of Indian medicine. When the contents of the annotations thus collected are examined, it seems that Wonhyo had not been aware of the existence of the ten-volume edition, and Gyeongheung and Seungjang most certainly used the ten-volume edition in their annotations as well. Especially noteworthy are Wonhyo's annotations on the Indian medical knowledge found in the "Chapter on Eliminating Disease" in the Sutra of Golden Light. Here, he made a bold attempt to link and understand consistently even discussions on Indian and Buddhist medicine on the basis of the traditional East Asian medical

  3. Transportation (United States)


    container. It now permits free transit of shipping containers from their western ports, if transported by rail directly to the U.S. ( Mireles , 2005, p...Transportation Industry Study Seminar. Mireles , Richard, Castillo. (2005, January). A Cure for West Coast Congestion. Logistics Today, Vol. 46, Issue 1. 1

  4. Transportes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo Fernández-Cano, Amalio


    Full Text Available El movimiento de materiales dentro de la Factoría está atendido por tres principales medios de transporte, en consonancia con las características del material y de los desplazamientos. Así se han establecido: sistemas de cintas transportadoras, una red ferroviaria de ancho normal y una completa malla de caminos enlazando funcionalmente las instalaciones.

  5. HYDROGEOCHEM: A coupled model of HYDROlogic transport and GEOCHEMical equilibria in reactive multicomponent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, G.T.; Tripathi, V.S.


    This report presents the development of a hydrogeochemical transport model for multicomponent systems. The model is designed for applications to proper hydrological setting, accommodation of complete suite of geochemical equilibrium processes, easy extension to deal with chemical kinetics, and least constraints of computer resources. The hydrological environment to which the model can be applied is the heterogeneous, anisotropic, saturated-unsaturated subsurface media under either transient or steady state flow conditions. The geochemical equilibrium processes included in the model are aqueous complexation, adsorption-desorption, ion exchange, precipitation-dissolution, redox, and acid-base reactions. To achieve the inclusion of the full complement of these geochemical processes, total analytical concentrations of all chemical components are chosen as the primary dependent variables in the hydrological transport equations. Attendant benefits of this choice are to make the extension of the model to deal with kinetics of adsorption-desorption, ion exchange, precipitation-dissolution, and redox relatively easy. To make the negative concentrations during the iteration between the hydrological transport and geochemical equilibrium least likely, an implicit form of transport equations are proposed. To alleviate severe constraints of computer resources in terms of central processing unit (CPU) time and CPU memory, various optional numerical schemes are incorporated in the model. The model consists of a hydrological transport module and geochemical equilibrium module. Both modules were thoroughly tested in code consistency and were found to yield plausible results. The model is verified with ten examples. 79 refs., 21 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. 3DFEMWATER: A three-dimensional finite element model of water flow through saturated-unsaturated media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, G.T.


    The 3DFEMWATER model is designed to treat heterogeneous and anisotropic media consisting of as many geologic formations as desired, consider both distributed and point sources/sinks that are spatially and temporally dependent, accept the prescribed initial conditions or obtain them by simulating a steady state version of the system under consideration, deal with a transient head distributed over the Dirichlet boundary, handle time-dependent fluxes due to pressure gradient varying along the Neumann boundary, treat time-dependent total fluxes distributed over the Cauchy boundary, automatically determine variable boundary conditions of evaporation, infiltration, or seepage on the soil-air interface, include the off-diagonal hydraulic conductivity components in the modified Richards equation for dealing with cases when the coordinate system does not coincide with the principal directions of the hydraulic conductivity tensor, give three options for estimating the nonlinear matrix, include two options (successive subregion block iterations and successive point interactions) for solving the linearized matrix equations, automatically reset time step size when boundary conditions or source/sinks change abruptly, and check the mass balance computation over the entire region for every time step. The model is verified with analytical solutions or other numerical models for three examples.

  7. Estimation of groundwater consumption by phreatophytes using diurnal water table fluctuations: A saturated-unsaturated flow assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steven P. Loheide II; James J. Butler Jr; Steven M. Gorelick


    .... Over the past 70 years the consumptive use of groundwater by phreatophytes has been estimated using a method that analyzes diurnal trends in hydrographs from wells that are screened across the water table (White, 1932...

  8. Analytical solutions for benchmarking cold regions subsurface water flow and energy transport models: one-dimensional soil thaw with conduction and advection (United States)

    Kurylyk, Barret L.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M; MacQuarrie, Kerry T. B.; Voss, Clifford I.


    Numerous cold regions water flow and energy transport models have emerged in recent years. Dissimilarities often exist in their mathematical formulations and/or numerical solution techniques, but few analytical solutions exist for benchmarking flow and energy transport models that include pore water phase change. This paper presents a detailed derivation of the Lunardini solution, an approximate analytical solution for predicting soil thawing subject to conduction, advection, and phase change. Fifteen thawing scenarios are examined by considering differences in porosity, surface temperature, Darcy velocity, and initial temperature. The accuracy of the Lunardini solution is shown to be proportional to the Stefan number. The analytical solution results obtained for soil thawing scenarios with water flow and advection are compared to those obtained from the finite element model SUTRA. Three problems, two involving the Lunardini solution and one involving the classic Neumann solution, are recommended as standard benchmarks for future model development and testing.

  9. P-adic model of transport in porous disordered media (United States)

    Khrennikov, Adrei Yu.; Oleschko, Klaudia


    output. In fact, our system of diffusion-reaction equations can be used to model the process of extraction of water or oil from an extended network of capillaries (Khrennikov et al., 2013). The accomplished analyses show that the time series of water content/pressure dynamics in saturated/unsaturated conditions reflect the fractal structure of pores separated by familias base don the seven geometric descriptors which we used for the soils multiscale images (Oleschko et al., 2012). The similar models were applied to the porous media behind the oil flow from wells. These results motivate usage of the fractal and, in particular, p-adic methods of modeling.

  10. Modeling variably saturated multispecies reactive groundwater solute transport with MODFLOW-UZF and RT3D (United States)

    Bailey, Ryan T.; Morway, Eric D.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Gates, Timothy K.


    A numerical model was developed that is capable of simulating multispecies reactive solute transport in variably saturated porous media. This model consists of a modified version of the reactive transport model RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3 Dimensions) that is linked to the Unsaturated-Zone Flow (UZF1) package and MODFLOW. Referred to as UZF-RT3D, the model is tested against published analytical benchmarks as well as other published contaminant transport models, including HYDRUS-1D, VS2DT, and SUTRA, and the coupled flow and transport modeling system of CATHY and TRAN3D. Comparisons in one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional variably saturated systems are explored. While several test cases are included to verify the correct implementation of variably saturated transport in UZF-RT3D, other cases are included to demonstrate the usefulness of the code in terms of model run-time and handling the reaction kinetics of multiple interacting species in variably saturated subsurface systems. As UZF1 relies on a kinematic-wave approximation for unsaturated flow that neglects the diffusive terms in Richards equation, UZF-RT3D can be used for large-scale aquifer systems for which the UZF1 formulation is reasonable, that is, capillary-pressure gradients can be neglected and soil parameters can be treated as homogeneous. Decreased model run-time and the ability to include site-specific chemical species and chemical reactions make UZF-RT3D an attractive model for efficient simulation of multispecies reactive transport in variably saturated large-scale subsurface systems.

  11. Ecotone resilience in a coastal system of mangroves and hardwood hammocks (United States)

    Turtora, M.; DeAngelis, D. L.; Teh, S. Y.; Jiang, J.


    Initial sea-level rise effects on low-lying coastline vegetation will likely result from an increase in the frequency and magnitude of storm surges. Feedbacks between vegetation and vadose zone pore-water salinity likely result in complex interactions between halophytic and glycophytic vegetation due to differential adaptive responses. In coastal Everglades National Park, relatively impermeable marl soils distributed in a ridge and swale topography overlie highly permeable karst limestone saturated with high salinity water. Soil salinity dynamics reflect pronounced rainfall seasonality. A model of MANgrove and hardwood HAMmock competition (MANHAM) has been integrated with a variable density Saturated/Unsaturated groundwater TRAnsport model (SUTRA). The combined model (MANTRA) is being used to estimate likely vegetative responses to various scenarios of changing sea-level and precipitation patterns. The mangrove/hammock regime is characterized by the occurrence of sharp ecotones over relatively shallow elevation gradients that may be maintained by a vegetation switch. A disturbance such as an input of salinity from a storm surge could upset this meta-stable boundary, leading to a regime shift of halophytic vegetation inland. MANTRA allows simulation of the interaction of vegetation with subsurface salinity dynamics while examining the sensitivity of the vegetation switch to relevant variables. The response of the halophyte/glycophyte system to storm surge overwash is predicted to depend on factors such as amount and duration of the salinity increase in the soil, the water-table elevation and salinity of the groundwater, the amount and timing of precipitation, runoff and infiltration, the extent of wind induced storm damage, and the amount of mangrove propagules that are washed into the hardwood hammock. In addition, direct mortality of hammock vegetation and increasing floating dispersal of mangrove propagules due to storm surge increase the likelihood of a regime

  12. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  13. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg


    that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...

  14. Neurotransmitter transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Ulrik; Andersen, Peter H; Larsson, Orla M


    The concentration of neurotransmitters in the extracellular space is tightly controlled by distinct classes of membrane transport proteins. This review focuses on the molecular function of two major classes of neurotransmitter transporter that are present in the cell membrane of neurons and....../or glial cells: the solute carrier (SLC)1 transporter family, which includes the transporters that mediate the Na(+)-dependent uptake of glutamate, and the SLC6 transporter family, which includes the transporters that mediate the Na(+)-dependent uptake of dopamine, 5-HT, norepinephrine, glycine and GABA....... Recent research has provided substantial insight into the structure and function of these transporters. In particular, the recent crystallizations of bacterial homologs are of the utmost importance, enabling the first reliable structural models of the mammalian neurotransmitter transporters...

  15. Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou

    Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2...

  16. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová


    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda STEG


    Full Text Available This paper discusses possible contributions of psychologists to sustainable transportation. It is argued that in order to reach sustainable transportation, among others, behaviour changes of individual car users are needed. As transport policies will be more effective if they target important antecedents of travel behaviour, first, factors influencing such behaviour are discussed. It is argued that car use is very attractive and sometimes even necessary for many different reasons. This implies that a combination of policies is called for, each targeting different factors that support car use and hinder the use of more sustainable modes of transport. Next, the paper elaborates on policy strategies that may be employed to achieve sustainable transportation by changing car use. Increasing the attractiveness of sustainable transport modes by means of pull measures seems not sufficient to reduce the level of car use. Besides, car use should be made less attractive by means of push measures to force drivers to reconsider their travel behaviour. The acceptability of such policies may be increased by clearly communicating the aim of these policies, and the expected positive consequences (e.g., less congestion, improved environmental quality. Moreover, possible negative effects for individual freedom may be compensated by implementing additional policies aimed at facilitating the use of sustainable transport modes.

  18. Nicaragua - Transportation (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation examines impacts of the Transportation Project in three ways. First, we calculate economic rates of return associated with reduced user costs for each...

  19. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S


    .... In ocean transportation economics we present investment and operating costs as well as the results of a study of financing of shipping. Similarly, a discussion of government aid to shipping is presented.

  20. Transport service

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Cerruti / FI


    A large number of pallet-crates (panières grillagées), which are used for transporting equipment and for removals, have been dispatched to various locations around the CERN site. We kindly request all users who may have such crates in their possession and no longer need them to make the necessary arrangements (EDH request to the Transport Group) to return them to Building 133, as we currently have no more in stock. Claude CERRUTI / FI-PI

  1. Saltwater movement in the upper Floridan aquifer beneath Port Royal Sound, South Carolina (United States)

    Smith, Barry S.


    Freshwater for Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, is supplied by withdrawals from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Freshwater for the nearby city of Savannah, Georgia, and for the industry that has grown adjacent to the city, has also been supplied, in part, by withdrawal from the Upper Floridan aquifer since 1885. The withdrawal of ground water has caused water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer to decline over a broad area, forming a cone of depression in the potentiometric surface of the aquifer centered near Savannah. In 1984, the cone of depression extended beneath Hilton Head Island as far as Port Royal Sound. Flow in the aquifer, which had previously been toward Port Royal Sound, has been reversed, and, as a result, saltwater in the aquifer beneath Port Royal Sound has begun to move toward Hilton Head Island. The Saturated-Unsaturated Transport (SUTRA) model of the U.S. Geological Survey was used for the simulation of density-dependent ground-water flow and solute transport for a vertical section of the Upper Floridan aquifer and upper confining unit beneath Hilton Head Island and Port Royal Sound. The model simulated a dynamic equilibrium between the flow of seawater and freshwater in the aquifer near the Gyben-Herzberg position estimated for the period before withdrawals began in 1885; it simulated reasonable movements of brackish water and saltwater from that position to the position determined by chemical analyses of samples withdrawn from the aquifer in 1984, and it approximated hydraulic heads measured in the aquifer in 1976 and 1984. The solute-transport simulations indicate that the transition zone would continue to move toward Hilton Head Island even if pumping ceased on the island. Increases in existing withdrawals or additional withdrawals on or near Hilton Head Island would accelerate movement of the transition zone toward the island, but reduction in withdrawals or the injection of freshwater would slow movement toward the island, according to the

  2. Travel and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill, Jan; Roesdahl, Else


    On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments......On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments...

  3. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar


    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  4. Fermi Transport

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Fermi Transport. Joseph Samuel. Figure 1. It shows the sphere of directions in green, with three radial directions labeled. 1, 2, 3. The polarisation vectors are shown in red perpendicular to the radius vector and therefore tangential to the sphere. If the direction of a light ray changes from 1 to. 2 to 3 to 1, the polarisation vector ...

  5. Optimal transport

    CERN Document Server

    Eckmann, B


    At the close of the 1980s, the independent contributions of Yann Brenier, Mike Cullen and John Mather launched a revolution in the venerable field of optimal transport founded by G Monge in the 18th century, which has made breathtaking forays into various other domains of mathematics ever since. The author presents a broad overview of this area.

  6. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.


    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  7. Copper transport. (United States)

    Linder, M C; Wooten, L; Cerveza, P; Cotton, S; Shulze, R; Lomeli, N


    In adult humans, the net absorption of dietary copper is approximately 1 mg/d. Dietary copper joins some 4-5 mg of endogenous copper flowing into the gastrointestinal tract through various digestive juices. Most of this copper returns to the circulation and to the tissues (including liver) that formed them. Much lower amounts of copper flow into and out of other major parts of the body (including heart, skeletal muscle, and brain). Newly absorbed copper is transported to body tissues in two phases, borne primarily by plasma protein carriers (albumin, transcuprein, and ceruloplasmin). In the first phase, copper goes from the intestine to the liver and kidney; in the second phase, copper usually goes from the liver (and perhaps also the kidney) to other organs. Ceruloplasmin plays a role in this second phase. Alternatively, liver copper can also exit via the bile, and in a form that is less easily reabsorbed. Copper is also present in and transported by other body fluids, including those bathing the brain and central nervous system and surrounding the fetus in the amniotic sac. Ceruloplasmin is present in these fluids and may also be involved in copper transport there. The concentrations of copper and ceruloplasmin in milk vary with lactational stage. Parallel changes occur in ceruloplasmin messenger RNA expression in the mammary gland (as determined in pigs). Copper in milk ceruloplasmin appears to be particularly available for absorption, at least in rats.

  8. Michigan transportation facts & figures : public transportation (United States)


    This on-line document is part of a series, Transportation Facts & Figures, by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). The Public Transit section of Transportation Facts & Figures cover such topics as intercity bus service, intercity rail se...

  9. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  10. National transportation statistics 2011 (United States)


    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record, ...

  11. Dispersive Behavior of the Mixing Zone between a Shallow Freshwater Lens and Upward Seeping Saline Groundwater (United States)

    Eeman, S.; Leijnse, A.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.


    salinity at different locations and at several depths, in cooperation with Deltares, The Netherlands. We quantified the contribution of diffusion and dispersion to the mixing process for the different phases of lens formation, when a fresh water lens grows from initially saline conditions to steady state. While the lens is growing, longitudinal dispersion dominates the (wide) mixing zone. Gradually, when the lens approaches steady state, the dominating process changes. In the middle of the field, diffusion becomes dominating, whereas transverse dispersion is most important near the ditch. In general, the width of the transition zone decreases, since both transverse dispersion and diffusion are smaller then longitudinal diffusion. Currently we are working on the effect of seasons, dry spells, and changing climatic conditions. The latter does not only influence precipitation and evaporation, but also the saline seepage, through sea level changes. Calculations show remarkably fast responses of thin lenses. This means that droughts may have their effect on root zone salinity at an earlier stage then we expected beforehand. The influence of ditches/ drains on the lens behavior is large for a zone of approximately 10 m around it. This shows the importance of careful management of ditch level and quality. We are working towards a tool that can help us identify areas or situations where crop or natural vegetation is actually threatened by saline water reaching the root zone. REFERENCES Sakr, S.A. 1999. Validity of a sharp-interface model in a confined coastal aquifer. Hydrogeology Journal 7, 155-160. Voss, C.I., A.M. Provost. 2003. SUTRA, a model for saturated-unsaturated variable-density groundwater flow with solute or energy transport. USGS, Manual No. 02-4231, Reston, Virginia.

  12. Chemical transport reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Harald


    Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products. The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and

  13. The Kama Sutra, Romeo and Juliet, and Mathematics: Studying Mathematics for Pleasure (United States)

    Padula, Janice


    The motivation of students is of great import to mathematics teachers. Such an abstract powerful language needs to be valued or students will not wish to study it. This article argues that mathematics may be better appreciated through the beauty of the language in which problems are written, respect for the cultures of others and through relevance…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faradilla Faradilla


    Full Text Available Samarinda woven sarong is typical sarong of Samarinda. This sarong is still using silk spun silk raw material imported from Tiongkok. The development of aquaculture is needed to obtain local silk threads in order to help to reduce production costs in the samarinda silk industry. The high quality mulberry plants are needed to support silkworm cultivation (sericulture. The qualified mulberry plants are obtained by in vitro culture techniques. The objective of this study is to obtain mulberry leaf (Morus Sp free from disease, uniform, and to obtain quality silk threads through sericulture techniques with feeds that were propagated in vitro. The research stages consist of sterilization, Murashige and Skoog (MS media, sub culture, observation of data analysis fund. The design used is Completely Randomized Design with single factor, ie BAP concentration (control, 0.5 mg / l, 1 mg / l and 2 mg / l. Each treatment is repeated 8 times. The results showed that administration of ZPT 2 mg / l at age 4 MST gives the best response for all observed variables. The use of ZPT BAP with various concentrations produces the germination rate, shoot height, number of shoots and number of different leaves. All treatments are unsuccessful in inducing roots. Keywords: in vitro; Murbei; Sericulture Sarung tenun samarinda adalah sarung khas kota Samarinda. Sarung ini masih menggunakan bahan baku sutera jenis spun silk yang diimpor dari Tiongkok. Pengembangan serikultur diperlukan untuk mendapatkan benang sutera lokal. Sehingga membantu mengurangi biaya produksi dalam industri persuteraan samarinda. Tanaman murbei yang berkualitas diperlukan untuk menunjang budidaya ulat sutera (serikultur. Tanaman murbei yang berkualitas diperoleh dengan teknik kultur in vitro. Tujuan penelitian adalah memperoleh daun murbei (Morus Sp yang bebas penyakit dan seragam serta memperoleh benang sutera berkualitas melalui teknik serikultur dengan pakan yan diperbanyak secara in vitro. Tahapan penelitian terdiri dari sterilisasi, pembuatan media Murashige dan Skoog (MS, sub kultur, Pengamatan dana analisis data. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan faktor tunggal yaitu berbagai konsentrasi BAP (kontrol, 0,5 mg/l, 1 mg/l dan 2 mg/l setiap perlakuan diulang 8 kali. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian ZPT 2 mg/l pada umur 4 MST memberikan respon terbaik untuk semua variabel yang diamati, Penggunaan ZPT BAP dengan berbagai konsentrasi menghasilkan waktu kecepatan bertunas, tinggi tunas dan jumlah tunas dan jumlah daun yang berbeda. Semua perlakuan tidak berhasil dalam menginduksi akar Kata kunci : in vitro; murbei; serikultur

  15. Solarna energija u priobalnom području Republike Hrvatske – danas i sutra


    Perčić, Marko; Franković, Bernard


    Ovaj rad daje sažeti pregled korištenja solarne energije u RH poglavito u priobalnom području. Izneseno je sadašnje stanje eksploatacije solarne energije, te buduće projekcije korištenja ovog obnovljivog izvora energije.

  16. Social Sutra: Yoga, identity, and health in New York’s changing neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Biswas


    Full Text Available Taking note of the rapid, visible expansion of yoga studios in American cities, this article explores the role of yoga as a social determinant of urban health and yoga’s entanglements with race and class identities. Who are the interpreters of yoga in America, and how has yoga, based on a premise of psychosomatic wholeness, paradoxically served as a prism for refracting social difference? Answers to these questions hold significant implications for the culture of health observed in cities today and possibilities for wellness. Through narrative inquiry, my argument centers on three identities that embody the role of yoga in health: the yoga teacher as healer, the yoga student as seeker of spiritually informed mind-body wellness, and the modern yoga practitioner as consumer of a physically focused, commercialized yoga.A recombination of the identities involved in yoga – healer, seeker, and consumer – can recover the possibilities for yoga to contribute to improved urban health across race and class.

  17. Transporting particulate material (United States)

    Aldred, Derek Leslie [North Hollywood, CA; Rader, Jeffrey A [North Hollywood, CA; Saunders, Timothy W [North Hollywood, CA


    A material transporting system comprises a material transporting apparatus (100) including a material transporting apparatus hopper structure (200, 202), which comprises at least one rotary transporting apparatus; a stationary hub structure (900) constraining and assisting the at least one rotary transporting apparatus; an outlet duct configuration (700) configured to permit material to exit therefrom and comprising at least one diverging portion (702, 702'); an outlet abutment configuration (800) configured to direct material to the outlet duct configuration; an outlet valve assembly from the material transporting system venting the material transporting system; and a moving wall configuration in the material transporting apparatus capable of assisting the material transporting apparatus in transporting material in the material transporting system. Material can be moved from the material transporting apparatus hopper structure to the outlet duct configuration through the at least one rotary transporting apparatus, the outlet abutment configuration, and the outlet valve assembly.

  18. Plant Transporter Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo

    Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a critical role for numerous biological processes, by controlling the movements of ions and molecules in and out of cells. In plants, transporters thus function as gatekeepers between the plant and its surrounding environment and between organs......, tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. Since plants are highly compartmentalized organisms with complex transportation infrastructures, they consequently have many transporters. However, the vast majority of predicted transporters have not yet been experimentally verified to have transport...... activity. This project contains a review of the implemented methods, which have led to plant transporter identification, and present our progress on creating a high-throughput functional genomics transporter identification platform....

  19. Transportation and the environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banister, D.; Anderton, K.; Bonilla, D.; Givoni, M.; Schwanen, T.


    The growth of CO2-intensive transport, mobility and the impact of transport on the environment are reviewed. The recent global exponential growth in transport is unsustainable and must end unless the transport sector can decarbonize. The paper examines solutions for low-carbon transport systems; the

  20. Transporting Handicapped Students. (United States)

    Turner, Dayton Ray

    The book presents guidelines for adaptive transportation measures for handicapped students. Part 1 considers the transportation cycle as a means to evaluate individual student competencies at all logical points during the transportation experience. The transportation cycle is reviewed from deciding to transport the student to gaining access to…

  1. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nnewi Igbo emerged as pioneer road transport entrepreneurs and charted this novel ..... and extended family systems and profits from other enterprises but also loans from banks, ... Ilodibe, A.E. (2001). Road transport management in Nigeria.

  2. Modern Transport Management Technologies. Transportation Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Ugnenko


    Full Text Available The article considers the theoretical aspects of modern transport management technologies and transport optimization. The paper demonstrates that the quantitative characteristics of transportation should be used for establishing an optimum criterion for making decisions on route optimization.Article in Russian 

  3. State transportation statistics 2009 (United States)


    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and : Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation : Statistics 2009, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the : District ...

  4. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  5. Journal of transportation engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    The Journal of Transportation Engineering contains technical and professional articles on the planning, design, construction, maintenance, and operation of air, highway, rail, and urban transportation...

  6. Smart Growth and Transportation (United States)

    Describes the relationship between smart growth and transportation, focusing smart and sustainable street design, transit-oriented development, parking management, sustainable transportation planning, and related resources.

  7. Water-transporting proteins. (United States)

    Zeuthen, Thomas


    Transport through lipids and aquaporins is osmotic and entirely driven by the difference in osmotic pressure. Water transport in cotransporters and uniporters is different: Water can be cotransported, energized by coupling to the substrate flux by a mechanism closely associated with protein. In the K(+)/Cl(-) and the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporters, water is entirely cotransported, while water transport in glucose uniporters and Na(+)-coupled transporters of nutrients and neurotransmitters takes place by both osmosis and cotransport. The molecular mechanism behind cotransport of water is not clear. It is associated with the substrate movements in aqueous pathways within the protein; a conventional unstirred layer mechanism can be ruled out, due to high rates of diffusion in the cytoplasm. The physiological roles of the various modes of water transport are reviewed in relation to epithelial transport. Epithelial water transport is energized by the movements of ions, but how the coupling takes place is uncertain. All epithelia can transport water uphill against an osmotic gradient, which is hard to explain by simple osmosis. Furthermore, genetic removal of aquaporins has not given support to osmosis as the exclusive mode of transport. Water cotransport can explain the coupling between ion and water transport, a major fraction of transepithelial water transport and uphill water transport. Aquaporins enhance water transport by utilizing osmotic gradients and cause the osmolarity of the transportate to approach isotonicity.

  8. Analysis of transport administrators and sustainable transport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A good transportation system planning and management is considered vital for any meaningful development in a given society and to a large extent, its success greatly depends on effective implementation of appropriate administrative machinery. The study examined roles and responsibilities of transport administrators in ...

  9. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than any other Igbo sub-group; the Nnewi Igbo emerged as pioneer road transport entrepreneurs and charted this novel economic enterprise with huge success. Some of these pioneer transport capitalists were J.C. Ulasi, L.P. Ojukwu, and A.E. Ilodibe. These indigenous entrepreneurs commercialized the revolution in ...

  10. Transportation Technology: Rail Transport and Logistics (United States)

    Lang, Aaron B.


    Transportation can simply be defined as the movement of goods, services, and people from one location to another. Without an efficient means to transport goods from place to place, the economy would be nothing like it is today. Throughout the history of the United States, American railroads have paved the way toward creating a nation of great…

  11. Transport research: Quo Vadis?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rust, FC


    Full Text Available It is well-recognised internationally that transport and transport infrastructure play a major role both in the stimulation of economic growth, creation of job opportunities and in poverty alleviation. This is of particular importance in South...

  12. Small Satellite Transporter Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective is to determine whether this small satellite transporter is capable of transporting at least four 6U CubeSats is possible for a given set of...

  13. Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification.

  14. Arizona transportation history. (United States)


    The Arizona transportation history project was conceived in anticipation of Arizonas centennial, which will be : celebrated in 2012. Following approval of the Arizona Centennial Plan in 2007, the Arizona Department of : Transportation (ADOT) recog...

  15. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  16. Pricing public transport services


    Jansson, Jan Owen; Holmgren, Johan; Ljungberg, Anders


    This chapter aims at outlining pricing policy for public transport that maximizes the social surplus, that is, the sum of the producer surplus and the consumer surplus, while internalizing possible system-external costs. It starts by presenting the door-to-door transport cost as a key concept in price theory for public transport, and then first principles of optimal pricing valid for all modes of public transport are laid down. These principles are applied to urban (short-distance) public tra...

  17. Groundwater flow and solute transport at the Mourquong saline-water disposal basin, Murray Basin, southeastern Australia (United States)

    Simmons, Craig; Narayan, Kumar; Woods, Juliette; Herczeg, Andrew


    Saline groundwater and drainage effluent from irrigation are commonly stored in some 200 natural and artificial saline-water disposal basins throughout the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia. Their impact on underlying aquifers and the River Murray, one of Australia's major water supplies, is of serious concern. In one such scheme, saline groundwater is pumped into Lake Mourquong, a natural groundwater discharge complex. The disposal basin is hydrodynamically restricted by low-permeability lacustrine clays, but there are vulnerable areas in the southeast where the clay is apparently missing. The extent of vertical and lateral leakage of basin brines and the processes controlling their migration are examined using (1) analyses of chloride and stable isotopes of water (2H/1H and 18O/16O) to infer mixing between regional groundwater and lake water, and (2) the variable-density groundwater flow and solute-transport code SUTRA. Hydrochemical results indicate that evaporated disposal water has moved at least 100 m in an easterly direction and that there is negligible movement of brines in a southerly direction towards the River Murray. The model is used to consider various management scenarios. Salt-load movement to the River Murray was highest in a "worst-case" scenario with irrigation employed between the basin and the River Murray. Present-day operating conditions lead to little, if any, direct movement of brine from the basin into the river. Résumé. Les eaux souterraines salées et les effluents de drainage de l'irrigation sont stockés dans environ 200 bassins naturels ou artificiels destinés à retenir les eaux salines dans tout le bassin de Murray-Darling, en Australie. Leur impact sur les aquifères sous-jacents et sur la rivière Murray, l'une des principales ressources en eau d'Australie, constitue un problème grave. Dans une telle situation, les eaux souterraines salines sont pompées dans le lac Mourquong, complexe dans lequel les nappes se d

  18. Teaching about Transportation. (United States)

    Paine, Carolyn; Arnold, Anne Jurmu


    A teaching unit on transportation compares the costs of various modes of transportation--private automobile, bus, and bicycle--in terms of energy efficiency and air pollution. Class projects on transportation are suggested, along with sources of further information and a reading list for children. (PP)

  19. How stressful is transportation? (United States)

    It is common for cattle to be transported multiple times during their production life cycle. Transportation events may include calves shipped to backgrounding facilities and feed yards, as well as pregnant cows that may be transported to sale barns or relocated due to drought to access a pasture or ...

  20. Transport statistics 1995

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Haan, ML


    Full Text Available This publication contains information on all major modes of transport in South Africa. The transport sector is placed in perspective relative to the macro economy and a number of important transport indicators are given. The document also contains...

  1. Assessing Sensitiveness to Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieb, Christoph; Suter, Stefan; Sánchez, Alfredo

    Summary The EU-project ASSET (ASessing SEnsitiveness to Transport) aims at developing and implementing a concise concept to assess transport sensitive areas (TSA) in a European context, i.e. areas in which transport leads to more serious impacts than in other areas. The aim of work package 2 (WP2...

  2. Competitiveness in Road Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Gammelgaard, Britta; Bruun, Poul

    Road transport is an important sector, connecting time and space of production and consumption. Its market conditions has changed. The EU single market implementation has increased price pressure due to supply of low cost road freight transport from counties with lower cost structures. Changes...... creation and to some extent road transport buyers in terms of more informed market knowledge....

  3. Using Telematics in Transport (United States)

    Mikulski, Jerzy

    Design and development of telematics transport systems represents a new approach to solving transportation problems. Telematics offers large opportunities to strengthen the positive features of transport (availability, mobility), while minimizing its negative impacts (e.g. environmental pollution, energy consumption, congestion, accidents, infrastructure construction costs) without any additional spending on investment.

  4. Microbial transport systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winkelmann, Günther


    ... transport is the plasma membrane, which may be accompanied by an outer membrane in the case of gram-negative bacteria. Due to their long evolutionary development, microbial cells are the most diverse with respect to transport. The various mechanisms of solute transport across these membranes are so diverse that it is surprising that cells can manage...

  5. Cabrillo College Transportation Study. (United States)

    Willett, Terrence

    This report provides results of the survey and other sources of information which have been used to develop a transportation management plan at Cabrillo College (California). In 2000, Cabrillo College organized a Transportation Management Committee to review the existing transportation situation and develop and implement a plan with the goal of…

  6. The Competitiveness of Public Transport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poliak Milos; Poliakova Adela; Mrnikova Michaela; Simurková Patricia; Jaskiewicz Marek; Jurecki Rafał


    Examining the competitiveness of public transport plays an important role because through public transport, the transport of passengers to schools, public healthcare establishments and work is ensured...

  7. Transportation and public health. (United States)

    Litman, Todd


    This article investigates various ways that transportation policy and planning decisions affect public health and better ways to incorporate public health objectives into transport planning. Conventional planning tends to consider some public health impacts, such as crash risk and pollution emissions measured per vehicle-kilometer, but generally ignores health problems resulting from less active transport (reduced walking and cycling activity) and the additional crashes and pollution caused by increased vehicle mileage. As a result, transport agencies tend to undervalue strategies that increase transport system diversity and reduce vehicle travel. This article identifies various win-win strategies that can help improve public health and other planning objectives.

  8. Hydrogen Sorption and Transport (United States)

    McNeece, C. J.; Hesse, M. A.


    Hydrogen is unique among aqueous ions, both in its importance for geochemical reactions, and in its complex transport behavior through reactive media. The structure of hydrogen reaction fronts can be analyzed in the advective limit of the transport equation. At local chemical equilibrium, sorption of hydrogen onto the media surface (sorption isotherm) controls reaction front morphology. Transport modeling thus necessitates accurate knowledge of surface chemistry. Though motivated by transport, sorption models are often parameterized against batch titration experiments. The validity of these parameterizations, in a transport setting, are seldom tested. The analytic solution to the transport equation gives an algebraic relationship between concentration velocity and equilibrium sorption behavior. In this study, we conduct a suite of column flow experiments through quartz sand. Hydrogen concentration breakthrough curves at the column outlet are used to infer the "transport sorption isotherm." These results are compared to the batch titration derived sorption isotherm. We find excellent agreement between the datasets. Our findings suggest that, for aqueous hydrogen, local chemical equilibrium is a valid assumption. With the goal of a predictive transport model, we parameterize various sorption models against this dataset. Models which incorporate electrostatic effects at the surface predict transport well. Nonelectrostatic models such as the Kd, Langmuir, and Freundlich models fail. These results are particularly compelling as nonelectrostatic models are often employed to predict hydrogen transport in many reactive transport code.


