WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustained systemic concentrations

  1. Multi-Generation Concentrating Solar-Hydrogen Power System for Sustainable Rural Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krothapalli, A.; Greska, B.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes an energy system that is designed to meet the demands of rural populations that currently have no access to grid-connected electricity. Besides electricity, it is well recognized that rural populations need at least a centralized refrigeration system for storage of medicines and other emergency supplies, as well as safe drinking water. Here we propose a district system that will employ a multi-generation concentrated solar power (CSP) system that will generate electricity and supply the heat needed for both absorption refrigeration and membrane distillation (MD) water purification. The electricity will be used to generate hydrogen through highly efficient water electrolysis and individual households can use the hydrogen for generating electricity, via affordable proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, and as a fuel for cooking. The multi-generation system is being developed such that its components will be easy to manufacture and maintain. As a result, these components will be less efficient than their typical counterparts but their low cost-to-efficiency ratio will allow for us to meet our installation cost goal of $1/Watt for the entire system. The objective of this paper is to introduce the system concept and discuss the system components that are currently under development. (auth)

  2. System Innovation for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    System Innovation for Sustainability 2 focuses on change towards sustainable personal mobility based on implemented cases analysed from a system perspective. It examines what changes can be made to help us reduce our need for mobility, or start to make use of more sustainable mobility systems...... in order to provide sustainable solutions to our current ‘lock-in’ problems. Three major problem areas are considered (the ‘three Cs’): carbon emissions (and the growing contribution of mobility to the climate change crisis), congestion, and casualties. And each strategy proposed addresses one or more...... such as governments, manufacturers and consumers to intervene in the complex system to promote sustainable mobility. It concludes with a reflection on problems, trends and action needed. The ‘System Innovation for Sustainability’ series is the fruit of the first major international research network on SCP...

  3. Sustainable Water Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water systems often comprise complex combinations of traditional and new system components that mimic natural processes. These green systems aim to protect public health and safety, and restore natural and human landscapes. Green infrastructure elements such as most sustainable drainage systems trap storm water but may contaminate groundwater. There is a need to summarize recent trends in sustainable water systems management in a focused document. The aim of this special issue is therefore to disseminate and share scientific findings on novel sustainable water systems addressing recent problems and opportunities. This special issue focuses on the following key topics: climate change adaptation and vulnerability assessment of water resources systems; holistic water management; carbon credits; potable water savings; sustainable water technologies; nutrient management; holistic storm water reuse; water and wastewater infrastructure planning; ecological status of watercourses defined by the Water Framework Directive. The combined knowledge output advances the understanding of sustainable water, wastewater and storm water systems in the developed and developing world. The research highlights the need for integrated decision-support frameworks addressing the impact of climate change on local and national water resources management strategies involving all relevant stakeholders at all levels.

  4. Sustainable Drainage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Miklas Scholz

    2015-01-01

    Urban water management has somewhat changed since the publication of The Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS) Manual in 2007 [1], transforming from building traditional sewers to implementing SuDS, which are part of the best management practice techniques used in the USA and seen as contributing to water-sensitive urban design in Australia. Most SuDS, such as infiltration trenches, swales, green roofs, ponds, and wetlands, address water quality and quantity challenges, and enhance the local bio...

  5. Sustainable Aluminium Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio R. Ermolli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, an analytical presentation of some popular aluminium systems that contribute to sustainability of structures is presented. Special emphasis has been given to the properties of aluminium, while the influence of these systems in the overall performance of the structure regarding environment and economy is described. In particular, characteristics of aluminium elements such as high reflectivity and recyclability and their role in life cycle analysis (LCA are analyzed. The connections between energy efficiency and conservation of buildings and aluminium application are also discussed. Building applications such as curtain walls, window frames and facade sheets are presented and thoroughly investigated, considering their environmental and economic aspects. Furthermore, many innovative techniques that use aluminium elements in collaboration with other systems in order to produce renewable energy, such as solar panels and photovoltaics, are introduced. Finally, environmental innovations such as optimized ventilation mechanisms and light and shade management systems based on aluminium members are presented.

  6. Sustainable Drainage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban water management has somewhat changed since the publication of The Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS Manual in 2007 [1], transforming from building traditional sewers to implementing SuDS, which are part of the best management practice techniques used in the USA and seen as contributing to water-sensitive urban design in Australia. Most SuDS, such as infiltration trenches, swales, green roofs, ponds, and wetlands, address water quality and quantity challenges, and enhance the local biodiversity while also being acceptable aesthetically to the public. Barriers to the implementation of SuDS include adoption problems, flood and diffuse pollution control challenges, negative public perception, and a lack of decision support tools addressing, particularly, the retrofitting of these systems while enhancing ecosystem services. [...

  7. Successful systems sustaining change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullas, Sheila; Bryant, John

    2007-01-01

    Much has been published on the success and particularly the failure of IT projects; still failures are commonplace. This prospective study focused from the outset on assessing risk of failure and addressing critical success factors. The aim was to apply existing methods in a challenging acute care hospital where success demanded rapid achievement of sustainable improvements in clinical and administrative processes. The implementations were part of the English National Programme for IT. The desired outcomes required the integration of accepted tools and techniques to provide a pragmatic approach to systems implementation: Lean, Six Sigma, PRINCE2 and Benefits Management. The outcome and further insights into success and failure of IT projects in healthcare are described. In particular lessons are identified related to the business need for the project and the successful achievement of the required benefits and business change.

  8. Managing Sustainable Information Systems Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kautz, Karlheinz

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable information systems development (ISD) in the context of this paper is not about products that support sustainability at large with its environmental, economic and social dimensions and little about the development of sustainable products, which are both without doubt important topics....... This paper is about a prerequisite for such products, namely, a sustainable ISD process, a process which exhibits reasonable and responsible stewardship and utilisation of the existing resources for ISD—people and information in the context of scope, time/schedule, budget/cost, quality and risk....

  9. Principles of sustainable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kreith, Frank

    2013-01-01

    … ""This is an ideal book for seniors and graduate students interested in learning about the sustainable energy field and its penetration. The authors provide very strong discussion on cost-benefit analysis and ROI calculations for various alternate energy systems in current use. This is a descriptive book with detailed case-based analyses of various systems and engineering applications. The text book provides real-world case studies and related problems pertaining to sustainable energy systems.""--Dr. Kuruvilla John, University of North Texas""The new edition of ""Principles of Sustainable En

  10. Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dinçer, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications presents analyses of sustainable energy systems and their applications, providing new understandings, methodologies, models and applications along with descriptions of several illustrative examples and case studies. This textbook aims to address key pillars in the field, such as: better efficiency, cost effectiveness, use of energy resources, environment, energy security, and sustainable development. It also includes some cutting-edge topics, such as hydrogen and fuel cells, renewable, clean combustion technologies, CO2 abatement technologies, and some potential tools for design, analysis and performance improvement. The book also: Discusses producing energy by increasing systems efficiency in generation, conversion, transportation and consumption Analyzes the conversion of fossil fuels to clean fuels for limiting  pollution and creating a better environment Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications is a research-based textbook which can be used by senior u...

  11. Toward sustainable energy systems?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Tellez, Felix

    2006-01-01

    Solar Thermal Power Plants. On the verge to Commercialization Today several concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies are at the phase of a first commercial deployment for bulk power production in Europe. The present costs of electricity produced by these plants have to be decreased by a factor of 3-5 in order to compete with electricity from fossil power plants without any subsidy. Beside continuous implementation of CSP power plants in Europe, which stipulate cost reduction by mass production effects, further R&D activities are necessary to achieve the cost competitiveness. We will survey the status of the technology for CSP and identify essential R&D needs to reduce the cost of electricity. Concentrating Solar Power Technologies and Innovations Plataforma Solar de Almeria: the European Solar Thermal Test Center The Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) is the most complete laboratory for R&D activities concerning concentrated solar radiation. It was born in the early eighties as an IEA project ...

  12. Design and Feasibility Analysis of a Self-Sustaining Biofiltration System for Removal of Low Concentration N2O Emitted from Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun; Song, Min Joon; Yoon, Sukhwan

    2017-09-19

    N2O is a potent greenhouse gas and ozone-depletion agent. In this study, a biofiltration system was designed for removal of N2O emitted at low concentrations (system utilizes untreated wastewater from the primary sedimentation basin as the source of electron donor and nutrients and energy requirement is minimized by utilizing gravitational force and pressure differential to direct liquid medium and gas through the biofilter. The experiments performed with laboratory-scale biofilter in two different configurations confirmed the feasibility of the biofiltration system. The biofilter operated with cycling of raw wastewater exhibited up to 94% and 53% removal efficiency with 100 ppmv N2O in N2 and air, respectively, as the feed gas, corroborating that untreated wastewater can serve as a robust source of electron donor and nutrients. The laboratory-scale biofilter operated with a continuous flow-through of synthetic wastewater attained >99.9% removal of N2O from N2 background at the gas flow rate up to 2,000 mL·min-1 and >50% N2O removal from air background at the gas flow rate of 200 mL·min-1. nosZ-containing bacterial genera including Flavobacterium (5.92%), Pseudomonas (4.26%) and Bosea (2.39%) were identified in the biofilm samples collected from the oxic biofilter, indicating these organisms were responsible for N2O removal.

  13. Proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance: The mediating effect of sustainability control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijethilake, Chaminda

    2017-07-01

    This study examines to what extent corporations use sustainability control systems (SCS) to translate proactive sustainability strategy into corporate sustainability performance. The study investigates the mediating effect of SCS on the relationship between proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance. Survey data were collected from top managers in 175 multinational and local corporations operating in Sri Lanka and analyzed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). SCS were observed to only partially mediate the relationship between proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance. The mediating effect of SCS is further examined under three sustainability strategies; environmental and social strategies reveal a partial mediation, while the economic strategy exhibits no mediation. The study also finds that (i) a proactive sustainability strategy is positively associated with SCS and corporate sustainability performance and (ii) SCS are positively associated with corporate sustainability performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimal concentrations in transport systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Wonjung; Bush, John W. M.; Jensen, Kaare H.; Holbrook, N. Michele

    2013-01-01

    Many biological and man-made systems rely on transport systems for the distribution of material, for example matter and energy. Material transfer in these systems is determined by the flow rate and the concentration of material. While the most concentrated solutions offer the greatest potential in terms of material transfer, impedance typically increases with concentration, thus making them the most difficult to transport. We develop a general framework for describing systems for which impeda...

  15. Costing systems design for sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TURTUREA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an overall image of the way Accounting responds to nowadays user’s needs in relation to the quantification of the impact companies have towards the environment. Regarding this, there have been analyzed concepts like sustainable development, environmental accounting, environmental costs and there have been presented the main progress towards environmental cost identification and measurement from the perspective of Activity Based Costing system. To provide an overall image of this concepts, there have been used as research methodology methods the documentation from literature review, analysis, synthesis and comparison.

  16. Finding Sustainability Indicators for Information System Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Nyström, Tobias; Mustaquim, Moyen

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the importance of sustainability is persuading novel shifts in everyday life. This diversity makes it significant and challenging for sustainability to be quantified and measured. While the existence of perfect sustainability indicators is relatively unreasonable, they have important pragmatic roles in quantification and measurement by bridging sustainability's three pillars. Information system (IS) and sustainability are popular research areas, which clearly reflect the divergent a...

  17. Sustainable intensification in agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Jules; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems are amended ecosystems with a variety of properties. Modern agroecosystems have tended towards high through-flow systems, with energy supplied by fossil fuels directed out of the system (either deliberately for harvests or accidentally through side effects). In the coming decades, resource constraints over water, soil, biodiversity and land will affect agricultural systems. Sustainable agroecosystems are those tending to have a positive impact on natural, social and human capital, while unsustainable systems feed back to deplete these assets, leaving fewer for the future. Sustainable intensification (SI) is defined as a process or system where agricultural yields are increased without adverse environmental impact and without the conversion of additional non-agricultural land. The concept does not articulate or privilege any particular vision or method of agricultural production. Rather, it emphasizes ends rather than means, and does not pre-determine technologies, species mix or particular design components. The combination of the terms 'sustainable' and 'intensification' is an attempt to indicate that desirable outcomes around both more food and improved environmental goods and services could be achieved by a variety of means. Nonetheless, it remains controversial to some. This review analyses recent evidence of the impacts of SI in both developing and industrialized countries, and demonstrates that both yield and natural capital dividends can occur. The review begins with analysis of the emergence of combined agricultural-environmental systems, the environmental and social outcomes of recent agricultural revolutions, and analyses the challenges for food production this century as populations grow and consumption patterns change. Emergent criticisms are highlighted, and the positive impacts of SI on food outputs and renewable capital assets detailed. It concludes with observations on policies and incentives necessary for the wider adoption of

  18. Business system: Sustainable development and anticipatory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Potočan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence and development of humankind depends mainly upon the co-ordinated operation of all areas and levels of human activity. However, in theory and in practice there is no model of operation, which would provide a harmonized and target oriented development. A partial solution is offered by sustainable development, which tries to define and carry out common goals of mankind with a harmonized implementation of human activities at all levels of its living and behaviour. Companies belong to central institutions of modern society which essentially co–create the sustainability of society. The company’s endeavour by simulation to prepare models of their goals concerning their internal and external environment. On the base of systemic treatment, we can define companies as business system, which can survive in a log-run only on the basis of sustainable development. The business system can also be supported by the application of the anticipatory systems. The anticipatory systems can be, in this sense, understood as an entity of the methodological approach, techniques and modes of work. Their characteristics have, a direct impact on the determination of goals, on the orientation of operation, and hence on the achievement of the business system results.

  19. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  20. Sustainability and Cities as Systems of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Lehmann, Martin

    Cities often constitute relevant environments for interactive learning and innovation potentially capable of tackling sustainability problems. In this paper we ask if the concept of systems of innovation can increase our understanding of city dynamics and help promoting the sustainable development...... of cities. Through a combination of the innovation system approach and the perspective of creative cities, we argue that a slightly modified concept – sustainable city systems of innovation – may be helpful in this context. To underline this, we discuss certain ‘city-traits’ of sustainability and conclude...

  1. Threshold Concepts, Systems and Learning for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Orana Jade

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for understanding the role that systems theory might play in education for sustainability (EfS). It offers a sketch and critique of Land and Meyer's notion of a "threshold concept", to argue that seeing systems as a threshold concept for sustainability is useful for understanding the processes of…

  2. Traditional formwork system sustainability performance: experts’ opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher Al-ashwal, Mohammed; Abdullah, Redzuan; Zakaria, Rozana

    2017-11-01

    The traditional formwork system is one of the commonly used systems in concrete construction. It is considered as one of the least observed activities in term of sustainability performance. In this paper, the sustainability performance of the traditional formwork has been assessed by using a multi-criteria assessment tool to facilitate the decision on the sustainability performance measurement. A quantitative five Likert scale survey study using judgemental sampling is employed in this study. A sample of 93 of engineering construction experts, with different fields including contractors, developers, and consultants in the Malaysian context has made the body of the collected primary data. The results show variety in the distribution of the respondents’ working experience. The sustainability performance is considered moderately sustainable by the experts with only given 40.24 % of the overall total score for the three sustainable categories namely environmental, social and economic. Despite the finding that shows that the economic pillar was rated as the most sustainable aspect in comparison to the environmental and social pillars the traditional formwork system sustainability still needs enhancement. Further incorporation of the social and environmental pillars into the concrete construction the sustainability performance of traditional formwork system could be improved.

  3. System theoretic approach to sustainable development problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batanović Vladan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that the concepts and methodology contained in the system theory and operations research are suitable for application in the planning and control of the sustainable development. The sustainable development problems can be represented using the state space concepts, such as the transition of system, from the given initial state to the final state. It is shown that sustainable development represents a specific control problem. The peculiarity of the sustainable development is that the target is to keep the system in the prescribed feasible region of the state space. The analysis of planning and control problems of sustainable development has also shown that methods developed in the operations research area, such as multicriteria optimization, dynamic processes simulation, non-conventional treatment of uncertainty etc. are adequate, exact base, suitable for resolution of these problems.

  4. Assessing the sustainability of small wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten

    1999-01-01

    The authors present a planning tool for comparing and assessing the sustainability of different wastewater systems. The core of the planning tool is an assessment method based on both technical and social elements. The point of departure is that no technique is inherently sustainable or ecological...

  5. Dry fractionation for sustainable production of functional legume protein concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Plant proteins gain increasing interest as part of a sustainable diet. Because plant materials not only contain protein, they are generally isolated via an energy intensive wet fractionation. This review discusses dry fractionation as an alternative and more sustainable route for producing

  6. Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Graham; Orr, James K.; Watson, Steve

    2007-01-01

    A mission-systems architecture, based on a highly modular infrastructure utilizing: open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is essential for affordable and sustainable space exploration programs. This mission-systems architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous system, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimal sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program and Earthbound complex engineered system are applied to define the model. Technology projections reaching out 5 years are mde to refine model details.

  7. PSSD - Planning System for Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    PSSD - Planning System for Sustainable Development - is a part of the Baltic Sea Region's INTERREG II C program. The current report describes some theories, methods and tools developed under the PSSD project. First, the theoretical foundation of the project is described. Secondly, the role...... of indicators in sustainable development is discussed and a Web-based indicator generator is described. Thirdly, we describe a number of methods and tools, which support planning for sustainable development. Finally, some technical interface tools - especially a Web-based interface to the methods and tools...

  8. Towards a sustainable industrial system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Steve; Gregory, Mike; Ryan, Chris

    Our industrial system has been responsible for raising the quality of life of peoples around the world. It is becoming increasingly clear however, that the current system is creating unintended and serious consequences for the environment at a global level. Change on a significant scale is required...... urgently. Some businesses are already engaged in reducing their impact through the introduction of new products, processes and business models. Academics concerned with the industrial system have a responsibility to study these emerging models, to interact with them and to synthesise and spread...... the knowledge. Whilst it is important to address the impact of each product of the industrial system and to pursue aggressive reduction of the effects of specific activities, we must also examine the operation of the whole system. Only in this way can we hope to bring the benefits of industrialisation to those...

  9. A sustainable energy-system in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lotte Holmberg

    2003-01-01

    but a negative trade-balance. With this in mind, it is important that Latvia is able to meet the challenge and use the economic development to develop a sustainable energy-system and a sounder trade-balance. A combination of energy planning, national economy and innovation processes in boiler companies will form......The paper presents some of the problems in the Latvian energy-system, the Latvian economy and how a sustainable restructuring of the energy system with renewable energy, co-generation and the production of energy technology can help solve some of the problems. Latvia has economic growth...

  10. Health Systems Sustainability and Rare Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrelli, Rita Maria; De Santis, Marta; Egle Gentile, Amalia; Taruscio, Domenica

    2017-01-01

    The paper is addressing aspects of health system sustainability for rare diseases in relation to the current economic crisis and equity concerns. It takes into account the results of the narrative review carried out in the framework of the Joint Action for Rare Diseases (Joint RD-Action) "Promoting Implementation of Recommendations on Policy, Information and Data for Rare Diseases", that identified networks as key factors for health systems sustainability for rare diseases. The legal framework of European Reference Networks and their added value is also presented. Networks play a relevant role for health systems sustainability, since they are based upon, pay special attention to and can intervene on health systems knowledge development, partnership, organizational structure, resources, leadership and governance. Moreover, sustainability of health systems can not be separated from the analysis of the context and the action on it, including fiscal equity. As a result of the financial crisis of 2008, cuts of public health-care budgets jeopardized health equity, since the least wealthy suffered from the greatest health effects. Moreover, austerity policies affected economic growth much more adversely than previously believed. Therefore, reducing public health expenditure not only is going to jeopardise citizens' health, but also to hamper fair and sustainable development.

  11. Circular Thermodynamics of Organisms and Sustainable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mae-Wan Ho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A circular thermodynamics of organisms and sustainable systems is presented based on dynamic closures in nested space-time domains that enable the system to approach the ideal of zero entropy production simultaneously at equilibrium and far from equilibrium conditions.

  12. Engineering biological systems toward a sustainable bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mateus Schreiner Garcez

    2015-06-01

    The nature of our major global risks calls for sustainable innovations to decouple economic growth from greenhouse gases emission. The development of sustainable technologies has been negatively impacted by several factors including sugar production costs, production scale, economic crises, hydraulic fracking development and the market inability to capture externality costs. However, advances in engineering of biological systems allow bridging the gap between exponential growth of knowledge about biology and the creation of sustainable value chains for a broad range of economic sectors. Additionally, industrial symbiosis of different biobased technologies can increase competitiveness and sustainability, leading to the development of eco-industrial parks. Reliable policies for carbon pricing and revenue reinvestments in disruptive technologies and in the deployment of eco-industrial parks could boost the welfare while addressing our major global risks toward the transition from a fossil to a biobased economy.

  13. A Sustainable European Union Own Resources System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieslukowski Maciej

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available From 1992, after the UN “Earth Summit” in Rio de Janeiro, sustainable development has become a priority of many countries and international organizations, including the European Union. After the crisis of 2008+ and the strong criticism of traditional economics, it also became a fundamental element of economic development in the XXI century. This new model is based on a solid and integrated economic, socio-cultural and ecological order. Such a development should be supported by suitable budgetary systems at each level of public government. The paper presents a conception of the sustainable EU own resources system and proposes the methodology of its evaluation.

  14. Sustaining an Effective ABC-ABM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary COKINS

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the Activity- Based Costing (ABC and Activity-Based Management (ABM system and techniques to sustain them as a permanent and repeatable production reporting system, not just for one-off analysis. A comparison is made between ABC/ABM modeling software that extracts source data and business systems that include ABC/ABM modeling features. There are presented the stages of updating, running and rerunning the ABC/ABM system. The resulting information calculated and provided by the ABC/ABM system are analyzed and interpreted in terms of a multidimensional data analysis. The article ends with the authors' conclusions about the benefits of continued operation of sustaining the ABC/ABM system.

  15. Sustainable Food Security Measurement: A Systemic Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findiastuti, W.; Singgih, M. L.; Anityasari, M.

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable food security measures how a region provides food for its people without endangered the environment. In Indonesia, it was legally measured in Food Security and Vulnerability (FSVA). However, regard to sustainable food security policy, the measurement has not encompassed the environmental aspect. This will lead to lack of environmental aspect information for adjusting the next strategy. This study aimed to assess Sustainable Food security by encompassing both food security and environment aspect using systemic eco-efficiency. Given existing indicator of cereal production level, total emission as environment indicator was generated by constructing Causal Loop Diagram (CLD). Then, a stock-flow diagram was used to develop systemic simulation model. This model was demonstrated for Indonesian five provinces. The result showed there was difference between food security order with and without environmental aspect assessment.

  16. A sustainable system of systems approach: a new HFE paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Andrew; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability issues such as natural resource depletion, pollution and poor working conditions have no geographical boundaries in our interconnected world. To address these issues requires a paradigm shift within human factors and ergonomics (HFE), to think beyond a bounded, linear model understanding towards a broader systems framework. For this reason, we introduce a sustainable system of systems model that integrates the current hierarchical conceptualisation of possible interventions (i.e., micro-, meso- and macro-ergonomics) with important concepts from the sustainability literature, including the triple bottom line approach and the notion of time frames. Two practical examples from the HFE literature are presented to illustrate the model. The implications of this paradigm shift for HFE researchers and practitioners are discussed and include the long-term sustainability of the HFE community and comprehensive solutions to problems that consider the emergent issues that arise from this interconnected world. A sustainable world requires a broader systems thinking than that which currently exists in ergonomics. This study proposes a sustainable system of systems model that incorporates ideas from the ecological sciences, notably a nested hierarchy of systems and a hierarchical time dimension. The implications for sustainable design and the sustainability of the HFE community are considered.

  17. Sustainability of Agricultural Systems: Concept to Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture not only feeds the planet, it also is the biggest overall factor affecting the environment. Thus, innovative sustainable farming systems that produce healthy food and protect the environment at the same time are very much needed. We, as agricultural engineers, need ...

  18. Sustainable information systems: a knowledge perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maruster, L.; Faber, N.R.; Peters, K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose a re-orientation of the way the concept of sustainability is dealt with in relation to information systems, positioning human behaviour and the processing of knowledge at the centre of the concept. Design/methodology/approach – The concept of

  19. Edible insects in Sustainable Food Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton; Flore, Roberto; Vantomme, Paul

    Edible insects in Sustainable Food Systems comprehensively covers the basic principles of entomology and population dynamics; edible insects and culture; nutrition and health; gastronomy; insects as animal feed; factors influencing preferences and acceptability of insects; environmental impacts...... and conservation; considerations for insect farming and policy and legislation. The book contains practical information for researchers, NGOs and international organizations, decision-makers, entrepreneurs and students...

  20. Global drivers, sustainable manufacturing and systems ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A; Henshaw, M J deC

    2015-11-01

    This paper briefly explores the expected impact of the 'Global Drivers' (such as population demographics, food security; energy security; community security and safety), and the role of sustainability engineering in mitigating the potential effects of these Global Drivers. The message of the paper is that sustainability requires a significant input from Ergonomics/Human Factors, but the profession needs some expansion in its thinking in order to make this contribution. Creating a future sustainable world in which people experience an acceptable way of life will not happen without a large input from manufacturing industry into all the Global Drivers, both in delivering products that meet sustainability criteria (such as durability, reliability, minimised material requirement and low energy consumption), and in developing sustainable processes to deliver products for sustainability (such as minimum waste, minimum emissions and low energy consumption). Appropriate changes are already being implemented in manufacturing industry, including new business models, new jobs and new skills. Considerable high-level planning around the world is in progress and is bringing about these changes; for example, there is the US 'Advanced Manufacturing National Program' (AMNP)', the German 'Industrie 4.0' plan, the French plan 'la nouvelle France industrielle' and the UK Foresight publications on the 'Future of Manufacturing'. All of these activities recognise the central part that humans will continue to play in the new manufacturing paradigms; however, they do not discuss many of the issues that systems ergonomics professionals acknowledge. This paper discusses a number of these issues, highlighting the need for some new thinking and knowledge capture by systems ergonomics professionals. Among these are ethical issues, job content and skills issues. Towards the end, there is a summary of knowledge extensions considered necessary in order that systems ergonomists can be fully

  1. Sustainability of organic, integrated and conventional farming systems in Tuscany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacini, C.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Vazzana, C.; Wossink, G.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability. The principal purpose of this paper is to evaluate the financial and environmental aspects of sustainability of Organic,

  2. Sustainability in Higher Education : Analysis and Selection of Assessment Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maragakis, A.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.

    2015-01-01

    There is a noticeable increase in interest with regards to sustainability in higher education. As institutions investigate, implement and market sustainability efforts, there is a myriad of sustainability assessment methodologies currently available. Although these assessment systems were created

  3. Information Systems Solutions for Environmental Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Roya; Watson, Richard T.; Hasan, Helen

    2016-01-01

    themselves in creating solutions for environmental problems. Moreover, information is a perquisite for assessing the state of the environment and making appropriate decisions to ameliorate identified problems. Indeed, the IS scholarly community needs to help create a sustainable society. While......We contend that too few information systems (IS) academics engage in impactful research that offers solutions to global warming despite the fact that climate change is one of the most critical challenges facing this generation. Climate change is a major threat to global sustainability in the 21st...... century. Unfortunately, from submissions of our call for papers presenting IS solutions for environmental sustainability, we found only one paper worthy of publication. Given that IS have been the major force for productivity increases in the last half-century, we suggest that IS scholars should immerse...

  4. Participatory systems mapping for sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedlacko, Michal; Martinuzzi, Andre; Røpke, Inge

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes our usage of and experience with the method of participatory systems mapping. The method, developed for the purpose of facilitating knowledge brokerage, builds on participatory modelling approaches and applications and was used in several events involving both researchers...... and policy makers. The paper presents and discusses examples of how different types of participatory interaction with causal loop diagrams (‘system maps’) produced different insights on issues related to sustainable consumption and enabled participatory reflection and sharing of knowledge. Together...

  5. Sustainable Solution for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Separation using Concentrated Solar Power Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Piyush; Srivastava, Rakesh K.; Nath Mahendra, Som; Motahhir, Saad

    2017-08-01

    In today’s scenario to combat with climate change effects, there are a lot of reasons why we all should use renewable energy sources instead of fossil fuels. Solar energy is one of the best options based on features like good for the environment, independent of electricity prices, underutilized land, grid security, sustainable growth, etc. This concept paper is oriented primarily focused on the use of Solar Energy for the crude oil heating purpose besides other many prospective industrial applications to reduce cost, carbon footprint and moving towards a sustainable and ecologically friendly Oil & Gas Industry. Concentrated Solar Power technology based prototype system is proposed to substitute the presently used system based on natural gas burning method. The hybrid system which utilizes the solar energy in the oil and gas industry would strengthen the overall field working conditions, safety measures and environmental ecology. 40% reduction on natural gas with this hybrid system is estimated. A positive implication for an environment, working conditions and safety precautions is the additive advantage. There could also decrease air venting of CO2, CH4 and N2O by an average of 30-35%.

  6. Advancing a sustainable highway system : highlights of FHWA sustainability activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    FHWA is undertaking a significant amount of work related to sustainability across a number of program areas throughout the Agency. The purpose of this report is to showcase some of the ways in which FHWA is : incorporating and embedding sustainabilit...

  7. In search of sustainable transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijkamp, P.; Vleugel, J.

    1995-12-31

    Several options can be envisaged in order to alleviate the external costs of modern transport systems: moral conviction, strict regulations (including enforcement), user charge principles (e.g. road pricing, Pigovian taxation), sophisticated environment-friendly technologies (e.g. route guidance, zero-emission cars) and alternative modes of physical planning (e.g. compact city design). Any reduction target in environmental stress has to be assessed from both an environmental sustainability viewpoint and from a cost effectiveness viewpoint. Such an assessment may be based on evaluation criteria that are internal to the transport system or on criteria that mirror an overall systemic efficiency and sustainability. This provokes the question of the most appropriate level of reduction of environmental pollution by the transport sector compared to other economic sectors. A policy strategy aiming at a more sustainable transport system has to identify quantitative criteria which would offer guidelines on the maximum allowable contribution to environmental degradation by the transport sector. This presupposes knowledge on the total permissible pollution in a given area and in a given time frame, as well as knowledge on the share of the transport system in this total volume of pollution (for different pollutants). The aim of this paper is to develop some thoughts on the question of identifying the maximum allowable pollution share by the transport sector, assuming a critical level of maximum resource use, a maximum carrying capacity, a maximum environmental utilisation space, a maximum sustainable yield or some other critical threshold level for environmental decay. The notion of maximum environmental capacity use (MECU) is used to indicate the maximum resource use of a given environmental capital stock that - in a given time period - is compatible with both socio-economic objectives and environmental quality conditions now and in the future. 6 tabs., 24 refs.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Systems Management is the management of environmental problems at the systems level fully accounting for the multi-dimensional nature of the environment. This includes socio-economic dimensions as well as the usual physical and life science aspects. This is importa...

  9. Engineering performant, innovative and sustainable health systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wouters, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Background: In a time of growing health expenditures and inefficiencies, ageing populations, rise of chronic diseases, co-morbity and technical evolutions, there is a worldwide quest for performant, innovative and sustainable health systems that are, a.o. effective and cost-efficient, patient-centric and co-creative and able to deal with the growing society dynamics.Problem statement: Effectively implementing strategic initiatives that tackle these challenges appears a frightening task since ...

  10. Toward Knowledge Systems for Sustainability Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaks, D. P.; Jahn, M.

    2011-12-01

    Managing ecosystems for the outcomes of agricultural productivity and resilience will require fundamentally different knowledge management systems. In the industrial paradigm of the 20th century, land was considered an open, unconstrained system managed for maximum yield. While dramatic increases in yield occurred in some crops and locations, unintended but often foreseeable consequences emerged. While productivity remains a key objective, we must develop analytic systems that can identify better management options for the full range of monetized and non-monetized inputs, outputs and outcomes that are captured in the following framing question: How much valued service (e.g. food, materials, energy) can we draw from a landscape while maintaining adequate levels of other valued or necessary services (e.g. biodiversity, water, climate regulation, cultural services) including the long-term productivity of the land? This question is placed within our contemporary framing of valued services, but structured to illuminate the shifts required to achieve long-term sufficiency and planetary resilience. This framing also highlights the need for fundamentally new knowledge systems including information management infrastructures, which effectively support decision-making on landscapes. The purpose of this initiative by authors from diverse fields across government and academic science is to call attention to the need for a vision and investment in sustainability science for landscape management. Substantially enhanced capabilities are needed to compare and integrate information from diverse sources, collected over time that link choices made to meet our needs from landscapes to both short and long term consequences. To further the goal of an information infrastructure for sustainability science, three distinct but interlocking domains are best distinguished: 1) a domain of data, information and knowledge assets; 2) a domain that houses relevant models and tools in a curated

  11. Systems dynamics modelling to assess the sustainability of renewable energy technologies in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available supply, and the related cost implications, for water supply; concentrated solar thermal technology options are currently considered. In this paper a systems dynamics approach is used to assess the sustainability of these types of renewable energy...

  12. Systems Reliability Framework for Surface Water Sustainability and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J. R.; Yeghiazarian, L.

    2016-12-01

    With microbial contamination posing a serious threat to the availability of clean water across the world, it is necessary to develop a framework that evaluates the safety and sustainability of water systems in respect to non-point source fecal microbial contamination. The concept of water safety is closely related to the concept of failure in reliability theory. In water quality problems, the event of failure can be defined as the concentration of microbial contamination exceeding a certain standard for usability of water. It is pertinent in watershed management to know the likelihood of such an event of failure occurring at a particular point in space and time. Microbial fate and transport are driven by environmental processes taking place in complex, multi-component, interdependent environmental systems that are dynamic and spatially heterogeneous, which means these processes and therefore their influences upon microbial transport must be considered stochastic and variable through space and time. A physics-based stochastic model of microbial dynamics is presented that propagates uncertainty using a unique sampling method based on artificial neural networks to produce a correlation between watershed characteristics and spatial-temporal probabilistic patterns of microbial contamination. These results are used to address the question of water safety through several sustainability metrics: reliability, vulnerability, resilience and a composite sustainability index. System reliability is described uniquely though the temporal evolution of risk along watershed points or pathways. Probabilistic resilience describes how long the system is above a certain probability of failure, and the vulnerability metric describes how the temporal evolution of risk changes throughout a hierarchy of failure levels. Additionally our approach allows for the identification of contributions in microbial contamination and uncertainty from specific pathways and sources. We expect that this

  13. Transport systems and policies for sustainable cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučić Vukan R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century witnessed revolutionary developments in transportation technology with major impacts on the form and character of cities. Progress in increasing mobility has brought many benefits as well as serious problems, particularly in deterioration of livability and sustainability. Increase in auto ownership led to serious problems of chronic traffic congestion. Attempts to rebuild cities to provide full accommodation of private cars have led to serious problems of auto dependency and deterioration of cities. Experiences from recent decades have shown that urban transportation is much more complex than usually realized. Livable and sustainable cities require policies that lead to creation of a transportation system consisting of coordinated public transit and private cars, and encourages pedestrian environment and efficient, sustainable development. Great need for better understanding of the complex problems in implementing incentives and disincentives aimed at achieving intermodal balance is emphasized. Brief descriptions of cities which lead in achieving such livable conditions is followed by a summary of lessons and guidelines for the future.

  14. Concentrators Enhance Solar Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    "Right now, solar electric propulsion is being looked at very seriously," says Michael Piszczor, chief of the photovoltaic and power technologies branch at Glen Research Center. The reason, he explains, originates with a unique NASA mission from the late 1990s. In 1998, the Deep Space 1 spacecraft launched from Kennedy Space Center to test a dozen different space technologies, including SCARLET, or the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology. As a solar array that focused sunlight on a smaller solar cell to generate electric power, SCARLET not only powered Deep Space 1 s instruments but also powered its ion engine, which propelled the spacecraft throughout its journey. Deep Space 1 was the first spacecraft powered by a refractive concentrator design like SCARLET, and also utilized multi-junction solar cells, or cells made of multiple layers of different materials. For the duration of its 38-month mission, SCARLET performed flawlessly, even as Deep Space 1 flew by Comet Borrelly and Asteroid Braille. "Everyone remembers the ion engine on Deep Space 1, but they tend to forget that the SCARLET array powered it," says Piszczor. "Not only did both technologies work as designed, but the synergy between the two, solar power and propulsion together, is really the important aspect of this technology demonstration mission. It was the first successful use of solar electric propulsion for primary propulsion." More than a decade later, NASA is keenly interested in using solar electric propulsion (SEP) for future space missions. A key issue is cost, and SEP has the potential to substantially reduce cost compared to conventional chemical propulsion technology. "SEP allows you to use spacecraft that are smaller, lighter, and less costly," says Piszczor. "Even though it might take longer to get somewhere using SEP, if you are willing to trade time for cost and smaller vehicles, it s a good trade." Potentially, SEP could be used on future science missions

  15. Sustainable Energy, Water and Environmental Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Duic, Neven

    2014-01-01

    This issue presents research results from the 8th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – SDEWES - held in Dubrovnik, Croatia in 2013. Topics covered here include the energy situation in the Middle East with a focus in Cyprus and Israel, energy planning...... methodology with Ireland as a case and the applicability of energy scenarios modelling tools as a main focus, evaluation of energy demands in Italy and finally evaluation of underground cables vs overhead lines and lacking public acceptance of incurring additional costs for the added benefit of having...

  16. Sustainable Energy, Water and Environmental Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Alberg Østergaard

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This issue presents research results from the 8th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – SDEWES - held in Dubrovnik, Croatia in 2013. Topics covered here include the energy situation in the Middle East with a focus in Cyprus and Israel, energy planning methodology with Ireland as a case and the applicability of energy scenarios modelling tools as a main focus, evaluation of energy demands in Italy and finally evaluation of underground cables vs overhead lines and lacking public acceptance of incurring additional costs for the added benefit of having transmission beyond sight.

  17. Developing Sustainable Spacecraft Water Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.; Klaus, David M.

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally more robust and operationally sustainable overtime. This paper presents potential design and testing considerations for improving the reliability of water handling technologies for exploration spacecraft. Our application of interest is to devise a spacecraft wastewater management system wherein fouling can be accommodated by design attributes of the management hardware, rather than implementing some means of preventing its occurrence.

  18. Concentration in the mobile operating systems market

    OpenAIRE

    Naldi, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Concentration phenomena concern the ICT market. Though the regulatory action has been active mainly in the telecom network operators industry, even more significant worldwide concentration phenomena affect other industries. The market of mobile operating systems is analysed through two concentration indices to get a quantitative picture of the current situation and its evolution over time: the Hirschman Herfindahl Index (HHI) and the Four-Firm Concentration Ratio (CR4). A strongly imbalanced ...

  19. System learning approach to assess sustainability and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents a methodology that combines the power of an Artificial Neural Network and Information Theory to forecast variables describing the condition of a regional system. The novelty and strength of this approach is in the application of Fisher information, a key method in Information Theory, to preserve trends in the historical data and prevent over fitting projections. The methodology was applied to demographic, environmental, food and energy consumption, and agricultural production in the San Luis Basin regional system in Colorado, U.S.A. These variables are important for tracking conditions in human and natural systems. However, available data are often so far out of date that they limit the ability to manage these systems. Results indicate that the approaches developed provide viable tools for forecasting outcomes with the aim of assisting management toward sustainable trends. This methodology is also applicable for modeling different scenarios in other dynamic systems. Indicators are indispensable for tracking conditions in human and natural systems, however, available data is sometimes far out of date and limit the ability to gauge system status. Techniques like regression and simulation are not sufficient because system characteristics have to be modeled ensuring over simplification of complex dynamics. This work presents a methodology combining the power of an Artificial Neural Network and Information Theory to capture patterns in a real dyna

  20. Reporting Systems for Sustainability: What Are They Measuring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    The dominance of the neoliberal discourse in the sustainability debate has tended to privilege the economy over environment and social dimensions with implications for what is measured by sustainability monitoring systems. Moreover, systems to measure sustainability, including those influenced by neoliberal discourse, lack robust definitions and…

  1. Environmental impacts and sustainability of egg production systems 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xin, H; Gates, R. S; Green, A. R; Mitloehner, F. M; Moore, P. A; Wathes, C. M

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT As part of a systemic assessment toward social sustainability of egg production, we have reviewed current knowledge about the environmental impacts of egg production systems and identified...

  2. An Integrated Sustainable Business and Development System: Thoughts and Opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J. C. Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Companies understand the importance of monitoring and managing their environmental impacts and aim to integrate, with consistent quality control, effective reduce-reuse-recycle programs and risk preventions. By building an integrated sustainable business and development system to meet certain environmental standards, many companies are eligible to be “green” certified. Companies may consider recognizing global visions on sustainability while implementing local best practices. An integrated sustainable business and development system includes talent management, sustainable supply chain, practicing strategies of leveraging resources effectively, implementing social responsibilities, initiating innovative programs of recycling, reducing, and reusing, advancing leaders’ perceptions towards sustainability, reducing innovation barriers, and engaging sustainable practices strategically.

  3. Information systems outsourcing towards sustainable business value

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschheim, Rudy; Dibbern, Jens

    2014-01-01

    This book attempts to synthesize research that contributes to a better understanding of how to reach sustainable business value through information systems (IS) outsourcing. Important topics in this realm are how IS outsourcing can contribute to innovation, how it can be dynamically governed, how to cope with its increasing complexity through multi-vendor arrangements, how service quality standards can be met, how corporate social responsibility can be upheld and how to cope with increasing demands of internationalization and new sourcing models, such as crowdsourcing and platform-based cooperation. These issues are viewed from either the client or vendor perspective, or both. The book should be of interest to all academics and students in the fields of Information Systems, Management and Organization as well as corporate executives and professionals who seek a more profound analysis and understanding of the underlying factors and mechanisms of outsourcing.

  4. Environmental Management Systems and Sustainability in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Satya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sustainability in manufacturing sector has been allocated a major consideration in the international literature. Due to growing concerns over the high effect of SMEs on world manufacturing industries and their contribution to pollution; this research attempts to focus on the key parameters that interact in the application of environmental management system, taking into account the main features of SMEs and also the integral role of industrial entrepreneurs in inspiring their firms’ approaches. The paper explores the potential opportunities which enable these enterprises to move towards organizations with high level of responsibility regarding environmental protection in order to provide a healthier life for future generations. Case investigation is carried out on an adhesive manufacturing company, which covers a notable market share within the sector. The research identifies that the company requires developing both internal and external entities within an explicit plan to revolutionize the recruitment patterns. Given the lack of adequate studies in adhesive technology, more researches are recommended in the future to consider the sustainable innovations on a broader sample of adhesive manufacturing companies to perform the life-cycle analysis due to the harmful organic compounds and toxic vapours of the adhesive products.

  5. Sustainable bioreactor systems for producing hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaborsky, O.R.; Radway, J.C.; Yoza, B.A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Molecular Biology; Tredici, M.R. [Univ. of Florence (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze e Tecnologie Alimentari e Microbiogiche

    1998-08-01

    The overall goal of Hawaii`s BioHydrogen Program is to generate hydrogen from water using solar energy and microalgae under sustainable conditions. Specific bioprocess engineering objectives include the design, construction, testing and validation of a sustainable photobioreactor system. Specific objectives relating to biology include investigating and optimizing key physiological parameters of cyanobacteria of the genus Arthrospira (Spirulina), the organism selected for initial process development. Another objective is to disseminate the Mitsui-Miami cyanobacteria cultures, now part of the Hawaii Culture Collection (HCC), to other research groups. The approach is to use a single organisms for producing hydrogen gas from water. Key stages are the growth of the biomass, the dark induction of hydrogenase, and the subsequent generation of hydrogen in the light. The biomass production stage involves producing dense cultures of filamentous, non-heterocystous cyanobacteria and optimizing biomass productivity in innovative tubular photobioreactors. The hydrogen generation stages entail inducing the enzymes and metabolic pathways that enable both dark and light-driven hydrogen production. The focus of Year 1 has been on the construction and operation of the outdoor photobioreactor for the production of high-density mass cultures of Arthrospira. The strains in the Mitsui-Miami collection have been organized and distributed to other researchers who are beginning to report interesting results. The project is part of the International Energy Agency`s biohydrogen program.

  6. TOWARD A THEORY OF SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    While there is tremendous interest in the topic of sustainability, a fundamental theory of sustainability does not exist. We present our efforts at constructing such a theory starting with Information Theory and ecological models. We discuss the state of complex sustainable syste...

  7. Sustainable food systems for optimal planetary health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, Chelsey R; Noor, Ramadhani A; Golden, Christopher D; Juma, Calestous; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2017-06-01

    Sustainable food systems are an important component of a planetary health strategy to reduce the threat of infectious disease, minimize environmental footprint and promote nutrition. Human population trends and dietary transition have led to growing demand for food and increasing production and consumption of meat, amid declining availability of arable land and water. The intensification of livestock production has serious environmental and infectious disease impacts. Land clearing for agriculture alters ecosystems, increases human-wildlife interactions and leads to disease proliferation. Context-specific interventions should be evaluated towards optimizing nutrition resilience, minimizing environmental footprint and reducing animal and human disease risk. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. Smart energy control systems for sustainable buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Spataru, Catalina; Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2017-01-01

    There is widespread interest in the way that smart energy control systems, such as assessment and monitoring techniques for low carbon, nearly-zero energy and net positive buildings can contribute to a Sustainable future, for current and future generations. There is a turning point on the horizon for the supply of energy from finite resources such as natural gas and oil become less reliable in economic terms and extraction become more challenging, and more unacceptable socially, such as adverse public reaction to ‘fracking’. Thus, in 2016 these challenges are having a major influence on the design, optimisation, performance measurements, operation and preservation of: buildings, neighbourhoods, cities, regions, countries and continents. The source and nature of energy, the security of supply and the equity of distribution, the environmental impact of its supply and utilization, are all crucial matters to be addressed by suppliers, consumers, governments, industry, academia, and financial institutions. Thi...

  9. INDICATORS FOR SUSTAINABILITY IN INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS CASE STUDY: PAPER MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emiliana Fortună

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a framework for promoting sustainability by using indicators for sustainable production. The concept of sustainable production is described as it is viewed by various organisms actions involved in the analysis of the sustainable industrial systems.The measure of sustainability is approached considering indicators of sustainable production, addressing both their dimensions and qualitative and quantitative features.The proposed framework refines the sustainability dimension for a case study which envisages sustainability in paper manufacturing. The analysis takes into account the life cycle analysis for the considered process since the environmental impact is seen as an essential sustainability indicator. Paper recycling and reuse is associated environmental and social costs, as a preferred alternative in waste minimization hierarchy in the manufacturing of non-trees eco-friendly paper.Proactive initiatives to improve the environmental performances of production process are considered as powerful tools for improving the paper manufacturing environmental footprint.

  10. Participatory Systems Modeling to Explore Sustainable ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decision makers often need assistance in understanding dynamic interactions and linkages among economic, environmental and social systems in coastal watersheds. They also need scientific input to better evaluate potential costs and benefits of alternative policy interventions. The US EPA is applying sustainability science to address these needs. Triple Value (3V) Scoping and Modeling projects bring a systems approach to understand complex environmental problems, incorporate local knowledge, and allow decision-makers to explore policy scenarios. This leads to better understanding of feedbacks and outcomes to both human and environmental systems. The Suffolk County, NY (eastern Long Island) 3V Case uses SES interconnections to explore possible policy options and scenarios for intervention to mitigate the effects of excess nitrogen (N) loading to ground, surface, and estuarine waters. Many of the environmental impacts of N pollution negatively affect social and economic well-being and productivity. Key are loss of enjoyment and recreational use of local beach environments and loss of income and revenues from tourism and local fisheries. Stakeholders generated this Problem Statement: Suffolk County is experiencing widespread degradation to groundwater and the coastal marine environment caused by excess nitrogen. How can local stakeholders and decision makers in Suffolk County arrest and reverse this degradation, restore conditions to support a healthy thriving ecos

  11. SUSTAINABILITY OF TAX SYSTEM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patricia HOMORODEAN (CSATLOS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization, sustainable development is the key to the development of contemporary society and future generations. Sustainability has become a key point for the debates in the political, economic, and academic environment. Therefore, today wehave reached the point when we speak of a country or company sustainability, of environmentalor agricultural sustainability, while speaking,at the same time, of fiscal policy sustainability. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Romanian fiscal policy sustainability in terms of tax revenues. The methodology used in this research is bibliographical analysis of specialist literature and statistical analysis of data. Bibliographical analysis was used to define operating concepts: fiscal sustainability and tax revenues. Statistical analysis was used to analyze the evolution of tax revenues in Romania between2005and2013, as well as the share of tax revenues in the general consolidated budget of Romania. Statistical data were processed using Microsoft Excel and presented as evolution diagrams. The novelty and originality of the present work consist in the bibliographical study on Romanian fiscal policy sustainability, the statistical study on the evolution of tax revenues in Romania between 2005and2013, and the analysisof fiscal policy sustainability in Romania in terms of tax revenues.

  12. Sustainable Optimization for Wastewater Treatment System Using PSF-HS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Woo Geem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability in a river with respect to water quality is critical because it is highly related with environmental pollution, economic expenditure, and public health. This study proposes a sustainability problem of wastewater treatment system for river ecosystem conservation which helps the healthy survival of the aquatic biota and human beings. This study optimizes the design of a wastewater treatment system using the parameter-setting-free harmony search algorithm, which does not require the existing tedious value-setting process for algorithm parameters. The real-scale system has three different options of wastewater treatment, such as filtration, nitrification, and diverted irrigation (fertilization, as well as two existing treatment processes (settling and biological oxidation. The objective of this system design is to minimize life cycle costs, including initial construction costs of those treatment options, while satisfying minimal dissolved oxygen requirements in the river, maximal nitrate-nitrogen concentration in groundwater, and a minimal nitrogen requirement for crop farming. Results show that the proposed technique could successfully find solutions without requiring a tedious setting process.

  13. Stimulating transitions towards sustainable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, B.; Barbier, M.; Cerf, M.; Grin, J.; Darnhofer, I.; Gibbon, D.; Dedieu, B.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will address the dynamics of the agro-food sector in the long run and focus on how transitions to sustainability could be initiated and supported, taking into account renewal intitiatives at the farm level, organised projects, heterogeneous actors and differing interests. Sustainable

  14. CONSTRUCTING A GENERAL SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability atracts enormous interest in the minds of the public and the scientific and engineering community because it holds the promise of a long-term solution to environmental problems. Sustainability, however, is mathematically loosely defined. There is no widely accepted...

