Sample records for sustained pain freedom

  1. A Legitimate Freedom Approach to Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crabtree, Andrew


    reject. Thus, Sen's vision of development as freedom is amended to suggest limits to freedoms. Forms of development which are not sustainable can be reasonably rejected due, at least, to the harm and blighting entailed. Based on this, it is argued that at country level of comparison the Human Development...... an integrate sustainability into the Human Development Index would thus give the wrong policy message. Drawing on the works of Amartya Sen and Thomas Scanlon, this article argues that sustainable development can be seen as a process of increasing legitimate freedoms, the freedoms that others cannot reasonably...

  2. Education for sustainability through academic freedom | Ekwueme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Past researches are of the opinion that education for sustainable development and academic freedom could assist in solving these ethical menaces. Education for sustainable development allows every human being to acquire knowledge, skills, attitudes and values necessary to shape a sustainable future to make ...

  3. Persistent pain and comorbidity among Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/operation New Dawn veterans. (United States)

    Higgins, Diana M; Kerns, Robert D; Brandt, Cynthia A; Haskell, Sally G; Bathulapalli, Harini; Gilliam, Wesley; Goulet, Joseph L


    Chronic pain is a significant concern for the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), with chronic pain conditions among those most frequently reported by Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF)/Operation New Dawn (OND) veterans. The current study examined VHA electronic medical record data to examine variation in demographics and high prevalence and high impact medical and mental health conditions in order to characterize the differences between patients with persistent pain and no pain. A conservative operational definition of chronic or "persistent pain" based on multiple indicators of pain (i.e., pain intensity ratings, prescription opioids, pain clinic visits, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes) was employed. Analyses included the entire roster of longitudinal clinical data on OEF/OIF/OND veterans who used VHA care to compare those with persistent pain with those with no clinical evidence of pain. Results of logistic regression models suggest that sex, race, education, military variables, body mass index (BMI), traumatic brain injury (TBI), and mental health conditions, but not age, reliably discriminate the two groups. Those with persistent pain were more likely to be Black, female, on active duty, enlisted, Army service members, have a high school education or less, and have diagnoses of mood disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use disorders, anxiety disorders, TBI, and have a BMI consistent with overweight and obesity. The operational definition of chronic pain used in this study may have research implications for examining predictors of incident and chronic pain. These data have important clinical implications in that addressing comorbid conditions of persistent pain may improve adaptive coping and functioning in these patients. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Sustainable energy equals freedoms and choice: bioenergy and biofuels als energy solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ejigu, M. [Partnership for African Environmental Sustainability (PAES)]|[Foundation for Environmental Security and Sustainability (FESS)


    We are gathered here to explore the potential of modern bioenergy and discuss ways and means of promoting its wider production and investment. Our primary goal is the attainment of human development - development that is sustainable and balances economic growth, social equity and environmental protection. Well, Amartya Sen, the Nobel Laureate in Economics, defines development as ''the process of expanding real freedoms people can enjoy.'' Where development has taken place, people have more freedoms. People living in well developed countries enjoy freedoms at the individual and community levels. They can move from place to place, own property, receive education and health services, work at night if they choose to, etc. without any fear or threat. Energy is critical to the survival of human society. It is a means to achieve development, hence freedoms. Higher level of electrification, for example, has always been a vital indicator of industrial development. (orig.)

  5. Six degree-of-freedom knee joint kinematics in obese individuals with knee pain during gait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Sheng Li

    Full Text Available Knee joint pain is a common symptom in obese individuals and walking is often prescribed as part of management programs. Past studies in obese individuals have focused on standing alignment and kinematics in the sagittal and coronal planes. Investigation of 6 degree-of-freedom (6DOF knee joint kinematics during standing and gait is important to thoroughly understand knee function in obese individuals with knee pain. This study aimed to investigate the 6DOF knee joint kinematics in standing and during gait in obese patients using a validated fluoroscopic imaging system. Ten individuals with obesity and knee pain were recruited. While standing, the knee was in 7.4±6.3°of hyperextension, 2.8±3.3° of abduction and 5.6±7.3° of external rotation. The femoral center was located 0.7±3.1mm anterior and 5.1±1.5mm medial to the tibial center. During treadmill gait, the sagittal plane motion, i.e., flexion/extension and anterior-posterior translation, showed a clear pattern. Specifically, obese individuals with knee pain maintained the knee in more flexion and more anterior tibial translation during most of the stance phase of the gait cycle and had a reduced total range of knee flexion when compared to a healthy non-obese group. In conclusion, obese individuals with knee pain used hyperextension knee posture while standing, but maintained the knee in more flexion during gait with reduced overall range of motion in the 6DOF analysis.

  6. Pain and combat injuries in soldiers returning from Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: implications for research and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clark, Michael E; Bair, Matthew J; Buckenmaier, 3rd, Chester C; Gironda, Ronald J; Walker, Robyn L


    .... We also identify some of the pain assessment, classification, and treatment challenges emerging from work with this population and provide recommendations for future research and practice priorities.

  7. Genitourinary Injuries Sustained by Female U.S. Service Members During Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (United States)


    Defense Trauma Registry (DODTR) was reviewed to identify all US SMs diagnosed with GU injury from 2001 to 2013. The DODTR includes data for wounded ...and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) a large number of female SMs have been wounded while serving in combat support roles. This included an...SMs treated at any US combat support hospital, the in-theater equivalent of a civilian trauma center. Female SMs with ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes and/or

  8. Sympathetic Blocks Provided Sustained Pain Relief in a Patient with Refractory Painful Diabetic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Cheng


    Full Text Available The sympathetic nervous system has been implicated in pain associated with painful diabetic neuropathy. However, therapeutic intervention targeted at the sympathetic nervous system has not been established. We thus tested the hypothesis that sympathetic nerve blocks significantly reduce pain in a patient with painful diabetic neuropathy who has failed multiple pharmacological treatments. The diagnosis of small fiber sensory neuropathy was based on clinical presentations and confirmed by skin biopsies. A series of 9 lumbar sympathetic blocks over a 26-month period provided sustained pain relief in his legs. Additional thoracic paravertebral blocks further provided control of the pain in the trunk which can occasionally be seen in severe diabetic neuropathy cases, consequent to extensive involvement of the intercostal nerves. These blocks provided sustained and significant pain relief and improvement of quality of life over a period of more than two years. We thus provided the first clinical evidence supporting the notion that sympathetic nervous system plays a critical role in painful diabetic neuropathy and sympathetic blocks can be an effective management modality of painful diabetic neuropathy. We concluded that the sympathetic nervous system is a valuable therapeutic target of pharmacological and interventional modalities of treatments in painful diabetic neuropathy patients.

  9. Acquisition and extinction of operant pain-related avoidance behavior using a 3 degrees-of-freedom robotic arm. (United States)

    Meulders, Ann; Franssen, Mathijs; Fonteyne, Riet; Vlaeyen, Johan W S


    Ample empirical evidence endorses the role of associative learning in pain-related fear acquisition. Nevertheless, research typically focused on self-reported and psychophysiological measures of fear. Avoidance, which is overt behavior preventing the occurrence of an aversive (painful) stimulus, has been largely neglected so far. Therefore, we aimed to fill this gap and developed an operant conditioning procedure for pain-related avoidance behavior. Participants moved their arm to a target location using the HapticMaster (FCS Robotics; Moog Inc, East Aurora, New York), a 3 degrees-of-freedom, force-controlled robotic arm. Three movement trajectories led to the target location. If participants in the Experimental Group took the shortest/easiest trajectory, they always received a painful stimulus (T1 = 100% reinforcement; no resistance). If they deviated from this trajectory, the painful stimulus could be partly or totally prevented (T2 = 50% reinforcement; T3 = 0% reinforcement), but more effort was needed (T2 = moderate resistance and deviation; T3 = strongest resistance and largest deviation). The Yoked Group received the same reinforcement schedule irrespective of their own behavior. During the subsequent extinction phase, no painful stimuli were delivered. Self-reported pain-expectancy and pain-related fear were assessed, and avoidance behavior was operationalized as the maximal distance from the shortest trajectory. During acquisition, the Experimental Group reported more pain-related fear and pain-expectancy to T1 vs T2 vs T3 and deviated more from the shortest trajectory than the Yoked Group. During subsequent extinction, avoidance behavior, self-reported fear, and pain-expectancy decreased significantly, but conditioned differences persisted despite the absence of painful stimuli. To conclude, this operant learning task might provide a valid paradigm to study pain-related avoidance behavior in future studies.

  10. Does Sustainability Require Transparency? The UN Divide Over Freedom of Information & Media in the Post-2015 Development Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Orme


    Full Text Available In 2015 the United Nations General Assembly will adopt a new set of global development objectives to succeed the Millennium Development Goals, which expire at the end of the year. A General Assembly working group has proposed 17 “Sustainable Development Goals” with 169 associated “targets,” including one committing all UN member states to “ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements.” The UN Secretary-General and his many prominent “post-2015” advisors also advocate guarantees for freedom of information in the new global goals. The inclusion of a clear commitment to access to information in the SDGs – including factual “indicators” to monitor compliance – could have a profound impact on freedom of expression and media globally, advocates contend. Yet it remains uncertain whether any provision on access to information will survive the remaining months of negotiations before the final set of SDGs is agreed at the UN’s Sustainable Development Summit in September 2015. Some developing countries oppose an access to information target, along with other proposed commitments to human rights and democratic governance in the SDGs. But others are strongly supportive, and UN debates on the new goals are likely to continue until the September deadline.

  11. Sustainability of Evidence-Based Acute Pain Management Practices for Hospitalized Older Adults. (United States)

    Shuman, Clayton J; Xie, Xian-Jin; Herr, Keela A; Titler, Marita G


    Little is known regarding sustainability of evidence-based practices (EBPs) following implementation. This article reports sustainability of evidence-based acute pain management practices in hospitalized older adults following testing of a multifaceted Translating Research Into Practice (TRIP) implementation intervention. A cluster randomized trial with follow-up period was conducted in 12 Midwest U.S. hospitals (six experimental, six comparison). Use of evidence-based acute pain management practices and mean pain intensity were analyzed using generalized estimating equations across two time points (following implementation and 18 months later) to determine sustainability of TRIP intervention effects. Summative Index scores and six of seven practices were sustained. Experimental and comparison group differences for mean pain intensity over 72 hours following admission were sustained. Results revealed most evidence-based acute pain management practices were sustained for 18 months following implementation. Further work is needed to identify factors affecting sustainability of EBPs to guide development and testing of sustainability strategies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucretia Mariana Constantinescu


    Full Text Available The declared aim of this paper is to be an attempt to analyze the opinions regarding the corporate sustainability and responsibility that’s providing to formulate a combination of diagnosis and prognosis, assessing the past and present conditions of corporate responsibility and the way ahead by the investors of the Romanian economy during the last economic recession crisis years.

  13. Economic Freedom and Cultural Flourishing: A Praxeological Account on Value, Capital, Sustainability, and Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian-Dragomir Jora


    Full Text Available A theory of cultural “value, capital, and sustainability” (as core economic concepts is just a subset of the general economic theory. The “cultural” epithet cannot generate independent epistemic effects, even though the mainstream economics of culture assumes the “cultural value”, “cultural capital”, “cultural sustainability” as special realities, requiring special treatment. But if the cultural aspect can underline something “special”, then, starting from some common definitions of culture, pointing to “a set of shared values, preferences, beliefs”, we are dealing with subjective preferences demonstrable in action, with voluntary inter-personal relations, and with clearly defined property rights, since cultural mark is imprinted on various material supports as scarce resources. This paper takes an Austrian School praxeological route in cultural economics. The peculiarity of the proposed research line lies in demonstrating how such praxeological analysis may explain the fecundity of the cultural realm, as an expression of exercising the human freedom in society, by voluntarily sharing its seeds and fruits. Thus, the praxeological test of culture-making-of is meant to reveal institutional situations that do not meet the genuine cultural value exigency, nor the idea of cultural reproducibility, nor the idea of cultural survival, since they rely not on free and fair human (interaction, but on violent and wasteful redistributions and privileges (aka support and protection.

  14. Descending pain modulation and its interaction with peripheral sensitization following sustained isometric muscle contraction in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, H-Y; Nie, Hongling; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas


    OBJECTIVE: Sustained isometric muscle contraction (fatiguing contraction) recruits segmental and/or extrasegmental descending inhibition in healthy subjects but not in fibromyalgia (FM). We hypothesized that fatiguing contraction may shift descending pain modulation from inhibition towards...

  15. McKenzie treatment versus mulligan sustained natural apophyseal glides for chronic mechanical low back pain


    Waqqar, Saira; Shakil-ur-Rehman, Syed; Ahmad, Shakeel


    Background and Objective: Chronic mechanical low back pain is common among different age groups and genders. Different manual therapy techniques combined with exercise therapy and electrotherapy modalities play an important role in its management. Our objective was to compare the effects of McKenzie extension exercisesprogram (EEP) versus Mulligan Sustained Natural Apophyseal Glides (SNAGs) for chronic mechanical low back pain (CMLBP). Methods: This randomized control trial (RCT) was conducte...

  16. Experimental muscle pain changes the spatial distribution of upper trapezius muscle activity during sustained contraction. (United States)

    Madeleine, Pascal; Leclerc, Fredéric; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Ravier, Philippe; Farina, Dario


    To investigate the effect of local excitation of nociceptive muscle afferents on the spatial distribution of muscle activity. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from the upper trapezius muscle of 10 healthy volunteers with a 5 x 13 electrode grid during 90-s isometric contractions before, during, 15 and 30 min after intramuscular injection of hypertonic (painful) or isotonic (non-painful) saline. From the multi-channel EMG recordings, two-dimensional maps of root mean square and mean power frequency were obtained. The centre of gravity of the root mean square map was used to quantify global changes in the spatial distribution of muscle activity. During sustained contractions, average root mean square increased, average mean frequency decreased and the centre of gravity moved cranially. During experimental muscle pain, compared to before injection, the average root mean square decreased and there was a caudal shift of the centre of gravity. Fifteen minutes after the painful injection the centre of gravity returned to its original position. Short-term dynamic reorganization of the spatial distribution of muscle activity occurred in response to nociceptive afferent input. The study furnishes an extension of the pain adaptation model indicating heterogeneous inhibition of muscle activity.

  17. Managing cancer pain and symptoms of outpatients by rotation to sustained-release hydromorphone: a prospective clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirz, Stefan; Wartenberg, Hans Christian; Elsen, Christian; Wittmann, Maria; Diederichs, Marta; Nadstawek, Joachim


    PURPOSE: In this prospective clinical trial we examined the technique of opioid rotation to oral sustained-release hydromorphone for controlling pain and symptoms in outpatients with cancer pain. METHODS: Before and after rotation, 50 patients were assessed by Numerical Analog Scales [Numerical

  18. Property & Freedom

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Property & Freedom. Pipes, Richard 1999. The Harvill Press, London. 328 pp. Reviewed by Kole Omotoso. The freedom that property confers on the owner has always been recognised in all cultures. The words of a propertied person ... effective way of setting limits to state authority.” Professor Pipes believes that the early ...

  19. freedom stationery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Freedom Stationery (Pty) Ltd v The Member of the Executive Council for Education, Eastern. Cape 2011 JOL 26927 (E) (the Freedom .... the children's right to education against the applicants' right to just administrative action; and the need to protect those ..... to be protected against crime. The Court acknowledged that the ...

  20. Surgical suture assembled with polymeric drug-delivery sheet for sustained, local pain relief. (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Park, Subin; Park, Min; Kim, Myung Hun; Park, Chun Gwon; Lee, Seung Ho; Choi, Sung Yoon; Kim, Byung Hwi; Park, Hyo Jin; Park, Ji-Ho; Heo, Chan Yeong; Choy, Young Bin


    Surgical suture is a strand of biocompatible material designed for wound closure, and therefore can be a medical device potentially suitable for local drug delivery to treat pain at the surgical site. However, the preparation methods previously introduced for drug-delivery sutures adversely influenced the mechanical strength of the suture itself - strength that is essential for successful wound closure. Thus, it is not easy to control drug delivery with sutures, and the drug-delivery surgical sutures available for clinical use are now limited to anti-infection roles. Here, we demonstrate a surgical suture enabled to provide controlled delivery of a pain-relief drug and, more importantly, we demonstrate how it can be fabricated to maintain the mechanical strength of the suture itself. For this purpose, we separately prepare a drug-delivery sheet composed of a biocompatible polymer and a pain-relief drug, which is then physically assembled with a type of surgical suture that is already in clinical use. In this way, the drug release profiles can be tailored for the period of therapeutic need by modifying only the drug-loaded polymer sheet without adversely influencing the mechanical strength of the suture. The drug-delivery sutures in this work can effectively relieve the pain at the surgical site in a sustained manner during the period of wound healing, while showing biocompatibility and mechanical properties comparable to those of the original surgical suture in clinical use. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of low-dose IV ketamine on peripheral and central pain from major limb injuries sustained in combat. (United States)

    Polomano, Rosemary C; Buckenmaier, Chester C; Kwon, Kyung H; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Rupprecht, Christine; Goldberg, Cynthia; Gallagher, Rollin M


    Examine response patterns to low-dose intravenous (IV) ketamine continuous infusions on multiple pain outcomes, and demonstrate effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of ketamine administration on general wards. Retrospective case series of consecutive patients given low-dose IV ketamine continuous infusions. Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC. Nineteen eligible inpatients with neuropathic pain from major limb injuries sustained in combat with inadequate pain control from multimodal analgesia. A 3-day IV infusion of ketamine at doses ≤ 120 μg/kg/h. Daily present (PPI), average (API), and worst (WPI) pain intensity (0-10), global pain relief (GPR) (1 "no relief" to 5 "complete relief"), daily assessments of adverse events, and daily opioid requirements measured during therapy. A significant reduction in PPI (P injury pain were safe and effective, and demonstrated response patterns over time and by baseline pain score stratification and presence or absence of PLP. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Freedom Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Suarez


    Full Text Available Freedom Project trains prisoners in nonviolent communication and meditation. Two complementary studies of its effects are reported in this article. The first study is correlational; we found decreased recidivism rates among prisoners trained by Freedom Project compared with recidivism rates in Washington state. The second study compared trained prisoners with a matched-pair control group and found improvement in self-reported anger, self-compassion, and certain forms of mindfulness among the trained group. Ratings of role-plays simulating difficult interactions show increased social skills among the group trained by Freedom Project than in the matched controls.

  3. Embodied freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.G. Geertsema


    Full Text Available In this article I explore the relationship between freedom and embodiment. Firstly I argue that freedom is an essential part of our being human, whatever science might say, and should be understood as the possibility to be ourselves. I propose an understanding that starts from the perspective of the second person. In the second part I analyse the writing of a scientific article as a case study of the experience of freedom in a concrete practice. I show how normative elements are a necessary part of such a practice. In the third part I argue that the “free agent” is in fact the concrete person who acts and thinks. I also discuss the place of causation. In the final part I elaborate on the view of the person, as understood from a second person perspective, and on the meaning of freedom, taking my starting point in the biblical understanding.

  4. Complex Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Pecnjak


    Full Text Available We have a very strong intuition and a very strong feeling that we, as human beings, generally have freedom of the will and freedom of the action. It seems that in most situations we can do this or that; namely, we can do action A or we can refrain from doing action A under the same conditions. The view which argues that this is not an illusion and that we have genuine freedom is the libertarian view. I would like to examine could that view be plausible under scientific understanding of the world. It seems that physical sciences strongly support determinism. Chaos theory and indeterminism in quantum mechanics could not save freedom because chaos is a deterministic theory and indeterminate events in quantum mechanics happen by pure chance. Pure chance is not something we want as freedom. But, perhaps, we can have freedom reconciled (although maybe in a restricted form if actions or decisions can be described by equations which allow more than one solution and if these solutions can be interpreted as refering to different contents of the will or to different actions.

  5. Increasing the Frequency and Timeliness of Pain Assessment and Management in Long-Term Care: Knowledge Transfer and Sustained Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hadjistavropoulos


    Full Text Available Background. Although feasible protocols for pain assessment and management in long-term care (LTC have been developed, these have not been implemented on a large-scale basis. Objective. To implement a program of regular pain assessment in two LTC facilities, using implementation science principles, and to evaluate the process and success of doing so. Methods. The implementation protocol included a pain assessment workshop and the establishment of a nurse Pain Champion. Quality indicators were tracked before and after implementation. Focus groups and interviews with staff were also conducted. Results. The implementation effort was successful in increasing and regularizing pain assessments. This was sustained during the follow-up period. Staff members reported enthusiasm about the protocol at baseline and positive results following its implementation. Despite the success in increasing assessments, we did not identify changes in the percentages of patients reported as having moderate-to-severe pain. Discussion. It is our hope that our feasibility demonstration will encourage more facilities to improve their pain assessment/management practices. Conclusions. It is feasible to implement regular and systematic pain assessment in LTC. Future research should focus on ensuring effective clinical practices in response to assessment results, and determination of longer-term sustainability.

  6. McKenzie treatment versus mulligan sustained natural apophyseal glides for chronic mechanical low back pain (United States)

    Waqqar, Saira; Shakil-ur-Rehman, Syed; Ahmad, Shakeel


    Background and Objective: Chronic mechanical low back pain is common among different age groups and genders. Different manual therapy techniques combined with exercise therapy and electrotherapy modalities play an important role in its management. Our objective was to compare the effects of McKenzie extension exercisesprogram (EEP) versus Mulligan Sustained Natural Apophyseal Glides (SNAGs) for chronic mechanical low back pain (CMLBP). Methods: This randomized control trial (RCT) was conducted at Riphah Physical Rehabilitation Centre, Pakistan Railways General Hospital Rawalpindi, from 1st July to 31st December 2014. The inclusion criteria was patients of both gender and age range 30-70 years with minimum 4 weeks history of CMLBP. A total of 37 patients were screened out as per inclusion criteria and randomly placed into two groups. Twenty patients in group A were treated with Mulligan SNAGs and 17 patients in group B with McKenzie EEP for four weeks at two session per week and single session per day. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Scale (ODI) and lumber Range of Motion (ROM) were used as an assessment tools and were measured at baseline and at the completion 4 weeks intervention. The data was analyzed with SPSS to draw the statistical and clinical significance of both interventions. Results: At the completion of 4 weeks intervention the pre and post statistical analysis revealed that clinically the McKenzie EEP improved pain (mean 9.12 to 1.46) and disability (73.82 to 6.24) slightly more than Mulligan SNAGs (pain: from 8.85 to 2.55, disability 73.75 to 7.05), while the Mulligan SNAGs improved lumbar ROM more effectively than McKenzie EEP in all directions including flexion, extension, side bending and rotation. Statistically there was no significant difference between the effects of two interventions in managing pain and disability, and improving Lumber ROM. Conclusion: McKenzie EEP is clinically slightly more effective in the management of pain

  7. McKenzie treatment versus mulligan sustained natural apophyseal glides for chronic mechanical low back pain. (United States)

    Waqqar, Saira; Shakil-Ur-Rehman, Syed; Ahmad, Shakeel


    Chronic mechanical low back pain is common among different age groups and genders. Different manual therapy techniques combined with exercise therapy and electrotherapy modalities play an important role in its management. Our objective was to compare the effects of McKenzie extension exercisesprogram (EEP) versus Mulligan Sustained Natural Apophyseal Glides (SNAGs) for chronic mechanical low back pain (CMLBP). This randomized control trial (RCT) was conducted at Riphah Physical Rehabilitation Centre, Pakistan Railways General Hospital Rawalpindi, from 1(st) July to 31(st) December 2014. The inclusion criteria was patients of both gender and age range 30-70 years with minimum 4 weeks history of CMLBP. A total of 37 patients were screened out as per inclusion criteria and randomly placed into two groups. Twenty patients in group A were treated with Mulligan SNAGs and 17 patients in group B with McKenzie EEP for four weeks at two session per week and single session per day. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Scale (ODI) and lumber Range of Motion (ROM) were used as an assessment tools and were measured at baseline and at the completion 4 weeks intervention. The data was analyzed with SPSS to draw the statistical and clinical significance of both interventions. At the completion of 4 weeks intervention the pre and post statistical analysis revealed that clinically the McKenzie EEP improved pain (mean 9.12 to 1.46) and disability (73.82 to 6.24) slightly more than Mulligan SNAGs (pain: from 8.85 to 2.55, disability 73.75 to 7.05), while the Mulligan SNAGs improved lumbar ROM more effectively than McKenzie EEP in all directions including flexion, extension, side bending and rotation. Statistically there was no significant difference between the effects of two interventions in managing pain and disability, and improving Lumber ROM. McKenzie EEP is clinically slightly more effective in the management of pain and disability as compared with Mulligan SNAGs

  8. Fixed-dose Sumatriptan/Naproxen Sodium Compared with each Monotherapy Utilizing the Novel Composite Endpoint of Sustained Pain-free/no Adverse Events. (United States)

    Landy, Stephen; White, Jonathan; Lener, Shelly E; McDonald, Susan A


    A novel composite endpoint, sustained pain-free/no adverse events, was recently proposed as a more rigorous means of capturing in a single measure the attributes of migraine pharmacotherapy that patients consider most important: rapid and sustained pain-free response with no side-effects. Using pooled data from two replicate randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled studies, this post hoc analysis compared the fixed-dose combination tablet sumatriptan/naproxen sodium (n = 726) with sumatriptan monotherapy (n = 723), naproxen sodium monotherapy (n = 720), and placebo (n = 742) with respect to sustained pain-free/no adverse events and closely related composite measures. Sustained pain-free/no adverse events was defined as having both a sustained pain-free response from 2 through 24 hours post-dose with no use of rescue medication and having no adverse events within up to 5 days after dosing with study medication. The percentage of patients with sustained pain-free/no adverse events was 16% with sumatriptan/naproxen sodium compared with 11%, 9% and 7% for sumatriptan, naproxen sodium and placebo, respectively (ppain-free/no adverse events within 1 day; (2) sustained pain-free/no drug-related adverse events within up to 5 days; (3) sustained pain-free/no drug-related adverse events within 1 day; (4) sustained pain relief/no adverse events within up to 5 days; and (5) sustained pain relief/no adverse events within 1 day. The results demonstrate the superiority of sumatriptan/naproxen sodium to sumatriptan monotherapy, naproxen sodium monotherapy and placebo with respect to the rigorous and clinically relevant endpoint of sustained pain-free/no adverse events and reinforce the usefulness of utilizing this new composite endpoint.