    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe ST/HM


    A new EDH document entitled 'Transport/Handling Request' will be in operation as of Monday, 11th February 2002, when the corresponding icon will be accessible from the EDH desktop, together with the application instructions. This EDH form will replace the paper-format transport/handling request form for all activities involving the transport of equipment and materials. However, the paper form will still be used for all vehicle-hire requests. The introduction of the EDH transport/handling request form is accompanied by the establishment of the following time limits for the various services concerned: 24 hours for the removal of office items, 48 hours for the transport of heavy items (of up to 6 metric tons and of standard road width), 5 working days for a crane operation, extra-heavy transport operation or complete removal, 5 working days for all transport operations relating to LHC installation. ST/HM Group, Logistics Section Tel: 72672 - 72202

  10. Transportation System Requirements Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

  11. Transport of radioactive substances; Der Transport radioaktiver Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  12. Transport, energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Transportation demands a large and increasing share of total energy consumption in Europe. At the same time many European countries are facing difficult decisions in achieving their long term environmental goals. Therefore energy policy, environmental policy and transport policy should be seen and discussed in a common perspective. In particular the relative contribution from the transport sector and the energy sector involves a number of important and difficult issues. The aim of the conference was to bring together economists, scientists, manufactures, energy planners, transport planners, and decision makers in order to discuss the importance of the transport sector in relation to energy demand and long term environmental goals. General conference sessions covered. Trends in Transport Energy Demand and Environmental constraints, Technological Development and New Transport Systems, Lifestyle Changes and the Transport Sector, Megacities: Solutions to the Transport and Air Pollution Problems, Effectiveness of Public Policies, Transport and Energy sector, and Methods, Models and Data. The conference took place at Hotel Marienlyst, Elsinore, Denmark and attracted wide interest. The participants represented 14 different countries covering international organisations, ministries, universities, research centres, consulting firms, industry etc. (EG)

  13. Energy and transport. (United States)

    Woodcock, James; Banister, David; Edwards, Phil; Prentice, Andrew M; Roberts, Ian


    We examine the links between fossil-fuel-based transportation, greenhouse-gas emissions, and health. Transport-related carbon emissions are rising and there is increasing consensus that the growth in motorised land vehicles and aviation is incompatible with averting serious climate change. The energy intensity of land transport correlates with its adverse health effects. Adverse health effects occur through climate change, road-traffic injuries, physical inactivity, urban air pollution, energy-related conflict, and environmental degradation. For the world's poor people, walking is the main mode of transport, but such populations often experience the most from the harms of energy-intensive transport. New energy sources and improvements in vehicle design and in information technology are necessary but not sufficient to reduce transport-related carbon emissions without accompanying behavioural change. By contrast, active transport has the potential to improve health and equity, and reduce emissions. Cities require safe and pleasant environments for active transport with destinations in easy reach and, for longer journeys, public transport that is powered by renewable energy, thus providing high levels of accessibility without car use. Much investment in major road projects does not meet the transport needs of poor people, especially women whose trips are primarily local and off road. Sustainable development is better promoted through improving walking and cycling infrastructures, increasing access to cycles, and investment in transport services for essential needs. Our model of London shows how increased active transport could help achieve substantial reductions in emissions by 2030 while improving population health. There exists the potential for a global contraction and convergence in use of fossil-fuel energy for transport to benefit health and achieve sustainability.

  14. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty


    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  15. Means of Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen


    . According to film theorist Julian Smith, the automobile has been just as much “embraced … as a form of emotional transport, the state or condition of being transported by ecstasy” as “perceived as a mode of transportation in the primary and ordinary sense of the word.” This paper analyses the ways in which...... William Carlos Williams negotiates the relationship between these two kinds of automotive transport in some of his poetic and poetic prose writings from the period when the car was introduced on a more general scale in America. Intense moments of emotional and imaginative transport in Williams are often......’s most time-honoured trope: metaphor, or the figure of transport, as it is called in George Puttenham’s English translation of the Greek metaphorá....

  16. Transport Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Transport is the sector with the highest final energy consumption and, without any significant policy changes, is forecast to remain so. In 2008, the IEA published 25 energy efficiency recommendations, among which four are for the transport sector. The recommendations focus on road transport and include policies on improving tyre energy efficiency, fuel economy standards for both light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles, and eco-driving. Implementation of the recommendations has been weaker in the transport sector than others. This paper updates the progress that has been made in implementing the transport energy efficiency recommendations in IEA countries since March 2009. Many countries have in the last year moved from 'planning to implement' to 'implementation underway', but none have fully implemented all transport energy efficiency recommendations. The IEA calls therefore for full and immediate implementation of the recommendations.

  17. Molecular electronic junction transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Gemma C.; Herrmann, Carmen; Ratner, Mark


    Whenasinglemolecule,oracollectionofmolecules,isplacedbetween two electrodes and voltage is applied, one has a molecular transport junction. We discuss such junctions, their properties, their description, and some of their applications. The discussion is qualitative rather than quantitative......, and focuses on mechanism, structure/function relations, regimes and mechanisms of transport, some molecular regularities, and some substantial challenges facing the field. Because there are many regimes and mechanisms in transport junctions, we will discuss time scales, geometries, and inelastic scattering...

  18. Human peptide transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen


    Peptide transporters are epithelial solute carriers. Their functional role has been characterised in the small intestine and proximal tubules, where they are involved in absorption of dietary peptides and peptide reabsorption, respectively. Currently, two peptide transporters, PepT1 and PepT2...... to peptide transporters, as well as their role in drug delivery and in potential future drug design and targeted tissue delivery of peptides and peptidomimetics....

  19. External Costs of Transport




    This study is an update of a former UIC study on external effects (IFRAS / IWW 2000). It aims at improving the empirical basis of external costs of transport based on the actual state of the art of cost estimation methodologies reflecting also recent studies on external costs of transport on a European level (especially UNITE).The following dimensions are considered:- cost categories- contries- base year- differentiation by means of transport 

  20. Structure of Urea Transporters


    Levin, Elena J.; Zhou, Ming


    Members of the urea transporter (UT) family mediate rapid, selective transport of urea down its concentration gradient. To date, crystal structures of two evolutionarily distant UTs have been solved. These structures reveal a common UT fold involving two structurally homologous domains that encircle a continuous membrane-spanning pore, and indicate that UTs transport urea via a channel-like mechanism. Examination of the conserved architecture of the pore, combined with crystal structures of l...

  1. Intelligent Freigth Transport Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overø, Helene Martine; Larsen, Allan; Røpke, Stefan


    The Danish innovation project entitled “Intelligent Freight Transport Systems” aims at developing prototype systems integrating public intelligent transport systems (ITS) with the technology in vehicles and equipment as well as the IT-systems at various transport companies. The objective...... is to enhance the efficiency and lower the environmental impact in freight transport. In this paper, a pilot project involving real-time waste collection at a Danish waste collection company is described, and a solution approach is proposed. The problem corresponds to the dynamic version of the waste collection...

  2. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, T.; Hansen, K. K.; Hoffmeyer, P.


    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron


    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa


    Full Text Available The article describes the common EU policy on maritime transport, which comprises almost 80% of the volume of external trade of the Union and about 40% of internal transport needs. The first part of the paper presents the origins of the common maritime transport policy and the difficulties encountered during its initial formation. Subsequently, the evolution of the concepts of the policy and its current shape is discussed. The final, substantial part of the article describes the main aims and directions of the EU maritime transport policy and includes an evaluation of the effects of the policy.

  5. Urban transportation projects conceptualised:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    is straightforward: transportation projects transform cities. The paradoxical reality thus is that a problem that has been traditionally conceptualized in technical terms (transportation engineering, transportation economics, planning theory, traffic engineering, urban planning, etc.), has tremendous consequences...... operation when discussing transportation projects in big cities. The tradition of Science and Technology Studies might have provided some clues. In the following paper we discuss the most prominent aspects of some theories in STS in order to understand and conceptualize the cases of Bogotá and Copenhagen...

  6. Basic Electron Transport (United States)

    Hickey, B. J.; Morgan, G. J.; Howson, M. A.

    This chapter will take you through a simple introduction to transport theory covering the Boltzmann equation, the Fuchs-Sondheimer model for thin films, the normal magnetoresistance and quantum interference effects in metals with strong electron scattering. At the end of the chapter we will also introduce you to a number of the basic techniques involved in electron transport measurements. All of this is by way of introduction to basic transport properties common to all metals. In later chapters these ideas will be developed and applied to systems in which spin dependent transport is important.

  7. Hopping transport in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Pollak, M


    The hopping process, which differs substantially from conventional transport processes in crystals, is the central process in the transport phenomena discussed in this book. Throughout the book the term ``hopping'' is defined as the inelastic tunneling transfer of an electron between two localized electronic states centered at different locations. Such processes do not occur in conventional electronic transport in solids, since localized states are not compatible with the translational symmetry of crystals.The rapid growth of interest in hopping transport has followed in the footsteps of the

  8. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. Between 1990 and 1924, the British colonial administration embarked upon a massive road-building programme throughout the colony. The rapid expansion of road development was accompanied by the introduction of motor vehicles. Motor transport industry was dominated by expatriates in the 1920s. From the ...

  9. Pupil Transportation Management. (United States)

    Miller, Anthony R.

    The safest means of transportation in the United States is the school bus fleet. Each school day, over 350,000 school buses transport about 22,000,000 children ages 3 to 21--from wheelchair pupils to varsity football players--to and from school in weather conditions ranging from those for Fairbanks, Alaska, to those typical of Cave Creek, Arizona.…

  10. Macropores and macropore transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Lamandé, Mathieu; Torp, Søren Bent


    Preferential transport of water through soil macropores is a governing process in the facilitated transport of strongly sorbing compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between macropore density and the hydraulic conductivity of the soil and to test the sampling...

  11. Passenger transport research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T


    Full Text Available In South Africa, airport and airline services epitomise what many would like to see in everyday public transport. The CSIR investigates what it will take to provide a commercial public transport service in South Africa which resembles commercial air...

  12. Bronchial mucus transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, Cees P.

    Effective clearance of inhaled particles requires mucus production and continuous mucus transport from the lower airways to the oropharynx. Mucus production takes place mainly in the peripheral airways. Mucus transport is achieved by the action of the ciliated cells that cover the inner surface of

  13. Nanopipettes for Metal Transport (United States)

    Svensson, K.; Olin, H.; Olsson, E.


    Here we demonstrate, for the first time experimentally, a nanopipette action for metals using multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The process relies on electromigration forces, created at high electron current densities, enabling the transport of material inside the hollow core of carbon nanotubes. In this way nanoparticles of iron were transported to and from electrically conducting substrates.

  14. Transport of sugars. (United States)

    Chen, Li-Qing; Cheung, Lily S; Feng, Liang; Tanner, Widmar; Frommer, Wolf B


    Soluble sugars serve five main purposes in multicellular organisms: as sources of carbon skeletons, osmolytes, signals, and transient energy storage and as transport molecules. Most sugars are derived from photosynthetic organisms, particularly plants. In multicellular organisms, some cells specialize in providing sugars to other cells (e.g., intestinal and liver cells in animals, photosynthetic cells in plants), whereas others depend completely on an external supply (e.g., brain cells, roots and seeds). This cellular exchange of sugars requires transport proteins to mediate uptake or release from cells or subcellular compartments. Thus, not surprisingly, sugar transport is critical for plants, animals, and humans. At present, three classes of eukaryotic sugar transporters have been characterized, namely the glucose transporters (GLUTs), sodium-glucose symporters (SGLTs), and SWEETs. This review presents the history and state of the art of sugar transporter research, covering genetics, biochemistry, and physiology-from their identification and characterization to their structure, function, and physiology. In humans, understanding sugar transport has therapeutic importance (e.g., addressing diabetes or limiting access of cancer cells to sugars), and in plants, these transporters are critical for crop yield and pathogen susceptibility.

  15. Transportation: Topic Paper E. (United States)

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    As one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, this paper reviews the issue of transportation services. In the area of urban mass transit, four relevant pieces of legislation and public transportation accessibility regulations are cited, and cost issues are explored. Paratransit systems,…

  16. Conservation in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A nationwide examination was made of grassroots energy conservation programs related to transportation. Information compiled from civic groups, trade associations, and corporations is included on driver awareness/mass transit; travel; and ride sharing. It is concluded that a willingness by the public to cooperate in transportation energy conservation exists and should be exploited. (LCL)

  17. Biofuels for sustainable transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, S.


    Biomass is an attractive energy source, and transportation fuels made from biomass offer a number of benefits. Developing the technology to produce and use biofuels will create transportation fuel options that can positively impact the national energy security, the economy, and the environment. Biofuels include ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, biocrude, and methane.

  18. Transport and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj


    Ph.D. study of the scope for sustainable transport in Denmark, and particularly of the role of the motor vehicle in this context. The distribution of groceries is used as case study of the introduction of the motor vehicle in Denmark, concluding that this has resulted in increases of the transport...

  19. Transport, environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joumard, Robert; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Kehagia, Fotini


    This report is the final report of the action COST 356 'EST - Towards the definition of a measurable environmentally sustainable transport'. It tries to answer the following questions: How can environmental impacts of transport be measured? How can measurements be transformed into operational...... indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? Firstly we provide definition of 'indicator of environmental sustainability in transport'. The functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators as measurement tools, and as decision...... support tools are discussed. We define what "environmental sustainability in transport" may mean through the transport system, the concepts of sustainable development and of environment. The concept of 'chain of causality' between a source and a final target is developed, as a common reference...

  20. Planning Public Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex


    This good practice guide is composed for the master course 13120 Public Transport Planning held at the Department of Transport, Technical University of Denmark. It is intended to use as guide in the different planning aspects and assignments of the course. Since the course is about the planning...... of new public transport infrastructure this guide also focuses on the planning of new infrastructure. Furthermore, the new infrastructure in the course is expected to be a light rail and even though this guide aims at being general for public transport some of the issues evidently become more relevant...... will enable a capability for planning both bus and rail. The guide is build as a full sketch investigation of a new public transport project ranging chronological from project clarification to physical and timetable planning to traffic modeling and project appraisal. The same steps that are expected...

  1. Modeling Transport Layer Protocols (United States)

    Sasnauskas, Raimondas; Weingaertner, Elias

    In a layered communication architecture, transport layer protocols handle the data exchange between processes on different hosts over potentially lossy communication channels. Typically, transport layer protocols are either connection-oriented or are based on the transmission of individual datagrams. Well known transport protocols are the connection-oriented Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) [372] and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) [370] as well as the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) [340] and DCCP, the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol [259]. In this chapter, we focus on the modeling process of the transport layer. While we mostly use TCP and UDP as a base of comparison from this point, we emphasize that the methodologies discussed further on are conferrable to virtually any transport layer in any layered communication architecture.

  2. Logistic innovations in transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Antonowicz


    Full Text Available Introduction: The article discusses the issue of logistic innovations in transport. The essentials of logistic innovations in transport together with some examples of specific innovations are presented. The role of the client's needs in transport innovations is indicated. The most vital postulates affecting the innovativeness of shipping companies and derived from the author's experience as well as scholarly publications, are time, safety, reliability as well as comprehensiveness of service offer. Following the analysis of the issue, and on the grounds of Kaizen's and Lean's method, the concept of continuous innovations is suggested as very useful for the development of transport. The potential of clusters as the source of logistic innovations in transport is emphasised. Methods: The discussion of the issue was preceded by the author's analysis of written sources on innovativeness, the evaluation of ratings of innovativeness as well as the analysis of rewarded innovative solutions in transport subsequent to the businesses participation in the programme of innovative solutions in transport. The role of innovation practical business operations is argued following the analysis of some strategic documents such as: 2011 White Paper and the Strategy for the Development of Transport by 2020 adopted by the Polish government in 2013. Aim: The aim of the article is to present the role and significance of the issue of logistic innovations in transport and to cite instances of practical solutions implemented by shipping companies, the solutions which resulted in measurable effects. Following the author's observation of the instances of innovative solutions as well as his analysis of the ratings of innovativeness, the article aims to present the conclusions as for the specific kinds of activities which are indispensable to foster innovativeness in transport. Conclusions: The conclusions derived from the author's analyses and observations show that logistic

  3. Transports and environment; Transports et environnements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In the framework of the greenhouse gases reduction, this study proposes many advices to control the fuel consumption of the vehicles and to change habits in the transportation sector. It presents also the alternatives to the pollutant today vehicles in the domain of the vehicles and buses fuels but also the new motors. Many Internet addresses are provided to complete the presentation. (A.L.B.)

  4. Evaluation of public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Kahr, Kjeld; Petersen, Peter Bo


    This paper discusses a method to evaluate sceduled, fixed-route public transport. One major evaluation criterion in the method is total travel time, subdivided into walking time, waiting time, time on vehicle, transfer time, and concealed waiting time. The other major criterion is cost incurred...... results suitable to open planning, for instance with citizen participation. Five examples of application of the method are given: (1) evaluation of changes in suburban bus services; (2) evaluation of geographical localities as regards public transport; (3) evaluation of circular bus routes; (4) evaluation...... of flexible work hours versus fixed work hours and, finally; (5) production of user information on transport service....

  5. Water-transporting proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas


    Transport through lipids and aquaporins is osmotic and entirely driven by the difference in osmotic pressure. Water transport in cotransporters and uniporters is different: Water can be cotransported, energized by coupling to the substrate flux by a mechanism closely associated with protein...... is not clear. It is associated with the substrate movements in aqueous pathways within the protein; a conventional unstirred layer mechanism can be ruled out, due to high rates of diffusion in the cytoplasm. The physiological roles of the various modes of water transport are reviewed in relation to epithelial...

  6. El transporte continuado


    Juan y Mateu, Fernando


    En el contrato de transporte continuado, el porteador se obliga frente al cargador a realizar una serie de prestaciones de transporte, durante un periodo de tiempo determinado o indefinido, a cambio de un precio. La Ley del Contrato de Transporte Terrestre de Mercancías de 2009, además de ofrecer una definición de esta modalidad contractual (art. 8), dedica varios preceptos a regular ciertos aspectos de su régimen jurídico, como son la formalización (art. 16), el pago del pr...

  7. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber


    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  8. Consideration of transport logistics hubs in freight transport demand models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huber, Stefan; Klauenberg, Jens; Thaller, Carina


    The increasing importance of logistics and its effects on transportation processes have been considered in freight transport demand modelling by new model developments incorporating several logistics aspects...

  9. NJ transportation fact book, 2007 (United States)


    The New Jersey Transportation Fact Book 2006-07 presents information about the New Jersey Department of Transportation : and other agencies that provide transportation services in New Jersey. We hope it will prove helpful.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cecilia STĂNCIULESCU


    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, the relevance of transport activities in relation to tourism activities is essential, because it is extremely important and necessary to offer feasible information about tourism services to help consumer to choose the mode of travel to destinations ideal holiday. The methods used in the development of this hypothesis were explanation, exemplification (brief presentation of each mode of transport comparison etc. Analyzing the current situation of national, European and World Wide tourism transportation, the paper proposes practical applications able to explain that the conduct of economic activities as an integral part of the sector of trade and services within a national economy, would not be possible without the involvement of transport, whether by road, rail and air and naval. The results of the analysis are perfectly applicable offering guests the opportunity to reach the most remote corners of the world in a short time, high degree of comfort and affordable price.

  11. Transportation Network Topologies (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia (Editor)


    The existing U.S. hub-and-spoke air transportation system is reaching saturation. Major aspects of the current system, such as capacity, safety, mobility, customer satisfaction, security, communications, and ecological effects, require improvements. The changing dynamics - increased presence of general aviation, unmanned autonomous vehicles, military aircraft in civil airspace as part of homeland defense - contributes to growing complexity of airspace. The system has proven remarkably resistant to change. NASA Langley Research Center and the National Institute of Aerospace conducted a workshop on Transportation Network Topologies on 9-10 December 2003 in Williamsburg, Virginia. The workshop aimed to examine the feasibility of traditional methods for complex system analysis and design as well as potential novel alternatives in application to transportation systems, identify state-of-the-art models and methods, conduct gap analysis, and thus to lay a foundation for establishing a focused research program in complex systems applied to air transportation.

  12. Novel Surface Transportation Modes (United States)


    This report summarizes an initial stage investigation into current research and development of alternative modal concepts. The project goals were to gain a better understanding of novel surface transportation concepts that fall outside of the Federal...

  13. Crew Transportation Operations Standards (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)


    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  14. Transport Research Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortúzar, Juan de Dios; Cherchi, Elisabetta; Rizzi, Luis


    Transport is a large, multidisciplinary and fascinating field, encompassing vastly different areas of research. In fact transport interests span from not very well understood (in fieldwork) issues related with survey methods to highly complex questions associated with the dynamic equilibration...... of supply and demand in strategic planning contexts; the latter involving large zoning systems, huge multimodal networks and highly complex dynamic modelling approaches (Mahmassani, 2001). But questions also arise at a more macro level (and in a different time span) regarding the interaction of transport...... and land use, and also at the more micro level with the dynamics of road traffic and public transport modelling, an area which is particularly interesting due to its high complexity in less developed nations (de Cea et al., 2005). We do not have the expertise or the space to dwell on all these issues...

  15. Essays in Transport Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abegaz, Dereje Fentie

    The PhD thesis consists of four self-contained chapters in the area of Transport Economics. The main aim of the thesis is not to produce a single message which is supported by all four chapters. Rather, each chapter is written to make a contribution of its own. The thesis covers a wide range...... Symposium for the European Association for Research in Transportation, Leeds, UK, 10-12 September, 2014.) Chapter 2 is titled “Valuation of travel time variability with endogenous scheduling iv of a meeting time”, and is a joint work with Mogens Fosgerau. The chapter involves a theoretical model to examine....... (Previous versions of this paper were presented at the 2nd Symposium of the European Association for Research in Transportation, Stockholm, 4-6 Sept, 2013; and at the ITEA’s Annual Conference and Summer School on Transportation Economics, Toulouse, 2–6 June, 2014.) This paper is related the scheduling model...

  16. Modelling Ballast Water Transport

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    Ballast water discharges in the coastal environs have caused a great concern over the recent periods as they account for transporting marine organisms from one part of the world to the other. The movement of discharged ballast water as well...

  17. Department of Transportation (United States)

    ... Find Your State Transportation Department 5 Star Automobile Crash Test Ratings Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance Register your Unmanned Aircraft or Drone DOT Careers Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE) ...

  18. Improved electron transport layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention provides: a method of preparing a coating ink for forming a zinc oxide electron transport layer, comprising mixing zinc acetate and a wetting agent in water or methanol; a coating ink comprising zinc acetate and a wetting agent in aqueous solution or methanolic solution......; a method of preparing a zinc oxide electron transporting layer, which method comprises: i) coating a substrate with the coating ink of the present invention to form a film; ii) drying the film; and iii) heating the dry film to convert the zinc acetate substantially to ZnO; a method of preparing an organic...... photovoltaic device or an organic LED having a zinc oxide electron transport layer, the method comprising, in this order: a) providing a substrate bearing a first electrode layer; b) forming an electron transport layer according to the following method: i) coating a coating ink comprising an ink according...

  19. Accident resistant transport container (United States)

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  20. Interfacial transport phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Slattery, John C; Oh, Eun-Suok


    Revised and updated extensively from the previous editionDiscusses transport phenomena at common lines or three-phase lines of contactProvides a comprehensive summary about the extensions of continuum mechanics to the nanoscale.

  1. Animal transportation networks (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya


    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  2. Prehospital transported patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Camilla Louise Nørgaard; Brabrand, M.; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg


    Introduction The survival of patients transported by ambulance to the emergency department (ED) depends on clinical conditions, patient-related factors and organisational prehospital set up. Data and information concerning patients in the prehospital system could form a valuable resource...... for assessing potential risk factors associated with adverse outcomes and mortality. Our aim was to describe ambulance transports to the ED and identify prognostic factors accessible in the prehospital phase and associated with 7-day mortality. Methods We included all adult patients (>18 years) with a first......-time ambulance transport to the ED at Odense University Hospital in the period 1 April 2012 to 30 September 2013. Ambulance personnel recorded vital signs and other clinical findings on a structured form on paper during the ambulance transport. Each contact was linked to information from population...

  3. Manpower and Transportation Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, S.W.


    This thesis studies three routing and scheduling problems arising in manpower and transportation planning. These problems are rooted in real applications, and carry interesting characteristics. By exploiting the structures of the problems, this thesis provides effective mathematical models and

  4. Energy and transportation(*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans J.


    Full Text Available Transportation takes a considerable and increasing fraction of the energy use worldwide, and more than half the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The advantage of using internal combustion engines is that the energy density of liquid fuels is extremely high. The disadvantage is that gasoline and diesel engines have a poor performance: 20 to 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships and aircraft. In addition, the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. New and promising developments in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems, like Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, are also discussed.

  5. Iowa Department of Transportation (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Iowa Department of Transportation, a state agency with its primary office located at 800 Lincoln Way, Ames, IA 50010, for alleged violations at two roadway construction pro

  6. Nebraska Department of Transportation (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Nebraska Department of Transportation, a state agency located at 1500 Highway 2, Lincoln, NE 68509, for alleged violations of its municipal separate stormwater sewer sy

  7. Transport statistics 1996

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shepperson, L


    Full Text Available This publication contains transport and related statistics on roads, vehicles, infrastructure, passengers, freight, rail, air, maritime and road traffic, and international comparisons. The information compiled in this publication has been gathered...

  8. 2002 Industry Study: Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, James


    .... America's transportation system is also a critical element of national power. It enables the swift mobilization of the military and supports the sustainment of the armed forces during long-term conflict...

  9. Urban regeneration and transportation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V


    Full Text Available , the physical environment often hinders patterns human activity, and none more than transportation systems. This is all the more regrettable as investment in the physical environment, especially in the infrastructure supporting that physical environment, is a...

  10. Transportation Emissions: some basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.


    . The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce some basic concepts that are relevant in the quest of green transportation logistics. First, we present the basics of estimating emissions from transportation activities, the current statistics and future trends, as well as the total impact of air emissions...... of the energy efficiency gap and examines why governments and companies may forego cost-effective investments in energy efficiency, even though they could significantly reduce energy consumption at a lower cost....

  11. Transport Infrastructure Slot Allocation


    Koolstra, K.


    In this thesis, transport infrastructure slot allocation has been studied, focusing on selection slot allocation, i.e. on longer-term slot allocation decisions determining the traffic patterns served by infrastructure bottlenecks, rather than timetable-related slot allocation problems. The allocation of infrastructure capacity among carriers is a major issue in various transport infrastructure sectors, and therefore a theoretical framework on slot allocation would be desirable to support rati...

  12. [Recommendations for neonatal transport]. (United States)

    Moreno Hernando, J; Thió Lluch, M; Salguero García, E; Rite Gracia, S; Fernández Lorenzo, J R; Echaniz Urcelay, I; Botet Mussons, F; Herranz Carrillo, G; Sánchez Luna, M


    During pregnancy, it is not always possible to identify maternal or foetal risk factors. Infants requiring specialised medical care are not always born in centres providing intensive care and will need to be transferred to a referral centre where intensive care can be provided. Therefore Neonatal Transport needs to be considered as part of the organisation of perinatal health care. The aim of Neonatal Transport is to transfer a newborn infant requiring intensive care to a centre where specialised resources and experience can be provided for the appropriate assessment and continuing treatment of a sick newborn infant. Intrauterine transfer is the ideal mode of transport when the birth of an infant with risk factors is diagnosed. Unfortunately, not all problems can be detected in advance with enough time to safely transfer a pregnant woman. Around 30- 50% of risk factors will be diagnosed during labour or soon after birth. Therefore, it is important to have the knowledge and resources to resuscitate and stabilise a newborn infant, as well as a specialised neonatal transport system. With this specialised transport it is possible to transfer newly born infants with the same level of care that they would receive if they had been born in a referral hospital, without increasing their risks or affecting the wellbeing of the newborn. The Standards Committee of the Spanish Society of Neonatology reviewed and updated recommendations for intrauterine transport and indications for neonatal transfer. They also reviewed organisational and logistic factors involved with performing neonatal transport. The Committee review included the type of personnel who should be involved; communication between referral and receiving hospitals; documentation; mode of transport; equipment to stabilise newly born infants; management during transfer, and admission at the referral hospital. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Transportation and its Infrastructure


    Ribeiro, Suzana K; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Beuthe, Michel; Gasca, Jorge; Greene, David; Lee, David S.; Muromachi, Yasunori; Newton, Peter J.; Plotkin, Steven; Sperling, Daniel; Wit, Ron; Zhou, Peter J


    Transport activity, a key component of economic development and human welfare, is increasing around the world as economies grow. For most policymakers, the most pressing problems associated with this increasing transport activity are traffic fatalities and injuries, congestion, air pollution and petroleum dependence. These problems are especially acute in the most rapidly growing economies of the developing world. Mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can take its place among these other ...

  14. Sustainable Transport Data Collection and Application: China Urban Transport Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Jiang


    Full Text Available Transport policy making process of national and local governments should be supported by a comprehensive database to ensure a sustainable and healthy development of urban transport. China Urban Transport Database (CUTD has been built to play such a role. This paper is to make an introduction of CUTD framework including user management, data warehouse, and application modules. Considering the urban transport development features of Chinese cities, sustainable urban transport development indicators are proposed to evaluate the public transport service level in Chinese cities. International urban transport knowledge base is developed as well. CUTD has been applied in urban transport data processing, urban transport management, and urban transport performance evaluation in national and local transport research agencies, operators, and governments in China, and it will be applied to a broader range of fields.

  15. Bioreactor Mass Transport Studies (United States)

    Kleis, Stanley J.; Begley, Cynthia M.


    The objectives of the proposed research efforts were to develop both a simulation tool and a series of experiments to provide a quantitative assessment of mass transport in the NASA rotating wall perfused vessel (RWPV) bioreactor to be flown on EDU#2. This effort consisted of a literature review of bioreactor mass transport studies, the extension of an existing scalar transport computer simulation to include production and utilization of the scalar, and the evaluation of experimental techniques for determining mass transport in these vessels. Since mass transport at the cell surface is determined primarily by the relative motion of the cell assemblage and the surrounding fluid, a detailed assessment of the relative motion was conducted. Results of the simulations of the motion of spheres in the RWPV under microgravity conditions are compared with flight data from EDU#1 flown on STS-70. The mass transport across the cell membrane depends upon the environment, the cell type, and the biological state of the cell. Results from a literature review of cell requirements of several scalars are presented. As a first approximation, a model with a uniform spatial distribution of utilization or production was developed and results from these simulations are presented. There were two candidate processes considered for the experimental mass transport evaluations. The first was to measure the dissolution rate of solid or gel beads. The second was to measure the induced fluorescence of beads as a stimulant (for example hydrogen peroxide) is infused into the vessel. Either technique would use video taped images of the process for recording the quantitative results. Results of preliminary tests of these techniques are discussed.

  16. Paleoclassical transport explains electron transport barriers in RTP and TEXTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Callen, J.D.


    The recently developed paleoclassical transport model sets the minimum level of electron thermal transport in a tokamak. This transport level has proven to be in good agreement with experimental observations in many cases when fluctuation-induced anomalous transport is small, i.e. in (near-) ohmic

  17. Transport of radioactive materials; Transporte de materiais radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This ninth chapter presents de CNEN-NE--5.01 norm 'Transport of radioactive material'; the specifications of the radioactive materials for transport; the tests of the packages; the requests for controlling the transport and the responsibilities during the transport of radioactive material.

  18. Intelligent Transport Systems in the Management of Road Transportation (United States)

    Kalupová, Blanka; Hlavoň, Ivan


    Extension of European Union causes increase of free transfer of people and goods. At the same time they raised the problems associated with the transport, e.g. congestion and related accidents on roads, air traffic delays and more. To increase the efficiency and safety of transport, the European Commission supports the introduction of intelligent transport systems and services in all transport sectors. Implementation of intelligent transport systems and services in the road transport reduces accident frequency, increases the capacity of existing infrastructure and reduces congestions. Use of toll systems provides resources needed for the construction and operation of a new road network, improves public transport, cycling transport and walking transport, and also their multimodal integration with individual car transport.

  19. A new transport hub

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio


    CERN’s new Mobility Centre, allowing you to switch easily from one mode of transport to another, has just been officially opened.   Inauguration of the CERN Mobility Centre by Martin Steinacher, Director for Finance and Human Resources, and Lluis Miralles, Head of the SMB department. CERN’s new Mobility Centre, on the car park next to the Globe of Science and Innovation was officially opened on Tuesday, 22 March. The centre brings together all of CERN’s transport options in a single location. "Our aim is to create an intermodal hub where CERN users and personnel can switch from one mode of transport to another, and from CERN transport to public transport," explains Lluis Miralles, head of the Site Management and Buildings (SMB) department. The Mobility Centre incorporates the CERN bike and car rental services, the self-service car- and bike-sharing schemes, and SIXT car rental facilities (for long-distance journeys). It is located right ne...

  20. Bæredygtig transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, Henning de; Søndergaard, Mads


    I denne artikel sættes fokus på bæredygtighed og transport. Baggrunden for artiklen er en undersøgelse af status for bæredygtig transport i et antal danske virksomheder i samarbejde med DHL. Indledningen giver en baggrund for fokus på bæredygtighed, efterfølgende sættes der fokus på "Green SCM......" for at afklare hvad det indeholder, definitioner mv. Dette er udgangspunktet for en præsentation af resultaterne fra undersøgelsen af bæredygtig transport. Undersøgelsen opsummeres og leder frem til en række implikationer for henholdsvis kunder (transportkøberne) og transportleverandørerne....

  1. Transportation Institutional Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This Institutional Plan is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information, discusses the purposes of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system, and describes the projected system and the plans for its integrated development. Chapter 2 discusses the major participants who must interact to build the system. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will foster wide participation in program planning and implementation and provides a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. Also included in this Plan are four appendices. Of particular importance is Appendix A, which includes detailed discussion of specific transportation issues. Appendices B, C, and D provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions.