  15. Practices of corporate social responsibility and sustainable systems work in Peruvian companies issuing sustainability reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angela Prialé

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Through a literature review, this exploratory study seeks to determine whether the practices related to its colaborators, who report as part of its action responsible Peruvian companies issuing sustainability reports can be considered sustainable management practices of human resources. To this end, it was used the approach of sustainable work systems as a general approach. It was found that some of the practices of responsible management of human resources that implement the analyzed companies address the human dimensions of sustainability, although not all dimensions are considered equally or similar depth.

  16. Business system: sustainable development and anticipatory systems thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Potočan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence and development of humankind depends a lot upon a co-ordinated operation of all areas and levels of human activity. However, in either theory or practice we found no model of operation, which would offer a harmonized and target oriented development. A possible solution is offered by sustainable development, which tries to define and carry out common goals of humankind with a holistic harmonization of humans’ activities at all levels of their living and behaviour. Companies belong to central institutions of the modern society and essentially co–create the sustainability of society. Companies endeavour (e.g. by simulation and planning to prepare models of their goals and ways concerning their internal and external environment. On the basis of systems approach, we can define companies as business systems, which can best survive in a log-run on the basis of sustainable development. This business system’s effort can also be supported by the application of the anticipatory systems thinking, which can improve its planning methods, if it is holistic, understood as a future oriented mental activity made of its methodological approach, techniques, and modes of work. Its characteristics have a direct impact on holism of the definition of goals, on the orientation of operation, and hence on the achievement of the business system’s results.

  17. Academic Training: Toward Sustainable Energy Systems?

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES 28, 29, 30, 31 March from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Toward Sustainable Energy Systems? F. Tellez / CIEMAT, Madrid, E and D.Martinez / CIEMAT-PSA, Almeria, E Recent work on alternative energies go in the direction of proving the feasibility of solar energy as one of the best alternatives into the future. Europe, as everybody else, has understandably vested interests in insourcing energetic demands as far as affordable. The good news is that solar energy may be its deciding straw, because it has remarkable facilities and projects probing the possibilities of this option. Two european research centers are at the leading edge in this area: ENEA, which is leading 'Archimede', a vast solar array project in Sicily, and CIEMAT, with its Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA, www.psa.es), a major solar energy facility at the south of Spain. Both will become basic poles of the planned 'EURO-MED'electricity interconnection, intending to carry solar electricity fro...

  18. Academic Training: Toward Sustainable Energy Systems?

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES 28, 29, 30, 31 March from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Toward Sustainable Energy Systems? F. Tellez / CIEMAT, Madrid, E and D.Martinez / CIEMAT-PSA, Almeria, E Recent work on alternative energies go in the direction of proving the feasibility of solar energy as one of the best alternatives into the future. Europe, as everybody else, has understandably vested interests in insourcing energetic demands as far as affordable. The good news is that solar energy may be its deciding straw, because it has remarkable facilities and projects probing the possibilities of this option. Two european research centers are at the leading edge in this area: ENEA, which is leading 'Archimede', a vast solar array project in Sicily, and CIEMAT, with its Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA, www.psa.es) ,a major solar energy facility at the south of Spain. Both will become basic poles of the planned 'EURO-MED' electricity interconnection, intending to carry solar electricity f...

  19. Scope and precision of sustainability assessment approaches to food systems

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Schader; Jan Grenz; Matthias S. Meier; Matthias Stolze

    2014-01-01

    With sustainability within food systems becoming an increasingly important issue, several approaches that claim to assess the sustainability of farms, farming systems, and supply chains have been developed. Looking more closely at these sustainability impact assessment approaches, we discerned considerable differences between them in terms of scope, the level of assessment, and the precision of indicators used for impact assessment. Our aim was to classify and analyze a range of available sus...

  20. Sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duić, Neven; Guzović, Zvonimir; Kafarov, Vyatcheslav

    2013-01-01

    The 6th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES Conference), attended by 418 scientists from 55 countries representing six continents. It was held in 2011 and dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies...... and technologies for increasing the sustainability of development, taking into account its economic, environmental and social pillars, as well as methods for assessing and measuring sustainability of development, regarding energy, transport, water and environment systems and their many combinations....

  1. Integrated Systems Mitigate Land Degradation and Improve Agricultural System Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Rain-fed agricultural production supported by exogenous inputs is not sustainable because a continuous influx of expensive inputs (fertilizer, chemicals, fossil fuel, labor, tillage, and other) is required. Alternatives to traditional management allow natural occurring dynamic soil processes to provide the necessary microbial activity that supports nutrient cycling in balance with nature. Research designed to investigate the potential for integrated systems to replace expensive inputs has shown that healthy soils rich in soil organic matter (SOM) are the foundation upon which microbial nutrient cycling can reduce and eventually replace expensive fertilizer. No-till seed placement technology effectively replaces multiple-pass cultivation conserving stored soil water in semi-arid farming systems. In multi-crop rotations, cool- and warm-season crops are grown in sequence to meet goals of the integrated farming and ranching system, and each crop in the rotation complements the subsequent crop by supplying a continuous flow of essential SOM for soil nutrient cycling. Grazing animals serve an essential role in the system's sustainability as non-mechanized animal harvesters that reduce fossil fuel consumption and labor, and animal waste contributes soil nutrients to the system. Integrated systems' complementarity has contributed to greater soil nutrient cycling and crop yields, fertilizer reduction or elimination, greater yearling steer grazing net return, reduced cow wintering costs grazing crop residues, increased wildlife sightings, and reduced environmental footprint. Therefore, integrating crop and animal systems can reverse soil quality decline and adopting non-traditional procedures has resulted in a wider array of opportunities for sustainable agriculture and profitability.

  2. Sustainable automotive energy system in China

    CERN Document Server

    CAERC, Tsinghua University

    2014-01-01

    This book identifies and addresses key issues of automotive energy in China. It covers demography, economics, technology and policy, providing a broad perspective to aid in the planning of sustainable road transport in China.

  3. Human development and sustainability of energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This seminar on human development and sustainability was jointly organized by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and Enerdata company. This document summarises the content of the different presentations and of the minutes of the discussions that took place at the end of each topic. The different themes discussed were: 1 - Political and methodological issues related to sustainability (sustainability concept in government policy, sustainability and back-casting: lessons from EST); 2 - towards a socially viable world: thematic discussions (demography and peoples' migration; time budget and life style change - equal sex access to instruction and labour - geopolitical regional and inter-regional universal cultural acceptability; welfare, poverty and social link and economics); 3 - building up an environmentally sustainable energy world, keeping resources for future generations and preventing geopolitical ruptures (CO{sub 2} emissions; nuclear issues; land-use, noise, and other industrial risks). The memorandum on sustainability issues in view of very long term energy studies is reprinted in the appendix. The transparencies of seven presentations are attached to this document. (J.S.)

  4. A sustained-arc ignition system for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, A. G.

    1977-01-01

    A sustained-arc ignition system was developed for internal combustion engines. It produces a very-long-duration ignition pulse with an energy in the order of 100 millijoules. The ignition pulse waveform can be controlled to predetermined actual ignition requirements. The design of the sustained-arc ignition system is presented in the report.

  5. Multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessment of farming systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Passel, Steven, E-mail: Steven.vanpassel@uhasselt.be [Hasselt University, Faculty of Business Economics, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan, Building D, 3590, Diepenbeek (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Department Bioscience Engineering, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Meul, Marijke [University College Ghent, Department of Biosciences and Landscape Architecture, Campus Schoonmeersen, Building C, Schoonmeersstraat 52, 9000, Gent (Belgium)

    2012-01-15

    Sustainability assessment is needed to build sustainable farming systems. A broad range of sustainability concepts, methodologies and applications already exists. They differ in level, focus, orientation, measurement, scale, presentation and intended end-users. In this paper we illustrate that a smart combination of existing methods with different levels of application can make sustainability assessment more profound, and that it can broaden the insights of different end-user groups. An overview of sustainability assessment tools on different levels and for different end-users shows the complementarities and the opportunities of using different methods. In a case-study, a combination of the sustainable value approach (SVA) and MOTIFS is used to perform a sustainability evaluation of farming systems in Flanders. SVA is used to evaluate sustainability at sector level, and is especially useful to support policy makers, while MOTIFS is used to support and guide farmers towards sustainability at farm level. The combined use of the two methods with complementary goals can widen the insights of both farmers and policy makers, without losing the particularities of the different approaches. To stimulate and support further research and applications, we propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We give an overview of sustainability assessment tools for agricultural systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SVA and MOTIFS are used to evaluate the sustainability of dairy farming in Flanders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of methods with different levels broadens the insights of different end-user groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments.

  6. Land system science and sustainable development of the earth system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verburg, Peter H.; Crossman, Neville; Ellis, Erle C.

    2015-01-01

    as a whole and the tradeoff these changes may represent. The Global Land Project has led advances by synthesizing land systems research across different scales and providing concepts to further understand the feedbacks between social-and environmental systems, between urban and rural environments and between...... distant world regions. Land system science has moved from a focus on observation of change and understanding the drivers of these changes to a focus on using this understanding to design sustainable transformations through stakeholder engagement and through the concept of land governance. As land use can...... be seen as the largest geo-engineering project in which mankind has engaged, land system science can act as a platform for integration of insights from different disciplines and for translation of knowledge into action....

  7. NASA's Space Launch System: Affordability for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. But the SLS value is clear and codified in United States (U.S.) budget law. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability and will provide an overview of initiatives designed to fit within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat, yet evolve the 70-tonne (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through the competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface some 40 years ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on platforms such as the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. In parallel with SLS concept studies, NASA is now refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. space policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap, which reflects the mutual goals of a dozen member nations. This mission planning will converge with a flexible heavy-lift rocket that can carry international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids and Mars. In addition, the SLS capability will accommodate very large science instruments and other payloads, using a series of modular fairings and

  8. Adoption of bioenergy technologies for a sustainable energy system

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnstad, Even

    2011-01-01

    A future sustainable energy system must achieve great improvements in energy efficiency and the energy supply must be based on renewable energy sources. Bioenergy will be an important part of this system. Changing from the current fossil-dependent energy system to a truly sustainable energy system will require fundamental changes in basic structures of society, in the technologies we utilize in the living of our lives and in the way we as citizens and consumers behave relative to energy use. ...

  9. A systems engineering approach for realizing sustainability in infrastructure projects

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Matar; Hesham Osman; Maged Georgy; Azza Abou-Zeid; Moheeb El-Said

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability is very quickly becoming a fundamental requirement of the construction industry as it delivers its projects; whether buildings or infrastructures. Throughout more than two decades, a plethora of modeling schemes, evaluation tools and rating systems have been introduced en route to realizing sustainable construction. Many of these, however, lack consensus on evaluation criteria, a robust scientific model that captures the logic behind their sustainability performance evaluation,...

  10. Systems and practices in sustainable consumption research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    The financial crisis in 2007-2008 and the subsequent economic crisis served as a wake-up call for sustainable consumption studies. The literature on consumption and environment had little focus on finance, but the crisis made it clear that financial issues are important also from an environmental...... perspective. Credit plays an important role as a driver of unsustainable consumption, and financial mechanisms contribute to the widening inequalities as well as the build-up of macroeconomic instability. Looking ahead, transformation of finance is just as important for sustainability as transformation...

  11. Center for Efficiency in Sustainable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Martin [Youngstown State Univ., OH (United States)

    2016-01-31

    The main goal of the Center for Efficiency in Sustainable Energy Systems is to produce a methodology that evaluates a variety of energy systems. Task I. Improved Energy Efficiency for Industrial Processes: This task, completed in partnership with area manufacturers, analyzes the operation of complex manufacturing facilities to provide flexibilities that allow them to improve active-mode power efficiency, lower standby-mode power consumption, and use low cost energy resources to control energy costs in meeting their economic incentives; (2) Identify devices for the efficient transformation of instantaneous or continuous power to different devices and sections of industrial plants; and (3) use these manufacturing sites to demonstrate and validate general principles of power management. Task II. Analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell operating on landfill gas: This task consists of: (1) analysis of a typical landfill gas; (2) establishment of a comprehensive design of the fuel cell system (including the SOFC stack and BOP), including durability analysis; (3) development of suitable reforming methods and catalysts that are tailored to the specific SOFC system concept; and (4) SOFC stack fabrication with testing to demonstrate the salient operational characteristics of the stack, including an analysis of the overall energy conversion efficiency of the system. Task III. Demonstration of an urban wind turbine system: This task consists of (1) design and construction of two side-by-side wind turbine systems on the YSU campus, integrated through power control systems with grid power; (2) preliminary testing of aerodynamic control effectors (provided by a small business partner) to demonstrate improved power control, and evaluation of the system performance, including economic estimates of viability in an urban environment; and (3) computational analysis of the wind turbine system as an enabling activity for development of smart rotor blades that contain integrated sensor

  12. Fourth-generation photovoltaic concentrator system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Neill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J. [ENTECH, Inc., Dallas-Fort Worth Airport, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    In 1991, under a contract with Sandia for the Concentrator Initiative, the ENTECH team initiated the design and development of a fourth-generation concentrator module. In 1992, Sandia also contracted with ENTECH to develop a new control and drive system for the ENTECH array. This report documents the design and development work performed under both contracts. Manufacturing processes for the new module were developed at the same time under a complementary PVMaT contract with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Two 100-kW power plants were deployed in 1995 in Texas using the newly developed fourth-generation concentrator technology, one at the CSW Solar Park near Ft. Davis and one at TUE Energy Park in Dallas. Technology developed under the Sandia contracts has made a successful transition from the laboratory to the production line to the field.

  13. Sustainable development indicators for urban water systems: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the light of the increasing pressures on the world's freshwater resources, changes in the present and future urban water systems are called for in order to achieve sustainable development. The transformation from unsustainable practices demands tools that measure progress and can warn of future trends. Sustainable ...

  14. Business models and information systems for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; Shishkov, Boris; Shishkov, B.B.

    Businesses are expected to explore market opportunities in the area of sustainable development, thus contributing to finding solutions aiming at sustainable quality of life. This will require adaptation and innovation of business models and information systems, with challenges of particular interest

  15. Sustaining organizational culture change in health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Cameron David; Saul, Jessie; Bevan, Helen; Scheirer, Mary Ann; Best, Allan; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Mannion, Russell; Cornelissen, Evelyn; Howland, David; Jenkins, Emily; Bitz, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The questions addressed by this review are: first, what are the guiding principles underlying efforts to stimulate sustained cultural change; second, what are the mechanisms by which these principles operate; and, finally, what are the contextual factors that influence the likelihood of these principles being effective? The paper aims to discuss these issues. The authors conducted a literature review informed by rapid realist review methodology that examined how interventions interact with contexts and mechanisms to influence the sustainability of cultural change. Reference and expert panelists assisted in refining the research questions, systematically searching published and grey literature, and helping to identify interactions between interventions, mechanisms and contexts. Six guiding principles were identified: align vision and action; make incremental changes within a comprehensive transformation strategy; foster distributed leadership; promote staff engagement; create collaborative relationships; and continuously assess and learn from change. These principles interact with contextual elements such as local power distributions, pre-existing values and beliefs and readiness to engage. Mechanisms influencing how these principles sustain cultural change include activation of a shared sense of urgency and fostering flexible levels of engagement. The principles identified in this review, along with the contexts and mechanisms that influence their effectiveness, are useful domains for policy and practice leaders to explore when grappling with cultural change. These principles are sufficiently broad to allow local flexibilities in adoption and application. This is the first study to adopt a realist approach for understanding how changes in organizational culture may be sustained. Through doing so, this review highlights the broad principles by which organizational action may be organized within enabling contextual settings.

  16. Scope and precision of sustainability assessment approaches to food systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schader

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With sustainability within food systems becoming an increasingly important issue, several approaches that claim to assess the sustainability of farms, farming systems, and supply chains have been developed. Looking more closely at these sustainability impact assessment approaches, we discerned considerable differences between them in terms of scope, the level of assessment, and the precision of indicators used for impact assessment. Our aim was to classify and analyze a range of available sustainability impact assessment approaches with respect to scope and precision. From a total of 35 sustainability assessment approaches, we selected 6 for a detailed comparison. From our analysis, we concluded that there are 3 different types of trade-offs in these approaches: between different kinds of scope, between different indicators for precision and trade-offs, and between the scope and precision. Thus, one-size-fits-all solutions, with respect to tool selection, are rarely feasible. Furthermore, as indicator selection determines the assessment results, different and inconsistent indicators can lead to contradictory assessment results that may not be comparable. To overcome these shortcomings, sustainability impact assessments should include a precise definition of the notion of "sustainability" along with a description of the methodological approach and the indicator sets and should aim for harmonization of indicators and assumptions. Global initiatives such as the Sustainability Assessment in Food and Agriculture Systems (SAFA Guidelines are a helpful step toward shedding light on the differences of these approaches and making the assessment results more comparable.

  17. Exergy and Sustainability : Insights into the Value of Exergy Analysis in Sustainability Assessment of Technological Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stougie, L.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in striving for a more sustainable society is the selection of technological systems. Given the capital intensity of industrial production plants, power generation systems and infrastructure, investment decisions create path dependencies for decades to come. It is difficult to know

  18. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) AS A FRAMEWORK FOR ADDRESSING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The challenges Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) directly pose to sustainability include their impact on human health, receiving water bodies, groundwater, and air quality. These challenges result from the large quantities of macronutrients (carbon, nitrogen, and pho...

  19. Design technologies for green and sustainable computing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ganguly, Amlan; Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive guide to the design of sustainable and green computing systems (GSC). Coverage includes important breakthroughs in various aspects of GSC, including multi-core architectures, interconnection technology, data centers, high-performance computing (HPC), and sensor networks. The authors address the challenges of power efficiency and sustainability in various contexts, including system design, computer architecture, programming languages, compilers and networking. ·         Offers readers a single-source reference for addressing the challenges of power efficiency and sustainability in embedded computing systems; ·         Provides in-depth coverage of the key underlying design technologies for green and sustainable computing; ·         Covers a wide range of topics, from chip-level design to architectures, computing systems, and networks.

  20. Dynamic management of sustainable development methods for large technical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krishans, Zigurds; Merkuryev, Yuri; Oleinikova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Management of Sustainable Development presents a concise summary of the authors' research in dynamic methods analysis of technical systems development. The text illustrates mathematical methods, with a focus on practical realization and applications.

  1. Modeling and Advanced Control for Sustainable Process Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter introduces a novel process systems engineering framework that integrates process control with sustainability assessment tools for the simultaneous evaluation and optimization of process operations. The implemented control strategy consists of a biologically-insp...

  2. A conceptual approach to design livestock production systems for robustness to enhance sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napel, ten J.; Veen, van der A.A.; Oosting, S.J.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Existing approaches to enhance sustainability of livestock production systems focus on the level of sustainability indicators. Maintaining the level of sustainability in the face of perturbations, which is robustness of sustainability, is relatively unexplored. Perturbations can be classed as noise

  3. Advanced thermodynamics metrics for sustainability assessments of open engineering systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulić Dušan P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a verification of the following hypotheses. Advanced thermodynamics metrics based on entropy generation assessments indicate the level of sustainability of transient open systems, such as in manufacturing or process industries. The indicator of sustainability may be related to particular property uniformity during materials processing. In such a case the property uniformity would indicate systems’ distance from equilibrium i.e., from the sustainable energy utilization level. This idea is applied to a selected state-of-the-art manufacturing process. The system under consideration involves thermal processing of complex aluminum structures during controlled atmosphere brazing for a near-net-shape mass production of compact heat exchangers.

  4. Green innovation and sustainable industrial systems within sustainability and company improvement perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edi Nugroho Soebandrija, Khristian

    2017-12-01

    This paper comprises discussion of Green Innovation and Sustainable Industrial Systems within Sustainability and Company Improvement Perspective of beverage manufacturing company (BMC). The stakeholder theory is the grand theory for the company improvement perspective in this paper. The data processing in this paper is conducted through software which are SEM-PLS with SmartPLS 2.0 and SPSS 19. The specified objective of this paper has focus on sustainability as one of 6 variables, in lieu of those 6 variables as the big picture. The reason behind this focus on sustainability is the fact that there are assorted challenges in sustainability that is ranging from economic, environment and company perspectives. Those challenges in sustainability include the sustainable service supply chain management and its involvement of society. The overall objective is to analyze relationship hypothesis of 6 variables, 4 of them (leadership, organizational learning, innovation, and performance) are based on Malcolm Baldrige’s performance excellence concept to achieve sustainability and competitive advantage through company-competitor and customer questionnaire, and its relation to Total Quality Management (TQM) and Quality Management System (QMS). In conclusion, the spearheaded of company improvement in this paper is in term of consumer satisfaction through 99.997% quality standards. These can be achieved by ambidexterity through exploitation and exploration innovation. Furthermore, in this paper, TQM enables to obtain popularity brand index achievement that is greater than 45.9%. Subsequently, ISO22000 of food security standard encompasses quality standard of ISO9000 and HACCP. Through the ambidexterity of exploitation and exploration (Non Standard Product Inspection) NOSPI machine, the company improvement generates the achievement of 75% automation, 99.997% quality control standard and 80% of waste reduction.

  5. Innovation in Financial Systems. The Quest For Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Voicu-Doroban?u Roxana

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on the trials and tribulations the financial systems are facing in the current economic environment, in order to increase their economic sustainability, but also improve their social sustainability. As desperate times (characterized by an endemic crisis, reaching from the financial systems into the globalized economic network) require ‘desperate measures’, there is a certain need for improvement and innovation in instruments and behaviours exhibited by the actors in a financ...

  6. The Battle Command Sustainment Support System: Initial Analysis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Sustainment Sustainment System Mission Command (S2MC) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER...Data (214A) 6 Global Air Transportation Execution System (GATES) 6 Radio-Frequency Identification ( RFID ) Detections, Level 6, and Interrogator...information. Logistics Support Activity (LOGSA)  Frequency: 2 or 6 hr  Format: direct database link or flat file via secure file transfer

  7. Linear concentration system; Sistema de concentracion lineal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Lugo, J.I; Leon Rovira, N; Aguayo Tellez, H [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)]. E-mails: a00812662@itesm.mx; noel.leon@itesm.mx; haguayo@itesm.mx

    2013-03-15

    Solar linear concentration technologies to generate high temperatures are limited to the ranges of 200 to 500 degrees Celsius. While its performance has been tested through prototypes and pilot plants around the world, there are still areas of opportunity that can be exploited to obtain a linear concentration that achieves temperatures above this range in order to have a better use of the available solar energy. Because of this: It is possible to develop a linear concentration system that can track the sun with minimal movement of the absorber-receiver while maintaining temperatures above 850 degrees Celsius sufficient for industrial processes that require that temperature. The methodology consists of a series of stages (conceptual design, simulation, evaluation, development concept, results and validation) through which concepts are generated that allow design and evaluation of solar concentrator configurations with the help of simulation software. We have designed a linear parabolic concentrating system which comprises a set of mirrors segments with different focal lengths that works within the range of 600 degrees Celsius; however, it is advancing in the development of a double concentration to reach 850 degrees Celsius. [Spanish] Las tecnologias de concentracion lineal solar para generar altas temperaturas se ven limitadas a los rangos de 200 a 500 grados centigrados. Si bien su funcionamiento ha sido probado a traves de prototipos y plantas piloto alrededor del mundo, aun existen areas de oportunidad que pueden ser aprovechadas para obtener un sistema de concentracion lineal que permita alcanzar temperaturas mayores a este rango para asi tener un mejor aprovechamiento de la energia solar disponible. Debido a esto: Es posible desarrollar un sistema de concentracion lineal capaz de seguir la trayectoria del Sol con minimo movimiento del absorbedor-recibidor al mismo tiempo que mantiene temperaturas superiores a los 850 grados centigrados suficientes para

  8. Nonregenerative natural resources in a sustainable system of energy supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Alex M; Hamacher, Thomas

    2012-03-12

    Following the lead of the European Union in introducing binding measures to promote the use of regenerative energy forms, it is not unreasonable to assume that the global demand for combustible raw materials for energy generation will be reduced considerably in the second half of this century. This will not only have a favourable effect on the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere, but will also help preserve fossil fuels-important as raw materials in the chemical industry-for future generations. Nevertheless, associated with the concomitant massive shift to regenerative energy forms, there will be a strong demand for other exhaustible raw materials, in particular metals, some of which are already regarded as scarce. After reviewing the debate on mineral depletion between "cornucopians" and "pessimists", we discuss the meaning of mineral "scarcity", particularly in the geochemical sense, and mineral "exhaustion". The expected drastic increase in demand for mineral resources caused by demographic and societal pressures, that is, due to the increase in in-use stock, is emphasised. Whilst not discussing the issue of "strong" versus "weak" sustainability in detail, we conclude that regenerative energy systems-like nearly all resource-consuming systems in our society-do not necessarily satisfy generally accepted sustainability criteria. In this regard, we discuss some current examples, namely, lithium and cobalt for batteries, rare earth-based permanent magnets for wind turbines, cadmium and tellurium for solar cells and copper for electrical power distribution. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Sustainable Innovation, Management Accounting and Control Systems, and International Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Lopez-Valeiras

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes how Management Accounting and Control Systems (MACS facilitate the appropriation of the benefits of sustainable innovations in organizations. In particular, this paper examines the moderating role of different types of MACS in the relationships between sustainable innovation and international performance at an organizational level. We collected survey data from 123 Spanish and Portuguese organizations. Partial Least Square was used to analyze the data. Results show that the effect of sustainable innovations on international performance is enhanced by contemporary rather than traditional types of MACS. Overall our findings show that MACS can help managers to develop and monitor organizational activities (e.g., costumer services and distribution activities, which support the appropriation of the potential benefits from sustainable innovation. This paper responds to recent calls for in-depth studies about the organizational mechanism that may enhance the success of sustainable innovation.

  10. Opportunities and challenges for multicriteria assessment of food system sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Alrøe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the Special Feature on "Multicriteria assessment of food system sustainability" is on the complex challenges of making and communicating overall assessments of food systems sustainability based on multiple and varied criteria. Four papers concern the choice and development of appropriate tools for making multicriteria sustainability assessments that handle built-in methodological conflicts and trade-offs between different assessment objectives. They underscore the value of linking diverse methods and tools, or nesting and stepping their deployment, to help build resilience and sustainability. They conclude that there is no one tool, one framework, or one indicator set that is appropriate for the different purposes and contexts of sustainability assessment. The process of creating the assessment framework also emerges as important: if the key stakeholders are not given a responsible and full role in the development of any assessment tool, it is less likely to be fit for their purpose and they are unlikely to take ownership or have confidence in it. Six other papers reflect on more fundamental considerations of how assessments are based in different scientific perspectives and on the role of values, motivation, and trust in relation to assessments in the development of more sustainable food systems. They recommend a radical break with the tradition of conducting multicriteria assessment from one hegemonic perspective to considering multiple perspectives. Collectively the contributions to this Special Feature identify three main challenges for improved multicriteria assessment of food system sustainability: (i how to balance different types of knowledge to avoid that the most well-known, precise, or easiest to measure dimensions of sustainability gets the most weight; (ii how to expose the values in assessment tools and choices to allow evaluation of how they relate to the ethical principles of sustainable food systems, to societal

  11. Assessing the sustainability of egg production systems in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, E D; van Bussel, L G J; van Horne, P; van der Voet, H; van der Heijden, G W A M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2015-08-01

    Housing systems for laying hens have changed over the years due to increased public concern regarding animal welfare. In terms of sustainability, animal welfare is just one aspect that needs to be considered. Social aspects as well as environmental and economic factors need to be included as well. In this study, we assessed the sustainability of enriched cage, barn, free-range, and organic egg production systems following a predefined protocol. Indicators were selected within the social, environmental, and economic dimensions, after which parameter values and sustainability limits were set for the core indicators in order to quantify sustainability. Uncertainty in the parameter values as well as assigned weights and compensabilities of the indicators influenced the outcome of the sustainability assessment. Using equal weights for the indicators showed that, for the Dutch situation, enriched cage egg production was most sustainable, having the highest score on the environmental dimension, whereas free-range egg production gave the highest score in the social dimension (covering food safety, animal welfare, and human welfare). In the economic dimension both enriched cage egg and organic egg production had the highest sustainability score. When weights were attributed according to stakeholder outputs, individual differences were seen, but the overall scores were comparable to the sustainability scores based on equal weights. The provided method enabled a quantification of sustainability using input from stakeholders to include societal preferences in the overall assessment. Allowing for different weights and compensabilities helps policymakers in communicating with stakeholders involved and provides a weighted decision regarding future housing systems for laying hens. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Sustainable Deforestation Evaluation Model and System Dynamics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huirong Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony.

  13. Sustainability and Convergence: The Future of Corporate Governance Systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela M. Salvioni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world, a sustainable approach to corporate governance can be a source of competitive advantage and a long-term success factor for any firm. Sustainable governance requires that the board of directors considers economic, social and environmental expectations in an integrated way, no matter what ownership structure and formal rules of corporate governance apply to the company: this mitigates the traditional differences between insider and outsider systems of corporate governance. Previous studies failed to consider the contribution of sustainability in the process of corporate governance convergence. Therefore, the aim of this article is to fill the gap in the existing literature by means of a qualitative analysis, supporting the international debate about convergence of corporate governance systems. The article describes the evolution of outsider and insider systems in the light of the increasing importance of sustainability in the board’s decision-making and firm’s operation to satisfy the needs of all the company’s stakeholders. According to this, a qualitative content analysis developed with a directed approach completes the theoretical discussion, demonstrating that sustainability can bring de facto convergence between outsider and insider corporate governance systems. The article aims to be a theoretical starting point for future research, the findings of which could also have practical implications: the study encourages the policy makers to translate the sustainable business best practices into laws and recommendations, strengthening the mutual influence between formal and substantial convergence.

  14. Sustainable deforestation evaluation model and system dynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Huirong; Lim, C W; Chen, Liqun; Zhou, Xinnian; Zhou, Chengjun; Lin, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony.

  15. Two sustainable energy system analysis models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Goran Krajacic, Neven Duic; da Graca Carvalho, Maria

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of two energy system analysis models both designed with the purpose of analysing electricity systems with a substantial share of fluctuating renewable energy....

  16. Revamping Grooving Process for Sustainability using Fuzzy Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqba Asif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an application of a fuzzy expert system for renovating a metal cutting process to cope with the sustainability requirements. The work seeks a sustainable balance between energy consumption, productivity and tool damage. Cylindrical grooving experiments were performed to generate data related to quantification of the effects of material hardness, cutting speed, width of cut and feed rate on the aforementioned sustainability measures. A fuzzy knowledge-base was developed that suggests the most suitable adjustments of the controlled variables that would lead to achievement of various combinations of the objectives.

  17. Assessment of the sustainability of a water resource system expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rødding; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2001-01-01

    for the water resources system, comprising all important water users within the catchment. Measures to meet the growing water demand in the catchment are discussed. Six scenarios including both supply and demand oriented solutions are identified, modelled and compared in tenus of the sustainability criteria....... Based on initial experience the method was modified leading to more credible results. A problem with assessing sustainability using risk criteria is a favouring of supply-oriented solutions, in particular when aspects not directly related to demand and availability of water are excluded.......A sustainability assessment method involving risk criteria related to reliability, resilience and vulnerability, has been applied to quantify the relative sustainability of possible expansions of a water resources system in the KwaZulu-Natal province South Africa. A river basin model has been setup...

  18. Performance versus values in sustainability transformation of food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo F.; Sautier, Marion; Legun, Katharine

    2017-01-01

    -based approaches that aim at communicating and mediating sustainability values to enable coordinated and cooperative action to transform the food system. We identify their respective strengths and weaknesses based on a cross-case analysis of four cases, and propose that the two approaches, likeWeber's two types......Questions have been raised on what role the knowledge provided by sustainability science actually plays in the transition to sustainability and what role it may play in the future. In this paper we investigate different approaches to sustainability transformation of food systems by analyzing...... the rationale behind transformative acts-the ground that the direct agents of change act upon-and how the type of rationale is connected to the role of research and how the agents of change are involved. To do this we employ MaxWeber's distinction between instrumental rationality and value-rationality in social...

  19. Public-Private Partnerships and Sustainable Regional Innovation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Christensen, Per; Johnson, Bjørn

    -private partnerships. The role of universities if and when actively participating in ‘life outside the ivory tower’ is addressed. These partnerships are also discussed in a regional context. With point of departure in innovation theory, we combine ‘sustainable development’ with the Regional System of Innovation...... approach to propose a new concept – Sustainable Regional Innovation System – in which regional initiatives such as Public-Private(-Academic) Partnerships play an integrated role, not least in the context of ‘learning and innovation for sustainable development’. Two cases are presented to underline...... be playing in public-private partnerships for sustainable development, and the links and benefits this may provide towards universities fulfilling their first (science) and second (education) missions. In this paper, the first part is dedicated to the discussion and clarification of the concept of public...

  20. Sustainability and deliberate transition of socio-technical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent; Stærdahl, Jens

    or developing socio-technical systems in order to integrate the concept of sustainability as a driver for the deliberate and purposeful shaping and transition. The article discusses the requirements to effective governance networks and governing of governance networks. Research within innovation systems......, transition management and technology systems combined with planning and experimental activities provides both a theoretical and empirical body of knowledge of such governance processes. The article discusses how this perspective can be used in relation to the process of developing bio-fuel systems......The article suggests that deliberate planning for sustainability demands a focus on the transition of socio-technical systems in order to establish robust and more sustainable patterns of production and consumption. This implies the necessity of a new perspective for environmental planning...

  1. Three Sustainability Advantages of Urban Densification in a Concentric Urban Form: Evidence from Bandung City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariva Sugandi Permana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amid limited land resource in Bandung city, pressure on the needs of lands continuously exists. Urban densification may create high density spaces and minimizes trip length by exploiting vertical growth. In contrary, sprawling city expands horizontally and creates low density spaces. Sprawling cities in most cases are motorized transport dependent cities. The study was carried out by analyzing the present form of Bandung City. Bandung City in Indonesia, a pronounced concentric-cum-sprawling city of a developing country, was selected as study area. The analysis covers three most determinative environment-related issues that lead to sustainability advantages of the city, since appropriately addressing the issues would likely contribute to sustainability of the city. These three issues are transport energy, flood, and groundwater depletion. Analysis on transport energy consumption in three urban development forms was carried out. The study result reveals that urban densification may lead to lower transport energy consumption as reflected in the mixed use areas compared to the other two urban development forms. The study also confirms that urban densification enables groundwater depletion to be minimized amid significant abstraction in the city and at the same time reducing flooding problems.

  2. Health care financing and the sustainability of health systems

    OpenAIRE

    Liaropoulos, Lycourgos; Goranitis, Ilias

    2015-01-01

    The economic crisis brought an unprecedented attention to the issue of health system sustainability in the developed world. The discussion, however, has been mainly limited to “traditional” issues of cost-effectiveness, quality of care, and, lately, patient involvement. Not enough attention has yet been paid to the issue of who pays and, more importantly, to the sustainability of financing. This fundamental concept in the economics of health policy needs to be reconsidered carefully. In a glo...

  3. Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Energy Systems with Sustainability Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Despoina E. Keramioti; Christos A. Frangopoulos

    2010-01-01

    A multi-criteria approach is presented for the assessment of alternative means for covering the energy needs (electricity and heat) of an industrial unit, taking into consideration sustainability aspects. The procedure is first described in general terms: proper indicators are defined; next they are grouped in order to form sub-indices, which are then used to determine the composite sustainability index. The procedure is applied for the evaluation of three alternative systems. The three syste...

  4. Collaborative business modeling for systemic and sustainability innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrbeck, René; Konnertz, L.; Knab, S.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability innovations are characterized by a systemic nature, and require that multiple organizations act in an orchestrated fashion. To jointly identify opportunities and plan sustainability innovations, new methods and approaches are needed. In this article we describe a case study where 8...... and roadmapping. We find that CBM has its particular strengths in promoting creativity, dealing with uncertainty, and providing a platform for both strategic discussions and planning the future architecture of an emerging market....

  5. Development of a sustainability management system for petroleum companies

    OpenAIRE

    Irhoma, A

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum companies contribute to the largest proportion of environmental degradation in Libya. In support, the 2014 environmental performance index ranks Libya 120th out of 178 countries which suggest the country faces serious environmental degradation, unlike the developed countries. It is necessary to critically investigate the key environmental sustainability issues faced by the Libyan petroleum companies to develop a Sustainability Management System (SMS).\\ud \\ud The research aims to dev...

  6. Defense Systems Modernization and Sustainment Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-31

    Oshkosh_MTVR_brochure.pdf ST12 compliance of the fixture was significant compared to the thermal spray sample and needle roller interaction. An extensometer was...Pressure Regula * Purge Tank Valves & Switch Brake System Drivetram System E Driveline Assemt Coolant Filter Engine1 -- Engine Oil Filler...engine speed (RPM) is reported by engine ECU, transmission ECU, and brake system ECUs, and the engineer can set a preference in that order. 4. The

  7. Distributed Power Systems for Sustainable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Base ALC Automatic Logic Corporation BEMS building energy management system BMS battery management system CHP combined heat and power DC...direct current DOD U.S. Department of Defense DSB Defense Science Board EES electric energy storage EMS energy management system EO Executive...Electrotechnical Commission IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers LCC life-cycle cost MPPT maximum power point of tracking NDAA National

  8. Strengths and weaknesses of common sustainability indices for multidimensional systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Audrey L

    2008-02-01

    Sustainability is rapidly moving from an abstract concept to a measurable state of dynamic human-ecological systems. The large number of economic, social, and environmental indicators currently available provides an unwieldy view of system sustainability. To aid policy decisions, these indicators are therefore either presented in the context of a conceptual framework, or quantitatively aggregated into indices. Due to the quantitative nature of sustainability indices, their results may be given more weight by scientists and policy-makers. However, policy decisions can be ineffective or even counterproductive if they do not consider factors which influence index behavior: the scale of the available data and choice of system boundaries; the inclusion, transformation, and weighting of indicator data; and the aggregation method used. As previous reviews have demonstrated, sustainability indices do not rank countries consistently, even when using some of the same indicator data. Several improvements would increase the utility of sustainability indices for policy decisions, particularly the identification of biases introduced by the index methodology and data inclusion. The discrepancy of current sustainability indices due to theoretical or methodological differences supports the use of several complementary indices.

  9. Improving Sustainability through a Dual Audit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Ji Jin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of a large-scale accounting fraud, China implemented a dual audit system for listed companies issuing foreign stocks (B shares and H shares from 2001 to 2006, before adopting Chinese-IFRS in 2007. At the end of 2010, the EU proposed that listed corporations over a certain size should be required to implement a joint audit system. However, only a few countries have implemented this system, and thus, data and references are extremely limited. The dual audit system is called the “twin” of the joint audit system. We analyze whether the dual system improves a company’s earnings quality. Earnings quality is studied by means of real earnings management, and the variable of loss aversion. We find that real earnings management of dual audited enterprises is lower than that of single audited (A-share enterprises, and the inclination toward loss aversion of enterprises in the foreign share market has not increased significantly relative to the A-share enterprises after the abolition of the dual audit system. The results indicate that a dual audit system improves earnings quality. We expect that the conclusions of this research will resolve the issues and concerns about the joint audit system.

  10. Trade Services System Adaptation for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrichenkov, A.; Shaufler, V.; Bannikova, L.

    2017-11-01

    Under market conditions, the trade services system in post-Soviet Russia, being one of the most important city infrastructures, loses its systematic and hierarchic consistency hence provoking the degradation of communicating transport systems and urban planning framework. This article describes the results of the research carried out to identify objects and object parameters that influence functioning of a locally significant trade services system. Based on the revealed consumer behaviour patterns, we propose methods to determine the optimal parameters of objects inside a locally significant trade services system.

  11. Defense Systems Modernization and Sustainment Initiative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nasr, Nabil; McCarthy, Edward; Haselkorn, Michael; Thurston, Michael

    2006-01-01

    .... NC3R efforts included the development of remanufacturing processes for critical aircraft and ground vehicle components, reverse engineering and upgrade for obsolete fire control system components...

  12. Method for sustaining microorganism culture in syngas fermentation process in decreased concentration or absence of various substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Stephen S.; Scott, Syrona; Ko, Ching-Whan

    2015-05-19

    The present invention relates to methods for sustaining microorganism culture in a syngas fermentation reactor in decreased concentration or absence of various substrates comprising: adding carbon dioxide and optionally alcohol; maintaining free acetic acid concentrations; and performing the above mentioned steps within specified time.

  13. Absorption kinetics and steady-state plasma concentrations of theophylline following therapeutic doses of two sustained-release preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M K; Eriksen, P B; Fenger, M

    1983-01-01

    Ten healthy volunteers received two sustained-release preparations as a single and multiple dose regimen in an open crossover study. Plasma theophylline concentrations were measured by an enzyme immunoassay. The limited fluctuation of the theophylline levels at steady state, with twice daily...... theophylline concentration....

  14. Agronomic and socioeconomic sustainability of farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersseh, Waga Mazengia

    2017-01-01

    Potato has multiple benefits and thus can play a vital role in ensuring food security in Ethiopia. However, for diverse reasons, its productivity is low. The farming systems in Ethiopia in which potato is grown, are predominantly mixed farming systems. Most of the research in Ethiopia is focused on

  15. Studying, Teaching and Applying Sustainability Visions Using Systems Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Iwaniec

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of articulating sustainability visions through modeling is to enhance the outcomes and process of visioning in order to successfully move the system toward a desired state. Models emphasize approaches to develop visions that are viable and resilient and are crafted to adhere to sustainability principles. This approach is largely assembled from visioning processes (resulting in descriptions of desirable future states generated from stakeholder values and preferences and participatory modeling processes (resulting in systems-based representations of future states co-produced by experts and stakeholders. Vision modeling is distinct from normative scenarios and backcasting processes in that the structure and function of the future desirable state is explicitly articulated as a systems model. Crafting, representing and evaluating the future desirable state as a systems model in participatory settings is intended to support compliance with sustainability visioning quality criteria (visionary, sustainable, systemic, coherent, plausible, tangible, relevant, nuanced, motivational and shared in order to develop rigorous and operationalizable visions. We provide two empirical examples to demonstrate the incorporation of vision modeling in research practice and education settings. In both settings, vision modeling was used to develop, represent, simulate and evaluate future desirable states. This allowed participants to better identify, explore and scrutinize sustainability solutions.

  16. Technical Design of Flexible Sustainable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems in Denmark, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid....

  17. A methodic way to more sustainable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    A methodic pathway is suggested for the definition, elaboration, evaluation and introduction of farming systems based on an "integrated' or an "ecosystem-oriented' vision, both considered more sustainable than a "world-market-oriented' vision. The objectives of these three basic types of systems are

  18. Sustainability, Complexity and Learning: Insights from Complex Systems Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, A.; Porter, T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore core contributions from two different approaches to complexity management in organisations aiming to improve their sustainability,: the Viable Systems Model (VSM), and the Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). It is proposed to perform this by summarising the main insights each approach offers to…

  19. Sustaining the Earth's watersheds, agricultural research data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS water resources program has developed a web-based data system, STEWARDS: Sustaining the Earth’s Watersheds, Agricultural Research Data System to support research that encompasses a broad range of topics such as water quality, hydrology, conservation, land use, and soils. The data syst...

  20. Sustainable intensification of agricultural systems in the Central African Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, Marc; Asten, van Piet; Okafor, Chris; Hicintuka, Cyrille; Mapatano, Sylvain; Nabahungu, Nsharwasi Léon; Kagabo, Desire; Muchunguzi, Perez; Njukwe, Emmanuel; Dontsop-Nguezet, Paul M.; Sartas, Murat; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies entry points for innovation for sustainable intensification of agricultural systems. An agricultural innovation systems approach is used to provide a holistic image of (relations between) constraints faced by different stakeholder groups, the dimensions and causes of these

  1. Application of geographic information systems (gis) for sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... recent advances in information technology e.g. geographical information systems (GIS). This paper highlights the need for the integration of geographic information systems with processes of land evaluation, for improved quality of land decisions and sustainable land use and management. Journal of Applied Chemistry ...

  2. Intelligent decision support systems for sustainable computing paradigms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Ajith; Siarry, Patrick; Sheng, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This unique book dicusses the latest research, innovative ideas, challenges and computational intelligence (CI) solutions in sustainable computing. It presents novel, in-depth fundamental research on achieving a sustainable lifestyle for society, either from a methodological or from an application perspective. Sustainable computing has expanded to become a significant research area covering the fields of computer science and engineering, electrical engineering and other engineering disciplines, and there has been an increase in the amount of literature on aspects sustainable computing such as energy efficiency and natural resources conservation that emphasizes the role of ICT (information and communications technology) in achieving system design and operation objectives. The energy impact/design of more efficient IT infrastructures is a key challenge in realizing new computing paradigms. The book explores the uses of computational intelligence (CI) techniques for intelligent decision support that can be explo...

  3. Organic versus Conventional Cropping Sustainability: A Comparative System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L. Fess

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We are at a pivotal time in human history, as the agricultural sector undergoes consolidation coupled with increasing energy costs in the context of declining resource availability. Although organic systems are often thought of as more sustainable than conventional operations, the lack of concise and widely accepted means to measure sustainability makes coming to an agreement on this issue quite challenging. However, an accurate assessment of sustainability can be reached by dissecting the scientific underpinnings of opposing production practices and crop output between cropping systems. The purpose of this review is to provide an in-depth and comprehensive evaluation of modern global production practices and economics of organic cropping systems, as well as assess the sustainability of organic production practices through the clarification of information and analysis of recent research. Additionally, this review addresses areas where improvements can be made to help meet the needs of future organic producers, including organic-focused breeding programs and necessity of coming to a unified global stance on plant breeding technologies. By identifying management strategies that utilize practices with long-term environmental and resource efficiencies, a concerted global effort could guide the adoption of organic agriculture as a sustainable food production system.

  4. Intelligent DC Homes in Future Sustainable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    distribution systems. As a consequence a lot of research has been done on DC distribution systems and its potential for residential applications. Furthermore, the increasing presence and used of smart devices in homes, reveal a promising future for intelligent homes, integrated in the Internet of Things...... concept, where the residential electrical power systems works in co-operation with the smart devices, in order to achieve a smarter, more sustainable, and cleaner energy systems....

  5. Indicators to support environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Allen [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Baskaran, Latha Malar [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Indicators are needed to assess environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems. Effective indicators will help in the quantification of benefits and costs of bioenergy options and resource uses. We identify 19 measurable indicators for soil quality, water quality and quantity, greenhouse gases, biodiversity, air quality, and productivity, building on existing knowledge and on national and international programs that are seeking ways to assess sustainable bioenergy. Together, this suite of indicators is hypothesized to reflect major environmental effects of diverse feedstocks, management practices, and post-production processes. The importance of each indicator is identified. Future research relating to this indicator suite is discussed, including field testing, target establishment, and application to particular bioenergy systems. Coupled with such efforts, we envision that this indicator suite can serve as a basis for the practical evaluation of environmental sustainability in a variety of bioenergy systems.

  6. Assessing Sustainability Transition in the US Electrical Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen McCauley

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines sustainability transition dynamics in the US electricity system, drawing on the socio-technical systems approach. We view system change as unfolding along several critical dimensions and geographical scales, including dynamics in the environment, science, civil society, discourse, and state regulatory institutions, as well as in capital and technology formations. A particular emphasis is given to the interaction of discourses, policy networks, and institutions. We trace four distinct regimes which have characterized the evolution of this discourse-network-institutional nexus over the last century. The research examines dynamics that present a challenge to the incumbent energy regime based on fossil fuels, nuclear and hydropower, and demonstrates how the actor-network supporting renewables and energy efficiency has grown stronger and more capable of moving toward a sustainability transition than at any time since the sustainable energy movement began a generation ago.

  7. Contamination of Detained Sediment in Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonie Allen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption is a key water pollution remediation measure used to achieve stormwater quality improvement in Sustainable urban Drainage Systems (SuDS. The level of contamination of detained sediment within SuDS assets is not well documented, with published investigations limited to specific contaminant occurrence in ponds, wetlands or infiltration devices (bioretention cells and generally focused on solute or suspended sediment. Guidance on contamination threshold levels and potential deposited sediment contamination information is not included in current UK SuDS design or maintenance guidance, primarily due to a lack of evidence and understanding. There is a need to understand possible deposited sediment contamination levels in SuDS, specifically in relation to sediment removal maintenance activities and potential impact on receiving waterways of conveyed sediment. Thus, the objective of the research presented herein was to identify what major elements and trace metals were observable in (the investigated SuDS assets detained sediment, the concentration of these major elements and trace metals and whether they met/surpassed ecotoxicity or contaminated land thresholds. The research presented here provides evidence of investigated SuDS sediment major element and trace metal levels to help inform guidance and maintenance needs, and presents a new methodology to identify the general cause (anthropocentric land use and extent of detained SuDS fine urban sediment contamination through use of a contamination matrix.

  8. Sustainability assessment of stormwater management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Ammitsøe, Christian

    We quantify ecotoxicity impacts caused by different solutions to manage stormwater using life cycle assessment. As a novelty, we include emissions of a wide range of pollutants present in runoff. These emissions turn out to be of great importance, especially in decentralized, above surface systems....

  9. Leadership & Sustainability: System Thinkers in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullan, Michael

    2004-01-01

    As agencies have pushed for greater performance and public accountability over the past two decades, some incremental improvements have been seen. All too often experience reveals that these improvements are temporary. This book provides a comprehensive examination of what leaders at all levels of the educational system can do to pave the way for…

  10. Product Manager Force Sustainment Systems. Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    INTEGRATED REMAINS COLLECTION SYSTEM (MIRCS) • Description: – Mobile Mortuary Processing Facility – 8×8×20 Expandable Shelter – Refrigerated Storage for...Set-up time, 15 minutes with 2 personnel • TRICON container folds out to 18-feet in length • 4-low water use toilets w/ privacy stalls • Power

  11. Globalisation of agrifood systems and sustainable nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaim, Matin

    2017-02-01

    The globalisation of agrifood systems is a mega-trend with potentially profound nutritional implications. This paper describes various facets of this globalisation process and reviews studies on nutritional effects with a particular focus on developing countries. Results show that global trade and technological change in agriculture have substantially improved food security in recent decades, although intensified production systems have also contributed to environmental problems in some regions. New agricultural technologies and policies need to place more emphasis on promoting dietary diversity and reducing environmental externalities. Globalising agrifood systems also involve changing supply-chain structures, with a rapid rise of modern retailing, new food safety and food quality standards, and higher levels of vertical integration. Studies show that emerging high-value supply chains can contribute to income growth in the small farm sector and improved access to food for rural and urban populations. However, there is also evidence that the retail revolution in developing countries, with its growing role of supermarkets and processed foods, can contribute to overweight and obesity among consumers. The multi-faceted linkages between changing agrifood systems and nutrition are a new field of interdisciplinary research, combining agricultural, nutritional, economics and social sciences perspectives. The number of studies on specific aspects is still limited, so the evidence is not yet conclusive. A review at this early stage can help to better understand important relationships and encourage follow-up work.