  9. Academic Freedom. (United States)

    Tobin, Brian G.

    The strength of academic freedom has always depended upon historical circumstances. In the United States, higher education began with institutions founded and controlled by religious sects. The notion of who gets educated and to what ends expanded as American democracy expanded. By the 1980's, legitimate calls for equality became a general…

  10. Intellectual Freedom (United States)

    Knox, Emily


    Support for intellectual freedom, a concept codified in the American Library Association's Library Bill of Rights and Code of Ethics, is one of the core tenets of modern librarianship. According to the most recent interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights, academic librarians are encouraged to incorporate the principles of intellectual freedom…

  11. Semiotic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio


    The emergence of organic, metabolic, cognitive and cultural codes points us to the need for a new kind of explanatory causality, and a different kind of bio-logic - one dependent on, but different from, the deterministic logic derived from mechanical causality, and one which can account for the i......The emergence of organic, metabolic, cognitive and cultural codes points us to the need for a new kind of explanatory causality, and a different kind of bio-logic - one dependent on, but different from, the deterministic logic derived from mechanical causality, and one which can account......-down approach i.e., by starting from the highest levels of semiotic freedom and cognitive processes, and exploring how those processes disaggregate into lesser degrees of freedom. I thus hope to bridge the gap between those levels from above....

  12. Long term effects of oral sustained release morphine on neuropsychological performance in patients with chronic non-cancer pain. (United States)

    Tassain, V; Attal, N; Fletcher, D; Brasseur, L; Dégieux, P; Chauvin, M; Bouhassira, D


    Morphine is increasingly used in patients with chronic non-cancer pain, but a major concern associated with chronic use relates to possible cognitive side-effects. The aim of this long-term prospective study was to evaluate the cognitive impact of oral sustained release morphine in patients with non-cancer pain. A battery of neuropsychological tests to explore attention, psychomotor speed and memory was administered. The effects of morphine on pain, quality of life, mood, subjective memory impairment and side-effects were also investigated. Evaluations were performed at baseline in patients free from opioids and then after 3, 6 and 12 months. Twenty-eight patients were included: 18 received oral sustained morphine (range 40-140 mg/day), ten patients stopped morphine prematurely because of side-effects or insufficient pain relief and were followed as a control group. There was no impairment of any neuropsychological variable over time in the morphine treated patients in comparison with the control group. Two measures of information processing speed - the Stroop interference score and the digit symbol test were improved at 6 and 12 months and there were significant correlations with the pain relief and improvement of mood. Self-reported memory impairment improved notably in responders to morphine. Morphine induced persisting effects on pain, and to a lesser extent on quality of life and mood. The visual analog scale score for side-effects increased at 12 months and essentially consisted of gastrointestinal disorders. This study demonstrates that 12 months treatment with oral morphine does not disrupt cognitive functioning in patients with chronic non-cancer pain and instead results in moderate improvement of some aspects of cognitive functioning, as a consequence of the pain relief and concomitant improvement of well-being and mood.

  13. Pain (United States)

    ... Grant Funding for Pain Initiatives Current Funding Opportunities Research on the Impact of Creative Arts in Military Populations More Health Professional Information Earn CME More Related Topics Chronic Pain ( NINDS ) NIH Pain Seminar Series Pain: You Can Get Help ( NIA ) NIH ...

  14. Osteopathic manipulative treatment results in sustained relief from spinal pain in older patients: A pilot crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pannunzio A


    Full Text Available Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment is commonly used to complement conventional treatment of back pain. The present study verified whether OMT, associated with training program, reduces spinal pain in older. A pilot randomized, double-blind crossover study was conducted at Sport Association of Milan, Italy. We recruited 19 subjects above 60 years old, with presence of SP for more than 3 weeks and with intensity score higher than 3 (NRS score. All patients underwent a multi-component group exercise program for older adults and were randomized in two groups: in the study group (SG OMT was added, while the control group (CG continued with the exercise only. After 6 weeks a crossover was applied to the 2 groups and OMT was added to CG, while SG continued with the exercise only. Self-reported measures: the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS was used at each time to evaluate treatment outcomes. At pre-crossover, SG had a significant improvement in pain perception (p<0.05, while CG had a not significate improvement in pain perception (p=0.33.At post-crossover, the SG remains relatively stable (p=0.37, while CG after OMT addition have a significant benefit on pain perception (p=0.001. At follow-up, pain improvement is sustained (p=0.32. OMT associated to exercise reduce spinal pain in older patients. Our study suggests that OMT associated to exercise leads to significant improvement on pain relief in patients with chronic SP in a short term and the exercise allows to maintain these improvements for several months

  15. Whole-body Vibration at Thoracic Resonance Induces Sustained Pain and Widespread Cervical Neuroinflammation in the Rat. (United States)

    Zeeman, Martha E; Kartha, Sonia; Jaumard, Nicolas V; Baig, Hassam A; Stablow, Alec M; Lee, Jasmine; Guarino, Benjamin B; Winkelstein, Beth A


    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is associated with back and neck pain in military personnel and civilians. However, the role of vibration frequency and the physiological mechanisms involved in pain symptoms are unknown. This study asked the following questions: (1) What is the resonance frequency of the rat spine for WBV along the spinal axis, and how does frequency of WBV alter the extent of spinal compression/extension? (2) Does a single WBV exposure at resonance induce pain that is sustained? (3) Does WBV at resonance alter the protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) response in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG)? (4) Does WBV at resonance alter expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the spinal dorsal horn? (5) Does WBV at resonance alter the spinal neuroimmune responses that regulate pain? Resonance of the rat (410 ± 34 g, n = 9) was measured by imposing WBV at frequencies from 3 to 15 Hz. Separate groups (317 ± 20 g, n = 10/treatment) underwent WBV at resonance (8 Hz) or at a nonresonant frequency (15 Hz). Behavioral sensitivity was assessed throughout to measure pain, and PKCε in the DRG was quantified as well as spinal CGRP, glial activation, and cytokine levels at Day 14. Accelerometer-based thoracic transmissibility peaks at 8 Hz (1.86 ± 0.19) and 9 Hz (1.95 ± 0.19, mean difference [MD] 0.290 ± 0.266, p resonant frequency (8 Hz) compared with 15 Hz WBV. PKCε in the nociceptors of the DRG increases according to the severity of WBV with greatest increases after 8 Hz WBV (p resonance. WBV at resonance produces long-lasting pain and widespread activation of a host of nociceptive and neuroimmune responses as compared with WBV at a nonresonance condition. Based on this work, future investigations into the temporal and regional neuroimmune response to resonant WBV in both genders would be useful. Although WBV is a major issue affecting the military population, there is little insight about its mechanisms of injury and pain. The neuroimmune responses

  16. Postoperative Analgesia Due to Sustained-Release Buprenorphine, Sustained-Release Meloxicam, and Carprofen Gel in a Model of Incisional Pain in Rats (Rattus norvegicus). (United States)

    Seymour, Travis L; Adams, Sean C; Felt, Stephen A; Jampachaisri, Katechan; Yeomans, David C; Pacharinsak, Cholawat


    Postoperative analgesia in laboratory rats is complicated by the frequent handling associated with common analgesic dosing requirements. Here, we evaluated sustained-release buprenorphine (Bup-SR), sustained-release meloxicam (Melox-SR), and carprofen gel (CG) as refinements for postoperative analgesia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether postoperative administration of Bup-SR, Melox-SR, or CG effectively controls behavioral mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in a rat model of incisional pain. Rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups: saline, 1 mL/kg SC BID; buprenorphine HCl (Bup HCl), 0.05 mg/kg SC BID; Bup-SR, 1.2 mg/kg SC once; Melox-SR, 4 mg/kg SC once; and CG, 2 oz PO daily. Mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity were tested daily from day-1 through 4. Bup HCl and Bup-SR attenuated mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity on days 1 through 4. Melox-SR and CG attenuated mechanical hypersensitivity-but not thermal hypersensitivity-on days 1 through 4. Plasma concentrations, measured by using UPLC with mass spectrometry, were consistent between both buprenorphine formulations. Gross pathologic examination revealed no signs of toxicity in any group. These findings suggest that postoperative administration of Bup HCl and Bup-SR-but not Melox-SR or CG-effectively attenuates mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in a rat model of incisional pain.

  17. Slow-5 dynamic functional connectivity reflects the capacity to sustain cognitive performance during pain. (United States)

    Cheng, J C; Bosma, R L; Hemington, K S; Kucyi, A; Lindquist, M A; Davis, K D


    Some individuals are more distracted by pain during a cognitive task than others, representing poor pain coping. We have characterized individuals as A-type (attention dominates) or P-type (pain dominates) based on how pain interferes with task speed. The ability to optimize behavior during pain may relate to the flexibility in communication at rest between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of the executive control network, and the anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC) of the salience network (SN) - regions involved in cognitive-interference. The aMCC and aIns (SN hub) also signify pain salience; flexible communication at rest between them possibly allowing prioritizing task performance during pain. We tested the hypotheses that pain-induced changes in task performance are related to resting-state dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) between these region pairs (DLPFC-aMCC; aMCC-aIns). We found that 1) pain reduces task consistency/speed in P-type individuals, but enhances performance in A-type individuals, 2) task consistency is related to the FC dynamics within DLPFC-aMCC and aMCC-aIns pairs, 3) brain-behavior relationships are driven by dFC within the slow-5 (0.01-0.027Hz) frequency band, and 4) dFC across the brain decreases at higher frequencies. Our findings point to neural communication dynamics at rest as being associated with prioritizing task performance over pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Immediate and Sustained Effects of 5-Day Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Motor Cortex in Phantom Limb Pain. (United States)

    Bolognini, Nadia; Spandri, Viviana; Ferraro, Francesco; Salmaggi, Andrea; Molinari, Alessandro C L; Fregni, Felipe; Maravita, Angelo


    The study explored the analgesic effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the motor cortex on postamputation phantom limb pain (PLP). Eight subjects with unilateral lower or upper limb amputation and chronic PLP were enrolled in a crossover, double-blind, sham-controlled treatment program. For 5 consecutive days, anodal (active or sham) tDCS was applied over the motor cortex for 15 minutes at an intensity of 1.5 mA. The 5-day treatment with active, but not sham, tDCS induced a sustained decrease in background PLP and in the frequency of PLP paroxysms, which lasted for 1 week after the end of treatment. Moreover, on each day of active tDCS, patients reported an immediate PLP relief, along with an increased ability to move their phantom limb. Patients' immediate responses to sham tDCS, on the contrary, were variable, marked by an increase or decrease of PLP levels from baseline. These results show that a 5-day treatment of motor cortex stimulation with tDCS can induce stable relief from PLP in amputees. Neuromodulation targeting the motor cortex appears to be a promising option for the management of this debilitating neuropathic pain condition, which is often refractory to classic pharmacologic and surgical treatments. The study describes sustained and immediate effects of motor cortex stimulation by tDCS on postamputation PLP, whose analgesic action seems linked to the motor reactivation of the phantom limb. These results are helpful for the exploitation of tDCS as a therapeutic tool for the management of neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of muscle pain induced by glutamate injections during sustained clenching on the contraction pattern of masticatory muscles. (United States)

    Michelotti, Ambrosina; Cioffi, Iacopo; Rongo, Roberto; Borrelli, Roberta; Chiodini, Paolo; Svensson, Peter


    To evaluate the contraction pattern of masticatory muscles during sustained clenching tasks with or without experimental pain induced by glutamate injection into the masseter muscle. It was hypothesized that acute muscle pain could induce compensatory changes in the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the masticatory muscles. Fifteen volunteers (seven males, mean age ± SD = 29.7 ± 1.1 years; eight females, mean age ± SD = 23.5 ± 1.2 years) were recruited in a crossover experimental study. All subjects participated in two randomized 20-minute experimental sessions. Each subject was asked to clench at 25% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). After 10 minutes, isotonic saline or glutamate was injected in random order into the right masseter. EMG activity (root mean square [RMS] and mean power frequency [MPF]) was assessed in the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles on both sides. Pain and fatigue were assessed by 0-10 numeric rating scales (NRS) every minute. Differences between conditions (isotonic saline vs glutamate) for all the outcome parameters were analyzed by using a mixed effect model. The EMG activity of the masticatory muscles and pain and fatigue scores were not dependent on isotonic saline/glutamate injection (all P > .05). The RMS in the temporalis and masseter muscles increased with time (right masseter P = 0.001, left masseter P = .004, right temporalis P = .22, left temporalis P = .006), whereas the MPF decreased (right masseter P = .0001, left masseter P muscles during a sustained clenching task. This finding strongly suggests the adaptive capacity of the stomatognathic system in the presence of acute nociceptive inputs.

  20. Preoperative dexamethasone reduces acute but not sustained pain after lumbar disk surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke V; Siegel, Hanna; Fomsgaard, Jonna S


    with morphine. Primary outcome was pain during mobilization (visual analog scale) 2 to 24 hours postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were acute pain at rest, morphine consumption, nausea, vomiting, ondansetron consumption, sedation, and quality of sleep. Patients were followed up by written questionnaire 3...... months postoperatively. Acute pain during mobilization (weighted average area under the curve, 2-24 hours) was significantly reduced in the dexamethasone group: 33 (22) mm vs placebo 43 (18) mm, (95% confidence interval [CI] 3-16) P = 0.005. Vomiting 0 to 24 hours postoperatively was reduced...

  1. Education, Learning and Freedom (United States)

    Hinchliffe, Geoffrey


    This paper takes as its starting point Kant's analysis of freedom in the Critique of Pure Reason. From this analysis, two different types of freedom are discerned, formative and instrumental freedom. The paper suggests that much of what passes for the pedagogy of learning in UK universities takes the form of an instrumental freedom. This, however,…

  2. The Meaning of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Hoyos


    Full Text Available In the article it is pretended to prepare the conceptual field for the correct use of the attribution of freedom. It is defended the importance to consider the complementarity of freedom of action and freedom of the will and it is argued for a non-metaphysical conception of adscription of freedom. The adequate use of the attribution of freedom is social and normative. This means additionally that the freedom is not a presupposition of the moral responsibility and the authorship, but on the contrary the moral responsibility and the authorship are presuppositions of the attribution of freedom.

  3. Contextual freedom: absoluteness versus relativity of freedom. (United States)

    Pahlavan, Farzaneh; Amirrezvani, Ali


    Our commentary is focused on the idea that "freedom" takes on its full significance whenever its relativistic nature, in the short- and long terms, is taken into account. Given the transformations brought about by "globalization," application of a general model of freedom based on ecological-economic factors clearly seems to be rather untimely. We examine this idea through egocentric and ethnocentric views of the social and environmental analyses of "freedom."

  4. Lidocaine/ketorolac-loaded biodegradable nanofibrous anti-adhesive membranes that offer sustained pain relief for surgical wounds. (United States)

    Kao, Ching-Wei; Lee, Demei; Wu, Min-Hsuan; Chen, Jan-Kan; He, Hong-Lin; Liu, Shih-Jung


    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of biodegradable nanofibrous lidocaine/ketorolac-loaded anti-adhesion membranes to sustainably release analgesics on abdominal surgical wounds. The analgesic-eluting membranes with two polymer-to-drug ratios (6:1 and 4:1) were produced via an electrospinning technique. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay was employed to characterize the in vivo and in vitro release behaviors of the pharmaceuticals from the membranes. It was found that all biodegradable anti-adhesion nanofibers released effective concentrations of lidocaine and ketorolac for over 20 days post surgery. In addition, a transverse laparotomy was setup in a rat model for an in vivo assessment of activity of postoperative recovery. No tissue adhesion was observed at 2 weeks post surgery, demonstrating the potential anti-adhesion capability of the drug-eluting nanofibrous membrane. The postoperative activities were recorded for two groups of rats as follows: rats that did not have any membrane implanted (group A) and rats that had the analgesic-eluting membrane implanted (group B). Rats in group B exhibited faster recovery times than those in group A with regard to postoperative activities, confirming the pain relief effectiveness of the lidocaine- and ketorolac-loaded nanofibrous membranes. The experimental results suggested that the anti-adhesion nanofibrous membranes with sustainable elution of lidocaine and ketorolac are adequately effective and durable for the purposes of postoperative pain relief in rats.

  5. Sustained-release morphine sulfate with sequestered naltrexone for moderate to severe pain: a new opioid analgesic formulation and beyond. (United States)

    Ruan, Xiulu


    Opioid usage during chronic nonmalignant pain has increased substantially over the past two decades. Prescription opioids have become the second most misused drug in the USA and prescription opioid abuse has escalated into a widespread public health problem. It is hoped that abuse-deterrent opioid formulations will take an important role in reducing opioid abuse, misuse and diversion. Embeda (sustained-release morphine sulfate with sequestered naltrexone)represents a new opioid formulation with an intended abuse-deterrent feature, now available on the market. Although Embeda seems to be a successful formulation by passing the efficacy trial, safety trial, pharmacokinetic study and abuse liability study, etc., it will require some long-term prospective epidemiological studies to substantiate fully its abuse-deterrent benefit. Embeda represents a new opioid formulation, adding to our arsenal to treat moderate to severe pain and playing its potential role in discouraging opioid abuse, misuse and diversion. Faced with an overwhelmingly expanding public health burden due to prescription opioid abuse, clinicians should always keep in mind the balance of maximizing pain relief and minimizing prescription opioid abuse. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd

  6. Antinociceptive effects of sustained-release buprenorphine in a model of incisional pain in rats (Rattus norvegicus). (United States)

    Chum, Helen H; Jampachairsri, Katechan; McKeon, Gabriel P; Yeomans, David C; Pacharinsak, Cholawat; Felt, Stephen A


    Effective management of postoperative pain is an essential component of the care and welfare of laboratory animals. A sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine (Bup-SR) has recently been introduced to the veterinary market and has been reported to provide analgesia for as long as 72 h. Using evoked mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity tests, we here evaluated the antinociceptive effects of Bup-SR in a model of incisional pain in rats. Paw withdrawal responses were obtained before and 1 through 4 d after surgery. Rats are assigned to receive Bup-SR (0.3, 1.2, or 4.5 mg/kg SC once) or buprenorphine HCl (Bup HCl, 0.05 mg/kg SC twice daily for 3 d). Responses to mechanical and thermal stimuli in the 1.2 and 4.5 Bup-SR groups did not differ from those of rats in the Bup HCl group. Thermal latency on day 3 in rats that received 0.3 mg/kg Bup-SR was significantly different from baseline, indicating that this dose effectively decreased thermal hypersensitivity for at least 48 h. Marked sedation occurred in rats in the 4.5 Bup-SR group. Our findings indicate that Bup-SR at 0.3 or 1.2 mg/kg SC is effective in minimizing hypersensitivity with minimal sedation for at least 48 h (thermal hypersensitivity) and 72 h, respectively, in the incisional pain model in rats.

  7. Freedom and Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)


    textabstractFreedom in nations can affect the happiness of citizens both positively and negatively. This study takes stock of the balance of effects. It considers 1) whether there is a positive net-effect at all, 2) which freedom variants contribute most to happiness 3) in what conditions. Freedom

  8. Once-Daily, Controlled-Release Tramadol and Sustained-Release Diclofenac Relieve Chronic Pain due to Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André D Beaulieu


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was a randomized, parallel, double-blind comparison between controlled-release (CR tramadol and sustained-release (SR diclofenac in patients with chronic pain due to osteoarthritis of the hips and/or knees.

  9. Enactivism and Freedom Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li


    Full Text Available In this paper, we argue, grounded on empirical evidence, that enactivism is a promising philosophical stance with great potential to address challenges brought by our rapidly changing world. We then propose Freedom Education, a new form of teaching and learning founded on the enactivist theory. After discussing what constitutes Freedom Education and what it is not, we recommend several principles to establish a learning world of free-dom education.

  10. Declaration of Academic Freedom


    ÇETİNSAYA, Gökhan


    1. Universities are the institutions where all the opinions, various truth claims as well as social and political problems are discussed in a liberal and civilized way and the complicated problems are expressed clearly without any oppression and prevention. 2. Academic freedom includes first and foremost the right of freedom of research and thus freedom of using the essential knowledge methods, the right of possessing the necessary tools and conditions required for the research and the rig...

  11. Freedom & Self-Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ometto, D.L.A.


    Freedom of the will is a never-ending source of puzzlement for academic philosophers. At the same time, it is something deeply familiar to everyone. For the relevant concept of freedom underlies much, if not all, of our ordinary discourse and thinking about ourselves and others. However, our attempt

  12. Between integration and freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Simon Laumann


    to be insufficient considering widespread concerns with respecting parental freedom, this article discusses the more value-integrative approach found in the political philosophical work of Hegel. According to this approach, our value-commitments to both social integration and individual freedom can be integrated...

  13. Freedom in mundane mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Marie V.; Cohen, Scott A.


    Freedom is a widely discussed and highly elusive concept, and has long been represented in exoticised, masculinised and individualised discourses. Freedom is often exemplified through the image of a solitary male explorer leaving the female space of home and familiarity and going to remote places...... opens up new avenues in tourism studies for critical research into the geographies of freedom in mundane, everyday contexts....... of the world. Through in-situ interviews with families caravanning in Denmark, the primary aim of this study is to challenge existing dominant discourses surrounding the subject of freedom within leisure and tourism studies. Second, we shed further light on an under-researched medium of mobility......, that of domestic caravanning. This serves to not only disrupt representations of freedom as occurring through exoticised, masculinised and individualised practices, but to give attention to the domestic, banal contexts where the everyday and tourism intersect, which are often overlooked. This novel repositioning...

  14. Myths About Press Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarle Nordenstreng


    Full Text Available This article intends to rectify three popular beliefs related to press freedom: (1 that the idea of a free marketplace of ideas with a self-righting truth belongs to original liberalism, (2 that UNESCO’s primary mission is to promote freedom of information, and (3 that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides legal safeguards for the media. These beliefs are shown, on the basis of the legacy of liberalism and documents of the international community, to be misleading myths. Instead of accurate readings of the idea of freedom, they serve as ideological positions which are harmful to democracy. The Millennium Declaration provides further proof that the international community has a much more balanced view of freedom of information than that typically held by media professionals. Therefore it is important to liberate the concept of press freedom from its ideological baggage.

  15. Effect of sustained typing work on changes in scapular position, pressure pain sensitivity and upper trapezius activity. (United States)

    Park, Se-Yeon; Yoo, Won-Gyu


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sustained computer keyboard typing on the human musculoskeletal system by assessing the pressure-pain threshold (PPT), scapular position and activation of the upper trapezius. Vertical and horizontal positional changes of the scapular were measured with a palpation meter before and after keyboard work, and the PPT was measured using a pressure algometer. Activation of the upper trapezius during 20 minutes of computer keyboard work was measured by electromyography, and four consecutive 5-minute segments were analyzed. The vertical distance from the seventh cervical process to the acromion, and the horizontal distance from the inferior angle to the same level of the spinal process were significantly increased after keyboard typing work compared with before keyboard typing work (ptrapezius activity increased with increased time at the keyboard. The percent reference voluntary contraction of phase 1 (from start to 5 minutes) was lower than those of phase 2 (from 5 to 10 minutes), and phase 3 (from 10 to 15 minutes) (ptrapezius. To prevent musculoskeletal problems in the shoulder region, posture reeducation during computer work should be considered in terms not only of neck and trunk posture, but also of scapular position.

  16. Declaration of Academic Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan ÇETİNSAYA


    Full Text Available 1. Universities are the institutions where all the opinions, various truth claims as well as social and political problems are discussed in a liberal and civilized way and the complicated problems are expressed clearly without any oppression and prevention. 2. Academic freedom includes first and foremost the right of freedom of research and thus freedom of using the essential knowledge methods, the right of possessing the necessary tools and conditions required for the research and the rights of scientific production, informing, learning and dissemination. 3. Academics possess the rights to benefit from the academic freedom without any limitation, to research and investigate according to their own preferences and interests, and to teach these without being exposed to any oppression and prevention. 4. This freedom of teaching that the academics have should not be used in a manner restricting students' freedom of learning; academics should avoid from being dogmatic in the research and education processes and respect students' rights of thinking differently and expressing themselves. 5. Academics accordingly should lead the students to evaluate and understand the new thoughts as a whole and to be tolerant to the thoughts they do not agree and to think in various ways. Also, academics should encourage the students to create their own opinions based on evidences and enable them to express these opinions freely and respect their freedom of expression. 6. Campuses should be safe environments where the students can express their own opinions freely. Suppressing the intellectual diversity and the plurality of viewpoints will decrease the productivity of teaching and learning process, restrict students' freedom of learning, and constrain the chance of formation of critical and in-depth thinking. 7. Critical thinking develops only in the campuses where various thoughts are expressed in a liberal way. Students should feel that they would not be prevented

  17. Freedom of expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oljana HOXHAJ


    Full Text Available In this paper "Freedom of expression" I’ ve tried to explain the close relationship between freedom right and other constitutional freedoms, which have a direct impact on values consolidation in a democratic society and giving possibilities for the public to be active in the decision making process. The researches are based in three directions: the doctrine of international low, in Albanian literature; in native and foreign legislation and also in jurisprudence of Albanians courts and the European Court of Human Rights. The theme dedicates a wide space freedom of expression in the context of public debate, thereby guaranteeing the public's right to know. Many cases of interference in freedom of expression, has been given special importance in legal terms. This intervention must have a legitimate purpose to protect more than one of the public interests. All of this work focuses on sharing the idea that everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

  18. Freedom, liberalism, multiculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković-Pejnović Vesna


    Full Text Available In this article author proves connection between liberalism and multiculturalism in individual‘s political freedom. Individual freedom connected with political participation, in multicultural contexts, can be shown as means to achieve group recognition demands. Liberal conception of liberty in multicultural context shows that a major interest of multicultural groups through political participation necessary respect individual’s liberty. Multiculturalism follows liberal demand for freedom of choice and participation as preconditions for self determination determined by the reason, but through politics of difference, because for multiculturalism is not acceptable liberal thesis of cultural homogenous society.

  19. Globalization and Economic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian


    This paper employs a panel data set to estimate the effect of globalization on four measures of economic freedom. Contrary to previous studies, the paper distinguishes between three separate types of globalization: economic, social and political. It also separates effects for poor and rich...... countries, and autocracies and democracies. The results show that economic globalization is negatively associated with government size and positively with regulatory freedom in rich countries; social globalization is positively associated with legal quality in autocracies and with the access to sound money...... in democracies. Political globalization is not associated with economic freedom...