  2. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)


    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  3. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter


    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  4. Appraisal of Transport Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Vestergaard

    The evaluation of transport projects has traditionally been based on quantitative descriptions of selected impacts by the use of cost-benefit analysis (CBA). However, environmental impacts are now taking into consideration when decisions have to be made, regarding which large transport projects...... complexity. Optimisation has been replaced with satisficing, where satisficing is defined as finding an acceptable or satisfactory solution to a problem instead of a socio-economical optimal solution. This calls for new approaches of appraising transport projects that goes beyond what the classical CBA...... projects: • How to reconcile socio-economic and public acceptance to obtain decisions that are both rational and legitimate • How to involve stakeholders in the appraisal • How to apply robustness as mean to improve the appraisal The examination of these main focuses has been two-folded: For each question...

  5. Water transport in brain:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacAulay, Nanna; Hamann, Steffan; Zeuthen, Thomas


    It is generally accepted that cotransporters transport water in addition to their normal substrates, although the precise mechanism is debated; both active and passive modes of transport have been suggested. The magnitude of the water flux mediated by cotransporters may well be significant: both...... the number of cotransporters per cell and the unit water permeability are high. For example, the Na(+)-glutamate cotransporter (EAAT1) has a unit water permeability one tenth of that of aquaporin (AQP) 1. Cotransporters are widely distributed in the brain and participate in several vital functions: inorganic......(+)-lactate cotransporters. We have previously determined water transport capacities for these cotransporters in model systems (Xenopus oocytes, cell cultures, and in vitro preparations), and will discuss their role in water homeostasis of the astroglial cell under both normo- and pathophysiologal situations. Astroglia...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Kuznetsov


    Full Text Available Main aspects that determine conditions of transportation industry effective management and decrease of transportation expenses are discussed. Theoretical concepts making it possible to solve the problem of scientific management of the whole country’s goods transportation costs are provided for. Main approaches are presented to the solution of motor transport operation ecological optimization problem as well as to the rise of motor transport workers’ labor productivity, to the increase of transportation vehicles use efficiency and to determine functional capacity of the motor transport complex.

  7. Sediment transport mechanics (United States)

    Ballio, Francesco; Tait, Simon


    The Editor of Acta Geophysica and the Guest Editors wish to dedicate this Topical Issue on Sediment Transport Mechanics to the memory of Stephen Coleman, who died recently. During his career, Stephen had made an outstanding scientific contribution to the topic of Sediment Transport. The level of his contribution is demonstrated in the paper by Aberle, Coleman, and Nikora included in this issue, on which he started working before becoming aware of the illness that led to his untimely death. For scholars and colleagues Stephen remains an example of intellectual honesty and scientific insight.

  8. Turkey And Bulgaria Transport


    Duranlar, Selçuk; Staneva, Valentina İlieva


    The development of transport vehicles and technologies, has been one of the factors that affect deeply the lives of humanity through the ages. The wheel discovered, the discovery of the motor, the invention of the airplane motor, the discovery of the container discovering our world even the universe competence of humanity are the main tools . Transport on the one hand the provision of human needs and desires of the most important means of creating, on the other hand has been replaced in the c...

  9. Transportation of hazardous goods

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department


    A general reminder: any transportation of hazardous goods by road is subject to the European ADR rules. The goods concerned are essentially the following: Explosive substances and objects; Gases (including aerosols and non-flammable gases such as helium and nitrogen); Flammable substances and liquids (inks, paints, resins, petroleum products, alcohols, acetone, thinners); Toxic substances (acids, thinners); Radioactive substances; Corrosive substances (paints, acids, caustic products, disinfectants, electrical batteries). Any requests for the transport of hazardous goods must be executed in compliance with the instructions given at this URL: Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 73793 - 160364

  10. What can Transport Deliver?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Shigeki; Fulton, Lewis; Figueroa, Maria J.

    We compare detailed projections of transport energy consumption and CO2 emissions up to the year 2050 and review representative pathways towards the specific mitigation targets outlined in the Fifth Assessment report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC-AR5), contrasting sectoral...... there is a mismatch between current penetration rates and those needed for global transport to reach identified targets as part of achieving broader climate stabilization targets. Of paramount significance is the strong improvement rates in vehicle efficiency and countries should redouble their efforts to set strong...

  11. Urban transportation projects evaluation


    Carvajal Sánchez, Douglas A.


    Esta tesina consiste en, a través de la evaluación económica, financera, social y ambiental de los diferentes parámetros que deben ser considerados para implementar un proyecto de transporte público urbano, con el fin de elaborar una lista de "benchmarks" (patron de pruebas) capaz de permitir la determinación de la viabilidad de un proyecto en específico, una vez conocida la información entregada por el promotor del proyecto. El criterio tomado para evaluar estos proyectos de transporte se ba...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Babčanová


    Full Text Available The paper is focused on a current problem of transport of counterfeit goods in the European Union. Counterfeiting has a strong influence on the distribution organizations worldwide because most of counterfeit goods threaten the health and safety of consumers. Counterfeiting is a serious problem in the world economy today. The purpose of this paper is to point out the danger of counterfeiting in connection with the transport of Intellectual Property (IP rights - infringing goods. Background of the paper’s content is based on secondary data research of publicly available sources - international statistics and world reports.

  13. The Instruments of Transport Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Štefančić


    Full Text Available The work proposes the transport policy instruments, suchas the infrastructure measures, management measures and informationprovision measures as the means that could reduceor eliminate transport problems. All these measures have beenfollowed through the provisions for passenger cars, provisionsfor public transport, provisions for cyclists and pedestrians andprovisions regarding transport. A range of solutions is given toreduce congestion, improve accessibility and improve the trafficconditions for those who depend on public transport along withthe improvement of environmental conditions.

  14. Air transport of dangerous goods


    Gregor, Petr


    Diploma thesis topic deals with air transport of dangerous goods. In the beginning part it describes air cargo transportation itself as well as the main characteristics. Thesis introduces organizations involved in international transport of dangerous goods. Next part of diploma thesis reveals project analysis of air transportation of dangerous goods in respect of IATA Dangerous Goods regulations and procedures. Thesis also covers introduction to air transportation of dangerous goods in specif...

  15. Transports and Consumers’ Ecological Behaviour


    Maria Ioncică; Eva-Cristina Petrescu; Diana Ioncică


    Transports certainly have positive economic and social effects. However, transports in general, and motor transports in particular play a significant role in environmental pollution, with a negative impact on the quality of life. In this article, we make a diagnosis on the contribution of transports to environmental pollution, especially through CO2 and green house gases emissions, on international and national levels, highlighting trends in transports evolution. Based on an ample research th...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington


    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between October 1, 2002 and December 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks. (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System. (b) New research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions''. (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) New Research project (Task 13): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (g) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (h) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  17. School Transportation: Administrator's Handbook (United States)

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2008


    Pupil transportation is an essential part of the overall school program, which requires constant supervision and direction. Perhaps no other phase of the school program is more closely observed by the public or has a greater tendency to mold public opinion about the schools than the school bus system. The success of any school district pupil…

  18. Bystruktur og transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick


    Paperet præsenterer hovedkonklusionerne fra et PhD-studie af sammenhængene mellem bystruktur (særligt boliglokalisering) og transport i Aalborg. Det konkluderes at boliglokaliseringen har væsentlig betydning for transporten i det daglige. Det gælder især lokaliseringen i forhold til det samlede...

  19. Demographic Change and Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina; Framke, Elisabeth

    This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new...

  20. Water transport and energy. (United States)

    Fricke, Wieland


    Water transport in plants occurs along various paths and is driven by gradients in its free energy. It is generally considered that the mode of transport, being either diffusion or bulk flow, is a passive process, although energy may be required to sustain the forces driving water flow. This review aims at putting water flow at the various organisational levels (cell, organ, plant) in the context of the energy that is required to maintain these flows. In addition, the question is addressed (1) whether water can be transported against a difference in its chemical free energy, 'water potential' (Ψ), through, directly or indirectly, active processes; and (2) whether the energy released when water is flowing down a gradient in its energy, for example during day-time transpiration and cell expansive growth, is significant compared to the energy budget of plant and cell. The overall aim of review is not so much to provide a definite 'Yes' and 'No' to these questions, but rather to stimulate discussion and raise awareness that water transport in plants has its real, associated, energy costs and potential energy gains. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Transport of the newborn. (United States)

    Srikasibhandha, S; Cats, B P


    Analysis of facilities used in the transfer of neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) to the Newborn Intensive Care Unit (N.I.C.U.) of the Free University Amsterdam during the period 1969-1976 revealed many deficiencies. Most of the sick newborn infants were accompanied by inadequately trained personnel. In a number of cases they were in incubators which could hardly guarantee the neutral thermal temperature for the infant concerned. In the most cases there were no facilities either for resuscitation or for ventilatory assistance during transport. It was found that infants born in the referring hospitals more often required artificial ventilation than infants born in the University Hospital. Since the former were--on an average--more severely ill than the latter, the duration of ventilatory assistance was usually longer and their survival rate was lower. Retrospectively, in many instances referred infants were on admission already in such a condition that artificial ventilation should have been started long before. General aspects of newborn transport, viz. way of transport, incubator with facilities for emergency care i.e. artificial ventilation and intravascular therapy, accompanying personnel, stabilization of the infant, role of education and evaluation of the transport are discussed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou


    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 3 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between Oct 1, 2001 and Dec. 31, 2001. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Collection System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  3. Metrics for Transportation. (United States)

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in transportation, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational terminology,…

  4. Transport Infrastructure Slot Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolstra, K.


    In this thesis, transport infrastructure slot allocation has been studied, focusing on selection slot allocation, i.e. on longer-term slot allocation decisions determining the traffic patterns served by infrastructure bottlenecks, rather than timetable-related slot allocation problems. The

  5. Artificial oxygen transport protein (United States)

    Dutton, P. Leslie


    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  6. Phloem transport in trees (United States)

    Michael G. Ryan; Shinichi. Asao


    Phloem is like an enigmatic central banker: we know how important phloem is to plant function, but very little about how phloem functions as part of a whole-plant economy. Phloem transports carbohydrates, produced by photosynthesis and hydrolysis of reserve compounds, to sink tissues for growth, respiration and storage. At photosynthetic tissues, carbohydrates are...

  7. Beam transport elements

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Two of the beam transport elements for the slow ejection system. On the left, a quadrupole 1.2 m long with a 5 cm aperture, capable of producing a gradient of 5000 gauss. On the right, a 1 m bending magnet with a 4 cm gap; its field is 20 000 gauss.

  8. Decentralization in Air Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udluft, H.


    In this work,we demonstrate that decentralized control can result in stable, efficient, and robust operations in the Air Transportation System. We implement decentralized control for aircraft taxiing operations and use Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation to analyze the resulting system behavior

  9. Natural Gas Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the present and future on natural gas transportation options, from oil and gas fields to markets, including liquefied natural gas, gas pipeline, compressed natural gas, natural gas hydrates, and gas to liquids and the perspectives of using them in Colombia, since this is the main fuel alternative to supply the world in at least the next 50 years.

  10. Draft Transportation Institutional Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Department of Energy recognizes that the success of its program to develop and implement a national system for nuclear waste management and disposal depends on broad-based public understanding and acceptance. While each program element has its particular sensitivity, the transportation of the waste may potentially affect the greatest number of people, and accordingly is highly visible and potentially issue-laden. Therefore, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has developed this Transportation Institutional Plan to lay the foundation for interaction among all interested parties for the purpose of identifying and resolving issues of concern. The Plan is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 provides bachground information and discusses the purpose of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system. Chapter 2 introduces the major participants who must interact to build both the system itself and the consensus philosophy that is essential for effective operations. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will ensure wide participation in program planning and implementation. And, finally, Chapter 4 suggests a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. The Plan's appendices provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Animal transportation networks. (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya


    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Transport for smart cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder


    ’ activities can be reached within the relative close distances of the city. However, urbanisation has also led to significant disadvantages, of which transport accounts for some of the most severe. Traffic accidents and emissions of air pollutants and noise take heavy tolls in terms of people killed...

  13. Safe transport of cyanamide. (United States)

    Wehrstedt, Klaus-Dieter; Wildner, Werner; Güthner, Thomas; Holzrichter, Klaus; Mertschenk, Bernd; Ulrich, Armin


    For many years cyanamide (CAS no. 420-04-2) was not commercially available due to its unstable nature. Since about 1965 the former "Süddeutsche Kalkstickstoffwerke AG" (current name: AlzChem Trostberg GmbH) developed a special stabilizing system. It was to be investigated to which Class (e.g. "Corrosive Substances", Class 8) or Division (e.g. "Self-reactive Substances", Division 4.1) of the International Regulations for the Transport of Dangerous Goods cyanamide (pure or as a 50% solution in water) should be assigned and based on this which maximum quantities are allowed to transport e.g. in tanks. Cyanamide is used for the synthesis of pharmaceutical and agrochemical actives, biocides, dyestuffs and fine chemicals. During the last years cyanamide was tested at BAM and AQura. The results and an appraisal are presented in this paper. Thus, cyanamide should be classified according to the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods in Class 8, UN number 2922 (50% solution in water) and UN number 2923 (pure substance) respectively, packaging group III, danger labels 8+6.1. Cyanamide, 50% solution in water, can be transported in portable tanks under specific conditions.

  14. Transportation fuels: Desulfurizing diesel (United States)

    Lamonier, Carole


    Transportation fuels such as diesel contain organosulfur molecules that, when combusted, form sulfur oxides that are toxic and poison vehicles' catalytic convertors. Now, a method is demonstrated that can reduce the sulfur concentration of diesel fuel to very low levels at low temperatures and pressures.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou


    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  16. Structure of ABC transporters. (United States)

    Zolnerciks, Joseph K; Andress, Edward J; Nicolaou, Michael; Linton, Kenneth J


    ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters are primary active membrane proteins that translocate solutes (allocrites) across lipid bilayers. The prototypical ABC transporter consists of four domains: two cytoplasmic NBDs (nucleotide-binding domains) and two TMDs (transmembrane domains). The NBDs, whose primary sequence is highly conserved throughout the superfamily, bind and hydrolyse ATP to power the transport cycle. The TMDs, whose primary sequence and protein fold can be quite disparate, form the translocation pathway across the membrane and generally (but not always) determine allocrite specificity. Structure determination of ABC proteins initially took advantage of the relative ease of expression and crystallization of the hydrophilic bacterial NBDs in isolation from the transporter complex, and revealed detailed information on the structural fold of these domains, the amino acids involved in the binding and hydrolysis of nucleotide, and the head-to-tail arrangement of the NBD-NBD dimer interface. More recently, several intact transporters have been crystallized and three types have, so far, been characterized: type I and II ABC importers, and ABC exporters. All three are present in prokaryotes, but only the ABC exporters appear to be present in eukaryotes. Their structural determination has provided insight into the mechanisms of energy and signal transduction between the NBDs and TMDs (i.e. between the ATP- and allocrite-binding sites) and, for some, the nature of the allocrite-binding site(s) within the TMDs. In this chapter, we focus primarily on the ABC exporters and describe the structural, biochemical and biophysical evidence for and against the controversial bellows-like mechanism proposed for allocrite efflux.

  17. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.


    ustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...... in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the "sustainable transport" concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths...... and weaknesses are highlighted with regard to the support they provide for sustainable transport development....

  18. Transportation Education Demonstration Pilot Program UVM Transportation Research Center (United States)


    The Transportation Education Development Pilot Program (TEDPP) develops innovative workforce development programs to attract and retain skilled workers in the transportation sector of Vermont, New Hampshire and Maine and encourages statewide economic...

  19. Transport of encapsulated nuclear fuels; Transport av inkapslat braensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broman, Ulrika; Dybeck, Peter [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Ekendahl, Ann-Mari [Baecken Industrifysik AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The transport system for encapsulated fuel is described, including a preliminary drawing of a transport container. In the report, the encapsulation plant is assumed to be located to Oskarshamn, and the repository to Oskarshamn or Forsmark.

  20. Transportation statistics annual report 1996 : transportation and the environment (United States)


    This report is a summary of the state of the nation's transportation systems and the issues and consequences of maintaining such a diverse and complex network. All transportation modes -- air, highway, rail, water, and pipeline -- are examined throug...

  1. Mass Transport within Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.


    Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated

  2. Interaction of railway and marine transport (Murmansk Transport Hub)


    Sokolov A.A.; Solov'yov A.A.


    The classification of problems of interaction between water (marine) and railway transport on the example of the Murmansk Transport Hub has been presented; some prospects for the development of technology for interaction with the logistics of transportation of general cargo in the Murmansk Commercial Seaport, Murmansk Marine Fishing Port, and oil terminals of the Kola Bay have been shown

  3. Energy for Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria; Lah, Oliver; Fulton, Lewis M.


    and the Environment) by Lee Schipper, we examine current trends and potential futures, revising several major global transport/energy reports. There are significant opportunities to slow travel growth and improve efficiency. Alternatives to petroleum exist but have different characteristics in terms of availability......Global transportation energy use is steeply rising, mainly as a result of increasing population and economic activity. Petroleum fuels remain the dominant energy source, reflecting advantages such as high energy density, low cost, and market availability. The movement of people and freight makes...... a major contribution to economic development and social well-being, but it also negatively impacts climate change, air quality, health, social cohesion, and safety. Following a review published 20 years ago in the Annual Review of Environment and Resources (then named the Annual Review of Energy...

  4. Transportation and the marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeoet, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)


    In the Chicago six-county metropolitan area, the number of registered vehicles grew by over 800,000 vehicles in the 1980s; by contrast the population increased by just over 150,000 during the same time. This ratio of growth in automobiles versus population (five to one) has contributed to overall increases in travel, congestion and energy use. The objective of this report is to examine how and why this has occurred and what we might expect in the near future to address the growing traffic problems and energy use. Specifically, the focus is on energy use by household vehicles and other forms of passenger travel. Data on population trends, gasoline prices, commuting and transit use, and transportation energy use are presented and interpreted. Intelligent transportation systems and decreased single vehicle emissions are briefly described as methods to decrease congestion and pollution. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Rail transport systems approach

    CERN Document Server


    This book shows how the systems approach is employed by scientists in various countries to solve specific problems concerning railway transport. In particular, the book describes the experiences of scientists from Romania, Germany, the Czech Republic, the UK, Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland. For many of these countries there is a problem with the historical differences between the railways. In particular, there are railways with different rail gauges, with different signaling and communication systems, with different energy supplies and, finally, with different political systems, which are reflected in the different approaches to the management of railway economies. The book’s content is divided into two main parts, the first of which provides a systematic analysis of individual means of providing and maintaining rail transport. In turn, the second part addresses infrastructure and management development, with particular attention to security issues. Though primarily written for professionals involved...

  6. Fuel cell water transport (United States)

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Hedstrom, James C.


    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  7. Transport Phenomena in Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Tokita


    Full Text Available Gel becomes an important class of soft materials since it can be seen in a wide variety of the chemical and the biological systems. The unique properties of gel arise from the structure, namely, the three-dimensional polymer network that is swollen by a huge amount of solvent. Despite the small volume fraction of the polymer network, which is usually only a few percent or less, gel shows the typical properties that belong to solids such as the elasticity. Gel is, therefore, regarded as a dilute solid because its elasticity is much smaller than that of typical solids. Because of the diluted structure, small molecules can pass along the open space of the polymer network. In addition to the viscous resistance of gel fluid, however, the substance experiences resistance due to the polymer network of gel during the transport process. It is, therefore, of importance to study the diffusion of the small molecules in gel as well as the flow of gel fluid itself through the polymer network of gel. It may be natural to assume that the effects of the resistance due to the polymer network of gel depends strongly on the network structure. Therefore, detailed study on the transport processes in and through gel may open a new insight into the relationship between the structure and the transport properties of gel. The two typical transport processes in and through gel, that is, the diffusion of small molecules due to the thermal fluctuations and the flow of gel fluid that is caused by the mechanical pressure gradient will be reviewed.

  8. Saltation transport on Mars


    Parteli, Eric J. R.; Herrmann, Hans J.


    We present the first calculation of saltation transport and dune formation on Mars and compare it to real dunes. We find that the rate at which grains are entrained into saltation on Mars is one order of magnitude higher than on Earth. With this fundamental novel ingredient, we reproduce the size and different shapes of Mars dunes, and give an estimate for the wind velocity on Mars.

  9. Community Sediment Transport Model (United States)


    with IKONOS imagery). The tidal-residual circulation (arrows, right panel) in the CSTM simulations generates sediment transport consistent with...method for estimating surface sediment concentrations from AVHRR using the method described in Myint and Walker (2002). Water quality parameters for...frequencies. A model with a spectral wave driver has a better convergence rate than a monochromatic wave driver. Optimized coupling frequencies are

  10. Transport phenomena II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of


    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena II covers forced convention, temperature distribution, free convection, diffusitivity and the mechanism of mass transfer, convective mass transfer, concentration

  11. Towards unravelling surfactant transport (United States)

    Sellier, Mathieu; Panda, Satyananda


    Surfactant transport arises in many natural or industrial settings. Examples include lipid tear layers in the eye, pulmonary surfactant replacement therapy, or industrial coating flows. Flows driven by the surface tension gradient which arises as a consequence of surfactant concentration inhomogeneity, also known as Marangoni-driven flows, have attracted the attention of fluid dynamists for several decades and has led to the development of sophisticated models and the undeniable advancement of the understanding of such flows. Yet, experimental confirmation of these models has been hampered by the difficulty in reliably and accurately measuring the surfactant concentration and its temporal evolution. In this contribution, we propose a methodology which may help shed some light on surfactant transport at the surface of thin liquid films. The surface stress induced by surfactant concentration induces a flow at the free surface which is visible and measurable. In the context of thin film flows for which the lubrication approximation hold, we demonstrate how the knowledge of this free surface flow field provides sufficient information to reconstruct the surfactant tension field. From the surface tension and an assumed equation of state, the local surfactant concentration can also be calculated and other transport parameters such as the surfactant surface diffusivity indirectly inferred. In this contribution, the proposed methodology is tested with synthetic data generated by the forward solution of the governing partial differential equations in order to illustrate the feasibility of the algorithm and highlight numerical challenges.

  12. Transportation of medical isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, D.L.


    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This assessment examines the potential health and safety impacts of transportation operations associated with the production of medical isotopes. Incident-free and accidental impacts are assessed using bounding source terms for the shipment of nonradiological target materials to the Hanford Site, the shipment of irradiated targets from the FFTF to the 325 Building, and the shipment of medical isotope products from the 325 Building to medical distributors. The health and safety consequences to workers and the public from the incident-free transportation of targets and isotope products would be within acceptable levels. For transportation accidents, risks to works and the public also would be within acceptable levels. This assessment is based on best information available at this time. As the medical isotope program matures, this analysis will be revised, if necessary, to support development of a final revision to the Technical Information Document.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco


    This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.

  14. Multiscale thermal transport.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Samuel Jr. (; .); Wong, C. C.; Piekos, Edward Stanley


    A concurrent computational and experimental investigation of thermal transport is performed with the goal of improving understanding of, and predictive capability for, thermal transport in microdevices. The computational component involves Monte Carlo simulation of phonon transport. In these simulations, all acoustic modes are included and their properties are drawn from a realistic dispersion relation. Phonon-phonon and phonon-boundary scattering events are treated independently. A new set of phonon-phonon scattering coefficients are proposed that reflect the elimination of assumptions present in earlier analytical work from the simulation. The experimental component involves steady-state measurement of thermal conductivity on silicon films as thin as 340nm at a range of temperatures. Agreement between the experiment and simulation on single-crystal silicon thin films is excellent, Agreement for polycrystalline films is promising, but significant work remains to be done before predictions can be made confidently. Knowledge gained from these efforts was used to construct improved semiclassical models with the goal of representing microscale effects in existing macroscale codes in a computationally efficient manner.

  15. A Survey of Transportation Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Díaz-Parra, Ocotlán; Ruiz-Vanoye, Jorge A; Bernábe Loranca, Beatriz; Fuentes-Penna, Alejandro; Barrera-Cámara, Ricardo A


      This paper aims at being a guide to understand the different types of transportation problems by presenting a survey of mathematical models and algorithms used to solve different types of transportation modes...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna CHRUZIK


    Full Text Available Analyzing the level of Polish transport safety culture can be seen that it is now dependent on the culture of safety management within the organization and the requirements and recommendations of law in this field for different modes of transport (air, rail, road, water. Of the four basic types of transport requirements are widely developed in the aviation, rail, and water – the sea. In order to harmonize the requirements for transport safety so it appears advisable to develop a platform for exchange of safety information for different modes of transport, and the development of good practices multimodal offering the possibility of improving Polish transport safety. Described in the publication of the proposal in addition to the alignment platform experience and knowledge in the field of transport safety in all its kinds, it can also be a tool for perfecting new operators of public transport.

  17. Globalisation, transport and the environment (United States)


    OECD and the International Transport Forum (ITF) held a GLobal Forum on Transport and Environment in a Globalising World, 10-12 November 2008 in Guadalajara, Mexico. There were around 200 participants from 23 countries at the global forum, representi...

  18. Metropolitan transportation planning. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickey, J.W.; Hobeika, A.G.; Hurst, C.J.; Stephens, N.T.; Stuart, R.C.; Walker, R.D.; Diewald, W.J.


    This textbook provides coverage of the urban transportation planning field. Emphasis is placed on the interdisciplinary aspects of real-world metropolitan transportation with an orientation toward problem solving. Attention is given to public transportation characteristics (e.g., speed, capacity), user costs, air and noise pollution, post-project evaluation, decision making and community involvement, transportation systems management, planning at strategy, policy, program, and project levels, and finance, budgeting, and related legislative and organizational concerns.

  19. Integrated system of transport management




    Advancing process of transport market deregulation is a phenomenonwhich can be observed in recent years. At the same time the scope of available abilities of computerized traffic and transport management systems is widening as well as abilities of positioning transport entities and systems of telecommunication connecting transportcomponents and subsystems. The paper presents some elements of SESAR conception and the authors own ideas about future systems of transport entities management (chie...

  20. 'Resilience thinking' in transport planning


    Wang, JYT


    Resilience has been discussed in ecology for over forty years. While some aspects of resilience have received attention in transport planning, there is no unified definition of resilience in transportation. To define resilience in transportation, I trace back to the origin of resilience in ecology with a view of revealing the essence of resilience thinking and its relevance to transport planning. Based on the fundamental concepts of engineering resilience and ecological resilience, I define "...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru


    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  2. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. S. Viswanathan


    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  3. Towards a computational transportation science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Winter


    Full Text Available This report of a community activity, a Dagstuhl Seminar earlier in 2010, postulates the need for a computational transportation science, as the science behind intelligent transportation systems. In addition to the argument for establishing a discipline, we present a first research agenda for computational transportation science.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Transport and logistics are a global enterprise, which means transportation must be provided to and from every continent around the world. This article presents the main threats facing international air transport in the course of necessary flying over dangerous and unstable countries, which represent almost a half of world’s land surface.

  5. Genetic defects in hepatocanalicular transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, R; Jansen, PLM


    Bile is made as the result of active transport of its constituents into the biliary space. Most of this transport occurs across the canalicular membrane, with a further contribution from cholangiocytes. Water moves passively into bile. The major substrates that are transported out of hepatocytes are

  6. Molecular Transporters for Desalination Applications (United States)


    May-2009 17-Feb-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Molecular transporters for desalination applications The views, opinions and...12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 desalination biomimetric membranes activated chemical transport REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR...ABSTRACT Molecular transporters for desalination applications Report Title The primary goal of the ‘Molecular Transporter’ program was to develop a precise

  7. Transportation Brokerage: An Instructional Module. (United States)

    Hayden, Linda

    A concept-based introduction to transportation brokerage is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of transportation brokerage is defined as an assignment of the management of a specific element of a…

  8. Improving Hygiene in Food Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Lukasse, L.J.S.


    The hygiene aspect of food transport has become an issue for European transport operators. This development started roughly in 1990, when national governments urged transport operators to act on food safety. However, nowadays retailers and food producers are demanding more hygiene measures from

  9. Modelling of Transport Projects Uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen


    This paper proposes a new way of handling the uncertainties present in transport decision making based on infrastructure appraisals. The paper suggests to combine the principle of Optimism Bias, which depicts the historical tendency of overestimating transport related benefits and underestimating......-based graphs which function as risk-related decision support for the appraised transport infrastructure project....

  10. The transport forecast – an important stage of transport management (United States)

    Dragu, Vasile; Dinu, Oana; Oprea, Cristina; Alina Roman, Eugenia


    The transport system is a powerful system with varying loads in operation coming from changes in freight and passenger traffic in different time periods. The variations are due to the specific conditions of organization and development of socio-economic activities. The causes of varying loads can be included in three groups: economic, technical and organizational. The assessing of transport demand variability leads to proper forecast and development of the transport system, knowing that the market price is determined on equilibrium between supply and demand. The reduction of transport demand variability through different technical solutions, organizational, administrative, legislative leads to an increase in the efficiency and effectiveness of transport. The paper presents a new way of assessing the future needs of transport through dynamic series. Both researchers and practitioners in transport planning can benefit from the research results. This paper aims to analyze in an original approach how a good transport forecast can lead to a better management in transport, with significant effects on transport demand full meeting in quality terms. The case study shows how dynamic series of statistics can be used to identify the size of future demand addressed to the transport system.

  11. Impact of public transportation market share and other transportation and environmental policy variables on sustainable transportation. (United States)


    Policies that encourage reduced travel, such as traveling shorter distances, and increased use of more efficient transportation modes, such as public transportation and high-occupancy private automobiles, are often considered one of several possible ...

  12. Sustainable Transport Systems: Linkages Between Environmental Issues, Public Transport, Non-Motorized Transport And Safety (United States)


    A sustainable transport system must provide mobility and accessibility to all urban residents in a safe and end environmentally friendly mode of transport. This is a complex and difficult task when the needs and demands of people belonging to differe...

  13. Environmental Baseline File: National Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Environmental Baseline File summarizes and consolidates information related to the national-level transportation of commercial spent nuclear fuel. Topics address include: shipmnents of commercial spent nuclear fuel based on mostly truck and mostly rail shipping scenarios; transportation routing for commercial spent nuclear fuel sites and DOE sites; radionuclide inventories for various shipping container capacities; transportation routing; populations along transportation routes; urbanized area population densities; the impacts of historical, reasonably foreseeable, and general transportation; state-level food transfer factors; Federal Guidance Report No. 11 and 12 radionuclide dose conversion factors; and national average atmospheric conditions.

  14. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik


    in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the sustainable transport” concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths......Sustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden


    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu


    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.

  17. The Edge supersonic transport (United States)

    Agosta, Roxana; Bilbija, Dushan; Deutsch, Marc; Gallant, David; Rose, Don; Shreve, Gene; Smario, David; Suffredini, Brian


    As intercontinental business and tourism volumes continue their rapid expansion, the need to reduce travel times becomes increasingly acute. The Edge Supersonic Transport Aircraft is designed to meet this demand by the year 2015. With a maximum range of 5750 nm, a payload of 294 passengers and a cruising speed of M = 2.4, The Edge will cut current international flight durations in half, while maintaining competitive first class, business class, and economy class comfort levels. Moreover, this transport will render a minimal impact upon the environment, and will meet all Federal Aviation Administration Part 36, Stage III noise requirements. The cornerstone of The Edge's superior flight performance is its aerodynamically efficient, dual-configuration design incorporating variable-geometry wingtips. This arrangement combines the benefits of a high aspect ratio wing at takeoff and low cruising speeds with the high performance of an arrow-wing in supersonic cruise. And while the structural weight concerns relating to swinging wingtips are substantial, The Edge looks to ever-advancing material technologies to further increase its viability. Heeding well the lessons of the past, The Edge design holds economic feasibility as its primary focus. Therefore, in addition to its inherently superior aerodynamic performance, The Edge uses a lightweight, largely windowless configuration, relying on a synthetic vision system for outside viewing by both pilot and passengers. Additionally, a fly-by-light flight control system is incorporated to address aircraft supersonic cruise instability. The Edge will be produced at an estimated volume of 400 aircraft and will be offered to airlines in 2015 at $167 million per transport (1992 dollars).

  18. Crew Transportation Plan (United States)

    Zeitler, Pamela S. (Compiler); Mango, Edward J.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Commercial Crew Program (CCP) has been chartered to facilitate the development of a United States (U.S.) commercial crew space transportation capability with the goal of achieving safe, reliable, and cost effective access to and from low Earth orbit (LEO) and the International Space Station (ISS) as soon as possible. Once the capability is matured and is available to the Government and other customers, NASA expects to purchase commercial services to meet its ISS crew rotation and emergency return objectives.

  19. Mars Equipment Transport System (United States)

    Sorrells, Cindy; Geiger, Michelle; Ohanlon, Sean; Pieloch, Stuart; Brogan, Nick


    Mechanical Engineering Senior Design Project 1 (ME4182) is a part of the NASA/University Advanced Design Program. Under this program, NASA allocates money and resources to students to be used in design work for a specified topic. The current topic is the exploration and colonization of Mars. The specific area in which we are to work is the transportation of the modules in which astronauts will live while on Mars. NASA is concerned about the weight of the module transferring system, as the shipping cost to Mars is quite expensive. NASA has specified that the weight of the system is to be minimized in order to reduce the shipping costs.

  20. Nearshore Sand Transport. (United States)


    injected dyed snd N(x~y,zpt) number of dyed grains, per gram of send Hoax maximum concentration of dyad grains. in any slice in a &and core no solids...onshore or offshore. Clearly this is of great importance. One very clear result is that the application of a threshold criterion (for initiation of sediment...Significance 99.3 98.8 96.3 Moon correlation coefficient for the two colors: -0.422 -0.396 -0.343 203 Table 8-11. Correlation of Transport Thickness with

  1. Transport phenomena I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of


    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena I includes viscosity, flow of Newtonian fluids, velocity distribution in laminar flow, velocity distributions with more than one independent variable, thermal con

  2. Transportation network reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav PALÚCH


    Full Text Available Network reduction problem is formulated as follows: We are given a transportation network T, a set of important origin – destination relations R and a number q greater than 1. The goal is to find a subnetwork S of the given network T such that all shortest paths between all origin – destination pairs from R using only subnetwork S are not longer than q-multiple of the corresponding distance in original network T. A mathematical model and an exact algorithm of just mentioned task is presented.