  12. Defense Systems Modernization and Sustainment Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-20

    aids Remote monitoring ( telematics ) - Data transmission and security mechanisms - Data analysis and visualization tools - Standardized interfaces for...assessment. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Remanufacturing, Life Cycle Analysis, Diagnostic, Prognostic 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION 18. NUMBER 19a. NAME...based maintenance aiding system - Electronic portable (point-of-maintenance) aids Remote monitoring - Data transmission and security mechanisms

  13. Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Energy Systems with Sustainability Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina E. Keramioti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A multi-criteria approach is presented for the assessment of alternative means for covering the energy needs (electricity and heat of an industrial unit, taking into consideration sustainability aspects. The procedure is first described in general terms: proper indicators are defined; next they are grouped in order to form sub-indices, which are then used to determine the composite sustainability index. The procedure is applied for the evaluation of three alternative systems. The three systems are placed in order of preference, which depends on the criteria used. In addition to conclusions reached as a result of the particular case study, recommendations for future work are given.

  14. Sustainable economic production quantity models for inventory systems with shortage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taleizadeh, Ata Allah; Soleymanfar, Vahid Reza; Govindan, Kannan

    2018-01-01

    (EPQ). The theoretical sustainable EOQ and EPQ models are basic models that ignore many real-life conditions such as the possibility of stock-out in inventory systems. In this paper, we develop four new sustainable economic production quantity models that consider different shortage situations. To find...... optimal values of inventory system variables, we solve four independent profit maximization problems for four different situations. These proposed models include a basic model in which shortages are not allowed, and when shortages are allowed, the lost sale, full backordering and partial backordering...

  15. Biomass in a sustainable energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    1998-04-01

    In this thesis, aspects of an increase in the utilization of biomass in the Swedish energy system are treated. Modern bioenergy systems should be based on high energy and land use efficiency since biomass resources and productive land are limited. The energy input, including transportation, per unit biomass produced is about 4-5% for logging residues, straw and short rotation forest (Salix). Salix has the highest net energy yield per hectare among the various energy crops cultivated in Sweden. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the production and transportation of logging residues, straw and Salix, are equivalent to 2-3% of those from a complete fuel-cycle for coal. Substituting biomass for fossil fuels in electricity and heat production is, in general, less costly and leads to a greater CO{sub 2} reduction per unit biomass than substituting biomass derived transportation fuels for petrol or diesel. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass provide larger and less expensive CO{sub 2} emission reductions than transportation fuels from annual crops. Swedish CO{sub 2} emissions could be reduced by about 50% from the present level if fossil fuels are replaced and the energy demand is unchanged. There is a good balance between potential regional production and utilization of biomass in Sweden. Future biomass transportation distances need not be longer than, on average, about 40 km. About 22 TWh electricity could be produced annually from biomass in large district heating systems by cogeneration. Cultivation of Salix and energy grass could be utilized to reduce the negative environmental impact of current agricultural practices, such as the emission of greenhouse gases, nutrient leaching, decreased soil fertility and erosion, and for the treatment of municipal waste and sludge, leading to increased recirculation of nutrients. About 20 TWh biomass could theoretically be produced per year at an average cost of less than 50% of current production cost, if the economic

  16. Sustainability Decision Support Framework for Industrial System Prioritization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Wei, Shunan; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2016-01-01

    A multicriteria decision-making methodology for the sustainability prioritization of industrial systems is proposed. The methodology incorporates a fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process method that allows the users to assess the soft criteria using linguistic terms. A fuzzy Analytic Network Process...... method is used to calculate the weights of each criterion, which can tackle the interdependencies and interactions among the criteria. The Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation approach is used to prioritize the sustainability sequence of the alternative systems. Moreover......, a sensitivity analysis method was developed to investigate the most critical and sensitive criteria. The developed methodology was illustrated by a case study to rank the sustainability of five alternative hydrogen production technologies. The advantages of the developed methodology over the previous approaches...

  17. Modelling Sustainable Development Scenarios of Croatian Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pašičko, Robert; Stanić, Zoran; Debrecin, Nenad

    2010-05-01

    The main objective of power system sustainable development is to provide the security of electricity supply required to underpin economic growth and increase the quality of living while minimizing adverse environmental impacts. New challenges such as deregulation, liberalization of energy markets, increased competition on energy markets, growing demands on security of supply, price insecurities and demand to cut CO2 emissions, are calling for better understanding of electrical systems modelling. Existing models are not sufficient anymore and planners will need to think differently in order to face these challenges. Such a model, on the basis on performed simulations, should enable planner to distinguish between different options and to analyze sustainability of these options. PLEXOS is an electricity market simulation model, used for modeling electrical system in Croatia since 2005. Within this paper, generation expansion scenarios until 2020 developed for Croatian Energy Strategy and modeled in PLEXOS. Development of sustainable Croatian energy scenario was analyzed in the paper - impacts of CO2 emission price and wind generation. Energy Strategy sets goal for 1200 MW from wind power plants in 2020. In order to fully understand its impacts, intermittent nature of electricity generation from wind power plant was modeled. We conclude that electrical system modelling using everyday growing models has proved to be inevitable for sustainable electrical system planning in complex environment in which power plants operate today.

  18. Population Pharmacokinetics of Colistin Methanesulfonate in Rats: Achieving Sustained Lung Concentrations of Colistin for Targeting Respiratory Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. S. Yapa, Shalini; Li, Jian; Porter, Christopher J. H.; Nation, Roger L.

    2013-01-01

    Colistin methanesulfonate (CMS), the inactive prodrug of colistin, is administered by inhalation for the management of respiratory infections. However, limited pharmacokinetic data are available for CMS and colistin following pulmonary delivery. This study investigates the pharmacokinetics of CMS and colistin following intravenous (i.v.) and intratracheal (i.t.) administration in rats and determines the targeting advantage after direct delivery into the lungs. In addition to plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected to quantify drug concentrations in lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF). The resulting data were analyzed using a population modeling approach in S-ADAPT. A three-compartment model described the disposition of both compounds in plasma following i.v. administration. The estimated mean clearance from the central compartment was 0.122 liters/h for CMS and 0.0657 liters/h for colistin. Conversion of CMS to colistin from all three compartments was required to fit the plasma data. The fraction of the i.v. dose converted to colistin in the systemic circulation was 0.0255. Two BAL fluid compartments were required to reflect drug kinetics in the ELF after i.t. dosing. A slow conversion of CMS (mean conversion time [MCTCMS] = 3.48 h) in the lungs contributed to high and sustained concentrations of colistin in ELF. The fraction of the CMS dose converted to colistin in ELF (fm,ELF = 0.226) was higher than the corresponding fractional conversion in plasma after i.v. administration. In conclusion, pulmonary administration of CMS achieves high and sustained exposures of colistin in lungs for targeting respiratory infections. PMID:23917323

  19. Sustainability assessment of stormwater management systems and the importance of pollutants in runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Ammitsøe, Christian

    We develop a method to systematically include impacts caused by runoff discharge into the sustainability assessment of stormwater management systems. By defining priority pollutants and calculating mean concentrations, an average ecotoxicity impact per litre of runoff is calculated. Of all assessed...... substance groups present in runoff, metals cause the highest impacts. To integrate this method into holistic sustainability assessment, we assess the complete life cycle of a complex stormwater management. We show that runoff discharges have a high relative importance: The impacts exceed the combined...

  20. Performance of Power Systems under Sustained Random Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Verdejo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies linear systems under sustained additive random perturbations. The stable operating point of an electric power system is replaced by an attracting stationary solution if the system is subjected to (small random additive perturbations. The invariant distribution of this stationary solution gives rise to several performance indices that measure how well the system copes with the randomness. These indices are introduced, showing how they can be used for the optimal tuning of system parameters in the presence of noise. Results on a four-generator two-area system are presented and discussed.

  1. SUSTAINABLE GROWTH OF THE COMMERCIAL AVIATION INDUSTRY IN MALAYSIA USING A SYSTEM DYNAMICS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. TAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact of the commercial aviation industry for an emerging economy like Malaysia is under-studied. The focus on the subject has thus far concentrated either on non geographical performance of the aviation industry or technical performance of aircrafts and that leaves the sustainability of the commercial aviation industry for an economy, or more specifically, an emerging economy least understood. Hence, this paper aims to investigate the sustainability of the growth of the commercial aviation industry in Malaysia and its impact upon the environment using a system dynamics approach. VENSIM is employed to model the commercial aviation industry in Malaysia as a dynamic system to evaluate the CO2 emitted from each component within the industry in order to forecast its overall CO2 emission. Results from the analysis show that sustainable growth can be affected by adopting short and long term strategies identified in this study.

  2. Cyanobacterial carbon concentrating mechanisms facilitate sustained CO2 depletion in eutrophic lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Morales-Williams

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton blooms are increasing in frequency, intensity, and duration in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. In many eutrophic lakes, these high levels of primary productivity correspond to periods of CO2 depletion in surface waters. Cyanobacteria and other groups of phytoplankton have the ability to actively transport bicarbonate (HCO3− across their cell membrane when CO2 concentrations are limiting, possibly giving them a competitive advantage over algae not using carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs. To investigate whether CCMs can maintain phytoplankton bloom biomass under CO2 depletion, we measured the δ13C signatures of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC and phytoplankton particulate organic carbon (δ13Cphyto in 16 mesotrophic to hypereutrophic lakes during the ice-free season of 2012. We used mass–balance relationships to determine the dominant inorganic carbon species used by phytoplankton under CO2 stress. We found a significant positive relationship between phytoplankton biomass and phytoplankton δ13C signatures as well as a significant nonlinear negative relationship between water column ρCO2 and isotopic composition of phytoplankton, indicating a shift from diffusive uptake to active uptake by phytoplankton of CO2 or HCO3− during blooms. Calculated photosynthetic fractionation factors indicated that this shift occurs specifically when surface water CO2 drops below atmospheric equilibrium. Our results indicate that active HCO3− uptake via CCMs may be an important mechanism in maintaining phytoplankton blooms when CO2 is depleted. Further increases in anthropogenic pressure, eutrophication, and cyanobacteria blooms are therefore expected to contribute to increased bicarbonate uptake to sustain primary production.

  3. Cyanobacterial carbon concentrating mechanisms facilitate sustained CO2 depletion in eutrophic lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Williams, Ana M.; Wanamaker, Alan D., Jr.; Downing, John A.

    2017-06-01

    Phytoplankton blooms are increasing in frequency, intensity, and duration in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. In many eutrophic lakes, these high levels of primary productivity correspond to periods of CO2 depletion in surface waters. Cyanobacteria and other groups of phytoplankton have the ability to actively transport bicarbonate (HCO3-) across their cell membrane when CO2 concentrations are limiting, possibly giving them a competitive advantage over algae not using carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs). To investigate whether CCMs can maintain phytoplankton bloom biomass under CO2 depletion, we measured the δ13C signatures of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) and phytoplankton particulate organic carbon (δ13Cphyto) in 16 mesotrophic to hypereutrophic lakes during the ice-free season of 2012. We used mass-balance relationships to determine the dominant inorganic carbon species used by phytoplankton under CO2 stress. We found a significant positive relationship between phytoplankton biomass and phytoplankton δ13C signatures as well as a significant nonlinear negative relationship between water column ρCO2 and isotopic composition of phytoplankton, indicating a shift from diffusive uptake to active uptake by phytoplankton of CO2 or HCO3- during blooms. Calculated photosynthetic fractionation factors indicated that this shift occurs specifically when surface water CO2 drops below atmospheric equilibrium. Our results indicate that active HCO3- uptake via CCMs may be an important mechanism in maintaining phytoplankton blooms when CO2 is depleted. Further increases in anthropogenic pressure, eutrophication, and cyanobacteria blooms are therefore expected to contribute to increased bicarbonate uptake to sustain primary production.

  4. Environmental Sustainability of Some Cropping Systems in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the greatest challenges facing agriculture in the tropics is the need to develop viable cropping systems for the rained uplands that are capable of ensuring increased and sustained crop production with minimum degradation of the non- renewable soil resource base. Increased population has reduced the ...

  5. Assessing the sustainability of egg production systems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van E.D.; Bussel, van L.G.J.; Horne, van P.L.M.; Voet, van der H.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Fels, van der H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Housing systems for laying hens have changed over the years due to increased public concern regarding animal welfare. In terms of sustainability, animal welfare is just one aspect that needs to be considered. Social aspects as well as environmental and economic factors need to be included as well.

  6. Wetland harvesting systems -- developing alternatives for sustainable operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Rummer; Bryce J. Stokes; Alvin Schilling

    1997-01-01

    Wetland forests represent some of the most productive forest lands in the Southeast. They are also an environmentally sensitive ecotype which presents unique problems for forest operations. Sustaining active management in these areas will require systems which can operate on weak soil conditions without adversely affecting soil properties or stand regeneration. The...

  7. Biorefinery systems – potential contributors to sustainable innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellisch, M.; Jungmeier, G.; Karbowski, A.; Patel, M.K.; Rogulska, M.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable biorefineries have a critical role to play in our common future. The need to provide more goods using renewable resources, combined with advances in science and technology, has provided a receptive environment for biorefinery systems development. Biorefineries offer the promise of using

  8. SUSTAIN:Urban Modeling Systems Integrating Optimization and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to support practitioners in developing cost-effective management plans for municipal storm water programs and evaluating and selecting Best Manag...

  9. enhanced digital library system that supports sustainable knowledge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Enhanced, Digital library, Sustainable knowledge. Introduction. It is rooted in the recent year׳s ... browser instantly with a nice pagination links for swapping in-between pages. 4. To restrict access from ... digital library is a type of information retrieval system (Candela, et al, 2011). The web based nature of digital ...

  10. Sustainability of the Health Management Information System in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines how Health Management Information Systems (HMIS) can be sustained in the Tanzanian context based on the experiences of Muheza and Kinondoni districts. Data for the study was collected using interviews, questionnares and document reviews. The findings show that the capability of a health facility ...

  11. Sustainable ecological systems: Implementing an ecological approach to land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Wallace Covington; Leonard F. DeBano

    1994-01-01

    This conference brought together scientiests and managers from federal, state, and local agencies, along with private-sector interests, to examine key concepts involving sustainable ecological systems, and ways in which to apply these concepts to ecosystem management. Session topics were: ecological consequenses of land and water use changes, biology of rare and...

  12. Advancing Integrated Systems Modelling Framework for Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Halog

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The need for integrated methodological framework for sustainability assessment has been widely discussed and is urgent due to increasingly complex environmental system problems. These problems have impacts on ecosystems and human well-being which represent a threat to economic performance of countries and corporations. Integrated assessment crosses issues; spans spatial and temporal scales; looks forward and backward; and incorporates multi-stakeholder inputs. This study aims to develop an integrated methodology by capitalizing the complementary strengths of different methods used by industrial ecologists and biophysical economists. The computational methodology proposed here is systems perspective, integrative, and holistic approach for sustainability assessment which attempts to link basic science and technology to policy formulation. The framework adopts life cycle thinking methods—LCA, LCC, and SLCA; stakeholders analysis supported by multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA; and dynamic system modelling. Following Pareto principle, the critical sustainability criteria, indicators and metrics (i.e., hotspots can be identified and further modelled using system dynamics or agent based modelling and improved by data envelopment analysis (DEA and sustainability network theory (SNT. The framework is being applied to development of biofuel supply chain networks. The framework can provide new ways of integrating knowledge across the divides between social and natural sciences as well as between critical and problem-solving research.

  13. Generating sustainable towns from Chinese villages: a system modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Richard S; Hughes, Michael T; Ryan Mather, Casey; Yanarella, Ernest J

    2008-04-01

    The great majority of China's developing towns will be extensions of already existing villages. With the prospect of hundreds of millions of Chinese farmers projected to leave their villages to become industrial workers in new and expanded towns within the next few years, new challenges will be faced. As expansion and modernization progress, this development moves from the traditional village model that operates not far from resource sustainability to increasingly unsustainable patterns of commerce, urban development, and modern life. With such an unprecedented mass migration and transformation, how can Chinese culture survive? What is to become of the existing million plus agricultural villages? How can these massively unsustainable new industrial towns survive? In the European Commission sponsored research program SUCCESS, researchers worked from the scale of the Chinese village to find viable answers to these questions. To address these issues, the Center for Sustainable Cities, one of the SUCCESS teams, studied the metabolism of several small villages. In these studies, system dynamics models of a village's metabolism were created and then modified so that inherently unsustainable means were eliminated from the model (fossil fuels, harmful agricultural chemicals, etc.) and replaced by sustainability-oriented means. Small Chinese farming villages are unlikely to survive in anything like their present form or scale, not least because they are too small to provide the range of life opportunities to which the young generation of educated Chinese aspires. As a response to this realization as well as to the many other threats to the Chinese village and its rural way of life, it was proposed that one viable path into the future would be to enlarge the villages to become full service towns with sufficient diversity of opportunity to be able to attract and keep many of the best and brightest young people who are now migrating to the larger cities. Starting with the

  14. Sustainable Transport in Romania vs. European Union. Analysis of Road Transport System from the Sustainable Transport Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clitan Andrei - Florin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a term used more often lately, based on three factors: social, economic, and environmental. Sustainable transport systems increase social cohesion, reduce environmental problems and help create a more efficient economy. Sustainable transport consists in a complex system that is designed to ensure mobility needs of present generations without damaging the environment and health factors. By improving energy and material consumption, it must be capable to satisfy in optimum conditions the need for mobility for future generations. The current transportation system has not a character of sustainability.

  15. Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovska, Natasa; Duić, Neven; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2016-01-01

    The Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES) in 2015 returned to its hometown, Dubrovnik, and once again served as a significant venue for scientists and specialists in different areas of sustainable development from all over the world to initiate...... traditionally cover a range of energy issues - higher renewables penetration and various technologies and fuels assessments at energy supply side, as well as, energy efficiency in various sectors, buildings, district heating, electric vehicles and demand modelling at energy demand side. Also, a review paper...

  16. World in transition 3 towards sustainable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    'The publication of World in Transition: Towards Sustainable Energy Systems is timely indeed. The World Summit on Sustainable Development gave great prominence to this challenge, but failed to agree on a quantitative, time-bound target for the introduction of renewable energy sources. The German Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU) has now produced a report with a global focus, which is essential in view of the global impacts of climate change. The report provides a convincing long-term analysis, which is also essential. Global energy policies have to take a long-term perspective, over the

  17. Sustainable energy systems: Limitations and challenges based on exergy analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Woudstra, N.

    2012-01-01

    General There is a general understanding that the so-called “developed countries” have to change their way of life including their energy supply into a more sustainable way. But even in the case of unanimity with regard to the direction, there are still many opinions about the way to follow. This thesis discusses problems and possibilities of more sustainable energy systems first of all for the energy supply of the Netherlands. The “trias energetica” is used to distinguish the steps that have...

  18. Applicability and methodology of determining sustainable yield in groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalf, Frans R. P.; Woolley, Donald R.

    2005-03-01

    There is currently a need for a review of the definition and methodology of determining sustainable yield. The reasons are: (1) current definitions and concepts are ambiguous and non-physically based so cannot be used for quantitative application, (2) there is a need to eliminate varying interpretations and misinterpretations and provide a sound basis for application, (3) the notion that all groundwater systems either are or can be made to be sustainable is invalid, (4) often there are an excessive number of factors bound up in the definition that are not easily quantifiable, (5) there is often confusion between production facility optimal yield and basin sustainable yield, (6) in many semi-arid and arid environments groundwater systems cannot be sensibly developed using a sustained yield policy particularly where ecological constraints are applied. Derivation of sustainable yield using conservation of mass principles leads to expressions for basin sustainable, partial (non-sustainable) mining and total (non-sustainable) mining yields that can be readily determined using numerical modelling methods and selected on the basis of applied constraints. For some cases there has to be recognition that the groundwater resource is not renewable and its use cannot therefore be sustainable. In these cases, its destiny should be the best equitable use. definiciones actuales son ambiguos y sin base física de modo que no pueden usarse para aplicación cuantitativa, (2) existe necesidad de eliminar interpretaciones variables y mal interpretaciones y aportar bases sanas para aplicación, (3) la noción de que todos los sistemas de aguas subterráneas son o pueden ser sostenibles no esvalida, (4) frecuentemente existen un numero excesivo de factores ligados a la definición de producción sostenible los cuales no son fácil de cuantificar, (5) frecuentemente existe confusión entre la producción optima de un establecimiento y la producción sostenible de unacuenca, (6) en muchos

  19. Reorienting land degradation towards sustainable land management: linking sustainable livelihoods with ecosystem services in rangeland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M S; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Perkins, J S; Atlhopheng, J R; Mulale, K; Favretto, N

    2015-03-15

    This paper identifies new ways of moving from land degradation towards sustainable land management through the development of economic mechanisms. It identifies new mechanisms to tackle land degradation based on retaining critical levels of natural capital whilst basing livelihoods on a wider range of ecosystem services. This is achieved through a case study analysis of the Kalahari rangelands in southwest Botswana. The paper first describes the socio-economic and ecological characteristics of the Kalahari rangelands and the types of land degradation taking place. It then focuses on bush encroachment as a way of exploring new economic instruments (e.g. Payments for Ecosystem Services) designed to enhance the flow of ecosystem services that support livelihoods in rangeland systems. It does this by evaluating the likely impacts of bush encroachment, one of the key forms of rangeland degradation, on a range of ecosystem services in three land tenure types (private fenced ranches, communal grazing areas and Wildlife Management Areas), before considering options for more sustainable land management in these systems. We argue that with adequate policy support, economic mechanisms could help reorient degraded rangelands towards more sustainable land management. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Sustainable nanotechnology decision support system: bridging risk management, sustainable innovation and risk governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Vrishali; Semenzin, Elena; Hristozov, Danail; Zabeo, Alex; Malsch, Ineke; McAlea, Eamonn; Murphy, Finbarr; Mullins, Martin; van Harmelen, Toon; Ligthart, Tom; Linkov, Igor; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The significant uncertainties associated with the (eco)toxicological risks of engineered nanomaterials pose challenges to the development of nano-enabled products toward greatest possible societal benefit. This paper argues for the use of risk governance approaches to manage nanotechnology risks and sustainability, and considers the links between these concepts. Further, seven risk assessment and management criteria relevant to risk governance are defined: (a) life cycle thinking, (b) triple bottom line, (c) inclusion of stakeholders, (d) risk management, (e) benefit-risk assessment, (f) consideration of uncertainty, and (g) adaptive response. These criteria are used to compare five well-developed nanotechnology frameworks: International Risk Governance Council framework, Comprehensive Environmental Assessment, Streaming Life Cycle Risk Assessment, Certifiable Nanospecific Risk Management and Monitoring System and LICARA NanoSCAN. A Sustainable Nanotechnology Decision Support System (SUNDS) is proposed to better address current nanotechnology risk assessment and management needs, and makes. Stakeholder needs were solicited for further SUNDS enhancement through a stakeholder workshop that included representatives from regulatory, industry and insurance sectors. Workshop participants expressed the need for the wider adoption of sustainability assessment methods and tools for designing greener nanomaterials.

  1. An Integrated Method for Sustainable Manufacturing Systems Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nujoom Reda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, there has been an increasing awareness in development of sustainable manufacturing systems as governments in many countries have been enforcing ever-stricter environmental policies and regulations in industry by promoting energy saving and low emissions manufacturing activities. Lean manufacturing can be helpful for achieving a sustainable manufacturing system as it can reduce production wastes and increase manufacturing efficiency. Nevertheless, this lean approach does not include a consideration in energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions when designing a lean manufacturing system. This paper presents a methodology which can be useful for measuring energy consumption and CO2 emissions for a typical manufacturing system design at an early stage. A case study was carried out for obtaining computational results using the developed methodology based on data collected from a real production line.

  2. Integrated Systems Health Management for Sustainable Habitats (Using Sustainability Base as a Testbed)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rodney A.

    2017-01-01

    Habitation systems provide a safe place for astronauts to live and work in space and on planetary surfaces. They enable crews to live and work safely in deep space, and include integrated life support systems, radiation protection, fire safety, and systems to reduce logistics and the need for resupply missions. Innovative health management technologies are needed in order to increase the safety and mission-effectiveness for future space habitats on other planets, asteroids, or lunar surfaces. For example, off-nominal or failure conditions occurring in safety-critical life support systems may need to be addressed quickly by the habitat crew without extensive technical support from Earth due to communication delays. If the crew in the habitat must manage, plan and operate much of the mission themselves, operations support must be migrated from Earth to the habitat. Enabling monitoring, tracking, and management capabilities on-board the habitat and related EVA platforms for a small crew to use will require significant automation and decision support software.Traditional caution and warning systems are typically triggered by out-of-bounds sensor values, but can be enhanced by including machine learning and data mining techniques. These methods aim to reveal latent, unknown conditions while still retaining and improving the ability to provide highly accurate alerts for known issues. A few of these techniques will briefly described, along with performance targets for known faults and failures. Specific system health management capabilities required for habitat system elements (environmental control and life support systems, etc.) may include relevant subsystems such as water recycling systems, photovoltaic systems, electrical power systems, and environmental monitoring systems. Sustainability Base, the agency's flagship LEED-platinum certified green building acts as a living laboratory for testing advanced information and sustainable technologies that provides an

  3. Defining elements of sustainable work systems--a system-oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Klaus; Zink, Klaus J

    2012-01-01

    Based on a system-theoretic discussion of sustainability, this paper aims to develop a conceptual model of a sustainable work system which is consistent with the definition of ergonomics by the IEA in 2000 (but also with earlier definitions) as well as with the triple bottom line understanding of sustainable development - comprising the management of human, social, ecological and economic capital in a balanced manner.

  4. Application of sustainable systems of milk production on small farms

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Milan P.; Sretenović Ljiljana; Aleksić S.; Ružić-Muslić D.; Žujović M.; Maksimović N.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper current situation is analyzed and sustainable systems introduced in production of milk on small farms. Old production systems used on farms were the reason why milk production wasn't profitable activity and therefore livestock production in mountainous regions had complete collapse and pastures remained almost entirely deserted. In population of Pirot Pramenka sheep and local Simmental population of cattle, our analysis of breed productivity shows that effects in mi...

  5. A SUSTAINABLE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM REQUIRES MANAGEMENT TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos Dimitros

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to be the health care system sustainable , management transformations must be based on very precise diagnostic analysis that includes complete and current information. It is necessary to implement an information system that collects information in real time, that watches the parameters that significantly influence the sustainability of the system. Such an information system should point out a radiography(a scan of the system at some time under following aspects:: 1. An overview of system; 2 An overview of the economic situation; 3 A technical presentation ;4. A legal overview; 5. A social overview ; 6. A management overview .Based on these Xrays of the health system, it outlines a series of conclusions and recommendations together with a SWOT analysis that highlights the potential internal (strengths and weaknesses and external potential (opportunities and threats. Based on this analysis and recommendations, the management is going to redesign the system in order to be adapted to the changing environmental requirements. Management transformation is recommended to be by following steps. :1. The development of a new management system that would make a positive change in the health care system 2. Implementation of the new management system 3. Assessment of the changes

  6. Systemic aspects of the transition to sustainable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlögl, R.

    2015-08-01

    The supply of free energy to our societies is today an intricate system comprising the regimes of technologies, regulatory frameworks, socio-economic impacts and techno-ecological interactions. As a consequence it is challenging to define clear directions or even device a master plan for the transformation of a single national energy system into a sustainable future. Even the term "sustainable" needs extensive discussion in this context that should not be defined solely in technological or ecological senses. The contribution illustrates some of the elements of the energy system and their interdependencies. It will become clear that multiple reasons exist to change the traditional generation and use of energy even when climate protection is not a sufficiently strong argument for a change.

  7. Seven Food System Metrics of Sustainable Nutrition Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gustafson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability considerations have been absent from most food security assessments conducted to date, despite the tremendous economic, environmental, and social implications of meeting accelerating food demand in the face of water shortages and climate change. In addition, previous food security work has generally focused only on achieving adequate calories, rather than addressing dietary diversity and micronutrient adequacy, both of which are critical to maintaining a healthy overall nutritional status. In response to the limitations of previous assessments, a new methodology is proposed here based on the concept of “sustainable nutrition security” (SNS. This novel assessment methodology is intended to remedy both kinds of deficiencies in the previous work by defining seven metrics, each based on a combination of multiple indicators, for use in characterizing sustainable nutrition outcomes of food systems: (1 food nutrient adequacy; (2 ecosystem stability; (3 food affordability and availability; (4 sociocultural wellbeing; (5 food safety; (6 resilience; and (7 waste and loss reduction. Each of the metrics comprises multiple indicators that are combined to derive an overall score (0–100. A novel SNS assessment methodology based on these metrics can be deployed by decision-makers and investors to set meaningful goals, track progress, and evaluate the potential impact of food system interventions intended to improve sustainability and human nutrition outcomes.

  8. Sustaining Engagements for Integrated Heat-Health Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trtanj, J.

    2016-12-01

    Extreme heat events are on the rise, evidenced by the record breaking heat in the summer of 2016 in the US, increased heat-related death toll in south Asia, and projections from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The impacts, responses and adaptation to extreme heat are inherently local or region in nature and require multisector engagement to manage current and future heat risks. Understanding the character of the information demand, who needs it, when and how it is needed, how it is used, and the remaining research questions, requires sustained engagement of multiple science and decision making communities. The construct of Integrated Information Systems provides the framework that sustains this dialogue, supports the production of useful information, and the translation of knowledge to action. The National Integrated Heat Health Information System (NIHHIS), a multi-agency collaboration, working at state, local and international levels, designed to facilitate an integrated approach to providing a suite of decision support services that reduce heat-related illness and death. NIHHIS sustains engagement across the public health, emergency management, disaster risk reduction, planning, housing, communication, climate, weather and other science communities. This presentation will highlight NIHHS sustained engagements in the Rio Grande Bravo region, other NIHHIS pilots, and international efforts building on the NIHHIS framework. NIHHIS, launched by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2015, now has over eight Federal partners and a burgeoning mix of pilots, projects and partners at state, local and international levels.

  9. Sustainable recycling technologies for Solar PV off-grid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppal Bhavesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy makers throughout the world have accepted climate change as a repercussion of fossil fuel exploitation. This has led the governments to integrate renewable energy streams in their national energy mix. PV off-grid Systems have been at the forefront of this transition because of their permanently increasing efficiency and cost effectiveness. These systems are expected to produce large amount of different waste streams at the end of their lifetime. It is important that these waste streams should be recycled because of the lack of available resources. Our study found that separate researches have been carried out to increase the efficiencies of recycling of individual PV system components but there is a lack of a comprehensive methodical research which details efficient and sustainable recycling processes for the entire PV off-grid system. This paper reviews the current and future recycling technologies for PV off-grid systems and presents a scheme of the most sustainable recycling technologies which have the potential for adoption. Full Recovery End-of-Life Photovoltaic (FRELP recycling technology can offer opportunities to sustainably recycle crystalline silicon PV modules. Electro-hydrometallurgical process & Vacuum technologies can be used for recovering lead from lead acid batteries with a high recovery rate. The metals in the WEEE can be recycled by using a combination of biometallurgical technology, vacuum metallurgical technology and other advanced metallurgical technologies (utrasonical, mechano-chemical technology while the plastic components can be effectively recycled without separation by using compatibilizers. All these advanced technologies when used in combination with each other provide sustainable recycling options for growing PV off-grid systems waste. These promising technologies still need further improvement and require proper integration techniques before implementation.

  10. Sustainable recycling technologies for Solar PV off-grid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Bhavesh; Tamboli, Adish; Wubhayavedantapuram, Nandan

    2017-11-01

    Policy makers throughout the world have accepted climate change as a repercussion of fossil fuel exploitation. This has led the governments to integrate renewable energy streams in their national energy mix. PV off-grid Systems have been at the forefront of this transition because of their permanently increasing efficiency and cost effectiveness. These systems are expected to produce large amount of different waste streams at the end of their lifetime. It is important that these waste streams should be recycled because of the lack of available resources. Our study found that separate researches have been carried out to increase the efficiencies of recycling of individual PV system components but there is a lack of a comprehensive methodical research which details efficient and sustainable recycling processes for the entire PV off-grid system. This paper reviews the current and future recycling technologies for PV off-grid systems and presents a scheme of the most sustainable recycling technologies which have the potential for adoption. Full Recovery End-of-Life Photovoltaic (FRELP) recycling technology can offer opportunities to sustainably recycle crystalline silicon PV modules. Electro-hydrometallurgical process & Vacuum technologies can be used for recovering lead from lead acid batteries with a high recovery rate. The metals in the WEEE can be recycled by using a combination of biometallurgical technology, vacuum metallurgical technology and other advanced metallurgical technologies (utrasonical, mechano-chemical technology) while the plastic components can be effectively recycled without separation by using compatibilizers. All these advanced technologies when used in combination with each other provide sustainable recycling options for growing PV off-grid systems waste. These promising technologies still need further improvement and require proper integration techniques before implementation.

  11. Interconnectivity of weather system and ozone concentration...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    ABSTRACT. The relationship between some meteorological parameters and ozone distributions as revealed by satellite EPTOM over four West African stations namely, Lagos (Nigeria), Dakar (Senegal). Lamto (Ivory Coast) and Ekona (Cameroon) was studied for the period 1997 to 2002. The mean ozone concentration ...

  12. Agricultural biodiversity, social-ecological systems and sustainable diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Thomas; Prosperi, Paolo; Cogill, Bruce; Flichman, Guillermo

    2014-11-01

    The stark observation of the co-existence of undernourishment, nutrient deficiencies and overweight and obesity, the triple burden of malnutrition, is inviting us to reconsider health and nutrition as the primary goal and final endpoint of food systems. Agriculture and the food industry have made remarkable advances in the past decades. However, their development has not entirely fulfilled health and nutritional needs, and moreover, they have generated substantial collateral losses in agricultural biodiversity. Simultaneously, several regions are experiencing unprecedented weather events caused by climate change and habitat depletion, in turn putting at risk global food and nutrition security. This coincidence of food crises with increasing environmental degradation suggests an urgent need for novel analyses and new paradigms. The sustainable diets concept proposes a research and policy agenda that strives towards a sustainable use of human and natural resources for food and nutrition security, highlighting the preeminent role of consumers in defining sustainable options and the importance of biodiversity in nutrition. Food systems act as complex social-ecological systems, involving multiple interactions between human and natural components. Nutritional patterns and environment structure are interconnected in a mutual dynamic of changes. The systemic nature of these interactions calls for multidimensional approaches and integrated assessment and simulation tools to guide change. This paper proposes a review and conceptual modelling framework that articulate the synergies and tradeoffs between dietary diversity, widely recognised as key for healthy diets, and agricultural biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions, crucial resilience factors to climate and global changes.

  13. Sustainable Water Management in Urban, Agricultural, and Natural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Russo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water management (SWM requires allocating between competing water sector demands, and balancing the financial and social resources required to support necessary water systems. The objective of this review is to assess SWM in three sectors: urban, agricultural, and natural systems. This review explores the following questions: (1 How is SWM defined and evaluated? (2 What are the challenges associated with sustainable development in each sector? (3 What are the areas of greatest potential improvement in urban and agricultural water management systems? And (4 What role does country development status have in SWM practices? The methods for evaluating water management practices range from relatively simple indicator methods to integration of multiple models, depending on the complexity of the problem and resources of the investigators. The two key findings and recommendations for meeting SWM objectives are: (1 all forms of water must be considered usable, and reusable, water resources; and (2 increasing agricultural crop water production represents the largest opportunity for reducing total water consumption, and will be required to meet global food security needs. The level of regional development should not dictate sustainability objectives, however local infrastructure conditions and financial capabilities should inform the details of water system design and evaluation.

  14. Dense-array concentrator photovoltaic system using non-imaging dish concentrator and crossed compound parabolic concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kok-Keong; Yew, Tiong-Keat; Wong, Chee-Woon; Tan, Ming-Hui; Tan, Woei-Chong; Lai, An-Chow; Lim, Boon-Han; Lau, Sing-Liong; Rahman, Faidz Abdul

    2015-04-01

    Solar concentrating device plays an important role by making use of optical technology in the design, which can be either reflector or lens to deliver high flux of sunlight onto the Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) module receiver ranging from hundreds to thousand suns. To be more competitive compared with fossil fuel, the current CPV systems using Fresnel lens and Parabolic dish as solar concentrator that are widely deployed in United States, Australia and Europe are facing great challenge to produce uniformly focused sunlight on the solar cells as to reduce the cost of electrical power generation. The concept of non-imaging optics is not new, but it has not fully explored by the researchers over the world especially in solving the problem of high concentration solar energy, which application is only limited to be a secondary focusing device or low concentration device using Compound Parabolic Concentrator. With the current advancement in the computer processing power, we has successfully invented the non-imaging dish concentrator (NIDC) using numerical simulation method to replace the current parabolic dish as primary focusing device with high solar concentration ratio (more than 400 suns) and large collective area (from 25 to 125 m2). In this paper, we disclose our research and development on dense array CPV system based on non-imaging optics. The geometry of the NIDC is determined using a special computational method. In addition, an array of secondary concentrators, namely crossed compound parabolic concentrators, is also proposed to further focus the concentrated sunlight by the NIDC onto active area of solar cells of the concentrator photovoltaic receiver. The invention maximizes the absorption of concentrated sunlight for the electric power generation system.

  15. Methods and systems for concentrated solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiwen

    2016-05-24

    Embodiments described herein relate to a method of producing energy from concentrated solar flux. The method includes dropping granular solid particles through a solar flux receiver configured to transfer energy from concentrated solar flux incident on the solar flux receiver to the granular solid particles as heat. The method also includes fluidizing the granular solid particles from the solar flux receiver to produce a gas-solid fluid. The gas-solid fluid is passed through a heat exchanger to transfer heat from the solid particles in the gas-solid fluid to a working fluid. The granular solid particles are extracted from the gas-solid fluid such that the granular solid particles can be dropped through the solar flux receiver again.

  16. Evaluating sustainability of truck weight regulations: A system dynamics view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Targeting the problem of overload trucking in Highway Transportation of iron ore from Caofeidian to Tangshan (HTCT, this paper aims to assess long-term effects of alternative Truck Weight Regulation (TWR policies on sustainability of HTCT. Design/methodology/approach: A system dynamics model was established for policy evaluation. The model, composed of six interrelating modules, is able to simulate policies effects on trucking issues such as freight flow, truck traffic flow, pavement performance, highway transport capacity and trucking time, and further on the Cumulative Economic Cost (CEC including transport cost and time cost of freight owners and the Cumulative Social Cost (CSC including pavement maintenance cost, green house gas emission cost, air pollutants emission cost and traffic accidents cost, so the effects of TWR policies on sustainability of HTCT could be evaluated. Findings: According to different values of overload ratio which a TWR policy allows, alternative TWR policies are classified into three types, which are The Rigid Policy (TRP, The Moderate Policy (TMP and The Tolerant Policy (TTP. Results show that the best policy for sustainability of HTCT depends on the importance of CSC which is expected by the local government. To be specific, (1 if CSC is considered much less important than CEC, the local government should continue implementing the current TTP with the maximum overload ratio; (2 if CSC is considered much more important than CEC, then TRP is recommended; and (3 if CSC is considered slightly more important than CES, TMP with overload ratio of 80% is the best. Practical implications: Conclusions of this paper may help the local government design appropriate TWR policies to achieve sustainability of HTCT. Originality/value: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort to evaluate TWR policies on sustainability of regional freight transportation based on system dynamics modeling.

  17. Modeling of Supersonic Combustion Systems for Sustained Hypersonic Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Neill

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Through Computational Fluid Dynamics and validation, an optimal scramjet combustor has been designed based on twin-strut Hydrogen injection to sustain flight at a desired speed of Mach 8. An investigation undertaken into the efficacy of supersonic combustion through various means of injection saw promising results for Hydrogen-based systems, whereby strut-style injectors were selected over transverse injectors based on their pressure recovery performance and combustive efficiency. The final configuration of twin-strut injectors provided robust combustion and a stable region of net thrust (1873 kN in the nozzle. Using fixed combustor inlet parameters and injection equivalence ratio, the finalized injection method advanced to the early stages of two-dimensional (2-D and three-dimensional (3-D scramjet engine integration. The overall investigation provided a feasible supersonic combustion system, such that Mach 8 sustained cruise could be achieved by the aircraft concept in a computational design domain.

  18. Dynamic Systems Modeling for Sustainable Economic Empowerment in Cilacap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Anwar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the dynamic problem of living system in Kampung Laut, Cilacap, whichincludes social problems and ecological changes. The paper uses a dynamic system model to structurethe problems. The model simulates various feasible scenarios, from which the best becomesthe base to impose a policy to empower their sustainable economy. The model conceptualizes variablesrelated to the problem to build a figure of Causal Loop Diagram (CLD, which is then simulatedusing Powersim 2.5 software package. Using the scenario of intensification and populationcontrol, the paper finds that it can increase the people’s income, with positive trend until the end ofsimulation.Keywords: Dynamic modelling, sustainable economic empowerment, causal loop diagram

  19. EMPIRICAL STUDY REGARDING SUSTAINABILITY OF ROMANIAN PENSION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprean Delia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of a broad, applied scientific research, based on popular empirical procedures (such as natural observation. Positivistic and constructive research methodology used was based on the consensual-inductive system (Locke, which is why we studied the different views of specialists on sustainability of pensions in Romania, necessary to formulate the problem of generating relevant information. Research strategies used were the comparative and longitudinal ones, as we analyzed the time evolution of qualitative indicators VUAN (unitary value of net asset specific to pension funds Pillar II and Pillar III of Romania, concomitant with the number of participants in these funds, as to determine their direct relationship with the need for sustainability in this area. The hypotheses regarding causal relationship efficiency – participants - sustainability and needed measures for pension reform were built in this paper inductively (by analyzing the sustainability issues of pensions in time, causally (by explaining the cause and effect phenomenon studied, deductively, logically and subjectively (due to the existence and perpetuation of conflict premise between generations and social inequality between employees and pensioners. The qualitative approach of the phenomenon studied by collecting information (using mediated data collection technique has allowed the relevant findings and practical solutions necessary for all those involved in this concerted action of pensions, which affects us all.

  20. Sustainable Design of Energy Systems - The Case of Geothermal Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Heracles Polatidis; Dias Haralambopoulos

    2006-01-01

    Geothermal energy is one of the renewable energy resources with a vast potential. It is extended spatially in many areas, isolated from urban areas and direct uses, whereas its utilisation when it is not for electricity production is many times hampered due to lack of a proper development framework. In this work we present a design framework for sustainable geothermal systems incorporating modules covering the various aspects of exploration, utilisation, end-use and management. The overall fr...

  1. Sustainability of Rainwater Harvesting System in terms of Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is considered an everlasting free source that can be acquired naturally. Demand for processed supply water is growing higher due to an increasing population. Sustainable use of water could maintain a balance between its demand and supply. Rainwater harvesting (RWH is the most traditional and sustainable method, which could be easily used for potable and nonpotable purposes both in residential and commercial buildings. This could reduce the pressure on processed supply water which enhances the green living. This paper ensures the sustainability of this system through assessing several water-quality parameters of collected rainwater with respect to allowable limits. A number of parameters were included in the analysis: pH, fecal coliform, total coliform, total dissolved solids, turbidity, NH3–N, lead, BOD5, and so forth. The study reveals that the overall quality of water is quite satisfactory as per Bangladesh standards. RWH system offers sufficient amount of water and energy savings through lower consumption. Moreover, considering the cost for installation and maintenance expenses, the system is effective and economical.

  2. Sustainability of Rainwater Harvesting System in terms of Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. T. R.; Akib, Shatirah; Din, Nazli Bin Che; Biswas, S. K.; Shirazi, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Water is considered an everlasting free source that can be acquired naturally. Demand for processed supply water is growing higher due to an increasing population. Sustainable use of water could maintain a balance between its demand and supply. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is the most traditional and sustainable method, which could be easily used for potable and nonpotable purposes both in residential and commercial buildings. This could reduce the pressure on processed supply water which enhances the green living. This paper ensures the sustainability of this system through assessing several water-quality parameters of collected rainwater with respect to allowable limits. A number of parameters were included in the analysis: pH, fecal coliform, total coliform, total dissolved solids, turbidity, NH3–N, lead, BOD5, and so forth. The study reveals that the overall quality of water is quite satisfactory as per Bangladesh standards. RWH system offers sufficient amount of water and energy savings through lower consumption. Moreover, considering the cost for installation and maintenance expenses, the system is effective and economical. PMID:24701186

  3. Sustainability of rainwater harvesting system in terms of water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Sadia; Khan, M T R; Akib, Shatirah; Din, Nazli Bin Che; Biswas, S K; Shirazi, S M

    2014-01-01

    Water is considered an everlasting free source that can be acquired naturally. Demand for processed supply water is growing higher due to an increasing population. Sustainable use of water could maintain a balance between its demand and supply. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is the most traditional and sustainable method, which could be easily used for potable and nonpotable purposes both in residential and commercial buildings. This could reduce the pressure on processed supply water which enhances the green living. This paper ensures the sustainability of this system through assessing several water-quality parameters of collected rainwater with respect to allowable limits. A number of parameters were included in the analysis: pH, fecal coliform, total coliform, total dissolved solids, turbidity, NH3-N, lead, BOD5, and so forth. The study reveals that the overall quality of water is quite satisfactory as per Bangladesh standards. RWH system offers sufficient amount of water and energy savings through lower consumption. Moreover, considering the cost for installation and maintenance expenses, the system is effective and economical.

  4. Health care financing and the sustainability of health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaropoulos, Lycourgos; Goranitis, Ilias

    2015-09-15

    The economic crisis brought an unprecedented attention to the issue of health system sustainability in the developed world. The discussion, however, has been mainly limited to "traditional" issues of cost-effectiveness, quality of care, and, lately, patient involvement. Not enough attention has yet been paid to the issue of who pays and, more importantly, to the sustainability of financing. This fundamental concept in the economics of health policy needs to be reconsidered carefully. In a globalized economy, as the share of labor decreases relative to that of capital, wage income is increasingly insufficient to cover the rising cost of care. At the same time, as the cost of Social Health Insurance through employment contributions rises with medical costs, it imperils the competitiveness of the economy. These reasons explain why spreading health care cost to all factors of production through comprehensive National Health Insurance financed by progressive taxation of income from all sources, instead of employer-employee contributions, protects health system objectives, especially during economic recessions, and ensures health system sustainability.

  5. Natural treatment systems as sustainable ecotechnologies for the developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Pervez, Arshid; Zeb, Bibi Saima; Zaffar, Habiba; Yaqoob, Hajra; Waseem, Muhammad; Zahidullah; Afsheen, Sumera

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of natural treatment systems is the re-establishment of disturbed ecosystems and their sustainability for benefits to human and nature. The working of natural treatment systems on ecological principles and their sustainability in terms of low cost, low energy consumption, and low mechanical technology is highly desirable. The current review presents pros and cons of the natural treatment systems, their performance, and recent developments to use them in the treatment of various types of wastewaters. Fast population growth and economic pressure in some developing countries compel the implementation of principles of natural treatment to protect natural environment. The employment of these principles for waste treatment not only helps in environmental cleanup but also conserves biological communities. The systems particularly suit developing countries of the world. We reviewed information on constructed wetlands, vermicomposting, role of mangroves, land treatment systems, soil-aquifer treatment, and finally aquatic systems for waste treatment. Economic cost and energy requirements to operate various kinds of natural treatment systems were also reviewed.

  6. INFORMATION SOCIETY AND FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY OF THE ROMANIAN HEALTH SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATIANA BOGDAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The financial sustainability of the health systems often reveals the ability of policy makers to finance healthcare in the face of growing cost pressures, with populations ageing, new technologies and increased patient expectations for healthcare coverage and quality. Thus, the healthcare systems need to reinvent themselves by using innovative financing mechanisms coupled with electronic information and communication systems, while offering greater transparency, flexibility and choice and increasing access to the services available. The paper analyses the healthcare financing models: the national health system, the social insurance or the private insurance model so that the Romanian health care reform should preserve the best elements of its existing system while selectively adapt techniques and processes that seemed to have been successful in other countries. Moreover, the application of information and communication technologies – eHealth offers new possibilities for improving almost every aspect of healthcare, from making medical systems more powerful and responsive to providing better health information to all.

  7. SUSTAINABILITY OF TURKISH GREY CATTLE IN ORGANIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya HANOĞLU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beef consumption has significantly increased in the last fifty years as a response to the increase in population size, whereas the sustainability of production systems has begun to be questioned. Because the residues left in the animal feed additives used in conventional food production constitute major health problems in consumers. Therefore, an interest in organic farming methods based on natural grazing and feed production without the use of chemicals is increasing. One of the most important examples of organic beef production in Turkey is the project carried out in the villages of Ayvacık district in Çanakkale. This region has an ecological structure which does not allow an extensive production of culture cattle. The most important advantages of the Turkish grey cattle living in the pastures in the region covered with bushes are that they have less needs of shelter, they do not need supplementary feeding throughout the year and labor costs for their production for beef are low. Breeders in this region maintained a market price for their products by shifting to organic system and thus allowed the sustainable production of the Turkish grey cattle. In this study, Ayvacık Organic Beef Production Project which sets an example for the sustainability of Turkish grey cattle production by featuring its surplus values was evaluated.

  8. System for particle concentration and detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Alfredo M.; Whaley, Josh A.; Zimmerman, Mark D.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Tran, Huu M.; Maurer, Scott M.; Munslow, William D.

    2013-03-19

    A new microfluidic system comprising an automated prototype insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) triggering microfluidic device for pathogen monitoring that can eventually be run outside the laboratory in a real world environment has been used to demonstrate the feasibility of automated trapping and detection of particles. The system broadly comprised an aerosol collector for collecting air-borne particles, an iDEP chip within which to temporarily trap the collected particles and a laser and fluorescence detector with which to induce a fluorescence signal and detect a change in that signal as particles are trapped within the iDEP chip.