  20. Orthopedic surgery and bone fracture pain are both significantly attenuated by sustained blockade of nerve growth factor. (United States)

    Majuta, Lisa A; Longo, Geraldine; Fealk, Michelle N; McCaffrey, Gwen; Mantyh, Patrick W


    The number of patients suffering from postoperative pain due to orthopedic surgery and bone fracture is projected to dramatically increase because the human life span, weight, and involvement in high-activity sports continue to rise worldwide. Joint replacement or bone fracture frequently results in skeletal pain that needs to be adequately controlled for the patient to fully participate in needed physical rehabilitation. Currently, the 2 major therapies used to control skeletal pain are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opiates, both of which have significant unwanted side effects. To assess the efficacy of novel therapies, mouse models of orthopedic and fracture pain were developed and evaluated here. These models, orthopedic surgery pain and bone fracture pain, resulted in skeletal pain-related behaviors that lasted 3 weeks and 8 to 10 weeks, respectively. These skeletal pain behaviors included spontaneous and palpation-induced nocifensive behaviors, dynamic weight bearing, limb use, and voluntary mechanical loading of the injured hind limb. Administration of anti-nerve growth factor before orthopedic surgery or after bone fracture attenuated skeletal pain behaviors by 40% to 70% depending on the end point being assessed. These data suggest that nerve growth factor is involved in driving pain due to orthopedic surgery or bone fracture. These animal models may be useful in developing an understanding of the mechanisms that drive postoperative orthopedic and bone fracture pain and the development of novel therapies to treat these skeletal pains.

  1. Personal Freedom beyond Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Sellés


    Full Text Available In this work we distinguish between freedom in the human manifestations (intelligence, will,actions and personal freedom in the personal intimacy. This second is beyond the freedom reached bythe classic and modern thought, since it takes root in the personnel act of being. Because of it, it is not possible to characterize this freedom like the classic description as ‘domain over the own acts’, becauseit is a description of ‘categorial’ order; neither like present day ‘autonomy’ or ‘independence’, becausethe existence of one person alone is impossible, since ‘person’ means relation, personal free openingto other persons, description of the ‘transcendental’ order and, therefore, to the margin of limits.

  2. Human freedom and enhancement. (United States)

    Heilinger, Jan-Christoph; Crone, Katja


    Ideas about freedom and related concepts like autonomy and self-determination play a prominent role in the moral debate about human enhancement interventions. However, there is not a single understanding of freedom available, and arguments referring to freedom are simultaneously used to argue both for and against enhancement interventions. This gives rise to misunderstandings and polemical arguments. The paper attempts to disentangle the different distinguishable concepts, classifies them and shows how they relate to one another in order to allow for a more structured and clearer debate. It concludes in identifying the individual underpinnings and the social conditions of choice and decision-making as particularly salient dimensions of freedom in the ethical debate about human enhancement.

  3. Freedom, liberalism, multiculturalism


    Stanković-Pejnović Vesna


    In this article author proves connection between liberalism and multiculturalism in individual‘s political freedom. Individual freedom connected with political participation, in multicultural contexts, can be shown as means to achieve group recognition demands. Liberal conception of liberty in multicultural context shows that a major interest of multicultural groups through political participation necessary respect individual’s liberty. Multiculturalism follows liberal demand for freedo...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This review focuses on a synthesis book on human freedom and dignity. Contributors are reputed specialists in theology, philosophy and law. The issue is centered on freedom, dignity and the model created by the sacrifice of Martir Constantin Brancoveanu, but it has inductions and in related areas such as education, human value in theology, cultural policies. The research methodology that is largely used is inter-, multi- and transdisciplinary; the perspectives of the approach are varied

  5. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, pain perception, and disease activity score may serve as important predictive markers for sustained remission in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chandrashekara


    Full Text Available The implementation of new treatment strategies based on current recommendations has enabled a greater number of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA to achieve remission. However, there are no definite predictors of sustained remission. Moreover, the absence of clear consensus on the time of withdrawal or reduction of treatment further adds to the treatment burden. This pilot study was intended to evaluate the prognostic potential of various RA-related parameters. All the enrolled subjects (n=124 were clinically evaluated on the basis of various parameters including age, gender, duration of illness before the initiation of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, tender and swollen joints (28 joints, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP, hemoglobin percentage, lymphocyte count, total white-blood cell counts, and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR. Student’s t-test and discriminant function analysis were performed. The specificity of all parameters and their best possible cut-off to predict relapse were calculated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. A significant difference in terms of pain perception, NLR, tendency to have a significant tender joint count and absolute lymphocyte counts was identified between the patients in sustained remission and those in relapse. The ROC analysis indicated that NLR was consistent in predicting remission. CRP, ESR, and/or disease activity score may not be very effective in differentiating patients with sustainable remission/low disease activity. NLR along with patient’s perception of pain may assist in predicting sustained remission.

  6. Mobilization versus manipulations versus sustain apophyseal natural glide techniques and interaction with psychological factors for patients with chronic neck pain: randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Lopez-Lopez, A; Alonso Perez, J L; González Gutierez, J L; La Touche, R; Lerma Lara, S; Izquierdo, H; Fernández-Carnero, J


    Three different types of manual therapy techniques for patients with neck pain and relationship with psychological factors has not been evaluated. To compare the effectiveness high velocity and low amplitude (HVLA) manipulation vs. posteroanterior mobilization (PA mob) vs. sustain appophyseal natural glide (SNAG) in the management of patients with neck pain and to evaluate the interaction with psychological factors. Randomized clinical trial. Primary Health Care Center. Patients with history of chronic neck pain over the last 3 months were recruited. Patients were randomly assigned to receive treatment with HVLA (N.=15), with PA mob (N.=16) or with SNAG (N.=17). One session was applied. Pain intensity of neck pain, pressure pain threshold over processus spinosus of C2 (PPT_C2) and cervical range of motion (CROM) were measured pre- and post-intervention. Pain catastrophizing, depression, anxiety and kinesiophobia were assessed in baseline. ANOVAs were performed, with main effects, two-way (treatment x time) and three-way interactions (treatment x psychological variable x time) were examined. Fourthy-eight patients (mean±SD age, 36.5±8.7 years; 87.5% female). A significant interaction treatment x time was observed for VAS-rest in HVLA and AP mob groups (P<0.05). With more pain relief to HVLA and AP mob groups than SNAG groups but all groups improve the same in CROM. Also, a significant three-way treatment x anxiety x time interaction for VAS in Flexion/Extension was identified (P<0.01), and a trend toward significance was observed for the three way treatment x anxiety x time interaction, with respect to CROM in Lateral-Flexion movement (P<0.05). The results suggest that an HVLA and PA mob groups relieved pain at rest more than SNAG in patients with Neck pain. Among psychological factors, only trait anxiety seems interact with Manual therapy, mainly high anxiety conditions interact with the Mobilization and SNAG effects but under low anxiety conditions interact with

  7. Orthopedic surgery and bone fracture pain are both significantly attenuated by sustained blockade of nerve growth factor


    Majuta, Lisa A.; Longo, Geraldine; Fealk, Michelle N.; McCaffrey, Gwen; Mantyh, Patrick W.


    The number of patients suffering from postoperative pain due to orthopedic surgery and bone fracture is projected to dramatically increase because the human life span, weight, and involvement in high-activity sports continue to rise worldwide. Joint replacement or bone fracture frequently results in skeletal pain that needs to be adequately controlled for the patient to fully participate in needed physical rehabilitation. Currently, the 2 major therapies used to control skeletal pain are nons...

  8. [Drug addiction and freedom]. (United States)

    Albuquerque, M A


    The author, in a historical and philosophical approach, analyses the concept of freedom as opposed to slavery. He also refers to the legal and social restrictions and studies the determinism and free will as the causes of human behaviour. Quoting Spinoza, the author states that man accepts the idea of freedom because he realizes the "how" of his options but ignores "why". Without the hypothesis of causality and determinism, there seems to have no science. Without freedom, there seems to be no anthropos man (Jimeno Valdez). The principles of anticausality, of nonreproducibility and of differentiation characterize the human freedom, but are contrary to the way science works. According to the social and political point of view, it was established that the State has the right to oblige and to violently limit freedom. Practically speaking, though, the State is violent just for being the State; the dominant groups are the government because they are and they have been violent. There is a need to limit and to discipline this right of the State of being violent within the dilemma of safety and freedom. By working, the slave avoided the whip. And by doing this, he encouraged the behaviour of the one who whipped him. The non-aversive attitudes limit the freedom in the modern world more and more for they also enchain our will, a rebellion becoming impossible. One is not granted the freedom; it shall be conquered and kept. Freedom, either as a concept or a phenomenon, is always relative. The concept of toxicomania or pharmacodependance is analysed according to the same perspective. The conclusion is that this is always more a problem of the society than of the individual, and this is how it has to be understood and treated. The present world is described as a millenial human culture specifically characterized by eight groups of phenomena: 1. Transport increased human mobility, reduced the relative dimensions of the earth, mixed peoples, compared cultures and created

  9. Freedom and forgiveness. (United States)

    Cavell, Marcia


    In the history of philosophy and political thought freedom has meant a number of different things. The author considers several of these meanings and their relevance to psychoanalytic theory. The general argument against freedom that has been mounted in the history of thought, and echoed by Freud, is the thesis of causal determinism; but it is urged here that this in itself is no threat to freedom in the sense of the word required for moral agency: a free choice is one that is caused to some extent by reasons and that is relatively unconstrained both by 'external' and 'internal' forces. Yet because agents are embedded in a causal nexus that includes both the physical world and other people, agency and freedom can be compromised in innumerable ways. Neither freedom nor agency is a condition which we absolutely have or lack, but a matter of degree. Psychoanalytic therapy works toward expanding the capacity for agency and diminishing the constraints of certain internal forces. In the sense defined here, objectivity is an attitude that accepts our embeddedness in the world. With objectivity may come both forgiveness and self-forgiveness, which in turn promote agency.

  10. Rapid improvements in pain and quality of life are sustained after surgery for spinal metastases in a large prospective cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, David; Fox, Zoe; Albert, Todd; Arts, Mark; Balabaud, Laurent; Bunger, Cody; Buchowski, Jacob Maciej; Coppes, Maarten Hubert; Depreitere, Bart; Fehlings, Michael George; Harrop, James; Kawahara, Norio; Martin-Benlloch, Juan Anthonio; Massicotte, Eric Maurice; Mazel, Christian; Oner, Fetullah Cumhur; Peul, Wilco; Quraishi, Nasir; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki; Tomita, Katsuro; Verlaan, Jorit Jan; Wang, Miao; Wang, Michael; Crockard, Hugh Alan


    Introduction Metastatic spinal cancer is a common condition that may lead to spinal instability, pain and paralysis. In the 1980s, surgery was discouraged because results showed worse neurological outcomes and pain compared with radiotherapy alone. However, with the advent of modern imaging and

  11. Freedom to conduct business in EU law : freedom from interference or freedom from domination?


    GILL-PEDRO, Eduardo


    What understanding of freedom does the EU freedom to conduct business protect? This article distinguishes between two understandings of freedomfreedom as non-interference and freedom as non-domination, and argues that both the text of Article 16 of the Charter and the pre-Charter case law suggest an understanding of freedom as non-domination. However, in recent case law, the Court appears to have move towards an understanding of freedom as non-interference. This article highlights the impl...

  12. 76 FR 72243 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans... (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans... facilities for returning Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans and their families.... Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment, VA Form 10...

  13. Cortical effect of oxaliplatin associated with sustained neuropathic pain: exacerbation of cortical activity and down-regulation of potassium channel expression in somatosensory cortex. (United States)

    Thibault, Karine; Calvino, Bernard; Dubacq, Sophie; Roualle-de-Rouville, Marie; Sordoillet, Vallier; Rivals, Isabelle; Pezet, Sophie


    Oxaliplatin is a third-generation platinum-based chemotherapy drug that has gained importance in the treatment of advanced metastatic colorectal cancer. Its dose-limiting side effect is the production of chronic peripheral neuropathy. Using a modified model of oxaliplatin-induced sensory neuropathy, we investigated plastic changes at the cortical level as possible mechanisms underlying the chronicity of pain sensation in this model. Changes in gene expression were studied using DNA microarray which revealed that when oxaliplatin-treated animals displayed clinical neuropathic pain symptoms, including mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity, approximately 900 were down-regulated in the somatosensory cortex. Because of the known role of potassium channels in neuronal excitability, the study further focussed on the down-regulation of these channels as the possible molecular origin of cortical hyperexcitability. Quantification of the magnitude of neuronal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in cortical neurons as a marker of neuronal activity revealed a 10-fold increase induced by oxaliplatin treatment, suggesting that neurons of cortical areas involved in transmission of painful stimuli undergo a chronic cortical excitability. We further demonstrated, using cortical injection of lentiviral vector shRNA against Kv2.2, that down-regulation of this potassium channel in naive animals induced a sustained thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity. In conclusion, although the detailed mechanisms leading to this cortical excitability are still unknown, our study demonstrated that a cortical down regulation of potassium channels could underlie pain chronicity in this model of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Improvements in physical function and pain sustained for up to 10 years after knee or hip arthroplasty irrespective of mental health status before surgery. (United States)

    Geeske Peeters, G M E E; Rainbird, Sophia; Lorimer, Michelle; Dobson, Annette J; Mishra, Gita D; Graves, Stephen E


    Background and purpose - There are concerns that mental health (MH) may influence outcomes of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA). We examined effects of poor MH before surgery on long-term outcomes of osteoarthritis-related TKA or THA in women. Patients and methods - The data were from 9,737 middle-aged participants (47-52 years) and 9,292 older participants (73-78 years) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health who completed surveys between 1998 and 2013. Dates of arthroplasties were obtained from the Australian Orthopaedics Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Participants without procedures were matched with participants with procedures. Trajectories of the Short-Form 36 scores for physical functioning, bodily pain, social functioning, and mental health based on mixed modeling were plotted for participants with and without surgery (stratified according to mental health, separately for TKA and THA, and for middle-aged and older participants). Results - In middle-aged women with poor and good MH, TKA improved physical function and reduced bodily pain, with improvements sustained up to 10 years after surgery. TKA contributed to restoration of social function in women with good MH, but this was less clear in women with poor MH. In both MH groups, mental health appeared to be unaffected by TKA. Similar patterns were observed after THA, and in older women. Interpretation - Recovery of physical and social function and reductions in pain were sustained for up to 10 years after surgery. Improvements in physical function and pain were also observed in women with poor mental health. Thus, in our view poor mental health should not be a contraindication for arthroplasty.

  15. Implementing Specification Freedoms. (United States)


    Sheila Coyazo for editing the final draft. Portions of this report appeared in a paper of the same name published in Science of Computer Programming [21...University of Edinburgh, Technical Report DAI 54, 1978. 21. Feather, M. S., and P. E. London, "Implementing specification freedoms," Science of Computer Programming 2

  16. Intellectual Freedom and Racism. (United States)

    Interracial Books for Children Bulletin, 1977


    This issue of the "Interracial Books for Children Bulletin" contains a special section focusing on the film called, "The Speaker". This film purports to deal with an assault on the First Amendment and with the necessity for eternal vigilance in defense of U.S. Constitutional freedom. The setting is an integrated high school…

  17. Freedom in nature (United States)

    Hájíček, P.


    The paper starts with the proposal that the cause of the apparent insolubility of the free-will problem are several popular but strongly metaphysical notions and hypotheses. To reduce the metaphysics, some ideas are borrowed from physics. A concept of event causality is discussed. The importance of Hume’s Principle of Causality is stressed and his Principle of Causation is weakened. The key concept of the paper, the so-called relative freedom, is also suggested by physics. It is a kind of freedom that can be observed everywhere in nature. Turning to biology, incomplete knowledge is defined for all organisms. They cope with the problem by Popper’s trial and error processes. One source of their success is the relative freedom of choice from the basic option ranges: mutations, motions and neural connections. Finally, the conjecture is adopted that communicability can be used as a criterion of consciousness and free will is defined as a conscious version of relative freedom. The resulting notion is logically self-consistent and it describes an observable phenomenon that agrees with our experience.

  18. Hadronic Degrees of Freedom (United States)

    Traini, Marco

    I report on the research activities performed under the (italian) MURST-PRIN project "Fisica Teorica del Nuc1eo e dei sistemi a piú corpi" covering part of the topics on hadronic degrees of freedom. The most recent achievements in the field are summarized focusing on the specific role of the nuclear physics community.

  19. Your True Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jena Rausch


    Full Text Available Your True Freedom is about my journey teaching inmates the fundamental truths of self worth, self acceptance and self love--through writing, mindfulness meditation and emotional healing. It is a journey that continues to enlighten me and to heal and free the inmates with whom I work.

  20. Thinking Academic Freedom (United States)

    Lange, Lis


    This lecture argues that the politicisation and instrumentalisation of the university caused by neoliberal frames has as a result the depoliticisation of knowledge and of the academic as individual. This depoliticisation has turned academic freedom into a right to disengage not only from the political fight around these issues but also from the…

  1. Freedom to Compete?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert


    . To this end, the article focuses on companies associated with the European Roundtable of Industrialists (ERT), a highly influential network consisting of top executives from a range of Europe’s largest TNCs that has consistently urged political decision-makers to give companies the ‘freedom to compete’. We...

  2. Nursing and human freedom. (United States)

    Risjord, Mark


    Debates over how to conceptualize the nursing role were prominent in the nursing literature during the latter part of the twentieth century. There were, broadly, two schools of thought. Writers like Henderson and Orem used the idea of a self-care deficit to understand the nurse as doing for the patient what he or she could not do alone. Later writers found this paternalistic and emphasized the importance of the patient's free will. This essay uses the ideas of positive and negative freedom to explore the differing conceptions of autonomy which are implicit in this debate. The notion of positive freedom has often been criticized as paternalistic, and the criticisms of self-care in the nursing literature echo criticisms from political philosophy. Recent work on relational autonomy and on the relationship between autonomy and identity are used to address these objections. This essay argues for a more nuanced conception of the obligation to support autonomy that includes both positive (freedom to) and negative (freedom from) dimensions. This conception of autonomy provides a moral foundation for conceptualizing nursing in something like Henderson's terms: as involving the duty to expand the patient's capacities. The essay concludes by generalizing the lesson. Respect for autonomy on the part of any health care provider requires both respect for the patient's choices and a commitment to expand the patient's ability to actualize their choices. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Knowledge Yearning for Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Gavrilović


    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the restriction of access to knowledge/books in the contemporary digitalized global world, in which the access to knowledge has to be paid for, and wherein definitions of modes of payment control who has or doesn’t have the right to knowledge. The second part of the article deals with the struggle for the freedom of words/knowledge, and actions through which the authors/producers of knowledge and art fight the restrictions not only to the freedom of speech, but also creativity and innovation, which should be the aim of all copyright and intellectual right laws, the contemporary application of which has become its own opposite.

  4. Counterfactual success and negative freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dowding, K; van Hees, M.V.B.P.M

    Recent theories of negative freedom see it as a value-neutral concept; the definition of freedom should not be in terms of specific moral values. Specifically, preferences or desires do not enter into the definition of freedom. If preferences should so enter then Berlin's problem that a person may

  5. Academic Freedom Requires Constant Vigilance (United States)

    Emery, Kim


    Traditionally, academic freedom has been understood as an individual right and a negative liberty. As William Tierney and Vincente Lechuga explain, "Academic freedom, although an institutional concept, was vested in the individual professor." The touchstone document on academic freedom, the American Association of University Professor's (AAUP)…

  6. Freedom to box. (United States)

    Warburton, N


    The british Medical Association wants to criminalise all boxing. This article examines the logic of the arguments it uses and finds them wanting. The move from medical evidence about the risk of brain damage to the conclusion that boxing should be banned is not warranted. The BMA's arguments are a combination of inconsistent paternalism and legal moralism. Consistent application of the principles implicit in the BMA's arguments would lead to absurd consequences and to severe limitations being put on individual freedom.

  7. Therapeutic equivalence of diclofenac sustained-released 75 mg tablets and diclofenac enteric-coated 50 mg tablets in the treatment of painful osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Le Loët, X; Dreiser, R L; Le Gros, V; Febvre, N


    Efficacy and tolerability of diclofenac sustained-released (SR) 75 mg tablets taken b.i.d. were compared with that of enteric-coated diclofenac sodium 50 mg tablets given t.i.d. in a seven-day, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel groups study in 294 outpatients suffering from painful femorotibial or hip osteoarthritis. Primary efficacy criteria were spontaneous joint pain assessed on serial visual analogue scales during the first 36 hours and after 48 hours of treatment. The two treatments had equivalent efficacy since all the 90% confidence intervals of differences between means for pain intensity between the two groups were included within the interval (-10 mm; +10 mm). Rates of overall efficacy judged good to excellent ranged from 74.3-78.5% in both groups. One or more drug-related adverse events, mainly gastrointestinal, was reported by 24.5% and 27.2% of patients in diclofenac SR 75 mg and diclofenac 50 mg groups, respectively. Percentage of good compliance (i.e. > 90%) was higher with diclofenac SR 75 mg (p < 0.001).

  8. 76 FR 58565 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously... (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously... Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans regarding benefits. DATES: Written comments and... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation...

  9. A history of low back pain affects pelvis and trunk coordination during a sustained manual materials handling task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph F. Seay


    Conclusion: Differences between groups demonstrate residual consequences of LBP in an occupational scenario, even though the HBP group was pain-free for >6 months prior to data collection. More in-phase coordination in the HBP group may represent a coordination pattern analogous to “guarded gait” which has been observed in other studies, and may lend insight as to why these individuals are at increased risk for re-injury.

  10. SoluMatrix® Diclofenac: Sustained Opioid-Sparing Effects in a Phase 3 Study in Patients with Postoperative Pain. (United States)

    Argoff, Charles; McCarberg, Bill; Gudin, Jeff; Nalamachu, Srinivas; Young, Clarence


    To evaluate opioid rescue medication usage and the opioid-sparing effect of low-dose SoluMatrix(®) diclofenac developed using SoluMatrix Fine Particle Technology™ in a phase 3 study in patients experiencing pain following bunionectomy surgery. Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study (NCT01462435). Four clinical research centers in the United States. Four hundred twenty-eight patients aged 18 to 65 years who experienced moderate-to-severe pain following bunionectomy surgery. Patients were randomized to receive low-dose SoluMatrix diclofenac 35 mg or 18 mg capsules three times daily (35-mg group or 18-mg group), celecoxib 400 mg loading dose followed by 200-mg capsules twice daily (celecoxib 200-mg group), or placebo capsules postsurgery. Patients were permitted to receive opioid-containing rescue medication as needed. Significantly fewer patients who received SoluMatrix diclofenac 35 mg or 18 mg or celecoxib required rescue medication during 0-24 h and >24-48 h postsurgery compared with placebo. Patients in the SoluMatrix diclofenac 35 mg or 18 mg groups or in the celecoxib group used fewer mean rescue medication tablets over 0-24 h and >24-48 h compared with placebo-treated patients. Patients in the SoluMatrix diclofenac 35 mg and 18 mg groups and in the celecoxib group also required rescue medication at later times and at slower rates compared with placebo-treated patients. No serious adverse effects occurred in patients receiving SoluMatrix diclofenac. SoluMatrix diclofenac at two dosage strengths demonstrated an opioid-sparing effect postoperatively in this phase 3 study. The opioid-sparing effect following low-dose SoluMatrix diclofenac (35 mg or 18 mg three times daily) administration was evaluated in patients experiencing pain following bunionectomy. Significantly fewer patients receiving SoluMatrix diclofenac or celecoxib (400 mg loading, 200 mg twice daily) required rescue medication during 0-24

  11. Contractual Freedom and its Limitations


    Lucia Uta


    Parties’ freedom of will is expressed through the following three principles: 1. contractual freedom; 2. the binding power of the contract; and 3. the relativity of the contract’s effects. The parties are free to contract or not, to choose the other contracting party and to determine the content of the contractual clauses. The principle of mutual consent appears as a corollary of the freedom of will principle. According to this principle, the parties’ simple manifestation of will is sufficien...

  12. Human freedom and the brain. (United States)

    Kornhuber, Hans Helmut


    Freedom of will does exist, it is self-leadership of man based on reason and ethos. Evidence comes from truth. Determinism cannot be proved since if you try, you mean to prove a truth; but there is no truth without freedom. By contrast for freedom there are many pieces of evidence e.g. science, arts, technology. Freedom utilizes creative abstract thinking with phantasy. Freedom is graded, limited, based on nature, but not developed without good will. We perceive reliably freedom by self-consciousness and in other persons as long as we are sober. Freedom needs intelligence, but is more, it is a creative and moral virtue. The basis for freedom is phylogenesis and culture, in the individual learning and experimenting. Factors in the becoming of freedom are not only genes and environment but also self-discipline. But the creativity of free will is dangerous. Man therefore needs morale. Drives and feelings become humanized, cultural interests are developed. There is a humane nobility from long good will.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda STEG


    Full Text Available This paper discusses possible contributions of psychologists to sustainable transportation. It is argued that in order to reach sustainable transportation, among others, behaviour changes of individual car users are needed. As transport policies will be more effective if they target important antecedents of travel behaviour, first, factors influencing such behaviour are discussed. It is argued that car use is very attractive and sometimes even necessary for many different reasons. This implies that a combination of policies is called for, each targeting different factors that support car use and hinder the use of more sustainable modes of transport. Next, the paper elaborates on policy strategies that may be employed to achieve sustainable transportation by changing car use. Increasing the attractiveness of sustainable transport modes by means of pull measures seems not sufficient to reduce the level of car use. Besides, car use should be made less attractive by means of push measures to force drivers to reconsider their travel behaviour. The acceptability of such policies may be increased by clearly communicating the aim of these policies, and the expected positive consequences (e.g., less congestion, improved environmental quality. Moreover, possible negative effects for individual freedom may be compensated by implementing additional policies aimed at facilitating the use of sustainable transport modes.