  3. Transport hub flow modelling


    Despagne, Wilfried; Frenod, Emmanuel


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the road freight haulage activity. Using the physical and data flow information from a freight forwarder, we intend to model the flow of inbound and outbound goods in a freight transport hub. Approach: This paper presents the operation of a road haulage group. To deliver goods within two days to any location in France, a haulage contractor needs to be part of a network. This network handles the processing of both physical goods and data. We...

  4. Groupage Cargo Transportation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksejevs Ruslans


    Full Text Available In this work we consider a specific problem of optimal planning of maritime transportation of multiproduct cargo by ships of one (corporate strategy or several (partially corporate strategy companies: the core of the problem consists of the existence of the network of intermediate seaports (i.e. transitional seaports, where for every ship arrived the cargo handling is done, and which are situated between the starting and the finishing seaports. In this work, there are mathematical models built from scratch in the form of multicriteria optimization problem; then the goal attainment method of Gembicki is used for reducing the built models to a one-criterion problem of linear programming.

  5. Stochastic models of intracellular transport (United States)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Newby, Jay M.


    The interior of a living cell is a crowded, heterogenuous, fluctuating environment. Hence, a major challenge in modeling intracellular transport is to analyze stochastic processes within complex environments. Broadly speaking, there are two basic mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually in the form of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis, and can be direction specific, allowing biomolecules to be transported long distances; this is particularly important in neurons due to their complex geometry. In this review a wide range of analytical methods and models of intracellular transport is presented. In the case of diffusive transport, narrow escape problems, diffusion to a small target, confined and single-file diffusion, homogenization theory, and fractional diffusion are considered. In the case of active transport, Brownian ratchets, random walk models, exclusion processes, random intermittent search processes, quasi-steady-state reduction methods, and mean-field approximations are considered. Applications include receptor trafficking, axonal transport, membrane diffusion, nuclear transport, protein-DNA interactions, virus trafficking, and the self-organization of subcellular structures.

  6. Stochastic models of intracellular transport

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.


    The interior of a living cell is a crowded, heterogenuous, fluctuating environment. Hence, a major challenge in modeling intracellular transport is to analyze stochastic processes within complex environments. Broadly speaking, there are two basic mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually in the form of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis, and can be direction specific, allowing biomolecules to be transported long distances; this is particularly important in neurons due to their complex geometry. In this review a wide range of analytical methods and models of intracellular transport is presented. In the case of diffusive transport, narrow escape problems, diffusion to a small target, confined and single-file diffusion, homogenization theory, and fractional diffusion are considered. In the case of active transport, Brownian ratchets, random walk models, exclusion processes, random intermittent search processes, quasi-steady-state reduction methods, and mean-field approximations are considered. Applications include receptor trafficking, axonal transport, membrane diffusion, nuclear transport, protein-DNA interactions, virus trafficking, and the self-organization of subcellular structures. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  7. Crew Transportation Technical Management Processes (United States)

    Mckinnie, John M. (Compiler); Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)


    Under the guidance of processes provided by Crew Transportation Plan (CCT-PLN-1100), this document, with its sister documents, International Space Station (ISS) Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document (CCT-REQ-1130), Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria (CCT-STD-1140), Crew Transportation Operations Standards (CCT STD-1150), and ISS to Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Interface Requirements Document (SSP 50808), provides the basis for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) certification for services to the ISS for the Commercial Provider. When NASA Crew Transportation System (CTS) certification is achieved for ISS transportation, the Commercial Provider will be eligible to provide services to and from the ISS during the services phase.

  8. Innovations for sustainable public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrelja, Robert; Hansson, Lisa; Richardson, Tim

    The aim of the project has been to analyse institutional and planning conditions for public transport in the Scandinavian countries from a comparative perspective, looking at the county of Skåne (Sweden) and the municipalities of Aarhus (Denmark) and Trondheim (Norway). The report considers...... qualitative case- studies of public transport in Skåne, Aarhus, and Trondheim, and uses an empirical material consisting of written material and interviews. It concludes that: (i) new forms of coordination between organizations and policy areas are called for in a number of critical areas, if public transport...... is to contribute effectively to the development of an efficient and sustainable transport system (for example, forms for the coordination of public transport, land use, and infrastructure planning); (ii) public transport must not be seen as an end in itself, or as merely a technical transport system; (iii...

  9. Customer satisfaction on transportation market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Ryglová


    Full Text Available The paper deals with problems concerning customers’ satisfaction. It summarizes results of primary research focused on an analysis of fundamental factors, which shape clients’ preferences, influence the level of satisfaction of transportation companies´ customers in general and in transportation companies under study in particular. Altogether 49 % of respondents mentioned that the type of transportation means was the most important factor that influenced their satisfaction. As other significant factors influencing the satisfaction of respondents the following were mentioned: prices of transportation, quality of services during the transportation, respecting regular pauses during transportation, and the possibility of refreshments during the transportation. All companies that were addressed monitored the level of satisfaction of their customers (nearly 20 % did this every month. Each company that monitored satisfaction of its customers every year also developed a marketing plan of their activities. The paper also contains detailed results of conducted inquiries as well as the relevant discussion.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington


    This Quarter has been divided between running experiments and the installation of the drill-pipe rotation system. In addition, valves and piping were relocated, and three viewports were installed. Detailed design work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. Design of the first prototype version of a Foam Generator has been finalized, and fabrication is underway. This will be used to determine the relationship between surface roughness and ''slip'' of foams at solid boundaries. Additional cups and rotors are being machined with different surface roughness. Some experiments on cuttings transport with aerated fluids have been conducted at EPET. Theoretical modeling of cuttings transport with aerated fluids is proceeding. The development of theoretical models to predict frictional pressure losses of flowing foam is in progress. The new board design for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration is now functioning with an acceptable noise level. The ultrasonic sensors are stable up to 190 F. Static tests with sand in an annulus indicate that the system is able to distinguish between different sand concentrations. Viscometer tests with foam, generated by the Dynamic Test Facility (DTF), are continuing.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, Elton J.; Hietbrink, Earl H.


    This section includes some historical background of the rise and fall and subsequent rebirth of the electric vehicle; and a brief discussion of current transportation needs, and environmental and energy utilization issues that resulted in the renewed interest in applying electrochemical energy conversion technology to electric vehicle applications. Although energy utilization has evolved to be the most significant and important issue, the environmental issue will be discussed first in this section only because of its chronological occurrence. The next part of the chapter is a review of passenger and commercial electric vehicle technology with emphasis on vehicle design and demonstrated performance of vehicles with candidate power sources being developed. This is followed by a discussion of electrochemical power source requirements associated with future electric vehicles that can play a role in meeting modern transportation needs. The last part of the chapter includes first a discussion of how to identify candidate electrochemical systems that might be of interest in meeting electric vehicle power source requirements. This is then followed by a review of the current technological status of these systems and a discussion of the most significant problems that must be resolved before each candidate system can be a viable power source.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana


    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  13. Functional analysis of candidate ABC transporter proteins for sitosterol transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, C; Elliott, J I; Sardini, A


    Two ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins, ABCG5 and ABCG8, have recently been associated with the accumulation of dietary cholesterol in the sterol storage disease sitosterolemia. These two 'half-transporters' are assumed to dimerize to form the complete sitosterol transporter which reduces...... the absorption of sitosterol and related molecules in the intestine by pumping them back into the lumen. Although mutations altering ABCG5 and ABCG8 are found in affected patients, no functional demonstration of sitosterol transport has been achieved. In this study, we investigated whether other ABC transporters......-specific ABC transporters have acquired specificity to exclude sitosterol and related sterols like cholesterol presumably because the abundance of cholesterol in the membrane would interfere with their action; in consequence, specific transporters have evolved to handle these sterols....

  14. Silicon transporters in higher plants. (United States)

    Ma, Jian Feng


    Silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust and exerts beneficial effects on plant growth and production by alleviating both biotic and abiotic stresses including diseases, pests, lodging, drought and nutrient imbalance. Silicon is taken up by the roots in the form ofsilicic acid, a noncharged molecule. Recently both influx (Lsil) and efflux (Lsi2) transporters for silicic acid have been identified in gramineous plants including rice, barley and maize. Lsil and its homologs are influx Si transporters, which belong to a Nod26-like major intrinsic protein (NIP) subfamily in the aquaporin protein family. They are responsible for the transport of Si from the external solution to the root cells. On the other hand, Lsi2 and its homologs are efflux Si transporters, belonging to putative anion transporters and are responsible for the transport of Si out of the cells toward the xylem. All influx transporters show polar localization at the distal side. Among efflux transporters, Lsi2 in rice shows polar localization at the proximal side, but that in barley and maize does not show polar localization. The cell-specificity of localization of Si transporters and expression patterns are different between species. Rice Si transporters are also permeable to arsenite.

  15. Up-gradient transport in a probabilistic transport model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavnholt, J.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Garcia, O.E.


    The transport of particles or heat against the driving gradient is studied by employing a probabilistic transport model with a characteristic particle step length that depends on the local concentration or heat gradient. When this gradient is larger than a prescribed critical value, the standard....... These results supplement recent works by van Milligen [Phys. Plasmas 11, 3787 (2004)], which applied Levy distributed step sizes in the case of supercritical gradients to obtain the up-gradient transport. (c) 2005 American Institute of Physics....

  16. Radioactive material air transportation; Transporte aereo de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme [Varig Logistica (VARIGLOG), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation.

  17. Transportation Plans and Programs Chapter for the Transportation Officer Handbook. (United States)


    offers maximum convenience, space, and facilities (latrines, water, vending machines , etc.) (9:CH5). Communications will play a key role in the overall...Air Passenger Terminal and Transportation Control Unit (Mobility), 18th Transportation Squadron, Kadena AB, Japan . He was the transportation planner...There is a good chance a reception base will be under hostile fire. "The entire reception machine must work fast under these conditions to limit

  18. Drivers of South African transport and transport infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rust, FC


    Full Text Available to unprecedented rates, particularly in motor vehicle sales. About 5 million South Africans claim to own, use or maintain a motor vehicle, and drive approximately 5.6 billion kilometres per month. In addition, sales of motor vehicles are heading towards the 1.... • Alternative fuels: The drive towards finding hydrogen-based and other alternative fuels for transport and energy creation will continue to impact on the design, construction and operation of the transport environment. CONCLUSION Transport...

  19. DOE TMD transportation training module 14 transportation of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, R.L. Jr.


    The Department of Energy Transportation Management Division has developed training module 14, entitled {open_quotes}Transportation of Explosives{close_quotes} to compliment the basic {open_quotes}core ten{close_quotes} training modules of the Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program. The purpose of this training module is to increase awareness of the Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements concerning the packaging and transportation of explosives. Topics covered in module 14 include the classification of explosives, approval and registration of explosives, packaging requirements, hazard communication requirements, separation and segregation compatibility requirements, loading and unloading operations, as well as safety measures required in the event of a vehicle accident involving explosives.

  20. Amino acid secondary transporters: toward a common transport mechanism. (United States)

    Schweikhard, Eva S; Ziegler, Christine M


    Solute carriers (SLC) that transport amino acids are key players in health and diseases in humans. Their prokaryotic relatives are often involved in essential physiological processes in microorganisms, e.g. in homeostasis and acidic/osmotic stress response. High-resolution X-ray structures of the sequence-unrelated amino acid transporters unraveled a striking structural similarity between carriers, which were formerly assigned to different families. The highly conserved fold is characterized by two inverted structural repeats of five transmembrane helices each and indicates common mechanistic transport concepts if not an evolutionary link among a large number of amino acid transporters. Therefore, these transporters are classified now into the structural amino acid-polyamine-organocation superfamily (APCS). The APCS includes among others the mammalian SLC6 transporters and the heterodimeric SLC7/SLC3 transporters. However, it has to be noted that the APCS is not limited entirely to amino acid transporters but contains also transporters for, e.g. amino acid derivatives and sugars. For instance, the betaine-choline-carnitine transporter family of bacterial activity-regulated Na(+)- and H(+)-coupled symporters for glycine betaine and choline is also part of this second largest structural superfamily. The APCS fold provides different possibilities to transport the same amino acid. Arginine can be transported by an H(+)-coupled symport or by antiport mechanism in exchange against agmatine for example. The convergence of the mechanistic concept of transport under comparable physiological conditions allows speculating if structurally unexplored amino acid transporters, e.g. the members of the SLC36 and SLC38 family, belong to the APCS, too. In the kidney, which is an organ that depends critically on the regulated amino acid transport, these different SLC transporters have to work together to account for proper function. Here, we will summarize the basic concepts of Na

  1. Boron transport in plants: co-ordinated regulation of transporters (United States)

    Miwa, Kyoko; Fujiwara, Toru


    Background The essentiality of boron (B) for plant growth was established >85 years ago. In the last decade, it has been revealed that one of the physiological roles of B is cross-linking the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II in primary cell walls. Borate cross-linking of pectic networks serves both for physical strength of cell walls and for cell adhesion. On the other hand, high concentrations of B are toxic to plant growth. To avoid deficiency and toxicity problems, it is important for plants to maintain their tissue B concentrations within an optimum range by regulating transport processes. Boron transport was long believed to be a passive, unregulated process, but the identification of B transporters has suggested that plants sense and respond to the B conditions and regulate transporters to maintain B homeostasis. Scope Transporters responsible for efficient B uptake by roots, xylem loading and B distribution among leaves have been described. These transporters are required under B limitation for efficient acquisition and utilization of B. Transporters important for tolerating high B levels in the environment have also been identified, and these transporters export B from roots back to the soil. Two types of transporters are involved in these processes: NIPs (nodulin-26-like intrinsic proteins), boric acid channels, and BORs, B exporters. It is demonstrated that the expression of genes encoding these transporters is finely regulated in response to B availability in the environment to ensure tissue B homeostasis. Furthermore, plants tolerant to stress produced by low B or high B in the environment can be generated through altered expression of these transporters. Conclusions The identification of the first B transporter led to the discovery that B transport was a process mediated not only by passive diffusion but also by transporters whose activity was regulated in response to B conditions. Now it is evident that plants sense internal and external B

  2. Efficiency improvements in transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas C. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Transport, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)


    Transport of people, personal belongings and goods in private cars is fundamental to our modern welfare society and economic growth, and has grown steadily over many decades. Motor fuels have been based almost entirely on crude oil for the last century. During the last couple of decades engines built for traditional fuels have become more advanced and efficient; this has reduced fuel consumption by around 40% and emissions by more than 90%. Only in the same time span have we begun to look at alternatives to fossil fuels. Biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethanol and biogas can replace petrol and diesel, and in recent years algae have shown a new potential for diesel fuel. Natural gas is also becoming an interesting fuel due to its large resources worldwide. GTL, CTL and BTL are liquid fuels produced from solid or gaseous sources. GTL and CTL are expensive to produce and not very CO{sub 2}-friendly, but they are easily introduced and need little investment in infrastructure and vehicles. DME is an excellent fuel for diesel engines. Methanol and DME produced from biomass are among the most CO{sub 2}-reducing fuels and at the same time the most energy-efficient renewable fuels. Fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) are currently fuelled by hydrogen, but other fuels are also possible. There are, however, several barriers to the implementation of fuel cell vehicles. In particular, a hydrogen infrastructure needs to be developed. Electric vehicles (EVs) have the advantage that energy conversion is centralised at the power plant where it can be done at optimum efficiency and emissions. EVs have to be charged at home, and also away from home when travelling longer distances. With an acceptable fast charging infrastructure at least 85% of the one-car families in Denmark could be potential EV customers. Range improvements resulting from better batteries are expected to create a large increase in the number of EVs in Denmark between 2020 and 2030. The hybrid electric vehicle


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington


    Experiments on the flow loop are continuing. Improvements to the software for data acquisition are being made as additional experience with three-phase flow is gained. Modifications are being made to the Cuttings Injection System in order to improve control and the precision of cuttings injection. The design details for a drill-pipe Rotation System have been completed. A US Patent was filed on October 28, 2002 for a new design for an instrument that can generate a variety of foams under elevated pressures and temperatures and then transfer the test foam to a viscometer for measurements of viscosity. Theoretical analyses of cuttings transport phenomena based on a layered model is under development. Calibrations of two nuclear densitometers have been completed. Baseline tests have been run to determine wall roughness in the 4 different tests sections (i.e. 2-in, 3-in, 4-in pipes and 5.76-in by 3.5-in annulus) of the flow loop. Tests have also been conducted with aerated fluids at EPET conditions. Preliminary experiments on the two candidate aqueous foam formulations were conducted which included rheological tests of the base fluid and foam stability reports. These were conducted after acceptance of the proposal on the Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature Conditions. Preparation of a test matrix for cuttings-transport experiments with foam in the ACTF is also under way. A controller for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration and distribution has been designed that can control four transceivers at a time. A prototype of the control circuit board was built and tested. Tests showed that there was a problem with radiated noise. AN improved circuit board was designed and sent to an external expert to verify the new design. The new board is being fabricated and will first be tested with static water and gravel in an annulus at elevated temperatures. A series of viscometer tests to measure foam properties have

  4. Dynamic Transportation Navigation (United States)

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Chen, Jidong

    Miniaturization of computing devices, and advances in wireless communication and sensor technology are some of the forces that are propagating computing from the stationary desktop to the mobile outdoors. Some important classes of new applications that will be enabled by this revolutionary development include intelligent traffic management, location-based services, tourist services, mobile electronic commerce, and digital battlefield. Some existing application classes that will benefit from the development include transportation and air traffic control, weather forecasting, emergency response, mobile resource management, and mobile workforce. Location management, i.e., the management of transient location information, is an enabling technology for all these applications. In this chapter, we present the applications of moving objects management and their functionalities, in particular, the application of dynamic traffic navigation, which is a challenge due to the highly variable traffic state and the requirement of fast, on-line computations.

  5. Transport in superfluid mixtures (United States)

    Geracie, Michael


    We present a general method for constructing effective field theories for nonrelativistic superfluids, generalizing the previous approaches of Greiter, Witten, and Wilczek, and Son and Wingate to the case of several superfluids in solution. We investigate transport in mixtures with broken parity and find a parity-odd "Hall drag" in the presence of independent motion as well as a pinning of mass, charge, and energy to sites of nonzero relative velocity. Both effects have a simple geometric interpretation in terms of the signed volumes and directed areas of various subcomplexes of a "velocity polyhedron": the convex hull formed by the end points of the velocity vectors of a superfluid mixture. We also provide a simple quasi-one-dimensional model that exhibits nonzero Hall drag.

  6. Fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, G. [Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany); Hoehlein, B. [Research Center Juelich (Germany)


    A promising new power source for electric drive systems is the fuel cell technology with hydrogen as energy input. The worldwide fuel cell development concentrates on basic research efforts aiming at improving this new technology and at developing applications that might reach market maturity in the very near future. Due to the progress achieved, the interest is now steadily turning to the development of overall systems such as demonstration plants for different purposes: electricity generation, drive systems for road vehicles, ships and railroads. This paper does not present results concerning the market potential of fuel cells in transportation but rather addresses some questions and reflections that are subject to further research of both engineers and economists. Some joint effort of this research will be conducted under the umbrella of the IEA Implementing Agreement 026 - Annex X, but there is a lot more to be done in this challenging but also promising fields. (EG) 18 refs.

  7. Transport of Divalent Cations (United States)

    Van de Geijn, Siebe C.; Petit, Charles M.


    The cation exchange capacity of the intact xylem vessels in cut shoots of papyrus (Cyperus papyrus spec.) has been determined. The cation exchange capacity is independent of the cation concentration in the transpiration stream, and is equal for Ca and Co. The high value of the cation exchange capacity (0.6 to 1 × 10−7 equivalents per square centimeter vessel wall surface) leads to the hypothesis that the porous structure of the vessel wall, and not only the inner vessel wall surface, acts as a cation exchanger. Differences between anion ([32P]phosphate, [45Ca]EDTA2−, [115Cdm]-EDTA2−), and cation ([45Ca]2+, [115Cdm]2+) movement are explained in terms of transport with the transpiration flux or by exchange reactions. The competition between exchange sites and natural or synthetic ligands for the divalent cations is discussed. Images PMID:16661112


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi


    Final design of the mast was completed (Task 5). The mast is consisting of two welded plate girders, set next to each other, and spaced 14-inches apart. Fabrication of the boom will be completed in two parts solely for ease of transportation. The end pivot connection will be made through a single 2-inch diameter x 4 feet-8 inch long 316 SS bar. During installation, hard piping make-ups using Chiksan joints will connect the annular section and 4-inch return line to allow full movement of the mast from horizontal to vertical. Additionally, flexible hoses and piping will be installed to isolate both towers from piping loads and allow recycling operations respectively. Calibration of the prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed and experiments are now being conducted. We were able to generate up to 95% quality foam. Work is currently underway to attach the Thermo-Haake RS300 viscometer and install a view port with a microscope to measure foam bubble size and bubble size distribution. Foam rheology tests (Task 13) were carried out to evaluate the rheological properties of the proposed foam formulation. After successful completion of the first foam test, two sets of rheological tests were conducted at different foam flow rates while keeping other parameters constant (100 psig, 70F, 80% quality). The results from these tests are generally in agreement with the previous foam tests done previously during Task 9. However, an unanticipated observation during these tests was that in both cases, the frictional pressure drop in 2 inch pipe was lower than that in the 3 inch and 4 inch pipes. We also conducted the first foam cuttings transport test during this quarter. Experiments on aerated fluids without cuttings have been completed in ACTF (Task 10). Gas and liquid were injected at different flow rates. Two different sets of experiments were carried out, where the only difference was the temperature. Another set of tests was performed, which covered a wide range of

  9. ROV transportable tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chilton, T.S.; Pejaver, D.R.; White, J.


    This paper, after providing a brief overview of the total project, focuses on the description of innovative designs for the diverless maintenance of valves and control pods on subsea installations. While diverless maintenance capability is a must in deep water, simple systems that can be deployed using remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) can be cost effective in all water depths ranging from a few hundred to several thousand feet. This paper describes such ROV transportable systems being developed by Furness Underwater Engineering Limited and Wharton Williams Limited under contract to Esso. The work is being done under the technical stewardship and coordination of Esso's research affiliate, Exxon Production Research Company, and draws on Esso's prior expertise on diverless maintenance system design.

  10. Hydrogen transport membranes (United States)

    Mundschau, Michael V.


    Composite hydrogen transport membranes, which are used for extraction of hydrogen from gas mixtures are provided. Methods are described for supporting metals and metal alloys which have high hydrogen permeability, but which are either too thin to be self supporting, too weak to resist differential pressures across the membrane, or which become embrittled by hydrogen. Support materials are chosen to be lattice matched to the metals and metal alloys. Preferred metals with high permeability for hydrogen include vanadium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, palladium, and alloys thereof. Hydrogen-permeable membranes include those in which the pores of a porous support matrix are blocked by hydrogen-permeable metals and metal alloys, those in which the pores of a porous metal matrix are blocked with materials which make the membrane impervious to gases other than hydrogen, and cermets fabricated by sintering powders of metals with powders of lattice-matched ceramic.

  11. Benchmarking & European Sustainable Transport Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.


    to support Sustainable European Transport Policies. The key message is that transport benchmarking has not yet been developed to cope with the challenges of this task. Rather than backing down completely, the paper suggests some critical conditions for applying and adopting benchmarking for this purpose. One...... way forward is to ensure a higher level of environmental integration in transport policy benchmarking. To this effect the paper will discuss the possible role of the socalled Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism developed by the European Environment Agency. The paper provides an independent......, Benchmarking is one of the management tools that have recently been introduced in the transport sector. It is rapidly being applied to a wide range of transport operations, services and policies. This paper is a contribution to the discussion of the role of benchmarking in the future efforts...

  12. Drug Transporters in the Intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente


    and exemplify their roles in drug absorption/exsorption and in drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Although focus in the present Chapter is on DTs that are mentioned in American and European regulatory guidances, the intestinal transporters for nutrients and endogens (endogenous compounds) are also briefly...... that may impact drug absorption. Thus absorptive transporters may facilitate BA of APIs that are substrates/victims for the transporters and have permeability-limited absorption, i.e. those that are classified in the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) Class 3 and 4. On the other hand, exsorptive...... transporters may restrict BA of APIs that are victims for these efflux transporters, especially those APIs classified to have solubility-limited absorption, i.e. compounds in BCS Class 2 and 4. The aim of the present Chapter is to review drug transporters (DTs) present within the intestine and to discuss...

  13. Optimizing Stellarators for Turbulent Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.E. Mynick, N.Pomphrey, and P. Xanthopoulos


    Up to now, the term "transport-optimized" stellarators has meant optimized to minimize neoclassical transport, while the task of also mitigating turbulent transport, usually the dominant transport channel in such designs, has not been addressed, due to the complexity of plasma turbulence in stellarators. Here, we demonstrate that stellarators can also be designed to mitigate their turbulent transport, by making use of two powerful numerical tools not available until recently, namely gyrokinetic codes valid for 3D nonlinear simulations, and stellarator optimization codes. A first proof-of-principle configuration is obtained, reducing the level of ion temperature gradient turbulent transport from the NCSX baseline design by a factor of about 2.5.

  14. Nanoengineered membranes for controlled transport (United States)

    Doktycz, Mitchel J [Oak Ridge, TN; Simpson, Michael L [Knoxville, TN; McKnight, Timothy E [Greenback, TN; Melechko, Anatoli V [Oak Ridge, TN; Lowndes, Douglas H [Knoxville, TN; Guillorn, Michael A [Knoxville, TN; Merkulov, Vladimir I [Oak Ridge, TN


    A nanoengineered membrane for controlling material transport (e.g., molecular transport) is disclosed. The membrane includes a substrate, a cover definining a material transport channel between the substrate and the cover, and a plurality of fibers positioned in the channel and connected to an extending away from a surface of the substrate. The fibers are aligned perpendicular to the surface of the substrate, and have a width of 100 nanometers or less. The diffusion limits for material transport are controlled by the separation of the fibers. In one embodiment, chemical derivitization of carbon fibers may be undertaken to further affect the diffusion limits or affect selective permeability or facilitated transport. For example, a coating can be applied to at least a portion of the fibers. In another embodiment, individually addressable carbon nanofibers can be integrated with the membrane to provide an electrical driving force for material transport.

  15. Transport properties of molecular junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Zimbovskaya, Natalya A


    A comprehensive overview of the physical mechanisms that control electron transport and the characteristics of metal-molecule-metal (MMM) junctions is presented. As far as possible, methods and formalisms presented elsewhere to analyze electron transport through molecules are avoided. This title introduces basic concepts—a description of the electron transport through molecular junctions—and briefly describes relevant experimental methods. Theoretical methods commonly used to analyze the electron transport through molecules are presented. Various effects that manifest in the electron transport through MMMs, as well as the basics of density-functional theory and its applications to electronic structure calculations in molecules are presented. Nanoelectronic applications of molecular junctions and similar systems are discussed as well. Molecular electronics is a diverse and rapidly growing field. Transport Properties of Molecular Junctions presents an up-to-date survey of the field suitable for researchers ...

  16. New transport and handling contract

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Department


    A new transport and handling contract entered into force on 1.10.2008. As with the previous contract, the user interface is the internal transport/handling request form on EDH: To ensure that you receive the best possible service, we invite you to complete the various fields as accurately as possible and to include a mobile telephone number on which we can reach you. You can follow the progress of your request (schedule, completion) in the EDH request routing information. We remind you that the following deadlines apply: 48 hours for the transport of heavy goods (up to 8 tonnes) or simple handling operations 5 working days for crane operations, transport of extra-heavy goods, complex handling operations and combined transport and handling operations in the tunnel. For all enquiries, the number to contact remains unchanged: 72202. Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 72672 - 160319

  17. Optimizing stellarators for turbulent transport. (United States)

    Mynick, H E; Pomphrey, N; Xanthopoulos, P


    Up to now, the term "transport-optimized" stellarators has meant optimized to minimize neoclassical transport, while the task of also mitigating turbulent transport, usually the dominant transport channel in such designs, has not been addressed, due to the complexity of plasma turbulence in stellarators. Here, we demonstrate that stellarators can also be designed to mitigate their turbulent transport, by making use of two powerful numerical tools not available until recently, namely, gyrokinetic codes valid for 3D nonlinear simulations and stellarator optimization codes. Two initial proof-of-principle configurations are obtained, reducing the level of ion temperature gradient turbulent transport from the National Compact Stellarator Experiment baseline design by a factor of 2-2.5.

  18. Controlador Inteligente De Transporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro J. Cabrera Sarmiento


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} En el presente trabajo se expone la concepción, desarrollo e implementación de un Controlador Inteligente de Transporte, el cual se encarga del control de una intersección semaforizada. La estructura hardware del controlador ha sido dividida en dos clases de tarjetas: las Tarjetas de Luces, encargadas de activar las señales para las indicaciones en una intersección (luces, sonido, etc. y la Tarjeta de Control, encargada del control de la intersección gobernando hasta cuatro tarjetas de luces con las cuales se comunica, así como de establecer comunicación con un nivel jerárquico superior. Ambas tarjetas han sido desarrolladas en base a microcontroladores de 8 bits de Microchip. El firmware de ambos tipos de tarjetas ha sido desarrollado y puesto a punto utilizando PIC C de CCS. El desarrollo de este controlador, de prestaciones superiores a los existentes actualmente en el país, permite su inserción en un Sistema Inteligente de Transporte (SIT que se encuentra en fase de desarrollo.

  19. Electricity as Transportation ``Fuel'' (United States)

    Tamor, Michael


    The personal automobile is a surprisingly efficient device, but its place in a sustainable transportation future hinges on its ability use a sustainable fuel. While electricity is widely expected to be such a ``fuel,'' the viability of electric vehicles rests on the validity of three assumptions. First, that the emissions from generation will be significantly lower than those from competing chemical fuels whether `renewable' or fossil. Second, that advances in battery technology will deliver adequate range and durability at an affordable cost. Third, that most customers will accept any functional limitations intrinsic to electrochemical energy storage. While the first two are subjects of active research and vigorous policy debate, the third is treated virtually as a given. Popular statements to the effect that ``because 70% of all daily travel is accomplished in less than 100 miles, mass deployment of 100 mile EVs will electrify 70% of all travel'' are based on collections of one-day travel reports such as the National Household Travel Survey, and so effectively ignore the complexities of individual needs. We have analyzed the day-to-day variations of individual vehicle usage in multiple regions and draw very different conclusions. Most significant is that limited EV range results in a level of inconvenience that is likely to be unacceptable to the vast majority of vehicle owners, and for those who would accept that inconvenience, battery costs must be absurdly low to achieve any economic payback. In contrast, the plug-in hybrid (PHEV) does not suffer range limitations and delivers economic payback for most users at realistic battery costs. More importantly, these findings appear to be universal in developed nations, with labor market population density being a powerful predictor of personal vehicle usage. This ``scalable city'' hypothesis may prove to a powerful predictor of the evolution of transportation in the large cities of the developing world.

  20. Transporting the first ATLAS toroid

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    The first coil for the ATLAS toroid magnet is transported from its assembly hall at the CERN Meyrin site to the storage hall above the ATLAS cavern. This involves driving the massive transportation vehicle first through the Meyrin site and then across a main road only metres from the France-Swiss border. Eight magnets in total will be transported in this way before being lowered into the experimental cavern where they will be mounted in a huge ring surrounding the detector.

  1. Its deployment and transportation policies




    Technology has driven the mobility needs of people and has been critical in the movement of goods. The newest wave of transportation technologies is the development and deployment of intelligent transportation systems. For the last 15 years, these systems have been promoted by the private industry and the public sector, mainly departments of transportation. The academia has also been involved as a developers and evaluators of technologies. However, the progress of its implementation has been ...

  2. Mifepristone modulates serotonin transporter function


    Li, Chaokun; Shan, Linlin; Li, Xinjuan; Wei, Linyu; Li, Dongliang


    Regulating serotonin expression can be used to treat psychotic depression. Mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, is an effective candidate for psychotic depression treatment. However, the underlying mechanism related to serotonin transporter expression is poorly understood. In this study, we cloned the human brain serotonin transporter into Xenopus oocytes, to establish an in vitro expression system. Two-electrode voltage clamp recordings were used to detect serotonin transporte...

  3. Certification of Automated Transport Systems


    Van Dijke, Jan; Van Schijndel, Margriet; Nashashibi, Fawzi; de La Fortelle, Arnaud


    International audience; The CityMobil project "Towards advanced transport for the urban environment" aims at achieving a more effective organisation of urban transport, resulting in a more rational use of motorised traffic with less congestion and pollution, safer driving, a higher quality of living and an enhanced integration with spatial development. This paper describes a certification procedure for automated transport systems, developed in various European research projects and completed ...

  4. Transportation, Industry Study, Spring 2008 (United States)


    Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 i TRANSPORTATION ABSTRACT: Transportation is the key to this nation’s strength . Within this industry, the...surface means, generates over $70 billion annually in domestic and international business. The industry leaders are UPS, FedEx, and DHL , commanding...this context, it becomes clear that America’s transportation capability, economic strength , and national security are interconnected. Remaining a

  5. Transportation energy use in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum, C.; Meyers, S.; Sathaye, J.


    This report presents data on passenger travel and freight transport and analysis of the consequent energy use in Mexico during the 1970--1971 period. We describe changes in modal shares for passenger travel and freight transport, and analyze trends in the energy intensity of different modes. We look in more detail at transportation patterns, energy use, and the related environmental problems in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, and also discuss policies that have been implemented there to reduce emissions from vehicles.

  6. Modelling of Transport Projects Uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen


    This paper proposes a new way of handling the uncertainties present in transport decision making based on infrastructure appraisals. The paper suggests to combine the principle of Optimism Bias, which depicts the historical tendency of overestimating transport related benefits and underestimating......-based graphs which functions as risk-related decision support for the appraised transport infrastructure project. The presentation of RSF is demonstrated by using an appraisal case concerning a new airfield in the capital of Greenland, Nuuk....