  9. Self-sustaining fuel purging fuel injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J.R.; Koblish, T.R.

    1994-01-11

    A fuel injector system for a combustor of a gas turbine engine includes first and second fuel injectors rendered operative to discharge fuel to the combustor during a high power regime of engine operation and rendered non-operative during a lower power regime of engine operation. The first and second fuel injectors include respective first and second fuel discharge passages in fuel flow communication to one another and to the combustor via associated fuel discharge lips to sustain a flame region. The first and second fuel injectors are operatively associated with respective first and second air discharge means having air discharge lips for discharging air to the combustor for sustaining the flame region therein. When the fuel injectors are rendered non-operative, different pneumatic pressures are established at the fuel discharge lips to purge fuel from the fuel injectors to the combustor. 26 figs.

  10. [Health care system sustainability and the contribution of emergency departments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanos-Garrido, Rosa María; López-Valcárcel, Beatriz G

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the main proposals for ensuring national health service sustainability, in the light of a review of the most relevant diagnostic reports and guidelines published since the onset of the economic crisis. The following proposals are among the most frequently mentioned in the literature: selective financing of technology, reorganization to provide more care for chronic conditions and better coordination between levels of care and the network of social and health care services, and the reinforcement of primary care. Also commonly suggested is the reform of health care governance. Likewise, the authors briefly examine the measures adopted to date to promote the system's sustainability and discuss how the emergency department can further this aim.

  11. Development of Bioelectrochemical Systems to Promote Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojin Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrochemical systems (BES are a newly emerged technology for energy-efficient water and wastewater treatment. Much effort as well as significant progress has been made in advancing this technology towards practical applications treating various types of waste. However, BES application for agriculture has not been well explored. Herein, studies of BES related to agriculture are reviewed and the potential applications of BES for promoting sustainable agriculture are discussed. BES may be applied to treat the waste/wastewater from agricultural production, minimizing contaminants, producing bioenergy, and recovering useful nutrients. BES can also be used to supply irrigation water via desalinating brackish water or producing reclaimed water from wastewater. The energy generated in BES can be used as a power source for wireless sensors monitoring the key parameters for agricultural activities. The importance of BES to sustainable agriculture should be recognized, and future development of this technology should identify proper application niches with technological advancement.

  12. The Stability-Concentration Relationship in the Brazilian Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Miranda Tabak; Solange Maria Guerra; Eduardo José Araújo Lima; Eui Jung Chang

    2007-01-01

    In this article the relation between non-performing loans (NPL) of the Brazilian banking system and macroeconomic factors, systemic risk and banking concentration is empirically tested. While evaluating this relation, we use a dynamic specification with fixed effects, using a panel data approach. The empirical results indicate that the banking concentration has a statistically significant impact on NPL, suggesting that more concentrated banking systems may improve financial stability. These r...

  13. Modeling sustainability in renewable energy supply chain systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fei

    This dissertation aims at modeling sustainability of renewable fuel supply chain systems against emerging challenges. In particular, the dissertation focuses on the biofuel supply chain system design, and manages to develop advanced modeling framework and corresponding solution methods in tackling challenges in sustaining biofuel supply chain systems. These challenges include: (1) to integrate "environmental thinking" into the long-term biofuel supply chain planning; (2) to adopt multimodal transportation to mitigate seasonality in biofuel supply chain operations; (3) to provide strategies in hedging against uncertainty from conversion technology; and (4) to develop methodologies in long-term sequential planning of the biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. All models are mixed integer programs, which also involves multi-objective programming method and two-stage/multistage stochastic programming methods. In particular for the long-term sequential planning under uncertainties, to reduce the computational challenges due to the exponential expansion of the scenario tree, I also developed efficient ND-Max method which is more efficient than CPLEX and Nested Decomposition method. Through result analysis of four independent studies, it is found that the proposed modeling frameworks can effectively improve the economic performance, enhance environmental benefits and reduce risks due to systems uncertainties for the biofuel supply chain systems.

  14. Forage based animal production systems and sustainability, an invited keynote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Forages are essential for the successful operation of animal production systems. This is more relevant to ruminants which are heavily dependant upon forages for their health and production in a cost-effective and sustainable manner. While forages are an economical source of nutrients for animal production, they also help conserve the soil integrity, water supply and air quality. Although the role of these forages for animal production could vary depending upon the regional preferences for the animal and forage species, climate and resources, their importance in the success of ruminant production is acknowledged. However with the increasing global human population and urbanisation, the sustainability of forage based animal production systems is sometimes questioned due to the interrelationship between animal production and the environment. It is therefore vital to examine the suitability of these systems for their place in the future to supply quality food which is safe for human consumption and available at a competitive price to the growing human population. Grassland and forage crops are recognised for their contribution to the environment, recreation and efficiency of meat and milk production,. To maintain sustainability, it is crucial that such farming systems remain profitable and environmentally friendly while producing nutritious foods of high economical value. Thus, it is pertinent to improve the nutritive value of grasses and other forage plants in order to enhance animal production to obtain quality food. It is also vital to develop new forages which are efficiently utilised and wasted less by involving efficient animals. A combination of forage legumes, fresh or conserved grasses, crop residues and other feeds could help develop an animal production system which is economically efficient, beneficial and viable. Also, it is crucial to use efficient animals, improved forage conservation methods, better manure handling, and minimum

  15. Concentrate composition for automatic milking systems - effect on milking frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of affecting milking frequency in an Automatic Milking System (AMS) by changing ingredient composition of the concentrate fed in the AMS. In six experiments, six experimental concentrates were tested against a Standard concentrate all...

  16. Performance and sustainability of two alternative rabbit breeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Theau.Clément

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate 2 alternative breeding systems that differ from the current system in terms of reproduction rhythm, age of females at first insemination and the age of kits at weaning and at slaughter. We measured the performance of 332 females and their offspring over 4 consecutive cycles, as well as the sustainability of the systems. We compared an intensive (group I: reproduction rhythm [RR]=35 d; first insemination [AI1]=20.6 wk of age; weaning age [WA]=32 d; slaughter age [WS]=63 d an extensive (group E: RR=49 d; AI1=16.6 wk; WA=30 d; WS=70 d and a semi-intensive system (group S: RR=42 d; AI1=19.6 wk; WA=35 d; WS=70 d considered as the control system. Sustainability was evaluated using a multicriteria assessment method that takes 14 economic, environmental and social criteria into account, for which 3 to 5 indicators were expressed as the relative score [–1; –0.5; 0; +0.5; +1] for alternative systems compared to the control system. The productivity measured at 28 d (3.5, 4.2 and 4.6 kg/AI, for groups I, S and E, respectively, at 63 d post-partum (30, 38 and 42 kg/female for 4 cycles, respectively, and the total body energy measured 3 d after the 1st and at the 4th insemination (45.4, 46.8 and 49.5 MJ, respectively, were significantly increased when the reproductive rhythm decreased (P<0.001. Before and after weaning, kit mortality decreased when the reproduction rhythm decreased (11.4, 7.3, and 1.9% and 18.3, 15.3 and 10.6% for groups I, S and E, respectively, P<0.05. Carcass quality (weight and dressing percentage was lower in I than in the S and E groups (P<0.001. On this basis, the yearly productivity per doe at weaning could be estimated at 79, 83, and 78 kg for groups I, S and E, respectively. Consequently, the productivity per reproductive cycle increases with the extensification of the breeding system. Nevertheless, compared with the current French system (S, simultaneous changes in several breeding

  17. THE MEDITERRANEAN DIET AS A SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lopes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Central theme in society these days, the diet went through several phases during the evolution of the human being. Currently human’s advanced civilizational, deplete resources, develops forms of reproduction and rapid growth of animals, genetically alter plants to make them more resilient and artificially prolongs life. All these factors lead to an overload in nature and revolve to a group of environmentalists and animal rights. Sustainability is part of everyday life of political and social discourse as the fundamental way to our relationship with the environment. Sustainable food systems are those that are able to survive over time, promoting sustainable use of resources and a balance in the economic, social and environmental aspects. Changing diet to the Mediterranean Diet would bring benefits: on the health level, with better nutrition and increased use of some processed products; economic, by encouraging the consumption of local and national production of products; social, with the creation of jobs in agriculture; and environmental, using organic production and the reduction of transportation needs. The Mediterranean Diet encourages a more balanced and healthy eating style, with great positive impact on the environment. With the globalization phenomena is was gradually lost, but is now being revived due to the awakening to health and ecological problems.

  18. An environmentally sustainable transport system in Sweden. A scenario study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brokking, P.; Emmelin, L.; Engstroem, M-G.; Nilsson, Jan-Evert; Eriksson, Gunnar; Wikberg, O.

    1997-02-01

    This is a short version of a scenario study concerning the possibilities to reach an Environmentally Sustainable Transport system in Sweden in a perspective of 30 years. The aim of the scenario study has been to describe one of several possible paths from today`s transport system to an environmentally adopted one. However, this does not imply that the task is to predict how such a transformation can be accomplished. The aim is rather to illustrate what such transformation require in the form of political decisions. The transformation of the transport system in to an environmentally adopted one, is primarily treated as a political problem, and a political perspective has accordingly been chosen for the study. In this English version of the scenario, the carbon dioxide problem is used to illuminate the many conflicts in goals and other problem that will attend an environmental adoption of the Swedish transport system, and to highlight the analytical points of departure for the scenario study. The analysis shows that it is possible to reach the national environmental goals that characterise, with given definitions, an environmentally sustainable transport system. However, this implies many severe political decisions over a long period of time, which in turn, implies a long term national consensus about the importance to reach the overall goal. Other results the scenario points out, is the risk that a policy focused on one sector leads to `solving` a problem by moving it outside systems limitations, and the limitations on a national environmental policy: Being able to count on assistance from other countries through an environmental adoption of the transport system in the European Union or globally, would drastically facilitate the environmental adoption of the Swedish transport system, through, among other things, a more rapid technological development. This indicates the necessity of promoting issues involving transportation and the environment in international

  19. A water management decision support system contributing to sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Klaudia; van Esch, Bart; Baayen, Jorn; Pothof, Ivo; Talsma, Jan; van Heeringen, Klaas-Jan

    2017-04-01

    Deltares and Eindhoven University of Technology are developing a new decision support system (DSS) for regional water authorities. In order to maintain water levels in the Dutch polder system, water should be drained and pumped out from the polders to the sea. The time and amount of pumping depends on the current sea level, the water level in the polder, the weather forecast and the electricity price forecast and possibly local renewable power production. This is a multivariable optimisation problem, where the goal is to keep the water level in the polder within certain bounds. By optimizing the operation of the pumps the energy usage and costs can be reduced, hence the operation of the regional water authorities can be more sustainable, while also anticipating on increasing share of renewables in the energy mix in a cost-effective way. The decision support system, based on Delft-FEWS as operational data-integration platform, is running an optimization model built in RTC-Tools 2, which is performing real-time optimization in order to calculate the pumping strategy. It is taking into account the present and future circumstances. As being the core of the real time decision support system, RTC-Tools 2 fulfils the key requirements to a DSS: it is fast, robust and always finds the optimal solution. These properties are associated with convex optimization. In such problems the global optimum can always be found. The challenge in the development is to maintain the convex formulation of all the non-linear components in the system, i.e. open channels, hydraulic structures, and pumps. The system is introduced through 4 pilot projects, one of which is a pilot of the Dutch Water Authority Rivierenland. This is a typical Dutch polder system: several polders are drained to the main water system, the Linge. The water from the Linge can be released to the main rivers that are subject to tidal fluctuations. In case of low tide, water can be released via the gates. In case of high

  20. Whole systems thinking for sustainable water treatment design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Mitchell Tyler

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology could provide a low cost alternative to conventional aerated wastewater treatment, however there has been little comparison between MFC and aeration treatment using real wastewater substrate. This study attempts to directly compare the wastewater treatment efficiency and energy consumption and generation among three reactor systems, a traditional aeration process, a simple submerged MFC configuration, and a control reactor acting similar as natural lagoons. Results showed that all three systems were able to remove >90% of COD, but the aeration used shorter time (8 days) then the MFC (10 days) and control reactor (25 days). Compared to aeration, the MFC showed lower removal efficiency in high COD concentration but much higher efficiency when the COD is low. Only the aeration system showed complete nitrification during the operation, reflected by completed ammonia removal and nitrate accumulation. Suspended solid measurements showed that MFC reduced sludge production by 52-82% as compared to aeration, and it also saved 100% of aeration energy. Furthermore, though not designed for high power generation, the MFC reactor showed a 0.3 Wh/g COD/L or 24 Wh/m3 (wastewater treated) net energy gain in electricity generation. These results demonstrate that MFC technology could be integrated into wastewater infrastructure to meet effluent quality and save operational cost. The high cost and life-cycle impact of electrode materials is one major barrier to the large scale application of microbial fuel cells (MFC). We also demonstrate that biomass-derived black carbon (biochar), could be a more cost effective and sustainable alternative to granular activated carbon (GAC) and graphite granule (GG) electrodes. In a comparison study, two biochar materials made from lodgepole pine sawdust pellets (BCp) and lodgepole pine woodchips (BCc), gassified at a highest heat temperature (HHT) of 1000°C under a heating rate of 16°C/min, showed a

  1. A sustainable and affordable support system for rural healthcare delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barjis, J

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available et al., 2009). Furthermore, many projects that have taken place, started by government or non-government organizations, have delivered ‘white elephants’ rather than a sustainable system. The idiom of ‘white elephant’ (Robinson and Toryik, 2005, p.... The remainder of this paper is structured as follows: in part one we discuss the socio-cultural and economic context, which sets the stage for the research carried out and the results presented in this article; in part we discuss the underlying theoretical...

  2. New Systems Thinking and Policy Means for Sustainable Energy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable energy development requires attention to both the demand and supply side. On the demand side there is an urgent need for efficient policy means promoting energy conservation. This includes changes in the institutional and economic framework to compensate for the short comings...... of the dominating neoclassical economy and the short time horizon of the present market system. On the supply side fossil fuels are becoming a central problem being the dominating global energy source while at the same time presenting serious problems in relation to global warming and limited resources (“peak oil...

  3. New Systems Thinking and Policy Means for Sustainable Energy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable energy development requires attention to both the demand and supply side. On the demand side there is an urgent need for efficient policy means promoting energy conservation. This includes changes in the institutional and economic framework to compensate for the short comings...... of the dominating neoclassical economy and the short time horizon of the present market system. On the supply side fossil fuels are becoming a central problem being the dominating global energy source while at the same time presenting serious problems in relation to global warming and limited resources (“peak oil...

  4. Sustainable solid waste management a systems engineering approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, N

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between human activities and the environment are complicated and often difficult to quantify. In many occasions, judging where the optimal balance should lie among environmental protection, social well-being, economic growth, and technological progress is complex. The use of a systems engineering approach will fill in the gap contributing to how we understand the intricacy by a holistic way and how we generate better sustainable solid waste management practices. This book aims to advance interdisciplinary understanding of intertwined facets between policy and technology relevant to solid waste management issues interrelated to climate change, land use, economic growth, environmental pollution, industrial ecology, and population dynamics.

  5. Sustainable Water Use System of Artesian Water in Alluvial Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, K.; Tsujimura, M.; Tase, N.

    2013-12-01

    The traditional water use system, developed with the intelligence of the local residents, usually takes advantage of local natural resources and is considered as a sustainable system, because of its energy saving(only forces of nature). For this reason, such kind of water use system is also recommended in some strategic policies for the purpose of a symbiosis between nature and human society. Therefore, it is important to clarify the relationship between human activities and water use systems. This study aims to clarify the mechanism of traditional water use processes in alluvial fan, and in addition, to investigate the important factors which help forming a sustainable water use system from the aspects of natural conditions and human activities. The study area, an alluvial fan region named Adogawa, is located in Shiga Prefecture, Japan and is in the west of Biwa Lake which is the largest lake in Japan. In this alluvial region where the land use is mainly occupied by settlements and paddy fields, a groundwater flowing well system is called "kabata" according to local tradition. During field survey, we took samples of groundwater, river water and lake water as well as measured the potential head of groundwater. The results showed that the upper boundary of flowing water was approximately 88m amsl, which is basically the same as the results reported by Kishi and Kanno (1966). In study area, a rapid increase of water pumping for domestic water use and melting snow during last 50 years, even if the irrigation area has decreased about 30% since 1970, and this fact may cause a decrease in recharge rate to groundwater. However, the groundwater level didn't decline based on the observed results, which is probably contributed by some water conservancy projects on Biwa Lake which maintained the water level of the lake. All the water samples are characterized by Ca-HCO3 type and similar stable isotopic value of δD and δ18O. Groundwater level in irrigation season is higher

  6. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT PLAN APPLICABLE FOR ECOTOURISM CERTIFICATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Cătălin CREŢU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to introduce the certification procedure of ecological tourism as well as the criteria that have to be fulfilled by the lodging units whose desire is to voluntarily adhere to this new form of tourism. In Romania, the Certifying System in Ecotourism is used by the AER (Romanian Association of Ecotourism and that adjusts the international experience into the national context. This is developed as the same as the Accreditation Program in Nature and Ecotourism promoted by the Australian Association of Ecotourism (NEAP is the first accreditation system in ecological tourism and in conformity with Nature’s Best of the Swedish Association of Ecotourism (the first accreditation system in Ecotourism in the northern hemisphere. An important element in the certification procedure consists of drawing up a plan of sustained development which has to respond to the entirely certification requirements. The hereby study allows to see a model of sustained development plan that maybe used by managers and directors of lodging units which wanted to acquire this certification of tourism.

  7. Dynamic Business Networks: A Headache for Sustainable Systems Interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinho, Carlos; Jardim-Goncalves, Ricardo

    Collaborative networked environments emerged with the spread of the internet, contributing to overcome past communication barriers, and identifying interoperability as an essential property. When achieved seamlessly, efficiency is increased in the entire product life cycle. Nowadays, most organizations try to attain interoperability by establishing peer-to-peer mappings with the different partners, or in optimized networks, by using international standard models as the core for information exchange. In current industrial practice, mappings are only defined once, and the morphisms that represent them, are hardcoded in the enterprise systems. This solution has been effective for static environments, where enterprise and product models are valid for decades. However, with an increasingly complex and dynamic global market, models change frequently to answer new customer requirements. This paper draws concepts from the complex systems science and proposes a framework for sustainable systems interoperability in dynamic networks, enabling different organizations to evolve at their own rate.

  8. Systemic aspects of the transition to sustainable energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlögl R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The supply of free energy to our societies is today an intricate system comprising the regimes of technologies, regulatory frameworks, socio-economic impacts and techno-ecological interactions. As a consequence it is challenging to define clear directions or even device a master plan for the transformation of a single national energy system into a sustainable future. Even the term “sustainable” needs extensive discussion in this context that should not be defined solely in technological or ecological senses. The contribution illustrates some of the elements of the energy system and their interdependencies. It will become clear that multiple reasons exist to change the traditional generation and use of energy even when climate protection is not a sufficiently strong argument for a change.

  9. Adoption of Geospatial Systems towards evolving Sustainable Himalayan Mountain Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, M. S. R.; Bajracharya, B.; Pradhan, S.; Shestra, B.; Bajracharya, R.; Shakya, K.; Wesselmann, S.; Ali, M.; Bajracharya, S.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-11-01

    Natural resources dependence of mountain communities, rapid social and developmental changes, disaster proneness and climate change are conceived as the critical factors regulating sustainable Himalayan mountain development. The Himalayan region posed by typical geographic settings, diverse physical and cultural diversity present a formidable challenge to collect and manage data, information and understands varied socio-ecological settings. Recent advances in earth observation, near real-time data, in-situ measurements and in combination of information and communication technology have transformed the way we collect, process, and generate information and how we use such information for societal benefits. Glacier dynamics, land cover changes, disaster risk reduction systems, food security and ecosystem conservation are a few thematic areas where geospatial information and knowledge have significantly contributed to informed decision making systems over the region. The emergence and adoption of near-real time systems, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), board-scale citizen science (crowd-sourcing), mobile services and mapping, and cloud computing have paved the way towards developing automated environmental monitoring systems, enhanced scientific understanding of geophysical and biophysical processes, coupled management of socio-ecological systems and community based adaptation models tailored to mountain specific environment. There are differentiated capacities among the ICIMOD regional member countries with regard to utilization of earth observation and geospatial technologies. The region can greatly benefit from a coordinated and collaborative approach to capture the opportunities offered by earth observation and geospatial technologies. The regional level data sharing, knowledge exchange, and Himalayan GEO supporting geospatial platforms, spatial data infrastructure, unique region specific satellite systems to address trans-boundary challenges would go a long way in

  10. Flexible procurement systems is key to supply chain sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Bag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this dynamic business environment, manufacturers are focusing primarily on delivery performance and competitive pricing to win orders. It is essential that manufacturers adopt flexible procurement systems (FPSs in such an uncertain environment for business sustainability.Objectives: The purpose of the study is to identify the elements of FPSs and model the interrelationships between elements of FPSs and, finally, to understand how FPSs are linked with supply chain sustainability.Method: Besides providing a brief conceptual review of FPSs, the study largely illustrates the use of an innovative multi-criteria decision-making approach called total interpretive structural modelling (TISM.Results: The total interpretive structural modelling–based model evaluates the causality and illustrates elements with interpretation of relations and suggests that bottom-level elements are vital for sustainability in FPSs and avert risks. Secondly, strategic sourcing is positively influencing supplier integration. Thirdly, supplier integration positively influences supplier responsiveness. Fourthly, skills of flexible procurement workforce positively influence supplier integration. Fifthly, it is found that supplier integration positively influences flexible transportation. The sixth finding suggests that supplier integration positively influences eco-friendly packaging. The seventh finding highlights that supplier integration positively influences ISO 14001 certifications. The eighth finding explains that supplier responsiveness positively influences customer satisfaction. It is also observed that flexible transport reduces operational cost and environmental costs. The second last finding explains eco-friendly packaging and reduction in environmental cost by careful selection of packing material and chemicals. Lastly, it is found that ISO 14001/environmental certifications reduce environmental costs by greening suppliers and pressurises them to

  11. Beam-Forming Concentrating Solar Thermal Array Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, Thomas A. (Inventor); Dimotakis, Paul E. (Inventor); Hoppe, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to concentrating solar-power systems and, more particularly, beam-forming concentrating solar thermal array power systems. A solar thermal array power system is provided, including a plurality of solar concentrators arranged in pods. Each solar concentrator includes a solar collector, one or more beam-forming elements, and one or more beam-steering elements. The solar collector is dimensioned to collect and divert incoming rays of sunlight. The beam-forming elements intercept the diverted rays of sunlight, and are shaped to concentrate the rays of sunlight into a beam. The steering elements are shaped, dimensioned, positioned, and/or oriented to deflect the beam toward a beam output path. The beams from the concentrators are converted to heat at a receiver, and the heat may be temporarily stored or directly used to generate electricity.

  12. A controlled and sustained local gentamicin delivery system for inner ear applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Heldrich, Jonna; Wang, Haibo; Yamashita, Taku; Miyamoto, Shunsuke; Li, Andrew; Uboh, Cornelius E; You, Youwen; Bigelow, Douglas; Ruckenstein, Michael; O'Malley, Bert; Li, Daqing

    2010-09-01

    Intratympanic gentamicin injection (ITGI) has gained acceptance worldwide for the treatment of Ménière's disease. Reports assessing the efficacy of ITGI suffer from high variability between patients. This variability may be due to ITGI, which does not permit a sustained diffusion of gentamicin across the round window membrane. The present study investigates the effectiveness of a sustained local hydrogel system on the delivery of gentamicin into the inner ear for the treatment of Ménière's disease. A matrix of hydrogel loaded with/without gentamicin was explored in vivo. Gentamicin was applied to the ear of mice either through ITGI or in the hydrogel system. Pharmacokinetics, hearing, and balance function were examined to study how the hydrogel system affected the gentamicin delivery and inner ear functions. The 2 gentamicin delivery methods yielded different kinetics curves. The hydrogel system achieved sustained release during a 7-day period, with a flat plateau phase from Day 1 to Day 3 and slow descent in the subsequent days. The ITGI curve dramatically declined after the peak concentration at Day 1 and was almost eliminated by Day 3. The hydrogel system yielded noticeable balance dysfunction with no significant hearing changes. In contrast, ITGI exhibited no significant influences on the inner ear functions after applying the same dose of 40 kg of gentamicin. The hydrogel system established in this research allows for more sustained and consistent and efficient drug release than traditional ITGI for the transport of gentamicin into the inner ear, offering a new and exciting treatment of Ménière's disease.

  13. Serum theophylline concentrations during multiple dosing with two sustained release methylxanthine preparations in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, J. G.; Berry, D.; Cochrane, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    In normal subjects, receiving multiple dosing regimens with Slophyllin and Phyllocontin in does calculated to give either 4 mg/kg or 6mg/kg theophylline free acid twice daily, serum theophylline concentrations were frequently less than 8 mg/l. Accumulation of the serum theophylline trough concentration occurred during the first 3 days of multiple dosing, and was followed by subsequent stabilization or even decline in serum theophylline trough concentrations. Side effects were noted with both Slophyllin and Phyllocontin, but only on the higher dosage regimens; they occurred within 24--48 hr of starting the drug, and tended to diminish if dosing was continued. The accumulation effect of serum theophylline concentrations may explain the timing of adverse effects, and should be avoided by starting methylxanthine therapy at a low dose. This may be increased after a few days. Further dosage adjustment may be necessary in some patients and should be facilitated by measurement of serum theophylline trough concentrations. PMID:7465472

  14. Glioblastoma in the limbic system presenting as sustained central hypopnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Mashiko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old woman was transferred to our hospital after experiencing an epigastric sensation followed by unconsciousness. On arrival, the patient showed impaired consciousness without convulsive movement, cyanosis and shallow breathing, arterial O2 desaturation, and increased PCO2. Artificial respiration improved CO2 accumulation and consciousness, but interruption of artificial respiration returned the patient to her former state. Computed tomography of the head showed a mass around the left corpus callosum. The patient's hypopnea followed by unconsciousness suggested sustained nonconvulsive epilepsy manifesting in central hypopnea and subsequent unconsciousness due to CO2 narcosis. Intravenous (IV anticonvulsants promptly improved the respiratory condition, and the patient started to regain consciousness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lesion involving the bilateral limbic systems. To our knowledge, limbic seizure manifesting with hypopnea causing unconsciousness due to CO2 narcosis has not previously been reported, despite evidence of a strong relationship between the limbic and respiratory systems. The current case suggests that sustained limbic seizure can manifest as hypopnea. Since emergency EEG can be difficult to perform, IV anticonvulsant treatment is an appropriate diagnostic therapy.

  15. Applying a Transportation Rating System to Advance Sustainability Evaluation, Planning and Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrella, Elise; Lineburg, Kelsey; Hurley, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe a pilot application of the Sustainable Transportation Analysis & Rating System (STARS), and highlight how a sustainability rating system can be used to promote sustainable urban development through a university-city partnership. STARS is an example of a second-generation "green"…

  16. Three Views of Systems Theories and Their Implications for Sustainability Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Terry; Cordoba, Jose

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, there is an emerging interest in sustainability and sustainability education. A popular and promising approach is the use of systems thinking. However, the systems approach to sustainability has neither been clearly defined nor has its practical application followed any systematic rigor, resulting in confounded and underspecified…

  17. Prototyping and farm system modelling - Partners on the road towards more sustainable farm systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, B.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Leeuwis, C.; Wijnands, F.G.

    2007-01-01

    Farm system modelling and prototyping are two research methods proposed to enhance the process of developing sustainable farm systems. Farm system models provide means to formalize, expand and refine expert knowledge and to integrate this with scientific agro-ecological knowledge at the farm level.

  18. Sustained load performance of adhesive anchor systems in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Todd Marshall

    Stemming from a tragic failure of an adhesive anchor system, this research project investigated the sustained load performance of adhesive anchors in concrete under different installation and in-service conditions. The literature review investigated the current state of art of adhesive anchors. Extensive discussion was devoted to the behavior of adhesive anchors in concrete as well as the many factors that can affect their short-term and sustained load strength. Existing standards and specifications for the testing, design, construction, and inspection of adhesive anchors were covered. Based on the results of the literature review and the experience of the research group, a triage was conducted on many parameters identified as possibly affecting the sustained load performance of adhesive anchors and the highest priority parameters were investigated in this project. A stress versus time-to-failure approach was used to evaluate sensitivity of three ICC-ES AC 308 approved adhesive anchor systems. Of the various parameters investigated, only elevated in-service temperature and manufacturer's cure time was shown to exhibit adverse effects on sustained loads more than that predicted by short-term tests of fully cured adhesive over a reasonable structure lifetime of 75 years. In a related study, various tests were conducted on the adhesive alone (time-temperature superposition, time-stress superposition, and dogbone tensile tests). The results of that study were used to investigate the existence of a correlation with long-term anchor pullout testing in concrete. No consistent correlations were detected for the adhesives in the study. Tests were also conducted on the effect of early-age concrete on adhesive anchor bond strength. On the basis of confined test bond-strength alone, adhesive A (vinyl ester) did not show any significant increase after 14 days (102% of 28 day strength at 14 days), and adhesive B and C (epoxies) did not show any significant increase after 7 days

  19. A Concentrator Photovoltaic System Based on a Combination of Prism-Compound Parabolic Concentrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Hai Vu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a cost-effective concentrating photovoltaic system composed of a prism and a compound parabolic concentrator (P-CPC. In this approach, the primary collector consists of a prism, a solid compound parabolic concentrator (CPC, and a slab waveguide. The prism, which is placed on the input aperture of CPC, directs the incoming sunlight beam to be parallel with the main axes of parabolic rims of CPC. Then, the sunlight is reflected at the parabolic rims and concentrated at the focal point of these parabolas. A slab waveguide is coupled at the output aperture of the CPC to collect focused sunlight beams and to guide them to the solar cell. The optical system was modeled and simulated with commercial ray tracing software (LightTools™. Simulation results show that the optical efficiency of a P-CPC can achieve up to 89%. when the concentration ratio of the P-CPC is fixed at 50. We also determine an optimal geometric structure of P-CPC based on simulation. Because of the simplicity of the P-CPC structure, a lower-cost mass production process is possible. A simulation based on optimal structure of P-CPC was performed and the results also shown that P-CPC has high angular tolerance for input sunlight. The high tolerance of the input angle of sunlight allows P-CPC solar concentrator utilize a single sun tracking system instead of a highly precise dual suntracking system as cost effective solution.

  20. Animal Board Invited Review: Comparing conventional and organic livestock production systems on different aspects of sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Haas, de Y.; Hogeveen, H.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2017-01-01

    To sustainably contribute to food security of a growing and richer world population, livestock production systems are challenged to increase production levels while reducing environmental impact, being economically viable, and socially responsible. Knowledge about the sustainability performance

  1. Sustainable waste management via incineration system: an Islamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper would firstly examine solid waste management currently experienced in Malaysia with special concentration given to waste incineration. Its function and benefits entailed from this system shall then be identified. This paper attempts to emphasize this notion within the Islamic perspective, stressing on the needs to ...

  2. Welfare and Generational Equity in Sustainable Unfunded Pension Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Alan J.; Lee, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Using stochastic simulations we analyze how public pension structures spread the risks arising from demographic and economic shocks across generations. We consider several actual and hypothetical sustainable PAYGO pension structures, including: (1) versions of the US Social Security system with annual adjustments of taxes or benefits to maintain fiscal balance; (2) Sweden’s Notional Defined Contribution system and several variants developed to improve fiscal stability; and (3) the German system, which also includes annual adjustments to maintain fiscal balance. For each system, we present descriptive measures of uncertainty in representative outcomes for a typical generation and across generations. We then estimate expected utility for generations based on simplifying assumptions and incorporate these expected utility calculations in an overall social welfare measure. Using a horizontal equity index, we also compare the different systems’ performance in terms of how neighboring generations are treated. While the actual Swedish system smoothes stochastic fluctuations more than any other and produces the highest degree of horizontal equity, it does so by accumulating a buffer stock of assets that alleviates the need for frequent adjustments. In terms of social welfare, this accumulation of assets leads to a lower average rate of return that more than offsets the benefits of risk reduction, leaving systems with more frequent adjustments that spread risks broadly among generations as those most preferred. PMID:21818166

  3. ERP systems: aspects of selection, implementation and sustainable operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Munkelt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives recommendations for selecting, implementing and sustainably operating ERP systems. We indicate special aspects which are important from our point of view. The paper addresses practitioners who are responsible for ERP systems, especially IT and project managers. The structure of the paper matches the three main phases of an ERP system’s lifecycle within an enterprise: selection, implementation and operations. General process models are given for selection and implementation of ERP systems. Our suggestions stretch from project management, business process reengineering, system selection criteria, reporting and customizing to choosing key users, data migration, and user training. Operations of ERP systems are commented according to the views defined by the ARIS concept. We are focusing on organizational issues, but give also remarks on business process maintenance, exploitation of ERP functions, and data management. While other publications give rather general advice, recommendations in this paper are selected to be use-oriented and easy to apply. The recommendations do not depend on any particular ERP system.

  4. The application of appropriate technologies and systems for sustainable sanitation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duncker, Louiza C

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development, which encompasses sustainable sanitation, is defined as development that is appropriate, has the specific objectives of accelerated growth, targeted interventions and community mobilisation to eradicate poverty and focuses...

  5. The efficient and sustainable use of environmental resource systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlagh, R.

    1999-02-01

    numerical results suggest that the biogeochemical cycles represent an immense value, and confirm the earlier findings that future generations do not benefit from the efficiency gain achieved by grandfathering. Chapter 4 focuses on sustainability. The literature has shown that competitive equilibria are capable of producing unsustainable allocations in which future welfare drops to zero. To prevent this from happening, we develop additional policy measures that ensure sustainability. Our main result is to show that a trust fund can be set up to perform this task while obeying relatively simple and recursive decentralized rules of conduct. The illustration of Chapter 3 is pursued in Chapter 4, now focusing on the sustainability aspects associated to the use of an exhaustible resource with amenity value. The result of Chapter 3 is elaborated , and it is shown that if environmental resources exhibit time delays (characteristic four), an unsustainable equilibrium in which welfare levels decrease to zero becomes more probable. Application of the theoretical findings to the numerical model with climate change shows that the trust fund can significantly raise welfare and reduce optimal GHG emission levels. In Chapter 5, the scope is broadened and some of the abstractions adopted in the formal analysis are reviewed, starting with a further elaboration of the numerical illustration for climate change that includes explicit physical variables such as atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, and global average temperatures. Thereafter, in more general terms, physical environmental processes fit with the regular economic production structure are discussed. The amenity value of environmental resources is connected to the distinction between the quality and quantity of environmental resources. Finally, Malthus' concerns on environmental resource scarcity are dealt with. In an OLG economy with endogenous fertility, where the parents decide about fertility with the best interests of their

  6. Sustainability assessment, rating systems and historical buildings Case study: Rehabilitated construction in a university site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadrykia Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between the indicators and different factors that “rating systems for green projects” concentrates on, and principles and factors considered in the rehabilitation of historical buildings. In recent years, different methods and systems concerned and improved for assessing environmental sustainability. LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design and BREEAM (Building Research Establishment (BRE Environmental Assessment Method are two most commonly used rating systems, established in U.S and UK. These systems comprise some categories and different factors to achieve environmentally responsible design. Firstly, this study focuses on the list of rating systems indicators and criteria. Secondly this paper investigates a historical rehabilitated building in the site of Tabriz Art University, as a case study and has tried to compile its green design elements. Finally, this work intends to compare mentioned elements with indicators and factors of building rating systems. Findings of the study revealed that “Materials and Resources”, “indoor environmental quality” and also “Sustainable Sites” ,the most significant indicator of rating systems, had major and important role in the rehabilitation of the building. Beyond this materials’ life cycle was considerable in construction.

  7. Innovative Integrated Management System (IIMS for Sustainable Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suttiprasit Prasert

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is evident that the long-term survival and growth of global food industry depend on the availability and efficient use of raw materials, energy and water and other facilities under the concept of sustainable practice, i.e. in environment, society and economics. Quality and safety managements are essential to ensure that the industry can continue to support the communities in which it operates. Awarding a number of certifications to show the high standing of international quality and hygiene characteristics are currently necessary, e.g. ISO 9001: 2000, GMP/GHP, HACCP, ISO 22000, BRC and etc. To minimize the cost and maximize the efficiency, the Innovative Integration Management System (IIMS has been implemented effectively under the frameworks of sustainability in a numbers of national and international food production companies in Thailand during the past years. This will allow the organization to integrate all common processes such as management review, document control, record control, training, monitoring & measuring, data analysing, internal audits, and corrective and preventive actions whereas the critical or specific processes required by each standard are still retained harmoniously with the others.

  8. Pathway to Support the Sustainable National Health Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahavechaphan, Naiyana; Phengsuwan, Jedsada; U-Ruekolan, Suriya; Aroonrua, Kamron; Ponhan, Jukrapong; Harnsamut, Nattapon; Vannarat, Sornthep

    Heath information across geographically distributed healthcare centers has been recognized as an essential resource that drives an efficient national health-care plan. There is thus a need for the National Health Information System (NHIS) that provides the transparent and secure access to health information from different healthcare centers both on demand and in a time efficient manner. As healthiness is the ultimate goal of people and nation, we believe that the NHIS should be sustainable by taking the healthcare center and information consumer perspectives into account. Several issues in particular must be resolved altogether: (i) the diversity of health information structures among healthcare centers; (ii) the availability of health information sharing from healthcare centers; (iii) the efficient information access to various healthcare centers; and (iv) the privacy and privilege of heath information. To achieve the sustainable NHIS, this paper details our work which is divided into 3 main phases. Essentially, the first phase focuses on the application of metadata standard to enable the interoperability and usability of health information across healthcare centers. The second phase moves forward to make information sharing possible and to provide an efficient information access to a large number of healthcare centers. Finally, in the third phase, the privacy and privilege of health information is promoted with respect to access rights of information consumers.

  9. Toolbox for tomorrow. Exploring and designing sustainable systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saraph, Anupam

    1994-01-01

    The exercise to construct a toolbox for operating on change and sustainability was undertaken out of the concerns voiced over the last two decades about the rapidly reorganising world which seems to move away from promising to sustain the human race (and much else). The pressures on sustaining

  10. Sustainability in CALL Learning Environments: A Systemic Functional Grammar Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to define a sustainable resource in Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). In order for a CALL resource to be sustainable it must work within existing educational curricula. This feature is a necessary prerequisite of sustainability because, despite the potential for educational change that digitalization has offered since…

  11. Plasma concentrations of buprenorphine following a single subcutaneous administration of a sustained release formulation of buprenorphine in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Zullian, Chiara; Lema, Pablo; Lavoie, Melissa; Dodelet-Devillers, Aurore; Beaudry, Francis; Vachon, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the potential use of slow release buprenorphine in sheep. Twelve adult female sheep (6 Dorset and 6 Suffolk, 12 months of age) were used for this project and were divided into 2 experimental groups (n = 6/group comprising 3 Dorset and 3 Suffolk sheep). Sustained release (SR) buprenorphine was administered subcutaneously in the scapular region at a concentration of 0.1 mg/kg body weight (BW) for group 1 and of 0.05 mg/kg BW for group 2. Following b...

  12. Levels of sirolimus in saliva and blood following oral topical sustained-release varnish delivery system application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nudelman, Zakhar; Findler, Mordechai; Barasch, Dinorah; Nemirovski, Alina; Pikovsky, Anna; Kirmayer, David; Basheer, Maamoun; Gutkind, J Silvio; Friedman, Michael; Czerninski, Rakefet

    2015-05-01

    Sirolimus (rapamycin) is a mammalian target of rapamycin pathway blocker. The efficacy of sirolimus is currently studied for its antiproliferative properties in various malignancies and particularly in squamous cell carcinoma and other oral disorders. Topical application at the oral cavity can augment sirolimus availability at the site of action by increasing sirolimus levels in saliva and hence efficacy, along with improved safety (low levels in the blood to avoid side effects) and compliance. Our purpose was to evaluate the release profile and safety of a topical sirolimus sustained-release varnish drug delivery system. Sirolimus sustained-release varnish drug delivery system containing a total of 0.5 mg of the drug was applied to nine healthy male volunteers. Saliva and blood levels were determined utilizing mass spectrometry and chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay, respectively. The prolonged release profile and safety were evaluated for the oral topical delivery system. After the application of the drug delivery system, a sustained-release profile was observed in the oral cavity. We have measured moderate sirolimus levels for up to 12 h. The safety was confirmed, and systemic sirolimus blood levels were negligible. After an application of sirolimus sustained-release varnish drug delivery system, prolonged drug levels can be achieved in the saliva. The oral topical sirolimus concentrations were potentially therapeutic along with minimal systemic exposure. These results broaden the potential clinical use of sustained-release oral topical rapalogs.

  13. Incentive Systems That Support Sustainability: A First Nations Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L. Trosper

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior to contact with European settlers, the incentive and governance systems used by First Nations peoples of the Northwest coast of North America provided more sustainable use of the fisheries and other resources of that region than did subsequent systems. This paper explores the major reason for that success: the requirements of the potlatch system that chiefs share their income with each other. Because chiefs controlled well-defined territories and subjected each other to review, the potlatch governance system embodied the characteristics of negative feedback, coordination, resiliency, and robustness that political scientist John Dryzek identifies as means to support ecological rationality in the management of ecosystems. This ecological rationality occurs because the sharing of income made chiefs aware of the effects that their actions had on the income of other chiefs. In addition, public discussions that occurred at feasts would allow chiefs to coordinate their actions as needed. The paper concludes with proposals for application of the potlatch system to modern circumstances. Such application means changing the rules for the distribution of income from using ecosystem resources so that all entities share their surplus income with each other. The potlatch system can be applied to modern organizations by noting that chief executive officers are like chiefs, that profit is like surplus income, and that corporations can be viewed as similar to the houses of the traditional Northwest systems. One major change is that profit is no longer privately owned, and must be shared with other organizations that use an ecosystem. Although controls on behavior mandated by state power would be reduced, a modernized potlatch system would still need to operate within a context provided by governments and international agreements.

  14. Experimental study of a sustainable hybrid system for thermoelectric generation and freshwater production

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Gabriel Fernandes; Tan, Lippong; Singh, Baljit; Ding, Lai Chet; Date, Abhijit

    2017-04-01

    The paper presents a sustainable hybrid system, which is capable of generating electricity and producing freshwater from seawater using low grade heat source. This proposed system uses low grade heat that can be supplied from solar radiation, industrial waste heat or any other waste heat sources where the temperature is less than 150°C. The concept behind this system uses the Seebeck effect for thermoelectricity generation via incorporating the low boiling point of seawater under sub-atmospheric ambient pressure. A lab-test prototype of the proposed system was built and experimentally tested in RMIT University. The prototype utilised four commercial available thermoelectric generators (Bi2Te3) and a vacuum vessel to achieve the simultaneous production of electricity and freshwater. The temperature profiles, thermoelectric powers and freshwater productions were determined at several levels of salinity to study the influence of different salt concentrations. The theoretical description of system design and experimental results were analysed and discussed in detailed. The experiment results showed that 0.75W of thermoelectricity and 404g of freshwater were produced using inputs of 150W of simulated waste heat and 500g of 3% saline water. The proposed hybrid concept has demonstrated the potential to become the future sustainable system for electricity and freshwater productions.

  15. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Aggerholm, Søren

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used in future sustainable smart energy systems. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish...... governmental 2050 fossil-free vision, this paper identifies marginal heat production costs and compares these to marginal heat savings costs for two different levels of district heating. A suitable least-cost heating strategy seems to be to invest in an approximately 50% decrease in net heat demands in new...... buildings and buildings that are being renovated anyway, while the implementation of heat savings in buildings that are not being renovated hardly pays. Moreover, the analysis points in the direction that a least-cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating...

  16. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Aggerholm, Søren

    One of the important issues related to the implementation of future sustainable smart energy systems based on renewable energy sources is the heating of buildings. Especially, when it comes to long‐term investment in savings and heating infrastructures it is essential to identify long‐term least...... that a least‐cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating and the rest from individual heat pumps. Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Renewable energy, Heating strategy, Heat savings, District heating, Smart energy......‐cost strategies. With Denmark as a case, this paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish governmental long...

  17. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Lund

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used in future sustainable smart energy systems. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish governmental 2050 fossil-free vision, this paper identifies marginal heat production costs and compares these to marginal heat savings costs for two different levels of district heating. A suitable least-cost heating strategy seems to be to invest in an approximately 50% decrease in net heat demands in new buildings and buildings that are being renovated anyway, while the implementation of heat savings in buildings that are not being renovated hardly pays. Moreover, the analysis points in the direction that a least-cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating and the rest from individual heat pumps.

  18. Controlled Release System for Localized and Sustained Drug Delivery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lidia Betsabe

    Current controlled release formulations has many drawbacks such as excess of initial burst release, low drug efficiency, non-degradability of the system and low reproducibility. The present project aims to offer an alternative by developing a technique to prepare uniform, biodegradable particles ( ˜19 mum ) that can sustainably release a drug for a specific period of time. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide that has many characteristics to be used for biomedical applications. In the last two decades, there have been a considerable number of studies affirming that chitosan could be used for pharmaceutical applications. However, chitosan suffers from inherent weaknesses such as low mechanical stability and dissolution of the system in acidic media. In the present study, chitosan microparticles were prepared by emulsification process. The model drug chosen was acetylsalicylic acid as it is a small and challenging molecule. The maximum loading capacity obtained for the microparticles was approximately 96%. The parameters for the preparation of uniform particles with a narrow size distribution were identified in a triangular phase diagram. Moreover, chitosan particles were successfully coated with thin layers of poly lactic-coglycolic acid (PLGA) and poly lactic acid (PLA). The performance of different layerswas tested for in vitro drug release and degradation studies. Additionally, the degradability of the system was evaluated by measuring the weight loss of the system when exposed to enzyme and without enzyme. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) were used to characterize the controlled release system. Additionally, the in vitro drug release was monitored by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The results obtained from this project showed that it is

  19. Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation—A Sustainable Development Systems Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom R. Burns

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the concepts of sustainability and sustainable development in relation to disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. We conceptualize sustainability from a social systemic perspective, that is, from a perspective that encompasses the multiple functionalities of a social system and their interrelationships in particular environmental contexts. The systems perspective is applied in our consideration and analysis of disaster risk reduction (DRR, climate change adaptation (CCA, and sustainable development (SD. Section “Sustainability and Sustainable Development” introduces briefly sustainability and sustainable development, followed by a brief presentation of the theory of complex social systems (Section “Social System Model”. The theory conceptualizes interdependent subsystems, their multiple functionalities, and the agential and systemic responses to internal and external stressors on a social system. Section “Case Studies of Response to Stressors” considers disaster risk reduction (DRR and climate change adaptation (CCA, emerging in response to one or more systemic stressors. It illustrates these with disaster risk reduction in the cases of food and chemical security regulation in the EU. CCA is illustrated by initiatives and developments on the island of Gotland, Sweden and in the Gothenburg Metropolitan area, which go beyond a limited CCA perspective, taking into account long-term sustainability issues. Section “Sustainable Development as a Societal Development System” discusses the limitations of DRR and CCA, not only their technical limitations but economic, socio-cultural, and political limitations, as informed from a sustainability perspective. It is argued that DRRs are only partial subsystems and must be considered and assessed in the context of a more encompassing systemic perspective. Part of the discussion is focused on the distinction between sustainable and non-sustainable DRRs and

  20. Sustainable Urban Agriculture in Ghana: What Governance System Works?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Bogweh Nchanji

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban farming takes advantage of its proximity to market, transport and other urban infrastructure to provide food for the city and sustain the livelihoods of urban and peri-urban dwellers. It is an agricultural activity which employs more than 50% of the local urban population with positive and negative impacts on local and national development. Urban agriculture is an informal activity not supported by law but in practice is regulated to a certain extent by state institutions, traditional rulers, farmers and national and international non-governmental organisations. Tamale’s rapid population growth, exacerbated by the unplanned development system and institutional conflicts, are factors contributing to the present bottlenecks in the urban agricultural system. In this paper, these bottlenecks are conceptualised as problems of governance. These issues will be illustrated using ethnographic data from land sales, crop-livestock competition, waste-water irrigation, and markets. I will explain how conflicts which arise from these different situations are resolved through the interactions of various governance systems. Informal governance arrangements are widespread, but neither they nor formal systems are always successful in resolving governance issues. A participatory governance does not seem possible due to actors’ divergent interests. A governance solution for this sector is not yet apparent, contributing to food and nutritional insecurity.

  1. Structural sustainability of cambisol under different land use system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Caruana Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Incongruous management techniques have been associated with some significant loss of agricultural land to degradation in many parts of the world. Land degradation results in the alteration of physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil, thereby posing a serious threat to sustainable agricultural development. In this study, our objective is to evaluate the changes in a Cambisol structure under six land use systems using the load bearing capacity model. Sampling was conducted in Amazonas Region, Brazil, in the following land use: a young secondary forest; b old secondary forest; c forest; d pasture; e cropping, and f agroforestry. To obtain the load bearing capacity models the undisturbed soil samples were collected in those land use systems and subjected to the uniaxial compression test. These models were used to evaluate which land use system preserved or degraded the Cambisol structure. The results of the bulk density and total porosity of the soil samples were not adequate to quantify structural degradation in Cambisol. Using the forest topsoil level (0-0.03 m as a reference, it was observed that pasture land use system was most severe in the degradation of the soil structure while the structure were most preserved under old secondary forest, cropping system and forest. At the subsoil level (0.10-0.13 m depth, the soil structure was most degraded in the cropping land use system while it was most preserved in young secondary forest and pasture. At the 0.20-0.23 m depth, soil structure degradation was most severe in the old secondary forest system and well preserved in young secondary forest, cropping and agroforestry.