  14. Gauge Freedom in Astrodynamics (United States)

    Efroimsky, Michael


    Both orbital and attitude dynamics employ the method of variation of parameters. In a non-perturbed setting, the coordinates (or the Euler angles) get expressed as functions of the time and six adjustable constants called elements. Under disturbance, each such expression becomes ansatz, the "constants" being endowed with time dependence. The perturbed velocity (linear or angular) consists of a partial time derivative and a convective term containing time derivatives of the "constants." It can be shown that this construction leaves one with a freedom to impose three arbitrary conditions upon the "constants" and/or their derivatives. Out of convenience, the Lagrange constraint is often imposed. It nullifies the convective term and thereby guarantees that under perturbation the functional dependence of the velocity upon the time and "constants" stays the same as in the undisturbed case. "Constants" obeying this condition are called osculating elements. The "constants" chosen to be canonical are called Delaunay elements, in the orbital case, or Andoyer elements, in the spin case. (As some of the Andoyer elements are time-dependent even in the free-spin case, the role of "constants" is played by these elements' initial values.) The Andoyer and Delaunay sets of elements share a feature not readily apparent: in certain cases the standard equations render these elements non-osculating. In orbital mechanics, elements calculated via the standard planetary equations come out non-osculating when perturbations depend on velocities. To keep elements osculating under such perturbations, the equations must be amended with extra terms that are not part of the disturbing function (Efroimsky and Goldreich 2003, 2004). For the Kepler elements, this merely complicates the equations. In the case of Delaunay parameterisation, these extra terms not only complicate the equations, but also destroy their canonicity. So under velocity-dependent disturbances, osculation and canonicity are

  15. Freedom and european military conflicts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ks. Archimandryta Andrzej (Borkowski


    Full Text Available In the period of globalization, numerous armed conflicts and wars we often appeal to freedom and human rights. When we talk of freedom in the time we live in we usually mean it to be a possibility of free choice among various things. In contemporary common understanding freedom means choice. Such a definition is far insufficient to an Orthodox Christian. Freedom is something more than a simple difference between obviousness and indecision. Our spiritual attention needs to be directed towards something much more deeper. It should be directed to a struggle in order to overcome results of our fallen nature. According to contemporary understanding freedom is identified also with a possibility to do what is pleasing to ourselves. But such understanding is equally faulty. From theological point of view the term of true freedom denotes God’s grace and therefore human freedom is connected with and dependent on the absolute freedom of God. We do believe that God is the only giver of freedom and justice and He even exceeds them. God does not determine Himself. God simply exists. In such a way God has introduced Himself to Mores in the burning bush: „Εγώ ειμί ο Ών” (I am that I am. Ultimately all the contemporary crisises have their source in an absolute external freedom, freedom of flesh – having lost the notion of sin it transforms into a merciless, tyrannical lawlessness. Distinct manifestation of it are incessant armed conflicts in Europe.

  16. The Erosion of Academic Freedom (United States)

    Ledoux, Michael W.; Marshall, Thomas; McHenry, Nadine


    This article originated from a single question: do the restrictions that various accrediting agencies place on teacher educators limit, or entirely eliminate, academic freedom? Considering that question makes it apparent the problem is much broader than academic freedom. The issue has two foci: personal identity and the impact of market…

  17. Academic Freedom and Indentured Students (United States)

    Williams, Jeffrey J.


    Discussion of academic freedom usually focuses on faculty, and it usually refers to speech. That is the gist of the 1915 "General Report of the Committee on Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure," appearing in the inaugural AAUP "Bulletin" as a kind of mission statement. Given the conditions of the American system of higher education--decentralized…

  18. Let Freedom Ring! Let Peace Reign! (United States)

    Moore, Mary Elizabeth Mullino


    True freedom and true peace are cousins, but they can only work together if the freedom of one people is seen in relation to the freedom of another. Struggles for freedom and peace can only enhance each other if the peace people seek is a robust harmony in which conflict is embraced and people are encouraged to imagine a far stronger freedom and…

  19. Academic Freedom: Its Nature, Extent and Value (United States)

    Barrow, Robin


    Academic freedom does not refer to freedom to engage in any speech act, but to freedom to hold any belief and espouse it in an appropriately academic manner. This freedom belongs to certain institutions, rather than to individuals, because of their academic nature. Academic freedom should be absolute, regardless of any offence it may on occasion…

  20. Freedom of Expression, No Matter What?


    Riordan, Patrick


    Jesuit philosopher Patrick Riordan probes the question of limits to freedom of speech and freedom of expression and the rational foundation on which such freedoms and their possible restriction might be based.

  1. 76 FR 73022 - Agency Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously... (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously... Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously Injured/Ill Service Member Veteran Worksheet, VA Form 21... Operation Enduring Freedom or Operation Iraqi Freedom service members who have at least six months remaining...

  2. Scientific Freedom and Human Rights (United States)

    Munoz, Elisa


    As part of her ongoing work monitoring issues at the intersection of science and human rights, Ms. Munoz has highlighted violations of academic freedom in Serbia and Iran, the denial of visas and travel licenses to U.S. and Cuban scientists, interference with scientific freedom in Brazil, Mexico, Russia, and the Ukraine, the use of organs from executed prisoners in China, legislation jeopardizing women's health in Iran, and the closure of centers for the treatment of torture survivors in Turkey. Such violations contravene international human rights principles listed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights covenants. Ms. Munoz will describe current violations of scientific freedom and the relevant international principles on which these freedoms rest.

  3. Academic Freedom and Artistic Expression. (United States)

    Stern, Carol Simpson


    Recent attempts to curtail artistic expression in colleges and universities, particularly in relation to federal funding, are examined and it is concluded that artistic expression merits protections of academic freedom similar to those accorded to intellectual expression. (Author/MSE)

  4. Freedom: A Promise of Possibility. (United States)

    Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt


    The idea of freedom as a promise of possibility is explored in this column. The core concepts from a research study on considering tomorrow (Bunkers, 1998) coupled with humanbecoming community change processes (Parse, 2003) are used to illuminate this notion. The importance of intentionality in human freedom is discussed from both a human science and a natural science perspective. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Academic Freedom and the Diminished Subject (United States)

    Hayes, Dennis


    Discussions about freedom of speech and academic freedom today are about the limits to those freedoms. However, these discussions take place mostly in the higher education trade press and do not receive any serious attention from academics and educationalists. In this paper several key arguments for limiting academic freedom are identified,…

  6. Two-step irradiance schedule versus single-dose tramadol sustained-release tablets for pain control during topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy of condyloma acuminatum in Chinese patients: a randomized comparative study. (United States)

    Mchepange, Uwesu O; Huang, Chun-Yan; Sun, Yi; Tu, Ya-Ting; Tao, Juan


    Photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-PDT) offers promising results for the treatment of condyloma acuminatum. However, patients have to dwell with pain to benefit from this otherwise effective and safe "off-label" treatment modality. Several techniques have been explored to control ALA-PDT-induced pain, but the desperate search for a universally accepted method is still ongoing. This study compares the two-step irradiance approach with single-dose administration of 100 mg tramadol sustained-release tablets for pain induced by ALA-PDT of condyloma acuminatum in Chinese patients. Adult Chinese patients with condyloma acuminatum were enrolled in a randomized comparative study. Pain levels were compared using the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) at pre-defined assessment points during and after irradiation. The pain was dominated by characteristics such as burning and pricking and was almost always local and superficial. The median pain scores were lower in the two-step irradiance group at 1 minute (U = 621.5, P = 0.002) but higher at 20 minutes (U = 585.5, P = 0.002). The median pain scores between the two groups did not differ significantly at other assessment points. The pain was moderate in both groups and peaked earlier in the analgesics group (median: 5 minutes) but later in the two-step irradiance group (median: 15 minutes). The pain was generally mild. The median pain scores were equal at each assessment point, except at 3 hours where the median was lower in the analgesics group (1.0) as compared with the two-step irradiance group (2.0) (U = 725.0, P = 0.056). Pain in the two-step irradiance protocol is irradiance-dependent. The two-step irradiance approach produces significant benefits over analgesics during the initial stages of therapy but analgesics offer significant benefits thereafter. There are potential benefits of combining the two approaches in minimizing ALA-PDT-induced pain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals

  7. [On freedom of scientific research]. (United States)

    Folkers, G


    Debates about science and, more specifically, about scientific research quickly bring up the question about its freedom. Science is readily blamed for technological disasters or criticized for nursing fantasies of omnipotence and commercial gain. This prompts the call for a restriction of its freedom. At the same time, society's demands on science are enormous, to the effect that science and technology have acquired the status of a deus-ex-machina: they are expected to furnish short-term, affordable, and convenient solutions to a wide range of problems, including issues of health, transportation, food and, more generally, a comfortable life. What kind of freedom is required to meet these expectations? Who is in a position to grant it? What does freedom for science mean and how is it linked to responsibility? The paper examines the current situation of freedom in scientific research and of its restrictions, many of which are mentally or economically conditioned. It calls for the involvement of an informed, self-confident bourgeoisie in research decisions and for the educational measures this necessitates. Finally, it demands a greater appreciation of education (rather than training) as the basis of social trust, and the recognition of continuous education as a productive investment of time and a crucial element in the employment of social goods.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Valdecantos Alcaide


    Full Text Available The university reforms undertaken after the 1999 Bologna Declaration do not constitute a strictly academic phenomenon, but also a social reform at a high level, that affects the concept itself of society and the role of intellectual freedom in the whole Freedom System of the liberal thought and ideology. Contrary to the basics of this tradition, it is maintained that the intellectual sphere must be included in the economic sphere and that institutions in which intellectual freedom could be practised must be considered -even with a certain amount of independence- as a part of the market. The purpose of this article is to show that present university reform is against what has been the usual way of constructing the idea of society from the 18th century onwards.

  9. Academic Freedom in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this study, the concept ‘academic freedom’ is discussed, its implications and value for the academics, institutions of higher education, and the society are focused, and a few suggestions for the Turkish higher education are made. Academic freedom is defined as the freedom of the academic staff to look for and to find the truth in their scientific field, to publish the findings, and to teach these findings to their students without any external intervention. The concept has gained a further definition with inclusion of research activities into academic freedom as part of the reform attempts started in the German higher education in the 19th century. Therefore, academic freedom is at the very core of the missions of the institutions of higher education; that is, teaching-learning and research. On the point of academic staff and their academic activities of the academic freedom, the subjects such as the aim of the course, choosing the teaching materials and textbooks, the lecturer, and the criteria for the measurement and evaluation of the course take place. And he point of research covers the aim of the study, academicians can’t be imposed the involve in an academic and artistic studies that conflict their values and beliefs; researchers should comply with codes of ethical principles and practices during the process of researching; and research outputs should be reported accurately and honestly without any misleading manipulation. Academic freedom does not provide any exemption from accountability in academic activities of the faculty, nor does it provide any right to act against the well-being of the society, current laws and regulations, and codes of ethical principles and practices.

  10. New threats to academic freedom. (United States)

    Minerva, Francesca


    Using a specific case as an example, the article argues that the Internet allows dissemination of academic ideas to the general public in ways that can sometimes pose a threat to academic freedom. Since academic freedom is a fundamental element of academia and since it benefits society at large, it is important to safeguard it. Among measures that can be taken in order to achieve this goal, the publication of anonymous research seems to be a good option. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Freedom of speech in Rome


    Díaz de Valdés,José Manuel


    This paper reflects on the existence and exercise of freedom of speech in Rome. After asserting that Romans considered free speech as part of the liberties provided by the Republican regime, it is affirmed that it was not regarded as a human right but as a political entitlement. As nowadays, freedom of speech was valued not only for its importance to the speaker, but also for its relevance to the political system. The paper states that during the Republic, this right was intensively exercised...

  12. Andragogical Education For Sustainable Democracy: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    For a real national rebirth for sustainable democracy, education which encourages critical thinking and creativity is imperative. Democracy in the classroom means freedom of speech, freedom to ask questions without inhibitions, and opportunities to think rationally and participate freely in the classroom community of inquiry.

  13. Academic Freedom in Hong Kong (United States)

    Currie, Jan; Petersen, Carole J.; Mok, Ka Ho


    In this book, the authors explore the unique situation in Hong Kong, a tiny jurisdiction in which there is active protection for the freedom of expression despite the close proximity and relationship with mainland China. Hong Kong scholars and intellectuals assume the responsibility of public critics, but this is not without an element of crisis.…

  14. Hey] What's Space Station Freedom? (United States)

    Vonehrenfried, Dutch

    This video, 'Hey] What's Space Station Freedom?', has been produced as a classroom tool geared toward middle school children. There are three segments to this video. Segment One is a message to teachers presented by Dr. Jeannine Duane, New Jersey, 'Teacher in Space'. Segment Two is a brief Social Studies section and features a series of Presidential Announcements by President John F. Kennedy (May 1961), President Ronald Reagan (July 1982), and President George Bush (July 1989). These historical announcements are speeches concerning the present and future objectives of the United States' space programs. In the last segment, Charlie Walker, former Space Shuttle astronaut, teaches a group of middle school children, through models, computer animation, and actual footage, what Space Station Freedom is, who is involved in its construction, how it is to be built, what each of the modules on the station is for, and how long and in what sequence this construction will occur. There is a brief animation segment where, through the use of cartoons, the children fly up to Space Station Freedom as astronauts, perform several experiments and are given a tour of the station, and fly back to Earth. Space Station Freedom will take four years to build and will have three lab modules, one from ESA and another from Japan, and one habitation module for the astronauts to live in.

  15. Hey! What's Space Station Freedom? (United States)

    Vonehrenfried, Dutch


    This video, 'Hey! What's Space Station Freedom?', has been produced as a classroom tool geared toward middle school children. There are three segments to this video. Segment One is a message to teachers presented by Dr. Jeannine Duane, New Jersey, 'Teacher in Space'. Segment Two is a brief Social Studies section and features a series of Presidential Announcements by President John F. Kennedy (May 1961), President Ronald Reagan (July 1982), and President George Bush (July 1989). These historical announcements are speeches concerning the present and future objectives of the United States' space programs. In the last segment, Charlie Walker, former Space Shuttle astronaut, teaches a group of middle school children, through models, computer animation, and actual footage, what Space Station Freedom is, who is involved in its construction, how it is to be built, what each of the modules on the station is for, and how long and in what sequence this construction will occur. There is a brief animation segment where, through the use of cartoons, the children fly up to Space Station Freedom as astronauts, perform several experiments and are given a tour of the station, and fly back to Earth. Space Station Freedom will take four years to build and will have three lab modules, one from ESA and another from Japan, and one habitation module for the astronauts to live in.

  16. Casting Freedom, 1860-1862 (United States)

    Social Education, 2005


    Thomas Crawford, an American Sculptor, created the full-size figure of Freedom in clay. Molds were made, from which a full-size positive plaster model was cast in five main sections. This model is on view today in the basement rotunda of the Russell Senate Office Building. Clark Mills was a self-taught American sculptor with experience in casting…

  17. A Setback for Religious Freedom. (United States)

    Sendor, Benjamin


    In "City of Boerne v. Flores, Archbishop of San Antonio," the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the 1993 Religious Freedom Restoration Act. RFRA was not intended to overrule a 1990 Supreme Court decision forbidding use of peyote in Native American religious ceremonies, but to "enforce" 14th-Amendment free-exercise rights. The…

  18. Academic Freedom and Sexual Harassment. (United States)

    Veraldi, Lorna


    A discussion of sexual harassment on American college campuses focuses on the case of Silva v. University of New Hampshire. The article examines the university's responsibility to protect students from sexual harassment while at the same time protecting freedom of expression. Various examples are presented in an attempt to define sexual…

  19. Which Freedom of the Press?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Jens Elo


     privileged freedom of the organised press to gather and report on information of public interest. These two conceptions have very different answers to the question of whether the press should enjoy some privilege to be exempt from ordinary legislation when such legislation restricts the access of the press to inform...... the public on matters of public interest....

  20. Internet Freedom and Political Space (United States)


    al-Jazeera About Digital,” Mashable Social Media, March 5, 2011; Tarak Barkawi, “The Globalisation of Revolution,” 50 Internet Freedom and...China Media Project, August 14, 2011. As of October 1, 2012: Barkawi, Tarak, “The Globalisation of Revolution,” al

  1. No School like Freedom School (United States)

    Williamson, Lisa Ann


    "You are the hope of the future." That's the message Marian Wright Edelman, executive director of the Children's Defense Fund (CDF), gave more than 1,500 excited college students and recent graduates as they began a week-long training for the CDF's Freedom Schools. She was preparing them for a daunting task--that of transforming the…

  2. Academic Freedom: A Lawyer's Perspective (United States)

    Davies, Mark


    Academic freedom is central to ideas of higher education, yet in the United Kingdom it is facing challenges from changing managerial approaches within some universities and changing governmental expectations. Universities are increasingly expected to focus upon knowledge which can be shown to have value and to exploit the results of academic…

  3. Old Dilemmas Renewed: Fear of Freedom vs. Freedom from Fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Gruszczyk


    Full Text Available Contemporary societies are currently subjected to very rapid and radical social changes and, as a consequence, struggle with their outcomes. The results range from the unforeseen repercussions of globally shifting political powers, through rising nationalisms, to prolonged economic, environmental, political and humanitarian crises. Critical analysis of the theories focused on the phenomena of authoritarianism, escapism, political myth, and conformity allows for outlining a comprehensive picture of the universally recognized opposition between freedom and security. From the distinction between the positive and negative freedom to the ambiguity surrounding the concept of “freedom from fear”, the fundamental dilemma is viewed from a historical perspective and illustrated with modern examples, emphasizing its current validity, insightfulness and potential in analyzing contemporary global problems. This approach allows for in-depth analyses of diversified social and political issues, such as the North African-European refugee crisis, rising nationalisms in the Western world, or a marked shift in political and social perspectives worldwide, from modern escapism to the birth of new myths of state.

  4. The quest for freedom of information

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in practice freedom of information is closely tied to freedom of expression. It is for this reason that ... tory obligation to make information available to the public? .... more effective participation in the good governance of Zambia;. (d) promote ...

  5. Felix Morley on Freedom and Federalism


    John Kincaid


    Federalism was central to Felix Morley's political thought because he regarded federalism as being essential to the protection of individual freedom in the United States. Federalism protects freedom, argued Morley, by limiting government, constraining the potential tyranny of a national majority, and reserving control over local affairs to local citizens. In turn, he believed that freedom is necessary for the maintenance of federalism. Freedom, however, was being threatened by the rise of the...

  6. Economic Freedom and Entrepreneurial Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Entrepreneurship Monitor). The combination of these two datasets is unique in the literature. We find that the size of government is negatively correlated with entrepreneurial activity but that sound money is positively correlated with entrepreneurial activity. Other measures of economic freedom......While much attention has been devoted to analyzing how the institutional framework and entrepreneurship impact growth, how economic policy and institutional design affect entrepreneurship appears to be much less analyzed. We try to explain cross-country differences in the level of entrepreneurship...... by differences in economic policy and institutional design. Specifically, we use the measures of economic freedom to ask which elements of economic policy making and the institutional framework that are responsible for the supply of entrepreneurship (our data on entrepreneurship are derived from the Global...

  7. Development as Freedom - And As What Else?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des); I.P. van Staveren (Irene)


    markdownabstractAbstract To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to

  8. Freedom of Speech Newsletter, February 1976. (United States)

    Allen, Winfred G., Jr., Ed.

    The "Freedom of Speech Newsletter" is the communication medium, published four times each academic year, of the Freedom of Speech Interest Group, Western Speech Communication Association. Articles included in this issue are "What Is Academic Freedom For?" by Ralph Ross, "A Sociology of Free Speech" by Ray Heidt,…

  9. Development as Freedom. And as What Else?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasper, D.; Staveren, I.P. van


    To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to analyze gender inequalities. At

  10. The Academic Freedom of John Dewey (United States)

    Fischer, Louis


    Academic freedom is a perennial issue in the public schools of America. As with most significant social issues, disagreements regarding the nature and extent of freedom appropriate in our society is reflected in our schools in various ways. Examines some of those conflicts with comments on John Dewey's convictions on academic freedom. (Author/RK)

  11. Development as Freedom : And as What Else?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, I.P. van; Gasper, D.


    To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to analyze gender inequalities. At

  12. Individual Freedom and Institutional Frameworks in Development (United States)

    Allen, Nicholas


    In this article I explore Amartya Sen's contention that individual freedom represents both the objective of development and the means through which development is to take place. Examining the conceptualisation of freedom central to Sen's capability approach, I distinguish between two notions of freedom, autonomy and agency, where the former…

  13. 3 CFR - Freedom of Information Act (United States)


    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Freedom of Information Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 21, 2009 Freedom of Information Act Memorandum for... disinfectants.” In our democracy, the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), which encourages accountability through...

  14. 77 FR 7243 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans... (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans... ``OMB Control No. 2900-0728.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment, VA Form 10-21091. OMB Control Number: 2900-0728. Type of...

  15. A Random Walk to Economic Freedom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witte, Mark David


    Full Text Available Given the wide use of economic freedom in economic literature it is imperative to understand how economic freedom evolves. Results suggest that levels of economic freedom are dominated by random shocks. Using a test for stationarity devised by Westerlund and Larsson (2012 we are unable to reject the null hypothesis of a random walk. The changes to economic freedom also are mostly driven by random shocks with only a minor role played by country specific characteristics. Additionally, changes to economic freedom are partially reversed as increases (decreases in one year are partially offset by decreases (increases in the next year.

  16. Modeling Sustainment Investment (United States)


    BASIS. CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY MAKES NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, AS TO ANY MATTER INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, WARRANTY...WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WITH RESPECT TO FREEDOM FROM PATENT, TRADEMARK, OR COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT . This material has been approved for public release...forecast the consequences of various alternatives? Sustainment Investment: the Problem Operations Supplying the fleet, customer support, etc

  17. Chronic Pain (United States)

    ... over. There are two types: acute pain and chronic pain. Acute pain lets you know that you may ... have problem you need to take care of. Chronic pain is different. The pain may last for weeks, ...

  18. Machiavelli: Ambition, Freedom and Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Villar Ezcurra


    Full Text Available This article tackles the anthropological conception of Machiavelli, mainly taken from the Discourses on the First Decade of Titus Livius in which stands out the identity of human passions and the importance of its understanding to reach political knowledge. Machiavelli considers that the human being is malleable in such a way that a passion can be fought and compensated by another one. From this perspective, is analysed the role of ambition and freedom both as a source of confrontation and degeneration and as an incentive to achieve the most important goals.

  19. Freedom: Toward an Integration of the Counseling Profession (United States)

    Hanna, Fred J.


    Freedom is presented as an overarching paradigm that may align and bring together the counseling profession's diverse counseling theories and open a doorway to a new generation of counseling techniques. Freedom is defined and discussed in terms of its 4 modalities: freedom from, freedom to, freedom with, and freedom for. The long-standing problem…

  20. Updating Animal Welfare Thinking: Moving beyond the "Five Freedoms" towards "A Life Worth Living". (United States)

    Mellor, David J


    The Five Freedoms have had major impact on animal welfare thinking internationally. However, despite clear initial statements that the words 'freedom from' should indicate 'as free as possible from', the Freedoms have come to be represented as absolute or fundamental freedoms, even rights, by some animal advocate and other groups. Moreover, a marked increase in scientific understanding over the last two decades shows that the Freedoms do not capture the more nuanced knowledge of the biological processes that is germane to understanding animal welfare and which is now available to guide its management. For example, the named negative experiences of thirst, hunger, discomfort and pain, and others identified subsequently, including breathlessness, nausea, dizziness, debility, weakness and sickness, can never be eliminated, merely temporarily neutralised. Each one is a genetically embedded element that motivates animals to behave in particular ways to obtain specific life-sustaining resources, avoid or reduce physical harm or facilitate recovery from infection or injury. Their undoubted negativity creates a necessary sense of urgency to respond, without which animals would not survive. Also, the temporary neutralisation of these survival-critical affects does not in and of itself generate positive experience. This questions the commonly held assumption that good animal welfare will result when these internally generated negative affects are minimised. Animals may also experience other negative affects that include anxiety, fear, panic, frustration, anger, helplessness, loneliness, boredom and depression. These situation-related affects reflect animals' perceptions of their external circumstances. Although they are elicited by threatening, cramped, barren and/or isolated conditions, they can often be replaced by positive affects when animals are kept with congenial others in spacious, stimulus-rich and safe environments which provide opportunities for them to engage in

  1. No freedom of action without emotional energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poder, Poul

    Bauman’s theory of freedom shows how freedom should be understood as a differential capacity of social positions. Consequently, Bauman treats freedom (of action) and power as two sides of the same coin implying that the freedom of one actor will often restrict the possibilities of action of others....... The paper further develops such a social and relational approach by arguing that freedom is also based on emotional energy and not merely on priveleges and power (cf. Bauman). Agency cannot be taken for granted as a generic feature of humans beings (cf. Layder, Bauman, Campbell) founded in consciousnes...... and intentionality (Fuchs). In a differential and generative sense freedom/agency is based on emotional energy. For example, to act personally, cooperately with others or on behalf on institutions individuals need feeling self-confidence, trust or loyalty (Barbalet). Such emotions are resources inmplicated...

  2. The Liberal Struggle for Press Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    In this paper, the public debate following the re-ligion-motivated assassination of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh in November 2004 is examined. The paper aims at describ-ing religious as well as secular positions in the Danish debate about freedom of speech and press in relation to religious issues....... Historically, the concept of press freedom was linked to a fight for religious freedom in London, as described by Siebert....

  3. BBG 2009 Freedom of Information Act Repot (United States)

    Broadcasting Board of Governors — The Broadcasting Board of Governors' annual Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) report includes detailed statistics on the number and disposition of FOIA requests,...

  4. BBG 2008 Freedom of Information Act Report (United States)

    Broadcasting Board of Governors — The Broadcasting Board of Governors' annual Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) report includes detailed statistics on the number and disposition of FOIA requests,...

  5. Effective degrees of freedom: a flawed metaphor. (United States)

    Janson, Lucas; Fithian, William; Hastie, Trevor J


    To most applied statisticians, a fitting procedure's degrees of freedom is synonymous with its model complexity, or its capacity for overfitting to data. In particular, it is often used to parameterize the bias-variance tradeoff in model selection. We argue that, on the contrary, model complexity and degrees of freedom may correspond very poorly. We exhibit and theoretically explore various fitting procedures for which degrees of freedom is not monotonic in the model complexity parameter, and can exceed the total dimension of the ambient space even in very simple settings. We show that the degrees of freedom for any non-convex projection method can be unbounded.