  7. The role of public transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayliss, D. [London Transport, London (United Kingdom)


    This paper considers the types and scale of the contributions that public transport can make to sustainable personal mobility. It recognises that public transport actions must be part of a wider concerted effort if real progress is to be made in promoting sustainable mobility. Parallel actions will be needed in the areas of land use patterns, technology and activity patterns as well as other elements of transport planning and management. The energy efficiency, environmental impacts, space effects and mobility characteristics of the main forms of public transport are examined and related, where appropriate, to those of cars. (author) 1 fig., 11 tabs., refs.

  8. Transportation Statistics Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenn, M.


    This document is the fourth Transportation Statistics Annual Report (TSAR) prepared by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) for the President and Congress. As in previous years, it reports on the state of U.S. transportation system at two levels. First, in Part I, it provides a statistical and interpretive survey of the system—its physical characteristics, its economic attributes, aspects of its use and performance, and the scale and severity of unintended consequences of transportation, such as fatalities and injuries, oil import dependency, and environment impacts. Part I also explores the state of transportation statistics, and new needs of the rapidly changing world of transportation. Second, Part II of the report, as in prior years, explores in detail the performance of the U.S. transportation system from the perspective of desired social outcomes or strategic goals. This year, the performance aspect of transportation chosen for thematic treatment is “Mobility and Access,” which complements past TSAR theme sections on “The Economic Performance of Transportation” (1995) and “Transportation and the Environment” (1996). Mobility and access are at the heart of the transportation system’s performance from the user’s perspective. In what ways and to what extent does the geographic freedom provided by transportation enhance personal fulfillment of the nation’s residents and contribute to economic advancement of people and businesses? This broad question underlies many of the topics examined in Part II: What is the current level of personal mobility in the United States, and how does it vary by sex, age, income level, urban or rural location, and over time? What factors explain variations? Has transportation helped improve people’s access to work, shopping, recreational facilities, and medical services, and in what ways and in what locations? How have barriers, such as age, disabilities, or lack of an automobile, affected these

  9. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Houseworth


    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water

  10. Technology Roadmaps: Biofuels for Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Biofuels could provide up to 27% of total transport fuel worldwide by 2050. The use of transport fuels from biomass, when produced sustainably, can help cut petroleum use and reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector, especially in heavy transport. Sustainable biofuel technologies, in particular advanced biofuels, will play an important role in achieving this roadmap vision. The roadmap describes the steps necessary to realise this ambitious biofuels target; identifies key actions by different stakeholders, and the role for government policy to adopt measures needed to ensure the sustainable expansion of both conventional and advanced biofuel production.

  11. Regional cooperation in transportation planning. (United States)


    As Floridas urbanized areas grow and merge, : neighboring jurisdictions experience interrelated : problems and opportunities, and regional : cooperation becomes an imperative. In the : transportation sector, Floridas metropolitan : planning org...

  12. The road to sustainable transportation (United States)

    Hermans, Jo


    Since most modes of transportation rely on liquid energy carriers like gasoline or diesel, the approaching end of the fossil fuel era poses a special challenge. One should bear in mind that nothing matches the energy density of liquid fuels. It is, therefore, important to consider the efficiency of various modes of transportation and explore alternative options for energy carriers. This includes a feasibility study of the use of solar energy in transportation. In this perspective various modes of transportation are briefly reviewed and the possible alternative energy carriers assessed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi


    We have tested the loop elevation system. We raised the mast to approximately 25 to 30 degrees from horizontal. All went well. However, while lowering the mast, it moved laterally a couple of degrees. Upon visual inspection, severe spalling of the concrete on the face of the support pillar, and deformation of the steel support structure was observed. At this time, the facility is ready for testing in the horizontal position. A new air compressor has been received and set in place for the ACTS test loop. A new laboratory has been built near the ACTS test loop Roughened cups and rotors for the viscometer (RS300) were obtained. Rheologies of aqueous foams were measured using three different cup-rotor assemblies that have different surface roughness. The relationship between surface roughness and foam rheology was investigated. Re-calibration of nuclear densitometers has been finished. The re-calibration was also performed with 1% surfactant foam. A new cuttings injection system was installed at the bottom of the injection tower. It replaced the previous injection auger. A mechanistic model for cuttings transport with aerated mud has been developed. Cuttings transport mechanisms with aerated water at various conditions were experimentally investigated. A total of 39 tests were performed. Comparisons between the model predictions and experimental measurements show a satisfactory agreement. Results from the ultrasonic monitoring system indicated that we could distinguish between different sand levels. We also have devised ways to achieve consistency of performance by securing the sensors in the caps in exactly the same manner as long as the sensors are not removed from the caps. A preliminary test was conducted on the main flow loop at 100 gpm flow rate and 20 lb/min cuttings injection rate. The measured bed thickness using the ultrasonic method showed a satisfactory agreement with nuclear densitometer readings. Thirty different data points were collected after the test


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Ivanov


    Full Text Available In transport system of Russia air transport is one of main types of passenger and cargo transport. Demand for air transportation constantly increases that allows to consider reasonably improvement of transportations on air transport as the priority direction of development in civil aviation. The article considers issues of development of the branch air transport.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Transport emissions are growing, while climate targets are getting stricter: the gap is closing. We are rapidly approaching a future where transport could occupy or even exceed all of the ‘allowed’ CO2 emissions, if measures are not taken. Many potential climate policies and strategies for transp...

  16. Pressure losses in pneumatic transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottjes, J.A.


    A model is derived to calculate the pressure losses originating from the dilute phase pneumatic transport of coarse particles in the horizontal stationary flow regime. The model is based on the balance of drag forces and frictional forces acting on the particles during pneumatic transport. The

  17. Lithium transport across biological membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H


    Li+ is actively transported out of cells, and across different epithelia of both mammalian and amphibian origin. Due to the low affinity of the Na+/K(+)-ATPase for Li+, the transport is most likely energized by exchange and/or cotransport processes. The detailed mechanism by which Li+ is reabsorbed...

  18. Dipeptide transporters in Fusarium graminearum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Giese, Henriette; Søndergaard, Teis

    Fungi have evolved different transport mechanisms in order to utilize both inorganic and organic nitrogen sources because nitrogen availability often is one of the limiting factors in pathogenic processes. In this study we have characterized four di/tripeptide transporters in the necrotrophic plant...

  19. Certification of automated transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijke, J.P. van; Schijndel-de Nooij, M. van; Nashashibi, F.; Fortelle, A. de la


    The CityMobil project “Towards advanced transport for the urban environment” aims at achieving a more effective organisation of urban transport, resulting in a more rational use of motorised traffic with less congestion and pollution, safer driving, a higher quality of living and an enhanced

  20. Local Transport Policy and Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    The Ph. D. thesis describes and analyses how environmental obejctives and strategies have materialised in the real-life context of local transport policies and plans, how environmental perspectives have been picked up by policy makers concerned with transport issues, how policy and planning...

  1. Fremtidsscenarier for transport i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker; Landex, Alex; Rørbech, Jens

    Ugebladet Ingeniøren har besluttet at bringe en artikelserie i 2006 om fremtidens transport i Danmark. Center for Trafik og Transport på Danmarks Tekniske Universitet har i den forbindelse udarbejdet denne rapport som oplæg til og som baggrund for artikelserien. Som det vil fremgå er rapporten...

  2. The GLUT4 Glucose Transporter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Shaohui; Czech, Michael P


    ... protein that mediates this uptake is one isoform (Gene name, SLC2A4; protein name: GLUT4) of a family of sugar transporter proteins containing 12-transmembrane domains ( Figure 1 ). The GLUT4 glucose transporter is thus a major mediator of glucose removal from the circulation and a key regulator of whole-body glucose homeostasis. Here, we discus...

  3. Goods Transport Modelling, Vol 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Steen (red.); Kristiansen, Jørgen

    The report is a study of data requirements and methodologies for goods transport. The study is intended to provide the basis for general discussion about the application of goods transport models in Denmark. The report provides an overview of different types of models and data availability....


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu; Sri Suresh Kumar Thiroveedhula


    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with water under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic drilling fluids. Initial calibration tests have been conducted by using water. Currently, the base oil of the Petrobras synthetic drilling fluid is being tested. Foam flow experiments have been conducted. Currently, more experiments are being conducted while data are being analyzed to characterize the rheology of the foam. Cuttings transport experiments have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Preliminary results have shown that it may not be possible to avoid cuttings bed deposition under any practical combination of air and water flow rates. Foam stability analyses have been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. A software for controlling the data sampling and data storage during cuttings monitoring process have been developed.

  5. Tesseract supersonic business transport (United States)

    Reshotko, Eli; Garbinski, Gary; Fellenstein, James; Botting, Mary; Hooper, Joan; Ryan, Michael; Struk, Peter; Taggart, Ben; Taillon, Maggie; Warzynski, Gary


    This year, the senior level Aerospace Design class at Case Western Reserve University developed a conceptual design of a supersonic business transport. Due to the growing trade between Asia and the United States, a transpacific range was chosen for the aircraft. A Mach number of 2.2 was chosen, too, because it provides reasonable block times and allows the use of a large range of materials without a need for active cooling. A payload of 2,500 lbs. was assumed corresponding to a complement of nine passengers and crew, plus some light cargo. With these general requirements set, the class was broken down into three groups. The aerodynamics of the aircraft were the responsibility of the first group. The second developed the propulsion system. The efforts of both the aerodynamics and propulsion groups were monitored and reviewed for weight considerations and structural feasibility by the third group. Integration of the design required considerable interaction between the groups in the final stages. The fuselage length of the final conceptual design was 107.0 ft, while the diameter of the fuselage was 7.6 ft. The delta wing design consisted of an aspect ratio of 1.9 with a wing span of 47.75 ft and mid-chord length of 61.0 ft. A SNECMA MCV 99 variable-cycle engine design was chosen for this aircraft.

  6. Tesseract: Supersonic business transport (United States)

    Reshotko, Eli; Garbinski, Gary


    This year, the senior level Aerospace Design class at Case Western Reserve University developed a conceptual design of a supersonic business transport. Due to the growing trade between Asia and the United States, a transpacific range has been chosen for the aircraft. A Mach number of 2.2 was chosen too because it provides reasonable block times and allows the use of a large range of materials without a need for active cooling. A payload of 2500 lbs. has been assumed corresponding to a complement of nine (passengers and crew) plus some light cargo. With these general requirements set, the class was broken down into three groups. The aerodynamics of the aircraft were the responsibility of the first group. The second developed the propulsion system. The efforts of both the aerodynamics and propulsion groups were monitored and reviewed for weight considerations and structural feasibility by the third group. Integration of the design required considerable interaction between the groups in the final stages. The fuselage length of the final conceptual design was 107.0 ft. while the diameter of the fuselage was 7.6 ft. The delta wing design consisted of an aspect ratio of 1.9 with a wing span of 47.75 ft and midcord length of 61.0 ft. A SNEMCA MCV 99 variable-cycle engine design was chosen for this aircraft.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana


    In the present quarter, the possibility of using a more complex interfacial engineering approach to the development of reliable and stable oxygen transport perovskite ceramic membranes/metal seals is discussed. Experiments are presented and ceramic/metal interactions are characterized. Crack growth and fracture toughness of the membrane in the reducing conditions are also discussed. Future work regarding this approach is proposed are evaluated for strength and fracture in oxygen gradient conditions. Oxygen gradients are created in tubular membranes by insulating the inner surface from the reducing environment by platinum foils. Fracture in these test conditions is observed to have a gradient in trans and inter-granular fracture as opposed to pure trans-granular fracture observed in homogeneous conditions. Fracture gradients are reasoned to be due to oxygen gradient set up in the membrane, variation in stoichiometry across the thickness and due to varying decomposition of the parent perovskite. The studies are useful in predicting fracture criterion in actual reactor conditions and in understanding the initial evolution of fracture processes.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Wilson; R. Novotny


    The objective of this analysis is to identify issues and criteria that apply to the design of the Subsurface Emplacement Transportation System (SET). The SET consists of the track used by the waste package handling equipment, the conductors and related equipment used to supply electrical power to that equipment, and the instrumentation and controls used to monitor and operate those track and power supply systems. Major considerations of this analysis include: (1) Operational life of the SET; (2) Geometric constraints on the track layout; (3) Operating loads on the track; (4) Environmentally induced loads on the track; (5) Power supply (electrification) requirements; and (6) Instrumentation and control requirements. This analysis will provide the basis for development of the system description document (SDD) for the SET. This analysis also defines the interfaces that need to be considered in the design of the SET. These interfaces include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Waste handling building; (2) Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface site layout; (3) Waste Emplacement System (WES); (4) Waste Retrieval System (WRS); (5) Ground Control System (GCS); (6) Ex-Container System (XCS); (7) Subsurface Electrical Distribution System (SED); (8) MGR Operations Monitoring and Control System (OMC); (9) Subsurface Facility System (SFS); (10) Subsurface Fire Protection System (SFR); (11) Performance Confirmation Emplacement Drift Monitoring System (PCM); and (12) Backfill Emplacement System (BES).

  9. Water intensity of transportation. (United States)

    King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E


    As the need for alternative transportation fuels increases, it is important to understand the many effects of introducing fuels based upon feedstocks other than petroleum. Water intensity in "gallons of water per mile traveled" is one method to measure these effects on the consumer level. In this paper we investigate the water intensity for light duty vehicle (LDV) travel using selected fuels based upon petroleum, natural gas, unconventional fossil fuels, hydrogen, electricity, and two biofuels (ethanol from corn and biodiesel from soy). Fuels more directly derived from fossil fuels are less water intensive than those derived either indirectly from fossil fuels (e.g., through electricity generation) or directly from biomass. The lowest water consumptive (electricity, and electricity derived from nonthermal renewable sources. LDVs running on electricity and hydrogen derived from the aggregate U.S. grid (heavily based upon fossil fuel and nuclear steam-electric power generation) withdraw 5-20 times and consume nearly 2-5 times more water than by using petroleum gasoline. The water intensities (gal H20/mile) of LDVs operating on biofuels derived from crops irrigated in the United States at average rates is 28 and 36 for corn ethanol (E85) for consumption and withdrawal, respectively. For soy-derived biodiesel the average consumption and withdrawal rates are 8 and 10 gal H2O/mile.

  10. Towards Optimal Transport Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik P. Vargo


    Full Text Available Our ultimate goal is to design transportation net- works whose dynamic performance metrics (e.g. pas- senger throughput, passenger delay, and insensitivity to weather disturbances are optimized. Here the fo- cus is on optimizing static features of the network that are known to directly affect the network dynamics. First, we present simulation results which support a connection between maximizing the first non-trivial eigenvalue of a network's Laplacian and superior air- port network performance. Then, we explore the ef- fectiveness of a tabu search heuristic for optimizing this metric by comparing experimental results to the- oretical upper bounds. We also consider generating upper bounds on a network's algebraic connectivity via the solution of semidefinite programming (SDP relaxations. A modification of an existing subgraph extraction algorithm is implemented to explore the underlying regional structures in the U.S. airport net- work, with the hope that the resulting localized struc- tures can be optimized independently and reconnected via a "backbone" network to achieve superior network performance.

  11. Heuristic Optimization Approach to Selecting a Transport Connection in City Public Transport


    Kul’ka Jozef; Mantič Martin; Kopas Melichar; Faltinová Eva; Kachman Daniel


    The article presents a heuristic optimization approach to select a suitable transport connection in the framework of a city public transport. This methodology was applied on a part of the public transport in Košice, because it is the second largest city in the Slovak Republic and its network of the public transport creates a complex transport system, which consists of three different transport modes, namely from the bus transport, tram transport and trolley-bus transport. This solution focuse...


    Jackson, Ar; Gu, Wy


    Cartilaginous tissues, such as articular cartilage and intervertebral disc, are avascular tissues which rely on transport for cellular nutrition. Comprehensive knowledge of transport properties in such tissues is therefore necessary in the understanding of nutritional supply to cells. Furthermore, poor cellular nutrition in cartilaginous tissues is believed to be a primary source of tissue degeneration, which may result in osteoarthritis (OA) or disc degeneration. In this mini-review, we present an overview of the current status of the study of transport properties and behavior in cartilaginous tissues. The mechanisms of transport in these tissues, as well as experimental approaches to measuring transport properties and results obtained are discussed. The current status of bioreactors used in cartilage tissue engineering is also presented.

  13. Cellular Auxin Transport in Algae. (United States)

    Zhang, Suyun; van Duijn, Bert


    The phytohormone auxin is one of the main directors of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxin is generated in apical plant parts and transported from cell-to-cell in a polar fashion. Auxin is present in all plant phyla, and the existence of polar auxin transport (PAT) is well established in land plants. Algae are a group of relatively simple, autotrophic, photosynthetic organisms that share many features with land plants. In particular, Charophyceae (a taxon of green algae) are closest ancestors of land plants. In the study of auxin function, transport and its evolution, the algae form an interesting research target. Recently, proof for polar auxin transport in Chara species was published and auxin related research in algae gained more attention. In this review we discuss auxin transport in algae with respect to land plants and suggest directions for future studies.

  14. Transportation energy conservation data book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loebl, A. S.; Bjornstad, D. J.; Burch, D. F.; Howard, E. B.; Hull, J. F.; Madewell, D. G.; Malthouse, N. S.; Ogle, M. C.


    Statistics which characterize the major transportation modes are assembled and displayed, and data on other factors which influence the transportation sector in the nation are presented. Statistical data on energy use in the transportation sector are presented in the form of tables, graphs, and charts. The following topics are covered in six chapters: Characteristics of Transportation Modes; Energy Characteristics, including energy consumption by source and by sector and energy intensiveness; Conservation Alternatives; Government Impacts, including expenditures, regulations and research, development, and demonstration spending; Energy Supply, including domestic petroleum production, prices, and projections; and Transportation Demand, including population characteristics and economic determinants. A bibliography of data sources is provided at the end of each chapter. A more general bibliography glossary, and subject index are included at the end of the book.

  15. Transport waves as crystal excitations (United States)

    Cepellotti, Andrea; Marzari, Nicola


    We introduce the concept of transport waves by showing that the linearized Boltzmann transport equation admits excitations in the form of waves that have well-defined dispersion relations and decay times. Crucially, these waves do not represent single-particle excitations, but are collective excitations of the equilibrium distribution functions. We study in detail the case of thermal transport, where relaxons are found in the long-wavelength limit, and second sound is reinterpreted as the excitation of one or several temperature waves at finite frequencies. Graphene is studied numerically, finding decay times of the order of microseconds. The derivation, obtained by a spectral representation of the Boltzmann equation, holds in principle for any crystal or semiclassical transport theory and is particularly relevant when transport takes place in the hydrodynamic regime.

  16. Gas transport in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Clifford K


    This book presents a compilation of state-of-the art studies on gas and vapor transport processes in porous and fractured media. A broad set of models and processes are presented, including advection/diffusion, the Dusty Gas Model, enhanced vapor diffusion, phase change, coupled processes, solid/vapor sorption, and vapor-pressure lowering. Numerous applications are also presented that illustrate these processes and models in current problems facing the scientific community. This book fills a gap in the general area of transport in porous and fractured media; an area that has historically been dominated by studies of liquid-phase flow and transport. This book identifies gas and vapor transport processes that may be important or dominant in various applications, and it exploits recent advances in computational modeling and experimental methods to present studies that distinguish the relative importance of various mechanisms of transport in complex media.

  17. Sustainable transport studies in Asia

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Junyi


    This book aims to provide a good understanding of and perspective on sustainable transport in Asia by focusing on economic, environmental, and social sustainability. It is widely acknowledged that the current situation and trends in transport are not always sustainable in Asia, due in part to the fast-growing economy and the astounding speed of urbanization as well as least-mature governance. As essential research material, the book provides strong support for policy makers and planners by comprehensively covering three groups of strategies, characterized by the words “avoid” (e.g., urban form design and control of car ownership), “shift” (e.g., establishing comprehensive transportation systems and increasing public transportation systems for both intracity and intercity travel), and “improve” (e.g., redesign of paratransit system, low-emission vehicles, intelligent transportation systems, and eco-life). These are elaborated in the book alongside consideration of the uncertainty of policy effects ...

  18. Transport of the LHC cryodipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Buenaventura, A


    The LHC cryodipoles will be assembled at ground level and then transported and handled by various means until their final positioning in the tunnel. The dynamic behaviour of the cryodipole is different for each means of transport and has been studied using finite elements. The effect of the transport restraints on the dynamic behaviour of the cryodipole was assessed and a layout of transport restraints for the LHC cryodipoles is proposed. Furthermore, the maximum admissible accelerations during transport are presented. Accelerations should be monitored from the assembly operation until the cryodipoles are in their final position in the tunnel. For this purpose, a system based on self-contained tri-axial shock and vibrometer monitors is proposed.

  19. Big Data in Transport Geography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Agerholm, Niels; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk

    The emergence of new tracking technologies and Big Data has caused a transformation of the transport geography field in recent years. One new datatype, which is starting to play a significant role in public transport, is smart card data. Despite the growing focus on smart card data, there is a need...... for studies that explicitly compare the quality of this new type of data to traditional data sources. With the current focus on Big Data in the transport field, public transport planners are increasingly looking towards smart card data to analyze and optimize flows of passengers. However, in many cases...... it is not all public transport passengers in a city, region or country with a smart card system that uses the system, and in such cases, it is important to know what biases smart card data has in relation to giving a complete view upon passenger flows. This paper therefore analyses the quality and biases...

  20. Sucrose transporters of higher plants. (United States)

    Kühn, Christina; Grof, Christopher P L


    Recent advances have provided new insights into how sucrose is moved from sites of synthesis to sites of utilisation or storage in sink organs. Sucrose transporters play a central role, as they orchestrate sucrose allocation both intracellularly and at the whole plant level. Sucrose produced in mesophyll cells of leaves may be effluxed into the apoplasm of mesophyll or phloem parenchyma cells by a mechanism that remains elusive, but experimentally consistent with facilitated transport or energy-dependent sucrose/H(+) antiport. From the apoplasm, sucrose/H(+) symporters transport sucrose across the plasma membrane of cells making up the sieve element/companion cell (SE/CC) complex, the long distance conduits of the phloem. Phloem unloading of sucrose in key sinks such as developing seeds involves two sequential transport steps, sucrose efflux followed by sucrose influx. Besides plasma membrane specific sucrose transporters, sucrose transporters on the tonoplast contribute to the capacity for elevated sucrose accumulation in storage organs such as sugar beet roots or sugarcane culms. Except for several sucrose facilitators from seed coats of some leguminous plants all sucrose transporters cloned to date, including recently identified vacuolar sucrose transporters, have been characterised as sucrose/H(+) symporters. Transporters functioning to efflux sucrose into source or sink apoplasms as well as those supporting sucrose/H(+) antiport on tonoplasts, remain to be identified. Sucrose transporter expression and activity is tightly regulated at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional as well as post-translational levels. Light quality and phytohormones play essential regulatory roles and the sucrose molecule itself functions as a signal. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Land transport (United States)

    Uherek, Elmar; Halenka, Tomas; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Balkanski, Yves; Berntsen, Terje; Borrego, Carlos; Gauss, Michael; Hoor, Peter; Juda-Rezler, Katarzyna; Lelieveld, Jos; Melas, Dimitrios; Rypdal, Kristin; Schmid, Stephan


    Emissions from land transport, and from road transport in particular, have significant impacts on the atmosphere and on climate change. This assessment gives an overview of past, present and future emissions from land transport, of their impacts on the atmospheric composition and air quality, on human health and climate change and on options for mitigation. In the past vehicle exhaust emission control has successfully reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and particulate matter. This contributed to improved air quality and reduced health impacts in industrialised countries. In developing countries however, pollutant emissions have been growing strongly, adversely affecting many populations. In addition, ozone and particulate matter change the radiative balance and hence contribute to global warming on shorter time scales. Latest knowledge on the magnitude of land transport's impact on global warming is reviewed here. In the future, road transport's emissions of these pollutants are expected to stagnate and then decrease globally. This will then help to improve the air quality notably in developing countries. On the contrary, emissions of carbon dioxide and of halocarbons from mobile air conditioners have been globally increasing and are further expected to grow. Consequently, road transport's impact on climate is gaining in importance. The expected efficiency improvements of vehicles and the introduction of biofuels will not be sufficient to offset the expected strong growth in both, passenger and freight transportation. Technical measures could offer a significant reduction potential, but strong interventions would be needed as markets do not initiate the necessary changes. Further reductions would need a resolute expansion of low-carbon fuels, a tripling of vehicle fuel efficiency and a stagnation in absolute transport volumes. Land transport will remain a key sector in climate change mitigation during the next decades.

  2. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana


    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/ Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Existing facilities were modified for evaluation of environmental assisted slow crack growth and creep in flexural mode. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition were continued for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment. These studies in parallel to those on the LSFCO composition is expect to yield important information on questions such as the role of cation segregation and the stability of the perovskite structure on crack initiation vs. crack growth. Studies have been continued on the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} composition using neutron diffraction and TGA studies. A transition from p-type to n-type of conductor was observed at relative low pO{sub 2}, at which the majority carriers changed from the holes to electrons because of the valence state decreases in Fe due to the further loss of oxygen. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Data obtained at 850 C show that the stoichiometry in La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x} vary from {approx}2.85 to 2.6 over the pressure range studied. From the stoichiometry a lower limit of 2.6 corresponding to the reduction of all Fe{sup 4+} to Fe{sup 3+} and no reduction of Cr{sup 3+} is expected.

  3. Transportation economics and energy (United States)

    Soltani Sobh, Ali

    The overall objective of this research is to study the impacts of technology improvement including fuel efficiency increment, extending the use of natural gas vehicle and electric vehicles on key parameters of transportation. In the first chapter, a simple economic analysis is used in order to demonstrate the adoption rate of natural gas vehicles as an alternative fuel vehicle. The effect of different factors on adoption rate of commuters is calculated in sensitivity analysis. In second chapter the VMT is modeled and forecasted under influence of CNG vehicles in different scenarios. The VMT modeling is based on the time series data for Washington State. In order to investigate the effect of population growth on VMT, the per capita model is also developed. In third chapter the effect of fuel efficiency improvement on fuel tax revenue and greenhouse emission is examined. The model is developed based on time series data of Washington State. The rebound effect resulted from fuel efficiency improvement is estimated and is considered in fuel consumption forecasting. The reduction in fuel tax revenue and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as two outcomes of lower fuel consumption are computed. In addition, the proper fuel tax rate to restitute the revenue is suggested. In the fourth chapter effective factors on electric vehicles (EV) adoption is discussed. The constructed model is aggregated binomial logit share model that estimates the modal split between EV and conventional vehicles for different states over time. Various factors are incorporated in the utility function as explanatory variables in order to quantify their effect on EV adoption choices. The explanatory variables include income, VMT, electricity price, gasoline price, urban area and number of EV stations.

  4. 45 CFR 1310.23 - Coordinated transportation. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coordinated transportation. 1310.23 Section 1310... START PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Special Requirements § 1310.23 Coordinated transportation. (a) Each agency providing transportation services must make reasonable efforts to coordinate transportation...

  5. HSUPA Transport Network Congestion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádas Szilveszter


    Full Text Available The introduction of High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA greatly improves achievable uplink bitrate but it presents new challenges to be solved in the WCDMA radio access network. In the transport network, bandwidth reservation for HSUPA is not efficient and TCP cannot efficiently resolve congestion because of lower layer retransmissions. This paper proposes an HSUPA transport network flow control algorithm that handles congestion situations efficiently and supports Quality of Service differentiation. In the Radio Network Controller (RNC, transport network congestion is detected. Relying on the standardized control frame, the RNC notifies the Node B about transport network congestion. In case of transport network congestion, the Node B part of the HSUPA flow control instructs the air interface scheduler to reduce the bitrate of the flow to eliminate congestion. The performance analysis concentrates on transport network limited scenarios. It is shown that TCP cannot provide efficient congestion control. The proposed algorithm can achieve high end-user perceived throughput, while maintaining low delay, loss, and good fairness in the transport network.

  6. [Axolemmal transporters for neurotransmitter uptake]. (United States)

    García-López, M

    Neurotransmission is a fundamental process in interneuronal communication. It starts with the release of the neurotransmitter following a nerve impulse and ends either by uptake by specific specific transporters or by metabolization to an inactive compound. In this review we will consider the molecular, ion dependence and electrogenic properties of the axolemal transporters for neurotransmitters and also the pathological consequences of their impairment as well as the drugs that can interact with them. Most axolemmal transporters have been cloned and grouped into two large families according to their molecular characteristics and electrogenic properties: 1. Those dependent on Na+/Cl- include transporters of GABA, noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, choline, proline, betaine, glycine and taurine, and 2. Those dependent on Na+/K+, which include the transporters of glutamate, alanine, serine and cysteine. The clonation of transporters has permitted (and will continue to permit) the correlation of molecular alterations of transporters with different neuro-degenerative disorders (e.g. multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease), with brain lesions (e.g. cerebral ischemia, status epilepticus) and with psychiatric alterations (e.g. schizophrenia, depression). In this respect, chemical synthesis of new selective drugs which interact with the different systems for uptake of neurotransmitters will offer new approaches to the treatment of many disorders of the central nervous system which still have no satisfactory drug treatment.

  7. Is air transport of stroke patients faster than ground transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselfeldt, Rasmus; Gyllenborg, Jesper; Steinmetz, Jacob


    BACKGROUND: Helicopters are widely used for interhospital transfers of stroke patients, but the benefit is sparsely documented. We hypothesised that helicopter transport would reduce system delay to thrombolytic treatment at the regional stroke centre. METHODS: In this prospective controlled...... observational study, we included patients referred to a stroke centre if their ground transport time exceeded 30 min, or they were transported by a secondarily dispatched, physician-staffed helicopter. The primary endpoint was time from telephone contact to triaging neurologist to arrival in the stroke centre....... Secondary endpoints included modified Rankin Scale at 3 months, 30-day and 1-year mortality. RESULTS: A total of 330 patients were included; 265 with ground transport and 65 with helicopter, of which 87 (33%) and 22 (34%), received thrombolysis, respectively (p=0.88). Time from contact to triaging...

  8. Impacts of dialysis transportation on Florida's coordinated public transportation programs. (United States)


    The National Center for Transit Research (NCTR) at the University of South Florida (USF) collected quantitative and qualitative data from Community Transportation Coordinators (CTCs) throughout Florida. An online survey and a series of personal inter...

  9. Porous media geometry and transports

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Pierre


    The goal of ""Porous Media: Geometry and Transports"" is to provide the basis of a rational and modern approach to porous media. This book emphasizes several geometrical structures (spatially periodic, fractal, and random to reconstructed) and the three major single-phase transports (diffusion, convection, and Taylor dispersion).""Porous Media"" serves various purposes. For students it introduces basic information on structure and transports. Engineers will find this book useful as a readily accessible assemblage of al the major experimental results pertaining to single-phase tr

  10. Sub-Transport Layer Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Krigslund, Jeppe; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani


    Packet losses in wireless networks dramatically curbs the performance of TCP. This paper introduces a simple coding shim that aids IP-layer traffic in lossy environments while being transparent to transport layer protocols. The proposed coding approach enables erasure correction while being...... oblivious to the congestion control algorithms of the utilised transport layer protocol. Although our coding shim is indifferent towards the transport layer protocol, we focus on the performance of TCP when ran on top of our proposed coding mechanism due to its widespread use. The coding shim provides gains...

  11. Microfluidics and microscale transport processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Suman


    With an intense focus on micro- and nanotechnology from a fluidic perspective, this book details the research activities in key directions on both the theoretical and experimental fronts. As part of the IIT Kharagpur Research Monograph series, the text discusses topics such as capillary transport in microchannels, fluid friction and heat transfer in microchannels, electrokinetics, and interfacial transport in nanochannels. It also covers nanoparticle transport in colloidal suspensions, bubble generation in microfluidic channels, micro-heat pipe, the lattice Boltzmann method for phase changing

  12. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; Thomas W. Eagar; Harold R. Larson; Raymundo Arroyave; X.-D Zhou; Y.-W. Shin; H.U. Anderson; Nigel Browning; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims


    The present quarterly report describes some of the initial studies on newer compositions and also includes newer approaches to address various materials issues such as in metal-ceramic sealing. The current quarter's research has also focused on developing a comprehensive reliability model for predicting the structural behavior of the membranes in realistic conditions. In parallel to industry provided compositions, models membranes have been evaluated in varying environment. Of importance is the behavior of flaws and generation of new flaws aiding in fracture. Fracture mechanics parameters such as crack tip stresses are generated to characterize the influence of environment. Room temperature slow crack growth studies have also been initiated in industry provided compositions. The electrical conductivity and defect chemistry of an A site deficient compound (La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}) was studied. A higher conductivity was observed for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} than that of La{sub 0.60}Sr{sub 0.40}FeO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}FeO{sub 3}. Defect chemistry analysis showed that it was primarily contributed by a higher carrier concentration in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. Moreover, the ability for oxygen vacancy generation is much higher in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} as well, which indicates a lower bonding strength between Fe-O and a possible higher catalytic activity for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. The program continued to investigate the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previous report listed initial measurements on a sample of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-x} prepared in-house by Praxair. Subsequently, a second sample of powder from a larger batch of sample were characterized and compared

  13. When transporters fail to be transported: how to rescue folding-deficient SLC6 transporters (United States)

    Sucic, Sonja; Kasture, Ameya; Mazhar Asjad, H. M.; Kern, Carina; El-Kasaby, Ali; Freissmuth, Michael


    The human dopamine transporter (hDAT) belongs to the solute carrier 6 (SLC6) gene family. Point mutations in hDAT (SLC6A3) have been linked to a syndrome of dopamine transporter deficiency or infantile dystonia/parkinsonism. The mutations impair DAT folding, causing retention of variant DATs in the endoplasmic reticulum and subsequently impair transport activity. The folding trajectory of DAT itself is not understood, though many insights have been gained from studies of folding-deficient mutants of the closely related serotonin transporter (SERT); i.e. their functional rescue by pharmacochaperoning with (nor)ibogaine or heat-shock protein inhibitors. We recently provided a proof-of-principle that folding-deficits in DAT are amenable to rescue in vitro and in vivo. As a model we used the Drosophila melanogaster DAT mutant dDAT-G108Q, which phenocopies the fumin/sleepless DAT-knockout. Treatment with noribogaine and/or HSP70 inhibitor pifithrin-μ restored folding of, and dopamine transport by, dDAT-G108Q, its axonal delivery and normal sleep time in mutant flies. The possibility of functional rescue of misfolded DATs in living flies by pharmacochaperoning grants new therapeutic prospects in the remedy of folding diseases, not only in hDAT, but also in other SLC6 transporters, in particular mutants of the creatine transporter-1, which give rise to X-linked mental retardation. PMID:28405636

  14. Logistic control in automated transportation networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, Mark


    Increasing congestion problems lead to a search for alternative transportation systems. Automated transportation networks, possibly underground, are an option. Logistic control systems are essential for future implementations of such automated transportation networks. This book contributes to the

  15. FCS Vehicle Transportability, Survivability, and Reliability Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dion-Schwarz, Cynthia; Hirsch, Leon; Koehn, Phillip; Macheret, Jenya; Sparrow, Dave


    .... The investigation into metrics for transportability revealed that the C130 Transportability requirement for FCS vehicles is a constraint that leads to a less survivable platform but without improving Unit of Action (UA) transportability...