  2. A System of Systems (SoS) Approach to Sustainable Energy Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Kaveh; Hadian, Saeed

    2015-04-01

    The general policy of mandating fossil fuel replacement with "green" energies may not be as effective and environmental-friendly as perceived, due to the secondary impacts of renewable energies on different natural resources. An integrated systems analysis framework is essential to developing sustainable energy supply systems with minimal unintended impacts on valuable natural resources such as water, climate, and ecosystem. This presentation discusses how a system of systems (SoS) framework can be developed to quantitatively evaluate the desirability of different energy supply alternatives with respect to different sustainability criteria under uncertainty. Relative Aggregate Footprint (RAF) scores of a range of renewable and nonrenewable energy alternatives are determined using their performance values under four sustainability criteria, namely carbon footprint, water footprint, land footprint, and cost of energy production. Our results suggest that despite their lower emissions, some renewable energy sources are less promising than non-renewable energy sources from a SoS perspective that considers the trade-offs between carbon footprint of energies and their effects on water, ecosystem, and economic resources. A new framework based on the Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) is also proposed for analyzing the overall sustainability of different energy mixes for different risk of return levels with respect to the trade-offs involved. It is discussed how the proposed finance-based sustainability evaluation method can help policy makers maximize the energy portfolio's expected sustainability for a given amount of portfolio risk, or equivalently minimize risk for a given level of expected sustainability level, by revising the energy mix.

  3. Development and application of a multi-attribute sustainability function for Dutch dairy farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calker, van K.J.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Romero, C.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Sustainability in dairy farming is determined by using aspects (economic, social and ecological). Per aspect a number of measurable attributes is selected. Difficulty for determining the sustainability of farming systems is the combination of the different attribute measures into a sustainability

  4. Workshop in a Box: Sustainable Management of Rural and Small Water and Wastewater Systems Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    A resource to help rural and small systems and communities to conduct workshops, either for an individual system or for a group of systems, based on the Rural and Small Systems Guidebook to Sustainable Utility Management.

  5. Community, culture and sustainability in multilevel dynamic systems intervention science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schensul, Jean J

    2009-06-01

    This paper addresses intertwined issues in the conceptualization, implementation and evaluation of multilevel dynamic systems intervention science (MDSIS). Interventions are systematically planned, conducted and evaluated social science-based cultural products intercepting the lives of people and institutions in the context of multiple additional events and processes (which also may be referred to as interventions) that may speed, slow or reduce change towards a desired outcome. Multilevel interventions address change efforts at multiple social levels in the hope that effects at each level will forge synergistic links, facilitating movement toward desired change. This paper utilizes an ecological framework that identifies macro (policy and regulatory institutions), meso (organizations and agencies with resources, and power) and micro (individuals, families and friends living in communities) interacting directly and indirectly. An MDSIS approach hypothesizes that change toward a goal will occur faster and more effectively when synchronized and supported across levels in a social system. MDSIS approaches by definition involve "whole" communities and cannot be implemented without the establishments of working community partnerships This paper takes a dynamic systems approach to science as conducted in communities, and discusses four concepts that are central to MDSIS--science, community, culture, and sustainability. These concepts are important in community based participatory research and to the targeting, refinement, and adaptation of enduring interventions. Consistency in their meaning and use can promote forward movement in the field of MDSIS, and in community-based prevention science.

  6. Evaluating the Sustainability of the Spanish Social Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Blanco-Encomienda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Social security has remarkable relevance in the general context of Spanish economy. This system is viable if the volume of active population increases at a higher rate than the number of pensioners does and if, in addition, active population is employed by the productive system. The reports of the National Institute of Statistics about Spanish demography demonstrate how these conditions are not met as of today, because our society has one of the highest aging rates and also a remarkable increase in the dependency rate. Through various techniques of time series analysis, this paper reveals the current economic trends in Spain to demonstrate the need for structural reforms of the system so as to make it more sustainable in the long term. To achieve this, it is necessary to change the financing model to a mixed one where the capitalization method plays a significant role, and also to implement urgent measures in order to reduce the barriers to business and employment development.

  7. Chitosan nanoparticle based delivery systems for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Prem Lal; Xiang, Xu; Heiden, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Development of technologies that improve food productivity without any adverse impact on the ecosystem is the need of hour. In this context, development of controlled delivery systems for slow and sustained release of agrochemicals or genetic materials is crucial. Chitosan has emerged as a valuable carrier for controlled delivery of agrochemicals and genetic materials because of its proven biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, and adsorption abilities. The major advantages of encapsulating agrochemicals and genetic material in a chitosan matrix include its ability to function as a protective reservoir for the active ingredients, protecting the ingredients from the surrounding environment while they are in the chitosan domain, and then controlling their release, allowing them to serve as efficient gene delivery systems for plant transformation or controlled release of pesticides. Despite the great progress in the use of chitosan in the area of medical and pharmaceutical sciences, there is still a wide knowledge gap regarding the potential application of chitosan for encapsulation of active ingredients in agriculture. Hence, the present article describes the current status of chitosan nanoparticle-based delivery systems in agriculture, and to highlight challenges that need to be overcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Economic sustainability of organic dairy sheep systems in Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Toro-Mujica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sheep production systems in regions with a Mediterranean climate are important in social, economic and environmental terms. Modeling these systems allows, among others, evaluation of the costs efficiencies which in turn permits assessing the expected effects of changes in production variables. This paper presents a prototype analysis of the economic sustainability of ecological dairy sheep systems of Castilla-La Mancha, Central Spain evaluated through the estimation of costs efficiencies. Costs functions were developed using data from 31 farms. Rate of supplementary feeding, labour use, and flock size were used to measure the cost efficiency. On average, cost efficiency was 61.7±15.5%, with significant differences among typological groups. High efficiency was found in only 29% of the farms. The economic analyses performed suggest that the continued existence of economically unsustainably farms is explained by the available subsidies, lack of amortization of fixed assets leading to progressive decapitalization, and subsistence incomes by family groups (gross family income.

  9. Towards sustainability-driven innovation through product-service systems

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Anthony; Larsson, Tobias; Broman, Göran

    2011-01-01

    Many current sustainability considerations in industry constrain design space by emphasizing reduced material and energy flows across product life cycles. However, there are also opportunities for sustainability awareness to extend design space and drive innovation. Product-service systems (PSS) in particular can be a vehicle through which sustainability-driven innovation occurs. A framework for strategic sustainable development, including a backcasting approach, provides the basis for unders...

  10. Sustainable infrastructure system modeling under uncertainties and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongxi

    Infrastructure systems support human activities in transportation, communication, water use, and energy supply. The dissertation research focuses on critical transportation infrastructure and renewable energy infrastructure systems. The goal of the research efforts is to improve the sustainability of the infrastructure systems, with an emphasis on economic viability, system reliability and robustness, and environmental impacts. The research efforts in critical transportation infrastructure concern the development of strategic robust resource allocation strategies in an uncertain decision-making environment, considering both uncertain service availability and accessibility. The study explores the performances of different modeling approaches (i.e., deterministic, stochastic programming, and robust optimization) to reflect various risk preferences. The models are evaluated in a case study of Singapore and results demonstrate that stochastic modeling methods in general offers more robust allocation strategies compared to deterministic approaches in achieving high coverage to critical infrastructures under risks. This general modeling framework can be applied to other emergency service applications, such as, locating medical emergency services. The development of renewable energy infrastructure system development aims to answer the following key research questions: (1) is the renewable energy an economically viable solution? (2) what are the energy distribution and infrastructure system requirements to support such energy supply systems in hedging against potential risks? (3) how does the energy system adapt the dynamics from evolving technology and societal needs in the transition into a renewable energy based society? The study of Renewable Energy System Planning with Risk Management incorporates risk management into its strategic planning of the supply chains. The physical design and operational management are integrated as a whole in seeking mitigations against the

  11. Alternative aviation jet fuel sustainability evaluation report - task 3 : sustainability criteria and rating systems for the use in aircraft alternative fuel supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-31

    This report identifies criteria that can be used to evaluate the sustainability of biofuels introduced into the aviation fuel supply chain. It describes the inputs, criteria and outputs that can be used in a sustainability rating system. It identifie...

  12. Determination of Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy sustainability indicators using fuzzy inference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkeman, Y.; Rizkyanti, R. A.; Hambali, E.

    2017-05-01

    Development of Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy faces an international challenge regarding to sustainability issue, indicated by the establishment of standards on sustainable bioenergy. Currently, Indonesia has sustainability standards limited to palm-oil cultivation, while other standards are lacking appropriateness for Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy sustainability regarding to real condition in Indonesia. Thus, Indonesia requires sustainability indicators for Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy to gain recognition and easiness in marketing it. Determination of sustainability indicators was accomplished through three stages, which were preliminary analysis, indicator assessment (using fuzzy inference system), and system validation. Global Bioenergy partnership (GBEP) was used as the standard for the assessment because of its general for use, internationally accepted, and it contained balanced proportion between environment, economic, and social aspects. Result showed that the number of sustainability indicators using FIS method are 21 indicators. The system developed has an accuracy of 85%.

  13. Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J.

    2011-09-01

    Transport currently represents approximately 19% of the global energy demand and accounts for about 23% of the global carbon dioxide emissions (IEA 2009). As the demand for mobility is expected to continue to increase in the coming decades, the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will require the evolution of transport, along with power generation, building design and manufacturing. The continued development of these sectors will need to include changes in energy sources, energy delivery, materials, infrastructure and human behavior. Pathways to reducing carbon from the transport sector have unique challenges and opportunities that are inherent to the human choices and behavioral patterns that mold the transportation systems and the associated energy needs. Technology, government investment, and regulatory policies have a significant impact on the formulation of transportation infrastructure; however, the role of human behavior and public acceptance on the efficiency and effectiveness of transport systems should not be underestimated. Although developed, rapidly developing, and underdeveloped nations face different challenges in the establishment of transport infrastructure that can meet transport needs while achieving sustainable carbon dioxide emissions, the constraints that establish the domain of possibilities are closely related for all nations. These constraints include capital investment, fuel supplies, power systems, and human behavior. Throughout the world, there are considerable efforts directed at advancing and optimizing the financing of sustainable infrastructures, the production of low carbon fuels, and the production of advanced power systems, but the foundational work on methods to understand human preferences and behavior within the context of transport and the valuation of reductions in carbon dioxide emissions is greatly lagging behind. These methods and the associated understanding of human behavior and the willingness to pay for

  14. Dynamic Facades: Environmental Control Systems for Sustainable Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riham Nady

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Façades are the most strategic and visible part of the building which leads to an improvement in appearance and environmental performances in buildings. Facades play a significant role in the quality of a building. It forms the barrier between the internal space and the outside climate. This means that the façade is the medium through which the interaction takes place between the activities, inside and outside. The image of a building, and therefore for the users, is reflected through the design of the façade.In recent practices, architects and engineers are strategically designing and installing dynamic facades not only for their aesthetic values, but also for improving the buildings’ energy performance. The high integration of these strategies for dynamic facades increases their durability and suitability, with current building demands, which targets for energy efficiency and thermal comfort level.  In the meantime, recent studies show that the majority of people spend up to 90% of their time indoors especially in hot climates. This trend has had a high impact on the requirements of the indoor environment, consequently turning the buildings into complex devices that ensure the wellbeing of the people who use them.  Therefore, users are starting to look for new products for the façade design that comply with the requirements of energy. This poses an important question, is there anything to be done to this specific part of the building in order to positively influence the overall energy need of the building?The paper will discuss the concept and the importance of dynamic facades according to their design and types, implementations, current challenges and climate impacts. It will highlight the history of these facades and the essential parameters which make the building sustainable through its facades. Moreover, the paper will analyze two examples of buildings with dynamic facades with automated control systems and its effect on the

  15. A Sustainable Early Warning System for Climate Change Impacts on Water Quality Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.; Tung, C.; Chung, N.

    2007-12-01

    In this era of rapid social and technological change leading to interesting life complexity and environmental displacement, both positive and negative effects among ecosystems call for a balance in which there are impacts by climate changes. Early warning systems for climate change impacts are necessary in order to allow society as a whole to properly and usefully assimilate the masses of new information and knowledge. Therefore, our research addresses to build up a sustainable early warning mechanism. The main goal is to mitigate the cumulative impacts on the environment of climate change and enhance adaptive capacities. An effective early warning system has been proven for protection. However, there is a problem that estimate future climate changes would be faced with high uncertainty. In general, take estimations for climate change impacts would use the data from General Circulation Models and take the analysis as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change declared. We follow the course of the method for analyzing climate change impacts and attempt to accomplish the sustainable early warning system for water quality management. Climate changes impact not only on individual situation but on short-term variation and long-term gradually changes. This kind characteristic should adopt the suitable warning system for long-term formulation and short- term operation. To continue the on-going research of the long-term early warning system for climate change impacts on water quality management, the short-term early warning system is established by using local observation data for reappraising the warning issue. The combination of long-term and short-term system can provide more circumstantial details. In Taiwan, a number of studies have revealed that climate change impacts on water quality, especially in arid period, the concentration of biological oxygen demand may turn into worse. Rapid population growth would also inflict injury on its assimilative capacity to

  16. A Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture that Supports a System of Systems Approach to Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Steve; Orr, Jim; O'Neil, Graham

    2004-01-01

    A mission-systems architecture based on a highly modular "systems of systems" infrastructure utilizing open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is absolutely essential for an affordable and sustainable space exploration program. This architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous systems, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimum sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the space shuttle program are applied to help define and refine the model.

  17. Sustainable Development for Solar Heating Systems in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keh-Chin Chang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to the impact of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, developing and using renewable energy sources and technologies have become vital for managing energy supply and demand in Taiwan. The long-term subsidy programs (1986–1991, 2000–present for solar water heaters (SWHs launched by the Taiwanese government constitute the main driving force for market expansion. By the end of 2013, the cumulative area of installed solar collectors was 2.27 million m2. Approximately 0.3 million systems (or 1.545 million m2 are in operation. This corresponds to an annual collector yield of 0.92 TWh, which is equivalent to savings of 98.7 thousand tons of oil and 319 thousand tons of CO2,eq. The market-driven mechanism is associated with cost-to-benefit ratios, construction businesses, types of building architecture, degree of urbanization and household composition. The strong wind load of typhoons is another major concern. For sustaining the solar thermal industry in Taiwan, the dominant factor for disseminating SWHs in metropolitan areas involves developing building-integrated solar thermal systems. Alternative financial incentives are required for industrial heating processes in the commercial sector.

  18. Concentrator Photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, Antonio L

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar-energy conversion is one of the most promising technologies for generating renewable energy, and conversion of concentrated sunlight can lead to reduced cost for solar electricity. In fact, photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight insures an efficient and cost-effective sustainable power resource. This book gives an overview of all components, e.g. cells, concentrators, modules and systems, for systems of concentrator photovoltaics. The authors report on significant results related to design, technology, and applications, and also cover the fundamental physics and market considerations. Specific contributions include: theory and practice of sunlight concentrators; an overview of concentrator PV activities; a description of concentrator solar cells; design and technology of modules and systems; manufacturing aspects; and a market study.

  19. Sustainability certification systems as guidelines for early-phase urban design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Bjerregaard; Bjerre, Lærke; Mansfelt, Lise

    2016-01-01

    The German Sustainable Building Council (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen or DGNB) has one of the most comprehensive sustainability certification systems for urban districts (UD). Their explicit aim is that the system should impact the very earliest design decisions. The Technical......-UD addresses a broad sustainable focus and can be used as a tool for setting sustainability goals from the very first design steps. The system tends to promote multifunctional compromise solutions that meet several criteria at the same time. Using the DGNB-UD certification system in the early design phases...

  20. ISD: A New Methodological Approach for Measuring the Sustainability of the German Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Schlör

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research community has developed three main concepts and indicator systems to measure sustainability: the capital concept, the ecological concept and the multidimensional concept. Whereas a lot of research has been dedicated to the pros and cons of the three/four-pillar sustainability concept, to the shaping of the pillars and their indicators, research on standardized methods to aggregate the indicators to one index is lacking. However, a useful model exists—the GDP—which summarizes the different economic activities of various social actors in one index. An overall sustainability index has the advantage that the sustainability of a system can be expressed in one index. This allows the sustainability status of a system to be better communicated both to the public and to politicians. Against this background, we developed the Index of Sustainable Development (ISD to measure the sustainability of systems described by multidimensional sustainability concepts. We demonstrate that it is possible to aggregate sustainability indicators of the multidimensional sustainability concepts to one index. We have chosen exemplarily the German sustainability strategy and selected the energy indicators within it because of the importance of the energy sector and due to the good statistical database in this sector.

  1. Environmental impacts and sustainability of egg production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, H; Gates, R S; Green, A R; Mitloehner, F M; Moore, P A; Wathes, C M

    2011-01-01

    As part of a systemic assessment toward social sustainability of egg production, we have reviewed current knowledge about the environmental impacts of egg production systems and identified topics requiring further research. Currently, we know that 1) high-rise cage houses generally have poorer air quality and emit more ammonia than manure belt (MB) cage houses; 2) manure removal frequency in MB houses greatly affects ammonia emissions; 3) emissions from manure storage are largely affected by storage conditions, including ventilation rate, manure moisture content, air temperature, and stacking profile; 4) more baseline data on air emissions from high-rise and MB houses are being collected in the United States to complement earlier measurements; 5) noncage houses generally have poorer air quality (ammonia and dust levels) than cage houses; 6) noncage houses tend to be colder during cold weather due to a lower stocking density than caged houses, leading to greater feed and fuel energy use; 7) hens in noncage houses are less efficient in resource (feed, energy, and land) utilization, leading to a greater carbon footprint; 8) excessive application of hen manure to cropland can lead to nutrient runoff to water bodies; 9) hen manure on open (free) range may be subject to runoff during rainfall, although quantitative data are lacking; 10) mitigation technologies exist to reduce generation and emission of noxious gases and dust; however, work is needed to evaluate their economic feasibility and optimize design; and 11) dietary modification shows promise for mitigating emissions. Further research is needed on 1) indoor air quality, barn emissions, thermal conditions, and energy use in alternative hen housing systems (1-story floor, aviary, and enriched cage systems), along with conventional housing systems under different production conditions; 2) environmental footprint for different US egg production systems through life cycle assessment; 3) practical means to mitigate air

  2. Effect of economic crisis on sustainability of Holstein dairy systems in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waltrick, B.; Koops, W.

    2002-01-01

    This analysis presents the development of the Holstein dairy system in Brazil, evaluating system sustainability during a time of crisis, based on changes in system productivity, stability, resilience and equity. Sustainability indicators are used to describe these changes. Records of Holstein cows

  3. Building knowledge systems for sustainable agriculture: supporting private advisors to adequately address sustainable farm management in regular service contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerkx, L.W.A.; Jansen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Advisory service provisioning on sustainability issues such as environmental care and food safety is considered suboptimal in privatized extension systems, which comprise a diverse set of private advisors. Apart from funding dedicated ‘public good’ projects, government also relies on these advisors

  4. Amazon boundary layer aerosol concentration sustained by vertical transport during rainfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian; Krejci, Radovan; Giangrande, Scott; Kuang, Chongai; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Chi, Xuguang; Comstock, Jennifer; Ditas, Florian; Lavric, Jost; Manninen, Hanna E.; Mei, Fan; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Saturno, Jorge; Schmid, Beat; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Toto, Tami; Walter, David; Wimmer, Daniela; Smith, James N.; Kulmala, Markku; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-10-24

    A necessary prerequisite of cloud formation, aerosol particles represent one of the largest uncertainties in computer simulations of climate change1,2, in part because of a poor understanding of processes under natural conditions3,4. The Amazon rainforest is one of the few continental regions where aerosol particles and their precursors can be studied under near-natural conditions5-7. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in clean Amazonia are mostly produced by the growth of smaller particles in the boundary layer8-10, whereas these smaller particles themselves 31 appear to be produced elsewhere5,11. Key questions are in what part of the atmosphere they might 32 be produced and what could be the transport processes that deliver them to the boundary layer, where they grow into CCN. Here, using recent aircraft measurements above central Amazonia, we show high concentrations of small particles in the lower free troposphere. The particle size spectrum shifts towards larger sizes with decreasing altitude, implying particle growth as air descends from the free troposphere towards Earth's surface. Complementary measurements at ground sites show that free tropospheric air having high concentrations of small particles (diameters of less than 50 nm) is transported into the boundary layer during precipitation events, both by strong convective downdrafts and by weaker downward motions in the trailing stratiform region. This vertical transport helps maintain the population of small particles and ultimately CCN in the boundary layer, thereby playing an important role in controlling the climate state under natural conditions. In contrast, this mechanism becomes masked under polluted conditions, which sometimes prevail at times in Amazonia as well as over other tropical continental regions5,12.

  5. Towards a systems approach to sustainable developments | Kutua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Botswana Journal of Technology ... The report defined sustainable development as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own ... However, from this definition, we cannot ascertain the central intuition of the notion of sustainable development.

  6. ELEMENTS OF A MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The subject of Sustainability has recently attracted enormous interest in the minds of both the public and the scientific and engineering community. The reason for this interest is the fact that the concept of Sustainability holds the promise of a solution to society's long-term ...

  7. Discourse of the form and concentration of surfactants to ensure the sustainability foam-emulsive products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kotlyar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Development of dry mixes for making spumy and emulsion products are topical, because nowadays there is a tendency to minimize the time spent on the process of cooking, which is achieved by the use of semi finished products high degree of readiness. Materials and methods. Foaming ability was determined by the method of multiplicity of the foam, the stability of unstable foam-by the half-life method of foam, highly resistant foam - as a ratio of the height of the column of foam after exposure for 24 hours. Results. Was determined the influence of sunflower oil on the foaming ability and half-life foam of systems «sodium caseinate-oil». It was found that getting systems with high index of foaming capacity and foam stability in the presence of oil in the system is impossible without the use of low molecular weight surfactants. Substantiated recommendations regarding the feasibility of using two surfactants in systems «sodium caseinate-surfactants-oil», which provide the necessary kinship surfaces air, fat and water phases. it has been found that the use of 2,5...3,5% mono-and diglycerides of fatty acid sand Lecithin’s 0.15...0.25% in the content of sodium caseinate about 0.5% allows to receive the stable foam-emulsive systems containing sunflower oil 7...8% and foaming ability about 640±1%. Conclusions. It is established that for ensuring high indicators foaming capacity and stability of foam-emulsive systems required the use of low-molecular surfactants. The research results, is recommended to use when developing technology of foam-emulsive products. Introduction

  8. Discourse of the form and concentration of surfactants to ensure the sustainability foam-emulsive products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Development of dry mixes for making spumy and emulsion products are topical, because nowadays there is a tendency to minimize the time spent on the process of cooking, which is achieved by the use of semi finished products high degree of readiness. Materials and methods. Foaming ability was determined by the method of multiplicity of the foam, the stability of unstable foam-by the half-life method of foam, highly resistant foam - as a ratio of the height of the column of foam after exposure for 24 hours. Results. Was determined the influence of sunflower oil on the foaming ability and half-life foam of systems «sodium caseinate-oil». It was found that getting systems with high index of foaming capacity and foam stability in the presence of oil in the system is impossible without the use of low molecular weight surfactants. Substantiated recommendations regarding the feasibility of using two surfactants in systems «sodium caseinate-surfactants-oil», which provide the necessary kinship surfaces air, fat and water phases. it has been found that the use of 2,5...3,5% mono-and diglycerides of fatty acid sand Lecithin’s 0.15...0.25% in the content of sodium caseinate about 0.5% allows to receive the stable foam-emulsive systems containing sunflower oil 7...8% and foaming ability about 640±1%. Conclusions. It is established that for ensuring high indicators foaming capacity and stability of foam-emulsive systems required the use of low-molecular surfactants. The research results, is recommended to use when developing technology of foam-emulsive products.

  9. High concentration photovoltaic systems applying III-V cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubi, Ghassan; Bernal-Agustin, Jose L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Calle Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Fracastoro, Gian Vincenzo [Department of Energetics, Politecnico of Turin, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    High concentration systems make use of the direct solar beam and therefore are suitable for application in regions with high annual direct irradiation values. III-V PV cells with a nominal efficiency of up to 39% are readily available in today's market, with further efficiency improvements expected in the years ahead. The relatively high cost of III-V cells limits their terrestrial use to applications under high concentration, usually above 400 suns. In this way the relatively high cell cost is compensated through the low amount for cells needed per kW nominal system output. This paper presents a state of the art of high concentration photovoltaics using III-V cells. This PV field accounts already for more than 20 developed systems, which are commercially available or shortly before market introduction. (author)

  10. High-concentration planar microtracking photovoltaic system exceeding 30% efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jared S.; Grede, Alex J.; Wang, Baomin; Lipski, Michael V.; Fisher, Brent; Lee, Kyu-Tae; He, Junwen; Brulo, Gregory S.; Ma, Xiaokun; Burroughs, Scott; Rahn, Christopher D.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Giebink, Noel C.

    2017-08-01

    Prospects for concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) power are growing as the market increasingly values high power conversion efficiency to leverage now-dominant balance of system and soft costs. This trend is particularly acute for rooftop photovoltaic power, where delivering the high efficiency of traditional CPV in the form factor of a standard rooftop photovoltaic panel could be transformative. Here, we demonstrate a fully automated planar microtracking CPV system solar cell at >660× concentration ratio over a 140∘ full field of view. In outdoor testing over the course of two sunny days, the system operates automatically from sunrise to sunset, outperforming a 17%-efficient commercial silicon solar cell by generating >50% more energy per unit area per day in a direct head-to-head competition. These results support the technical feasibility of planar microtracking CPV to deliver a step change in the efficiency of rooftop solar panels at a commercially relevant concentration ratio.

  11. Fabrication and performance analysis of concentrated hybrid photovoltaic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Krishna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sun is the most important source of renewable source of energy. During the past few decades there has been an ever-increasing interest in Photovoltaic (PV cells as it directly converts solar radiation into electricity. This paper involves the performance study of photovoltaic system under concentrated solar radiation. The main problem with the concentration solar energy is the drastic increase in temperature of the photovoltaic module resulting in a decrease in performance efficiency of the system. This problem of overheating of the system can be overcome by providing cooling which would ensure operation of the module in the optimal temperature range. Hence, the setup would function as a hybrid model serving the dual purpose of power generation while also utilizing the waste heat for water heating applications. The experimental set up consist of a novel arrangement of concentrator and reflector and the cooling system. The Hybrid Photovoltaic System was repeatedly tested under real time conditions on several days. A comparison was drawn between the results obtained from direct exposure of a standard photovoltaic module to that obtained from the hybrid system in order to better understand the improvement in performance parameters. The study shown a significant improvement of output of standard photovoltaic module under the concentrated solar radiation.

  12. Towards systemic sustainable performance of TBI care systems: emergency leadership frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Denis H J

    2010-11-10

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) continue as a twenty-first century subterranean and almost invisible scourge internationally. TBI care systems provide a safety net for survival, recovery, and reintegration into social communities from this scourge, particularly in Canada, the European Union, and the USA. This paper examines the underlying issues of systemic performance and sustainability of TBI care systems, in the light of decreasing care resources and increasing demands for services. This paper reviews the extant literature on TBI care systems, systems reengineering, and emergency leadership literature. This paper presents a seven care layer paradigm, which forms the essence of systemic performance in the care of patients with TBIs. It also identifies five key strategic drivers that hold promise for the future systemic sustainability of TBI care systems. Transformational leadership and engagement from the international emergency medical community is the key to generating positive change. The sustainability/performance care framework is relevant and pertinent for consideration internationally and in the context of other emergency medical populations.

  13. Plasma concentrations of buprenorphine following a single subcutaneous administration of a sustained release formulation of buprenorphine in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullian, Chiara; Lema, Pablo; Lavoie, Melissa; Dodelet-Devillers, Aurore; Beaudry, Francis; Vachon, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the potential use of slow release buprenorphine in sheep. Twelve adult female sheep (6 Dorset and 6 Suffolk, 12 months of age) were used for this project and were divided into 2 experimental groups (n = 6/group comprising 3 Dorset and 3 Suffolk sheep). Sustained release (SR) buprenorphine was administered subcutaneously in the scapular region at a concentration of 0.1 mg/kg body weight (BW) for group 1 and of 0.05 mg/kg BW for group 2. Following blood collections at selected time points, plasma concentrations of buprenorphine was performed by tandem liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Mean buprenorphine concentration was above 0.1 ng/mL at 48 h up to 192 h post-injection for group 1 and it was above 0.1 ng/mL at 48 h up to 72 h post-injection for group 2. In conclusion, a long lasting potential analgesic plasma level of buprenorphine is attained following a single subcutaneous injection of 0.1 mg/kg BW of SR buprenorphine in sheep. However the effective analgesic plasma threshold still needs to be determined in sheep.

  14. Evaluation of sustainability of organic, integrated and conventional farming systems: a farm and field-scale analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacini, G.C.; Wossink, G.A.A.; Vazzana, C.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability. The principal purpose of this paper is to evaluate the financial and environmental aspects of sustainability of organic,

  15. DEUGD. Sustainable energy from concentrated flows in Deventer, Netherlands; DEUGD. Duurzame Energie Uit Geconcentreerde stromen Deventer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telkamp, P.; Flameling, A.G. [Tauw, Deventer (Netherlands); Wempe, J.F.D.B.; De Wit, J.B. [Saxion Hogeschool, Deventer (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    The Dutch DEUGD project looks at options for expanding the energy produced at the sewage water treatment plant in Deventer (biogas) with concentrated toilet water (blackwater)and organic kitchen waste from new dwellings in the north of Deventer. The research focuses on the feasibility of using the energy content of waste water and organic kitchen waste in the north of Deventer for heating housing projects. Starting point is to first use the existing infrastructure of the sewage water treatment plant (existing sludge digestion and CHP) and subsequently (medium-term) expansion of this infrastructure or of the delivery of biogas. This report presents the results of this feasibility study [Dutch] In het project DEUGD wordt vastgesteld of het mogelijk is om de energie die op de rwzi (rioolwaterzuiveringsinstallatie) Deventer wordt geproduceerd in de vorm van biogas te vergroten met geconcentreerd toiletwater (zwartwater) en organisch keukenafval (GF) uit nieuwe woningen in het noorden van Deventer. Het onderzoek richt zich op de haalbaarheid om de energie-inhoud van het afvalwater en het organisch keukenafval te gebruiken in het noorden van Deventer voor de verwarming van woningbouwprojecten. Uitgangspunt is in eerste instantie het gebruiken van de bestaande infrastructuur op de rwzi (bestaande slibgisting en Warmte-Kracht Koppeling (WKK)) en in tweede instantie (middellange termijn) een uitbreiding van deze infrastructuur of het leveren van biogas. In deze rapportage wordt verslag gedaan van de uitkomsten van dit haalbaarheidsonderzoek.

  16. Amazon boundary layer aerosol concentration sustained by vertical transport during rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Krejci, Radovan; Giangrande, Scott; Kuang, Chongai; Barbosa, Henrique M J; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Chi, Xuguang; Comstock, Jennifer; Ditas, Florian; Lavric, Jost; Manninen, Hanna E; Mei, Fan; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L; Saturno, Jorge; Schmid, Beat; Souza, Rodrigo A F; Springston, Stephen R; Tomlinson, Jason M; Toto, Tami; Walter, David; Wimmer, Daniela; Smith, James N; Kulmala, Markku; Machado, Luiz A T; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O; Petäjä, Tuukka; Martin, Scot T

    2016-11-17

    The nucleation of atmospheric vapours is an important source of new aerosol particles that can subsequently grow to form cloud condensation nuclei in the atmosphere. Most field studies of atmospheric aerosols over continents are influenced by atmospheric vapours of anthropogenic origin (for example, ref. 2) and, in consequence, aerosol processes in pristine, terrestrial environments remain poorly understood. The Amazon rainforest is one of the few continental regions where aerosol particles and their precursors can be studied under near-natural conditions, but the origin of small aerosol particles that grow into cloud condensation nuclei in the Amazon boundary layer remains unclear. Here we present aircraft- and ground-based measurements under clean conditions during the wet season in the central Amazon basin. We find that high concentrations of small aerosol particles (with diameters of less than 50 nanometres) in the lower free troposphere are transported from the free troposphere into the boundary layer during precipitation events by strong convective downdrafts and weaker downward motions in the trailing stratiform region. This rapid vertical transport can help to maintain the population of particles in the pristine Amazon boundary layer, and may therefore influence cloud properties and climate under natural conditions.

  17. Experimental Identification of Concentrated Nonlinearity in Aeroelastic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayfeh Ali H

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Identification of concentrated nonlinearity in the torsional spring of an aeroelastic system is performed. This system consists of a rigid airfoil that is supported by a linear spring in the plunge motion and a nonlinear spring in the pitch motion. Quadratic and cubic nonlinearities in the pitch moment are introduced to model the concentrated nonlinearity. The representation of the aerodynamic loads by the Duhamel formulation yielded accurate values for the flutter speed and frequency. The results show that the use of the Duhamel formulation to represent the aerodynamic loads yields excellent agreement between the experimental data and the numerical predictions.

  18. Improvements in concentration, working memory and sustained attention following consumption of a natural citicoline-caffeine beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Steven E; Werner, Kimberly B; Preston, Brittany F; Baker, Laurie M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the neurocognitive and electrophysiological effects of a citicoline-caffeine-based beverage in 60 healthy adult participants enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Measures of electrical brain activity using electroencephalogram (EEG) and neuropsychological measures examining attention, concentration and reaction time were administered. Compared to placebo, participants receiving the citicoline-caffeine beverage exhibited significantly faster maze learning times and reaction times on a continuous performance test, fewer errors in a go/no-go task and better accuracy on a measure of information processing speed. EEG results examining P450 event-related potentials revealed that participants receiving the citicoline-caffeine beverage exhibited higher P450 amplitudes than controls, suggesting an increase in sustained attention. Overall, these findings suggest that the beverage significantly improved sustained attention, cognitive effort and reaction times in healthy adults. Evidence of improved P450 amplitude indicates a general improvement in the ability to accommodate new and relevant information within working memory and overall enhanced brain activation.

  19. SUSTAINABLE H/C SYSTEMS FOR CHICKEN FARMS IN SYRIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamad Kharseh; Bo Nordell [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Lulea University of Technology, Lulea (Sweden)

    2008-09-30

    Space heating/cooling systems account for approximately 30% of the global energy consumption. Such systems contribute to global warming by emitting 0.39.1011 MWh of heat and 2.9.1010 tons of CO{sub 2}. There is a general understanding that the way to reduce global warming is a more efficient use of energy and increased use of renewable energy in all fields of the society. The poultry industry in the Mid East is an important business. There are e.g. 13000 chicken farms in Syria producing 172,000 ton of meat. This industry employs directly almost 150,000 people. The total investment in chicken farming is 130 BSP. Even though, the annual mean temperature in Syria is {approx}15-18 C the winter temperatures are close to freezing for two months. Since the chickens need a temperature of 21-35 C, depending on age, approximately 168.103 tons of coal (1170 GWh) is consumed for heating these plants. The chicken farms have no cooling systems since conventional cooling is too expensive. In the summer time, the ambient air temperature in Syria could reach above 45 C. The elevated temperature inside the farms reduces the chicken growth and lots of chicken die of over heating. Using the ground as a heat source means a sustainable and less expensive heating of the chicken farms. During the summer the resulting colder ground can be used as a source for free cooling, i.e. it can be used directly for cooling of the plants without any cooling machines. This study shows the design and simulated operation of a ground coupled heating/cooling system for a typical chicken farm in Syria. Based on this study the national potential of using such systems was estimated. It shows that the implementation of such ground coupled heating and cooling systems in the Syrian poultry sector would mean increased poultry production and considerable savings in money, energy, and the environment.

  20. Laser system for measuring small changes in plasma tracer concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaesner, J W; Pou, N A; Parker, R E; Galloway, R L; Roselli, R J

    1996-01-01

    The authors developed a laser-diode system that can be used for on-line optical concentration measurements in physiologic systems. Previous optical systems applied to whole blood have been hampered by artifacts introduced by red blood cells (RBCs). The system introduced here uses a commercially available filter cartridge to separate RBCs from plasma before plasma concentration measurements are made at a single wavelength. The filtering characteristics of the Cellco filter cartridge (#4007-10, German-town, MD) were adequate for use in the on-line measurement system. The response time of the filter cartridge was less than 40 seconds, and the sieving characteristics of the filter for macromolecules were excellent, with filtrate-to-plasma albumin ratios of 0.98 +/- 0.11 for studies in sheep and 0.94 +/- 0.15 for studies in dogs. The 635-nm laser diode system developed was shown to be more sensitive than the spectrophotometer used in previous studies (Klaesner et al., Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 1994; 22, 660-73). The new system was used to measure the product of filtration coefficient (Kfc) and reflection coefficient for albumin (delta f) in an isolated canine lung preparation. The delta fKfc values [mL/(cmH2O.min.100 g dry lung weight)] measured with the laser diode system (0.33 +/- 0.22) compared favorably with the delta fKfc obtained using a spectrophotometer (0.27 +/- 0.20) and with the Kfc obtained using the blood-corrected gravimetric method (0.32 +/- 0.23). Thus, this new optical system was shown to accurately measure plasma concentration changes in whole blood for physiologic levels of Kfc. The same system can be used with different optical tracers and different source wavelengths to make optical plasma concentration measurements for other physiologic applications.

  1. Comparing decision-support systems in adopting sustainable intensification criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouda eVosough Ahmadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable intensification (SI is a multifaceted concept incorporating the ambition to increase or maintain the current level of agricultural yields while reduce negative ecological and environmental impacts. Decision-support systems (DSS that use integrated analytical methods are often used to support decision making processes in agriculture. However, DSS often consist of set of values, objectives and assumptions that may be inconsistent or in conflict with merits and objectives of SI. These potential conflicts will have consequences for adoption and up-take of agricultural research, technologies and related policies and regulations such as genetic technology in pursuit of SI. This perspective paper aimed at comparing a number of frequently used socio-economic DSS with respect to their capacity in incorporating various dimensions of SI, and discussing their application to analyzing farm animal genetic resources (FAnGR policies. The case of FAnGR policies was chosen because of its great potential in delivering merits of SI. It was concluded that flexible DSS, with great integration capacity with various natural and social sciences, are needed to provide guidance on feasibility, practicality and policy implementation for SI.

  2. Comparing decision-support systems in adopting sustainable intensification criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Bouda Vosough; Moran, Dominic; Barnes, Andrew P; Baret, Philippe V

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable intensification (SI) is a multifaceted concept incorporating the ambition to increase or maintain the current level of agricultural yields while reduce negative ecological and environmental impacts. Decision-support systems (DSS) that use integrated analytical methods are often used to support decision making processes in agriculture. However, DSS often consist of set of values, objectives, and assumptions that may be inconsistent or in conflict with merits and objectives of SI. These potential conflicts will have consequences for adoption and up-take of agricultural research, technologies and related policies and regulations such as genetic technology in pursuit of SI. This perspective paper aimed at comparing a number of frequently used socio-economic DSS with respect to their capacity in incorporating various dimensions of SI, and discussing their application to analyzing farm animal genetic resources (FAnGR) policies. The case of FAnGR policies was chosen because of its great potential in delivering merits of SI. It was concluded that flexible DSS, with great integration capacity with various natural and social sciences, are needed to provide guidance on feasibility, practicality, and policy implementation for SI.

  3. A Critical Review of Environmental Management System as a Tool for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galamba, Kirsten Ramskov

    for sustainability in a local authority FM-context. As a branding tool it might have some potential but there is a risk that the tool legitimizes non-sustainable practices as sustainable, which can lead to frustrations and resignation among employees willing to actually make a difference. Practical Implications......: Facilities managers in local authorities must be aware that when using management technologies as e.g. the environmental management system other means than the system are needed if they aim for sustainability in a broader sense. The instrumental rationality on which the systems are based can lead...

  4. A Critical Review of Environmental Management System as a Tool for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galamba, Kirsten Ramskov

    2012-01-01

    for sustainability in a local authority FM-context. As a branding tool it might have some potential but there is a risk that the tool legitimizes non-sustainable practices as sustainable, which can lead to frustrations and resignation among employees willing to actually make a difference. Practical Implications......: Facilities managers in local authorities must be aware that when using management technologies as e.g. the environmental management system other means than the system are needed if they aim for sustainability in a broader sense. The instrumental rationality on which the systems are based can lead...

  5. Functional Differentiation and Sustainability: A New Stage of Development in the Chinese Container Port System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liehui Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Adjacent ports played a significant role in the evolution of the port system. In our study, we selected five pairs (i.e., Dalian–Yingkou, Qingdao–Yantai, Shanghai–Ningbo, Xiamen–Quanzhou, and Shenzhen–Guangzhou of the most important adjacent ports in China to reveal the recent trend of China unique port system development; how and why will port system development be de-concentrated; and integrate the conceptual modal into in-depth analysis. The major findings are as follows: (1 There is functional differentiation in adjacent ports. To some big ports’ sustainability, they focus on foreign trade while other small ports, in order to achieve sustainable development, they focus on domestic trade; (2 First-mover advantage and dislocation competition is a mechanism of China ports functional differentiation; (3 Shanghai and Ningbo are unique in that both ports are similarly focused on foreign trade because they both have deep-water harbors, excellent geographical location, export-oriented hinterland economy, and close foreign investment relationships.

  6. The Social Dimensions of Sustainability and Change in Diversified Farming Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher M. Bacon; Christy Getz; Sibella Kraus; Maywa Montenegro; Kaelin Holland

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural systems are embedded in wider social-ecological processes that must be considered in any complete discussion of sustainable agriculture. Just as climatic profiles will influence the future viability of crops, institutions, i.e., governance agreements, rural household and community norms, local associations, markets, and agricultural ministries, to name but a few, create the conditions that foster sustainable food systems. Because discussions of agricultural sustainability often o...

  7. SUNRA - a sustainability rating system framework for National Road Administrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sowerby, Chris; Langstraat, James; Harmer, Clare

    National Road Administrations (NRAs) across Europe strive to improve the performance of their road networks. This improvement has been underpinned by significant research in the optimisation of road planning, design, construction and maintenance, which has enhanced the understanding of the social......, environmental and economic aspects of managing a road network. Whilst there is common understanding in some aspects of sustainability there is not a common understanding of sustainability as a whole and thus how to benchmark and improve overall performance. The Sustainability: National Road Administrations...

  8. Concentrating solar power. Its potential contribution to a sustainable energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    This report summarises the findings and recommendations of a study of concentrating solar power (CSP). The study has examined the potential contribution of CSP in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa (the MENA region) over the period to 2050, and the scientific and technical developments that will be required to realise that potential. This study critically reviews existing work and describes the scientific consensus on the status and prospects of this technology. It also identifies key outstanding issues and where knowledge gaps need to be filled for CSP to fulfil its potential contribution in Europe and the MENA region. Based on these findings, the study makes recommendations on how to improve national and European support programmes for CSP development and deployment. Specific aims of the study have been the following: (1) to review the current status of CSP technologies and identify the technological developments and research and development (R and D) needed to achieve reliable operation and cost competitiveness with fossil fuelled electricity generation; (2) to consider how issues associated with the intermittent nature of CSP for electricity generation due to the daily pattern of insolation and the potential for cloudy days can best be addressed; (3) to identify the environmental impacts and infrastructure requirements of CSP, and comment on the significance of these in relation to other options for electricity supply; and, consequently, (4) to develop a view of the potential contribution that CSP located in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa could make to the energy mix in those regions by 2020 and 2050. This report focuses primarily on the generation of electricity from CSP, but it is recognised that there are other potentially significant 'products' from CSP such as process steam for industry, water desalination, alternative energy carriers such as hydrogen and syngas, and decontamination of water supplies. Although not discussed in

  9. A Systemic Tool and Process for Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Villeneuve

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessment is a growing concern worldwide with United Nations’ Agenda 2030 being implemented. As sustainability refers to the consideration of environmental, social and economic issues in light of cultural, historic—retrospective and prospective—and institutional perspectives, appropriate tools are needed to ensure the complete coverage of these aspects and allow the participation of multiple stakeholders. This article presents a scientifically robust and flexible tool, developed over the last 25 years and tested in different cultural and development contexts to build a framework for sustainability assessment of policies, strategies, programs and projects in light of Agenda 2030. A selected case study conducted on a major mining project in Québec (Canada illustrates the Sustainable Development Analytical Grid performance for sustainability assessment. This tool and process is part of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals Acceleration Toolkit; it is one of the most adaptable, addresses all 17 SDGs and is fully accessible for free. Other advantages and limitations of the tool and process are discussed.

  10. Sustainability of livestock production systems : a comparing conventional and organic livestock husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Haas, de Y.; Hogeveen, H.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable livestock production systems are needed to feed the larger, more urban, richer and older world population in 2050. Quantitative information about the sustainability performance of existing livestock production systems can aid the debate of which actions could be developed and

  11. New developments in recirculating aquaculture systems in Europe: a perspective on environmental sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Eding, E.H.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Schneider, O.; Blancheton, J.P.; Roque dÓrbcastel, E.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The dual objective of sustainable aquaculture, i.e., to produce food while sustaining natural resources is achieved only when production systems with a minimum ecological impact are used. Recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) provide opportunities to reduce water usage and to improve waste

  12. Evaluation of the sustainability of road drainage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Diez, Iván; Palencia, Covadonga; Fernández Raga, María

    2017-04-01

    Water is the most erosive agent that exists on the linear structures, because they are constantly subjected to outdoor condition like irregular infiltration, frosts and different rain intensities. Another variables that highly influence in the entire lifetime of a natural drainage system are the spatial and temporal variability of the rainfall, the soil, the vegetation cover and the design. All this factors are affecting the vulnerability of the clearings and embankments, by wearing away the weakest materials which surround the roads or train rails, producing erosion and very bumpy surfaces. The result is that the original pattern, developped to disminished the lost of soil, is not properly working and it cannot eliminate water, with the consequence destruction of the linear structure after several rainfall periods, and the accumulation of material down slope. The propose of this research focuses on analysing the drainage systems used in spanish roads and railways lines. For this purpose, a revision of the literature has been done, and the main drainage solutions have been recovered, carrying out an evaluation of them from an environmental point of view. This procedure has been requested by several authors in the past (Nwa, E.U. & Twocock, J.G., 1969; Goulter, I.C., 1992), together with the need of designing a more sustainable drainage system. The final objective of this complete revision is to compare objetively the designs to valuate them in order to develop a new drainage patter which minimize the erosion, increasing the durability and effectiveness of the drainage system. For this purpose, it is neccesary to assure that all the systems will be compare under similar parameters of flow rate, vegetation, substrate, lenght, slope and total section. Only the channels pattern and water distribution will change. The analysis has been done following Liu, H. & Zhu, X.B., (2012), who pointed out that the main parameters to take into account to select a road drainage

  13. TECHNIQUES AND SYSTEMS OF INDICATORS USED IN THE ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina VITALIA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article exposes the summary of a research project whose purpose is measuring sustainable development in Romania at the level of rural areas. Sustainable Development (Sustainable Development in English means better quality of life now and for future generations. According to the vision of sustainable development, progress integrates immediate and long-term objectives, local actions and global economic and environmental issues, all of which are inseparable. Such a vision of society can not be imposed only by political, society as a whole must adopt certain principles (political, economic, social, thinking. Sustainable development can be defined simply as a better quality of life for everyone, both now and for future generations. Sustainable development means: balanced and equitable economic development; high levels of employment, social cohesion and inclusion; a high level of environmental protection and responsible use of natural resources; generating a coherent political system open, transparent and accountable; effective international cooperation to promote global sustainable development (Gothenburg Strategy, 2001.

  14. Geospatial technologies for conservation planning: An approach to build more sustainable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current agricultural production systems must adapt to meet increasing demands for more economically and environmentally sustainable cropping systems. The application of precision agricultural technologies and geospatial and environmental modeling for conservation planning can aid in this transition....

  15. Selecting Sustainability Indicators for Small to Medium Sized Urban Water Systems Using Fuzzy-ELECTRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhipi-Shrestha, Gyan; Hewage, Kasun; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-03-01

      Urban water systems (UWSs) are challenged by the sustainability perspective. Certain limitations of the sustainability of centralized UWSs and decentralized household level wastewater treatments can be overcome by managing UWSs at an intermediate scale, referred to as small to medium sized UWSs (SMUWSs). SMUWSs are different from large UWSs, mainly in terms of smaller infrastructure, data limitation, smaller service area, and institutional limitations. Moreover, sustainability assessment systems to evaluate the sustainability of an entire UWS are very limited and confined only to large UWSs. This research addressed the gap and has developed a set of 38 applied sustainability performance indicators (SPIs) by using fuzzy-Elimination and Choice Translating Reality (ELECTRE) I outranking method to assess the sustainability of SMUWSs. The developed set of SPIs can be applied to existing and new SMUWSs and also provides a flexibility to include additional SPIs in the future based on the same selection criteria.

  16. Simulation and development of a multi-leg homogeniser concentrating assembly for concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system with electrical rating analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-03-09

    Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system utilizing multi-junction solar cells, is the main focus for current research, offering highest efficiency among all photovoltaic systems. The main aspect of CPV system is the design and performance of concentrating assembly, as it determines the performance of whole CPV system. However, the conventional design of CPV concentrating assembly dedicates one concentrator for each solar cell, in which single concentrator is capable to concentrate solar radiation onto single solar cell. This paper proposes a novel concentrating assembly for CPV system, which is designed to concentrate solar radiation onto four multi-junction solar cells with a single set of concentrators. The proposed design not only can reduce the number of concentrators and assembly efforts for CPV systems, but also achieved an acceptance angle of 1°. In this paper, the proposed multi-leg homogeniser CPV concentrating assembly is designed, developed, experimentally tested and verified through ray tracing simulation. The paper also discuss the development of mini, precise and accurate but cost effective two axis solar tracker for CPV system, which can be installed at any location even at rooftop of residential buildings, unlike conventional large scale CPV systems. Moreover, through the electrical rating analysis of the developed CPV system, its performance can be accurately estimated in any region. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Measuring sustainability within the Veterans Administration Mental Health System Redesign initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, James H; Krahn, Dean; Wise, Meg; Oliver, Karen Anderson

    2011-01-01

    To examine how attributes affecting sustainability differ across Veterans Health Administration organizational components and by staff characteristics. Surveys of 870 change team members and 50 staff interviews within the Veterans Affairs' Mental Health System Redesign initiative. A 1-way ANOVA with a Tukey post hoc test examined differences in sustainability by Veteran Integrated Service Networks, job classification, and tenure from staff survey data of the Sustainability Index. Qualitative interviews used an iterative process to identify "a priori" and "in vivo" themes. A simple stepwise linear regression explored predictors of sustainability. Sustainability differed across Veteran Integrated Service Networks and staff tenure. Job classification differences existed for the following: (1) benefits and credibility of the change and (2) staff involvement and attitudes toward change. Sustainability barriers were staff and institutional resistance and nonsupportive leadership. Facilitators were commitment to veterans, strong leadership, and use of quality improvement tools. Sustainability predictors were outcomes tracking, regular reporting, and use of Plan, Do, Study, Adjust cycles. Creating homogeneous implementation and sustainability processes across a national health system is difficult. Despite the Veterans Affairs' best evidence-based implementation efforts, there was significant variance. Locally tailored interventions might better support sustainability than "one-size-fits-all" approaches. Further research is needed to understand how participation in a quality improvement collaborative affects sustainability.