  6. Architectural freedom and industrialised architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge


    strategies which architects can use - to give the individual project attitudes and designs with architectural quality. Through the customized component production it is possible to choose many different proportions, to organize the process at site choosing either one room components or several rooms......Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture. Inge Vestergaard, Associate Professor, Cand. Arch. Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Noerreport 20, 8000 Aarhus C Telephone +45 89 36 0000 E-mai l Based on the repetitive architecture from the "building boom" 1960...... to 1973 it is discussed how architects can handle these Danish element and montage buildings through the transformation to upgraded aesthetical, functional and energy efficient architecture. The method used is analysis of cases, parallels to literature studies and producer interviews. This analysis...

  7. Prevalence and characteristics of driving difficulties in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom combat returnees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lew, Henry L; Kraft, Malissa; Pogoda, Terri K; Amick, Melissa M; Woods, Patricia; Cifu, David X


    ...) and/or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) veterans who were seen at a Department of Veterans Affairs outpatient polytrauma clinic...

  8. Educational Vouchers: Freedom to Choose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Reel


    Full Text Available Milton Friedman is famous for his book title: “Free to Choose.” He also favors educational vouchers, which denies the freedom to choose to people who do not wish to subsidize the education of other people’s children. Thus, he is guilty of a logical contradiction. Why is it important to assess whether Friedman’s views on educational vouchers are logically consistent with his widespread reputation as an advocate of free enterprise, and, thus, freedom to chose? It is important to assess all figures in political economy, and indeed all of scholarship, for logical consistency. It is particularly important to do so in the present case, given the prestige in certain quarters accorded to this Nobel prize-winning economist. We argue in this paper that Friedman’s reputation for logical consistency, and adherence to the philosophy of laissez faire capitalism, are both overblown. Our solution to this challenge is to completely privatize education. Friedman does not advocate that vouchers be utilized for food, clothing or shelter; we see no relevant difference in the case of education. What is the justification of the undertaken topic? This topic is important because education of the next generation is crucial for the upkeep and improvement of society. What is the aim of the present study? It is to demonstrate that the solution offered by M. Friedman and R. Friedman (1990 is highly problematic. What is the methodology used in the study? We quote from this author, and criticize his analysis. What are our main results and conclusions/recommendations? We conclude that the last best hope for the educational industry is laissez faire capitalism, not the mixed economy recommended by Friedman.

  9. The right of freedom of public assembly - constitutional aspects


    Flamur Hyseni


    Freedom and human rights are in the focus of human rights. The protection of fundamental freedoms and human rights still remains the main challenge of consolidating democracy in some countries. In this regard the difficulties in protecting rights and freedoms are connected with individual freedoms as well as collective freedoms. The freedom of expression continues to be among the freedoms that define the level of democratic development in countries. In this respect the right to public assembl...

  10. Prediction of postoperative pain: a systematic review of predictive experimental pain studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads Utke; Mjöbo, Helena N; Nielsen, Per R


    preoperative responses to experimental pain stimuli and clinical postoperative pain and demonstrates that the preoperative pain tests may predict 4-54% of the variance in postoperative pain experience depending on the stimulation methods and the test paradigm used. The predictive strength is much higher than...... previously reported for single factor analyses of demographics and psychologic factors. In addition, some of these studies indicate that an increase in preoperative pain sensitivity is associated with a high probability of development of sustained postsurgical pain....

  11. Freedom Of Expression In The View Of Community Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Țuțuianu


    Full Text Available AbstractEven if freedom of expression is one of the most disputed topics in the last few years, it’s also true that a democratic society cannot be conceived without respecting this fundamental right. Its regulation was in hands of the doctrine but also of the legal practice and the recent international bodies have given sustained attention through the European Convention on Human Rights:  the Treaty of Establishment of a Constitution for Europe; the Constitutions of the democratic countries and of Romania, the special laws: the Civil Code, the Criminal Code or the Press Law No. 9/1996 but also the article 30 of the Constitution. Freedom of speech does not include the excess of journalists too, that is why there are also limits  in the disclosures made under this right that has to provide legitimate interest, the pronouncement of a court, the right of a sanctioned journalist to appeal to a higher court.  Key words:  law, freedom, Europe, expression

  12. Economic Growth, Institutional Development and Personal Freedom: The Educational Needs of China. (United States)

    Clarke, Thomas


    To sustain growth requires changes in the Chinese economy and society. The Asian financial crisis shows that independent institutions and individual freedoms are necessary to stimulate entrepreneurship and innovation. Conservative social values often promoted by the education and training system could hinder economic growth. (SK)

  13. Neck Pain (United States)

    ... Conditions Living Well with Rheumatic Disease Neck Pain Neck Pain Fast Facts Whiplash from motor vehicle accidents is ... more frequently in women than men. What causes neck pain? Most episodes of neck pain are caused by ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    1 One should bear in mind that there is an extensive body of literature on this subject, particularly emerging form the U.S and historically ... Another traditionally influential rationale of freedom of expression is the one expounded by A. Meiklejohn. .... 'Fundamental Rights and Freedoms'. This chapter is divided in two parts.

  15. Let Freedom Ring! Bulletin, 1937, No. 32 (United States)

    Calhoun, Harold G.; Calhoun, Dorothy; Hatch, Roy W.; Cohen, Philip H.; Schramm, Rudolf


    This volume of "Let Freedom Ring!" contains the scripts of the 13 national broadcasts of the radio series of that name presented in the spring of 1937 over the national network of the Columbia Broadcast System. In "Let Freedom Ring!" you will find the courage, the struggle, the triumph of men and women who fought to win and safeguard liberties…

  16. Professional and Legal Limits to Academic Freedom. (United States)

    Metzger, Walter P.


    Discussion of trends concerning academic freedom compares the limits to academic freedom traditionally rooted in professional ethics and applied by the academic profession with the areas of protection prescribed by courts. It is concluded that even when generous, rulings have not necessarily been in the best interest of the academy. (MSE)

  17. Do We Still Need Academic Freedom? (United States)

    Shils, Edward


    This review of academic freedom in U.S. universities focuses on the role of the American Association of University Professors, which originally linked academic freedom and tenure but now views equality of genders, races, and cultures and the normality of homosexuality as the only real values, whereas truth is seen as illusory, even exploitative.…

  18. Freedom of Speech and Philosophy of Education (United States)

    Harris, Roy


    Why is freedom of speech so seldom raised as an issue in philosophy of education? In assessing this question, it is important to distinguish (i) between a freedom and its exercise, and (ii) between different philosophies of education. Western philosophies of education may be broadly divided into classes derived from theories of knowledge first…

  19. 77 FR 68043 - World Freedom Day, 2012 (United States)


    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8903 of November 9, 2012 World Freedom Day..., 2012, as World Freedom Day. I call upon the people of the United States to observe this day with... WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this ninth day of November, in the year of our Lord two thousand...

  20. EU economic freedoms and social dumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, J.; Bernaciak, M.


    In the book, Market Expansion and Social Dumping in Europe, edited by Magdalena Bernaciak and published by Routledge, Jan Cremers (AIAS) contributes with a chapter called ‘EU economic freedoms and social dumping’. He demonstrates how the emphasis on the primacy of economic freedoms has negatively

  1. Group Freedom : A Social Mechanism Account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Frank


    Many existing defenses of group rights seem to rely on the notion of group freedom. To date, however, no adequate analysis of this notion has been offered. Group freedom is best understood in terms of processes of social categorization that are embedded in social mechanisms. Such processes often

  2. Negative freedom and the liberal paradoxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, M.V.B.P.M

    In their game-theoretic formulations, the liberal paradoxes of Amartya Sm and Alan Gibbard show a tension between freedom on the one hand, and Pareto optimality and stability on the other. This article examines what happens to the liberal paradoxes if a negative conception of freedom is used. Given

  3. 78 FR 4293 - Religious Freedom Day, 2013 (United States)


    ... Americans hold sacred is the freedom to worship as we choose. Today, we celebrate one of our Nation's first... shaped by every language and enriched by every culture. We are a nation of Christians and Muslims, Jews... freedom. Americans of every faith have molded the character of our Nation. They were pilgrims who sought...

  4. Freedom of Expression in the Arts. (United States)

    Focke, Anne

    This report describes the process used by the Arts Midwest task force on freedom of artistic expression along with their findings and recommendations as they examined issues surrounding freedom of expression at the beginning of the decade. At a time when the National Endowment for the Arts was struggling through rigorous congressional…

  5. Freedom, Indeterminism and Imagination | Pitman | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A suspicion about libertarian free will is that freedom is undermined, rather than supported, by the positing of indeterminism within processes of volition. In response, this paper presents a way in which moments of indeterminism can enhance freedom, by showing how such moments can genuinely belong to the agent.

  6. Intellectual Freedom and Censorship in the Library (United States)

    Cooper, Jessica L.


    The article gives a brief description of intellectual freedom and censorship in order to set a foundation for looking into the library community's role in advocating for intellectual freedom and combating censorship. Focus is given to the unique challenges of school libraries in fulfilling the larger library community's expectations in these two…

  7. An unresolved problem : freedom across lifetimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Andreas T

    Freedom is one of the central values in political and moral philosophy. A number of theorists hold that freedom (or, relatedly, opportunity) should either be the only or at least one of the central distribuenda in our theories of distributive justice. Moreover, many follow Mill and hold that a

  8. Academic Freedom: A Global Comparative Approach (United States)

    Marginson, Simon


    Academic freedom is best understood not as an abstract universal principle or an ideal state of being but as concrete university practices nested in specific relational environments. As such, practices of academic freedom vary across the world, according to variations in political cultures, educational cultures and state-university relations. The…

  9. Exemplary Teachers: Teaching for Intellectual Freedom (United States)

    Collinson, Vivienne


    Intellectual freedom has long been a desirable ideal and a foundational value for supporting democratic governance. Since 1948, it has been a universal human right. Given the unique nature of education in democratic societies, schools serve as a crucible for helping children understand and practise the rudiments of intellectual freedom. Drawing on…

  10. Freedom of Conscience and Catholic Schools (United States)

    Donlevy, J. K.; Gereluk, D.; Patterson, P.; Brandon, J.


    This paper's purpose is to extensively review the historical understanding of conscience and the current juridical interpretation of freedom of conscience under section 2(a) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982). It then briefly notes that given the challenge faced by Ontario's Catholic schools in providing for inclusionary…

  11. Adorno on Kant, Freedom and Determinism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jutten, Timo


    In this paper I argue that Adorno's metacritique of freedom in Negative Dialectics and related texts remains fruitful today. I begin with some background on Adorno's conception of metacritique and on Kant's conception of freedom, as I understand it. Next, I discuss Adorno's analysis of the

  12. Escape from Freedom: Towards the Political Realm (United States)

    Dillon, Katrina


    In this paper, the author contends that the ability to create a political realm is dependent upon one's state of freedom. She questions what it means to be free and whether assumptions of the definitions of this concept are always good or beneficial. After discussing some of the known theories about freedom, she states that schools are some…

  13. Sociological Discourse(s) on Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertilsson, Margareta

    The concept of freedom is often thought of as antithetical to sociology. The discipline is more prone to detect and unveil forms of unfreedom, as Zygmunt Bauman (1988) has pointed out. The question remains if any academic discipline, however, including sociology can do away with the concept...... of freedom al together! In matters of science, the problem of determinism vs. chance and spontaneity is essential. Hence, freedom, in one sense or the other, is necessarily at bottom also of sociological discourse. This text is an attempt to map the predominant forms of freedom found in sociological...... discourses. While starting out with the classic liberal concept informing theories of modernity followed by the various critiques directed against liberalism, not the least the most recently occurring (Lyotard, Agamben), the aim here is to spot possible trajectories in our comprehension of freedom, also...

  14. Sustainable Innovation of Glass Design and Craft


    Sparre-Petersen, Maria


    Barely any research has been made into the implementation of sustainable principles in glass design and craft. A common tendency among students and practitioners is to consider it problematic if not impossible to develop a “truly sustainable practice”. Generally glass crafts people and glass designers aim to explore new aesthetic possibilities for the material and see sustainability as a hindrance for aesthetic freedom.On the contrary the field of design has strong and growing emphasis on sus...

  15. Pain assessment. (United States)

    Haefeli, Mathias; Elfering, Achim


    Pain usually is the major complaint of patients with problems of the back, thus making pain evaluation a fundamental requisite in the outcome assessment in spinal surgery. Pain intensity, pain-related disability, pain duration and pain affect are the aspects that define pain and its effects. For each of these aspects, different assessment instruments exist and are discussed in terms of advantages and disadvantages. Risk factors for the development of chronic pain have been a major topic in pain research in the past two decades. Now, it has been realised that psychological and psychosocial factors may substantially influence pain perception in patients with chronic pain and thus may influence the surgical outcome. With this background, pain acceptance, pain tolerance and pain-related anxiety as factors influencing coping strategies are discussed. Finally, a recommendation for a minimum as well as for a more comprehensive pain assessment is given.

  16. The Fifth Freedom is Freedom of choice: "America" as a Rhetorical Tool


    Kroes, Rob


    In his State of the Union Address to Congress, in 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave succinct expression to the motives that should be guiding America's action on the global stage. They have become known as the Four Freedoms: the freedom of speech and expression, the freedom of worship, the freedom from want and the freedom from from fear. America was not yet involved in the war, but Roosevelt had long since seen the plot thickening. Politically, he was not able yet to declare war and...

  17. Freedom of Speech: Dimensi Kebebasan Dalam Paradigma Komunikasi Dakwah


    Rasyid, Abdul


    The freedom of opinion as freedom of speak constitute one of important factor to build democrazy. The scaientist agree that is no absolute freedom. The freedom always assumed have conditions. As it also with freedom of speak. It occures in law limits is used by state or nation.

  18. Functional Freedom: A Psychological Model of Freedom in Decision-Making. (United States)

    Lau, Stephan; Hiemisch, Anette


    The freedom of a decision is not yet sufficiently described as a psychological variable. We present a model of functional decision freedom that aims to fill that role. The model conceptualizes functional freedom as a capacity of people that varies depending on certain conditions of a decision episode. It denotes an inner capability to consciously shape complex decisions according to one's own values and needs. Functional freedom depends on three compensatory dimensions: it is greatest when the decision-maker is highly rational, when the structure of the decision is highly underdetermined, and when the decision process is strongly based on conscious thought and reflection. We outline possible research questions, argue for psychological benefits of functional decision freedom, and explicate the model's implications on current knowledge and research. In conclusion, we show that functional freedom is a scientific variable, permitting an additional psychological foothold in research on freedom, and that is compatible with a deterministic worldview.

  19. Space Station Freedom - What if...? (United States)

    Grey, Jerry


    The use of novel structural designs and the Energia launch system of the Commonwealth of Independent States for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) program is evaluated by means of a concept analysis. The analysis assumes that: (1) Energia is used for all cargo and logistics resupply missions; (2) the shuttles are launched from the U.S.; and (3) an eight-person assured crew return vehicle is available. This launch/supply scenario reduces the deployment risk from 30 launches to a total of only eight launches reducing the cost by about 15 billion U.S. dollars. The scenario also significantly increases the expected habitable and storage volumes and decreases the deployment time by three years over previous scenarios. The specific payloads are given for Energia launches emphasizing a proposed design for the common module cluster that incorporates direct structural attachment to the truss at midspan. The design is shown to facilitate the accommodation of additional service hangars and to provide a more efficient program for spacecraft habitable space.

  20. 77 FR 4643 - Freedom of Information Act Implementation (United States)


    ... RIN 2590-AA44 Freedom of Information Act Implementation AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION... existing Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) regulation. This final regulation provides procedures and... action, Freedom of Information Act, Judicial review, Records, Requests. Authority and Issuance...

  1. Response to Haskell's "Academic Freedom ... & Student Evaluation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E. Stake


    Full Text Available Haskell (1997 argued that the administrative practice of student evaluation of faculty is a threat to academic freedom. However, before that claim can be substantiated, several prior questions must be addressed: To whom does academic freedom belong? Individual faculty? The academy? Whose actions can violate the right? Can any lines be drawn based on whether the substance or form of classroom behavior is influenced? And still another crucial point is whether a body can violate academic freedom without any intent to interfere with or control the substance of what is said to students.

  2. Kant, Freedom as Independence, and Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.


    While the influence of Kant’s practical philosophy on contemporary political theory has been profound, it has its source in Kant’s autonomy-based moral philosophy rather than in his freedom-based philosophy of Right. Kant scholars have increasingly turned their attention to Kant’s Rechtslehre......, but they have largely ignored its potential contribution to discussions of democracy. However, Kant’s approach to political philosophy can supply unique insights to the latter. His notion that freedom and the public legal order are co-constitutive can be developed into a freedom argument for constitutional...

  3. Seizure Freedom in Children With Pathology-Confirmed Focal Cortical Dysplasia. (United States)

    Mrelashvili, Anna; Witte, Robert J; Wirrell, Elaine C; Nickels, Katherine C; Wong-Kisiel, Lily C


    We evaluated the temporal course of seizure outcome in children with pathology-confirmed focal cortical dysplasia and explored predictors of sustained seizure freedom. We performed a single-center retrospective study of children ≤ 18 years who underwent resective surgery from January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2012 and had pathology-proven focal cortical dysplasia. Surgical outcome was classified as seizure freedom (Engel class I) or seizure recurrence (Engel classes II-IV). Fisher exact and nonparametric Wilcoxon ranksum tests were used, as appropriate. Survival analysis was based on seizure-free outcome. Patients were censored at the time of seizure recurrence or seizure freedom at last follow-up. Thirty-eight patients were identified (median age at surgery, 6.5 years; median duration of epilepsy, 3.3 years). Median time to last follow-up was 13.5 months (interquartile range, 7-41 months). Twenty patients (53%) were seizure free and 26 patients (68%) attained seizure freedom for a minimum of 3 months. Median time to seizure recurrence was 38 months (95% confidence interval, 6-109 months), and the cumulative seizure-free rate was 60% at 12 months (95% confidence interval, 43%-77%). Clinical features associated with seizure freedom at last follow-up included older age at seizure onset (P = .02), older age at surgery (P = .04), absent to mild intellectual disability before surgery (P = .05), and seizure freedom for a minimum of 3 months (P freedom included older age at seizure onset, older age at surgery, absent or mild intellectual disability at baseline, and seizure freedom for a minimum of 3 months. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Annual Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Reports (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA makes annual reports of progress made on Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests. This database contains PDF and XML versions of reports from 1999 to the...

  5. Academic Freedom and Society: Some Critical Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Choksey


    Full Text Available A review of a recent one-day conference, Academic Freedom and Society, held on June 2 2017 at the University of Warwick, which sought to pose questions about ideals and practices of academic freedom, historically and in the current moment, across disciplinary and national borders. Speakers discussed the university and human rights practices, Islamophobia and teaching law, ‘Decolonise the University’, links between funding and research, digital piracy, new sites of knowledge commons, and university managerialism, and the challenges and possibilities these topics pose to the practice of academic freedom. Has the university ever been autonomous from state interests, and what modes of freedom are currently available to academics – already unevenly contingent on social and national identifications – in practice?

  6. Freedom of the Press – two concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Meckl


    Full Text Available In 1644 the debate for freedom of expression started in modern times thanks to John Milton’s Areopagitica, where he still argued about God in order to justify his quest for freedom. With the enlightenment God lost his unifying role for society and could no longer serve as justification. Two arguments were brought then forward to justify freedom of the press: One by the continental movement of the enlightenment; the other from within the movement of utilitarianism, and most influentially by John Stuart Mill. Both underlined the importance of truth; however, they differed in their understanding on what truth was good for. This difference in their arguments had a lasting impact on the debate on the limits of freedom of the press.

  7. Librarians and Intellectual Freedom: Are Opinions Changing? (United States)

    Bundy, Mary Lee; Stakem, Teresa


    Presents the results of a survey of public librarians in the United States conducted to determine their attitudes toward intellectual freedom with emphasis on responses regarding extension services to poor and minorities, attitude changes, and factors that influence attitudes. (CHC)

  8. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Plan (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Executive Order (E.O.) 13,392 mandates that each federal agency shall have a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) working plan with established goals and time frames to...

  9. 75 FR 3843 - Religious Freedom Day, 2010 (United States)


    ... Religious Freedom Day. I call on all Americans to commemorate this day with events and activities that teach... future generations here and around the world. ] IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this...

  10. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Tracking System (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Tracking system which allows for the input of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request date, compiles the due date, information pertaining to the request, name...

  11. Kant, Freedom as Independence, and Democracy


    Rostbøll, Christian F.


    While the influence of Kant’s practical philosophy on contemporary political theory has been profound, it has its source in Kant’s autonomy-based moral philosophy rather than in his freedom-based philosophy of Right. Kant scholars have increasingly turned their attention to Kant’s Rechtslehre, but they have largely ignored its potential contribution to discussions of democracy. However, Kant’s approach to political philosophy can supply unique insights to the latter. His notion that freedom a...

  12. The fragility of freedom of speech. (United States)

    Shackel, Nicholas


    Freedom of speech is a fundamental liberty that imposes a stringent duty of tolerance. Tolerance is limited by direct incitements to violence. False notions and bad laws on speech have obscured our view of this freedom. Hence, perhaps, the self-righteous intolerance, incitements and threats in response to Giubilini and Minerva. Those who disagree have the right to argue back but their attempts to shut us up are morally wrong.

  13. Back Pain (United States)

    ... Accessed May 29, 2015. Adult acute and subacute low back pain. Bloomington, Minn.: Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. Accessed June ...

  14. Postoperative pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H; Dahl, J B


    Treatment of postoperative pain has not received sufficient attention by the surgical profession. Recent developments concerned with acute pain physiology and improved techniques for postoperative pain relief should result in more satisfactory treatment of postoperative pain. Such pain relief may...... also modify various aspects of the surgical stress response, and nociceptive blockade by regional anesthetic techniques has been demonstrated to improve various parameters of postoperative outcome. It is therefore stressed that effective control of postoperative pain, combined with a high degree...

  15. Sustainable Consumption Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Vringer


    Full Text Available To examine which considerations play a role when individuals make decisions to purchase sustainable product varieties or not, we have conducted a large scale field experiment with more than 600 participating households. Households can vote on whether the budgets they receive should only be spent on purchasing the sustainable product variety, or whether every household in a group is free to spend their budget on any product variety. By conducting several treatments, we tested whether people tend to view sustainable consumption as a social dilemma or as a moral dilemma. We find little support for the hypothesis that social dilemma considerations are the key drivers of sustainable consumption behaviour. Participants seem to be caught in a moral dilemma in which they not only weigh their individual financial costs with the sustainable benefits but they also consider the consequences of restricting other people’s freedom of choice. Complementary survey results further substantiate this claim and show that many people are reluctant to impose restrictions on their peers, but, at the same time, our results also suggest substantial support for the government to regulate the availability of unsustainable product varieties.

  16. Academic freedom: why do we need a Magna Charta?


    Karran, Terence



  17. 28 CFR 802.5 - Freedom of Information Act requests. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Freedom of Information Act requests. 802... DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Freedom of Information Act § 802.5 Freedom of Information Act...) ordinarily will be processed pursuant to the Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C. 552. Your request must be...

  18. 34 CFR 5.32 - Freedom of information officer. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Freedom of information officer. 5.32 Section 5.32... PURSUANT TO PUB. L. 90-23 (Eff. until 7-14-10) Freedom of Information Officer § 5.32 Freedom of information officer. The Freedom of Information Officer shall be responsible for determining whether records of the...

  19. America, guns and freedom: Part II — An international perspective (United States)

    Faria, Miguel A.


    The need for reducing gun violence is discussed along with the necessity for citizens to assume some responsibility for protecting themselves, their families, and their property from criminal elements because the police cannot physically be everywhere to protect us all of the time. The problem of sensationalization of gun crimes by the media, multiple shootings by deranged individuals, accidents with firearms, suicide rates, and children with guns are discussed. The relationship of civilian disarmament in the context of tyrannical governments and genocide are also explored. Incidents in which liberty has been extinguished because firearms have been banned and citizens have been disarmed by increasingly oppressive governments, and the converse, countries where freedom has been preserved by armed citizens are also described. We conclude that guns in the hands of law-abiding citizens deter crimes, and nations that trust their citizens with firearms have governments that sustain liberty and affirm individual freedom. Governments that do not trust their citizens with firearms tend to be despotic and tyrannical, and are a potential danger to good citizens — and a peril to humanity. PMID:23227440

  20. Infections Complicating the Care of Combat Casualties During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom (United States)


    958.3 Posttraum wound infection nec 71 997.62 Infection amputation stump 15 Urine 599 Urinary tract infection nos 40 788.3 Urinary incontinence nos 10...ORIGINAL ARTICLE Infections Complicating the Care of Combat Casualties During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom Clinton K. Murray, MD

  1. Institutional Academic Freedom vs. Faculty Academic Freedom in Public Colleges and Universities: A Dubious Dichotomy. (United States)

    Hiers, Richard H.


    Analyzes the origins of recent federal appellate decisions' divergence from the Supreme Court's identification of teachers' or faculty's academic freedom as "a special concern of the First Amendment." Suggests ways in which academic freedom might better be accorded its rightful importance within the framework of current Supreme Court…

  2. Neuropathic Pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    pain is not at all clear and this can be attributed to the fact that terminology defining the disease is very uncertain. ... This is also classified as chronic pain. In these ... CRPS Type II (Complete regional pain syndrome). * Phantom limb pain. * Spinal cord injury. * Post surgery. - laminectorny. - spinal fusion. - general surgery.

  3. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics


    Alvarez, Mavis Dora


    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  4. Nursing diagnoses in women deprived of freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabelle de Freitas Ferreira


    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the nursing diagnoses profile of women deprived of freedom, using the International Classification for Nursing® Practice version 1.0. Methods: a descriptive study, conducted with 186 women deprived of freedom. Nursing Diagnoses were extrapolated based on the clinical data of the participants, collected through a structured form and clinical reasoning. Results: there were 44 nursing diagnostic statements, among the most common, there were: infection risk (70.9%; fluid intake, decreased (61.2%; Sleep, impaired (60.7%; tobacco abuse, started (51.6%; health seeking behavior, committed (50.0%. Conclusion: the diagnoses are related to factors that compromise the biopsychosocial health. The nurse, health staff member in the prison setting, must recognize and assess the individual and collective needs of women deprived of freedom. The inference of nursing diagnoses, based on clinical reasoning, contributes to a humanized, empathic and special care.