  16. Four measures of transportation's economic importance (United States)


    As a commodity, transportation has a supply side and a demand side. Unlike many other commodities, however, transportation's supply and demand overlap extensively. A significant portion of transportation : is provided by consumers for their own use. ...

  17. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)


    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  18. A transportation corridor analysis toolkit. (United States)


    The Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act includes a number of provisions advocating : improving the condition and performance of the national freight network through targeted investments and : policies by the Department of Transportation...

  19. Scaling in public transport networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. von Ferber


    Full Text Available We analyse the statistical properties of public transport networks. These networks are defined by a set of public transport routes (bus lines and the stations serviced by these. For larger networks these appear to possess a scale-free structure, as it is demonstrated e.g. by the Zipf law distribution of the number of routes servicing a given station or for the distribution of the number of stations which can be visited from a chosen one without changing the means of transport. Moreover, a rather particular feature of the public transport network is that many routes service common subsets of stations. We discuss the possibility of new scaling laws that govern intrinsic properties of such subsets.

  20. Wales transport strategy : a consultation


    Sustainable Development Commission Wales


    Sustainable Development Commission response to the 'One Wales : connecting the nation : the Wales transport strategy'. Issues raised include road pricing, biofuels, intra Wales air link, increased capacity on the M4, and living within environmental limits. Publisher PDF

  1. NPS transportation innovative finance options (United States)


    This paper provides a summary of innovative transportation finance techniques and discusses their applicability to the National Park Service (NPS). The primary finding of this analysis is that while NPS is engaging in innovative finance techniques su...

  2. Transport phenomena in multiphase flows

    CERN Document Server

    Mauri, Roberto


    This textbook provides a thorough presentation of the phenomena related to the transport of mass, momentum and energy.  It lays all the basic physical principles, then for the more advanced readers, it offers an in-depth treatment with advanced mathematical derivations and ends with some useful applications of the models and equations in specific settings. The important idea behind the book is to unify all types of transport phenomena, describing them within a common framework in terms of cause and effect, respectively represented by the driving force and the flux of the transported quantity. The approach and presentation are original in that the book starts with a general description of transport processes, providing the macroscopic balance relations of fluid dynamics and heat and mass transfer, before diving into the mathematical realm of continuum mechanics to derive the microscopic governing equations at the microscopic level. The book is a modular teaching tool and can be used either for an introductory...

  3. Workshop on 2-D transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A workshop on 1-D and 2-D transport in tokamaks was held at Ithaca, New York on August 2-4, 1978. The purpose of the Workshop was to assess the status of physical models used in transport calculations and to evaluate the maturity of 2-D transport codes in predicting operating parameters of such confinement devices as Alcator, PLT, Doublet III, and TFTR. The Workshop consisted of in-depth discussions of the following topics: status of 1-D codes, problems where 2-D treatment is necessary or useful, status of the treatment of fundamental processes, successful models, boundary and wall effects, 3-D and velocity space effects, and numerical algorithms used in transport codes.

  4. Self-Organized Transport System (United States)


    This report presents the findings of the simulation model for a self-organized transport system where traffic lights communicate with neighboring traffic lights and make decisions locally to adapt to traffic conditions in real time. The model is insp...

  5. Thermal transport in fractal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Jørgen


    Recent experiments on the thermal transport in systems with partial fractal geometry, silica aerogels, are reviewed. The individual contributions from phonons, fractons and particle modes, respectively, have been identified and can be described by quantitative models consistent with heat capacity...

  6. Osmotic water transport in aquaporins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas; Alsterfjord, Magnus; Beitz, Eric


    no evidence for coupling between water and solute fluxes in the pore. In confirmation of molecular dynamic simulations, we conclude that the magnitude of the osmotic water permeability and the reflection coefficient are determined by processes at the arginine selectivity filter located at the outward......Abstract  We test a novel, stochastic model of osmotic water transport in aquaporins. A solute molecule present at the pore mouth can either be reflected or permeate the pore. We assume that only reflected solute molecules induce osmotic transport of water through the pore, while permeating solute...... molecules give rise to no water transport. Accordingly, the rate of water transport is proportional to the reflection coefficient σ, while the solute permeability, P(S), is proportional to 1 - σ. The model was tested in aquaporins heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. A variety of aquaporin channel...

  7. Regulated nucleocytoplasmic transport during gametogenesis. (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yoichi; Boag, Peter R; Hime, Gary R; Loveland, Kate L


    Gametogenesis is the process by which sperm or ova are produced in the gonads. It is governed by a tightly controlled series of gene expression events, with some common and others distinct for males and females. Nucleocytoplasmic transport is of central importance to the fidelity of gene regulation that is required to achieve the precisely regulated germ cell differentiation essential for fertility. In this review we discuss the physiological importance for gamete formation of the molecules involved in classical nucleocytoplasmic protein transport, including importins/karyopherins, Ran and nucleoporins. To address what functions/factors are conserved or specialized for these developmental processes between species, we compare knowledge from mice, flies and worms. The present analysis provides evidence of the necessity for and specificity of each nuclear transport factor and for nucleoporins during germ cell differentiation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Nuclear Transport and RNA Processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Greening transportation at the border. (United States)


    On February 2324, 2011, Federal agencies from the United : States, Canada, and Mexico sponsored a workshop in San : Diego, California, to discuss opportunities for improvement : regarding the greening of transportation at the borders.1 : The works...

  9. 2010 public transportation fact book (United States)


    The Public Transportation Fact Book, published annually, contains national aggregate statistical data covering all aspects of the transit industry in the United States and Canada. Two appendices, also available, provide additional in-depth informatio...

  10. 2008 public transportation fact book (United States)


    This Public Transportation Fact Book presents statistics describing the entire United States transit industry for 1995 : through 2006 with additional detail and overview presentations for 2006. Also included are definitions of reported data : items.

  11. Earthquake Damage to Transportation Systems (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Earthquakes represent one of the most destructive natural hazards known to man. A serious result of large-magnitude earthquakes is the disruption of transportation...

  12. On time dependent Ekman transports

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roed, L.P


    One of the most cited papers in ocean current theories is the paper by Ekman (1905). Here we take his paper as a starting point for computing time dependent solutions for the integrated velocities or the transports.

  13. 2004 public transportation fact book (United States)


    This book includes only public transportation data and excludes taxicab, unregulated jitney, school, sightseeing, intercity, charter, : military, and non-public service (e.g., governmental and corporate shuttles), and special application systems (e.g...

  14. Advanced public transportation systems benefits (United States)


    Benefits and cost savings for various Advanced Public Transportation Systems are outlined here. Operational efficiencies are given for Transit Management Systems in different locales, as well as compliant resolution and safety. Electronic Fare Paymen...

  15. 2005 public transportation fact book (United States)


    This book includes only public transportation data and excludes taxicab, unregulated jitney, school, sightseeing, intercity, charter, military, and non-public service (e.g., governmental and corporate shuttles), and special application systems (e.g.,...

  16. 2007 public transportation fact book (United States)


    This book includes only public transportation data and excludes taxicab, unregulated jitney, school, sightseeing, intercity, charter, : military, and services not available to the general public, or segments of the general public (e.g., governmental ...

  17. 2006 public transportation fact book (United States)


    This book includes only public transportation data and excludes taxicab, unregulated jitney, school, sightseeing, intercity, charter, : military, and non-public service (e.g., governmental and corporate shuttles), and special application systems (e.g...

  18. Panel 4 - applications to transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Au, J. [Sundstrand Aerospace, Rockford, IL (United States); Bhattacharya, R. [Universal Energy Systems, Inc., Dayton, OH (United States); Bhushan, B. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States); Blunier, D. [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States); Boardman, B. [Deere & Co., Moline, IL (United States); Brombolich, L. [Compu-Tec Engineering, Chesterfield, MO (United States); Davidson, J. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Graham, M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Hakim, N. [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States); Harris, K. [Dubbeldee Harris Diamond Corp., Mt. Arlington, NJ (United States); Hay, R. [Norton Diamond Film, Northboro, MA (United States); Herk, L. [Southwest Research Inst., Southfield, MI (United States); Hojnacki, H.; Rourk, D. [Intelligent Structures Incorporated, Canton, MI (United States); Kamo, R. [Adiabatics, Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Nieman, B. [Allied-Signal Inc., Des Plaines, IL (United States); O`Neill, D. [3M, St. Paul, MN (United States); Peterson, M.B. [Wear Sciences, Arnold, MD (United States); Pfaffenberger, G. [Allison Gas Turbine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Pryor, R.W. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Russell, J. [Superconductivity Publications, Inc., Somerset, NJ (United States); Syniuta, W. [Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc., Newton, MA (United States); Tamor, M. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States); Vojnovich, T. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Yarbrough, W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States); Yust, C.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    The aim of this group was to compile a listing of current and anticipated future problem areas in the transportation industry where the properties of diamond and DLC films make them especially attractive and where the panel could strongly endorse the establishment of DOE/Transportation Industry cooperative research efforts. This section identifies the problem areas for possible applications of diamond/DLC technology and presents indications of current approaches to these problems.

  19. Charge transport in organic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortmann, Frank


    The understanding of charge transport is one of the central goals in the research on semiconducting crystals. For organic crystals this is particularly complicated due to the strength of the electron-phonon interaction which requires the description of a seamless transition between the limiting cases of a coherent band-transport mechanism and incoherent hopping. In this thesis, charge transport phenomena in organic crystals are studied by theoretical means. A theory for charge transport in organic crystals is developed which covers the whole temperature range from low T, where it reproduces an expression from the Boltzmann equation for band transport, via elevated T, where it generalizes Holstein's small-polaron theory to finite bandwidths, up to high T, for which a temperature dependence equal to Marcus' electron-transfer theory is obtained. Thereby, coherent band transport and thermally induced hopping are treated on equal footing while simultaneously treating the electron-phonon interaction non-perturbatively. By avoiding the approximation of narrow polaron bands the theory allows for the description of large and small polarons and serves as a starting point for computational studies. The theoretical description is completed by using ab initio material parameters for the selected crystals under study. These material parameters are taken from density functional theory calculations for durene, naphthalene, and guanine crystals. Besides the analysis of the transport mechanism, special focus is put on the study of the relationship between mobility anisotropy and structure of the crystals. This study is supported by a 3D-visualization method for the transport channels in such crystals which has been derived in this thesis. (orig.)

  20. Optimal concentrations in transport systems


    Kim, Wonjung; Bush, John W. M.; Jensen, Kaare H.; Holbrook, N. Michele


    Many biological and man-made systems rely on transport systems for the distribution of material, for example matter and energy. Material transfer in these systems is determined by the flow rate and the concentration of material. While the most concentrated solutions offer the greatest potential in terms of material transfer, impedance typically increases with concentration, thus making them the most difficult to transport. We develop a general framework for describing systems for which impeda...

  1. Cellular Auxin Transport in Algae


    Suyun Zhang; Bert van Duijn


    The phytohormone auxin is one of the main directors of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxin is generated in apical plant parts and transported from cell-to-cell in a polar fashion. Auxin is present in all plant phyla, and the existence of polar auxin transport (PAT) is well established in land plants. Algae are a group of relatively simple, autotrophic, photosynthetic organisms that share many features with land plants. In particular, Charophyceae (a taxon of green algae) ar...

  2. Agricultural goods transport and environment


    Gebresenbet, Girma


    Transport plays a controversial role and highly related to almost all sectors of human activities. It plays an important role in stimulating economy and promoting the well being and quality of human life. However, its negative impact on the environment in the form of pollution is increasing at a high rate, and thus becoming a serious threat to plant, animal and human life. In the recent decades, goods transport has been intensified and its contribution to the environmental deterioration is st...

  3. Forage Harvest and Transport Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.; Downing, M.; Turhollow, A.


    An engineering-economic approach is used to calculate harvest, in-field transport, and over-the-road transport costs for hay as bales and modules, silage, and crop residues as bales and modules. Costs included are equipment depreciation interest; fuel, lube, and oil; repairs; insurance, housing, and taxes; and labor. Field preparation, pest control, fertilizer, land, and overhead are excluded from the costs calculated Equipment is constrained by power available, throughput or carrying capacity, and field speed.

  4. Ballistic transport in graphene nanostructures


    Terrés, Bernat


    This work aims to contribute to the progress and understanding of the sources of disorder in nano-structured graphene devices. The first part of the thesis starts with the introduction of disordered two-terminal graphene nanoribbons of different aspect ratio, in order to unveil and characterize the amount of potential fluctuations on silicon dioxide ($SiO_2$) substrates. The experimental results reveal the diffusive nature of the transport behavior and a Coulomb blockade dominated transport r...

  5. Green Transportation External environmental communication


    Kolar, Jasin; Persson, Johan


    Climate change is a hot topic today. It is important for companies to take responsibility for the environment. For companies it is also important to communicate their environmental efforts to its customers. The aim of this study is to analyze how transportation companies communicate their environmental efforts on the web. Europe’s largest transportation companies as well as Asian and North American airlines are studied. Companies’ websites were examined and evaluated on several criteria. The ...

  6. HMPT: Basic Radioactive Material Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Hazardous Materials and Packaging and Transportation (HMPT): Basic Radioactive Material Transportation Live (#30462, suggested one time) and Test (#30463, required initially and every 36 months) address the Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) function-specific [required for hazardous material (HAZMAT) handlers, packagers, and shippers] training requirements of the HMPT Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Labwide training. This course meets the requirements of 49 CFR 172, Subpart H, Section 172.704(a)(ii), Function-Specific Training.

  7. Social Behaviour in Public Transportation


    Hult, Nicole Alicia-Marie; Munch, Kathrine; Johansen, Gitte Højgaard; Duvarci, Medine


    Social behaviour in public transportation is a project that focuses on how passengers within the public transportation system behave, in terms of social psychology and psychological anthropology. Through the use of theoretical approaches, that being social psychology and psychological anthropology, we aimed to find patterns of social and anti-social behaviour. In order to gather valid research data, we conducted various observations in trains and busses in both London and Copenhagen. Through...

  8. Ionizing radiation transport in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimanov, V.A.; Konovalov, S.A.; Kochanov, V.A.; Ksenofontov, A.I.; Kukhtevich, V.I.; Mashkovich, V.P.; Meshcherin, B.N.; Panchenko, A.M.; Sukhoruchkin, A.K.; Trubnikov, A.I.


    The book considers the problems of gamma-ray and neutron transport in air and near the air-ground and air-vacuum interface. New modifications of the Monte-Carlo method for solving these problems are presented. Differential and integral characteristics of gamma-ray, neutron, and secondary gamma-ray transport are given and the time characteristics of radiation sources are analyzed.

  9. ABC Transporters, Atherosclerosis and Inflammation


    Fitzgerald, Michael L.; Mujawar, Zahedi; Tamehiro, Norimasa


    Atherosclerosis, driven by inflamed lipid-laden lesions, can occlude the coronary arteries and lead to myocardial infarction. This chronic disease is a major and expensive health burden. However, the body is able to mobilize and excrete cholesterol and other lipids, thus preventing atherosclerosis by a process termed reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Insight into the mechanism of RCT has been gained by the study of two rare syndromes caused by the mutation of ABC transporter loci. In Tangi...

  10. Transportation of spent MTR fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisonnier, D.


    This paper gives an overview of the various aspects of MTR spent fuel transportation and provides in particular information about the on-going shipment of 4 spent fuel casks to the United States. Transnucleaire is a transport and Engineering Company created in 1963 at the request of the French Atomic Energy Commission. The company followed the growth of the world nuclear industry and has now six subsidiaries and affiliated companies established in countries with major nuclear programs.

  11. Autonomic Road Transport Support Systems


    McCluskey, T.L.; Kotsialos, A.; Müller, J.P.; Klugl, F.; Schumann, R.


    The work on Autonomic Road Transport Support (ARTS) presented here aims at\\ud meeting the challenge of engineering autonomic behavior in Intelligent Transportation\\ud Systems (ITS) by fusing research from the disciplines of traffic engineering\\ud and autonomic computing. Ideas and techniques from leading edge artificial intelligence\\ud research have been adapted for ITS over the last years. Examples include\\ud adaptive control embedded in real time traffic control systems, heuristic algorithm...

  12. Microscale transport in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashidi, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Rinker, R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.


    In-pore transport processes in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media have been investigated using novel 3D imaging techniques. The experimental system consists of a clear column packed with clear particles and a refractive index-matched fluid seeded with fluorescent tracers and an organic solute dye. By illuminating the porous regions within the column with a planar sheet of laser beam, flow and transport processes through the porous medium can be observed microscopically, and qualitative and quantitative in-pore transport information can be obtained at a good resolution and a high accuracy. Fluorescent images are captured and recorded at every vertical plane location while sweeping back and forth across the test section. These digitized transport images are then analyzed and accumulated over a 3D volume within the column. This paper reports on pore-scale observations of velocity, chemical concentration, and fluxes. Tests were undertaken with two separate columns. One is a rectangular column for chemical transport and bioremediation studies in aqueous heterogeneous systems and the other is a cylindrical column for flow and transport investigations in nonaqueous homogeneous systems.

  13. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims


    the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  14. Vgi Based Urban Public Transport (United States)

    Teymurian, F.; Alesheikh, A. A.; Alimohammadi, A.; Sadeghi-Niaraki, A.


    Recent advances in information technology have made geographic information system (GIS) a powerful and affordable tool for planning and decision making in various fields such as the public transportation. These technologies such as the social network (e.g. face-book, twitter), new technologies such as ubiquitous, mobile, Web 2.0, geo tagging and RFID can help to create better shapes and forms of the communication and geo-collaboration for public. By using these, user-generated content and spatial information can be easily and quickly produced and shared in a dynamic, interactive, multimedia and distributed environment. The concept of volunteered geographic information (VGI) has been introduced by the transaction from consultation to content interaction. VGI describes any type of content that has a geographic element and has been voluntarily collected. In other words, ordinary users; without a professional training, can participate in generating and using the spatial information. As a result, the gaps between the producers and users of GIS and spatial information, has been considerably reduced. Public transportation is one of the most important elements of the transportation system. Rapid growth of the cities has resulted in high increase of demand for the public transportation which created new challenges. Improvement of the desirability of public transportation can increase its efficiency, reduction of the environmental pollution (such as air and noise pollution), traffic problems, and fuel consumption. Hence, development of an urban public transportation system which is responsive to citizen's need and motivates them to use public transportation system is one of the most important objectives and issues that urban planners and designers are concerned about. One solution to achieve this, goal is to develop public transportation system by assistance from the system users. According to approach, users are considered as the valuable resources, because people who are

  15. Glucose transporters in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bernard Thorens; Mike Mueckler


    ...) family of membrane transport proteins. Fourteen Glut proteins are expressed in the human and they include transporters for substrates other than glucose, including fructose, myoinositol, and urate...

  16. Transportation Research Analysis Computing Center (TRACC) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Argonne National Laboratory initiated a multi-year program with the US Department of Transportation (USDOT) in October 2006, to establish the Transportation Research...

  17. Potential wine ageing during transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Rainer


    Full Text Available In a global world, wineries have to satisfy the demand of consumers who wish to drink high quality wines from countries all over the world. To fulfill this request wines have to be transported, crossing thereby great distances from the place of production to the consumer country. At the Institute of Enology of Hochschule Geisenheim University examinations with White-, Rosé- and Red-Wines of different origins which had been transported over longer distances within Europe (Portugal, France, Italy to Germany by trucks were carried out. Shipping of wines was simulated in a climatized cabinet to analyze the influence on wine quality during this way and conditions of transportation. Time and temperature profiles were based on real transport situtations which were recorded during shipping from Germany to Japan using data loggers. White, Rosé and Red wines were transported during 6 to 8 weeks and then were analytically and sensorically compared to those which were stored at a constant temperature of 15 ∘C. Besides the effect of temperature, the movements and vibrations encountered by the wines were also examined. Analytically wines were analyzed for general analytical parameters with Fourier-Transformation-Infrared-Spectroscopie (FTIR, Colour differences (Spectralphotometrie and free and total sulfuric acid with Flow-Injection-Analysis (FIA. Sensory examinations with a trained panel were performed in difference tests in form of rankings and triangular tests. Summarizing the results from the different tests it could be found that transportation had an influence on the potential ageing of wines depending on the wine matrix. Especially high and varying temperatures during transportations over a longer distance and time had negative influences on wine quality. Also the movement of wine at higher temperatures had showed a negative effect whereas transport at cool temperatures even below 0 ∘C did not influence wine characteristics. Sophisticated

  18. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay


    The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the

  19. Drone transportation of blood products. (United States)

    Amukele, Timothy; Ness, Paul M; Tobian, Aaron A R; Boyd, Joan; Street, Jeff


    Small civilian unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) are a novel way to transport small goods. To the best of our knowledge there are no studies examining the impact of drone transport on blood products, describing approaches to maintaining temperature control, or component physical characteristics during drone transport. Six leukoreduced red blood cell (RBC) and six apheresis platelet (PLT) units were split using sterile techniques. The larger parent RBC and PLT units, as well as six unthawed plasma units frozen within 24 hours of collection (FP24), were placed in a cooler, attached to the drone, and flown for up to 26.5 minutes with temperature logging. Ambient temperatures during the experimental window ranged between -1 and 18°C across 2 days. The difference between the ambient and unit temperatures was approximately 20°C for PLT and FP24 units. After flight, the RBC parent units were centrifuged and visually checked for hemolysis; the PLTs were checked for changes in mean PLT volumes (MPVs), pH, and PLT count; and the frozen air bubbles on the back of the FP24 units were examined for any changes in size or shape, as evidence of thawing. There was no evidence of RBC hemolysis; no significant changes in PLT count, pH, or MPVs; and no changes in the FP24 bubbles. The temperature of all units was maintained during transport and flight. There was no adverse impact of drone transport on RBC, PLT, or FP24 units. These findings suggest that drone transportation systems are a viable option for the transportation of blood products. © 2016 AABB.

  20. Aerosol Transport Over Equatorial Africa (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kinyua, A. M.; Piketh, S.; King, M.; Helas, G.


    Long-range and inter-hemispheric transport of atmospheric aerosols over equatorial Africa has received little attention so far. Most aerosol studies in the region have focussed on emissions from rain forest and savanna (both natural and biomass burning) and were carried out in the framework of programs such as DECAFE (Dynamique et Chimie Atmospherique en Foret Equatoriale) and FOS (Fires of Savanna). Considering the importance of this topic, aerosols samples were measured in different seasons at 4420 meters on Mt Kenya and on the equator. The study is based on continuous aerosol sampling on a two stage (fine and coarse) streaker sampler and elemental analysis by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Continuous samples were collected for two seasons coinciding with late austral winter and early austral spring of 1997 and austral summer of 1998. Source area identification is by trajectory analysis and sources types by statistical techniques. Major meridional transports of material are observed with fine-fraction silicon (31 to 68 %) in aeolian dust and anthropogenic sulfur (9 to 18 %) being the major constituents of the total aerosol loading for the two seasons. Marine aerosol chlorine (4 to 6 %), potassium (3 to 5 %) and iron (1 to 2 %) make up the important components of the total material transport over Kenya. Minimum sulfur fluxes are associated with recirculation of sulfur-free air over equatorial Africa, while maximum sulfur concentrations are observed following passage over the industrial heartland of South Africa or transport over the Zambian/Congo Copperbelt. Chlorine is advected from the ocean and is accompanied by aeolian dust recirculating back to land from mid-oceanic regions. Biomass burning products are transported from the horn of Africa. Mineral dust from the Sahara is transported towards the Far East and then transported back within equatorial easterlies to Mt Kenya. This was observed during austral summer and coincided with the dying phase of 1997/98 El

  1. Heuristic Optimization Approach to Selecting a Transport Connection in City Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kul’ka Jozef


    Full Text Available The article presents a heuristic optimization approach to select a suitable transport connection in the framework of a city public transport. This methodology was applied on a part of the public transport in Košice, because it is the second largest city in the Slovak Republic and its network of the public transport creates a complex transport system, which consists of three different transport modes, namely from the bus transport, tram transport and trolley-bus transport. This solution focused on examining the individual transport services and their interconnection in relevant interchange points.

  2. Heuristic Optimization Approach to Selecting a Transport Connection in City Public Transport (United States)

    Kul'ka, Jozef; Mantič, Martin; Kopas, Melichar; Faltinová, Eva; Kachman, Daniel


    The article presents a heuristic optimization approach to select a suitable transport connection in the framework of a city public transport. This methodology was applied on a part of the public transport in Košice, because it is the second largest city in the Slovak Republic and its network of the public transport creates a complex transport system, which consists of three different transport modes, namely from the bus transport, tram transport and trolley-bus transport. This solution focused on examining the individual transport services and their interconnection in relevant interchange points.

  3. Serotonin transporter and dopamine transporter imaging in the canine brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peremans, Kathelijne [Department of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Goethals, Ingeborg [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Ghent, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Vos, Filip [Laboratory of Radiopharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Dobbeleir, A. [Department of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Ham, Hamphrey [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Ghent, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Bree, Henri [Department of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Heeringen, Cees van [Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000, Ghent (Belgium); Audenaert, Kurt [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Ghent, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium) and Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000, Ghent (Belgium)]. E-mail:


    The serotonergic and dopaminergic systems are involved in a wide range of emotional and behavioral aspects of animals and humans and are involved in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are designed to block the 5-HT transporter (SERT), thereby increasing the available 5-HT in the brain. Functional imaging with specific SERT and dopamine transporter (DAT) ligands contributes to the study of the SSRI-transporter interaction. First, we evaluated the feasibility of a canine model in the study of the SERT and DAT with the radioligands [{sup 123}I]-{beta}-CIT and [{sup 123}I]-FP-CIT as well as single-photon emission computed tomography imaging. Second, we studied the effect of SSRIs (sertraline, citalopram and escitalopram) on the SERT and DAT in two dogs. The position of the canine model in the study of the SERT and DAT is discussed and compared with other animal models.

  4. Modeling activity transport in the CANDU heat transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzonas, D.A.; Qiu, L. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)


    The release and transport of corrosion products from the surfaces of primary coolant system components is a serious concern for all water-cooled nuclear power plants. The consequences of high levels of corrosion product transport are twofold: a) increased corrosion product (crud) deposition on fuel cladding surfaces, leading to reduced heat transfer and the possibility of fuel failures, and b) increased production of radioactive species by neutron activation, resulting in increased out-of-core radiation fields and worker dose. In recent years, a semi-empirical activity transport model has been successfully developed to predict the deposition of radionuclides, including {sup 60}Co, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 124}Sb and fission products, around the CANDU® primary Heat Transport System (HTS), and to predict radiation fields at the steam generators and reactor face. The model links corrosion of the carbon steel outlet feeders to magnetite and radionuclide deposition on steam generator and inlet piping surfaces. This paper will describe the model development, key assumptions, required inputs, and model validation. The importance of reactor artefact characterization in the model development will be highlighted, and some key results will be presented, including oxide morphology and loadings, and radionuclide distributions within the oxide. The predictive capabilities of the model will also be described, including predictions of oxide thickness and the effects of changes in chemistry parameters such as alkalinity. While the model was developed primarily for the CANDU® HTS, the information gained during model development regarding corrosion product and radionuclide transport and deposition can also provide insights into activity transport in other water-cooled reactor systems. (author)

  5. International Transporter Consortium commentary on clinically important transporter polymorphisms. (United States)

    Giacomini, K M; Balimane, P V; Cho, S K; Eadon, M; Edeki, T; Hillgren, K M; Huang, S-M; Sugiyama, Y; Weitz, D; Wen, Y; Xia, C Q; Yee, S W; Zimdahl, H; Niemi, M


    This Commentary focuses on genetic polymorphisms in membrane transporters. We present two polymorphisms for which there is a compelling body of literature supporting their clinical relevance: OATP1B1 (c.521T>C, p.V174A, rs4149056) and BCRP (c.421C>A, p.Q141K, rs2231142). The clinical evidence demonstrating their role in variation in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is described along with their allele frequencies in ethnic populations. Recommendations for incorporating studies of transporter polymorphisms in drug development are provided, along with the regulatory implications.

  6. Ballistic food transport in toucans. (United States)

    Baussart, Sabine; Korsoun, Leonid; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Bels, Vincent


    The basic mechanism of food transport in tetrapods is lingual-based. Neognathous birds use this mechanism for exploiting a large diversity of food resources, whereas paleognathous birds use cranioinertial mechanism with or without tongue involvement. Food transport in two neognathous species of toucans (Ramphastos toco and R. vitellinus) is defined as ballistic transport mechanism. Only one transport cycle is used for moving the food from the tip of the beak to the pharynx. The food is projected between jaws with similar initial velocity in both species. At the time of release, the angle between trajectory of food position and horizontal is higher in R. vitellinus with a shorter beak than in R. toco. The tongue never makes contact with the food nor is it used to expand the buccal cavity. Tongue movement is associated with throat expansion, permitting the food to reach the entrance of the esophagus at the end of the ballistic trajectory. Selection of large food items in the diet may explain the evolutionary trend of using ballistic transport in the feeding behavior of toucans, which plays a key role in ecology of tropical forest. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Surveillance systems for intermodal transportation (United States)

    Jakovlev, Sergej; Voznak, Miroslav; Andziulis, Arunas


    Intermodal container monitoring is considered a major security issue in many major logistic companies and countries worldwide. Current representation of the problem, we face today, originated in 2002, right after the 9/11 attacks. Then, a new worldwide Container Security Initiative (CSI, 2002) was considered that shaped the perception of the transportation operations. Now more than 80 larger ports all over the world contribute to its further development and integration into everyday transportation operations and improve the regulations for the developing regions. Although, these new improvements allow us to feel safer and secure, constant management of transportation operations has become a very difficult problem for conventional data analysis methods and information systems. The paper deals with a proposal of a whole new concept for the improvement of the Containers Security Initiative (CSI) by virtually connecting safety, security processes and systems. A conceptual middleware approach with deployable intelligent agent modules is proposed to be used with possible scenarios and a testbed is used to test the solution. Middleware examples are visually programmed using National Instruments LabView software packages and Wireless sensor network hardware modules. An experimental software is used to evaluate he solution. This research is a contribution to the intermodal transportation and is intended to be used as a means or the development of intelligent transport systems.

  8. Transportation fuels from synthetic gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.G.; Cuello, R.


    Twenty-five experimental Fischer-Tropsch synthesis runs were made with 14 different catalysts or combinations of catalysts using a Berty reactor system. Two catalysts showed increased selectivity to transportation fuels compared to typical Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. With a catalyst consisting of 5 wt % ruthenium impregnated on a Y zeolite (run number 24), 63 to 70 wt % of the hydrocarbon product was in the gasoline boiling range. Using a 0.5 wt % ruthenium on alumina catalyst (run number 22), 64 to 78 wt % of the hydrocarbon product was in the diesel fuel boiling range. Not enough sample was produced to determine the octane number of the gasoline from run number 24, but it is probably somewhat better than typical Fischer-Tropsch gasoline (approx. 50) and less than unleaded gasoline (approx. 88). The diesel fuel produced in run number 22 consisted of mostly straight chained paraffins and should be an excellent transportation fuel without further refining. The yield of transportation fuels from biomass via gasification and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with the ruthenium catalysts identified in the previous paragraph is somewhat less, on a Btu basis, than methanol (via gasification) and wood oil (PERC and LBL processes) yields from biomass. However, the products of the F-T synthesis are higher quality transportation fuels. The yield of transportation fuels via the F-T synthesis is similar to the yield of gasoline via methanol synthesis and the Mobil MTG process.

  9. Overview of TFTR transport studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Arunasalam, V.; Beer, M.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; Biglari, H.; Bitter, M.; Boivin, R.; Bretz, N.L.; Budny, R.; Cheng, C.Z.; Chu, T.K.; Cohen, S.A.; Cowley, S.; Efthimion, P.C.; Fredrickson, E.; Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Greene, G.; Grek, B.; Grisham, L.R.; Hammett, G.; Hill, K.W.; Hosea, J.; Hulse, R.A.; Hsuan, H.; Janos, A.; Jassby, D.; Jobes, F.C.; Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, L.C.; Kieras-Phillips, C.; Kilpatrick, S


    A review of TFTR plasma transport studies is presented. Parallel transport and the confinement of suprathermal ions are found to be relatively well described by theory. Cross-field transport of the thermal plasma, however, is anomalous with the momentum diffusivity being comparable to the ion thermal diffusivity and larger than the electron thermal diffusivity in neutral beam heated discharges. Perturbative experiments have studied non-linear dependencies in the transport coefficients and examined the role of possible non-local phenomena. The underlying turbulence has been studied using microwave scattering, beam emission spectroscopy and microwave reflectometry over a much broader range in k{perpendicular} than previously possible. Results indicate the existence of large-wavelength fluctuations correlated with enhanced transport. MHD instabilities set important operational constraints. However, by modifying the current profile using current ramp-down techniques, it has been possible to extend the operating regime to higher values of both {var epsilon}{beta}{sub p} and normalized {beta}{sub T}. In addition, the interaction of MHD fluctuations with fast ions, of potential relevance to {alpha}-particle confinement in D-T plasmas, has been investigated. The installation of carbon-carbon composite tiles and improvements in wall conditioning, in particular the use of Li pellet injection to reduce the carbon recycling, continue to be important in the improvement of plasma performance. 96 refs., 16 figs.