  18. A Framework for Supporting Organizational Transition Processes Towards Sustainable Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Rajesh

    Economic development over the last century has driven a tripling of the world's population, a twenty-fold increase in fossil fuel consumption, and a tripling of traditional biomass consumption. The associated broad income and wealth inequities are retaining over 2 billion people in poverty. Adding to this, fossil fuel combustion is impacting the environment across spatial and temporal scales and the cost of energy is outpacing all other variable costs for most industries. With 60% of world energy delivered in 2008 consumed by the commercial and industrial sector, the fragmented and disparate energy-related decision making within organizations are largely responsible for the inefficient and impacting use of energy resources. The global transition towards sustainable development will require the collective efforts of national, regional, and local governments, institutions, the private sector, and a well-informed public. The leadership role in this transition could be provided by private and public sector organizations, by way of sustainability-oriented organizations, cultures, and infrastructure. The diversity in literature exemplifies the developing nature of sustainability science, with most sustainability assessment approaches and frameworks lacking transformational characteristics, tending to focus on analytical methods. In general, some shortfalls in sustainability assessment processes include lack of: · thorough stakeholder participation in systems and stakeholder mapping, · participatory envisioning of future sustainable states, · normative aggregation of results to provide an overall measure of sustainability, and · influence within strategic decision-making processes. Specific to energy sustainability assessments, while some authors aggregate results to provide overall sustainability scores, assessments have focused solely on energy supply scenarios, while including the deficits discussed above. This paper presents a framework for supporting

  19. MUNICIPAL INDICATORS SYSTEM SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Saccol Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the indicators of sustainable development in the municipalities of Chapeco , Joaçaba , Port Union and Mafra, which developed the urban and territorial expansion of the West and North of the Santa Catarina region during the twentieth century . Thus, the objective of the analysis is to identify the similarities and differences of municipal sustainable development of each municipality , proposing alternative ways to improve these indexes, through the concepts Sachs (1997. The work is guided by a comparative analysis of data considering the indicators in 2012 and 2014 , through a survey of documentary approach . From this analysis , identified and demonstrated the points with disabilities, but at the same time essential to raise the indices of sustainability of municipalities in socio-cultural terms, economic, environmental and political

  20. Multi-criteria sustainability assessment: A tool for evaluation of new energy system

    OpenAIRE

    Afgan Naim H.; Begić Fajik; Kazagić Anes

    2007-01-01

    One of perspective methods for the evaluation of quality of energy system is the multi-criteria sustainability assessment, based on the analysis and synthesis of indicators expressing different aspects of the system. Application of this methodology in the cases of information deficiency (ASPID methodology) enables evaluation of various energy systems. In the paper, the multi-criteria sustainability assessment of energy systems of various energy sources is used to evaluate the energy power sys...

  1. THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS WITH SMALL IRRIGATION. THE CASE OF SAN PABLO ACTIPAN

    OpenAIRE

    René Neri Noriega; Ignacio Ocampo Fletes; Juan Francisco Escobedo Castillo; Andrés Pérez Magaña; Susana Edith Rappo Miguez

    2008-01-01

    Was realized an analysis of the sustainability of the agricultural systems with small irrigation that use water of the underground in San Pablo, Actipan, Tepeaca, Puebla state. The analysis was carried out with agroecological focus, using the Framework for the Evaluation of Systems of Management Incorporating Indicators of Sustainability (MESMIS). It was realized a transversal study comparing two irrigation societies: "The Chamizal” (reference system) and “Lázaro Cárdenas" (alternative system...

  2. Communicable disease control programmes and health systems: an analytical approach to sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigayeva, Altynay; Coker, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    There is renewed concern over the sustainability of disease control programmes, and re-emergence of policy recommendations to integrate programmes with general health systems. However, the conceptualization of this issue has remarkably received little critical attention. Additionally, the study of programmatic sustainability presents methodological challenges. In this article, we propose a conceptual framework to support analyses of sustainability of communicable disease programmes. Through this work, we also aim to clarify a link between notions of integration and sustainability. As a part of development of the conceptual framework, we conducted a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed literature on concepts, definitions, analytical approaches and empirical studies on sustainability in health systems. Identified conceptual proposals for analysis of sustainability in health systems lack an explicit conceptualization of what a health system is. Drawing upon theoretical concepts originating in sustainability sciences and our review here, we conceptualize a communicable disease programme as a component of a health system which is viewed as a complex adaptive system. We propose five programmatic characteristics that may explain a potential for sustainability: leadership, capacity, interactions (notions of integration), flexibility/adaptability and performance. Though integration of elements of a programme with other system components is important, its role in sustainability is context specific and difficult to predict. The proposed framework might serve as a basis for further empirical evaluations in understanding complex interplay between programmes and broader health systems in the development of sustainable responses to communicable diseases. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  3. The Future of Pork Production in the World: Towards Sustainable, Welfare-Positive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. McGlone

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Among land animals, more pork is eaten in the world than any other meat. The earth holds about one billion pigs who deliver over 100 mmt of pork to people for consumption. Systems of pork production changed from a forest-based to pasture-based to dirt lots and finally into specially-designed buildings. The world pork industry is variable and complex not just in production methods but in economics and cultural value. A systematic analysis of pork industry sustainability was performed. Sustainable production methods are considered at three levels using three examples in this paper: production system, penning system and for a production practice. A sustainability matrix was provided for each example. In a comparison of indoor vs. outdoor systems, the food safety/zoonoses concerns make current outdoor systems unsustainable. The choice of keeping pregnant sows in group pens or individual crates is complex in that the outcome of a sustainability assessment leads to the conclusion that group penning is more sustainable in the EU and certain USA states, but the individual crate is currently more sustainable in other USA states, Asia and Latin America. A comparison of conventional physical castration with immunological castration shows that the less-common immunological castration method is more sustainable (for a number of reasons. This paper provides a method to assess the sustainability of production systems and practices that take into account the best available science, human perception and culture, animal welfare, the environment, food safety, worker health and safety, and economics (including the cost of production and solving world hunger. This tool can be used in countries and regions where the table values of a sustainability matrix change based on local conditions. The sustainability matrix can be used to assess current systems and predict improved systems of the future.

  4. The Future of Pork Production in the World: Towards Sustainable, Welfare-Positive Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, John J

    2013-05-15

    Among land animals, more pork is eaten in the world than any other meat. The earth holds about one billion pigs who deliver over 100 mmt of pork to people for consumption. Systems of pork production changed from a forest-based to pasture-based to dirt lots and finally into specially-designed buildings. The world pork industry is variable and complex not just in production methods but in economics and cultural value. A systematic analysis of pork industry sustainability was performed. Sustainable production methods are considered at three levels using three examples in this paper: production system, penning system and for a production practice. A sustainability matrix was provided for each example. In a comparison of indoor vs. outdoor systems, the food safety/zoonoses concerns make current outdoor systems unsustainable. The choice of keeping pregnant sows in group pens or individual crates is complex in that the outcome of a sustainability assessment leads to the conclusion that group penning is more sustainable in the EU and certain USA states, but the individual crate is currently more sustainable in other USA states, Asia and Latin America. A comparison of conventional physical castration with immunological castration shows that the less-common immunological castration method is more sustainable (for a number of reasons). This paper provides a method to assess the sustainability of production systems and practices that take into account the best available science, human perception and culture, animal welfare, the environment, food safety, worker health and safety, and economics (including the cost of production and solving world hunger). This tool can be used in countries and regions where the table values of a sustainability matrix change based on local conditions. The sustainability matrix can be used to assess current systems and predict improved systems of the future.

  5. Some Danish experience with product-service systems and their potentials and barriers to sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2003-01-01

    This paper is one of the first attempts to scan the Danish experience with product-service systems and analyse the experiences with respect to potentials and barriers to sustainable development, i.e. reduced resource consumption and reduced environmental impact. The scan shows a variety of product......-service-systems: some have been around for many years and have not be set up for sustainability purposes, while others are rather new and are attempts to contribute to a more sustainable development. Some of the systems identified are so to say born as product-service-systems (like food catering), while others have...

  6. On sustainability assessment of technical systems. Experience from systems analysis with the ORWARE and Ecoeffect tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assefa, Getachew [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-06-15

    Engineering research and development work is undergoing a reorientation from focusing on specific parts of different systems to a broader perspective of systems level, albeit at a slower pace. This reorientation should be further developed and enhanced with the aim of organizing and structuring our technical systems in meeting sustainability requirements in face of global ecological threats that have far-reaching social and economic implications, which can no longer be captured using conventional approach of research. Until a list of universally acceptable, clear, and measurable indicators of sustainable development is developed, the work with sustainability metrics should continue to evolve as a relative measure of ecological, economic, and social performance of human activities in general, and technical systems in particular. This work can be done by comparing the relative performance of alternative technologies of providing the same well-defined function or service; or by characterizing technologies that enjoy different levels of societal priorities using relevant performance indicators. In both cases, concepts and methods of industrial ecology play a vital role. This thesis is about the development and application of a systematic approach for the assessment of the performance of technical systems from the perspective of systems analysis, sustainability, sustainability assessment, and industrial ecology. The systematic approach developed and characterized in this thesis advocates for a simultaneous assessment of the ecological, economic, and social dimensions of performance of technologies in avoiding sub-optimization and problem shifting between dimensions. It gives a holistic picture by taking a life cycle perspective of all important aspects. The systematic assessment of technical systems provides an even-handed assessment resulting in a cumulative knowledge. A modular structure of the approach makes it flexible enough in terms of comparing a number of

  7. Adaptive capacity indicators to assess sustainability of urban water systems - Current application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Marc

    2016-11-01

    Sustainability is commonly assessed along environmental, societal, economic and technological dimensions. A crucial aspect of sustainability is that inter-generational equality must be ensured. This requires that sustainability is attained in the here and now as well as into the future. Therefore, what is perceived as 'sustainable' changes as a function of societal opinion and technological and scientific progress. A concept that describes the ability of systems to change is adaptive capacity. Literature suggests that the ability of systems to adapt is an integral part of sustainable development. This paper demonstrates that indicators measuring adaptive capacity are underrepresented in current urban water sustainability studies. Furthermore, it is discussed under which sustainability dimensions adaptive capacity indicators are lacking and why. Of the >90 indicators analysed, only nine are adaptive capacity indicators, of which six are socio-cultural, two technological, one economical and none environmental. This infrequent use of adaptive capacity indicators in sustainability assessments led to the conclusion that the challenge of dynamic and uncertain urban water systems is, with the exception of the socio-cultural dimension, not yet sufficiently reflected in the application of urban water sustainability indicators. This raises concerns about the progress towards urban water systems that can transform as a response variation and change. Therefore, research should focus on developing methods and indicators that can define, evaluate and quantify adaptive capacity under the economic, environmental and technical dimension of sustainability. Furthermore, it should be evaluated whether sustainability frameworks that focus on the control processes of urban water systems are more suitable for measuring adaptive capacity, than the assessments along environmental, economic, socio-cultural and technological dimensions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of forage systems in environmentally sustainable beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop better scientific understanding of the sustainability of beef in the United States, a national assessment is being conducted with support from the Beef Checkoff. This includes a life cycle assessment (LCA) of important environmental, social and economic impact categories of the beef value...

  9. Language Use for Sustainable Development in Nigeria: a Systemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 7- Point Agenda is one of such policy statements meant to impact on Nigeria's quest for sustainable development and its language is considered as a socially oriented discourse strategically performing illocutionary functions intended to meet a target trend. In this regard, its language in this paper is considered as an ...

  10. Sustainability issues on rice–wheat cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Bhatt

    2016-03-01

    In this review, an attempt was made to highlight different issues resulted from the practise of intensive rice–wheat cropping sequence of the region, which must be considered while framing and implementing any integrated approach/project such as conservation agriculture for improving the productions, profits and sustainability of RWCS in the region.

  11. Global navigation satellite system (GNSS): a utility for sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This technology has an enormous potential to contribute to the management of environment, natural disasters, provide food security, emergency response, improve the efficiency in surveying and mapping. Land, water ... It looks at how this space technology can support our sustainable development as developing nations.

  12. Sustainable energy systems : Limitations and challenges based on exergy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, A.H.M.; Woudstra, N.

    General There is a general understanding that the so-called “developed countries” have to change their way of life including their energy supply into a more sustainable way. But even in the case of unanimity with regard to the direction, there are still many opinions about the way to follow. This

  13. A sustainability assessment system for Chinese iron and steel firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Yunguang; Pan, Jieyi; Farooq, Sami

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of the Chinese iron and steel industry is huge due to its high consumption of ore, coal and energy, and water and air pollution. It is important not only for China but also for the rest of the world that the Chinese iron and steel industry becomes more sustainable...

  14. Sustainable energy systems : Limitations and challenges based on exergy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudstra, N.

    2012-01-01

    General There is a general understanding that the so-called “developed countries” have to change their way of life including their energy supply into a more sustainable way. But even in the case of unanimity with regard to the direction, there are still many opinions about the way to follow. This

  15. Multi-criteria sustainability assessment: A tool for evaluation of new energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afgan Naim H.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of perspective methods for the evaluation of quality of energy system is the multi-criteria sustainability assessment, based on the analysis and synthesis of indicators expressing different aspects of the system. Application of this methodology in the cases of information deficiency (ASPID methodology enables evaluation of various energy systems. In the paper, the multi-criteria sustainability assessment of energy systems of various energy sources is used to evaluate the energy power system of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Eight different energy system options are taken into a consideration as the potential options for the capacity building within the energy power system of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It has included various renewable sources and fossil fuel clean technologies. Within the multi-criteria sustainability assessment method, sustainability indicators and weighting coefficients are defined and calculated, including: resource indicator, environment indicator, social indicator and economic indicator with respective weighting factors. The methodology includes the system of stochastic models of uncertainty in order to realize the assessment from various supporting systems, and to obtain respective normalization indexes by using non-numeric (ordinal, non-exact (interval, and non-complete information (NNN- information, for sources of various reliability and probability. By the analysis of multi-criteria sustainability assessment of selected options, the decision makers could be enabled to form opinion on quality of considered energy systems, and from the aspect of sustainability, make selection an optimum option of energy system. .

  16. Multiple criteria decision making for sustainable energy and transportation systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrgott, Matthias [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand). Dept. of Engineering Science; Naujoks, Boris [Login GmbH, Schwelm (Germany).; Stewart, Theodor J. [Cape Town Univ., Rondebosch (South Africa). Dept. of Statistical Sciences; Wallenius, Jyrki (eds.) [Helsinki School of Economics (Finland). Dept. of Business Technology

    2010-07-01

    In the twenty-first century the sustainability of energy and transportation systems is on the top of the political agenda in many countries around the world and governments are establishing policies towards a sustainable, low emissions energy future. Environmental impacts of human economic activity necessitate the consideration of conflicting goals in decision making processes to develop sustainable systems. Any sustainable development has to reconcile conflicting economic and environmental objectives and criteria. The science of multiple criteria decision making has a lot to offer in addressing this need. Decision making with multiple (conflicting) criteria is the topic of research that is at the heart of the International Society of Multiple Criteria Decision Making. This book is based on selected papers presented at the societies 19th International Conference, held at The University of Auckland, New Zealand, from 7th to 12th January 2008 under the theme ''MCDM for Sustainable Energy and Transportation Systems''. (orig.)

  17. Sustainability of health information systems: a three-country qualitative study in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucheraud, Corrina; Schwitters, Amee; Boudreaux, Chantelle; Giles, Denise; Kilmarx, Peter H; Ntolo, Ntolo; Bangani, Zwashe; St Louis, Michael E; Bossert, Thomas J

    2017-01-10

    Health information systems are central to strong health systems. They assist with patient and program management, quality improvement, disease surveillance, and strategic use of information. Many donors have worked to improve health information systems, particularly by supporting the introduction of electronic health information systems (EHIS), which are considered more responsive and more efficient than older, paper-based systems. As many donor-driven programs are increasing their focus on country ownership, sustainability of these investments is a key concern. This analysis explores the potential sustainability of EHIS investments in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe, originally supported by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Using a framework based on sustainability theories from the health systems literature, this analysis employs a qualitative case study methodology to highlight factors that may increase the likelihood that donor-supported initiatives will continue after the original support is modified or ends. Findings highlight commonalities around possible determinants of sustainability. The study found that there is great optimism about the potential for EHIS, but the perceived risks may result in hesitancy to transition completely and parallel use of paper-based systems. Full stakeholder engagement is likely to be crucial for sustainability, as well as integration with other activities within the health system and those funded by development partners. The literature suggests that a sustainable system has clearly-defined goals around which stakeholders can rally, but this has not been achieved in the systems studied. The study also found that technical resource constraints - affecting system usage, maintenance, upgrades and repairs - may limit EHIS sustainability even if these other pillars were addressed. The sustainability of EHIS faces many challenges, which could be addressed through systems' technical design, stakeholder

  18. Sustainability in the Higher Education System: An Opportunity to Improve Quality and Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela M. Salvioni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increasing importance attributed to social responsibility and stakeholder relationship management, more universities have expanded their research topics and their educational programs through the years. High attention is dedicated to the dominant principles and values of internal and external relations, to the innovation processes designed to ensure an approach to sustainable development. However, less attention is dedicated to the sustainability governance orientation and to the development of a strong institutional culture of sustainability, which is a key success factor to improve the quality and the image. This article observes the sustainability governance orientation, through the analysis of the information on the websites of three fair groups of universities in the international Top 500-ARWU (Academic Ranking of World Universities 2015 ranking. The aim is to verify if there is a link between the degree of sustainability culture in the management and the positioning of the universities in the international ranking. In addition, the analysis is compared with self-assessment data carried out by the same universities in terms of performance sustainability through the STARS (Sustainability Tracking, Assessment & Rating System online platform. As principal consideration, we have noted that the best universities in the ranking have a management approach based on a shared vision of sustainability development of their university leaders, who play an essential role affirming and disseminating a sustainability culture. All this opens broader future implications intended to highlight the importance of management sustainability as a quality improvement factor of universities.

  19. Environmental sustainability assessment of urban systems applying coupled urban metabolism and life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Goldstein, Benjamin Paul

    2013-01-01

    urban metabolism (UM) and life cycle assessment (LCA) can be applied to assess the sustainability of urban system, taking into account up- and downstream activities directly or indirectly linked to the metabolism of urban systems. Further we apply the fused UM-LCA approach to assess the absolute......The necessity of assessing and addressing the environmental sustainability of urban systems is becoming increasingly relevant due to growing urbanization across the globe, higher consumption in urban systems and related competition for finite resource stocks. In this study we present how fused...... environmental sustainability of large urban systems by relating the environmental sustainability performance of urban systems with global environmental burden boundaries quantifying pollution thresholds beyond which performance of global ecosystems services may be detrimentally affected....

  20. An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janic, Milan

    2003-01-01

    An assessment and operationalization of the concept of sustainable air transport system is recognized as an important but complex research, operational and policy task. In the scope of the academic efforts to properly address the problem, this paper aims to assess the sustainability of air transport system. It particular, the paper describes the methodology for assessment of sustainability and its potential application. The methodology consists of the indicator systems, which relate to the air transport system operational, economic, social and environmental dimension of performance. The particular indicator systems are relevant for the particular actors such users (air travellers), air transport operators, aerospace manufacturers, local communities, governmental authorities at different levels (local, national, international), international air transport associations, pressure groups and public. In the scope of application of the methodology, the specific cases are selected to estimate the particular indicators, and thus to assess the system sustainability under given conditions.

  1. On the Sustainability and Management of a Model System with Ecological, Macroeconomic, and Legal Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability is essentially about insuring that human existence can be indefinitely supported by the biological system of the Earth at an appropriate level of civilization. Hence, one of the most fundamental questions in sustainability is the extent to which human activities a...

  2. Cultivating Sustained Teachers' Professional Learning within a Centralised Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaari, Imran; Lim, Victor; Hung, David; Kwan, Yew Meng

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates how sustained professional learning for teachers within a centralised system was cultivated. Specifically, the sustained professional learning was initiated by officers from the headquarters (HQ) and involved interested teachers across schools in Singapore. Qualitative instruments were used to collect and analyse the data…

  3. Evaluating the sustainability of complex socio-environmental systems. The MESMIS framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López Ridaura, S.; Masera, O.; Astier, M.

    2002-01-01

    Sustainable development has become a leading target of scientific research and policy agenda. In the context of natural resource management, understanding and evaluating the performance of complex socio-environmental systems has become a challenge, and the design of more sustainable alternatives is

  4. Sustainability of greenhouse fruit vegetables; Spain versus The Netherlands; Development of a monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, van der N.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainability is becoming more and more important in the competitive battle between the greenhouse-grown fruiting vegetables produced in Spain and the Netherlands. A monitoring system has been developed. Sustainability is a broad concept regarding primary producers and other links in the chain.

  5. Short-term and sustained effects of a health system strengthening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a need to develop reproducible interventions that reinforce the implementation of these guidelines and assess their effect and sustainability. Objectives. To assess the short-term and sustained effects of a health system strengthening intervention on mortality attributable to SAM in two hospitals located in the Eastern ...

  6. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: integrated evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonneau, M.; Klauke, T.N.; Gonzalez, J.; Rydhmer, L.; Ilari-Antoine, E.; Dourmad, J.Y.; Greef, de K.H.; Houwers, H.W.J.; Cinar, M.U.; Fabrega, E.; Zimmer, C.; Hviid, M.; Oever, van der B.; Edwards, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an approach for an integrated evaluation of the sustainability of pig farming systems, taking into account the three classical pillars: economy, environment and society. Eight sustainability themes were considered: Animal Welfare (AW), Animal Health (AH), Breeding

  7. The science of decisionmaking: applications for sustainable forest and grassland management in the National Forest System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Bruce G. Marcot; Frank R. Thompson; Steven McNulty; Larry A. Fisher; Michael C. Runge; David Cleaves; Monica Tomosy

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable management of national forests and grasslands within the National Forest System (NFS) often requires managers to make tough decisions under considerable uncertainty, complexity, and potential conflict. Resource decisionmakers must weigh a variety of risks, stressors, and challenges to sustainable management, including climate change, wildland fire, invasive...

  8. Sustainability Assessment of Power Generation Systems by Applying Exergy Analysis and LCA Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stougie, L.; van der Kooi, H.J.; Valero Delgado, A.

    2015-01-01

    The selection of power generation systems is important when striving for a more sustainable society. However, the results of environmental, economic and social sustainability assessments are subject to new insights into the calculation methods and to changing needs, economic conditions and societal

  9. The Feasibility of "oscar" as AN Information System for Sustainable Rehabilitation of Built Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C.; Rouillard, C.

    2017-08-01

    This paper aims to examine the feasibility of the Online Sustainable Conservation Assistance Resource (OSCAR) as an information system and framework to help find appropriate ways to improve the sustainable performance of heritage buildings in North America. The paper reviews the need for holistic comprehensive authoritative information in the field of sustainable conservation, how OSCAR addresses this gap, the OSCAR workflow, and how it was used in two case studies. It was found that OSCAR has potential to become a practical educational tool and design aide to address the sustainable performance of heritage buildings. The paper contributes to the discourse on sustainable conservation by examining resources and tools which address the need for holistic retrofit approaches. The findings will be useful to educators and professionals in the fields of sustainable design and heritage conservation.

  10. Sustainability evaluation of automatic and conventional milking systems on organic dairy farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudshoorn, Frank W; Kristensen, Troels; van der Zijpp, A J

    2012-01-01

    , and social acceptability, i.e., its contribution to sustainable development. The objective of this research, therefore, was to evaluate sustainability of AMS use on organic dairy farms in Denmark, by comparing results of a set of sustainability indicators for nine farms using AMS with nine farms using...... conventional milking systems (CMS). Sustainability indicators were quantified for economic performance of the farm, on-farm eutrophication, on-farm biodiversity, animal welfare (including health), grazing time, milk composition and labour time. Milk yield per cow per year was higher for AMS farms (9021 kg...... this quantification of selected sustainability indicators it can be concluded that organic dairy farms using AMS, in spite of the substantial decrease in grazing time, show the potential of economic and environmental sustainable development within the range of herd sizes investigated (65–157 cows per farm). Even...

  11. THE FEASIBILITY OF “OSCAR” AS AN INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR SUSTAINABLE REHABILITATION OF BUILT HERITAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Farmer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the feasibility of the Online Sustainable Conservation Assistance Resource (OSCAR as an information system and framework to help find appropriate ways to improve the sustainable performance of heritage buildings in North America. The paper reviews the need for holistic comprehensive authoritative information in the field of sustainable conservation, how OSCAR addresses this gap, the OSCAR workflow, and how it was used in two case studies. It was found that OSCAR has potential to become a practical educational tool and design aide to address the sustainable performance of heritage buildings. The paper contributes to the discourse on sustainable conservation by examining resources and tools which address the need for holistic retrofit approaches. The findings will be useful to educators and professionals in the fields of sustainable design and heritage conservation.

  12. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: breeding programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydhmer, L; Gourdine, J L; de Greef, K; Bonneau, M

    2014-12-01

    The sustainability of breeding activities in 15 pig farming systems in five European countries was evaluated. One conventional and two differentiated systems per country were studied. The Conventional systems were the standard systems in their countries. The differentiated systems were of three categories: Adapted Conventional with focus on animal welfare, meat quality or environment (five systems); Traditional with local breeds in small-scale production (three systems) and Organic (two systems). Data were collected with a questionnaire from nine breeding organisations providing animals and semen to the studied farming systems and from, on average, five farmers per farming system. The sustainability assessment of breeding activities was performed in four dimensions. The first dimension described whether the market for the product was well defined, and whether the breeding goal reflected the farming system and the farmers' demands. The second dimension described recording and selection procedures, together with genetic change in traits that were important in the system. The third dimension described genetic variation, both within and between pig breeds. The fourth dimension described the management of the breeding organisation, including communication, transparency, and technical and human resources. The results show substantial differences in the sustainability of breeding activities, both between farming systems within the same category and between different categories of farming systems. The breeding activities are assessed to be more sustainable for conventional systems than for differentiated systems in three of the four dimensions. In most differentiated farming systems, breeding goals are not related to the system, as these systems use the same genetic material as conventional systems. The breeds used in Traditional farming systems are important for genetic biodiversity, but the small scale of these systems renders them vulnerable. It is hoped that, by

  13. Patient safety reporting systems: sustained quality improvement using a multidisciplinary team and "good catch" awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzer, Kurt R; Mirrer, Meredith; Xie, Yanjun; Steppan, Jochen; Li, Matthew; Jung, Clinton; Cover, Renee; Doyle, Peter A; Mark, Lynette J

    2012-08-01

    Since 1999, hospitals have made substantial commitments to health care quality and patient safety through individual initiatives of executive leadership involvement in quality, investments in safety culture, education and training for medical students and residents in quality and safety, the creation of patient safety committees, and implementation of patient safety reporting systems. At the Weinberg Surgical Suite at The Johns Hopkins Hospital (Baltimore), a 16-operating-room inpatient/outpatient cancer center, a patient safety reporting process was developed to maximize the usefulness of the reports and the long-term sustainability of quality improvements arising from them. A six-phase framework was created incorporating UHC's Patient Safety Net (PSN): Identify, report, analyze, mitigate, reward, and follow up. Unique features of this process included a multidisciplinary team to review reports, mitigate hazards, educate and empower providers, recognize the identifying/reporting individuals or groups with "Good Catch" awards, and follow up to determine if quality improvements were sustained over time. Good Catch awards have been given in recognition of 29 patient safety hazards identified since 2008; in each of these cases, an initiative was developed to mitigate the original hazard. Twenty-five (86%) of the associated quality improvements have been sustained. Two Good Catch award-winning projects--vials of heparin with an unusually high concentration of the drug that posed a potential overdose hazard and a rapid infusion device that resisted practitioner control--are described in detail. A multidisciplinary team's analysis and mitigation of hazards identified in a patient safety reporting process entailed positive recognition with a Good Catch award, education of practitioners, and long-term follow-up.

  14. Sustainability of US Organic Beef and Dairy Production Systems: Soil, Plant and Cattle Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy J. Soder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.

  15. Bio-Inspired Optimization of Sustainable Energy Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jun Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development always involves complex optimization problems of design, planning, and control, which are often computationally difficult for conventional optimization methods. Fortunately, the continuous advances in artificial intelligence have resulted in an increasing number of heuristic optimization methods for effectively handling those complicated problems. Particularly, algorithms that are inspired by the principles of natural biological evolution and/or collective behavior of social colonies have shown a promising performance and are becoming more and more popular nowadays. In this paper we summarize the recent advances in bio-inspired optimization methods, including artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence, and their hybridizations, which are applied to the field of sustainable energy development. Literature reviewed in this paper shows the current state of the art and discusses the potential future research trends.

  16. Simulation of the sustainability of farming systems in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Potchanasin, Chakrit

    2008-01-01

    Summary Introduction Due to an increase in environmental problems and resource degradation, economic development should be pursued with consideration of environmental functions and the supply and quality of natural resources. Monitoring and assessment of whether the development approaches a sustainable path are required to provide information for policy development. This becomes increasingly important ? especially for marginal areas where the environment and natural resources are sensit...

  17. Injectable Chitosan/β-Glycerophosphate System for Sustained Release: Gelation Study, Structural Investigation, and Erosion Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmoro, Annalisa; Abrami, Michela; Galzerano, Barbara; Bochicchio, Sabrina; Barba, Anna Angela; Grassi, Mario; Larobina, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogels can constitute reliable delivery systems of drugs, including those based on nucleic acids (NABDs) such as small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA). Their nature, structure, and response to physiological or external stimuli strongly influence the delivery mechanisms of entrapped active molecules, and, in turn, their possible uses in pharmacological and biomedical applications. In this study, a thermo-gelling chitosan/β-glycero-phosphate system has been optimized in order to assess its use as injectable system able to: i) gelling at physiological pH and temperature, and ii) modulate the release of included active ingredients. To this aim, we first analyzed the effect of acetic acid concentration on the gelation temperature. We then found the "optimized composition", namely, the one in which the Tgel is equal to the physiological temperature. The resulting gel was tested, by low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR), to evaluate its average mesh-size, which can affect release kinetics of loaded drug. Finally, films of gelled chitosan, loaded with a model drug, have been tested in vitro to monitor their characteristic times, i.e. diffusion and erosion time, when they are exposed to a medium mimicking a physiological environment (buffer solution at pH 7.4). Results display that the optimized system is deemed to be an ideal candidate as injectable gelling material for a sustained release. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. A System of Systems (SoS) Approach to Sustainable Energy Planning in MENA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlooji, Maral; Ristic, Bora; Price, Katherine; Madani, Kaveh

    2016-04-01

    The global issue of climate change has put pressure on governments to de-carbonise their energy portfolios by transitioning from the dominant use of fossil fuels energy to extensive use of renewable energies. The lack of renewable energy laws and credible targets and valid roadmaps for energy policies within the MENA region has let to ambitious and unrealistic renewable targets, where countries such as Djibouti and Morocco are aiming for 100% and 42% renewables respectively, by 2020, while Kuwait and Qatar are only aiming for 5% and 6% respectively. Nevertheless, this demonstrates the commitment and desirability of the members of the MENA region on increasing their share of renewables in their energy mix to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of the region and minimise the unintended impacts of energy technologies on major natural resources through use of cost efficient technologies. The Relative Aggregate Footprint (RAF) of energy sources among the member states of the MENA region is assessed by applying the "System of Systems (SoS) Approach to Energy Sustainability Assessment" (Hadian and Madani, 2015). RAF demonstrates the efficiency of the overall resource-use of energy resources through creating a trade-off between carbon footprint, land footprint, water footprint, and economic cost. Using the resource availability of each member states, weights are assigned to the four criteria. This allows the evaluation of the desirability of energy sources with respect to regional resource availability and therefore, the efficiency of the overall resource-use of the energy portfolio of the MENA region is determined. This study has recognised the need for reform and radical changes within the MENA region's energy profile to make a significant contribution to the reduction of carbon emissions in order to use the resources in a sustainable way and increase the regional energy security of the member states across MENA. Reference: Hadian S, Madani K (2015) A System of Systems

  19. Monitoring electrolyte concentrations in redox flow battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, On Kok; Sopchak, David Andrew; Pham, Ai Quoc; Kinoshita, Kimio

    2015-03-17

    Methods, systems and structures for monitoring, managing electrolyte concentrations in redox flow batteries are provided by introducing a first quantity of a liquid electrolyte into a first chamber of a test cell and introducing a second quantity of the liquid electrolyte into a second chamber of the test cell. The method further provides for measuring a voltage of the test cell, measuring an elapsed time from the test cell reaching a first voltage until the test cell reaches a second voltage; and determining a degree of imbalance of the liquid electrolyte based on the elapsed time.

  20. A GIS-based performance measurement system for assessing transportation sustainability and community livability : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-31

    Sustainability and livability in transportation, as the concepts referring to the capability of transportation systems to maintain the well being of our society, have been widely : accepted as the critical principles to improve quality of life and he...

  1. Land Administration System for Sustainable Development – Case Study of Poland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agnieszka Dawidowicz; Ryszard Źróbek

    2017-01-01

    The global idea of building state Land Administration Systems was to determine the infrastructures for the implementation of land policies and land management strategies in support of sustainable development...

  2. Texas Urban Triangle : pilot study to implement a spatial decision support system (SDSS) for sustainable mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This project addressed sustainable transportation in the Texas Urban Triangle (TUT) by conducting a pilot : project at the county scale. The project tested and developed the multi-attribute Spatial Decision Support : System (SDSS) developed in 2009 u...

  3. Maturity-based approach for the development of environmentally sustainable product/service-systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2016-01-01

    Despite their substantial potential for enabling increased environmental performance, product/service-systems (PSS) are not intrinsically environmentally sustainable. In order to ensure increased environmental performance, PSS best practices should be integrated with ecodesign best practices, from...

  4. Mechanization and new technologies for the control and the sustainability of agricultural and forestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Editors

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Book of the Congress:Mechanization and new technologies for the control and the sustainability of agricultural and forestry systems Alghero, Italy, 29th May - 1st June 2016

  5. A Systems Model to Make, Market, and Lead Your Way towards Sustained Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raman Kumar Agrawalla

    2017-01-01

    .... Marketing is a key business function to market and lead a business towards sustained profitable growth but the problem is it lacks a systems perspective in its operations, strategy, and practice...

  6. Storm that rocks the boat: the systemic impact of gated communities on urban sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available , and to seeking underlying systemic interrelationships which are responsible for the patterns of behaviour and the events (Bellinger 2004). 6 “Sustainability is the condition or state that would allow the continued existence of homo sapiens...

  7. Utilizing Indigenous Knowledge Systems in Agricultural Education to Promote Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David L.; Muchena, Olivia N.

    1991-01-01

    Understanding and appreciation of indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) are essential for promoting sustainable agriculture development. IKS provides a cultural basis for nonformal agricultural programs that is absent in technology transfer approaches. (SK)

  8. Genetic traits of relevance to sustainability of smallholder sheep farming systems in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molotsi, Annelin; Dube, Bekezela; Oosting, Simon; Marandure, Tawanda; Mapiye, Cletos; Cloete, Schalk; Dzama, Kennedy

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable livestock production is important to ensure continuous availability of resources for future generations. Most smallholder livestock farming systems in developing countries have been perceived to be environmentally, socially and economically unsustainable. Farming with livestock that is

  9. Sustainable Transport Systems: Linkages Between Environmental Issues, Public Transport, Non-Motorized Transport And Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    A sustainable transport system must provide mobility and accessibility to all urban residents in a safe and end environmentally friendly mode of transport. This is a complex and difficult task when the needs and demands of people belonging to differe...

  10. Information and entropy theory for the sustainability of coupled human and natural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey L. Mayer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For coupled human and natural systems (CHANS, sustainability can be defined operationally as a feasible, desirable set of flows (material, currency, information, energy, individuals, etc. that can be maintained despite internal changes and changes in the environment. Sustainable development can be defined as the process by which CHANS can be moved toward sustainability. Specific indicators that give insight into the structure and behavior of feedbacks in CHANS are of particular interest because they would aid in the sustainable management of these systems through an understanding of the structures that govern system behavior. However, the use of specific feedbacks as monitoring tools is rare, possibly because of uncertainties regarding the nature of their dynamics and the diversity of types of feedbacks encountered in these systems. An information theory perspective may help to rectify this situation, as evidenced by recent research in sustainability science that supports the use of unit-free measures such as Shannon entropy and Fisher information to aggregate disparate indicators. These measures have been used for spatial and temporal datasets to monitor progress toward sustainability targets. Here, we provide a review of information theory and a theoretical framework for studying the dynamics of feedbacks in CHANS. We propose a combination of information-based indices that might productively inform our sustainability goals, particularly when related to key feedbacks in CHANS.

  11. Towards an Agent Based Framework for Modelling Smart Self-Sustainable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Tomičić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-sustainability is a property of a system; a system is considered to be self-sustainable if it can sustain itself without external support in an observed period of time. If this property is mapped to a human settlement in context of resources (water, energy, food, etc., it would describe a human settlement which is independent of external resources (like the national electrical grid or a central water distribution system, where such external resources are either not available, or not desirable. This article contributes to presenting the state-of-the-art overview of self-sustainability-related research. While self-sustainability as in the above described form was not a direct subject of research, there are several fields which are either related to, or could be of significant value to the self-sustainability research in this context. The extensive literature overview also showed no frameworks for modeling self sustainable systems in the context of human settlements. Herein a motivation for using agent-based modeling and simulation techniques will be given.

  12. Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials for Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Muller, M.; Kempe, M. D.; Araki, K.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-03-01

    Many concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems use a polymeric encapsulant to couple and optical component and/or coverglass to the cell. In that location, the encapsulation improves the transmission of concentrated optical flux through interface(s), while protecting the cell from the environment. The durability of encapsulation materials, however, is not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Therefore, we have initiated a screen test to identify the field-induced failure modes for a variety of popular PV encapsulation materials. An existing CPV module (with no PV cells present) was modified to accommodate encapsulation specimens. The module (where nominal concentration of solar flux is 500x for the domed-Fresnel design) has been mounted on a tracker in Golden, CO (elevation 1.79 km). Initial results are reported here for 18 months cumulative exposure, including the hottest and coldest months of the past year. Characteristics observed at intervals during that time include: visual appearance, direct and hemispherical transmittance, and mass. Degradation may be assessed from subsequent analysis (including yellowness index and cut-on frequency) relative to the ambient conditions present during field exposure. The fluorescence signature observed of all the silicone specimens is examined here, including possible factors of causation -- the platinum catalyst used in the addition cured materials as well as the primer used to promote adhesion to the quartz substrate and superstrate.

  13. Special Issue: Enhancing Sustainable Performance in Organizational and Inter-Institutional Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Winch

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is not just for Christmas… it’s for life. Sustainable solutions, whether sought in terms of business strategies, social policies, or the exploitation of natural resources have to serve organizations and communities in the long term, sometimes very long term, as well as the short term. Static analysis is unlikely to be able to evaluate candidate solutions fully, and is more likely to focus on the short-term future to the detriment of the longer-term. Sustainable solutions are more likely to be developed from studies based on deep analysis using systems approaches, and from system dynamics (SD approaches in particular.

  14. Designing Sustainable IT System – From the Perspective of Universal Design Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Mustaquim, Moyen; Nyström, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Since the concept of universal design is already extending the boundary of disabilities, it is significant to include different aspects of information technology where universal design enabled efforts can contribute towards better designed systems, products and services. Sustainability is an important and growing public concern in today’s world. Nevertheless, attempts of designing IT system that can be called sustainable in nature are not so evident at present. In this paper we propose a fram...

  15. Geospatial Based Information System Development in Public Administration for Sustainable Development and Planning in Urban Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios N. Kouziokas

    2016-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the governmental authorities should actively encourage the development of an efficient framework of information and communication technology initiatives so as to advance and promote sustainable development and planning strategies. This paper presents a prototype Information System for public administration which was designed to facilitate public management and decision making for sustainable development and planning. The system was developed by using several progra...

  16. Energy policies and politics for sustainable world-system development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    environmental impacts of renewable energy sources. Normatively, (a) parts of the 1987 Brundtland report and (b) Danish experiences with regulated markets and innovations (Hvelplund 1995) are discussed and supplemented by (c) a critique of EU energy policies, especially the continued support of nuclear industry...... by Euratom (Woodman 2003). A political approach to preconditions for sustainable energy policies is finally developed from (a) Barry Commoner's critique of 1979 of president Carter's energy plan followed by the impasse of the Reagan era with the US government's retreat from federal energy and environmental...

  17. Ensuring sustainable grain legume-cereal cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoussac, Laurent; Journet, E-P; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    distribution, the impact of pests and diseases, as well as vulnerability to poor soils, drought and other effects of climate change. This chapter summarises data from over 50 field experiments undertaken since 2001 on cereal-grain legume intercropping in 13 sites in southern and western France as well...... health makes them a key rotation crop in the sustainable intensification and diversification of smallholder farming. This makes grain legumes a key food security crop. However, yields in developing countries are low as a result of such factors as the need for improved varieties of seed, poor seed...

  18. Optimum Design Of Grid Connected Photovoltaic System Using Concentrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eng. Mohammed Fawzy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to the increasing demand of electrical energy in Egypt and also in many neighboring countries around the world the main problem facing electrical energy production using classical methods such steam power stations is the depletion of fossil fuels. The gap between the electrical energy demand and the continuous increase on the fossil fuel cost make the problem of electricity generation more sophisticated. With the continuous decrease of the photovoltaic PV technologies cost it doesnt make sense neglecting the importance of electricity production using solar photovoltaic PV especially that the annual average daily energy received is about 6 kamp12310whmamp123112day in Cairo Egypt 30N.In this work a detailed simulation model including photovoltaic PV module characteristics and climatic conditions of Cairo Egypt is developed. The model compares fixed PV systems electrical energy output with photovoltaic PV system using concentrators and double axis tracker systems. The comparison includes the energy generated area required as well as the cost per kwh generated. The optimality criterion is the cost per kwh generated. The system that gives the minimum cost per kwh is the optimum system. To verify the developed model the simulation results of fixed PV modules and CPV using tracking system obtained by the model are compared with practical measurements of 40KW peak station erected in Cairo Egypt 30N.Very good agreement between measured values and results obtained from detailed simulation model. For fixed PV system the detailed economic analysis showed that it gives minimum cost perkwh generated Comparisons among these systems are presented. For Cairo results showed that a cost of about 6 to 9 US centskwh is attainable.

  19. Academic-community partnerships for sustainable preparedness and response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakov, Alexander; O'Neal, Patrick; Prescott, John; Stanley, Joan; Herrmann, Jack; Dunlop, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Academic institutions possess tremendous resources that could be important for community disaster response and preparedness activities. In-depth exploration of the role of academic institutions in community disaster response has elicited information about particular academic resources leveraged for and essential to community preparedness and response; factors that contribute to the decision-making process for partner engagement; and facilitators of and barriers to sustainable collaborations from the perspectives of academic institutions, public health and emergency management agencies, and national association and agency leaders. The Academic-Community Partnership Project of the Emory University Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center in collaboration with the Association of Schools of Public Health convened an invitational summit which included leadership from the National Association of County and City Health Officials, Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, Directors of Public Health Preparedness, Department of Health and Human Services Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, CDC Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Association of Schools of Public Health, Association of American Medical Colleges, Association of Academic Health Centers, American Association of Colleges of Nursing, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, and American Association of Poison Control Centers. From this convention, emerged recommendations for building and sustaining academic-public health-community collaborations for preparedness locally and regionally.

  20. A Systemic Approach for Measuring Environmental Sustainability at Higher Education Institutions : A Case Study of the University of Oslo

    OpenAIRE

    Faghihimani, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability is becoming an integral part of the university system. A global trend among universities shows that they are revising their missions and strategies by embodying sustainability on their agenda. This study aims to define what a sustainable university is and how implementing sustainability and more precisely environmental sustainability can be measured at the higher education institutions. The contextual background of this study will elaborate on the role of higher education syste...

  1. A System for Ontology-Based Sharing of Expert Knowledge in Sustainability Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Kraines

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Work towards creation of a knowledge sharing system for sustainability science through the application of semantic data modeling is described. An ontology grounded in description logics was developed based on the ISO 15926 data model to describe three types of sustainability science conceptualizations: situational knowledge, analytic methods, and scenario frameworks. Semantic statements were then created using this ontology to describe expert knowledge expressed in research proposals and papers related to sustainability science and in scenarios for achieving sustainable societies. Semantic matching based on logic and rule-based inference was used to quantify the conceptual overlap of semantic statements, which shows the semantic similarity of topics studied by different researchers in sustainability science, similarities that might be unknown to the researchers themselves.

  2. Assessing the Financial Sustainability of China’s Rural Pension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijian Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the rapid growth of China’s elderly rural population, establishing both an adequate and a financially sustainable rural pension system is a major challenge. Focusing on financial sustainability, this article defines this concept of financial sustainability before constructing sound actuarial models for China’s rural pension system. Based on these models and statistical data, the analysis finds that the rural pension funding gap should rise from 97.80 billion Yuan in 2014 to 3062.31 billion Yuan in 2049, which represents an annual growth rate of 10.34%. This implies that, as it stands, the rural pension system in China is not financially sustainable. Finally, the article explains how this problem could be fixed through policy recommendations based on recent international experiences.

  3. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems - Volume II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Duić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – JSDEWES is an international journal dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies and technologies for increasing the sustainability of development by de-coupling growth from natural resources and replacing them with knowledge based economy, taking into account its economic, environmental and social pillars, as well as methods for assessing and measuring sustainability of development, regarding energy, transport, water, environment and food production systems and their many combinations. In total 32 manuscripts were published in Volume II, all of them reviewed by at least two reviewers. The Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems would like to thank reviewers for their contribution to the quality of the published manuscripts.

  4. Freeze-dried mucoadhesive polymeric system containing pegylated lipoplexes: Towards a vaginal sustained released system for siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, Tania; Dakwar, George R; Zagato, Elisa; Lechanteur, Anna; Remaut, Katrien; Evrard, Brigitte; Braeckmans, Kevin; Piel, Geraldine

    2016-08-28

    Topical vaginal sustained delivery of siRNA presents a significant challenge due to the short residence time of formulations. Therefore, a drug delivery system capable to adhere to the vaginal mucosa is desirable, as it could allow a prolonged delivery and increase the effectiveness of the therapy. The aim of this project is to develop a polymeric solid mucoadhesive system, loaded with lipoplexes, able to be progressively rehydrated by the vaginal fluids to form a hydrogel and to deliver siRNA to vaginal tissues. To minimize adhesive interactions with vaginal mucus components, lipoplexes were coated with different derivatives of polyethylene glycol: DPSE-PEG2000, DPSE-PEG750 and ceramide-PEG2000. Based on stability and diffusion properties in simulated vaginal fluids, lipoplexes containing DSPE-PEG2000 were selected and incorporated in hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) hydrogels. Solid systems, called sponges, were then obtained by freeze-drying. Sponges meet acceptable mechanical characteristics and their hardness, deformability and mucoadhesive properties are not influenced by the presence of lipoplexes. Finally, mobility and stability of lipoplexes inside sponges rehydrated with vaginal mucus, mimicking in situ conditions, were evaluated by advanced fluorescence microscopy. The release rate was found to be influenced by the HEC concentration and consequently by the viscosity after rehydration. This study demonstrates the feasibility of entrapping pegylated lipoplexes into a solid matrix system for a prolonged delivery of siRNA into the vagina. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Towards a Sustainable Spatial Organization of the Energy System: Backcasting Experiences from Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Knoflacher

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The transition to a sustainable energy system faces more challenges than a simple replacement of fossil energy sources by renewable ones. Since current structures do not favor sustainable energy generation and use, it is indispensable to change the existing infrastructure. A fundamental change of the energy system also requires re-organizing spatial structures and their respective institutions and governance structures. Especially in Austria, urban sprawl and unsustainable settlement structures are regarded as one of the main developments leading to increased energy demand. One of the aims within the project E-Trans 2050 was to identify socio-economic constellations that are central to the further transformation of the energy system and to focus on actors and their socio-technical framework conditions. Based on a sustainable future vision for the year 2050 a backcasting workshop was conducted to identify necessary steps for the envisaged transition to a more sustainable energy system. The results shed light on the necessary changes for a transformation towards sustainability in the specific Austrian situation. Critical issues are region-specific production of energy and its use, settlement and regional structures and values and role models, which all have a determining influence on energy demand. Combining the knowledge of extensive energy use with available energy resources in spatial planning decisions is a main challenge towards a long term sustainable energy system.

  6. How the Organic Food System Supports Sustainable Diets and Translates These into Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassner, Carola; Cavoski, Ivana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lairon, Denis; Lampkin, Nicolas; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Matt, Darja; Niggli, Urs; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g., organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards, and useful metrics. By 2015, data for organic production and consumption are recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic food system puts the land (agri-cultura) back into the diet; it is the land from which the diet in toto is shaped. Therefore, the organic food system provides essential components of a sustainable diet.