  5. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy, and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian Fogh

    The strongest versions of the democracy argument for freedom of expression rely on the deliberative conception of democracy. Deliberative democracy entails both an ideal of political autonomy and of autonomous preference formation. This paper elaborates the deliberative democracy argument...... for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. In response to the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy, it is argued that autonomy-based democracy is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural...... is good for oneself and what is equally good for all. While freedom of expression is indispensable for deliberation and autonomy, this does not mean that citizens have no obligations with regard to how they speak to each other. The moral insights that deliberation delivers depends on that the participants...

  6. Progress as Compositional Lock-Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Dardha, Ornela; Montesi, Fabrizio


    such definition to capture a more intuitive notion of context adequacy for checking progress. Interestingly, our new catalysers lead to a novel characterisation of progress in terms of the standard notion of lock-freedom. Guided by this discovery, we also develop a conservative extension of catalysers that does...... not depend on types, generalising the notion of progress to untyped session-based processes. We combine our results with existing techniques for lock-freedom, obtaining a new methodology for proving progress. Our methodology captures new processes wrt previous progress analysis based on session types....

  7. The Chains Around Academic Freedom in Teaching-Learning. (United States)

    Condon, Barbara Backer


    Freedom as a concept has been much debated. Is freedom an innate part of being, or does freedom even truly exists? These are questions that have gleaned countless hours of discourse over the years. Two components of freedom that can influence nurse higher education are freedom of speech, in the form of media, and academic freedom. The author of this column first introduces three views of freedom to demonstrate the differences surrounding it. A discussion of the media's use or misuse of freedom of speech and its influence on nursing education is then presented, followed by an examination of current threats to academic freedom in today's institutes of higher learning and specifically in the nursing education arena. The author concludes with suggestions on being a nurse educator through living as a humanbecoming professional while navigating issues surrounding nursing education.

  8. Accreditation and Academic Freedom. An American Association of University Professors--Council for Higher Education Accreditation Advisory Statement (United States)

    Council for Higher Education Accreditation, 2013


    This joint American Association of University Professors-Council for Higher Education advisory statement addresses the role that accreditation plays in sustaining and enhancing academic freedom in the context of review of institutions and programs for quality. It offers five suggestions about the role of accreditation with regard to academic…

  9. Sexual pain. (United States)

    Boardman, Lori A; Stockdale, Colleen K


    Sexual pain is an underrecognized and poorly treated constellation of disorders that significantly impact affected women and their partners. Recognized as a form of chronic pain, sexual pain disorders are heterogeneous and include dyspareunia (superficial and deep), vaginismus, vulvodynia, vestibulitis, and noncoital sexual pain disorder. Women too often tolerate pain in the belief that this will meet their partners' needs. This article provides a review of the terminology and definition of the condition, theories on the pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, and recommendations on the management of female sexual pain.

  10. Multimodal nociceptive mechanisms underlying chronic pelvic pain. (United States)

    Hellman, Kevin M; Patanwala, Insiyyah Y; Pozolo, Kristen E; Tu, Frank F


    We sought to evaluate candidate mechanisms underlying the pelvic floor dysfunction in women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and/or painful bladder syndrome (PBS)/interstitial cystitis. Notably, prior studies have not consistently controlled for potential confounding by psychological or anatomical factors. As part of a larger study on pelvic floor pain dysfunction and bladder pain sensitivity, we compared a measure of mechanical pain sensitivity, pressure pain thresholds (PPTs), between women with pelvic pain and pain-free controls. We also assessed a novel pain measure using degree and duration of postexam pain aftersensation, and conducted structural and functional assessments of the pelvic floor to account for any potential confounding. Phenotypic specificity of pelvic floor measures was assessed with receiver operator characteristic curves adjusted for prevalence. A total of 23 women with CPP, 23 women with PBS, and 42 pain-free controls completed the study. Women with CPP or PBS exhibited enhanced pain sensitivity with lower PPTs (1.18 [interquartile range, 0.87-1.41] kg/cm(2)) than pain-free participants (1.48 [1.11-1.76] kg/cm(2); P pain aftersensation (3.5 [0-9] vs 0 [0-1] minutes; P pelvic floor anatomy, muscle tone, or strength. The combination of PPTs and aftersensation duration correlated with severity of pelvic floor tenderness (R(2), 41-51; P pain-free controls from women with CPP or PBS (area under the curve, 0.87). Both experimental assessment of pelvic floor pain thresholds and measurement of sustained pain are independently associated with pelvic pain phenotypes. These findings suggest systematic clinical assessment of the time course of provoked pain symptoms, which occurs over seconds for mechanical pain thresholds vs minutes for aftersensation pain, would be helpful in identifying the fundamental mechanisms of pelvic floor pain. Longitudinal studies of therapies differentially targeting these discrete mechanisms are needed to confirm their

  11. Freedom of Expression in Elementary School. (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.


    Uses question and answer format to discuss scope of elementary students' First Amendment freedom of expression rights. For example, does the First Amendment prevent the disciplining of a sixth grader for writing a sexually inappropriate remark in another student's notebook? Answer: No. (Contains 13 references.) (PKP)

  12. Defending Academic Freedom: Advice for Teachers (United States)

    Simpson, Michael D.


    Social studies and history teachers should be free to expose students to controversial ideas and to teach critical thinking skills. But are they free? Do they have the constitutional right--call it academic freedom--to teach what they want and to discuss controversial issues in the classroom? The short answer is "no." In this article,…

  13. Freedom of Information, Records Management and Good ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Governments around the world are often praised for good or rebuked for bad governance. This paper argues that good governance is predicated on the adoption of functional records management and the enactment of Freedom of Information (FOI) legislation by governments. Records that are accumulated and used by ...

  14. The Freedoms and Capabilities of Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaret, Jacques; Chylinski, Caroline; Vaarst, Mette


    Organic farming promotes animal husbandry practices that consider the welfare of the animals on the farm. The concept of animal welfare and the standards that should encompass this concept have in many cases been largely generalised in practice, which leaves relevant aspects of animal freedom...

  15. Index of Economic Freedom: Unrealized Pedagogical Opportunities (United States)

    Maier, Mark; Miller, John A.


    Although the Index of Economic Freedom appears in many economic textbooks, their coverage of the index misses opportunities to teach statistical and policy-related concepts important for the principles course. The standard textbook presentation passes up an opportunity to examine the statistical issues of weighting in composite index numbers and…

  16. Freedom and security: a sometimes delicate balance

    CERN Multimedia


    Like any academic institution, CERN celebrates freedom: freedom of expression, freedom of thought and freedom of movement. Occasionally, however, circumstances beyond our control oblige us to impose certain restrictions.   Friday, 26 June was just such an occasion. On that day, terrorists chose to commit unfathomable atrocities in France, near Lyon, as well as in Kuwait and Tunisia. The brutality exhibited in all three attacks is beyond comprehension, and I am sure that we all feel for the victims and all those touched by these hideous acts. At times such as this, and on the basis of information that I receive from external agencies, it is my responsibility as Director-General to decide whether measures are needed at CERN, and to apply them at an appropriate level if I deem it necessary. On Friday, based on the information I had at my disposal, I decided that the situation merited extra vigilance at the entrances to CERN for the sake of ensuring the safety and security of everyone on site. I...

  17. Histories and Freedom of the Present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vucina, Naja; Drejer, Claus Munch; Triantafillou, Peter


    This paper compares the ways in which Michel Foucault and Quentin Skinner’s historical analyses seek to unsettle the limits on present forms of freedom. We do so by comparing their ways of analyzing discourse, rationality and agency. The two authors differ significantly in the ways they deal...

  18. EU Economic Freedoms and Social Dumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; Bernaciak, Magdalena


    In the book, 'Market Expansion and Social Dumping in Europe', edited by Magdalena Bernaciak and published by Routledge, Jan Cremers (AIAS and Tilburg University) contributes with a chapter called ‘EU economic freedoms and social dumping’. He demonstrates how the emphasis on the primacy of economic

  19. Slow Learners' Attitudes toward Fundamental Freedoms. (United States)

    Curtis, Charles K.


    This article reports a study that compared slow learners' attitudes toward the freedoms described in the Canadian Bill of Rights with those of vocational and academic students. As a group, slow learners in Canada scored significantly below vocational and academic students, and the scores for each group suggested only a slight libertarian bias.…

  20. Nursing diagnoses in women deprived of freedom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Izabelle de Freitas Ferreira; Tatiane Gomes Guedes; Sheila Coelho Ramalho Vasconcelos Morais; José Cristovam Martins Vieira; Marcelle Guimarães de Mello; Francisca Márcia Pereira Linhares


    ...: the diagnoses are related to factors that compromise the biopsychosocial health. The nurse, health staff member in the prison setting, must recognize and assess the individual and collective needs of women deprived of freedom. The inference of nursing diagnoses, based on clinical reasoning, contributes to a humanized, empathic and special care.

  1. The Liberal Struggle for Press Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    In this paper, the public debate following the religion-motivated assassination of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh in November 2004 is examined. The paper aims at describing religious as well as secular positions in the Danish debate about freedom of speech and press in relation to religious issues...

  2. Multiple degree of freedom optical pattern recognition (United States)

    Casasent, D.


    Three general optical approaches to multiple degree of freedom object pattern recognition (where no stable object rest position exists) are advanced. These techniques include: feature extraction, correlation, and artificial intelligence. The details of the various processors are advanced together with initial results.

  3. religious freedom in South African constitutional jurisprudence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irma Kroeze

    Religious freedom is one of the sites where this conflict is often played out. Religion is one of the factors that ... approach to the question of the conflict between self-rule and law-rule. For this purpose Michelman's analysis ..... corporal punishment is usually delegated by the parents to the teachers who act in loco parentis [5].


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Halbach, Jr. ed., 1977), at 9, 12, in Daniel B. Kelley, Restricting Testamentary Freedom: Ex Ante Versus Ex Post. Justifications, (2013). .... (the testator's) will, such child can rely on the above section to benefit from the testator's estate under the guise of the ..... and siblings, along with the spouse and children. In Nigeria, an ...

  5. Hannah Arendt and the "Freedom" to Think (United States)

    Morgan, Marie


    Dissatisfied with the Western tradition of political philosophy, Arendt maintained a tension between the political, which she associates primarily with the freedom to act, and the philosophical, which she associates principally with the activity of thinking, throughout her works. Whilst Arendt's work is underpinned by a focus on political action,…

  6. Milton's "Areopagitica" Freedom of Speech on Campus (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel F.


    The author discusses the content in John Milton's "Areopagitica: A Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing to the Parliament of England" (1985) and provides parallelism to censorship practiced in higher education. Originally published in 1644, "Areopagitica" makes a powerful--and precocious--argument for freedom of speech…

  7. The Adult Learner's Need for Inner Freedom. (United States)

    Holtzclaw, Louis R.


    Discusses varying philosophies on the nature of being human and the question of freedom v determinism. This leads to a consideration of the decision-making responsibility and self-knowledge needed by the adult learner and the similar qualities required of the adult counselor/facilitator in working with adult students. (MF)

  8. Artistic Freedom: An Art World Paradox. (United States)

    Lankford, E. Louis


    Analyzes two recent controversies about censorship of arts: Robert Mapplethorpe's photographs and U.S. congressional limits on funding for National Endowment for the Arts. Maintains artistic freedom can be encouraged if all segments of society learn about arts. Recommends that aesthetic education deal with these controversial issues, the social…

  9. Freedom of the Press vs. Public Access. (United States)

    Schmidt, Benno C., Jr.

    This book surveys the implications of freedom of the press for a constitutionally rooted public right of access to electronic and print media. Part one provides general perspectives on access to the media, including discussions of access in relation to the Supreme Court, to First Amendment history and theory, to current perceptions of the press,…

  10. Freedom of the Press: Foundations and Attitudes. (United States)

    Gibson, Martin Leroy, Jr.

    This study reports the results of a national survey of the attitudes of five demographic groups toward freedom of the press. The groups are newsmen, state legislators, high school teachers, high school students, and the general public. The survey is broken into two parts, the first dealing with general principles (e.g., support for a law against…

  11. Playful teaching between freedom and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Toft-Nielsen, Claus; Whitton, Nicola


    as it invites for a different type of teaching and learning environment, providing a safe educational space, in which mistake-making is not only encouraged, but engrained into the system. Taking up a ‘lusory attitude’ in the magic circle can create freedom, support playfulness and intrinsic motivation, and make...

  12. Academic Freedom: Problems in Conceptualization and Research (United States)

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M. M.


    Academic freedom is of central importance to higher education and it affects all aspects of work at universities. It symbolizes academics' acceptance of the need for openness and flexibility (Balyer, 2011) and it protects the conditions leading to the creation of good teaching and learning, sound research, and scholarship (Atkinson, 2004).…

  13. Freedom and privacy in ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.


    This paper analyzes ethical aspects of the new paradigm of Ambient Intelligence, which is a combination of Ubiquitous Computing and Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI’s). After an introduction to the approach, two key ethical dimensions will be analyzed: freedom and privacy. It is argued that Ambient

  14. Negative freedom and death in the United States. (United States)

    Ackerson, Leland K; Subramanian, S V


    Personal freedoms have been characterized as "positive" (freedom to pursue opportunities) and "negative" (freedom from external constraints on decision making). An ecological analysis of US data revealed a strong positive association (r = 0.41; P = .003) between state-level negative personal freedom (defined in terms of regulation of personal behavior) and state-level age-adjusted rates of unintentional injury. A conceptual emphasis on positive freedom construed as freedom to pursue a life without risk of unintentional injury could help motivate a conversation to improve public health.

  15. Religious Freedoms In Republic Of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metaj-Stojanova Albana


    Full Text Available With the independence of Republic of Macedonia and the adoption of the Constitution of Macedonia, the country went through a substantial socio-political transition. The concept of human rights and freedoms, such as religious freedoms in the Macedonian Constitution is based on liberal democratic values. The Macedonian Constitution connects the fundamental human rights and freedoms with the concept of the individual and citizen, but also with the collective rights of ethnic minorities, respecting the international standards and responsibilities taken under numerous international human rights conventions and treaties, of which the country is a party. Republic of Macedonia has ratified all the so called “core human right treaties” and now the real challenge lies in the implementation of the international standards. Some of these international conventions and treaties of the United Nations and of the Council of Europe are inherited by succession from the former Yugoslavian federation. Religious freedoms are guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of human rights (1948, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966, the European Convention on Human Rights (1953, the Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief (1981 (all documents ratified by the Republic of Macedonia. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia “The freedom of religious confession is guaranteed. The right to express one's faith freely and publicly, individually or with others, is guaranteed„. After the conflict of 2001 the Ohrid Framework Agreement secured group rights for ethnicities that are not in majority in the Republic of Macedonia. The present Law on the legal status of the church, religious communities and religious groups of 2007, repealed the Law on religion and religious groups of 1997.

  16. Testicle Pain (United States)

    ... Scrotal pain. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2016. Jan. 11, 2018 Original article: . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  17. Neck Pain (United States)

    ... triggers muscle strains. Even minor things, such as reading in bed or gritting your teeth, can strain ... determine the cause of your pain. Other tests Electromyography (EMG). If your doctor suspects your neck pain ...

  18. Sustainability of return to work in sick-listed employees with low-back pain. Two-year follow-up in a randomized clinical trial comparing multidisciplinary and brief intervention. (United States)

    Jensen, Chris; Jensen, Ole Kudsk; Nielsen, Claus Vinther


    Sick-listed employees with low back pain had similar return to work (RTW) rates at one-year follow-up in a randomized trial comparing two interventions, but the effects were modified by specific workplace related factors. The present study addressed the sustainability of the intervention effects by performing a two-year follow-up and by using different outcome measures. A total of 351 employees sick-listed for 3-16 weeks due to LBP were recruited from their general practitioners and were randomly allocated to a hospital-based brief or multidisciplinary intervention. Outcome measures were based on sick leave registered in a national database of social and health-related benefits. RTW rates, RTW status, sick leave weeks and sick leave relapse were studied. During the two-year follow-up 80.0% and 77.3% had RTW for at least four weeks continuously, and the percentages with RTW at the 104th week were 61.1% and 58.0% in the brief and multidisciplinary intervention groups, respectively. At the 104th week 16.6% and 18.8% were on sick leave in the two groups, respectively, and about 12% were employed in modified jobs or participated in job training. The number of weeks on sick leave in the first year was significantly lower in the brief intervention group (median 14 weeks) than in the multidisciplinary intervention group (median 20 weeks), but during the second year the number of weeks on sick leave were not significantly different between intervention groups. Subgroups characterised by specific work related factors modified the effect of the intervention groups on RTW rates (p = 0.017). No difference in sick leave relapse was found between the intervention groups. The effects of the brief and multidisciplinary interventions at the two-year follow-up were in general similar to the effects at one-year follow-up. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN18609003.

  19. Chest Pain (United States)

    ... or tightness in your chest Crushing or searing pain that radiates to your back, neck, jaw, shoulders, and one or both arms Pain that lasts ... com. Accessed Sept. 6, 2017. Yelland MJ. Outpatient evaluation of the adult with chest pain. Accessed Sept. ...

  20. Neck Pain (United States)

    ... arms or hands or if you have shooting pain into your shoulder or down your arm. Symptoms Signs and symptoms ... org/search/Pages/results.aspx?k=Chronic neck pain. Accessed June 11, 2015. Isaac Z. Evaluation of the patient with neck pain and cervical ...

  1. Breast pain (United States)

    ... the level of of hormones during menstruation or pregnancy often cause breast pain. Some swelling and tenderness just before your period is normal. Some women who have pain in one or both breasts may fear breast cancer . However, breast pain is not a common symptom ...

  2. Spinal pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzo, R., E-mail: [Neuroradiology Department, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Naples (Italy); Popolizio, T., E-mail: [Radiology Department, Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital, San Giovanni Rotondo (Fg) (Italy); D’Aprile, P., E-mail: [Neuroradiology Department, San Paolo Hospital, Bari (Italy); Muto, M., E-mail: [Neuroradiology Department, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Napoli (Italy)


    Highlights: • Purpose of this review is to address the current concepts on the pathophysiology of discogenic, radicular, facet and dysfunctional spinal pain, focusing on the role of the imaging in the diagnostic setting, to potentially address a correct approach also to minimally invasive interventional techniques. • Special attention will be given to the discogenic pain, actually considered as the most frequent cause of chronic low back pain. • The correct distinction between referred pain and radicular pain contributes to give a more correct approach to spinal pain. • The pathogenesis of chronic pain renders this pain a true pathology requiring a specific management. - Abstract: The spinal pain, and expecially the low back pain (LBP), represents the second cause for a medical consultation in primary care setting and a leading cause of disability worldwide [1]. LBP is more often idiopathic. It has as most frequent cause the internal disc disruption (IDD) and is referred to as discogenic pain. IDD refers to annular fissures, disc collapse and mechanical failure, with no significant modification of external disc shape, with or without endplates changes. IDD is described as a separate clinical entity in respect to disc herniation, segmental instability and degenerative disc desease (DDD). The radicular pain has as most frequent causes a disc herniation and a canal stenosis. Both discogenic and radicular pain also have either a mechanical and an inflammatory genesis. For to be richly innervated, facet joints can be a direct source of pain, while for their degenerative changes cause compression of nerve roots in lateral recesses and in the neural foramina. Degenerative instability is a common and often misdiagnosed cause of axial and radicular pain, being also a frequent indication for surgery. Acute pain tends to extinguish along with its cause, but the setting of complex processes of peripheral and central sensitization may influence its evolution in chronic

  3. Sustainable agriculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lichtfouse, Eric


    ... : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 Part I CLIMATE CHANGE Soils and Sustainable Agriculture: A Review : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Rattan Lal 15 Soils and Food Sufficiency...

  4. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.


    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  5. [Sustained-release Opioids: Morphine, Oxycodone and Tapentadol]. (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshika; Iseki, Masako


    Opioid analgesics are widely used for managing moderate to severe pain. In cancer pain management sustained-release opioids are used for continuous pain as well as immediate-release opioids for breakthrough pain. Sustained-release drugs have the advantage of stabilizing the blood concentration, although it takes some time to exert their effects. In Japan, the currently available oral sustained-release opioids include six types of sustained-release morphine (three are once-a-day formulations, while the rest are twice-a-day), one type of oxycodone and tapentadol. In this article, we will discuss the pharmacokinetic properties of MS Contin, Morphes, Kadian, P guard and Pacif as sustained-release morphine, Oxycontin as sustained-release oxycodone and Tapenta as sustained-release tapentadol.

  6. Spiritual Politics, Political Religion, and Religious Freedom in Burma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravers, Mikael


    A state of the art artcle on academic work on religion, politics, and religious freedom in Burma......A state of the art artcle on academic work on religion, politics, and religious freedom in Burma...

  7. Multimodal nociceptive mechanisms underlying chronic pelvic pain (United States)

    HELLMAN, Kevin M.; PATANWALA, Insiyyah Y.; POZOLO, Kristen E.; TU, Frank F.


    Objective To evaluate candidate mechanisms underlying the pelvic floor dysfunction in women with chronic pelvic pain and/or painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis. Notably, prior studies have not consistently controlled for potential confounding by psychological or anatomical factors. Study Design As part of a larger study on pelvic floor pain dysfunction and bladder pain sensitivity, we compared a measure of mechanical pain sensitivity, pressure pain thresholds, between women with pelvic pain and pain-free controls. We also assessed a novel pain measure using degree and duration of post-exam pain aftersensation, and conducted structural and functional assessments of the pelvic floor to account for any potential confounding. Phenotypic specificity of pelvic floor measures was assessed with receiver-operator characteristic curves adjusted for prevalence. Results A total of 23 women with chronic pelvic pain, 23 painful bladder syndrome, and 42 pain-free controls completed the study. Women with chronic pelvic pain or painful bladder syndrome exhibited enhanced pain sensitivity with lower pressure pain thresholds (1.18 [interquartile range: 0.87–1.41] kg/cm2) than pain-free participants (1.48 [1.11–1.76] kg/cm2; ppelvic pain there were no consistently observed group differences in pelvic floor anatomy, muscle tone or strength. The combination of pressure pain thresholds and aftersensation duration correlated with severity of pelvic floor tenderness (R2 =41–51, p’spelvic pain or painful bladder syndrome (area under the curve=0.87). Conclusion Both experimental assessment of pelvic floor pain thresholds and measurement of sustained pain are independently associated with pelvic pain phenotypes. These findings suggest systematic clinical assessment of the time course of provoked pain symptoms, which occurs over seconds for mechanical pain thresholds vs. minutes for aftersensation pain, would be helpful in identifying the fundamental mechanisms of pelvic

  8. Spontaneous pain attacks: neuralgic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bont, L.G.


    Paroxysmal orofacial pains can cause diagnostic problems, especially when different clinical pictures occur simultaneously. Pain due to pulpitis, for example, may show the same characteristics as pain due to trigeminal neuralgia would. Moreover, the trigger point of trigeminal neuralgia can either


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Kate Chapman


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the arguments around restriction on freedom of the press in the Strong States of Singapore and Malaysia. It assesses the presence of constraints on press freedoms in democratic western countries imposed by corporation rather than state and the similar effects that these constraints may have on bias present in publicly accessible news reporting. It argues that independence of the press does not just require protection from legal and executive regulation, but also protection from large media corporations and their political alignments. This report will assess the bias of reporting and news media publication that exists in Malaysia and Singapore due to legislative and regulatory constraints as opposed to bias that exist in the western liberal democratic nations of the United Kingdom (UK and the United States of America (USA due to Media Organisation control.

  10. Educative Non-Privative Measures of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zau Raul-Teodor


    Full Text Available Infractionality or criminality in minor rank, even if it is a component of a general infractional phenomenon, it shows some particularities determined by biological, psychological and social characteristics of minor persons which Romanian legislature had in mind when it had foreseen their criminal liability. For this, The New riminal Code, stipulates some regulations on the educational measures regarding non privacy of freedom - three conditions from the file - Recommandations R nr. 16/1992 of the European Committee. Measures regarding the non privacy of freedom are sanctions applied by the court and the young defendant is still in the society with some obligations on his side or institution which was bound by the court in the name of the law. The issue of this measure is to educate and reeducate the minor person who commited a crime, to ensure a change in his conscience to respect social values.

  11. Academic freedom, public reactions, and anonymity. (United States)

    Häyry, Matti


    Academic freedom can be defined as immunity against adverse reactions from the general public, designed to keep scholars unintimidated and productive even after they have published controversial ideas. Francesca Minerva claims that this notion of strict instrumental academic freedom is supported by Ronald Dworkin, and that anonymity would effectively defend the sphere of immunity implied by it. Against this, I argue that the idea defended by Minerva finds no support in the work by Dworkin referred to; that anonymity would not in most cases effectively protect the kind of immunity sought after; and that in some cases it would not even be desirable to protect scholars from public reactions to their controversial claims. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.


    This paper elaborates on the deliberative democracy argument for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. It engages the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy and argues that autonomy-based democracy...... is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, it argues that people cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation and develop some degree of personal autonomy. While freedom...... of expression is indispensable for deliberation and autonomy, this does not mean that people have no obligations regarding how they speak to each other. The moral insights provided by deliberation depend on the participants in the process treating one another with respect. The argument is related to the Danish...

  13. Health economics: the start of clinical freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valladares Amparo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Professor Hampton announced the death of clinical freedom in 1983, the increasing influence of Evidence-based Medicine and Health Technology Assessment has contributed to augment the feeling that clinicians have a secondary role in the therapeutic decision-making process. Discussion This article constitutes a reflection on how clinicians may use the results of economic evaluations in their daily clinical practice, making decisions about cost-effectiveness on a case by case basis, and addressing both the patient's and society's needs. To that end, some illustrating examples are taken from the literature to show there are factors with great impact on cost-effectiveness results that can be easily identified and modified by clinicians. Summary The evolution of the discipline and the trend towards a tailored therapy suggest that health economics is not the end of clinical freedom but the start of it.