  10. What is Transportation Demand Management?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.M. [UrbanTrans Consultants Inc., Denver, CO (United States)


    This PowerPoint presentation described the impacts of Transportation Demand Management (TDM) strategies on people and communities. TDM supports sustainable transportation. More than 33 per cent of Canadian drivers spend more than one hour on their commute. In the past 20 years, suburban commute increased 74 per cent. Congestion is costly in terms of wasted time and fuel. Twenty-five per cent of Canada's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions come from the transportation sector. New facilities are more appealing when they maximize travel options. Keeping pace with transportation demand would require doubling the pace of road construction or shifting 4 per cent of single occupancy vehicle (SOV) drivers to other modes. TDM gives travelers real choices, provides incentives and focuses on partnerships. A survey has shown that employers who do not offer TDM benefits have an SOV rate of 86 per cent, compared to 71 per cent for employers who offer TDM benefits. TDM maximizes available infrastructure services, reduces traffic, improves personal mobility and facilitates employee retention. This presentation outlined several TDM tools for the Peel Region, including: commute coordinators; marketing promotions; intelligent transportation systems; high occupancy vehicle lanes; bus rapid transit; carpool parking lots; and a TDM-friendly site design. tabs., figs.

  11. Gyrokinetic analysis of pedestal transport (United States)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike; Liu, X.; Hatch, Dr; Zheng, Lj; Mahajan, S.; Diallo, A.; Groebner, Rj; Hubbard, Ae; Hughes, Jw; Maggi, Cf; Saarelma, S.; JET Contributors


    Surprisingly, basic considerations can determine which modes are responsible for pedestal energy transport (e.g., KBM, ETG, ITG, MTM etc.). Gyrokinetic simulations of experiments, and analysis of the Gyrokinetic-Maxwell equations, find that each mode type produces characteristic ratios of transport in the various channels: density, heat and impurities. This, together with the relative size of the driving sources of each channel, can strongly constrain or determine the dominant modes causing energy transport. MHD-like modes are not the dominant agent of energy transport - when the density source is weak as is often expected. Drift modes must fill this role. Detailed examination of experimental observations, including frequency and transport channel behavior, with simulations, demonstrates these points. Also see related posters by X. Liu, D.R. Hatch, and A. Blackmon. Work supported by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-FG02-04ER54742 and DE-FC02-99ER54512 and by Eurofusion under Grant No. 633053.

  12. Relaxation processes in Aeolian transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selmani Houssem


    Full Text Available We investigate experimentally the relaxation process toward the equilibrium regime of saltation transport in the context of spatial inhomogeneous conditions. The relaxation length associated to this process is an important length in aeolian transport. This length stands for the distance needed for the particle flux to adapt to a change in flow conditions or in the boundary conditions at the bed. Predicting the value of this length under given conditions of transport remains an open and important issue. We conducted wind tunnel experiments to document the influence of the upstream particle flux and wind speed on the relaxation process toward the saturated transport state. In the absence of upstream particle flux, data show that the relaxation length is independent of the wind strength (except close to the threshold of transport. In contrast, in the case of a finite upstream flux, the relaxation length exhibits a clear increase with increasing air flow velocity. Moreover, in the latter the relaxation is clearly non-monotonic and presents an overshoot.

  13. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion. (United States)

    Doshi, Rupak; Nguyen, Tuan; Chang, Geoffrey


    Engineering microorganisms to produce biofuels is currently among the most promising strategies in renewable energy. However, harvesting these organisms for extracting biofuels is energy- and cost-intensive, limiting the commercial feasibility of large-scale production. Here, we demonstrate the use of a class of transport proteins of pharmacological interest to circumvent the need to harvest biomass during biofuel production. We show that membrane-embedded transporters, better known to efflux lipids and drugs, can be used to mediate the secretion of intracellularly synthesized model isoprenoid biofuel compounds to the extracellular milieu. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion sustainably maintained an approximate three- to fivefold boost in biofuel production in our Escherichia coli test system. Because the transporters used in this study belong to the ubiquitous ATP-binding cassette protein family, we propose their use as "plug-and-play" biofuel-secreting systems in a variety of bacteria, cyanobacteria, diatoms, yeast, and algae used for biofuel production. This investigation showcases the potential of expressing desired membrane transport proteins in cell factories to achieve the export or import of substances of economic, environmental, or therapeutic importance.

  14. 38 CFR 3.1606 - Transportation items. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation items. 3... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... shipment. (6) Cost of transportation by common carrier including amounts paid as Federal taxes. (7) Cost of...

  15. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... for USAID Financing § 228.22 Air transportation. (a) The eligibility of air transportation is... U.S. flag air carriers for all international air travel and transportation, unless such service is...

  16. 32 CFR 1657.6 - Transportation. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation. 1657.6 Section 1657.6 National... PROCESSING § 1657.6 Transportation. (a) The Director shall furnish transportation for an overseas registrant... transportation from the place he reported for induction to the place to which his order to report for induction...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 9, 2012 ... Keywords: Rural Development, Marketing, Transportation, Agricultural Production & Road. Network. Introduction. Transport is ... However, for any development to take place, transport plays a crucial role. Ogunsanya ... agricultural marketing because it is the only means by which farmers can transport their.

  18. 42 CFR 9.11 - Animal transport. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Animal transport. 9.11 Section 9.11 Public Health... CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY SUPPORTED SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.11 Animal transport. The transportation of... and Regulations and the International Air Transport Association (IATA) Live Animal Regulations and...

  19. Truck and Transport Mechanic. Occupational Analyses Series. (United States)

    McRory, Aline; Ally, Mohamed

    This analysis covers tasks performed by a truck and transport mechanic, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as commercial transport vehicle mechanic; transport truck mechanic; truck and coach technician; and truck and transport service technician. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure,…

  20. Diversity of transport mechanisms: common structural principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, A.J.M.; Rosen, B.P.; Konings, W.N


    Traditionally, prokaryotic solute transport systems are classified into major groups based on the energetic requirement of the transport process. These include the secondary transporters that are driven by a proton or sodium motive force, and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) primary transporters,

  1. Public Transportation Pricing: An Instructional Module. (United States)

    McWha, Charley

    A concept-based introduction to public transportation pricing is presented in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business administration, and technology. After an introductory section on transportation pricing planning and the history of transportation system…

  2. Leaching of two fungicides in spent mushroom substrate amended soil: Influence of amendment rate, fungicide ageing and flow condition. (United States)

    Álvarez-Martín, Alba; Sánchez-Martín, María J; Ordax, José M; Marín-Benito, Jesús M; Sonia Rodríguez-Cruz, M


    A study has been conducted on the leaching of two fungicides, tebuconazole and cymoxanil, in a soil amended with spent mushroom substrate (SMS), with an evaluation of how different factors influence this process. The objective was based on the potential use of SMS as a biosorbent for immobilizing pesticides in vulnerable soils, and the need to know how it could affect the subsequent transport of these retained compounds. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) for 14C-fungicides, non-incubated and incubated over 30days, were obtained in columns packed with an unamended soil (S), and this soil amended with SMS at rates of 5% (S+SMS5) and 50% (S+SMS50) under saturated and saturated-unsaturated flows. The highest leaching of tebuconazole (>50% of the total 14C added) was found in S when a saturated water flow was applied to the column, but the percentage of leached fungicide decreased when a saturated-unsaturated flow was applied in both SMS-amended soils. Also a significant decrease in leaching was observed for tebuconazole after incubation in the column, especially in S+SMS50 when both flows were applied. Furthermore, cymoxanil leaching was complete in S and S+SMS when a saturated flow was applied, and maximum peak concentrations were reached at 1pore volume (PV), although BTCs showed peaks with lower concentrations in S+SMS. The amounts of cymoxanil retained only increased in S+SMS when a saturated-unsaturated flow was applied. A more relevant effect of SMS for reducing the leaching of fungicide was observed when cymoxanil was previously incubated in the column, although mineralization was enhanced in this case. These results are of interest for extending SMS application on the control of the leaching of fungicides with different physicochemical characteristics after different ageing times in the soil and water flow conditions applied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Methods of producing transportation fuel (United States)

    Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony [Houston, TX; Bauldreay, Joanna M [Chester, GB


    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between C. and C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between C. and C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  4. Animal Welfare in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Popović


    Full Text Available Animal welfare is becoming an evermore-important factorfor air carriers from the economical viewpoint, due to its importantimpact on the carrier public image. High standard care hasto be taken of animals during transport in order to satisfy an importantsegment of airline customers, either the Business/Firstclass passengers travelling with pets, or influential shippers ofracing horses, dogs, Zoo species etc.Air transp011 of animals, disregarding other advantages,may pose a threat to their health and welfare being a significantmultifactorial stressor. Along with cardiovascular, endocrineand metabolic abe1mtions, it affects the immune response ofan animal and increases susceptibility to infection. Therefore,strict conditions for air transport of eve1y animal species havebeen imposed. Transport of only healthy animals is approved,as it is necessG/y to prevent the spread of disease during transportand to provide satisfactOJy environment for animals to betransported.

  5. From anion receptors to transporters. (United States)

    Gale, Philip A


    Cystic fibrosis is the most well-known of a variety of diseases termed channelopathies, in which the regulation of ion transport across cell membranes is so disrupted that the threshold of a pathology is passed. The human toll exacted by these diseases has led a number of research groups, including our own, to create compounds that mediate ion transport across lipid bilayers. In this Account, we discuss three classes of synthetic compounds that were refined to bind and transport anions across lipid bilayer membranes. All of the compounds were originally designed as anion receptors, that is, species that would simply create stable complexes with anions, but were then further developed as transporters. By studying structurally simple systems and varying their properties to change the degree of preorganization, the affinity for anions, or the lipophilicity, we have begun to rationalize why particular anion transport mechanisms (cotransport or antiport processes) occur in particular cases. For example, we have studied the chloride transport properties of receptors based on the closely related structures of isophthalamide and pyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide: the central ring in each case was augmented with pendant methylimidazole groups designed to cotransport H(+) and Cl(-). We observed that the more preorganized pyridine-based receptor was the more efficient transporter, a finding replicated with a series of isophthalamides in which one contained hydroxyl groups designed to preorganize the receptor. This latter class of compound, together with the natural product prodigiosin, can transport bicarbonate (as part of a chloride/bicarbonate antiport process) across lipid bilayer membranes. We have also studied the membrane transport properties of calix[4]pyrroles. Although the parent meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole functions solely as a Cs(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter, other compounds with increased anion affinities can function through an antiport process. One example is octafluoro

  6. Variational approach in transport theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panta Pazos, R. [Nucler Engineering Department, UFRGS, Porto-Alegre (Brazil); Tullio de Vilhena, M. [Institute of Mathematics, UFRGS, Porto-Alegre (Brazil)


    In this work we present a variational approach to some methods to solve transport problems of neutral particles. We consider a convex domain X (for example the geometry of a slab, or a convex set in the plane, or a convex bounded set in the space) and we use discrete ordinates quadrature to get a system of differential equations derived from the neutron transport equation. The boundary conditions are vacuum for a subset of the boundary, and of specular reflection for the complementary subset of the boundary. Recently some different approximation methods have been presented to solve these transport problems. We introduce in this work the adjoint equations and the conjugate functions obtained by means of the variational approach. First we consider the general formulation, and then some numerical methods such as spherical harmonics and spectral collocation method. (authors)

  7. Kinetic theory and transport phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Soto, Rodrigo


    This textbook presents kinetic theory, which is a systematic approach to describing nonequilibrium systems. The text is balanced between the fundamental concepts of kinetic theory (irreversibility, transport processes, separation of time scales, conservations, coarse graining, distribution functions, etc.) and the results and predictions of the theory, where the relevant properties of different systems are computed. The book is organised in thematic chapters where different paradigmatic systems are studied. The specific features of these systems are described, building and analysing the appropriate kinetic equations. Specifically, the book considers the classical transport of charges, the dynamics of classical gases, Brownian motion, plasmas, and self-gravitating systems, quantum gases, the electronic transport in solids and, finally, semiconductors. Besides these systems that are studied in detail, concepts are applied to some modern examples including the quark–gluon plasma, the motion of bacterial suspen...

  8. Characterization of placental cholesterol transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie L; Wassif, Christopher A; Vaisman, Boris


    Patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) are born with multiple congenital abnormalities. Postnatal cholesterol supplementation is provided; however, it cannot correct developmental malformations due to in utero cholesterol deficit. Increased transport of cholesterol from maternal to fetal...... circulation might attenuate congenital malformations. The cholesterol transporters Abca1, Abcg1, and Sr-b1 are present in placenta; however, their potential role in placental transport remains undetermined. In mice, expression analyses showed that Abca1 and Abcg1 transcripts increased 2-3-fold between...... embryonic days 13.5 and 18.5 in placental tissue; whereas, Sr-b1 expression decreased. To examine the functional role of Abca1, Abcg1 and Sr-b1 we measured the maternal-fetal transfer of (14)C-cholesterol in corresponding mutant embryos. Disruption of either Abca1 or Sr-b1 decreased cholesterol transfer...

  9. Transport properties of ceramic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, T.L.; Hablutzel, N. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    Instrumentation and procedures have been completed for measurement of gas permeability and mass diffusivity of fiber preforms and porous materials. Results are reported for composites reinforced with Nicalon fiber in cloth lay-up and 3-D weave and with Nextel fiber in multi-layer braid. Measured permeability values range from near 100 to less than 0.1 darcies. Mass diffusivity is reported as a structure factor relating the diffusion through the porous material to that in free space. This measure is independent of the diffusing species and depends only on the pore structure of the material. Measurements are compared to predictions of a node-bond model for gas transport. Model parameters adjusted to match measured transport properties relate to physical microstructure features of the different architectures. Combination of this transport model with the CVI process model offers a predictive method to evaluate the densification behavior of various fiber preforms.

  10. EST! environmentally sustainable transport issue paper : soft measures and transport (United States)


    The purpose of this paper was to help guide and even provoke discussion at the workshop to be held in Berlin on 5-6 December, 2002, entitled Communicating Environmentally Sustainable Transport-The roles of soft measures in achieving EST. It's easier ...

  11. Evaluation of intelligent transport systems impact on school transport safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska-Karpa Dagmara


    Full Text Available The integrated system of safe transport of children to school using Intelligent Transport Systems was developed and implemented in four locations across Europe under the Safeway2School (SW2S project, funded by the EU. The SW2S system evaluation included speed measurements and an eye-tracking experiment carried out among drivers who used the school bus route, where selected elements of the system were tested. The subject of the evaluation were the following system elements: pedestrian safety system at the bus stop (Intelligent Bus Stop and tags for children, Driver Support System, applications for parents’ and students’ mobile phones, bus stop inventory tool and data server. A new sign designed for buses and bus stops to inform about child transportation/children waiting at the bus stop was added to the system. Training schemes for system users were also provided. The article presents evaluation results of the impact of selected elements of the SW2S system on school transport safety in Poland.

  12. Bus transport in Greater Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    is that ‘organisation matters’ and that the reforms may have changed significantly the institutional conditions for the implementation of sustainable transport policies and easures. We have focused the research on public transport in larger cities and how their organisation has changed due to the reforms. At the NECTAR......, and will be elaborated by the time of the NECTAR workshop in May: • Deregulation and privatisation have not changed negative trends in modal split in Greater Manchester, but likely made it worse at least compared to London. • Deregulation and privatisation have worsened conditions for a greening of the bus fleets...

  13. Cilia-based transport networks (United States)

    Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    Cerebrospinal fluid conveys many physiologically important signaling factors through the ventricular cavities of the brain. We investigated the transport of cerebrospinal fluid in the third ventricle of the mouse brain and discovered a highly organized pattern of cilia modules, which collectively give rise to a network of fluid flows that allows for precise transport within this ventricle. Our work suggests that ciliated epithelia can generate and maintain complex, spatiotemporally regulated flow networks. I shall also show results on how to assemble artificial cilia and cilia carpets. Supported by the BMBF MaxSynBio.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Geller


    Full Text Available A set of models to predict viscosity and thermal conductivity of refrigerant mixtures is developed. A general model for viscosity and thermal conductivity use the three contributions sum form (the dilute-gas terms, the residual terms, and the liquid terms. The corresponding states model is recommended to predict the dense gas transport properties over a range of reduced density from 0 to 2. It is shown that the RHS model provides the most reliable results for the saturated-liquid and the compressed-liquid transport properties over a range of given temperatures from 0,5 to 0,95.

  15. Energy transport in the penumbra. (United States)

    Schlichenmaier, R.; Jahn, K.; Schmidt, H. U.


    The problem of energy transport in sunspot penumbrae is addressed. This paper presents the mathematical tools to investigate numerically the dynamics of a thin flux tube, which evolves in a 2D background formed by a magneto-static sunspot model. The goal is to study the role of interchange convection in penumbral energy transport and to examine the usefullness of thin flux tubes as a physical entity to explain observed penumbral features such as penumbral grains, bright and dark filaments and the Evershed flow.

  16. Coal transportation by MGR system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daga, P.R.


    34000 tonnes of coal per day will need to be transported nearly 34 km by rail to India's coal-fired Korba Super Thermal Power Project. The Merry-go-Round rail system was adopted because it has a much higher rate of loading and unloading of wagons than the Tippler Arrangement. The route for the railway is described, together with regulations that the route has satisfied. Details are given of the track, wagons, locomotives, loading station, unloading station, signalling, telecommunications, maintenance workshop and total capital costs. The MGR system of coal transportation will provide greater reliability and reduced time factor.

  17. Risk assessment in transportation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Młyńczak Marek


    Full Text Available The paper presents problems of hazard identification in transportation systems, where not only field of action is large but also cause-consequences relations between failure causes and losses are distant in time and space. It is observed in transportation systems of goods and passengers, systems of water, gas, oil distribution and electro-energetic nets. Proposed systemic approach based on system elements classification on active (casual and passive ones (affected. There are described concepts of vulnerability (damageability, resilience (ability of recovering and risk controlling by introducing safety measures to undesired event chain.

  18. Benchmarking and Sustainable Transport Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Wyatt, Andrew; Gordon, Lucy


    Order to learn from the best. In 2000 the European Commission initiated research to explore benchmarking as a tool to promote policies for ‘sustainable transport’. This paper reports findings and recommendations on how to address this challenge. The findings suggest that benchmarking is a valuable......’ evokes a broad range of concerns that are hard to address fully at the level of specific practices. Thirdly policies are not directly comparable across space and context. For these reasons attempting to benchmark ‘sustainable transport policies’ against one another would be a highly complex task, which...

  19. Transportation Research Information Services (TRIS)


    Ostrander, Margaret; Kleppe, Sarah


    Free, public access to TRIS Online is hosted by the National Transportation Library, although it has existed since the early 1970’s. The paper offers a user-focused methodology to answer the research question “Is TRIS meeting the unique needs of transportation professionals?” The paper outlines the information seeking behavior of an occupation-specific user group where little research exists. As Baldwin notes (2003), “Although there is a general assumption that a large portion of transpo...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Marinović


    Full Text Available Belt conveyor transport, although one of the most economical mining transport system, introduce many problems to mantain the continuity of the operation. Every stop causes economical loses. Optimal operation require correct tension of the belt, correct belt position and velocity and faultless rolls, which are together input conditions for automation. Detection and position selection of the faults are essential for safety to eliminate fire hazard and for efficient maintenance. Detection and location of idler roll faults are still open problem and up to now not solved successfully (the paper is published in Croatian.

  1. Radiation Transport Calculations and Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasso, Alberto; /SLAC; Ferrari, A.; /CERN


    This article is an introduction to the Monte Carlo method as used in particle transport. After a description at an elementary level of the mathematical basis of the method, the Boltzmann equation and its physical meaning are presented, followed by Monte Carlo integration and random sampling, and by a general description of the main aspects and components of a typical Monte Carlo particle transport code. In particular, the most common biasing techniques are described, as well as the concepts of estimator and detector. After a discussion of the different types of errors, the issue of Quality Assurance is briefly considered.

  2. Next Generation Transport Phenomenology Model (United States)

    Strickland, Douglas J.; Knight, Harold; Evans, J. Scott


    This report describes the progress made in Quarter 3 of Contract Year 3 on the development of Aeronomy Phenomenology Modeling Tool (APMT), an open-source, component-based, client-server architecture for distributed modeling, analysis, and simulation activities focused on electron and photon transport for general atmospheres. In the past quarter, column emission rate computations were implemented in Java, preexisting Fortran programs for computing synthetic spectra were embedded into APMT through Java wrappers, and work began on a web-based user interface for setting input parameters and running the photoelectron and auroral electron transport models.

  3. Radiation Transport in Dynamic Spacetimes (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy; Baker, John G.; Etienne, Zachariah; Giacomazzo, Bruno; Kelly, Bernard J.


    We present early results from a new radiation transport calculation of gas accretion onto merging binary black holes. We use the Monte Carlo radiation transport code Pandurata, now generalized for application to dynamic spacetimes. The time variability of the metric requires careful numerical techniques for solving the geodesic equation, particularly with tabulated spacetime data from numerical relativity codes. Using a new series of general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of magnetized flow onto binary black holes, we investigate the possibility for detecting and identifying unique electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave events.

  4. Transportation of Hazardous Evidentiary Material.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas.


    This document describes the specimen and transportation containers currently available for use with hazardous and infectious materials. A detailed comparison of advantages, disadvantages, and costs of the different technologies is included. Short- and long-term recommendations are also provided.3 DraftDraftDraftExecutive SummaryThe Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hazardous Materials Response Unit currently has hazardous material transport containers for shipping 1-quart paint cans and small amounts of contaminated forensic evidence, but the containers may not be able to maintain their integrity under accident conditions or for some types of hazardous materials. This report provides guidance and recommendations on the availability of packages for the safe and secure transport of evidence consisting of or contaminated with hazardous chemicals or infectious materials. Only non-bulk containers were considered because these are appropriate for transport on small aircraft. This report will addresses packaging and transportation concerns for Hazardous Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 materials. If the evidence is known or suspected of belonging to one of these Hazardous Classes, it must be packaged in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR Part 173. The anthrax scare of several years ago, and less well publicized incidents involving unknown and uncharacterized substances, has required that suspicious substances be sent to appropriate analytical laboratories for analysis and characterization. Transportation of potentially hazardous or infectious material to an appropriate analytical laboratory requires transport containers that maintain both the biological and chemical integrity of the substance in question. As a rule, only relatively small quantities will be available for analysis. Appropriate transportation packaging is needed that will maintain the integrity of the substance, will not allow biological alteration, will not react chemically with the substance being

  5. Modeling Radionuclide Transport in Clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liange [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Lianchong [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Hui -Hai [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures induced by tunnel excavation. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at the Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon and Volckaert, 2003) have all been under intensive scientific investigation (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relationships to flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste. Clay/shale formations may be generally classified as indurated or plastic clays (Tsang and Hudson, 2010). The latter (including Boom clay) is a softer material without high cohesion; its deformation is dominantly plastic. During the lifespan of a clay repository, the repository performance is affected by complex thermal, hydrogeological, mechanical, chemical (THMC) processes, such as heat release due to radionuclide decay, multiphase flow, formation of damage zones, radionuclide transport, waste dissolution, and chemical reactions. All these processes are related to each other. An in-depth understanding of these coupled processes is critical for the performance assessment (PA) of the repository. These coupled processes may affect radionuclide transport by changing transport paths (e.g., formation and evolution of excavation damaged zone (EDZ)) and altering flow, mineral, and mechanical properties that are related to radionuclide transport. While radionuclide transport in clay formation has been studied using laboratory tests (e,g, Appelo et al. 2010, Garcia-Gutierrez et al., 2008, Maes et al., 2008), short-term field

  6. Global gravitational anomalies and transport (United States)

    Chowdhury, Subham Dutta; David, Justin R.


    We investigate the constraints imposed by global gravitational anomalies on parity odd induced transport coefficients in even dimensions for theories with chiral fermions, gravitinos and self dual tensors. The η-invariant for the large diffeomorphism corresponding to the T transformation on a torus constraints the coefficients in the thermal effective action up to mod 2. We show that the result obtained for the parity odd transport for gravitinos using global anomaly matching is consistent with the direct perturbative calculation. In d = 6 we see that the second Pontryagin class in the anomaly polynomial does not contribute to the η-invariant which provides a topological explanation of this observation in the `replacement rule'. We then perform a direct perturbative calculation for the contribution of the self dual tensor in d = 6 to the parity odd transport coefficient using the Feynman rules proposed by Gaumé and Witten. The result for the transport coefficient agrees with that obtained using matching of global anomalies.

  7. Turbulent transport in magnetized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Horton, Wendell


    This book explains how magnetized plasmas self-organize in states of electromagnetic turbulence that transports particles and energy out of the core plasma faster than anticipated by the fusion scientists designing magnetic confinement systems in the 20th century. It describes theory, experiments and simulations in a unified and up-to-date presentation of the issues of achieving nuclear fusion power.

  8. Transport phenomena in particulate systems

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, José Teixeira; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo


    This volume spans 10 chapters covering different aspects of transport phenomena including fixed and fluidized systems, spouted beds, electrochemical and wastewater treatment reactors. This e-book will be valuable for students, engineers and researchers aiming to keep updated on the latest developments on particulate systems.

  9. Traveling Salesman Problem with Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu Ungureanu


    Full Text Available Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP is a generic name that includes diverse practical models. Motivated by applications, a new model of TSP is examined – a synthesis of classical TSP and classical Transportation Problem. Algorithms based on Integer Programming cutting-plane methods and Branch and Bound Techniques are obvious.

  10. [Tort Liability and School Transportation. (United States)

    Franke, Allyn J.

    School districts, school employees, bus companies contracted by districts, and bus company employees could be involved in court litigation over student injury and student civil rights related to school bus transportation. Civil rights insurance should be added to general liability insurance and motor vehicle liability insurance. Students must be…

  11. Department of Transport Management Tec

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 25, 2017 ... Abstract. The general view about the routine vehicle inspection operations is to ensure that vehicles are road worthy and meet safety requirements. This is done to enhance safe and clean transport within urban centres since the nature and condition of vehicles on roads can be associated with the efficiency ...

  12. Quantum transport through single molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osorio Oliveros, E.A.


    This thesis describes three-terminal transport measurements through single molecules. The interest in this field stems from the dream that single molecules will form the building blocks for future nanoscale electronic devices. The advantages are their small size -nanometers-, and their synthetic

  13. Solute carrier transporters: Pharmacogenomics research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    substrates. The growing number of publications reporting genetic population data for the solute carrier transporters in particular shows ... almost all diseases is also determined to some extent by genetic variation (Brockmoller and .... bile acids, amino acids, ions, xenobiotics, drugs, and other biologically active compounds, ...

  14. Environmental Transport Division: 1979 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Schubert, J.F.; Bowman, W.W.; Adams, S.E.


    During 1979, the Environmental Transport Division (ETD) of the Savannah River Laboratory conducted atmospheric, terrestrial, aquatic, and marine studies, which are described in a series of articles. Separate abstracts were prepared for each. Publications written about the 1979 research are listed at the end of the report.

  15. Red cell membrane transport abnormalities. (United States)

    Bruce, Lesley J


    The present review describes the red cell transport abnormalities of proteins of the band 3 macrocomplex. The macrocomplex is involved in red cell gas exchange and recent findings have furthered our understanding of this process. Study of a novel band 3 hereditary spherocytosis variant suggests that expression of mutant band 3 protein can be rescued by wild-type band 3. Other studies show that some mutant band 3 protein can mediate a cation conductance. Recent work suggests both Rh-associated glycoprotein and aquaporin act as gas channels confirming the integrated function of the macrocomplex and the importance of its role in red cell gas transport. The most recent studies on band 3-induced hereditary spherocytosis are reviewed and an explanation for the mild phenotype of heterozygous hereditary spherocytosis is discussed. A number of red cell conditions (hereditary stomatocytosis, south-east Asian ovalocytosis, distal renal tubular acidosis, Rhnull), associated with both stomatocytosis and a cation leak, are described. The evidence that Rh-associated glycoprotein forms a gas channel that transports CO2 and/or NH3 is reviewed and discussed, together with recent studies that show that aquaporin 1 transports both CO2 and O2.

  16. Coupled Neutron Transport for HZETRN (United States)

    Slaba, Tony C.; Blattnig, Steve R.


    Exposure estimates inside space vehicles, surface habitats, and high altitude aircrafts exposed to space radiation are highly influenced by secondary neutron production. The deterministic transport code HZETRN has been identified as a reliable and efficient tool for such studies, but improvements to the underlying transport models and numerical methods are still necessary. In this paper, the forward-backward (FB) and directionally coupled forward-backward (DC) neutron transport models are derived, numerical methods for the FB model are reviewed, and a computationally efficient numerical solution is presented for the DC model. Both models are compared to the Monte Carlo codes HETC-HEDS, FLUKA, and MCNPX, and the DC model is shown to agree closely with the Monte Carlo results. Finally, it is found in the development of either model that the decoupling of low energy neutrons from the light particle transport procedure adversely affects low energy light ion fluence spectra and exposure quantities. A first order correction is presented to resolve the problem, and it is shown to be both accurate and efficient.

  17. Moisture transport in coated plaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, E.L.J.; Van der Spoel, W.H.; Bancken, E.L.J.


    In the framework of the research project: 'Water balance of water-borne paint systems on plaster substrates in relation to fungal growth', a study is carried out to moisture transport mechanisms in coated gypsum plaster. In this contribution, the set-up of the study is described. Besides a

  18. Students' Conceptions of Water Transport (United States)

    Rundgren, Carl-Johan; Rundgren, Shu-Nu Chang; Schonborn, Konrad J.


    Understanding diffusion of water into and out of the cell through osmosis is fundamental to the learning and teaching of biology. Although this process is thought of as occurring directly across the lipid bilayer, the majority of water transport is actually mediated by specialised transmembrane water-channels called aquaporins. This study…


    The transport of microorganisms in soils is of major importance for bioremediation of subsurface polluted zones and for pollution of groundwater with pathogens. A procedure for evaluating the relative mobility and recovery of bacteria in the soil matrix was developed. In the meth...

  20. Drivers and Limits for Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    This report summarizes key outcomes of the study ’Drivers and Limits’ that was supported for the period 2009-2013 by a research grant from the Danish Strategic Research Council. The project investigated - for the empirical context of Denmark - key driving forces behind transport growth, as well...

  1. Financiamiento de infraestructura de transporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Serrano Rodríguez


    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan las alternativas existentes para financiar proyectos de infraestructura en transporte con énfasis en los recursos administrados por los Inversionistas Institucionales, principalmente fondos de pensiones obligatorios y compañías de seguros de vida a través de las reservas técnicas. La situación era de suficiencia antes del desastre invernal, lo cual cambió significativamente y ha llevado al gobierno a identificar nuevas fuentes de financiamiento. Aunque las inversiones en proyectos de transporte se continuarán pagando con recursos de presupuesto principalmente a través de vigencias futuras, los esquemas de Asociación Público Privada (APP permitirán vincular inversionistas a la ejecución y financiamiento de nuevos proyectos./ In this article we analyze the existing alternatives for financing transport infrastructure projects with special emphasis on funds managed by Institutional Investors, mainly from public pension plans and life-insurance companies through technical reserves. Before the recent heavy rainfalls, there were sufficient funds to finance the infrastructure projects, but the damage caused has led the government to look for new sources of funding. Although transport projects will continue to be funded using the national budget, financing will be undertaken through securitization of fiscal flows and Public Private Partnerships (PPP schemes will link investors to the funding and execution of new projects.

  2. Quantum transport in carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarillo-Herrero, P.D.


    Electronic transport through nanostructures can be very different from trans- port in macroscopic conductors, especially at low temperatures. Carbon na- notubes are tiny cylinders made of carbon atoms. Their remarkable electronic and mechanical properties, together with their small size (a few nm in

  3. Physiotherapy and bronchial mucus transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, Cornelis Peter van der


    The use of physiotherapeutic techniques may increase mucus transport in patients with airways disease including COPD, asthma, cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia. The most effective parts of the treatment are probably forced expirations with open glottis and coughing. However, in patients

  4. Physiotherapy and bronchial mucus transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, CP; Postma, DS; Koeter, GH; Rubin, BK

    Cough and expectoration of mucus are the best-known symptoms in patients with pulmonary disease, The most applied intervention for these symptoms is the use of chest physiotherapy to increase bronchial mucus transport and reduce retention of mucus in the airways, Chest physiotherapy interventions

  5. Transport of the CNGS reflector.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    The CNGS magnetic horn reflectorwas transported on 5 December 2005 through the facility's access gallery. The reflector - a major component that will help target the CNGS neutrino beam for its 732km journey through the earth's crust, from CERN to the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy - is 7m long, 1.6m in diameter and 1.6 tonnes in weight.

  6. Sediment transport under breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Mayer, Stefan


    generated at the surface where the wave breaks as well as the turbulence generated near the bed due to the wave-motion and the undertow. In general, the levels of turbulent kinetic energy are found to be higher than experiments show. This results in an over prediction of the sediment transport. Nevertheless...

  7. Unreliability in Public Transport Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, F.R.; Rietveld, P.; Vuuren, van D.J.


    In this paper the reliability of travelling by public transport modes is investigated. We deal with the reliability of travel times in public travel chains. Until now the only research in this field has been directed towards the reliability of trips where only one move is made. Therefore, a new

  8. Transport emissions: All hail robocabs (United States)

    Brown, Austin


    Connected and automated vehicles enable new business models, such as self-driving taxis, that could transform transportation. These models have the potential to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse-gas emissions, but only if they are developed with energy use in mind.