  7. How the Organic Food System Supports Sustainable Diets and Translates These into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassner, Carola; Cavoski, Ivana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lairon, Denis; Lampkin, Nicolas; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Matt, Darja; Niggli, Urs; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g., organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards, and useful metrics. By 2015, data for organic production and consumption are recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic food system puts the land (agri-cultura) back into the diet; it is the land from which the diet in toto is shaped. Therefore, the organic food system provides essential components of a sustainable diet. PMID:26176912

  8. Systemic and Cerebral Concentration of Nimodipine During Established and Experimental Vasospasm Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanna, Walid; Weiss, Miriam; Conzen, Catharina; Clusmann, Hans; Schneider, Toni; Reinsch, Martin; Müller, Marguerite; Wiesmann, Martin; Höllig, Anke; Schubert, Gerrit Alexander

    2017-06-01

    Oral nimodipine is an established prophylactic agent for cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In highly selected cases, intra-arterial (IA) or intravenous (IV) application of nimodipine may be considered; however, the optimum dosage and modality of application remain a matter of debate. The purpose of this investigation is analysis of nimodipine concentration in serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and cerebral microdialysate in the context of currently effective dose and route of application (oral, IA, IV). We prospectively collected 156 samples from 37 patients treated for aneurysmal SAH from May 2014 to July 2015. Treatment groups were stratified according to modality of application and low-dose or high-dose treatment. At time of sampling, current dose and modality of application effectively sustained cerebral perfusion as documented by common diagnostics. Samples were analyzed for nimodipine concentration via high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. In most cases (94.3%), nimodipine remained below the limit of quantification (0.5 ng/mL) within the brain (microdialysis, cerebrospinal fluid), even during targeted, local application (IA nimodipine). The median serum concentration for all treatment groups was 17.3 ng/mL. Modality of application (oral, IA, IV) was not associated with significant differences in serum concentrations (P = 0.712), even after stratification for dosage (P = 0.371), implying a comparable systemic distribution, if not efficacy. Nimodipine does not accumulate sufficiently within the target organ for treatment monitoring. Comparable systemic concentrations can be observed irrespective of application modality and dosing. Future studies will clarify the role of efficacy-driven treatment algorithms, in which lowest dose and least invasive mode of application still effective should be identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental System of Solar Adsorption Refrigeration with Concentrated Collector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Z X; Li, Y X; Du, C X

    2017-10-18

    To improve the performance of solar adsorption refrigeration, an experimental system with a solar concentration collector was set up and investigated. The main components of the system were the adsorbent bed, the condenser, the evaporator, the cooling sub-system, and the solar collector. In the first step of the experiment, the vapor-saturated bed was heated by the solar radiation under closed conditions, which caused the bed temperature and pressure to increase. When the bed pressure became high enough, the bed was switched to connect to the condenser, thus water vapor flowed continually from the bed to the condenser to be liquefied. Next, the bed needed to cool down after the desorption. In the solar-shielded condition, achieved by aluminum foil, the circulating water loop was opened to the bed. With the water continually circulating in the bed, the stored heat in the bed was took out and the bed pressure decreased accordingly. When the bed pressure dropped below the saturation pressure at the evaporation temperature, the valve to the evaporator was opened. A mass of water vapor rushed into the bed and was adsorbed by the zeolite material. With the massive vaporization of the water in the evaporator, the refrigeration effect was generated finally. The experimental result has revealed that both the COP (coefficient of the performance of the system) and the SCP (specific cooling power of the system) of the SAPO-34 zeolite was greater than that of the ZSM-5 zeolite, no matter whether the adsorption time was longer or shorter. The system of the SAPO-34 zeolite generated a maximum COP of 0.169.

  10. Geospatial Based Information System Development in Public Administration for Sustainable Development and Planning in Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouziokas, Georgios N.

    2016-09-01

    It is generally agreed that the governmental authorities should actively encourage the development of an efficient framework of information and communication technology initiatives so as to advance and promote sustainable development and planning strategies. This paper presents a prototype Information System for public administration which was designed to facilitate public management and decision making for sustainable development and planning. The system was developed by using several programming languages and programming tools and also a Database Management System (DBMS) for storing and managing urban data of many kinds. Furthermore, geographic information systems were incorporated into the system in order to make possible to the authorities to deal with issues of spatial nature such as spatial planning. The developed system provides a technology based management of geospatial information, environmental and crime data of urban environment aiming at improving public decision making and also at contributing to a more efficient sustainable development and planning.

  11. The System Dynamics Model User Sustainability Explorer (SD-MUSE): a user-friendly tool for interpreting system dynamic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    System Dynamics (SD) models are useful for holistic integration of data to evaluate indirect and cumulative effects and inform decisions. Complex SD models can provide key insights into how decisions affect the three interconnected pillars of sustainability. However, the complexi...

  12. High Ice Water Concentrations in the 19 August 2015 Coastal Mesoconvective System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Harrah, Steven; Switzer, George F.; Strickland, Justin K.; Hunt, Patricia J.

    2017-01-01

    During August 2015, NASA's DC-8 research aircraft was flown into High Ice Water Content (HIWC) events as part of a three-week campaign to collect airborne radar data and to obtain measurements from microphysical probes. Goals for this flight campaign included improved characterization of HIWC events, especially from an airborne radar perspective. This paper focuses on one of the flight days, in which a coastal mesoscale convective system (MCS) was investigated for HIWC conditions. The system appears to have been maintained by bands of convection flowing in from the Gulf of Mexico. These convective bands were capped by a large cloud canopy, which masks the underlying structure if viewed from an infrared sensing satellite. The DC-8 was equipped with an IsoKinetic Probe that measured ice concentrations of up to 2.3 g m(exp -3) within the cloud canopy of this system. Sustained measurements of ice crystals with concentrations exceeding 1 g m(exp -3) were encountered for up to ten minutes of flight time. Airborne Radar reflectivity factors were found to be weak within these regions of high ice water concentrations, suggesting that Radar detection of HIWC would be a challenging endeavor. This case is then investigated using a three-dimensional numerical cloud model. Profiles of ice water concentrations and radar reflectivity factor demonstrate similar magnitudes and scales between the flight measurements and model simulation. Also discussed are recent modifications to the numerical model's ice-microphysics that are based on measurements during the flight campaign. The numerical model and its updated ice-microphysics are further validated with a simulation of a well-known case of a supercell hailstorm measured during the Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment. Differences in HIWC between the continental supercell and the coastal MCS are discussed.

  13. Distributed GIS Systems, Open Specifications and Interoperability: How do They Relate to the Sustainable Management of Natural Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael Moreno-Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this is paper is to provide a conceptual framework for the session: “The role of web-based Geographic Information Systems in supporting sustainable management.” The concepts of sustainability, sustainable forest management, Web Services, Distributed Geographic Information Systems, interoperability, Open Specifications, and Open Source Software are defined...

  14. Early Age Characterization and Microstructural Features of Sustainable Binder Systems for Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Kirk

    Concrete is the most widely used infrastructure material worldwide. Production of Portland cement, the main binding component in concrete, has been shown to require significant energy and account for approximately 5-7% of global carbon dioxide production. The expected continued increased use of concrete over the coming decades indicates this is an ideal time to implement sustainable binder technologies. The current work aims to explore enhanced sustainability concretes, primarily in the context of limestone and flow. Aspects such as hydration kinetics, hydration product formation and pore structure add to the understanding of the strength development and potential durability characteristics of these binder systems. Two main strategies for enhancing this sustainability are explored in this work: (i) the use of high volume limestone in combination with other alternative cementitious materials to decrease the Portland cement quantity in concrete and (ii) the use of geopolymers as the binder phase in concrete. The first phase of the work investigates the use of fine limestone as cement replacement from the perspective of hydration, strength development, and pore structure. The nature of the potential synergistic benefit of limestone and alumina will be explored. The second phase will focus on the rheological characterization of these materials in the fresh state, as well as a more general investigation of the rheological characterization of suspensions. The results of this work indicate several key ideas. (i) There is a potential synergistic benefit for strength, hydration, and pore structure by using alumina and in Portland limestone cements, (ii) the limestone in these systems is shown to react to some extent, and fine limestone is shown to accelerate hydration, (iii) rheological characteristics of cementitious suspensions are complex, and strongly dependent on several key parameters including: the solid loading, interparticle forces, surface area of the particles

  15. An integrated, semi-automated approach to thermochemical conversion research for sustainable farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    An integrated, semi-automated system is presented for the rapid and efficient testing and production of research-scale quantities of biochar. This biochar, produced from agricultural waste materials, can easily be incorporated in future sustainable livestock farming systems. These farming systems wi...

  16. Towards a Multidisciplinary Approach on Creating Value: Sustainability through the Supply Chain and ERP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter De Soete

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP is a widely used approach through manufacturing environments in a variety of sectors. With a tendency to go to specialized, smaller lot sizes in several industries (e.g., the pharmaceutical sector, companies are dealing with capacity bottlenecks if the planning rhythm wheel is not well calibrated or when production lines are not flexible enough in terms of changeover (C/O and set-up times (S/U (OEE is too small. A well-established communication system including other enterprise resources or production factors (e.g., Enterprise Resource Planning, ERP is favorable to any extent. More and more questions arise from stakeholder communities and end-users on whether or not supply chains and manufacturing environments are sustainable and safe. Departments such as Environmental Health, Safety & Sustainability (EHS & S and Product Stewardship are too often at the “blind” side of the ICT interface. When it comes to product and organizational sustainability, data seems to be lacking in order to conduct sustainability assessments proficiently. Years of intensive research and experience proved that primary data to perform sustainability assessments often are measured through equipment control sensors (e.g., flow rates, temperatures, etc. and sent to PLCs and many other systems. Nevertheless, these data measurements are in many cases simply not penetrating through the Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES because these bottom-up engineering data seems to be of little value to planning, procurement, etc. This communication paper deals with how sustainability assessments can be embedded in business operational management systems. After all, who does not want a “live Carbon Footprint” for process improvements and external sustainability reporting instead of a series of expensive resource consuming studies of 4 to 6 months digging into data logs in traditional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA? This communication paper has

  17. Identifying the Most Appropriate Cultivar for Sustainability of Rice Production System Using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Moumenihelali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In general, the ultimate goal of a sustainable system is to maximize the benefits of existing resources and to minimize the threats to the environment that occur due to the present conventional agricultural activities. Meanwhile, seed, as a rice cultivar in the present study, is presented as an important factor in sustainability. Therefore, identifying the most suitable cultivar of rice for sustaining the rice cultivation system is considered to be the main goal of the research. The population of the present study involves all specialists who have enough knowledge on components of sustainability and rice cultivars. To this end, 16 people were identified and studied through non-probability sampling method (purposeful and snowball. Face and content validity was used to determine the validity of the questionnaire. In addition, to assess the reliability, inconsistency ratio was used. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP technique was used in order to achieve the main objective, which is to identify the most suitable varieties for sustainable rice cultivation system. Expert Choice 2000 software was applied to calculate the data.The prerequisite of applying AHP technique is to consider the criteria (sustainability of rice cultivation system which include: economical, ecological, technical, social, and policy sustainability and their sub-criteria in the one hand, and decision alternatives (rice cultivars including: Hashemi, Tarom, Neda, Fajr, Khazar and Shirudi in the other hand. The results of prioritizing the criteria of rice cultivation stability showed that the economical (32%, ecological (23.9% and technical (21.1% stability are more important than the stability of social (14.8% and policy (8.3% aspects. Likewise, research findings showed that the cultivars of Hashemi (20.6% and Tarom (20.1% with a slight difference against each other are the most proper cultivars, respectively, in the sustainability of rice cultivation system.

  18. From Intuitive Programming of Robotic Systems to Business Sustainability of Manufacturing SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Mocan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth and sustainable development are issues which are becoming more and more important for nowadays companies. Sustainable development strives for moderate and responsible use within the economic and production activity the limited resources of our planet. Eco-innovations, eco-efficiency and corporate social responsibility practices define much of the current industrial sustainability agenda. While important, they are insufficient in themselves to deliver the holistic changes necessary to achieve long-term social and environmental sustainability. This paper proposed a framework for designing multimodal human-robot interfaces and a demonstrator that facilitate a sustainable use of robotic systems with positive effects on SMEs business sustainability. The proposed approach is intended to bring important contributions to the development of human robot interaction in order to facilitate intuitive programming and to enable easily adapting to changes in robot tasks and applications without the need of using skilled personnel. Our research emphasize the idea that new technologies in product and process create and enable new business strategies; and we demonstrate that changing the paradigm in programming industrial robotic systems it is possible by a “business case for sustainability” to have a sustainable development of the business, in special in case of SMEs.

  19. Long-term performance potential of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2017-07-17

    Owing to the diverse photovoltaic (PV) systems’ design and technology, as well as the dynamic nature of insolation data received on the aperture surfaces, the instantaneous output from a PV system fluctuates greatly. For accurate performance estimation of a large PV field, the long term performance as electrical output is a more rational approach over the conventional testing methods, such as at Standard Testing Conditions (STC) and at the Nominal Operating Cell Temperature (NOCT) available hitherto. In this paper, the long-term performances of concentrated PVs (Cassegrain reflectors and Fresnel lens) with 2-axes tracking and a variety of PV systems, namely the stationary flat-plate PV (mono-crystalline, poly-crystalline and thin-films CIS types), is presented over a period of one year for the merit comparison of system design, under the tropical weather conditions of Singapore. From the measured field performances, the total energy output of 240.2 kW h/m/year is recorded for CPV operation in Singapore, which is nearly two folds higher than the stationary PV panels.

  20. Researching sustainable agriculture: The role of values in systemic science

    OpenAIRE

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a specific perspective on the science demarcation issue, the perspective of systemic science. A systemic science is a science that influences its own subject area. Agricultural science is an example of such a science - a point that is particularly evident in connection with research in organic farming, which forms the practical context of this paper. Far from the ideal of being 'value-free' and objective, the systemic science must, upon recognising itself as systemic, ack...

  1. [Construction and evaluation of indicator system for sustainable use of fishery resources in Zhoushan fishing ground].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Haier; Lu, Jiehua

    2003-06-01

    In order to assess the sustainable use level of fisheries resources, Zhoushan Fishing Ground was selected as a demonstration. Based on 24 indicators related to the resource-environment subsystem and economic subsystem, principal component analysis was employed to analyze the indicator system in each subsystem, and grey relative relationship analysis was computed as a indicator to evaluate the sustainable use level of fisheries resources. The results indicated that the sustainable use of fisheries resources was at a lower level before 1962, and gradually rose to the top in 1974. It has sharply declined since 1978, and dropped to almost the lowest level in 1983, being 51.72% of 1974.

  2. Statistically based sustainable re-design of stormwater overflow control systems in urban catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganora, Daniele; Isacco, Silvia; Claps, Pierluigi

    2017-04-01

    Control and reduction of pollution from stormwater overflow is a major concern for municipalities to manage the quality of the receiving water bodies according to the Framework Water Directive 2000/60/CE. In this regard, assessment studies of the potential pollution load from sewer networks recognize the need for adaptation and upgrade of existing drainage systems, which can be achieved with either traditional water works (detention tanks, increase of wastewater treatment plant capacity, etc.) or even Nature-based solutions (constructed wetlands, restored floodplains, etc.) sometimes used in combination. Nature-based solutions are recently receiving consistent attentions as they are able to enhance urban and degraded environments being, in the same time, more resilient and adaptable to climatic and anthropic changes than most traditional engineering works. On the other hand, restoration of the urban environment using natural absorbing surfaces requires diffuse interventions, high costs and a considerable amount of time. In this work we investigate how simple, economically-sustainable and quick solutions to the problem at hand can be addressed by changes in the management rules when pumping stations play a role in sewer systems. In particular, we provide a statistically-based framework to be used in the calibration of the management rules, facing improved quality of overflows from sewer systems. Typical pumping rules favor a massive delivery of stormwater volumes to the wastewater treatment plans, requiring large storage tanks in the sewer network, heavy pumping power and reducing the efficiency of the treatment plant due to pollutant dilution. In this study we show that it is possible to optimize the pumping rule in order to reduce pumped volumes to the plant (thus saving energy), while simultaneously keeping high pollutant concentration. On the other hand, larger low-concentration overflow volumes are released outside the sewer network with respect to the standard

  3. Greenlandic water and sanitation-a context oriented analysis of system challenges towards local sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Kåre; Hoffmann, Birgitte

    2017-08-28

    Today, as Greenland focuses on more economic and cultural autonomy, the continued development of societal infrastructure systems is vital. At the same time, pressure is put on the systems by a lack of financial resources and locally based professional competences as well as new market-based forms of organization. Against this background, the article discusses the challenges facing Greenland's self-rule in relation to further develop the existing water and wastewater systems so that they can contribute to the sustainable development of Greenland. The article reviews the historical development of the water supply and wastewater system. This leads to an analysis of the sectorisation, which in recent decades has reorganized the Greenlandic infrastructures, and of how this process is influencing local sustainable development. The article discusses the socio-economic and human impacts and points to the need for developing the water and sanitation system to support not only hygiene and health, but also local sustainable development.

  4. Silicon concentrator cells in a two-stage photovoltaic system with a concentration factor of 300x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, A.

    2005-06-15

    In this work a rear contacted silicon concentrator cell was developed for an application in a two stage concentrator photovoltaic system. This system was developed at Fraunhofer ISE some years ago. The innovation of this one-axis tracked system is that it enables a high geometrical concentration of 300x in combination with a high optical efficiency (around 78%) and a large acceptance angle of {+-}23.5 all year through. For this, the system uses a parabolic mirror (40.4x) and a three dimensional second stage consisting of compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs, 7.7x). For the concentrator concept and particularly for an easy cell integration, the rear line contacted concentrator (RLCC) cells with a maximum efficiency of 25% were developed and a hybrid mounting concept for the RLCC cells is presented. The optical performance of different CPC materials was tested and analysed in this work. Finally, small modules consisting of six series interconnected RLCC cells and six CPCs were integrated into the concentrator system and tested outdoor. A system efficiency of 16.2% was reached at around 800 W/m2 direct irradiance under realistic outdoor conditions. (orig.)

  5. Sustainability Efficiency Factor: Measuring Sustainability in Advanced Energy Systems through Exergy, Exergoeconomic, Life Cycle, and Economic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldon, Lauren

    The Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems defines sustainability or industrial ecology as "the wise use of resources through critical attention to policy, social, economic, technological, and ecological management of natural and human engineered capital so as to promote innovations that assure a higher degree of human needs fulfilment, or life support, across all regions of the world, while at the same time ensuring intergenerational equity" (Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems 1998). Developing and integrating sustainable energy systems to meet growing energy demands is a daunting task. Although the technology to utilize renewable energies is well understood, there are limited locations which are ideally suited for renewable energy development. Even in areas with significant wind or solar availability, backup or redundant energy supplies are still required during periods of low renewable generation. This is precisely why it would be difficult to make the switch directly from fossil fuel to renewable energy generation. A transition period in which a base-load generation supports renewables is required, and nuclear energy suits this need well with its limited life cycle emissions and fuel price stability. Sustainability is achieved by balancing environmental, economic, and social considerations, such that energy is produced without detriment to future generations through loss of resources, harm to the environment, etcetera. In essence, the goal is to provide future generations with the same opportunities to produce energy that the current generation has. This research explores sustainability metrics as they apply to a small modular reactor (SMR)-hydrogen production plant coupled with wind energy and storage technologies to develop a new quantitative sustainability metric, the Sustainability Efficiency Factor (SEF), for comparison of energy systems. The SEF incorporates the three fundamental aspects of sustainability and provides SMR or nuclear hybrid energy system

  6. Natural gums as sustained release carriers: development of gastroretentive drug delivery system of ziprasidone HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ Rajamma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objective of this study is to show the potential use of natural gums in the development of drug delivery systems. Therefore in this work gastro retentive tablet formulations of ziprasidone HCl were developed using simplex lattice design considering concentration of okra gum, locust bean gum and HPMC K4M as independent variables. A response surface plot and multiple regression equations were used to evaluate the effect of independent variables on hardness, flag time, floating time and drug release for 1 h, 2 h, and 8 h and for 24 h. A checkpoint batch was also prepared by considering the constraints and desirability of optimized formulation to improve its in vitro performance. Significance of result was analyzed using ANOVA and p was considered statistically significant. Results Formulation chiefly contains locust bean gum found to be favorable for hardness and floatability but combined effect of three variables was responsible for the sustained release of drug. The in vitro drug release data of check point batch (F8 was found to be sustained well compared to the most satisfactory formulation (F7 of 7 runs. The ‘n’ value was found to be between 0.5 and 1 suggesting that release of drug follows anomalous (non-fickian diffusion mechanism indicating both diffusion and erosion mechanism from these natural gums. Predicted results were almost similar to the observed experimental values indicating the accuracy of the design. In vivo floatability test indicated non adherence to the gastric mucosa and tablets remain buoyant for more than 24 h. Conclusions Study showed these eco-friendly natural gums can be considered as promising SR polymers.

  7. Remediation Optimization and Sustainability: Wind Turbine on Cape Cod to Power Groundwater Remediation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-04

    1 Mr. Jon Davis, P.E. Program Manager May 4, 2009 Remediation Optimization and Sustainability: Wind Turbine on Cape Cod to Power Groundwater...Sustainability: Wind Turbine on Cape Cod to Power Groundwater Remediation Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Std Z39-18 2 Outline  Brief Background  Program Consumption/Emissions  Small Scale Initiatives  Wind Turbine 3 Massachusetts Vineyard Sound Cape

  8. Chitosan-Montmorillonite microspheres: A sustainable fertilizer delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Bruna Rodrigues; Bacalhau, Fabiana Britti; Pereira, Tamires dos Santos; Souza, Claudinei Fonseca; Faez, Roselena

    2015-08-20

    Controlled release fertilizers are efficient tools that increase the sustainability of agricultural practices. However, the biodegradability of the matrices and the determination of the release into soil still require some investigation. This paper describes the preparation of potassium-containing microspheres based on chitosan and montmorillonite clay and the in situ soil release. The chitosan-montmorillonite microspheres were prepared using a coagulation method and different proportions of montmorillonite. The structural, thermal and morphological properties as well the water swelling and fertilizer sorption capacity were evaluated. The best formulations were applied in soil, and the fertilizer release was monitored using time-domain reflectometry (TDR). Montmorillonite clay provides better sorption properties than the chitosan microspheres because of the rough and porous surface. Due to these properties, high levels of fertilizer were sorbed onto the material. ChMMT33-containing potassium shows two specific periods of fertilizer release: the first one lasted approximately three days and was assigned to the external fertilizer on the microspheres. The second was assigned to the internal fertilizer. TDR is an important and fast tool and was used to determine the fertilizer release and the ion movement in the soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating the Sustainability in Complex Agri-Food Systems: The SAEMETH Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Peano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years, the definition of sustainability and the translation of its general principles into practical and operative tasks have come into the foreground of scientific research and political agendas throughout the world. The understanding and the evaluation of the environmental, social and economic performances of complex agricultural food systems is probably the real challenge, and the design of more sustainable alternatives has been recognized as necessary for a correct territorial management. This study’s primary goal is the proposition of an interpretive structure “Sustainable Agri-Food Evaluation Methodology” (SAEMETH, able to guide the evaluation of the sustainability of the various organizational forms of the small-scale agri-food supply chain. As a case study, the methodology was applied to 10 small-scale agri-food systems. The application of SAEMETH, as a monitoring tool based on qualitative indicators that are user-friendly and strongly communicative, demonstrates that it is possible to carry out sustainability evaluations of the small-scale agri-food systems through a long-term approach that is participatory, interdisciplinary and multi-institutional and that integrates a solid theoretical base with an operative framework tested in the field. SAEMETH can, in this way, generate a cyclical process that increases the probability of success in the design of sustainable alternatives and the implementation of projects and initiatives at the local/regional scale.

  10. Delayed behavioural shifts undermine the sustainability of social-ecological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuite, A-S; de Mazancourt, C; Loreau, M

    2017-12-13

    Natural habitat destruction and fragmentation generate a time-delayed loss of species and associated ecosystem services. As social-ecological systems (SESs) depend on a range of ecosystem services, lagged ecological dynamics may affect their long-term sustainability. Here, we investigate the role of consumption changes for sustainability, under a time-delayed ecological feedback on agricultural production. We use a stylized model that couples the dynamics of biodiversity, technology, human demography and compliance with a social norm prescribing sustainable consumption. Compliance with the sustainable norm reduces both the consumption footprint and the vulnerability of SESs to transient overshoot-and-collapse population crises. We show that the timing and interaction between social, demographic and ecological feedbacks govern the transient and long-term dynamics of the system. A sufficient level of social pressure (e.g. disapproval) applied on the unsustainable consumers leads to the stable coexistence of unsustainable and sustainable or mixed equilibria, where both defectors and conformers coexist. Under bistability conditions, increasing extinction debts reduces the resilience of the system, thus favouring abrupt regime shifts towards unsustainable pathways. Given recent evidence of large extinction debts, such results call for farsightedness and a better understanding of time delays when studying the sustainability of coupled SESs. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Pneumatic System for Concentration of Micrometer-Size Lunar Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, David; Cooper, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    A report describes a size-sorting method to separate and concentrate micrometer- size dust from a broad size range of particles without using sieves, fluids, or other processes that may modify the composition or the surface properties of the dust. The system consists of four processing units connected in series by tubing. Samples of dry particulates such as lunar soil are introduced into the first unit, a fluidized bed. The flow of introduced nitrogen fluidizes the particulates and preferentially moves the finer grain sizes on to the next unit, a flat plate impactor, followed by a cyclone separator, followed by a Nuclepore polycarbonate filter to collect the dust. By varying the gas flow rate and the sizes of various orifices in the system, the size of the final and intermediate particles can be varied to provide the desired products. The dust can be collected from the filter. In addition, electron microscope grids can be placed on the Nuclepore filter for direct sampling followed by electron microscope characterization of the dust without further handling.

  12. An energy analysis of a linear concentrating photovoltaic system with an active cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzmann, Tony L.; Schaefer, Laura A.

    2010-08-01

    The recent focus on renewable energy has lead to an increased awareness of solar energy. Concentrating photovoltaic systems have seen a resurgence in research interest since their earlier pilot plant origins in the 1970s and 1980s. The use of concentration reduces the amount of expensive photovoltaic materials while maintaining a high level of incident solar radiation. This research combines the advantage of concentrating solar energy with high efficiency multijunction cells and an active cooling system to create a system that efficiently produces both electricity and heat. A linear concentrating photovoltaic system model was developed in order to simulate the system under actual solar and climatic conditions, where a number of different system variables can be adjusted. This simulation was used to evaluate the effects of domestic hot water use on a 6.2 kWp system. The results show the changes in solar cell efficiency, electricity produced, thermal energy produced, dollar value displaced, and global warming potential displaced as the domestic hot water use of the system is varied. This simulation can be used to find an optimal system for given input conditions and can be used to find optimal operating conditions for a given system size.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT, SUSTAINABILITY THEORY, AND THE CHALLENGE OF UNCERTAINTY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Systems Management is the management of environmental problems at the systems level fully accounting fo rthe multi-dimensional nature of the environment. This includes socio-economic dimensions as well s the usual physical and life science aspects. This is important...

  14. A sustainable primary care system: lessons from the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, M.J.; Burgers, J.S.; Westert, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch primary care system has drawn international attention, because of its high performance at low cost. Primary care practices are easily accessible during office hours and collaborate in a unique out-of-hours system. After the reforms in 2006, there are no copayments for patients receiving

  15. A Teacher Education for Sustainable Development System: An Institutional Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentham, Hayley; Sinnes, Astrid; Gjøtterud, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Soft systems methodology is commonly used in organizational research and can be very useful when attempting to understand both organizational structures and dynamics. A teacher education institution is identified here as an organization. Soft systems methodology is employed to gain a picture of the current organizational structure of a Science and…

  16. Sustainable systems rating program: Marketing ``Green`` Building in Austin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    Four major resource issues for home construction were identified: water, energy, materials, and waste. A systems flow model was then developed that tracked the resource issues through interactive matrices in the areas of sourcing, processing, using, and disposing or recycling. This model served as the basis for a rating system used in an educational and marketing tool called the Eco-Home Guide.

  17. New concepts of energy supply for sustainable agricultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludger Frerichs

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The design of future agricultural production systems requires innovative approaches. For creating a more productive, resource-efficient and low-emission agriculture the systemic development of the agricultural processes, the operating conditions and the organizational processes is necessary. Fundamentally new approaches can be found by defining scenarios. Such a hypothetic concept does field operation without using internal combustion engines. Instead of this the power supply of performant machines can be done by electric direct supply systems or for small machines by battery systems with charging points. However, all this requires the electrical energy supply of agricultural fields. A direct electric energy supply utilizing the Center Pivot approach via rotating structures enables new production systems. Using innovative technologies new solutions with great potential for automation and a productive precision agriculture can be designed. This paper highlights an unconventional approach stimulating the discussion about future developments in agricultural engineering.

  18. The importance of informatics systems for the sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria ANDRONIE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the fields whose importance has been surging lately is the durable development, which is impossible to achieve unless humankind gives up gradually to the fossil energy sources and switches to the exploitation of the renewable energy sources.  This shift is mainly due to the fact that the traditional energy sources are limited, pricier and pricier and have a negative and irreversible effect upon the environment. In the durable development area, particularly the renewable energies, there are informatics systems used in a wide range of activities, from investments management and energy sources to the operation itself of their exploitation systems.  Such informatics systems may be integrated at a higher level, as the national weather forecast system or other specific systems.

  19. A systems approach framework for the transition to sustainable development: Potential value based on coastal experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, Tom S.; Bailly, Denis; Elmgren, Ragnar

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the value of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF) as a tool for the transition to sustainable development in coastal zone systems, based on 18 study sites in Europe, where the SAF was developed and tested. The knowledge gained from these experiments concerns the practical...... aspects of (a) governance in terms of policy effectiveness, (b) sustainability science in terms of applying transdisciplinary science to social–ecological problems, and (c) simulation analysis in terms of quantifying dysfunctions in complex systems. This new knowledge can help broaden our......-dependent and system-independent problems, and the inclusion of non-market evaluations. It also develops a real partnership among research, management, and stakeholders to establish a quantitative basis for collaborative decision making. Furthermore, the article argues that the transition to sustainable development...

  20. Product-service system method to measure sustainability level of traditional smoked fish processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Ratna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Medium Enterprise’s (SME of traditional fish processing at Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia still focus their business on gain more profits. Sustainability aspect has not received enough attention yet. This study aims to review the sustainability level of SME smoked fish Semarang using product service system (PSS method. PSS consists of three dimensions (1 Environment, (2 Socio-cultural and (3 Economic. Each dimension consists of 6 criteria's. PSS not only assess the level of sustainability but also formulated the recommendation to increase the industries sustainability level. Sustainability assessment and recommendations formulation is guided by a check-list form. Then, the portfolio diagram used to select these recommendations according to its feasibility to be implemented and its importance for the industries. The result of sustainability assessment for traditional fish processing is 0.44, categorized as medium level. The recommendations for the environmental dimension are (1 use of liquid smoke on fish processing and (2 use of wastewater treatment with anaerobic ponds Recommendation for the socio-cultural dimension is use personal protective tool to reduce worker risk on safety and health. Recommendation for the economic dimension is used social media for product marketing and increasing the economic value of fish lung wastes. Recommendations are then illustrated in a diagram in the form of radar sustainability.

  1. A Multivariate Analysis of Metal Concentrations in Two Fish Species of the Nyl River System, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, R; Gerber, R; Greenfield, R

    2017-06-01

    Increased toxicity due to high metal concentrations may hinder the ecological integrity of aquatic ecosystems in sustaining life. The non-biodegradable nature of metals may result in bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms. Due to ecological and social aspects it is imperative for monitoring schemes to identify possible impacts to the systems integrity. This paper discusses accumulation patterns of seven metals (Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Sr and Zn) in tissues of two fish species, namely Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis mossambicus at two selected sites, the first located upstream of Modimolle (NRS1), and the second located downstream of the town (NRS2). Gills, liver, muscle and skin tissues were analysed for metal concentrations using standard microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques. Statistical results indicated higher concentrations of metals at NRS2 in comparison to NRS1, indicating that Modimolle plays a potential role in introducing metals into the aquatic system.

  2. In place of fear: aligning health care planning with system objectives to achieve financial sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Stephen; Murphy, Gail Tomblin; MacKenzie, Adrian; Cumming, Jackie

    2015-04-01

    The financial sustainability of publicly funded health care systems is a challenge to policymakers in many countries as health care absorbs an ever increasing share of both national wealth and government spending. New technology, aging populations and increasing public expectations of the health care system are often cited as reasons why health care systems need ever increasing funding as well as reasons why universal and comprehensive public systems are unsustainable. However, increases in health care spending are not usually linked to corresponding increases in need for care within populations. Attempts to promote financial sustainability of systems such as limiting the range of services is covered or the groups of population covered may compromise their political sustainability as some groups are left to seek private cover for some or all services. In this paper, an alternative view of financial sustainability is presented which identifies the failure of planning and management of health care to reflect needs for care in populations and to integrate planning and management functions for health care expenditure, health care services and the health care workforce. We present a Health Care Sustainability Framework based on disaggregating the health care expenditure into separate planning components. Unlike other approaches to planning health care expenditure, this framework explicitly incorporates population health needs as a determinant of health care requirements, and provides a diagnostic tool for understanding the sources of expenditure increase. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. The Role of Absorption Cooling for Reaching Sustainable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindmark, Susanne

    2005-07-01

    This thesis focuses on the role and potential of absorption cooling in future energy systems. Two types of energy systems are investigated: a district energy system based on waste incineration and a distributed energy system with natural gas as fuel. In both cases, low temperature waste heat is used as driving energy for the absorption cooling. The main focus is to evaluate the absorption technology in an environmental perspective, in terms of reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. Economic evaluations are also performed. The reduced electricity when using absorption cooling instead of compression cooling is quantified and expressed as an increased net electrical yield. The results show that absorption cooling is an environmentally friendly way to produce cooling as it reduces the use of electrically driven cooling in the energy system and therefore also reduces global CO{sub 2} emissions. In the small-scale trigeneration system the electricity use is lowered with 84 % as compared to cooling production with compression chillers only. The CO{sub 2} emissions can be lowered to 45 CO{sub 2}/MWh{sub c} by using recoverable waste heat as driving heat for absorption chillers. However, the most cost effective cooling solution in a district energy system is a combination between absorption and compression cooling technologies according to the study. Absorption chillers have the potential to be suitable bottoming cycles for power production in distributed systems. Net electrical yields over 55 % may be reached in some cases with gas motors and absorption chillers. This small-scale system for cogeneration of power and cooling shows electrical efficiencies comparable to large-scale power plants and may contribute to reducing peak electricity demand associated with the cooling demand.

  4. Sustainability and profitability in ecological systems with harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaff, S.J. (Taylor Univ., Upland, IN (United States)); Protopopescu, V. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-08-01

    A simple model of economic and ecological interplay for a system of two interacting populations grown in a closed environment and harvested periodically for economic purposes was analyzed. The analysis was carried out by exploring the parameter space of the model, defined by a discrete map, a harvesting strategy, and an objective functional. Results showed nonmonotonicities of the outcome and sharp sensitivities that depend on the values of the parameters and that are caused by the discrete nature of the system. This approach may prove useful for solving problems that cannot be solved analytically and for providing some guidance in the management of complex systems.

  5. Large combined heat and power plants in sustainable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2015-01-01

    resources as efficiently as possible. Using the advanced energy systems analysis tool EnergyPLAN and Denmark as a case, this analysis defines which of the three assessed types of CHP plants connected to district heating systems is most feasible in terms of total socioeconomic costs and biomass consumption......In many countries, the electricity supply and power plant operation are challenged by increasing amounts of fluctuating renewable energy sources. A smart energy system should be developed to integrate as much energy supply from fluctuating renewable sources and to utilise the scarce biomass...

  6. Diagnostic system for measuring temperature, pressure, CO2 concentration and H2O concentration in a fluid stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Jr., William P.; Jatana, Gurneesh Singh; Yoo, Ji-Hyung; Parks, II, James E.

    2017-01-10

    A diagnostic system for measuring temperature, pressure, CO.sub.2 concentration and H.sub.2O concentration in a fluid stream is described. The system may include one or more probes that sample the fluid stream spatially, temporally and over ranges of pressure and temperature. Laser light sources are directed down pitch optical cables, through a lens and to a mirror, where the light sources are reflected back, through the lens to catch optical cables. The light travels through the catch optical cables to detectors, which provide electrical signals to a processer. The processer utilizes the signals to calculate CO.sub.2 concentration based on the temperatures derived from H.sub.2O vapor concentration. A probe for sampling CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2O vapor concentrations is also disclosed. Various mechanical features interact together to ensure the pitch and catch optical cables are properly aligned with the lens during assembly and use.

  7. Large Combined Heat and Power Plants for Sustainable Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    . CHP (combined heat and power) plants in Denmark will change their role from base load production to balancing the fluctuation in renewable energy supply, such as wind power and at the same time they have to change to renewable energy sources. Some solutions are already being planned by utilities......An energy supply based on 100% renewable energy in Denmark is the official goal for the Danish energy policy towards 2050. A smart energy system should be developed to integrate as much supply from fluctuating renewable sources and to utilise the scarce biomass resources as efficiently as possible...... are constructed to analyse how the different alternatives influences the energy system. The scenarios are analysed in the energy systems modelling tool EnergyPLAN both from a technical energy systems perspective and from a market economic analysis with focus on the electricity exchange potential of the scenarios...

  8. Designing for sustainability - mobility systems based on electrical vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Bent; Hansen, Ole Erik

    2013-01-01

    in interaction with public authorities and transportation companies), configuring the electric car sharing system as an element in an alternative mobility service system, and designing the technical and organizational system The concluding discussion falls into two parts: an assessment of the design process......-design, concerned with design as meta-level processes of regime transformation and the constructive configuration of design spaces. The case study examines an attempt to integrate electric vehicles in the Danish mobility systems. It maps the framework conditions and contemporary (competing) strategies....../projects, but focuses on a specific car-sharing project (‘Cleardrive’), with the objective to examine the early and constitutive stages of the design-process. It is conducted as an intensive study tracing elements of interpretation, interaction and intervention, which have been part of the project formation process...

  9. Electric grid stability and the design of sustainable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The article presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid....

  10. Integrating Sustainable Development in Chemical Engineering Education: The Application of an Environmental Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanes, M. T.; Palomares, A. E.; Sanchez-Tovar, R.

    2012-01-01

    The principles of sustainable development have been integrated in chemical engineering education by means of an environmental management system. These principles have been introduced in the teaching laboratories where students perform their practical classes. In this paper, the implementation of the environmental management system, the problems…

  11. How to house a hen : assessing sustainable development of egg production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollenhorst, H.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to further develop and apply a methodology to assess the contribution of animal production systems to sustainable development (SusD). The practical use of the methodology is tested in a case study on egg production systems, because of the upcoming ban on the

  12. The Art of Gamification; Teaching Sustainability and System Thinking by Pervasive Game Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordby, Anders; Øygardslia, Kristine; Sverdrup, Ulrik; Sverdrup, Harald

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 Hedmark University College conducted a research project where students from a game development project/study program developed and tested a Pervasive Game for learning as part of a class in System Thinking. The overall game goal was to teach Sustainability through System Thinking, and to give the students a real world experience with their…

  13. Are Agile and Lean Manufacturing Systems Employing Sustainability, Complexity and Organizational Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flumerfelt, Shannon; Siriban-Manalang, Anna Bella; Kahlen, Franz-Josef

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to peruse theories and practices of agile and lean manufacturing systems to determine whether they employ sustainability, complexity and organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: The critical review of the comparative operational similarities and difference of the two systems was conducted while the new views…

  14. Ethnographic Approaches to Understanding Social Sustainability in Small-scale Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutich, A.

    2011-12-01

    Social sustainability is an important, but often neglected, aspect of determining the success of small-scale water systems. This paper reviews ethnographic approaches for understanding how indigenous knowledge enhances social sustainability of small-scale water systems, particularly in small-scale water systems threatened by water scarcity. After reviewing the literature on common-pool and traditional resource management strategies, the paper will focus on the case of a community-managed small-scale water system in Cochabamba, Bolivia. This study uses ethnographic evidence to demonstrate how indigenous institutions can be used to manage a small-scale urban water system sustainably. Several factors were crucial to the institution's success. First, indigenous residents had previous experience with common management of rural irrigation systems which they were able to adapt for use in an urban environment. Second, institutional rules were designed to prioritize the conservation of the water source. Third, indigenous Andean social values of uniformity, regularity, and transparency ensured that community members perceived the system as legitimate and complied with community rules. Fourth, self-governance enabled community members to quickly adapt to changing environmental conditions, such as seasonal scarcity and groundwater overdraft. The paper concludes with a discussion of the promise and limitations of ethnographic approaches and indigenous knowledge for understanding social sustainability in small-scale water systems.

  15. Requirements and Matching Software Technologies for Sustainable and Agile Manufacturing Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascal Muller; Daniël Telgen; Ing. Erik Puik; Leo van Moergestel

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable and Agile manufacturing is expected of future generation manufacturing systems. The goal is to create scalable, reconfigurable and adaptable manufacturing systems which are able to produce a range of products without new investments into new manufacturing equipment. This requires a new

  16. Using Systems Thinking to Educate for Sustainability in a Business School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gregory

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores what it means for a business school to embed systems thinking and sustainability into the curriculum by looking at both the application of systems thinking to the design of sustainable programmes and the teaching of system thinking to support understanding of sustainability. Although programmes that include systems thinking and sustainability as “bolt ons” are becoming more common, how these may best be integrated throughout the curriculum is still largely unexplored. In this paper, curriculum design is viewed through the lens of Stafford Beer’s Viable System Model; viewing the management curriculum in this way emphasises the essential interconnectedness of the subject matter rather than its reduction into blocks of knowledge that are containable within standard size teaching modules. Merely recognising the interconnected nature of management knowledge does not go far enough, though, and there is a complementary need to equip students with approaches for describing more complex and pluralistic views of the world and to address such complexities. In this paper, the specification of a module, underpinned by Flood and Jackson’s System of Systems Methodologies, that might serve to achieve these ends by introducing business students to a range of systems approaches is discussed. The challenges that realizing such an undertaking in practice might involve are also reflected on.

  17. An Information Theory-Based Approach to Assessing the Sustainability and Stability of an Island System

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well-documented that a sustainable system is based on environmental stewardship, economic viability and social equity. What is often overlooked is the need for continuity such that desirable system behavior is maintained with mechanisms in place that facilitate the ability ...

  18. Co-production of knowledge-action systems in urban sustainable governance: The KASA approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.A. Munoz-Erickson

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how knowledge-action-systems the networks of actors involved in the production, sharing and use of policy-relevant knowledge - work in the process of developing sustainable strategies for cities. I developed an interdisciplinary framework- the knowledge-action system analysis (KASA) framework ...

  19. How Does Implementation of Environmental Management System Contribute to Corporate Sustainability Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Vnoučková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate sustainability management (CSM appears to be an important issue for current management. The aim of the paper is to identify what determinants of sustainability management are examined in the literature and discuss the contribution of environmental management system (EMS to CSM based on experiences of selected Czech organizations with implemented EMS according to ISO 14001. The data for the survey was gathered from 222 organizations (N = 1265 who have already implemented EMS. The results show there is a basic knowledge of sustainability concept in the surveyed Czech organizations. Perceived improvements of EMS implementation in Czech organizations are mainly in the area of environmental performance, economic performance, relationship with involved parties and social issues. Based on the implementation of EMS, the organizations take care about corporate sustainability (about the areas of environmental aspects and impacts of the organization. Improved environmental performance has been linked with process and product cost improvements and lower risk factors.

  20. The sustainability of systems of care for children's mental health: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroul, Beth A; Manteuffel, Brigitte A

    2007-07-01

    The federal Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program was initiated in 1992 to provide grants to states, communities, territories, and Indian tribes to develop systems of care to serve children and adolescents with or at risk for emotional disorders and their families. As part of the national evaluation of this program, a study was undertaken to assess the ability of funded sites to sustain their systems of care beyond the federal grant period. The study involved a web survey and telephone interviews with local and state respondents to examine the extent to which key components of systems of care were maintained during the period in which federal funds were phasing out and during the post grant period. Study results demonstrate positive and negative changes that occurred in the communities which are included in the sample, with respect to maintaining the availability of each service included in the broad service array, the implementation of system of care principles, the system of care infrastructure, and the achievement of system of care goals. In addition, results identify factors that contribute to or impede the ability to sustain systems of care, and the effectiveness of various strategies for sustainability. Study findings offer guidance not only to federally funded system of care communities but also to non-funded communities engaged in system of care development to enhance their ability to sustain systems of care for this population over time. Findings will also assist federal, state, and local policymakers, technical assistance providers, family members, advocates, and other key stakeholders to more effectively support the development of viable, sustainable systems of care.

  1. A Systems Model to Make, Market, and Lead Your Way towards Sustained Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Kumar Agrawalla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Business enterprises exist in a world that is fiercely competitive, tied with huge global uncertainties. They always encounter increasing pressure on prices and margins. Hence, irrespective of their domain of operations and industry, businesses are naturally concerned about their growth, specifically sustained profitable growth, in today’s world. Marketing is a key business function to market and lead a business towards sustained profitable growth but the problem is it lacks a systems perspective in its operations, strategy, and practice. Further, given the confluence and systemic interactions of various economic, digital, and competitive forces; the challenge for different business functions—including marketing—increases tremendously. In this context, it is important for business enterprises to have a systems perspective to find their ways to growth that will be sustained. This calls for a holistic approach to assimilate and steer the business functions in any enterprise. The present conceptual paper focuses on an important business function for sustained growth in a holistic way and presents a systems model, called ‘Value Based Business Approach (VBBA-marketing’, which has potential to guide and steer companies and business enterprises to create a path for their sustained profitable growth.

  2. Material Design, Selection, and Manufacturing Methods for System Sustainment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Sowder, Jim Lula, Curtis Marshall

    2010-02-18

    This paper describes a material selection and validation process proven to be successful for manufacturing high-reliability long-life product. The National Secure Manufacturing Center business unit of the Kansas City Plant (herein called KCP) designs and manufactures complex electrical and mechanical components used in extreme environments. The material manufacturing heritage is founded in the systems design to manufacturing practices that support the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA). Material Engineers at KCP work with the systems designers to recommend materials, develop test methods, perform analytical analysis of test data, define cradle to grave needs, present final selection and fielding. The KCP material engineers typically will maintain cost control by utilizing commercial products when possible, but have the resources and to develop and produce unique formulations as necessary. This approach is currently being used to mature technologies to manufacture materials with improved characteristics using nano-composite filler materials that will enhance system design and production. For some products the engineers plan and carry out science-based life-cycle material surveillance processes. Recent examples of the approach include refurbished manufacturing of the high voltage power supplies for cockpit displays in operational aircraft; dry film lubricant application to improve bearing life for guided munitions gyroscope gimbals, ceramic substrate design for electrical circuit manufacturing, and tailored polymeric materials for various systems. The following examples show evidence of KCP concurrent design-to-manufacturing techniques used to achieve system solutions that satisfy or exceed demanding requirements.

  3. Polyaspartic Acid Concentration Controls the Rate of Calcium Phosphate Nanorod Formation in High Concentration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogstad, Daniel V. [Biosystems and; Wang, Dongbo [Biosystems and; Lin-Gibson, Sheng [Biosystems and

    2017-08-31

    Polyelectrolytes are known to greatly affect calcium phosphate (CaP) mineralization. The reaction kinetics as well as the CaP phase, morphology and aggregation state depend on the relative concentrations of the polyelectrolyte and the inorganic ions in a complex, nonlinear manner. This study examines the structural evolution and kinetics of polyaspartic acid (pAsp) directed CaP mineralization at high concentrations of polyelectrolytes, calcium, and total phosphate (19–30 mg/mL pAsp, 50–100 mM Ca2+, Ca/P = 2). Using a novel combination of characterization techniques including cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), spectrophotometry, X-ray total scattering pair distribution function analysis, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), it was determined that the CaP mineralization occurred over four transition steps. The steps include the formation of aggregates of pAsp stabilized CaP spherical nanoparticles (sNP), crystallization of sNP, oriented attachment of the sNP into nanorods, and further crystallization of the nanorods. The intermediate aggregate sizes and the reaction kinetics were found to be highly polymer concentration dependent while the sizes of the particles were not concentration dependent. This study demonstrates the complex role of pAsp in controlling the mechanism as well as the kinetics of CaP mineralization.

  4. Environmental and natural resource implications of sustainable urban infrastructure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergesen, Joseph D.; Suh, Sangwon; Baynes, Timothy M.; Kaviti Musango, Josephine

    2017-12-01

    As cities grow, their environmental and natural resource footprints also tend to grow to keep up with the increasing demand on essential urban services such as passenger transportation, commercial space, and thermal comfort. The urban infrastructure systems, or socio-technical systems providing these services are the major conduits through which natural resources are consumed and environmental impacts are generated. This paper aims to gauge the potential reductions in environmental and resources footprints through urban transformation, including the deployment of resource-efficient socio-technical systems and strategic densification. Using hybrid life cycle assessment approach combined with scenarios, we analyzed the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water use, metal consumption and land use of selected socio-technical systems in 84 cities from the present to 2050. The socio-technical systems analyzed are: (1) bus rapid transit with electric buses, (2) green commercial buildings, and (3) district energy. We developed a baseline model for each city considering gross domestic product, population density, and climate conditions. Then, we overlaid three scenarios on top of the baseline model: (1) decarbonization of electricity, (2) aggressive deployment of resource-efficient socio-technical systems, and (3) strategic urban densification scenarios to each city and quantified their potentials in reducing the environmental and resource impacts of cities by 2050. The results show that, under the baseline scenario, the environmental and natural resource footprints of all 84 cities combined would increase 58%–116% by 2050. The resource-efficient scenario along with strategic densification, however, has the potential to curve down GHG emissions to 17% below the 2010 level in 2050. Such transformation can also limit the increase in all resource footprints to less than 23% relative to 2010. This analysis suggests that resource-efficient urban infrastructure and decarbonization

  5. The role of Carbon Capture and Storage in a future sustainable energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2012-01-01

    huge construction costs with the expectation of long lifetimes. Consequently, the CCS has to operate as part of large-scale power or CHP plants with high utilisation hours for the CCS investment to come even close to being feasible. However, seen in the light of transforming to sustainable energy......This paper presents the results of adding a CCS(Carbon Capture and Storage) plant including an underground CO2 storage to a well described and well documented vision of converting the present Danish fossil based energy system into a future sustainable energy system made by the Danish Society...... of Engineers. The analyses point in the direction that in such context a CCS investment is not a suitable way to decrease CO2 emissions. Other alternatives are more cost effective and will fit better into the long-term implementation of sustainable energy systems. The reason is that CCS investments involve...

  6. The Role of Systems Modeling for Sustainable Development Policy Analysis: the Case of Bio-Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert W. Chan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic systems modeling technique has been developed to assess technologies according to the criterion of sustainability. In a case study, the potential contribution of bio-ethanol toward achieving Canada's commitment to the Kyoto targets for greenhouse gas reductions is analyzed. The analysis concludes that, although bio-ethanol may help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the technology by itself is insufficient to meet the Kyoto target. Applying the systems modeling approach to analyze sustainability helps highlight those policy issues that warrant more in-depth study. Although the systems model may not provide definitive answers, it raises relevant questions about physical constraints that might be encountered and estimates the extent to which sustainability targets may be met under various scenarios.