  14. Trans Fat Bans and Human Freedom (United States)

    Resnik, David


    A growing body of evidence has linked consumption of trans fatty acids to cardiovascular disease. To promote public health, numerous state and local governments in the United States have banned the use of artificial trans fats in restaurant foods, and additional bans may follow. Although these policies may have a positive impact on human health, they open the door to excessive government control over food, which could restrict dietary choices, interfere with cultural, ethnic, and religious traditions, and exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities. These slippery slope concerns cannot be dismissed as far-fetched, because the social and political pressures are place to induce additional food regulations. To protect human freedom and other values, policies that significantly restrict food choices, such as bans on types of food, should be adopted only when they are supported by substantial scientific evidence, and when policies that impose fewer restrictions on freedom, such as educational campaigns and product labeling, are likely to be ineffective. PMID:20229412

  15. Academic Freedom and the First Amendment: Legal Entanglements. (United States)

    Campbell, J. Louis III


    Examines how closely academic freedom and the First Amendment actually are related. Traces the development of academic freedom as a constitutional right from shortly before World War II to the present. Analyzes influences exerted by intramural speech, institutional or corporate academic freedom, and professional liability. (KEH)

  16. Statutory limitations to testamentary freedom in Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, a person when alive often has the freedom to dispose of his property to whomever he chooses. However, when he dies, limits have been put upon that freedom by legislation in some states of the country, when he has made a will concerning the disposition of his estate. These restrictions to testamentary freedom ...

  17. John Stuart Mill on Freedom, Education, and Social Reform. (United States)

    Carbone, Peter F.


    Examines the social philosophy of John Stuart Mill, emphasizing his views on freedom, education, and social reform. Considers Mill's individualism and reformism, the conflict between freedom and control that characterizes his work, and the importance of freedom and education. Suggests caution in drawing educational implications from his work. (DAB)

  18. A note on list's modal logic of republican freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, B.P.

    In this note, I show how Christian List's modal logic of republican freedom (as published in this journal in 2006) can be extended (1) to grasp the differences between liberal freedom (noninterference) and republican freedom (non-domination) in terms of two purely logical axioms and (2) to cover a

  19. Intellectual Freedom in Academic Libraries: Surveying Deans about Its Significance (United States)

    Oltmann, Shannon M.


    In this study, deans and directors of academic libraries were surveyed about intellectual freedom. The survey found that most respondents said they rarely think about intellectual freedom yet said it was "somewhat" or "very" important in their libraries. Most did not have formal intellectual freedom policies; they often relied…

  20. Re-Framing Student Academic Freedom: A Capability Perspective (United States)

    Macfarlane, Bruce


    The scholarly debate about academic freedom focuses almost exclusively on the rights of academic faculty. Student academic freedom is rarely discussed and is normally confined to debates connected with the politicisation of the curriculum. Concerns about (student) freedom of speech reflect the dominant role of negative rights in the analysis of…

  1. 76 FR 59071 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations (United States)


    ... 32 CFR Part 1900 Freedom of Information Act Regulations AGENCY: Central Intelligence Agency. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: Consistent with the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), as amended by the ``Openness.... Lambert, (703) 613-1379. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Consistent with the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA...

  2. Academic Freedom in Athletic Training Education: Food for Thought (United States)

    Payne, Ellen K.; Berry, David C.; Lowry, John E.


    Academic freedom is defined as the "freedom of the individual scholar to pursue truth wherever it leads, without fear of punishment or of termination of employment for having offended some political, methodological, religious, or social orthodoxy." Currently there is paucity of literature addressing the issue of academic freedom specific to…

  3. 30 CFR 252.6 - Freedom of Information Act requirements. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Freedom of Information Act requirements. 252.6... CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) OIL AND GAS INFORMATION PROGRAM § 252.6 Freedom of Information Act requirements. (a... to the limitations of the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552), the regulations contained in 43...

  4. 76 FR 15236 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations (United States)


    ... Part 16 RIN 1105-AB27 Freedom of Information Act Regulations AGENCY: Department of Justice. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule proposes revisions to the Department's regulations under the Freedom of... Subjects in 28 CFR Part 16 Administrative practice and procedure, Freedom of Information, Privacy. For the...

  5. 78 FR 6216 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations (United States)


    ... Office of the Secretary 43 CFR Part 2 RIN 1093-AA15 Freedom of Information Act Regulations AGENCY: Office... Department's Freedom of Information Act regulations. DATES: Effective January 30, 2013 FOR FURTHER... Department of the Interior Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) regulations. This document inadvertently omitted...

  6. 77 FR 76898 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations (United States)


    ... Office of the Secretary 43 CFR Part 2 RIN 1093-AA15 Freedom of Information Act Regulations AGENCY: Office... Department of the Interior (the ``Department'') follows in processing records under the Freedom of..., or Be Contrary to Law One commenter's entire comment was: ``NO.Do not change the freedom of info act...

  7. Six Degrees of Freedom Implicit Haptic Rendering


    Moustakas, Konstantinos


    Part 13: AI Applications - Mobile Applications; International audience; This paper introduces a six degrees of freedom haptic rendering scheme based on an implicit support plane mapping representation of the object geometries. The proposed scheme enables, under specific assumptions, the analytical reconstruction of the rigid 3D object’s surface, using the equations of the support planes and their respective distance map. As a direct consequence, the problem of calculating the force feedback c...

  8. Degrees of freedom in discrete geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ariwahjoedi, Seramika; Rovelli, Carlo; Zen, Freddy P


    Following recent developments in discrete gravity, we study geometrical variables (angles and forms) of simplices in the discrete geometry point of view. Some of our relatively new results include: new ways of writing a set of simplices using vectorial (differential form) and coordinate-free pictures, and a consistent procedure to couple particles of space, together with a method to calculate the degrees of freedom of the system of 'quanta' of space in the classical framework.

  9. Space Station Freedom primary power wiring requirements (United States)

    Hill, Thomas J.


    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) Program requirements are a 30 year reliable service life in low Earth orbit in hard vacuum or pressurized module service without detrimental degradation. Specific requirements are outlined in this presentation for SSF primary power and cable insulation. The primary power cable status and the WP-4 planned cable test program are also reviewed along with Rocketdyne-WP04 prime insulation candidates.

  10. New masculinities and pedagogy of freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Rios


    Full Text Available Purpose: The research on masculinity in education has mainly been focused on analyze the organization of schools and the attention given to the students. This analysis has confirmed the existence of gender inequalities in schools, within them gender violence. This article will start from this background but has as objective to provide new knowledge about the pedagogy of freedom in the promotion of new alternative masculinities. Design/methodology: From a communicative-oriented qualitative methodology the voices of young boys and adult men that have been involved in educational actions, based on a pedagogy of freedom which have contributed to foster new alternative masculinities, have been collected. Findings: The results explain why the pedagogy of freedom can contribute to foster new alternative masculinities. Special attention is paid in the evolution of oppressed traditional masculinities (OTM to new alternative masculinities (NAM. In this regard, it is highlighted how OTM, that not contributes to gender violence but overcome neither, are walking to become NAM thanks to the organizational approach of the pedagogy of freedom. Practical implications: To provide scientific knowledge which could be used as a basis of the educational practices addressed to prevent gender violence. Social implications: The social impact refers to the effect of scientific knowledge in the educational quality and in the socialization of alternative masculinities which overcome harassment and gender violence. Originality/value: The article provides of new knowledge on the coeducational field which allows overcoming the double standards and the attraction against the violence reproduced in the traditional masculinity models.

  11. Freedom of Expression Under Threat in Afghanistan?


    Abdul Mujeeb Khalvatgar


    Although media outlets have proliferated in the private sector in Afghanistan, the Afghan press is hobbled by insufficient security, lack of access for their investigations, serious revenue and funding shortfalls, stalled legislation for freedom of the press, change-wary socio-cultural norms that tend to undercut the wide dissemination of news and skirt in the presentation of scientific/technological and foreign information. To do their jobs, the nation’s journalists need to overcome these an...

  12. Freedom of Information Act-Employee responsibilities (United States)

    Newman, David J.


    The Freedom of Information Act( FOIA), 5 U.S.C. § 552, as amended, generally provides that any person has a right to request access to Federal agency records. The USGS proactively promotes information disclosure as inherent to its mission of providing objective science to inform decisionmakers and the general public. USGS scientists disseminate up-to-date and historical scientific data that are critical to addressing national and global priorities.

  13. Freedom and the state: nanny or nightwatchman? (United States)

    Pettit, P


    There are two rival images often offered of the state. In one the state serves like a nanny to provide for the welfare of its members; in the other it requires people to look after themselves, providing only the service of a night-watchman. But this dichotomy, which is routinely invoked in debates about public health and welfare provision in general, is misleading. What the rival images turn on is not competing pictures of how the state should function in people's lives but competing pictures of what it is to guard the freedom of its people. On the neo-liberal theory, which has been dominant over the last century or so, providing for people's freedom means leaving them to their own devices and fortunes. On the neo-republican theory, which answers to a much longer tradition, it means democratically identifying a common set of basic liberties in the exercise of which everyone should be protected by law and, if necessary, resourced. This older way of thinking about freedom has important merits missing in the newer and argues strongly against the nightwatchman state. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pain genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Foulkes


    Full Text Available Pain, which afflicts up to 20% of the population at any time, provides both a massive therapeutic challenge and a route to understanding mechanisms in the nervous system. Specialised sensory neurons (nociceptors signal the existence of tissue damage to the central nervous system (CNS, where pain is represented in a complex matrix involving many CNS structures. Genetic approaches to investigating pain pathways using model organisms have identified the molecular nature of the transducers, regulatory mechanisms involved in changing neuronal activity, as well as the critical role of immune system cells in driving pain pathways. In man, mapping of human pain mutants as well as twin studies and association studies of altered pain behaviour have identified important regulators of the pain system. In turn, new drug targets for chronic pain treatment have been validated in transgenic mouse studies. Thus, genetic studies of pain pathways have complemented the traditional neuroscience approaches of electrophysiology and pharmacology to give us fresh insights into the molecular basis of pain perception.

  15. Bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Rikke Rie; Heegaard, Anne-Marie


    Skeletal conditions are common causes of chronic pain and there is an unmet medical need for improved treatment options. Bone pain is currently managed with disease modifying agents and/or analgesics depending on the condition. Disease modifying agents affect the underlying pathophysiology...... of the disease and reduce as a secondary effect bone pain. Antiresorptive and anabolic agents, such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34), respectively, have proven effective as pain relieving agents. Cathepsin K inhibitors and anti-sclerostin antibodies hold, due to their disease...... modifying effects, promise of a pain relieving effect. NSAIDs and opioids are widely employed in the treatment of bone pain. However, recent preclinical findings demonstrating a unique neuronal innervation of bone tissue and sprouting of sensory nerve fibers open for new treatment possibilities....

  16. Ejaculatory pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske K; Møhl, Bo; Kehlet, Henrik


    BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction due to ejaculatory and genital pain after groin hernia surgery may occur in approximately 2.5% of patients. However, the specific psychosexological and neurophysiologic characteristics have not been described, thereby precluding assessment of pathogenic mechanisms...... and treatment strategies. METHODS: Ten patients with severe pain-related sexual dysfunction and ejaculatory pain were assessed in detail by quantitative sensory testing and interviewed by a psychologist specialized in evaluating sexual functional disorders and were compared with a control group of 20 patients...... with chronic pain after groin hernia repair but without sexual dysfunction, to identify sensory changes associated with ejaculatory pain. RESULTS: Quantitative sensory testing showed significantly higher thermal and mechanical detection thresholds and lowered mechanical pain detection thresholds in both groups...

  17. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch


    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...

  18. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina


    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  19. Sustainability of return to work in sick-listed employees with low-back pain. Two-year follow-up in a randomized clinical trial comparing multidisciplinary and brief intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Chris


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sick-listed employees with low back pain had similar return to work (RTW rates at one-year follow-up in a randomized trial comparing two interventions, but the effects were modified by specific workplace related factors. The present study addressed the sustainability of the intervention effects by performing a two-year follow-up and by using different outcome measures. Methods A total of 351 employees sick-listed for 3–16 weeks due to LBP were recruited from their general practitioners and were randomly allocated to a hospital-based brief or multidisciplinary intervention. Outcome measures were based on sick leave registered in a national database of social and health-related benefits. RTW rates, RTW status, sick leave weeks and sick leave relapse were studied. Results During the two-year follow-up 80.0% and 77.3% had RTW for at least four weeks continuously, and the percentages with RTW at the 104th week were 61.1% and 58.0% in the brief and multidisciplinary intervention groups, respectively. At the 104th week 16.6% and 18.8% were on sick leave in the two groups, respectively, and about 12% were employed in modified jobs or participated in job training. The number of weeks on sick leave in the first year was significantly lower in the brief intervention group (median 14 weeks than in the multidisciplinary intervention group (median 20 weeks, but during the second year the number of weeks on sick leave were not significantly different between intervention groups. Subgroups characterised by specific work related factors modified the effect of the intervention groups on RTW rates (p = 0.017. No difference in sick leave relapse was found between the intervention groups. Conclusion The effects of the brief and multidisciplinary interventions at the two-year follow-up were in general similar to the effects at one-year follow-up. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN18609003

  20. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  1. The Congress for Cultural Freedom seen from the dynamics of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Ruiz Durán


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how, at the height of the Cold War, the British intelligence services responded to the new spy system created by the Comintern developing a secret campaign of political and cultural propaganda, under the cover of prestigious foundations to channel intellectuals in defense of a liberal democracy. This spy system expected to carry out propaganda secret operations and manipulate the intellectuals from almost the very beginning of the Soviet Revolution. The keystone to win the battle of consciences was the Congress for Cultural Freedom and its editorials, magazines, exhibitions, scholarships, concerts, congresses and conferences. Finally, it will be noted how the Congress for Cultural Freedom implemented the political conception of "non-communist left" to sustain the social democracy in the Western bloc.

  2. Acrobacias da dor: tópicos sobre a violência do Estado, do trabalho e da liberdade no mundo burguês (Dealing with pain: issues on the violence of the state, work and freedom in the bourgeois world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Villar Gomez


    Full Text Available Resumo: Partindo da exposição e análise das bases lógica e histórica da modernização capitalista, contidas na crítica da Economia Política de Karl Marx, o presente artigo aborda a violência inerente à gênese e funcionamento do Estado, do trabalho e da liberdade no mundo burguês. Com o intuito de desvelar tal essência repressiva, empenhou-se em sublinhar o caráter fetichista da sociedade da mercadoria que, mediante um diversificado processo coercitivo, converteu-se em meio para a realização dos imperativos de auto valorização do capital.Abstract: The logical and historical bases of capitalist modernization present in Karl Marx’s criticism to Political Economy were the bases for this article. The article addresses violence as an inherent aspect related to the genesis and functioning of the State, of work and freedom in the capitalist world. In order to unravel such repressive essence there is an effort to stress the fetichist character of the society of goods which, through a diversified coercive process, became the means to realize the urgencies of capital self valorization.

  3. Solar dynamic power for Space Station Freedom (United States)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Secunde, Richard R.; Lovely, Ronald G.


    The Space Station Freedom Program is presently planned to consist of two phases. At the completion of Phase 1, Freedom's manned base will consist of a transverse boom with attached manned modules and 75 kW of available electric power supplied by photovoltaic (PV) power sources. In Phase 2, electric power available to the manned base will be increased to 125 kW by the addition of two solar dynamic (SD) power modules, one at each end of the transverse boom. Power for manned base growth beyond Phase 2 will be supplied by additional SD modules. Studies show that SD power for the growth eras will result in life cycle cost savings of $3 to $4 billion when compared to PV-supplied power. In the SD power modules for Space Station Freedom, an offset parabolic concentrator collects and focuses solar energy into a heat receiver. To allow full power operation over the entire orbit, the receiver includes integral thermal energy storage by means of the heat of fusion of a salt mixture. Thermal energy is removed from the receiver and converted to electrical energy by a power conversion unit (PCU) which includes a closed brayton cycle (CBC) heat engine and an alternator. The receiver/PCU/radiator combination will be completely assembled and charged with gas and cooling fluid on earth before launch to orbit. The concentrator subassemblies will be pre-aligned and stowed in the orbiter bay before launch. On orbit, the receiver/PCU/radiator assembly will be installed as a unit. The pre-aligned concentrator panels will then be latched together and the total concentrator attached to the receiver/PCU/radiator by the astronauts. After final electric connections are made and checkout is complete, the SD power module will be ready for operation.

  4. The Positive Freedom of the Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind


    calls for new reflections on the possible relationship between media, public sphere and democracy. This paper argues that we should change the questions that are raised when we try to assess the public sphere. It is argued that the traditional (Enlightenment) focus upon negative liberties and the truth......-value of utterances is not adequate. Negative freedom and truth are certainly important in the public sphere, because they are necessary conditions for taking a qualified stance towards the challenges that we face. It is, however, important also to reflect on what negative liberties are used for—which kinds of truths...

  5. Molecular degrees of freedom: resonances and orbiting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapira, D.; Erb, K.A.


    Studies of orbiting and other gross features of heavy ion induced reactions show that molecular degrees of freedom play a significant role. The formation of a rotating dinuclear molecule appears as a general feature, and the radii derived for these dinuclear systems are larger than the radii of the conventional nucleus-nucleus potential. These large radii for the molecular bonding potential are similar to those derived from systematic studies performed recently on resonances in the /sup 12/C + /sup 12/C + /sup 16/O systems.

  6. Is freedom rooted in the brain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Conill Sancho


    Full Text Available This article first of all attempts to provide a new concept of human nature, beyond that of traditional metaphysics and the naturalistic interpretation of today’s neurosciences; it thus surpasses the unilateral scientistic appropriation of the concept of human nature and defends a biohermeneutics containing a plurality of standpoints for understanding human reality, as in Habermasian epistemic dualism. It secondly examines whether freedom is rooted in the brain in the sense of «free will» and of «autonomy», taking into account the stance of accredited neurologists and the study of natural dispositions in the Kantian notion of moral autonomy.

  7. The City Between Freedom and Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The publication "The City between Freedom and Security" addresses the contested territory between the state and corporate drive to 'securitise' contemporary urban space – and the principle of the city and its public spaces as fundamental yet fragile sites for enacting open civil society...... of architecture/urbanism and security/democracy. The book interposes theoretical texts, interviews, cross-disciplinary and intercultural dialogs, detailed documentation of international case studies, discursive design proposals, a glossary of terms, and photo essays documenting fieldwork in locations...

  8. Existentialist Freedom, Distorted Normativity, and Emancipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Baiasu


    Full Text Available Usually associated with a view of freedom as absolute, Sartre’s philosophy seems particularly able to account for the indeterminacy that we experience today in most areas of human experience that have a normative dimension. Without denying that this is a plausible reading, it will be argued here that it is nevertheless a problematic interpretation. On this reading, existentialism seems unable to account for the fact that we are powerfully conditioned by a significant number of factors, which limit our freedom and, in certain situations, make emancipation a normative requirement. It is held here that this problem can be addressed and a less problematic interpretation of Sartre can be defended, once we start to acknowledge that in Sartre we have a variety of notions of freedom that can provide a robust account of our freedom, of authentic choice and of responsibility. Habitualmente asociada a una visión de la libertad como un concepto absoluto, la filosofía de Sartre parece especialmente capaz de representar la indeterminación que experimentamos hoy en día en la mayoría de las áreas de la experiencia humana que tienen una dimensión normativa. Sin negar que ésta es una lectura convincente, no obstante, se va a argumentar que es una interpretación problemática. Con esta lectura parece que el existencialismo es incapaz de representar el hecho de que estamos fuertemente condicionados por un número importante de factores que limitan nuestra libertad y, en algunas situaciones, hacen de la emancipación una necesidad normativa. En este artículo se defiende que se puede abordar este problema, y se puede defender una interpretación de Sartre menos problemática, una vez empecemos a reconocer que en Sartre se pueden encontrar una variedad de nociones de libertad que permiten ofrecer una explicación sólida de nuestra libertad, de elección auténtica y de responsabilidad. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN:

  9. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg


    that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...

  10. Sustaining dairy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villarreal Herrera, Georgina


    Dairy in Europe has undergone many changes in the last few years—the abolition of milk production quotas being a fundamental one. This study explores these changes in relation to the sustained social and environmental viability of the sector and how dairy processors' sustainability

  11. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou


    . Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...... campus performance....

  12. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent


    of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...

  13. Sustainable Learning (United States)

    Cadwell, Louise; Dillon, Robert


    Green schools have moved into a new era that focuses on building a culture of sustainability in every aspect of learning in schools. In the early stages of sustainability education, the focus was on recycling and turning off the lights. Now, students and adults together are moving into the areas of advocacy and action that are based on a deep…

  14. [Chest pain]. (United States)

    Horn, Benedikt


    Chest pain in ambulatory setting is predominantly not heart-associated. Most patients suffer from muskuloskeletal or functional (psychogenic) chest pain. Differential diagnosis covers aortic dissection, rib-fracture, shingles, GERD, Tietze-Syndrome, pulmonary embolism, pleuritis, pneumothorax, pleurodynia and metastatic disease. In most cases history, symptoms and signs allow a clinical diagnosis of high pretest-probability.

  15. Breast Pain (United States)

    ... result in the development of breast cysts. Breast trauma, prior breast surgery or other factors localized to the breast can lead to breast pain. Breast pain may also start outside the breast — in the chest wall, muscles, joints or heart, for example — and ...

  16. Muscle pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of muscle or tendons.4,14. Management of muscle pain. Non-Pharmacological Management. The non-pharmacological treatments for muscle pain are illustrated in Figure 1. Treatment modalities include the following. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS). TENS is a non-invasive procedure used in rehabilitation to.

  17. Abdominal Pain (United States)

    ... weight loss slowed growth rate lots of vomiting chronic severe diarrhea gastrointestinal blood loss persistent pain on the right ... or Spanish)—from The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and ... Chronic Abdominal Pain in Children , a clinical report from ...

  18. Painful shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno Ejnismann


    Full Text Available Many factors can be involved in the painful shoulder. Beyond articularcauses other pathologies such as artrosis, periarticular diseases as rotadorcuff tears, long head of the biceps tendinitis, adhesive capsulitis, calcifyingtendinitis, degenerative arthritis of the acromioclavicular joint, cervicalradiculopathy and nervous injuries can cause pain in the shoulder.

  19. Shoulder pain (United States)

    ... and ligaments inside the shoulder become stiff, making movement difficult and painful Overuse or injury of nearby tendons, such as the bicep muscles of the arms Tears of the rotator cuff tendons Watch this video about: Shoulder joint dislocation Sometimes, shoulder pain may ...

  20. Painful shoulder


    Benno Ejnismann; Gustavo Cará Monteiro; Luis Fernando Uyeda


    Many factors can be involved in the painful shoulder. Beyond articularcauses other pathologies such as artrosis, periarticular diseases as rotadorcuff tears, long head of the biceps tendinitis, adhesive capsulitis, calcifyingtendinitis, degenerative arthritis of the acromioclavicular joint, cervicalradiculopathy and nervous injuries can cause pain in the shoulder.

  1. Neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Re


    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is the expression of a dysfunction or primary lesion of a nerve in the peripheral or central nervous system, or both, rather than the biological signal transmitted by the nerve following peripheral nociceptor activation. It represents about 20% of all painful syndromes, with an estimated prevalence of 1.5%, however is actual incidence is hard to pinpoint due to the difficulties encountered in distinguishing it from chronic pain, of which it represents a significant percentage, on account of the not infrequent concurrence of conditions. It is crucial to recognise the variety of symptoms with which it can present: these can be negative and positive and, in turn, motor, sensitive and autonomic. In public health terms, it is important to emphasise that the diagnosis of neuropathic pain does not in most cases require sophisticated procedures and does not therefore weigh on health expenditure. In clinical practice, a validated scale (the LANSS is mentioned is useful for identifying patients presenting neuropathic pain symptoms. Therapy is based on three categories of medication: tricyclic antidepressants, anti-epileptics and opioids at high doses: neuropathic pain has a bad reputation for often resisting common therapeutic approaches and responding less well that nociceptor pain to monotherapy. Therapeutic strategies are all the more adequate the more they are based on symptoms and therefore on the pain generation mechanisms, although the recommendations are dictated more by expert opinions that double-blind randomised trials.

  2. Chest pain (United States)

    ... pain. The pain may spread to the arm, shoulder, jaw, or back. A tear in the wall of the aorta, the large blood vessel that takes blood from the heart to the rest of the body ( aortic dissection ) causes sudden, severe ...

  3. The right of freedom of public assembly - constitutional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flamur Hyseni


    Full Text Available Freedom and human rights are in the focus of human rights. The protection of fundamental freedoms and human rights still remains the main challenge of consolidating democracy in some countries. In this regard the difficulties in protecting rights and freedoms are connected with individual freedoms as well as collective freedoms. The freedom of expression continues to be among the freedoms that define the level of democratic development in countries. In this respect the right to public assembly in many cases determines the degree of democratization of a country. The Republic of Kosovo on questions about guaranteeing and protecting the right to freedom of public assembly has set these entitlements in the Constitution of 2008, Article 43, freedom of assembly. The organization of public meetings is regulated by Law no. 03 / L-118 for public gatherings. Even the international aspect of the right of public assembly presents a major challenge for the consolidation of democracy and the commitment of the state to guarantee and protect the fundamental human rights and freedoms.