  9. A Problem on Optimal Transportation (United States)

    Cechlarova, Katarina


    Mathematical optimization problems are not typical in the classical curriculum of mathematics. In this paper we show how several generalizations of an easy problem on optimal transportation were solved by gifted secondary school pupils in a correspondence mathematical seminar, how they can be used in university courses of linear programming and…

  10. Quantum transport in carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laird, E.A.; Kuemmeth, F.; Steele, G.A.; Grove-Rasmussen, K.; Nygard, J.; Flensberg, K.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.


    Carbon nanotubes are a versatile material in which many aspects of condensed matter physics come together. Recent discoveries have uncovered new phenomena that completely change our understanding of transport in these devices, especially the role of the spin and valley degrees of freedom. This

  11. Prokaryotic transport in electrohydrodynamic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulitsch-Fuchs, A.H.; Fuchs, E.C.; Wexler, A.D.; Freund, F.T.; Rothschild, L.J.; Cherukupally, A.; Euverink, G.J.W.

    When a high-voltage direct-current is applied to two beakers filled with water, a horizontal electrohydrodynamic (EHD) bridge forms between the two beakers. In this work we study the transport and behavior of bacterial cells added to an EHD bridge set-up. Organisms were added to one or to both

  12. Solute carrier transporters: Pharmacogenomics research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... genomic variation in South Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, especially with regards to health applications. Genomic diversity in this region is indeed relatively under-studied despite being home to significant portion of human genomic diversity. Keywords: Solute carrier transporters, pharmacogenomics, pharmacogenetics ...

  13. Social change and sustainable transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijst, M.J.


    Black and Nijkamp deserve our thanks and our compliments for their efforts in stimulating researchers from so many different disciplines on both sides of the Atlantic to write papers on the various subjects related to the social dimension of sustainable transport. Although social issues are not

  14. Transport phenomena in porous media (United States)

    Bear, Jacob; Corapcioglu, M. Yavuz

    The Advanced Study Institute on Fundamentals of Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, held July 14-23, 1985 in Newark, Del. and directed by Jacob Bear (Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa) and M. Yavuz Corapcioglu (City College of New York), under the auspices of NATO, was a sequel to the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) held in 1982 (proceedings published as Fundamentals of Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, J. Bear, and M.Y. Corapcioglu (Ed.), Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, 1984). The meeting was attended by 106 participants and lecturers from 21 countries.As in the first NATO/ASI, the objective of this meeting—which was a combination of a conference of experts and a teaching institute— was to present and discuss selected topics of transport in porous media. In selecting topics and lecturers, an attempt was made to bridge the gap that sometimes exists between research and practice. An effort was also made to demonstrate the unified approach to the transport of mass of a fluid phase, components of a fluid phase, momentum, and heat in a porous medium domain. The void space may be occupied by a single fluid phase or by a number of such phases; each fluid may constitute a multicomponent system; the solid matrix may be deformable; and the whole process of transport in the system may take place under nonisothermal conditions, with or without phase changes. Such phenomena are encountered in a variety of disciplines, e.g., petroleum engineering, civil engineering (in connection with groundwater flow and contamination), soil mechanics, and chemical engineering. One of the goals of the 1985 NATO/ASI, as in the 1982 institute, was to bring together experts from all these disciplines and enhance communication among them.

  15. Transportation and packaging resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, J.W.; Gove, R.M.; Welch, M.J.


    The purpose of this resource guide is to provide a convenient reference document of information that may be useful to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor personnel involved in packaging and transportation activities. An attempt has been made to present the terminology of DOE community usage as it currently exists. DOE`s mission is changing with emphasis on environmental cleanup. The terminology or nomenclature that has resulted from this expanded mission is included for the packaging and transportation user for reference purposes. Older terms still in use during the transition have been maintained. The Packaging and Transportation Resource Guide consists of four sections: Sect. 1, Introduction; Sect. 2, Abbreviations and Acronyms; Sect. 3, Definitions; and Sect. 4, References for packaging and transportation of hazardous materials and related activities, and Appendices A and B. Information has been collected from DOE Orders and DOE documents; U.S Department of Transportation (DOT), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations; and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards and other international documents. The definitions included in this guide may not always be a regulatory definition but are the more common DOE usage. In addition, the definitions vary among regulatory agencies. It is, therefore, suggested that if a definition is to be used in a regulatory or a legal compliance issue, the definition should be verified with the appropriate regulation. To assist in locating definitions in the regulations, a listing of all definition sections in the regulations are included in Appendix B. In many instances, the appropriate regulatory reference is indicated in the right-hand margin.

  16. Statistical Perspectives on Stratospheric Transport (United States)

    Sparling, L. C.


    Long-lived tropospheric source gases, such as nitrous oxide, enter the stratosphere through the tropical tropopause, are transported throughout the stratosphere by the Brewer-Dobson circulation, and are photochemically destroyed in the upper stratosphere. These chemical constituents, or "tracers" can be used to track mixing and transport by the stratospheric winds. Much of our understanding about the stratospheric circulation is based on large scale gradients and other spatial features in tracer fields constructed from satellite measurements. The point of view presented in this paper is different, but complementary, in that transport is described in terms of tracer probability distribution functions (PDFs). The PDF is computed from the measurements, and is proportional to the area occupied by tracer values in a given range. The flavor of this paper is tutorial, and the ideas are illustrated with several examples of transport-related phenomena, annotated with remarks that summarize the main point or suggest new directions. One example shows how the multimodal shape of the PDF gives information about the different branches of the circulation. Another example shows how the statistics of fluctuations from the most probable tracer value give insight into mixing between different regions of the atmosphere. Also included is an analysis of the time-dependence of the PDF during the onset and decline of the winter circulation, and a study of how "bursts" in the circulation are reflected in transient periods of rapid evolution of the PDF. The dependence of the statistics on location and time are also shown to be important for practical problems related to statistical robustness and satellite sampling. The examples illustrate how physically-based statistical analysis can shed some light on aspects of stratospheric transport that may not be obvious or quantifiable with other types of analyses. An important motivation for the work presented here is the need for synthesis of the

  17. Airport in the intermodal transport system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The problem of integrating of airports into the intermodal transport system is presented in this paper. The development of intermodal systems helps to use the available transport means in optimal and balanced way. The intermodality of the airport is analyzed in two areas: the airport accessibility and the integration of an airport with other transport means of domestic and international transport system. The railway transport is the main transport branch concerned to be integrated together with the air transport. The examples of existing solutions of intermodal systems in the biggest European hubs are presented with the strongest emphasis put on the airport in Frankfurt. The inhibiting and stimulating factors of the development of intermodal transport system are presented. The last part of the paper presents the conclusions how European solutions can be of the help in the process of the development of the Polish transport system.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. JOHNS


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the importance of knowledge in the global economy and reviews the process in which knowledge is applied to develop innovations. It confirms the importance of innovation as a key factor for success in today's competitive environment. The paper discusses the contributions a university can make to the innovation process in the field of transportation, and offers a vision of how a university center can enhance and facilitate these contributions. It then describes the efforts of one center, including three examples of innovations facilitated by the center in traffic detection, regional planning, and pavement management. The paper concludes with suggestions that would strengthen the societal contributions of university transportation centers.

  19. Transportation satellite accounts : a look at transportation's role in the economy. (United States)


    To provide a more comprehensive measure of transportation services and their contribution to the national economy, the U.S. Department of Transportations Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) and the U.S. Department of Commerces Bureau of E...

  20. Pathogen transport in groundwater systems: contrasts with traditional solute transport (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Johnson, William P.


    Water quality affects many aspects of water availability, from precluding use to societal perceptions of fit-for-purpose. Pathogen source and transport processes are drivers of water quality because they have been responsible for numerous outbreaks resulting in large economic losses due to illness and, in some cases, loss of life. Outbreaks result from very small exposure (e.g., less than 20 viruses) from very strong sources (e.g., trillions of viruses shed by a single infected individual). Thus, unlike solute contaminants, an acute exposure to a very small amount of contaminated water can cause immediate adverse health effects. Similarly, pathogens are larger than solutes. Thus, interactions with surfaces and settling become important even as processes important for solutes such as diffusion become less important. These differences are articulated in "Colloid Filtration Theory", a separate branch of pore-scale transport. Consequently, understanding pathogen processes requires changes in how groundwater systems are typically characterized, where the focus is on the leading edges of plumes and preferential flow paths, even if such features move only a very small fraction of the aquifer flow. Moreover, the relatively short survival times of pathogens in the subsurface require greater attention to very fast (transport mechanisms discussed here, a more encompassing view of water quality and source water protection is attained. With this more holistic view and theoretical understanding, better evaluations can be made regarding drinking water vulnerability and the relation between groundwater and human health.

  1. Integral Transportation Systems in Military Transport Aircraft Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Kovačević


    Full Text Available Supply of goods, equipment and soldiers by militwy transportaircraft can serve as a support to airborne landing operation,support to encircled forces, and support to forces leadinga gue1rilla war. Transport aircraft are designed in such a wayas to be able to cany containers, pallets, most of land vehiclesand helicopters. Militwy transport aircraft can be grouped intothose that were originally designed for military transp01t andthose that are modified civilian aircraft and helicopters. Supplypallets can be wooden, metal, can be airdropped in "taxiing","low-flight", and can also be fitted with a parachute or"retrorocket" for reducing the ground impact. Pallets canamong other things carry liquids, heavy combat and ca1rier vehicles,artillery and rocket weapons and valious containers.Pallets are usually pe1manently deformed at ground impact.Nowadays, high precision of airdrop has been achieved. Containersare used to carry various equipment, food, fue~ weapons,ammunition etc. It is to be expected that the containers,wmoured combat and other vehicles will be redesigned so asto provide more efficient transport and fast a!Tangement ofhigh-mobility units, whereas the form of the future militarytransport aircraft will not undergo substantial changes. By adjustingand standardising the transporlation vehicles, integraltransportation means and cwgo, the overall combat efficiencywill be increased, the a~rangement time especially shortenedand the air supply safety increased.

  2. Towards a relevant and sustainable R&D agenda for transport and transport infrastructure in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rust, FC


    Full Text Available The importance of transport and transport infrastructure was discussed in the previous chapter. Transport and transport infrastructure plays a significant role in both economic and social development. However, in the future transport officials...

  3. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, R


    The Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials is a handbook that details the safety guidelines in transporting radioactive materials. The title covers the various regulations and policies, along with the safety measures and procedures of radioactive material transport. The text first details the 1963 version of the IAEA regulation for the safe transport of radioactive materials; the regulation covers the classification of radionuclides for transport purposes and the control of external radiation hazards during the transport of radioactive materials. The next chapter deals with concerns in the im

  4. Primary and secondary thyroid hormone transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinne Anita


    Full Text Available Abstract Thyroid hormones (TH are essential for the development of the human brain, growth and cellular metabolism. Investigation of TH transporters became one of the emerging fields in thyroid research after the discovery of inactivating mutations in the Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8, which was found to be highly specific for TH transport. However, additional transmembrane transporters are also very important for TH uptake and efflux in different cell types. They transport TH as secondary substrates and include the aromatic amino acid transporting MCT10, the organic anion transporting polypeptides (e.g. OATP1C1, OATP1A2, OPTP1A4 and the large neutral amino acid transporters (LAT1 and LAT2. These TH transporters characteristically possess 12 transmembrane spanners but due to the strong differing sequences between the three transporter families we assume an identical conformation is not very likely. In contrast to the others, the LAT family members form a heterodimer with the escort protein 4F2hc/CD98. A comparison of sequence proportions, locations and types of functional sensitive features for TH transport discovered by mutations, revealed that transport sensitive charged residues occur as conserved amino acids only within each family of the transporter types but not in all putative TH transporters. Based on the lack of highly conserved sensitive charged residues throughout the three transporter families as a common counterpart for the amino acid moiety of the substrates, we conclude that the molecular transport mechanism is likely organized either a by different molecular determinants in the divergent transporter types or b the counterparts for the substrates` amino acid moiety at the transporter are not any charged side chains but other proton acceptors or donators. However, positions of transport sensitive residues coincide at transmembrane helix 8 in the TH transporter MCT8, OATP1C1 and another amino acid transporter, the L

  5. 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Transportation

    CERN Document Server


    These proceedings present the latest information on intelligent- transportation technologies and their applications in real-world cases. The Second International Conference on Intelligent Transportation was held in Chengdu, China on November 25–27, 2015, to present the latest research in the field, including intelligent-transportation management, intelligent vehicles, rail transportation systems, traffic transportation networks, as well as road traffic element simulations and their industrial development. The aim of conference was to bring together academics, researchers, engineers and students from across the world to discuss state-of-the-art technologies related to intelligent transportation.

  6. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J


    Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64) in six European cities. We conducted a health...... reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists...... and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation....

  7. Transport Properties for Combustion Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J.; Bastein, L.; Price, P.N.


    This review examines current approximations and approaches that underlie the evaluation of transport properties for combustion modeling applications. Discussed in the review are: the intermolecular potential and its descriptive molecular parameters; various approaches to evaluating collision integrals; supporting data required for the evaluation of transport properties; commonly used computer programs for predicting transport properties; the quality of experimental measurements and their importance for validating or rejecting approximations to property estimation; the interpretation of corresponding states; combination rules that yield pair molecular potential parameters for unlike species from like species parameters; and mixture approximations. The insensitivity of transport properties to intermolecular forces is noted, especially the non-uniqueness of the supporting potential parameters. Viscosity experiments of pure substances and binary mixtures measured post 1970 are used to evaluate a number of approximations; the intermediate temperature range 1 < T* < 10, where T* is kT/{var_epsilon}, is emphasized since this is where rich data sets are available. When suitable potential parameters are used, errors in transport property predictions for pure substances and binary mixtures are less than 5 %, when they are calculated using the approaches of Kee et al.; Mason, Kestin, and Uribe; Paul and Warnatz; or Ern and Giovangigli. Recommendations stemming from the review include (1) revisiting the supporting data required by the various computational approaches, and updating the data sets with accurate potential parameters, dipole moments, and polarizabilities; (2) characterizing the range of parameter space over which the fit to experimental data is good, rather than the current practice of reporting only the parameter set that best fits the data; (3) looking for improved combining rules, since existing rules were found to under-predict the viscosity in most cases; (4

  8. Transportation (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  9. Transportation (United States)


    of our nation’s economic strength . Since 2002, when over 19 billion tons of freight moved throughout the country, the amount of tonnage moved in the...increase by 50% domestically and 110% internationally by 2016 (CRS, 2007). United Parcel Service (UPS), FedEx, and DHL currently control the package

  10. Transportability (United States)


    containerization in connection with the stowage, orientation, suspension , or transfer of cargo. Adequacy of design depends upon compatibility with...psi). (g) Maximum axle load ( pneumatic tires) - 2,268 kg (5,000 lb). (h) Maximum wheel load ( pneumatic tires) - 1,134 kg (2,500 lb). (i...parameters (i.e., sling lengths, sling leg angles, item attitude in suspension , and apex height) for crane movements at marine terminals. Subject all

  11. 13th EU-US Transport Task Force Workshop on transport in fusion plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connor, J.W.; Fasoli, A.; Hidalgo, C.


    This report summarizes the contributions presented at the 13th EU-US Transport Task Force Workshop on transport in fusion plasmas, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, 1-4 September 2008. There were sessions on core heat and particle transport; core and edge momentum transport; edge and scrape-off-layer ......This report summarizes the contributions presented at the 13th EU-US Transport Task Force Workshop on transport in fusion plasmas, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, 1-4 September 2008. There were sessions on core heat and particle transport; core and edge momentum transport; edge and scrape...

  12. Transportation planning, management systems, public participation, and land use modeling. Transportation research record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This volume focuses on statewide and metropolitan transportation planning, management systems, and land use-transportation issues. The papers on statewide and metropolitan transportation planning concern an interactive planning modeling process (Wyoming), an area transportation partnership to assist in the development of the state transportation improvement program (Minnesota), the development of a customer perspective in the statewide transportation planning process (Colorado), a pilot transportation plan for an Indian reservation in western North Carolina, and a community-based, strategic, comprehensive planning process (Ithaca, New York). The papers that concern management systems fall into two categories: those which discuss congestion management and those which discuss management systems for transport infrastructure.

  13. Functional Analysis of Arabidopsis Sucrose Transporters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Ward


    Sucrose is the main photosynthetic product that is transported in the vasculature of plants. The long-distance transport of carbohydrates is required to support the growth and development of net-importing (sink) tissues such as fruit, seeds and roots. This project is focused on understanding the transport mechanism sucrose transporters (SUTs). These are proton-coupled sucrose uptake transporters (membrane proteins) that are required for transport of sucrose in the vasculature and uptake into sink tissues. The accomplishments of this project included: 1) the first analysis of substrate specificity for any SUT. This was accomplished using electrophysiology to analyze AtSUC2, a sucrose transporter from companion cells in Arabidopsis. 2) the first analysis of the transport activity for a monocot SUT. The transport kinetics and substrate specificity of HvSUT1 from barley were studied. 3) the first analysis of a sucrose transporter from sugarcane. and 4) the first analysis of transport activity of a sugar alcohol transporter homolog from plants, AtPLT5. During this period four primary research papers, funded directly by the project, were published in refereed journals. The characterization of several sucrose transporters was essential for the current effort in the analysis of structure/function for this gene family. In particular, the demonstration of strong differences in substrate specificity between type I and II SUTs was important to identify targets for site-directed mutagenesis.

  14. SPS program review transportation perspective (United States)

    Wales, W. W., Jr.


    The delivery of cargo and space workers to the SPS construction site requires the development of two different systems, one to handle large cargo deliveries and a smaller system to accommodate crew. The overall scenario of the transportation system is shown. Eight major elements comprise the transportation system: personnel launch vehicle (PLV) or shuttle; personnel orbital transfer vehicle (POTV); the heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV); the electric orbital transfer vehicle (EOTV); intra orbit transfer vehicle (IOTV); LEO support facility; GEO support facility and a shuttle derived HLLV (SDHLLV) for supporting the early SPS Demonstration Program. The HLLV and EOTV represent the cargo carriers while the PLV and POTV represent the people carriers. The IOTV is utilized to ferry people and cargo modules over short distances in the vicinity of its station.

  15. Quantum transport in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laird, Edward A.; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Steele, Gary A.


    modifies their transport behaviour. Interaction between electrons inside and outside a quantum dot is manifested in SU(4) Kondo behavior and level renormalization. Interaction within a dot leads to Wigner molecules and more complex correlated states. This review takes an experimental perspective informed...... and valley degrees of freedom. This review describes the modern understanding of transport through nanotube devices. Unlike conventional semiconductors, electrons in nanotubes have two angular momentum quantum numbers, arising from spin and from valley freedom. We focus on the interplay between the two....... In single quantum dots defined in short lengths of nanotube, the energy levels associated with each degree of freedom, and the spin-orbit coupling between them, are revealed by Coulomb blockade spectroscopy. In double quantum dots, the combination of quantum numbers modifies the selection rules of Pauli...

  16. Nanofluidics thermodynamic and transport properties

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)


    This volume offers a comprehensive examination of the subject of heat and mass transfer with nanofluids as well as a critical review of the past and recent research projects in this area. Emphasis is placed on the fundamentals of the transport processes using particle-fluid suspensions, such as nanofluids. The nanofluid research is examined and presented in a holistic way using a great deal of our experience with the subjects of continuum mechanics, statistical thermodynamics, and non-equilibrium thermodynamics of transport processes. Using a thorough database, the experimental, analytical, and numerical advances of recent research in nanofluids are critically examined and connected to past research with medium and fine particles as well as to functional engineering systems. Promising applications and technological issues of heat/mass transfer system design with nanofluids are also discussed. This book also: Provides a deep scientific analysis of nanofluids using classical thermodynamics and statistical therm...

  17. Framework for reactive mass transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Mønster; Johannesson, Björn; Geiker, Mette Rica


    Reactive transport modeling is applicable for a range of porous materials. Here the modeling framework is focused on cement-based materials, where ion diffusion and migration are described by the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equation system. A two phase vapor/liquid flow model, with a sorption hysteresis...... for aqueous, pure phase and solid solution reactions. Numerical examples, with cement-based materials, are constructed to demonstrate transient phase change modeling. A simulation of pure multi-species leaching from the material, showing deterioration of the solid phases is described and calculated. A second...... simulation, showing multi-species ingress with formation of new solid phases in the domain is described and calculated. It is shown that the numerical solution method is capable of solving the reactive mass transport system for the examples considered. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. Contaminant transport in Massachusetts Bay (United States)

    Butman, Bradford

    Construction of a new treatment plant and outfall to clean up Boston Harbor is currently one of the world's largest public works projects, costing about $4 billion. There is concern about the long-term impact of contaminants on Massachusetts Bay and adjacent Gulf of Maine because these areas are used extensively for transportation, recreation, fishing, and tourism, as well as waste disposal. Public concern also focuses on Stellwagen Bank, located on the eastern side of Massachusetts Bay, which is an important habitat for endangered whales. Contaminants reach Massachusetts Bay not only from Boston Harbor, but from other coastal communities on the Gulf of Maine, as well as from the atmosphere. Knowledge of the pathways, mechanisms, and rates at which pollutants are transported throughout these coastal environments is needed to address a wide range of management questions.

  19. Transport og logistik i udkanten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Gjesing; Johannsen, Hans Henrik W.


    information om projektet kan indhentes på hjemmesiden hos Videncenter for Fødevareudvikling: Intentionen bag projektet har været at sætte fokus på små og mellemstore fødevarevirksomheders transport- og logistikbehov i udkantsområder. Gennem analyser og workshops er det hensigten...... logistikudbydere identificeret indenfor eksempelvirksomhedernes værdikæder. Den eksplorative undersøgelse har bidraget til at forstå udfordringer og barrierer i organiseringen af transport blandt små- og mellemstore virksomheder i udkantsområder. I nærværende artikel beskrives - med udgangspunkt i undersøgelsen...

  20. Transport processes at fluidic interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Reusken, Arnold


    There are several physico-chemical processes that determine the behavior of multiphase fluid systems – e.g., the fluid dynamics in the different phases and the dynamics of the interface(s), mass transport between the fluids, adsorption effects at the interface, and transport of surfactants on the interface – and result in heterogeneous interface properties. In general, these processes are strongly coupled and local properties of the interface play a crucial role. A thorough understanding of the behavior of such complex flow problems must be based on physically sound mathematical models, which especially account for the local processes at the interface. This book presents recent findings on the rigorous derivation and mathematical analysis of such models and on the development of numerical methods for direct numerical simulations. Validation results are based on specifically designed experiments using high-resolution experimental techniques. A special feature of this book is its focus on an interdisciplina...

  1. Transportation technology quick reference file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, E.W. (ed.)


    This publication is a collection of items written by different authors on subjects relating to the transportation of radioactive materials. The purpose of the document is to meet the continuing need for information on specific subjects for dissemination to the public at their request. The subjects included were selected on the basis of the questions most often asked about radioactive materials and their transportation. Additional subjects are being considered and will be included in the future. The loose-leaf notebook format is used to facilitate the updating of this material. The data used in many of the papers represent the best available at time of publication and will be updated as more current information becomes available.

  2. Incorporating Resilience into Transportation Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connelly, Elizabeth; Melaina, Marc


    To aid decision making for developing transportation infrastructure, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed the Scenario Evaluation, Regionalization and Analysis (SERA) model. The SERA model is a geospatially and temporally oriented model that has been applied to determine optimal production and delivery scenarios for hydrogen, given resource availability and technology cost and performance, for use in fuel cell vehicles. In addition, the SERA model has been applied to plug-in electric vehicles.

  3. Quantum transport and electroweak baryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstandin, Thomas


    We review the mechanism of electroweak baryogenesis. The main focus of the review lies on the development of quantum transport equations from first principles in the Kadanoff-Baym framework. We emphasize the importance of the semi-classical force that leads to reliable predictions in most cases. Besides, we discuss the status of electroweak baryogenesis in the light of recent electric dipole moment probes and collider experiments in a variety of models.

  4. Stochastic Energetics of Quantum Transport


    Ghosh, Pulak Kumar; Ray, Deb Shankar


    We examine the stochastic energetics of directed quantum transport due to rectification of non-equilibrium thermal fluctuations. We calculate the quantum efficiency of a ratchet device both in presence and absence of an external load to characterize two quantifiers of efficiency. It has been shown that the quantum current as well as efficiency in absence of load (Stokes efficiency) is higher as compared to classical current and efficiency, respectively, at low temperature. The conventional ef...

  5. Second Destination Transportation, Phase II (United States)


    engine from Alameda to Oklahoma City, NAVAIR’s Transportation Account Code would be cited as the fund source. TABLE 6 NAVY SDT OPERATING TARGETS...s c;i rtnis- tainurioN- or TKOOi’ eiXk.l’.ZSU MAC ( rio ’.tT Tü::S) »ISC, I1TMC (V.:;AS. TC.-.’S COKMKBCIAL KCPOSiriC’Nnia OF tTOCKS IIITIUN

  6. Urban structure and sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Große, Juliane

    This PhD study explores the relationship between urban structure and travel behaviour and the role of urban planning in promoting more sustainable travel patterns. The study conceptualises the role of urban planning by means of a multiple-case study of the three medium-sized Northern European...... of compensatory leisure travel. Consequently, urban planning can optimise urban structure and cooperate in transport planning, but structural adaptations of travel behaviour require also the involvement of higher tiers of policymaking....

  7. Transportation fuels from energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, V.K.; Kulsrestha, G.N.; Padmaja, K.V.; Kamra, S.; Bhagat, S.D. (Indian Inst. of Petroleum, Dehra Dun (India))


    Biomass constituents in the form of energy crops can be used as starting materials in the production of transportation fuels. The potential of biocrudes obtained from laticiferous species belonging to the families of Euphorbiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Apocynaceae, Moraceae and Convolvulaceae for the production of hydrocarbon fuels has been explored. Results of studies carried out on upgrading these biocrudes by catalytic cracking using a commercial catalyst are presented. (author)

  8. Controlling molecular transport through nanopores (United States)

    Keyser, Ulrich F.


    Nanopores are emerging as powerful tools for the detection and identification of macromolecules in aqueous solution. In this review, we discuss the recent development of active and passive controls over molecular transport through nanopores with emphasis on biosensing applications. We give an overview of the solutions developed to enhance the sensitivity and specificity of the resistive-pulse technique based on biological and solid-state nanopores. PMID:21715402

  9. Controlling molecular transport through nanopores


    Keyser, Ulrich F.


    Nanopores are emerging as powerful tools for the detection and identification of macromolecules in aqueous solution. In this review, we discuss the recent development of active and passive controls over molecular transport through nanopores with emphasis on biosensing applications. We give an overview of the solutions developed to enhance the sensitivity and specificity of the resistive-pulse technique based on biological and solid-state nanopores.

  10. Transport Market and its Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Perić


    Full Text Available Market is the integrity of relations between supply and demandof traffic or some other service (goods which at a ce11ainplace and location, at a certain time affect the supply and purchaseof certain products, including services, stocks, money,and the set of all institutions, areas, devices and instrumentsthat act on the sale and other transactions realised at that point.It is the main resource allocator (~resource allocation in thesystems of free private ownership economic and transport systems.

  11. The Methodology of Selecting the Transport Mode for Companies on the Slovak Transport Market (United States)

    Černá, Lenka; Zitrický, Vladislav; Daniš, Jozef


    Transport volume in the Slovak Republic is growing continuously every year. This rising trend is influenced by the development of car industry and its suppliers. Slovak republic has also a geographic strategy position in middle Europe from the side of transport corridors (east-west and north-south). The development of transport volume in freight transport depends on the transport and business processes between the European Union and China and it is an opportunity for Slovak republic to obtain transit transport flows. In the Slovak Republic, road transport has a dominant position in the transport market. The volume of road transport has gradually increased over the past years. The increase of road transport is reflected on the highways and speed roads in regions which have higher economic potential. The increase of rail transport as seen on the main rail corridors is not as significant as in road transport. Trade globalization also has an influence on the increase of transport volume in intermodal transport. Predicted increase in transport volume for this transport mode is from 2,3 mil ton per year at present to 8 mil ton in the year 2020. Selection of transport mode and carrier is an important aspect for logistic management, because companies (customers) want to reduce the number of carriers which they trade and they create the system of several key carriers. Bigger transport volume and more qualitative transport service give a possibility to reduce transport costs. This trend is positive for carriers too, because the carriers can focus only on the selected customers and provide more qualitative services. The paper is focused on the selection of transport mode based on the proposed methodology. The aims of the paper are, definition of criteria which directly influence the selection of transport modes, determination of criteria based on the subjectively methods, creation of process for the selection of transport modes and practical application of proposed

  12. Global Land Transport Infrastructure Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Over the next four decades, global passenger and freight travel is expected to double over 2010 levels. In order to accommodate this growth, it is expected that the world will need to add nearly 25 million paved road lane-kilometres and 335 000 rail track kilometres. In addition, it is expected that between 45 000 square kilometres and 77 000 square kilometres of new parking spaces will be added to accommodate vehicle stock growth. These land transport infrastructure additions, when combined with operations, maintenance and repairs, are expected to cost as much as USD 45 trillion by 2050. This publication reports on the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) analysis of infrastructure requirements to support projected road and rail travel through 2050, using the IEA Mobility Model. It considers land transport infrastructure additions to support travel growth to 2050. It also considers potential savings if countries pursue “avoid and shift” policies: in this scenario, cumulative global land transport infrastructure spending could decrease as much as USD 20 trillion by 2050 over baseline projections.

  13. Transport and attenuation of radiations

    CERN Document Server

    Nimal, J C


    This article treats of the calculation methods used for the dimensioning of the protections against radiations. The method consists in determining for a given point the flux of particles coming from a source at a given time. A strong attenuation (of about some few mu Sv.h sup - sup 1) is in general expected between the source and the areas accessible to the personnel or the public. The calculation has to take into account a huge number of radiation-matter interactions and to solve the integral-differential transport equation which links the particles flux to the source. Several methods exist from the simplified physical model with numerical developments to the more or less precise resolution of the transport equation. These methods allows also the calculation of the uncertainties of equivalent dose rates, heat sources, structure damages using the data covariances (efficient cross-sections, modeling, etc..): 1 - transport equation; 2 - Monte-Carlo method; 3 - semi-numerical methods S sub N; 4 - methods based o...

  14. Transport through graphene quantum dots (United States)

    Güttinger, J.; Molitor, F.; Stampfer, C.; Schnez, S.; Jacobsen, A.; Dröscher, S.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K.


    We review transport experiments on graphene quantum dots and narrow graphene constrictions. In a quantum dot, electrons are confined in all lateral dimensions, offering the possibility for detailed investigation and controlled manipulation of individual quantum systems. The recently isolated two-dimensional carbon allotrope graphene is an interesting host to study quantum phenomena, due to its novel electronic properties and the expected weak interaction of the electron spin with the material. Graphene quantum dots are fabricated by etching mono-layer flakes into small islands (diameter 60-350 nm) with narrow connections to contacts (width 20-75 nm), serving as tunneling barriers for transport spectroscopy. Electron confinement in graphene quantum dots is observed by measuring Coulomb blockade and transport through excited states, a manifestation of quantum confinement. Measurements in a magnetic field perpendicular to the sample plane allowed to identify the regime with only a few charge carriers in the dot (electron-hole transition), and the crossover to the formation of the graphene specific zero-energy Landau level at high fields. After rotation of the sample into parallel magnetic field orientation, Zeeman spin splitting with a g-factor of g ≈ 2 is measured. The filling sequence of subsequent spin states is similar to what was found in GaAs and related to the non-negligible influence of exchange interactions among the electrons.

  15. Prokaryotic transport in electrohydrodynamic structures (United States)

    Paulitsch-Fuchs, A. H.; Fuchs, E. C.; Wexler, A. D.; Freund, F. T.; Rothschild, L. J.; Cherukupally, A.; Euverink, G. J. W.


    When a high-voltage direct-current is applied to two beakers filled with water, a horizontal electrohydrodynamic (EHD) bridge forms between the two beakers. In this work we study the transport and behavior of bacterial cells added to an EHD bridge set-up. Organisms were added to one or to both beakers, and the transport of the cells through the bridge was monitored using optical and microbiological techniques. It is shown that Escherichia coli top10 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) and bioluminescent E. coli YMC10 with a plasmid (pJE202) containing Vibrio fischeri genes can survive the exposure to an EHD liquid bridge set-up and the cells are drawn toward the anode due to their negative surface charge. Dielectrophoresis and hydrostatic forces are likely to be the cause for their transport in the opposite direction which was observed as well, but to a much lesser extent. Most E. coli YMC10 bacteria which passed the EHD bridge exhibited increased luminescent activity after 24 h. This can be explained by two likely mechanisms: nutrient limitation in the heavier inoculated vials and a ‘survival of the strongest’ mechanism.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Teslenko


    Full Text Available The organizational structure of management of railway freight transportations based on product principle is offered that allows functioning of private operator companies and realizing of transportations on competition basis.

  17. The Transport of Substances in Nerve Cells. (United States)

    Schwartz, James H.


    Historically described are research studies which led to the current explanation of the two kinds of intracellular transport-axoplasmic flow and axoral transport. Models explaining their fundamental mechanism and the kinds of materials they convey are presented. (BT)

  18. Monomy National Wildlife Refuge Alternative Transportation Study (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge (MNWR) Alternative Transportation Study is to explore potential alternative transportation options that can...

  19. Longshore sediment transport along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.

    An empirical sediment transport model has been developed based on longshore energy flux equation. Ship reported waves, published in Indian Daily Weather Reports, are compiled for 19 y and used for estimation of sediment transport. Annual gross...

  20. Charge Injection and Transport in Organic Nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Bøggild, Peter; Rubahn, H. G.


    We investigate the carrier injection and transport in individual para-hexaphenylene nanofibers by electrical transport measurements at different temperatures. The injected current shows much weaker temperature dependence than what would be anticipated from a simplistic model that considers...