  7. A Systems Approach Framework for the Transition to Sustainable Development: Potential Value Based on Coastal Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom S. Hopkins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the value of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF as a tool for the transition to sustainable development in coastal zone systems, based on 18 study sites in Europe, where the SAF was developed and tested. The knowledge gained from these experiments concerns the practical aspects of (a governance in terms of policy effectiveness, (b sustainability science in terms of applying transdisciplinary science to social-ecological problems, and (c simulation analysis in terms of quantifying dysfunctions in complex systems. This new knowledge can help broaden our perspectives on how research can be changed to better serve society. The infusion of systems thinking into research and policy making leads to a preference for multi-issue instead of single-issue studies, an expansion from static to dynamic indicators, an understanding of the boundaries between system-dependent and system-independent problems, and the inclusion of non-market evaluations. It also develops a real partnership among research, management, and stakeholders to establish a quantitative basis for collaborative decision making. Furthermore, the article argues that the transition to sustainable development for coastal systems requires consideration of the scale interdependency from individual to global and recognition of the probable global reorganizational emergence of scale-free networks that could cooperate to maximize the integrated sustainability among them.

  8. Food system sustainability for health and well-being of Indigenous Peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnlein, Harriet V

    2015-09-01

    To describe how Indigenous Peoples understand how to enhance use of their food systems to promote sustainability, as demonstrated in several food-based interventions. Comments contributed by partners from case studies of Indigenous Peoples and their food systems attending an international meeting were implemented with public health interventions at the community level in nine countries. The Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Conference Center in Bellagio, Italy, where experiences from case studies of Indigenous Peoples were considered and then conducted in their home communities in rural areas. Leaders of the Indigenous Peoples' case studies, their communities and their academic partners. Reported strategies on how to improve use of local food systems in case study communities of Indigenous Peoples. Indigenous Peoples' reflections on their local food systems should be encouraged and acted upon to protect and promote sustainability of the cultures and ecosystems that derive their food systems. Promoting use of local traditional food biodiversity is an essential driver of food system sustainability for Indigenous Peoples, and contributes to global consciousness for protecting food biodiversity and food system sustainability more broadly. Key lessons learned, key messages and good practices for nutrition and public health practitioners and policy makers are given.

  9. Animal Board Invited Review: Comparing conventional and organic livestock production systems on different aspects of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wagenberg, C P A; de Haas, Y; Hogeveen, H; van Krimpen, M M; Meuwissen, M P M; van Middelaar, C E; Rodenburg, T B

    2017-10-01

    To sustainably contribute to food security of a growing and richer world population, livestock production systems are challenged to increase production levels while reducing environmental impact, being economically viable, and socially responsible. Knowledge about the sustainability performance of current livestock production systems may help to formulate strategies for future systems. Our study provides a systematic overview of differences between conventional and organic livestock production systems on a broad range of sustainability aspects and animal species available in peer-reviewed literature. Systems were compared on economy, productivity, environmental impact, animal welfare and public health. The review was limited to dairy cattle, beef cattle, pigs, broilers and laying hens, and to Europe, North America and New Zealand. Results per indicators are presented as in the articles without performing additional calculations. Out of 4171 initial search hits, 179 articles were analysed. Studies varied widely in indicators, research design, sample size and location and context. Quite some studies used small samples. No study analysed all aspects of sustainability simultaneously. Conventional systems had lower labour requirements per unit product, lower income risk per animal, higher production per animal per time unit, higher reproduction numbers, lower feed conversion ratio, lower land use, generally lower acidification and eutrophication potential per unit product, equal or better udder health for cows and equal or lower microbiological contamination. Organic systems had higher income per animal or full time employee, lower impact on biodiversity, lower eutrophication and acidification potential per unit land, equal or lower likelihood of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and higher beneficial fatty acid levels in cow milk. For most sustainability aspects, sometimes conventional and sometimes organic systems performed better, except for productivity, which was

  10. Sustainable Water Systems for the City of Tomorrow—A Conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin (Cissy Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban water systems are an example of complex, dynamic human–environment coupled systems which exhibit emergent behaviors that transcend individual scientific disciplines. While previous siloed approaches to water services (i.e., water resources, drinking water, wastewater, and stormwater have led to great improvements in public health protection, sustainable solutions for a growing global population facing increased resource constraints demand a paradigm shift based on holistic management to maximize the use and recovery of water, energy, nutrients, and materials. The objective of this review paper is to highlight the issues in traditional water systems including water demand and use, centralized configuration, sewer collection systems, characteristics of mixed wastewater, and to explore alternative solutions such as decentralized water systems, fit for purpose and water reuse, natural/green infrastructure, vacuum sewer collection systems, and nutrient/energy recovery. This review also emphasizes a system thinking approach for evaluating alternatives that should include sustainability indicators and metrics such as emergy to assess global system efficiency. An example paradigm shift design for urban water system is presented, not as the recommended solution for all environments, but to emphasize the framework of system-level analysis and the need to visualize water services as an organic whole. When water systems are designed to maximize the resources and optimum efficiency, they are more prevailing and sustainable than siloed management because a system is more than the sum of its parts.

  11. ICT enabled land administration systems for sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the current Land Administration System (LAS) in Denmark with a focus on institutional arrangements, land policies, land information infrastructure, and the four land administration functions: land tenure, land value, land-use, and land development. The analysis, this way, builds...

  12. Powermanagement Systems for Sustainable Energy in Buildings and Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Betzold, Christina; Buderus, Julian; Dentel, Arno

    2016-01-01

    One demonstration site of the EU-project SENSIBLE is in Nuremberg with the following main objectives: implementing, demonstrating and validating control strategies of small-scale storage, microgeneration devices and energy storage in commercial buildings. A Building Energy Management System (BEMS) will be developed that controls and optimizes the interaction within the energy generation, storage and consumption.

  13. Governance and sustainability of the Argentine Complementary Currency Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M. Gómez (Georgina)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Redes de Trueque (RT) thrived during the economic crisis of 2001 – 2002 in Argentina and still stand out as one of the largest Complementary Currency System in the world. These local exchange networks reach a large scale during times of severe economic distress, but as large

  14. For Hunger-proof Cities: Sustainable Urban Food Systems | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It explores what existing marketing and distribution structures can do to improve accessibility and what the emerging forms of food-distribution systems are, and how they can contribute to alleviating hunger in the cities. Finally, the book discusses the underlying structures that create poverty and inequality and examines the ...

  15. Challenges of assessing the sustainability of (agro)-pastoral systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayatunde, A.A.; Leeuw, de J.A.; Turner, M.D.; Said, M.

    2011-01-01

    Pastoralism is not only a livestock-based livelihood strategy but also a way of life with socio-cultural norms and values, and indigenous knowledge revolving around livestock. Pastoral systems in Africa are facing demographic, economic, socio-political and climatic pressures which are driving many

  16. Supervision functions - Secure operation of sustainable power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten

    2013-01-01

    the power system operation state based on new stability and security parameters derived from PMUs measurement and coordinate the use of automatic and manual control actions. The coordination of the control action is based not only in the static indicators but also in the performance evaluation of control...

  17. Joint Sustainment of Weapon Systems. Would We Be Better Off?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    .... As depots within the military begin to implement new procedures based on the Lean Six Sigma model, a proposed consolidation of efforts based on major weapon systems could lead to improved cost benefits and decreased maintenance time. Tied with the current Joint Depot Maintenance Program, Lean Six Sigma can continue to improve the Service's depot performance.

  18. Transgenes sustain epigeal insect biodiversity in diversified vegetable farm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, T W; Hoheisel, G A; Biddinger, D J; Rohr, J R; Fleischer, S J

    2007-02-01

    Many ecological studies have focused on the effects of transgenes in field crops, but few have considered multiple transgenes in diversified vegetable systems. We compared the epigeal, or soil surface-dwelling, communities of Coleoptera and Formicidae between transgenic and isoline vegetable systems consisting of sweet corn, potato, and acorn squash, with transgenic cultivars expressing Cry1(A)b, Cry3, or viral coat proteins. Vegetables were grown in replicated split plots over 2 yr with integrated pest management (IPM) standards defining insecticide use patterns. More than 77.6% of 11,925 insects from 1,512 pitfall traps were identified to species, and activity density was used to compare dominance distribution, species richness, and community composition. Measures of epigeal biodiversity were always equal in transgenic vegetables, which required fewer insecticide applications than their near isolines. There were no differences in species richness between transgenic and isoline treatments at the farm system and individual crop level. Dominance distributions were also similar between transgenic and isoline farming systems. Crop type, and not genotype, had a significant influence on Carabidae and Staphylinidae community composition in the first year, but there were no treatment effects in the second year, possibly because of homogenizing effects of crop rotations. Communities were more influenced by crop type, and possibly crop rotation, than by genotype. The heterogeneity of crops and rotations in diversified vegetable farms seems to aid in preserving epigeal biodiversity, which may be supplemented by reductions in insecticide use associated with transgenic cultivars.

  19. Advancing sustainability through mainstreaming a social–ecological systems perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, J.; Gardner, T.A.; Bennett, A.M.; Blavanera, P.; Biggs, R.; Carpenter, S.; Daw, T.; Folke, C.; Hill, R.; Hughes, T.P.; Luthe, T.; Maass, M.; Meacham, M.; Norström, A.V.; Peterson, G; Queiroz, C.; Seppelt, R.; Spierenburg, M.J.; Tenhunen, J.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of social-ecological systems is useful for understanding the interlinked dynamics of environmental and societal change. The concept has helped facilitate: (1) increased recognition of the dependence of humanity on ecosystems; (2) improved collaboration across disciplines, and between

  20. The role of pulses in sustainable and healthy food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, John; Wyatt, Amanda J

    2017-03-01

    Improving nutrition is a development priority, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in Africa and South Asia, in which there is a persistent burden of undernutrition and increasing obesity. Healthy food systems can play a necessary role, aligned with other multisectoral actions, in addressing this challenge. Contributing to improved nutrition and health outcomes through food-based solutions is complex. In considering the role that pulses can play in addressing this challenge, there are useful conceptual frameworks and emerging lessons. National food systems in LMICs provide limited diet quality. Foods for a healthy diet may be produced locally, but they increasingly rely on improved markets and trade. What might be done to transform food systems for healthier diets, and what role can pulses play? Food systems innovations will require a convergence of technical innovation with smarter institutional arrangements and more effective policies and regulations. In many countries in Africa and South Asia, pulses can make important contributions to healthier diets. Options for supporting pulses to make a greater contribution to healthier diets include increasing the efficiency of pulse supply chains, creating more effective public-private institutional arrangements for innovation, and establishing policies, regulations, and investments that are nutrition sensitive. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Sustainable crossbreeding systems of beef cattle in the era of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MokolobateM

    2014-08-16

    Aug 16, 2014 ... Improved production efficiency can also be attained through effective crossbreeding systems. The benefits of effective .... This work is based on research supported in part by Red Meat Research and Development South. Africa and the National Research Foundation of South Africa (NRF), under grants UID ...

  2. Green light for the Green Certificate System for sustainable energy?; Groen licht voor het groencertificatensysteem?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgers, J. [Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid WRR, The Hague (Netherlands); Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Van Eijs, D.D.M.H. [Faculteit der Economische Wetenschappen en Econometrie, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    In 2001, the Green Certificate System for Sustainable Energy will become operational. This certificate system will stimulate sustainable production of energy in the Netherlands, which should reduce the Dutch contribution to CO2 emissions. The pros and cons of such a system are discussed it is investigated whether it is ready for implementation. Liberalisation of energy markets in an international context serves as a starting point, because it has an important influence on trends in national energy provision. It is also examined whether anything can be learned from the experience gained with American systems of tradable permits, which show some similarity to the Green Certificate System. Finally, a checklist of characteristics, that the system should meet in order to be an effective part of the environmental and especially climate policy of the Netherlands, is given. If those conditions are satisfied, the system seems ripe for implementation. 7 refs.

  3. Long term hydrogen production potential of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system in tropical weather of Singapore

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-08-23

    Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system provides highest solar energy conversion efficiency among all the photovoltaic technologies and provides the most suitable option to convert solar energy into hydrogen, as future sustainable energy carrier. So far, only conventional flat plate PV systems are being used for almost all of the commercial applications. However, most of the studies have only shown the maximum efficiency of hydrogen production using CPV. In actual field conditions, the performance of CPV-Hydrogen system is affected by many parameter and it changes continuously during whole day operation. In this paper, the daily average and long term performances are proposed to analyze the real field potential of the CPV-Hydrogen system, which is of main interest for designers and consumers. An experimental setup is developed and a performance model is proposed to investigate the average and long term production potential of CPV-Hydrogen system. The study is carried out in tropical weather of Singapore. The maximum CPV efficiency of 27-28% and solar to hydrogen (STH) efficiency of 18%, were recorded. In addition, the CPV-Hydrogen system showed the long term average efficiency of 15.5%, for period of one year (12-months), with electrolyser rating of 47 kWh/kg and STH production potential of 218 kWh/kg. Based upon the DNI availability, the system showed hydrogen production potential of 0.153-0.553 kg/m/month, with average production of 0.43 kg/m/month. However, CPV-Hydrogen system has shown annual hydrogen production potential of 5.162 kg/m/year in tropical weather of Singapore.

  4. Life cycle assessment for sustainable metropolitan water systems planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundie, Sven; Peters, Gregory M; Beavis, Paul C

    2004-07-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is useful as an information tool for the examination of alternative future scenarios for strategic planning. Developing a life cycle assessment for a large water and wastewater system involves making methodological decisions about the level of detail which is retained through different stages of the process. In this article we discuss a methodology tailored to strategic planning needs which retains a high degree of model segmentation in order to enhance modeling of a large, complex system. This is illustrated by a case study of Sydney Water, which is Australia's largest water service provider. A prospective LCA was carried out to examine the potential environmental impacts of Sydney Water's total operations in the year 2021. To our knowledge this is the first study to create an LCA model of an integrated water and wastewater system with this degree of complexity. A "base case" system model was constructed to represent current operating assets as augmented and upgraded to 2021. The base case results provided a basis for the comparison of alternative future scenarios and for conclusions to be drawn regarding potential environmental improvements. The scenarios can be roughly classified in two categories: (1) options which improve the environmental performance across all impact categories and (2) options which improve one indicator and worsen others. Overall environmental improvements are achieved in all categories by the scenarios examining increased demand management, energy efficiency, energy generation, and additional energy recovery from biosolids. The scenarios which examined desalination of seawater and the upgrades of major coastal sewage treatment plants to secondary and tertiary treatment produced an improvement in one environmental indicator but deteriorations in all the other impact categories, indicating the environmental tradeoffs within the system. The desalination scenario produced a significant increase in greenhouse gas

  5. An Investigation of Customer Accounting Systems as a Source of Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Morten; Kumar, V.; Plenborg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study examines whether using customer accounting systems for resource allocation purposes is a source of sustainable competitive advantage. Based on a longitudinal data set comparing the performance of firms that adopt customer accounting and their industry benchmarks, we find that financial...... accounting systems is a source of temporary rather than sustainable competitive advantage. The results are robust to other strategic events around the time of adoption, different matching of peers, and the influence of other factors that could be expected to influence firm performance. We discuss...... the implications of these findings for management accounting research and practice....

  6. An Indicator-Based Framework to Evaluate Sustainability of Farming Systems: Review of Applications in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Vazzana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability at the farm level. Policymakers need accounting and evaluation tools to be able to assess the potential of sustainable production practices and to provide appropriate agro-environmental policy measures. Farmers are in search of sustainable management tools to cope with regulations and enhance efficiency. This study proposes an indicator-based framework to evaluate sustainability of farming systems. Main features of the indicators’ framework are the relevance given to different spatial scales (farm, site and field, production and pedo-climatic factors, and a holistic view of the agro-ecosystem. The framework has been conceived to tackle different purposes ranging from detailed scientific analyses to farm-level management systems and cross-compliance. Agro-environmental indicators can be calculated, simulated with models or directly measured with different levels of detail proportionally to the aims of the evaluation exercise. The framework is organised in a number of environmental and production systems and sub-systems. For each system environmental critical points are identified with corresponding agro-environmental indicators and processing methods. A review of applications of the framework in Tuscany, Italy, since 1991 is presented. Applications range from prototyping farming systems, to integrated farm ecological-economic modelling, comparisons between organic, integrated and conventional farming systems, farm eco-management voluntary audit schemes and cross-compliance. Strengths and weaknesses of the framework are discussed against generic requirements of information systems and operational issues.

  7. Curricular Reform: Systems Modeling and Sustainability in Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, D. M.; Hayden, N. J.; Dewoolkar, M.; Neumann, M.; Lathem, S.

    2009-12-01

    Researchers at the University of Vermont were awarded a NSF-sponsored Department Level Reform (DLR) grant to incorporate a systems approach to engineering problem solving within the civil and environmental engineering programs. A systems approach challenges students to consider the environmental, social, and economic aspects within engineering solutions. Likewise, sustainability requires a holistic approach to problem solving that includes economic, social and environmental factors. Our reform has taken a multi-pronged approach in two main areas that include implementing: a) a sequence of three systems courses related to environmental and transportation systems that introduce systems thinking, sustainability, and systems analysis and modeling; and b) service-learning (SL) projects as a means of practicing the systems approach. Our SL projects are good examples of inquiry-based learning that allow students to emphasize research and learning in areas of most interest to them. The SL projects address real-world open-ended problems. Activities that enhance IT and soft skills for students are incorporated throughout the curricula. Likewise, sustainability has been a central piece of the reform. We present examples of sustainability in the SL and modeling projects within the systems courses (e.g., students have used STELLA™ systems modeling software to address the impact of different carbon sequestration strategies on global climate change). Sustainability in SL projects include mentoring home schooled children in biomimicry projects, developing ECHO exhibits and the design of green roofs, bioretention ponds and porous pavement solutions. Assessment includes formative and summative methods involving student surveys and focus groups, faculty interviews and observations, and evaluation of student work.

  8. Sustainable Overall Throughputability Effectiveness (S.O.T.E. as a Metric for Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Durán

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new index for a comprehensive and systematic measurement of sustainability and throughput performance in production systems. The proposed index, called Sustainable Overall Throughput Effectiveness (S.O.T.E., is designed on the basis of a comparison of the environmental and operational factors. Specifically, it integrates the following four dimensions: availability, utilization, performance, and environmental sustainability. The way each dimension is measured is explained and justified. This index uses the overall environmental equipment effectiveness (OEEE index, which is based on the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE index. However, such metrics are lacking at the factory level, because OEEE, as well as the OEE, is devoted to equipment-level. Its application and potential contribution to the analysis of sustainable throughput is demonstrated through a case study in an actual crushing plant. Through examining several hypotheses concerning the relationship between operational and environmental performance, a series of useful conclusions could be raised. The main difference and advantage of the proposed S.O.T.E. is that S.O.T.E., as it is based on the Overall Throughput Effectiveness (OTE, measures factory-level sustainability and operational performance. S.O.T.E. allows us to relate the impact of the overall effectiveness of each one of the components of the index to each piece of equipment that makes a part of the production systems. Furthermore, S.O.T.E., as OTE, take into account the production system configuration (series, parallel, assembly, etc..

  9. A Comparison of Electricity Generation System Sustainability among G20 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinchao Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Planning for electricity generation systems is a very important task and should take environmental and economic factors into account. This paper reviews the existing metrics and methods in evaluating energy sustainability, and we propose a sustainability assessment index system. The input indexes include generation capacity, generation cost, and land use. The output indexes include desirable and undesirable parts. The desirable outputs are total electricity generation and job creation. The undesirable outputs are external supply risk and external costs associated with the environment and health. The super-efficiency data envelopment analysis method is used to calculate the sustainability of electricity generation systems of 23 countries from 2005 to 2014. The three input indexes and three undesirable output indexes are used as the input variables. The two desirable outputs are used as the output variables. The results show that most countries’ electricity generation sustainability values have decreasing trends. In addition, nuclear and hydro generation have positive effects. Solar, wind, and fossil fuel generation have negative effects on sustainability.

  10. A fuzzy logic-based tool to assess beef cattle ranching sustainability in complex environmental systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sandra A; de Lima, Helano Póvoas; Massruhá, Silvia M F S; de Abreu, Urbano G P; Tomás, Walfrido M; Salis, Suzana M; Cardoso, Evaldo L; de Oliveira, Márcia Divina; Soares, Márcia Toffani S; Dos Santos, Antônio; de Oliveira, Luiz Orcírio F; Calheiros, Débora F; Crispim, Sandra M A; Soriano, Balbina M A; Amâncio, Christiane O G; Nunes, Alessandro Pacheco; Pellegrin, Luiz Alberto

    2017-08-01

    One of the most relevant issues in discussion worldwide nowadays is the concept of sustainability. However, sustainability assessment is a difficult task due to the complexity of factors involved in the natural world added to the human interference. In order to assess the sustainability of beef ranching in complex and uncertain tropical environment systems this paper describes a decision support system based on fuzzy rule-approach, the Sustainable Pantanal Ranch (SPR). This tool was built by a set of measurements and indicators integrated by fuzzy logic to evaluate the attributes of the three dimensions of sustainability. Indicators and decision rules, as well as scenario evaluations, were obtained from workshops involving multi-disciplinary team of experts. A Fuzzy Rule-Based System (FRBS) was developed to each attribute, dimension and general index. The essential parts of the FRBS are the knowledge database, rules and the inference engine. The FuzzyGen and WebFuzzy tools were developed to support the FRBS and both showed efficiency and low cost for digital applications. The results of each attribute, dimension and index were presented as radar graphs, showing the individual value (0-10) of each indicator. In the validation process using the WebFuzzy, different combinations of indicators were made for each attribute index to show the corresponding output, and which confirm the feasibility and usability of the tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. How the organic food system supports sustainable diets and translates these into practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola eStrassner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g. organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards and useful metrics. By 2015 data for organic production and consumption is recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic fo

  12. Optimum Concentration Ratio Analysis Using Dynamic Thermal Model for Concentrated Photovoltaic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    different semiconductor material solar cells, such as GaAs, InGaP, CdTe , and other high-efficiency cell materials to investigate the thermal properties...Technology. Norwell, MA : Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. 39. Model of Photovoltaic Module in MATLAB. Gonzalez-Longatt, Francisco M. 2DO Congreso...of Hong Kong, 2010. 44. A Simple Passive Cooling Structure and its Heat Analysis for 500 X Concentration PV Module . Araki, Kenji, Uozumi, Hisafumi

  13. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: integrated evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, M; Klauke, T N; Gonzàlez, J; Rydhmer, L; Ilari-Antoine, E; Dourmad, J Y; de Greef, K; Houwers, H W J; Cinar, M U; Fàbrega, E; Zimmer, C; Hviid, M; van der Oever, B; Edwards, S A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an approach for an integrated evaluation of the sustainability of pig farming systems, taking into account the three classical pillars: economy, environment and society. Eight sustainability themes were considered: Animal Welfare (AW), Animal Health (AH), Breeding Programmes (BP), Environment (EN), Meat Safety (MS), Market Conformity (MC), Economy (EC) and Working Conditions (WC). A total of 37 primary indicators were identified and used for the evaluation of 15 much contrasted pig farming systems in five EU countries. The results show that the eight themes were not redundant and all contributed to the observed variation between systems. The tool was very robust for highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of the systems along the eight themes that were considered. The number of primary indicators could be reduced from 37 to 18 with limited impact on the strengths/weaknesses profile of the individual systems. Integrating the eight theme evaluations into a single sustainability score is based on hypotheses or presumptions on the relative weights that should be given to the eight themes, which are very dependent on the context and on the purpose of the users of the tool. Therefore, the present paper does not have the ambition to provide a ready-for-use tool, rather to suggest an approach for the integrated evaluation of the sustainability of pig farming systems.

  14. Self-sustained reduction of multiple metals in a microbial fuel cell-microbial electrolysis cell hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wu, Yining; Liu, Bingchuan; Luan, Hongwei; Vadas, Timothy; Guo, Wanqian; Ding, Jie; Li, Baikun

    2015-09-01

    A self-sustained hybrid bioelectrochemical system consisting of microbial fuel cell (MFC) and microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) was developed to reduce multiple metals simultaneously by utilizing different reaction potentials. Three heavy metals representing spontaneous reaction (chromium, Cr) and unspontaneous reaction (lead, Pb and nickel, Ni) were selected in this batch-mode study. The maximum power density of the MFC achieved 189.4 mW m(-2), and the energy recovery relative to the energy storage circuit (ESC) was ∼ 450%. At the initial concentration of 100 mg L(-1), the average reduction rate of Cr(VI) was 30.0 mg L(-1) d(-1), Pb(II) 32.7 mg L(-1) d(-1), and Ni(II) 8.9 mg L(-1) d(-1). An electrochemical model was developed to predict the change of metal concentration over time. The power output of the MFC was sufficient to meet the requirement of the ESC and MEC, and the "self-sustained metal reduction" was achieved in this hybrid system. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. An Integrated Model Based on a Hierarchical Indices System for Monitoring and Evaluating Urban Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xulin Guo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of world’s population presently resides in cities, and this number is expected to rise to ~70% by 2050. Increasing urbanization problems including population growth, urban sprawl, land use change, unemployment, and environmental degradation, have markedly impacted urban residents’ Quality of Life (QOL. Therefore, urban sustainability and its measurement have gained increasing attention from administrators, urban planners, and scientific communities throughout the world with respect to improving urban development and human well-being. The widely accepted definition of urban sustainability emphasizes the balancing development of three primary domains (urban economy, society, and environment. This article attempts to improve the aforementioned definition of urban sustainability by incorporating a human well-being dimension. Major problems identified in existing urban sustainability indicator (USI models include a weak integration of potential indicators, poor measurement and quantification, and insufficient spatial-temporal analysis. To tackle these challenges an integrated USI model based on a hierarchical indices system was established for monitoring and evaluating urban sustainability. This model can be performed by quantifying indicators using both traditional statistical approaches and advanced geomatic techniques based on satellite imagery and census data, which aims to provide a theoretical basis for a comprehensive assessment of urban sustainability from a spatial-temporal perspective.

  16. Sustainability of rainwater catchment systems for small island communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Ryan T.; Beikmann, Alise; Kottermair, Maria; Taboroši, Danko; Jenson, John W.

    2018-02-01

    Communities living on atolls and similar low-lying islands in the tropical Pacific rely on rainwater and shallow groundwater to meet domestic water needs. Rainwater, generally captured and stored using rooftop rainwater catchment systems, is the preferred water source due to higher quality and convenience of access. This study assesses the performance of rainwater catchment systems (RWCS) on Ifalik Atoll, located in Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia in the western Pacific. A field survey was conducted in August 2015 to evaluate RWCS features (guttered roof area, storage tank size, gutter leakage conditions), determine numbers of users, and estimate daily water use via household surveys. All 152 RWCS were surveyed. Water balance modeling was applied to the RWCS to estimate end-of-day stored rainwater volumes for each day of the 1997-1999 time period, during which an El Niño-induced drought occurred. Results indicate that the community is resilient to drought, although the majority of RWCS were depleted of rainwater and hence community sharing was required. Scenario testing indicates that increasing guttered roof area is the optimal strategy for enhancing system reliability. For example, the volume of water maintained at the peak of a drought can be tripled if the available roof areas for the RWCS are guttered. Design curves, which provide a set of roof area - tank volume combinations that achieve specified levels of reliability, were created and can be used to plan new RWCS. Besides offering insights into community-wide water storage and usage patterns and resiliency for Ifalik Atoll, this study presents methods that can be applied to other atoll island communities throughout the Indo-Pacific region.

  17. Sustained small oscillations in nonlinear control systems. [launch vehicle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J. H.; Gunderson, R. W.; Hahn, H.

    1975-01-01

    Some results of bifurcation theory were used to study the existence of small-amplitude periodic behavior in launch vehicle dynamics, assuming that nonlinearity exists as a cubic term in the rudder response. The analysis follows closely Sattinger's (1973) approach to the theory of periodic bifurcations. The conditions under which a bifurcating branch of orbitally stable periodic solutions will exist are determined. It is shown that in more complicated cases, the conditions under which the system matrix has a pair of simple purely imaginary eigenvalues can be determined with the aid of linear stability techniques.

  18. The Contribution to the Integration of Management Systems Oriented to the Sustainable and TQM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Věra Pelantová

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Most organisations have established their management systems. Often these are concerning quality management systems, work safety and the environment. Organisations are now striving to integrate them, usually because of lowering of administration and improving their performance. They address the difficulties and ignorance of the theory of management systems. The development of these systems continues. Substantial surroundings are changing dynamically. Organisations must react to survive. The article presents a pilot study on new aspects of integration of management systems. It interconnects knowledge about quality, environment, work safety and information, corporate social responsibility and performance. Based on the results of the literature research, according to the analysis of the state of management systems in the selected organisations and according to the experience of authors, it sets out the basic features for an integrated management system aimed at sustainability and social responsibility. Using these characters, the current status of this area is detected in organisations. Then the article compares the current EFQM requirements with these characters. With the help of TQM basics, recommendations and a simplified sustainable EFQM model are presented. The methods used in the article are: common mathematical statistics, observation, controlled interview, data analysis and synthesis, brainstorming, the Triangular Table, the EFQM model and other quality tools. The article is based on the assumption that the convergence of management system concepts will continue. The result is to set recommendations on management systems and lay the foundations for a sustainable management system for the organisation.

  19. Sustained release of bactericidal concentrations of penicillin in the pleural space via an antibiotic-eluting pigtail catheter coated with electrospun nanofibers: results from in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yin-Kai; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Liu, Kuo-Sheng; Wang, Yi-Chuan; Wang, Chih-Wei; Liu, Shih-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate intrapleural drug concentrations caused by poor penetration of systemic antibiotics into the pleural cavity is a major cause of treatment failure in empyema. Herein, we describe a novel antibiotic-eluting pigtail catheter coated with electrospun nanofibers used for the sustained release of bactericidal concentrations of penicillin in the pleural space. Electrospun nanofibers prepared using polylactide-polyglycolide copolymer and penicillin G sodium dissolved in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol were used to coat the surface of an Fr6 pigtail catheter. The in vitro patterns of drug release were tested by placing the catheter in phosphate-buffered saline. In vivo studies were performed using rabbits treated with penicillin either intrapleurally (Group 1, 20 mg delivered through the catheter) or systemically (Group 2, intramuscular injection, 10 mg/kg). Penicillin concentrations in the serum and pleural fluid were then measured and compared. In vitro studies revealed a burst release of penicillin (10% of the total dose) occurring in the first 24 hours, followed by a sustained release in the subsequent 30 days. Intrapleural drug levels were significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (Ppenicillin concentrations remained above the minimum inhibitory concentration breakpoint throughout the entire study period. In contrast, serum penicillin levels were significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (P<0.001). Notably, all Group 2 rabbits showed signs of systemic toxicity (paralytic ileus and weight loss). We conclude that our antibiotic-eluting catheter may serve as a novel therapeutic option to treat empyema.

  20. Application of mathematical modeling in sustained release delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Mario; Grassi, Gabriele

    2014-08-01

    This review, presenting as starting point the concept of the mathematical modeling, is aimed at the physical and mathematical description of the most important mechanisms regulating drug delivery from matrix systems. The precise knowledge of the delivery mechanisms allows us to set up powerful mathematical models which, in turn, are essential for the design and optimization of appropriate drug delivery systems. The fundamental mechanisms for drug delivery from matrices are represented by drug diffusion, matrix swelling, matrix erosion, drug dissolution with possible recrystallization (e.g., as in the case of amorphous and nanocrystalline drugs), initial drug distribution inside the matrix, matrix geometry, matrix size distribution (in the case of spherical matrices of different diameter) and osmotic pressure. Depending on matrix characteristics, the above-reported variables may play a different role in drug delivery; thus the mathematical model needs to be built solely on the most relevant mechanisms of the particular matrix considered. Despite the somewhat diffident behavior of the industrial world, in the light of the most recent findings, we believe that mathematical modeling may have a tremendous potential impact in the pharmaceutical field. We do believe that mathematical modeling will be more and more important in the future especially in the light of the rapid advent of personalized medicine, a novel therapeutic approach intended to treat each single patient instead of the 'average' patient.

  1. Food Security Is None Of Your Business? : Food Supply Chain Management In Support Of A Sustainable Food System

    OpenAIRE

    Paloviita, Ari

    2017-01-01

    Food security is the principal outcome of any given food system and it can be defined in terms of a sustainable food system where the core goal is to feed everyone sustainably, equitably and healthily. A sustainable food system addresses needs for availability, affordability and accessibility, is diverse, ecologically-sound and resilient, and builds the capabilities and skills necessary for future generations. This paper identifies the essential elements of food supply ch...

  2. Sustainability and the Spanish port system. Analysis of the relationship between economic and environmental indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxe, Fernando González; Bermúdez, Federico Martín; Palmero, Federico Martín; Novo-Corti, Isabel

    2016-12-15

    Research into the methodological development of alternative systems of sustainability measures is recent. In understanding sustainable development in a multi-dimensional sense, one of the most significant advances was the construction of Synthetic Indexes, applicable to different spatial spheres or to organisations, businesses, institutions, etc. The Spanish port system of general interest comprises 46 ports integrated in 28 Port Authorities, which in 2014 moved 482,000,000t of goods and more than 28 million passengers. This gives an idea of its importance for the Spanish economy. Using a derivation of the procedure used to calculate the Port Sustainability Synthetic Index, in this research the analysis of the relationship that exists between the findings obtained for the economic and environmental dimensions is used. This enables the existence of links between ports and economic and environmental indicators for a sample of 16 Port Authorities of Spain to be verified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. How to ensure sustainable interoperability in heterogeneous distributed systems through architectural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Frank, Lars

    2011-01-01

    A major obstacle in ensuring ubiquitous information is the utilization of heterogeneous systems in eHealth. The objective in this paper is to illustrate how an architecture for distributed eHealth databases can be designed without lacking the characteristic features of traditional sustainable databases. The approach is firstly to explain traditional architecture in central and homogeneous distributed database computing, followed by a possible approach to use an architectural framework to obtain sustainability across disparate systems i.e. heterogeneous databases, concluded with a discussion. It is seen that through a method of using relaxed ACID properties on a service-oriented architecture it is possible to achieve data consistency which is essential when ensuring sustainable interoperability.

  4. Learning from the organic food system as a model for sustainable food systems - the Organic Food System Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahl, Johannes; Strassner, Carola; Hertwig, Jostein

    2016-01-01

    Today’s understanding of food systems includes product-specific values (e.g. palatability, taste, nutritional and safety values, health promotion) and process-oriented values (e.g. environmental impact, animal welfare and social fairness). These values are currently challenged and changing. Food ...... production and consumption within one system, thus creating and distributing value along the chains for sustainable food systems.......Today’s understanding of food systems includes product-specific values (e.g. palatability, taste, nutritional and safety values, health promotion) and process-oriented values (e.g. environmental impact, animal welfare and social fairness). These values are currently challenged and changing. Food...... habits, cultural, social, ethical, economic and political criteria play an increasingly important role as values. An organic values-based supply chain links food production to values such as partnership, cooperation and trust. Within a values-based supply chain, all actors should be connected through...

  5. Greenlandic water and sanitation-a context oriented analysis of system challenges towards local sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre; Hoffmann, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    Today, as Greenland focuses on more economic and cultural autonomy, the continued development of societal infrastructure systems is vital. At the same time, pressure is put on the systems by a lack of financial resources and locally based professional competences as well as new market-based forms...... for developing the water and sanitation system to support not only hygiene and health, but also local sustainable development....

  6. Sustained Delivery of Chondroitinase ABC from Hydrogel System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Rossi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the injured spinal cord, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs are the principal responsible of axon growth inhibition and they contribute to regenerative failure, promoting glial scar formation. Chondroitinase ABC (chABC is known for being able to digest proteoglycans, thus degrading glial scar and favoring axonal regrowth. However, its classic administration is invasive, infection-prone and clinically problematic. An agarose-carbomer (AC1 hydrogel, already used in SCI repair strategies, was here investigated as a delivery system capable of an effective chABC administration: the material ability to include chABC within its pores and the possibility to be injected into the target tissue were firstly proved. Subsequently, release kinetic and the maintenance of enzymatic activity were positively assessed: AC1 hydrogel was thus confirmed to be a feasible tool for chABC delivery and a promising device for spinal cord injury topic repair strategies.

  7. GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY: A MODERN APPROACH TO SUSTAINABLE DAIRY PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. DUNEA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly presents several applications of the geospatial technology as a method to maximize the efficiency of the dairy farm management. The experiment was carried out at Negraşi dairy farm in Târgovişte Plain. A functional farm production and mapping program for detailed farm management information system with several modules: mapping, forage stock, feed forecaster, individual cattle database, fuel consume for field operations and farm inputs database was developed for handheld computers with GPS navigation. Such portable information tools might help the decision making process, the development of ideo-types or in the exploration of land use options to support the policy makers at eco-regional level, the management staff at farm level and various other applications in dairy farms.

  8. Leveraging design thinking to build sustainable mobile health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Molly; Gorski, Irena; Mehta, Khanjan

    Mobile health, or mHealth, technology has the potential to improve health care access in the developing world. However, the majority of mHealth projects do not expand beyond the pilot stage. A core reason why is because they do not account for the individual needs and wants of those involved. A collaborative approach is needed to integrate the perspectives of all stakeholders into the design and operation of mHealth endeavours. Design thinking is a methodology used to develop and evaluate novel concepts for systems. With roots in participatory processes and self-determined pathways, design thinking provides a compelling framework to understand and apply the needs of diverse stakeholders to mHealth project development through a highly iterative process. The methodology presented in this article provides a structured approach to apply design thinking principles to assess the feasibility of novel mHealth endeavours during early conceptualisation.

  9. Integrated Metrics for Improving the Life Cycle Approach to Assessing Product System Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Ingwersen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle approaches are critical for identifying and reducing environmental burdens of products. While these methods can indicate potential environmental impacts of a product, current Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methods fail to integrate the multiple impacts of a system into unified measures of social, economic or environmental performance related to sustainability. Integrated metrics that combine multiple aspects of system performance based on a common scientific or economic principle have proven to be valuable for sustainability evaluation. In this work, we propose methods of adapting four integrated metrics for use with LCAs of product systems: ecological footprint, emergy, green net value added, and Fisher information. These metrics provide information on the full product system in land, energy, monetary equivalents, and as a unitless information index; each bundled with one or more indicators for reporting. When used together and for relative comparison, integrated metrics provide a broader coverage of sustainability aspects from multiple theoretical perspectives that is more likely to illuminate potential issues than individual impact indicators. These integrated metrics are recommended for use in combination with traditional indicators used in LCA. Future work will test and demonstrate the value of using these integrated metrics and combinations to assess product system sustainability.

  10. Denitrification 'Woodchip' Bioreactors for Productive and Sustainable Agricultural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, L. E.; Summerfelt, S.; Sharrer, K.; Lepine, C.; Helmers, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Growing alarm about negative cascading effects of reactive nitrogen in the environment has led to multifaceted efforts to address elevated nitrate-nitrogen levels in water bodies worldwide. The best way to mitigate N-related impacts, such as hypoxic zones and human health concerns, is to convert nitrate to stable, non-reactive dinitrogen gas through the natural process of denitrification. This means denitrification technologies need to be one of our major strategies for tackling the grand challenge of managing human-induced changes to our global nitrogen cycle. While denitrification technologies have historically been focused on wastewater treatment, there is great interest in new lower-tech options for treating effluent and drainage water from one of our largest reactive nitrogen emitters -- agriculture. Denitrification 'woodchip' bioreactors are able to enhance this natural N-conversion via addition of a solid carbon source (e.g., woodchips) and through designs that facilitate development of anoxic conditions required for denitrification. Wood-based denitrification technologies such as woodchip bioreactors and 'sawdust' walls for groundwater have been shown to be effective at reducing nitrate loads in agricultural settings around the world. Designing these systems to be low-maintenance and to avoid removing land from agricultural production has been a primary focus of this "farmer-friendly" technology. This presentation provides a background on woodchip bioreactors including design considerations, N-removal performance, and current research worldwide. Woodchip bioreactors for the agricultural sector are an accessible new option to address society's interest in improving water quality while simultaneously allowing highly productive agricultural systems to continue to provide food in the face of increasing demand, changing global diets, and fluctuating weather.

  11. Sostenibilidad de sistemas agrícolas Sustainability of farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiva Fabio R.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Las actividades agrícolas pueden tener impactos negativos sobre el ambiente, con efectos dentro y fuera de los predios. El presente artículo pretende contribuir al avance de la agricultura sostenible con énfasis en países en vías de desarrollo. Se revisan y analizan los conceptos de sostenibilidad y agricultura sostenible, incluyendo los diferentes puntos de vista en el debate sobre sostenibilidad'. El artículo examina los impactos ambientales debidos a las actividades agrícolas, destacando la importancia de fortalecer la investigación, con publicación de resultados, sobre la relación agricultura y medio ambiente. La complejidad de los factores que determinan la sostenibilidad agrícola exige una concepción de sistemas, integradora, participativa y holística. El uso de indicadores tiene un gran potencial en la evaluación de la sostenibilidad de sistemas productivos. La práctica de agricultura sostenible requiere tener en cuenta las condiciones ambientales, sociales y económicas en las cuales
    se desenvuelve la agricultura.Farming activities have the potential to affect the farming system itself and the offfarm environment. This paper attempts to contribute to the development of sustainable agriculture with emphasis in developing countries. The concepts of sustainability and sustainable agriculture are reviewed and discussed, including the different viewpoints in the sustainability debate. Environmental impacts due to farming activities are examined emphasising the need of promoting further research and publication of findings on the links between environment and agriculture. The complexity of the factors that determine farming sustainability requires
    a systematic, holistic, participative and integrated approach. Indicators are likely to contribute to the development of sustainable farming systems. Understanding environmental, social and economic circumstances is required to promote sustainability.

  12. Assessing the Sustainability of Different Small-Scale Livestock Production Systems in the Afar Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngufor L. Atanga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production is a key income source in eastern Africa, and 80% of the total agricultural land is used for livestock herding. Hence, ecological and socio-economically sustainable rangeland management is crucial. Our study aimed at selecting operational economic, environmental and social sustainability indicators for three main pastoral (P, agro-pastoral (AP, and landless intensive (LI small scale livestock production systems for use in sustainability assessment in Ethiopia. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through grey literature and semi-structured interviews, assessing livestock and feed resources, production technology, land tenure, financial and gender issues. Our results suggested that feed shortages (FS are directly related to grazing pressure (G and inversely related to grass recovery rates (R. According to our indicators, AP was the most sustainable while P and LI were only conditionally sustainable production systems. 93% of 82 interviewees claimed that private land ownership was the best land tenure incentive for efficient rangeland management. Farmers perceived Prosopis juliflora expansion, sporadic rainfall, and disease infestation as the most significant causes for decreasing livestock productivity. Landless intensive farmers had the highest equality in income distribution (Gini Index: GI = 0.4, followed by P and AP (each with a GI = 0.5. Neither educational background nor income seemed to determine grazing species conservation efforts. We claimed that sustainability indicators are valuable tools to highlight shortcomings and strengths of the three main livestock production systems and help with future livestock management in Ethiopia. Selecting suitable indicators, however, is crucial as data requirements and availability can vary across livestock systems.

  13. The method and index of sustainability assessment of infrastructure projects based on system dynamics in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As one of the most important overhead capital of urban economics and social development, the sustainable development of urban infrastructure is becoming a key issue of prosperous society growing. The purpose of this paper is to establish a basic model to analysis certain infrastructure project’s sustainable construction and operation. Design/methodology/approach: System dynamics is an effective stimulation method and tool to deal with such complex, dynamics, nonlinear systems, which could be used in analyzing and evaluating all aspects of infrastructure sustainability internally and externally. In this paper, the system is divided into four subsystems and 12 main impact indicators. Through setting the boundary and other basic hypothesis, this paper designs the basic causal loop diagrams and stock & flow diagrams to describe the relationship between variables and establish a quantifiable structure for the system. Findings: Adopting a sewerage treatment in China as a case to test our model, we could conclude that the model of internal sustainable subsystem is reasonable. However, this model is a basic model, and it need to be specific designed for the certain project due to the diversity of infrastructure types and the unique conditions of each projects. Originality/value: System Dynamics (SD is widely used in the study of sustainable development and has plentiful research achievements from macro perspective but few studies in the microcosmic project systems. This paper focuses on the unique characteristics of urban infrastructure in China and selects infrastructure project which is based on micro-system discussion. The model we designed has certain practical significance in policy setting, operation monitoring and adjustment of the urban projects with high rationality and accuracy.

  14. Estimation of Performance Indices for the Planning of Sustainable Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Paz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of sustainable transportation systems, previous studies have either focused only on the transportation system or have not used a methodology that enables the treatment of incomplete, vague, and qualitative information associated with the available data. This study proposes a system of systems (SOS and a fuzzy logic modeling approach. The SOS includes the Transportation, Activity, and Environment systems. The fuzzy logic modeling approach enables the treatment of the vagueness associated with some of the relevant data. Performance Indices (PIs are computed for each system using a number of performance measures. The PIs illustrate the aggregated performance of each system as well as the interactions among them. The proposed methodology also enables the estimation of a Composite Sustainability Index to summarize the aggregated performance of the overall SOS. Existing data was used to analyze sustainability in the entire United States. The results showed that the Transportation and Activity systems follow a positive trend, with similar periods of growth and contractions; in contrast, the environmental system follows a reverse pattern. The results are intuitive and are associated with a series of historic events, such as depressions in the economy as well as policy changes and regulations.

  15. Sustainability of a Compartmentalized Host-Parasite Replicator System under Periodic Washout-Mixing Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Furubayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and dominance of parasitic replicators are among the major hurdles for the proliferation of primitive replicators. Compartmentalization of replicators is proposed to relieve the parasite dominance; however, it remains unclear under what conditions simple compartmentalization uncoupled with internal reaction secures the long-term survival of a population of primitive replicators against incessant parasite emergence. Here, we investigate the sustainability of a compartmentalized host-parasite replicator (CHPR system undergoing periodic washout-mixing cycles, by constructing a mathematical model and performing extensive simulations. We describe sustainable landscapes of the CHPR system in the parameter space and elucidate the mechanism of phase transitions between sustainable and extinct regions. Our findings revealed that a large population size of compartments, a high mixing intensity, and a modest amount of nutrients are important factors for the robust survival of replicators. We also found two distinctive sustainable phases with different mixing intensities. These results suggest that a population of simple host–parasite replicators assumed before the origin of life can be sustained by a simple compartmentalization with periodic washout-mixing processes.

  16. Innovation Systems for Transformations towards Sustainability? Taking the Normative Dimension Seriously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Schlaile

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to complement research on transformations towards sustainability by drawing upon the innovation systems (IS framework. The IS framework already serves as a suitable and influential basis for research on processes of technological innovation and economic change. We argue that improving the capacity of an IS framework for dealing with wicked problems and the normative complexity of sustainability requires a fundamental paradigm shift because in the current IS paradigm innovations are considered as per se desirable and in mostly technological terms. Therefore, we call for IS dedicated to transformations towards sustainability by opening up for systemic innovations beyond the technological dimension and by acknowledging that stakeholders have conflicting visions, interests, norms, and expectations with regard to sustainability goals. Taking the normative dimension of transformations towards sustainability seriously thus requires more explicit and integrative research on directionality, legitimacy, responsibility, and their interrelation in IS. The article concludes by proposing suggestions for future research based on IS-related approaches that can serve as building blocks for an IS framework capable of incorporating legitimate goal-orientation for transformative innovation by and for society.

  17. Sustainable Education Systems For The Unfortunate In South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Rasyid Pananrangi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was (1 to explain some basic issues faced by the education policy makers in South Sulawesi, including the introduction of school fees and the private provision of schools; (2 to outline the relation between planning and budgeting for the educational policy objectives on the one hand and the economic planning and management of resources on the other; (3 to discuss the influence of this policy for the unfortunate in obtaining education. This study was carried in South Sulawesi. A descriptive approach was used in this study. The data were collected through library research and observation. The obtained data were then analyzed and presented descriptively. The results show that the available approach is not adequate to accommodate and to provide the opportunity of education for the unfortunate in South Sulawesi. The full or partial replacement of annual incremental planning and budgeting systems were still less appropriate to current problems. Reforms should also take full account of the need to strengthen a potentially beneficial relationship between the state and the private sectors.

  18. Building sustainable multi-functional prospective electronic clinical data systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Gurvaneet S; Slutsky, Jean R

    2012-07-01

    A better alignment in the goals of the biomedical research enterprise and the health care delivery system can help fill the large gaps in our knowledge of the impact of clinical interventions on patient outcomes in the real world. There are several initiatives underway to align the research priorities of patients, providers, researchers, and policy makers. These include Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)-supported projects to build flexible prospective clinical electronic data infrastructure that meet the needs of these diverse users. AHRQ has previously supported the creation of 2 distributed research networks as a new approach to conduct comparative effectiveness research (CER) while protecting a patient's confidential information and the proprietary needs of a clinical organization. It has applied its experience in building these networks in directing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funds for CER to support new clinical electronic infrastructure projects that can be used for several purposes including CER, quality improvement, clinical decision support, and disease surveillance. In addition, AHRQ has funded a new Electronic Data Methods forum to advance the methods in clinical informatics, research analytics, and governance by actively engaging investigators from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-funded projects and external stakeholders.

  19. Sustainable usability rating system for shopping centres; Kauppakeskusten kestaevaen kaeytettaevyyden arviointi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissinen, K.; Mottonen, V.; Niemi, R.; Nenonen, S.; Alho, J.

    2012-08-15

    The aim of this study was to create a sustainable usability rating system for shopping centers. The system consists out of seven main factors divided into 80 sub factors. The main factors are: location and accessibility, technical characteristics of the real estate, energy efficiency, waste management and recycling efficiency, tenant mix sustainability, economic prerequisites for tenant business operations and responsible shopping center management. Each of the factors has its own weighting when calculating the total score. Some of the criteria are quantitative some qualitative. The scoring system is equal to opinion score system used in Finnish schools (4-10). The rating system was tested in five large scale shopping centers. Among the rated centers the total score varied from 7.3 to 7.9 and the average score was 7.6. (orig.)

  20. The European Education Quality Benchmark System: Helping Teachers to Work with Information to Sustain Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Kristen M.

    2007-01-01

    Applying the concept of "quality" to education has been controversial, making it difficult for educators to develop systems for sustainable quality development in schools that meet the needs of governmental accountability and pedagogical practice. The varying perspectives reflect conflicting views about what is quality and, moreover, how quality…