  4. Persistent arm pain is distinct from persistent breast pain following breast cancer surgery. (United States)

    Langford, Dale J; Paul, Steven M; West, Claudia; Abrams, Gary; Elboim, Charles; Levine, Jon D; Hamolsky, Deborah; Luce, Judith A; Kober, Kord M; Neuhaus, John M; Cooper, Bruce A; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Miaskowski, Christine


    Persistent pain following breast cancer surgery is well documented. However, it is not well characterized in terms of the anatomic site affected (ie, breast, arm). In 2 separate growth mixture modeling analyses, we identified subgroups of women (N = 398) with distinct breast pain and arm pain trajectories. The fact that these latent classes differed by anatomic site, types of tissue affected, and neural innervation patterns suggests the need for separate evaluations of these distinct persistent pain conditions. The purposes of this companion study were to identify demographic and clinical characteristics that differed between the 2 arm pain classes and determine if differences existed over time in sensitivity in the upper inner arm and axillary lymph node dissection sites, pain qualities, pain interference, and hand and arm function, as well as to compare findings with persistent breast pain. Higher occurrence rates for depression and lymphedema were found in the moderate arm pain class. Regardless of pain group membership, sensory loss was observed in the upper inner arm and axillary lymph node dissection site. Arm pain was described similarly to neuropathic pain and interfered with daily functioning. Persistent arm pain was associated with sustained impairments in shoulder mobility. For persistent breast and arm pain, changes in sensation following breast cancer surgery were notable. Persistent arm pain was associated with sustained interference with daily functioning and upper body mobility impairments. Long-term management of persistent pain following breast cancer surgery is warranted to improve the quality of survivorship for these women. Copyright © 2014 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ideologies in Mandela’s No Easy Walk to Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AbdulhameedFaris


    Full Text Available Ideology has great influence on the traits and behaviors of leaders. It is the vehicle by which we could understand our leaders and our leaders could understand us. The present paper is an endeavor to reveal the ideological dimension that is embedded in the discourse of Nelson Mandela, with special reference to his address No Easy Walk to Freedom which was delivered in 1953. It is conducted on the approach of Critical Discourse Analysis. Van Dijk's (2004 Political Ideological Strategies and Wodak's (2005 Discursive Strategies of Positive Self- and Negative Other-Presentation were accommodated to achieve the objective of the study. The findings demonstrated that Van Dijk's strategies of actor description, positive self-presentation and negative other-presentation and Wodak's two chosen strategies of argumentation and perspectivation were supportive in exploring the ideologies penetrated in Mandela's discourse. They five strategies proved to be helpful devices in exploring the fundamentally embedded ideologies in Mandela's discourse which are "white superiority" and "black inferiority". White superiority was the ideological foundation of the white minority to establish the apartheid system in South Africa for decades, whereas black inferiority was the ideological foundation of the black majority to sustain different forms of resistance against the white governments. Therefore, it could be perceived that the social acts of both the blacks and the whites were formed and structured in terms of these two ideological foundations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nani Hidayati


    Full Text Available This study attempts to find out conveyed messages in the movie from the realization of the appraisal and narrative structure as well as to describe the use of the Appraisal System to express LaGravenese's (a Attitudes, (bEngagement & (c Graduation towards the main characters in Freedom Writers movie screenplay. Using both quantitative and qualitative descriptive approach for discourse appraisal system analysis, the result of this study reveals several messages of tolerance, earning respect and trust, honor diversity, and striving for success and trust from the realization of Appraisal and Narrative Structure either in the dialogues or monologues of Freedom Writers’ characters. The result from the Appraisal Devices realizing (a Attitudes reveals that LaGravenese likes to express characters’ negative emotion explicitly than implicitly. He likes to express characters’ negative capability than other kinds of Judgments. He appreciates the characters using more Negative Value which denotes that in his opinion, they see each other negatively. (bEngagement used in the screenplay describes that he emphasizes more on characters’ denial towards each other’s opinion and existence with the use of more Disclaim Heterogloss in the screenplay. (cGraduation used in the screenplay describes that the use of more Sharpening Focus indicates he emphasizes on characters’ category boundary more than scaling of intensity. Keywords: Appraisal Devices, Attitude, Engagement, and Graduation.

  7. High degree-of-freedom dynamic manipulation (United States)

    Murphy, Michael P.; Stephens, Benjamin; Abe, Yeuhi; Rizzi, Alfred A.


    The creation of high degree of freedom dynamic mobile manipulation techniques and behaviors will allow robots to accomplish difficult tasks in the field. We are investigating the use of the body and legs of legged robots to improve the strength, velocity, and workspace of an integrated manipulator to accomplish dynamic manipulation. This is an especially challenging task, as all of the degrees of freedom are active at all times, the dynamic forces generated are high, and the legged system must maintain robust balance throughout the duration of the tasks. To accomplish this goal, we are utilizing trajectory optimization techniques to generate feasible open-loop behaviors for our 28 dof quadruped robot (BigDog) by planning the trajectories in a 13 dimensional space. Covariance Matrix Adaptation techniques are utilized to optimize for several criteria such as payload capability and task completion speed while also obeying constraints such as torque and velocity limits, kinematic limits, and center of pressure location. These open-loop behaviors are then used to generate feed-forward terms, which are subsequently used online to improve tracking and maintain low controller gains. Some initial results on one of our existing balancing quadruped robots with an additional human-arm-like manipulator are demonstrated on robot hardware, including dynamic lifting and throwing of heavy objects 16.5kg cinder blocks, using motions that resemble a human athlete more than typical robotic motions. Increased payload capacity is accomplished through coordinated body motion.

  8. Economic Freedom and Economic Growth in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive E. Coetzee


    Full Text Available The economic growth and economic freedom nexus is studied in this article and applied to South Africa in an empirical study. Economic freedom is founded on the free or private market economy, based on competition, where voluntary exchange occurs and a legislative framework ensures the safety of market agents and private property. As part of the literature study, the Index of Economic Freedom, the Economic Freedom of the World Index and the Freedom in the World Index were studied and applied to South Africa. An empirical analysis was conducted, cross-correlation functions were estimated, and Granger causality functions, regression analysis and finally a vector auto-regression model (VAR were constructed and estimated. The research findings from South Africa support the literature, suggesting that there are indeed some indications that greater levels of economic freedom support higher rates of economic growth in a country.

  9. Relational Creativity and the Symmetry of Freedom and Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Michael Rose


    Full Text Available One of the more important and persistent of problems in speculative philosophy is reconciling the relation between freedom and nature. This is often referred to as the problem of freedom and determinism, but this way of formulating the problem assumes, uncritically, that nature is and must necessarily be a purely deterministic framework. As I hope to show, the so-called problem of freedom and determinism lies precisely in this deterministic assumption. By reorienting the question in terms of the relation between freedom and nature, rather than freedom and determinism, we can better see how the problem of their tension or ‘contradiction’ only arises if nature itself is defined and characterized in a very limited, purely deterministic way. Once we step outside the deterministic assumption and entertain alternative views of nature, the problem of freedom and determinism does not arise.

  10. [Painful ejaculation]. (United States)

    Delavierre, D; Sibert, L; Rigaud, J; Labat, J-J


    To clarify definition, epidemiology, diagnosis, evaluation, etiologies and treatment of painful ejaculation (PE). Review of the literature performed by searching the Medline database using keywords ejaculation, orgasm, pain, pelvic pain, sexual behavior. PE is a pelviperineal pain caused by ejaculation or orgasm. Its prevalence rate is between 1 and 4% amongst the general population. Mainly located in the penis, pain usually lasts less than 5 minutes. Assessment is clinical and there is no level of evidence about the strategy of complementary investigations. Benign prostatic hyperplasia, chronic pelvic pain syndrome, radical prostatectomy, prostate brachytherapy and some antidepressant medications are the best estimated etiologies found in the literature. A link between urogenital infections and PE is likely but not clearly established. Alpha-blockers had good therapeutic results in few low level of evidence studies. The assessment of PE is not clearly defined. Some etiologies are known but PE may be a functionnal pain. Only high level of evidence studies would validate the use of the alpha-blockers as an efficient therapeutic option. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. [Hindfoot pain]. (United States)

    Damiano, Joël; Bouysset, Maurice


    The hindfoot is the part of the foot which is proximal to the midtarsal joint. The obvious causes of pain are not considered (post-traumatic etiologies, sprains and fractures but also cutaneous lesions). The main etiologies on the subject are successively exposed by following the localization of the pain. Diffuse pains (ankle arthritis tarsal osteoarthritis, algodystrophy, calcaneo-navicular synostosis but also bone diseases like stress fractures, Paget disease or tumors). Plantar talalgia (Sever's disease, plantar fasciitis and entrapment neuropathies such as (esions of the medial calcaneal nerve, of the first branch of the plantar lateral nerve, medial plantar nerve and lateral plantar nerve). Posterior pains: calcaneal tendinopathy including peritendinitis, tendinosis, retro-calcaneal bursitis and pathology of the postero-lateral talar tuberosity. Medial pains: tendinopathies of the posterior tibial tendon and tendinopathy of the flexor hallucis longus tendon and tarsal tunnel syndrome. Lateral pains: fibularis tendinopathies including split lesions of the fibularis brevis tendon, displacement of the fibularis iongus tendon, sinus tarsi syndrome and finally thickenings of capsules and ligaments and ossifications localized under the tibial malleoli. Anterior pains: antero-inferior tibio-fibular ligament, anterior tibial tendinopathy and anterior impingment syndrome.

  12. Pain Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Capela


    Full Text Available Pain disorder is a psychiatric disorder diagnosed when the pain becomes the predominant focus of the clinical presentation and causes significant distress or impairment. Besides the high economic impact, there is a reciprocal relationship with the affective state. Pain is a subjective sensation and its severity and quality of experience in an individual is dependent on a complex mix of factors. In the treatment of acute pain, the primary purpose is pain relief, while chronic pain typically requires a combination of psychotropic drugs. In this context, it is also important to recognize and treat depression. Psychological treatments aimed at providing mechanisms to allow patients to "control and live with the pain" rather than aspire to eliminate it completely. A growing group of researchers proposes the elimination of the chapter of Somatoform Disorders and the modification of the category "psychological factors affecting a medical condition" to "psychological factors affecting an identified or feared medical condition" with clinical entities as ubchapters, largely based upon Diagnostics for Psychosomatic Research criteria.

  13. Economic Freedom and the Impact of Technology on Productivity


    Koffi N’Da; Ashok Robin; Thomas Tribunella


    A well-developed body of literature has detected positive effects of technology investments on economic growth. We contribute to this literature by studying the joint effects of technology and economic freedom on economic growth. Using two different time points, 1990 and 2000, and a sample of over 100 countries, we find that economic freedom enhances the effect of technology on economic growth. In fact, we find that the standalone effect of freedom is not as large as its interactive effect wi...

  14. On Effective Degrees of Freedom in the Early Universe


    Husdal, Lars


    We explore the effective degrees of freedom in the early universe, from before the electroweak scale at a few femtoseconds after the Big Bang, until the last positrons disappeared a few minutes later. We first look at the established concepts of effective degrees of freedom for energy density, pressure and entropy density, and introduce effective degrees of freedom for number density as well. We discuss what happens with particle species as their temperature cools down from relativistic to se...

  15. Relational Creativity and the Symmetry of Freedom and Nature


    Philip Michael Rose


    One of the more important and persistent of problems in speculative philosophy is reconciling the relation between freedom and nature. This is often referred to as the problem of freedom and determinism, but this way of formulating the problem assumes, uncritically, that nature is and must necessarily be a purely deterministic framework. As I hope to show, the so-called problem of freedom and determinism lies precisely in this deterministic assumption. By reorienting the question in terms of ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The concept of freedom constitutes the relationship between ethics and politics in Hegel’s thought. Contrary to Kantian understanding of the concept of freedom in which the concept is autonomous from nature and society, Hegel attempts to reconcile the social and individual existence of human being. The first condition of freedom for individual is to have a self-consciousness, that is being aware of himself. But freedom that could not being comprimized with being social is not the real freedom. Hegel also examines freedom in its historal manner. Freedom, in its historical manner, has reached its completed meaning only in Western societies. Hegel thinks that freedom becomes concrete in practical and political manner in Prussian State, in other words, in modern state. According to Hegel the modern state is a state in which justice and power is united. That is, the state has a both political and ethical existence. Hegel suggests that social institutions are legitimized only by realization of freedom. State is also the supreme normative insitution which concretize ethical life. The aim of this study is to understand Hegel’s attempt of synthesizing individual and society by using ethical and political concepts.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enlightenment thinkers like Denis Diderot, Voltaire, John Locke, James Madison,. Thomas Jefferson, and Thomas Paine, and modern freethinkers, agnostics and atheists such as Bertrand Russell, Robert Ingersoll, Albert Einstein, and Sam. Harris. It is Louay Safi's submission that;. While one may find certain similarities ...

  18. Oncology Nursing Certification: Relation to Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes About Pain, Patient-Reported Pain Care Quality, and Pain Outcomes. (United States)

    Beck, Susan L; Brant, Jeannine M; Donohue, Rebecca; Smith, Ellen M Lavoie; Towsley, Gail; Berry, Patricia H; Guo, Jia-Wen; Al-Qaaydeh, Sharifa; Pett, Marjorie A; Donaldson, Gary


    To (a) compare pain knowledge and attitudes between nurses with oncology certified nurse (OCN®) status, non-OCN®-certified nurses, and nurses ineligible for certification and (b) examine the relationships among OCN® status, nurses' knowledge and attitudes about pain, patient-reported quality of nursing pain care, and pain outcomes. 
. Prospective, correlational survey design. Patients were nested within nurses. 
. Six inpatient oncology units in three hospitals. 91 nurses in three states (28 OCN®-certified nurses, 37 noncertified nurses, and 26 not eligible for certification). Certification status was validated for 105 nurses who were matched with a sample of 320 patients. 
. Nurses completed a survey, and matched adult patients who were experiencing pain rated their pain care quality and pain experience during the past shift. 
. Demographic characteristics, certification status, and responses to the Nurse Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (NKASRP), Pain Care Quality Survey-Nursing, and modified Brief Pain Inventory (Short Form). 
. OCN®-certified nurses scored significantly higher on the NKASRP (82% correct) compared to non-OCN® eligible nurses (76%) and non-OCN® ineligible nurses (74%) (p care quality or pain outcomes or (b) NKASRP and care quality or outcomes (p > 0.05).
. OCN®-certified nurses' knowledge and attitudes related to pain management were superior to noncertified nurses. Neither knowledge and attitudes nor OCN® status were associated with pain care quality or pain outcomes. 
. Knowledge is necessary but insufficient to improve patient outcomes; providing optimal pain care requires action. Sustained efforts to improve cancer pain management are indicated.

  19. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim


    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  20. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs......” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resources. While growth has delivered benefits, however, it has done so unequally and unsustainably. This thesis focuses...... on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...

  1. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.


    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  2. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  3. Sustainable responsibilities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang


    This working paper analyzes the conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development in EU policies on CSR. The notion of corporate responsibility has until recently been limited to economical and legal responsibilities. Based on this narrow conception of corporate responsibility.......e. a combination of destruction and construction, this chapter will deconstruct conceptions of responsibility for sustainable development in these EU documents on CSR. A deconstructive conceptual analysis involves destructing dominant interpretations of a text and allowing for constructions of alternative...... such as sustainability actually means, but on what the concept says and does not say. A deconstructive analysis of EU policies on CSR, then, pinpoints that such policies are sites of conceptual struggles. This kind of analysis is suitable for studying conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development...

  4. Agriculture: Sustainability (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  5. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learned Going to the ER Communication Tools Pain Management Programs Videos Resources FAQs Glossary Surveys Resource Guide to Chronic Pain Treatments The Art of Pain Management Partners for Understanding Pain Pain Awareness Toolkits September ...

  6. Chronic Pelvic Pain (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Chronic Pelvic Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  7. Sustainable finance


    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.


    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence Sustainable Business Administration & Management Accounting, Financial Leadership and what is the importance of CSR in the financial sector

  8. Phantom Pain (United States)

    ... 16, 2014. Phantom pain Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  9. Chronic Pain (United States)

    ... have shown that there are higher levels of endorphins in cerebrospinal fluid following acupuncture. Investigators are studying the effect of stress on the experience of chronic pain. Chemists are synthesizing new analgesics and discovering painkilling ...

  10. Penis pain (United States)

    Pain - penis ... Bites, either human or insect Cancer of the penis Erection that does not go away (priapism) Genital herpes Infected hair follicles Infected prosthesis of the penis Infection under the foreskin of uncircumcised men ( balanitis ) ...

  11. Joint pain (United States)

    ... or conditions. It may be linked to arthritis , bursitis , and muscle pain . No matter what causes it, ... Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus Bursitis Chondromalacia patellae Crystals in the joint: Gout (especially ...

  12. Elbow pain (United States)

    ... chap 62. Kane SF, Lynch JH, Taylor JC. Evaluation of elbow pain in adults. Am Fam Physician . ... Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, ...

  13. Habituating pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Jeppe Zielinski Nguyen; Lund, Henrik Lambrecht; Møller, Jeppe Lykke


    In this article, we investigate the relations between discursive practices within the Danish construction industry and the perceived pain, physical deterioration, and strain affecting the construction workers. Of central importance is the widely accepted hegemonic discourse on physical strain...... and pain as unavoidable conditions in construction work. Based on 32 semi-structured interviews performed in eight case studies within four different construction professions, workers’ descriptions of physical strain and its relation to the organizational and social context are analyzed through concepts...... the industry reproduce physical strain and the habituation of pain as unquestioned conditions in construction work. The understanding of this mutual reinforcement of the necessity of physically straining, painful, high-paced construction work provides fruitful perspectives on the overrepresentation...

  14. Heel Pain (United States)

    ... improperly fitted or excessively worn shoes, or obesity. Plantar Fasciitis: Both heel pain and heel spurs are frequently associated with plantar fasciitis, an inflammation of the band of fibrous connective ...

  15. Back Pain (United States)

    ... emotional stress. Sometimes the cause is unknown. Common risk factors for back pain include being overweight, poor physical conditioning, smoking, whole body vibration, and improper lifting technique and body mechanics, including poor posture. Repeated activities (lifting, carrying, bending, ...

  16. Neuropathic Pain (United States)

    ... feels, and how much it hurts. This graphic representation provides a lot of important information in an ... can learn about the different parts of the body where nerve pain can manifest. Online Tool Back ...

  17. Period Pain (United States)

    ... your uterus or other reproductive organs, such as endometriosis and uterine fibroids. This kind of pain often ... Taking a hot bath Doing relaxation techniques, including yoga and meditation You might also try taking over- ...

  18. Verifying Deadlock-Freedom of Communication Fabrics (United States)

    Gotmanov, Alexander; Chatterjee, Satrajit; Kishinevsky, Michael

    Avoiding message dependent deadlocks in communication fabrics is critical for modern microarchitectures. If discovered late in the design cycle, deadlocks lead to missed project deadlines and suboptimal design decisions. One approach to avoid this problem is to get high level of confidence on an early microarchitectural model. However, formal proofs of liveness even on abstract models are hard due to large number of queues and distributed control. In this work we address liveness verification of communication fabrics described in the form of high-level microarchitectural models which use a small set of well-defined primitives. We prove that under certain realistic restrictions, deadlock freedom can be reduced to unsatisfiability of a system of Boolean equations. Using this approach, we have automatically verified liveness of several non-trivial models (derived from industrial microarchitectures), where state-of-the-art model checkers failed and pen and paper proofs were either tedious or unknown.

  19. Plasma contactor technology for Space Station Freedom (United States)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Hamley, John A.; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy; Soulas, George C.; Parkes, James; Ohlinger, Wayne L.; Schaffner, Michael S.; Nelson, Amy


    Hollow cathode plasma contactors have been baselined for Space Station Freedom to control the electrical potentials of surfaces to eliminate/mitigate damaging interactions with the space environment. The system represents a dual-use technology which is a direct outgrowth of the NASA electric propulsion program and in particular the technology development effort on ion thruster systems. Specific efforts include optimizing the design and configuration of the contactor, validating its required lifetime, and characterizing the contactor plume and electromagnetic interference. The plasma contactor subsystems include the plasma contactor unit, a power electronics unit, and an expellant management unit. Under this program these will all be brought to breadboard and engineering model development status. New test facilities have been developed, and existing facilities have been augmented, to support characterizations and life testing of contactor components and systems. This paper discusses the magnitude, scope, and status of the plasma contactor hardware development program now under way and preliminary test results on system components.

  20. [There should be freedom in nursing]. (United States)

    Martins, M A; Guerra, D R; Guedes, M V


    The title of this effort has reminded us of the Inconfidência Mineira, that had José Joaquim da Silva Xavier, the Tiradentes as its leader. It was a movement that longed for freedom, like nursing that, along the years, has been building its history and has been walking in search of its autonomy. This study has aims at investigating the ways nursing has gone through, while a science, it searches for its autonomy and mediates about nurse's performance while an autonomous and creative professional. This study had the historical materialism as support. It was accomplished from May to August, 1997 with nurses from Ceará that were involved with the profession historical process. The results originated a central category, professional practice, and the other three ones: autonomy, creativity and disposition to face challenges, that favour a better comprehension about the paths nursing tracked, besides permitting us to understand that the nurse can be autonomous and free.

  1. Freedom and authority in the Clinical Diary. (United States)

    Erős, Ferenc


    The paper discusses some philosophical, ethical and political-philosophical implications of Ferenczi's Clinical Diary, with special regard to the concepts of freedom and authority. These topics are already present in Ferenczi's early writings that explicitly deal with social and political issues, the central concept of which is "individual socialism". The paper also discusses (and publishes in Appendix) two short manuscripts by Ferenczi, written probably in 1920, which attempts to parallel psychoanalysis with Marxism, and with liberal socialism, respectively. It is shown that in 1932, the last year of his life, Ferenczi avoids using political and ideological concepts directly in his Diary, but, in the spirit of his earlier writings, he proposes a balance between "ruthless capitalism and fanciful egalitarianism". Finally, the significance of Utopia in Ferenczi's thinking is discussed.

  2. Press Freedom on the Media Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Maria de Carvalho Cruz Pires


    Full Text Available This article proposes to present a refl ection on the meanings constructed by the Brazilian written press regarding media and democracy. For this, it was necessary to recompose a specifi c journalistic event: the submission to the Brazilian Congress of a bill to create the Federal Journalism Council by the Brazilian President, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, at the request of the National Journalists Federation in August, 2004. This procedure gave rise to something rarely seen: the media were in the spotlight and thus it caused a controversial debate to emerge on the public scene regarding the journalist profession, journalism and press freedom, involving a diversity of political subjects.

  3. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.


    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  4. Myofascial pain disorders: theory to therapy. (United States)

    Wheeler, Anthony H


    Voluntary muscle is the largest human organ system. The musculotendinous contractual unit sustains posture against gravity and actuates movement against inertia. Muscular injury can occur when soft tissues are exposed to single or recurrent episodes of biomechanical overloading. Muscular pain is often attributed to a myofascial pain disorder, a condition originally described by Drs Janet Travell and David Simons. Among patients seeking treatment from a variety of medical specialists, myofascial pain has been reported to vary from 30% to 93% depending on the subspecialty practice and setting. Forty-four million Americans are estimated to have myofascial pain; however, controversy exists between medical specialists regarding the diagnostic criteria for myofascial pain disorders and their existence as a pathological entity. Muscles with activity or injury-related pain are usually abnormally shortened with increased tone and tension. In addition, myofascial pain disorders are characterised by the presence of tender, firm nodules called trigger points. Within each trigger point is a hyperirritable spot, the 'taut-band', which is composed of hypercontracted extrafusal muscle fibres. Palpation of this spot within the trigger point provokes radiating, aching-type pain into localised reference zones. Research suggests that myofascial pain and dysfunction with characteristic trigger points and taut-bands are a spinal reflex disorder caused by a reverberating circuit of sustained neural activity in a specific spinal cord segment. The treatment of myofascial pain disorders requires that symptomatic trigger points and muscles are identified as primary or ancillary pain generators. Mechanical, thermal and chemical treatments, which neurophysiologically or physically denervate the neural loop of the trigger point, can result in reduced pain and temporary resolution of muscular overcontraction. Most experts believe that appropriate treatment should be directed at the trigger point

  5. Medical Logistics Lessons Observed During Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. (United States)

    Dole, Mark J; Kissane, Jonathan M


    Medical Logistics (MEDLOG) is a function of the Army's integrated System for Health that provides the medical products and specialized logistics services required to deliver health protection and care under all operational conditions. In unified land operations, MEDLOG is an inherent function of Health Service Support (HSS), which also includes casualty care and medical evacuation. This paper focuses on a few key lessons observed during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom with direct implications for the support of HSS in future operations as envisioned in the Army Operating Concept and the Joint Concept for Health Services. It also examines a few key enablers that helped mitigate these challenges that are not yet fully acknowledged in Army Medical Department doctrine, policy, and planning.

  6. Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom: exploring wartime death and bereavement. (United States)

    Harrington Lamorie, Jill


    Military deaths are often sudden, unanticipated, traumatic, and/or violent in nature and involve the death of a young adult. More than 5,500 service members have died as a result of their service in the wars in Afghanistan (2001) and Iraq (2003) in combat- or non-combat- related incidences. As the death toll continues to rise, service members and their families struggle with the visible and invisible wounds of war. This article explores wartime death, trauma, and bereavement experienced by those survivors affected by service members who have died as a result of their military service in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). It recognizes the circumstantial and cultural factors of the death as well as the grief and trauma experiences of survivors. Resources and suggested interventions of support are highlighted.

  7. Problems with veteran-family communication during operation enduring freedom/operation Iraqi freedom military deployment. (United States)

    Hinojosa, Ramon; Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna; Högnäs, Robin S


    Twenty Reserve component (Army and Marines) and Army National Guard male veterans of Operational Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom discuss their deployment and postdeployment family reintegration experiences. A Grounded Theory approach is used to highlight some of the ways in which family miscommunication during deployment can occur. Communication with civilian family members is affected by the needs of operational security, technical problems with communication tools, miscommunication between family members, or because veterans have "nothing new to say" to family back home. These communication difficulties may lead to an initial gulf of understanding between veterans and family members that can cause family strain during postdeployment family reintegration. We end with a discussion of veteran family reintegration difficulties.

  8. Freedom of Expression and Freedom of Access to Information in Egypt


    Salem, Shawky


    This paper discusses the issues of intellectual freedom and the security of information and documents in Egypt. It establishes that there are no policies in the country about both keeping secrecy of the sensitive governmental data and providing access to information. The administrative fear of providing information, bureaucratic procedures, security levels on distribution and the human nature of hiding information lead to tight security of information and censorship. This situation raises man...

  9. Design and development of a telerehabilitation platform for patients with phantom limb pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreas Rothgangel; Susy Braun; Rob Smeets; Anna Beurskens


    Background: Phantom limb pain is a frequent and persistent problem following amputation. Achieving sustainable favorable effects on phantom limb pain requires therapeutic interventions such as mirror therapy that target maladaptive neuroplastic changes in the central nervous system. Unfortunately,

  10. Pain relief can be painful

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Bindra


    Full Text Available Mandibular nerve block is periodically used procedure used to treat neuralgic pain in the distribution of trigeminal nerve. It is a commonly performed block in outpatient settings at our institute. We present a case of an elderly edentulous patient with trigeminal neuralgia who suffered recurrent temporomandibular joint (TMJ dislocation following mandibular nerve block. The patient presented with complaints of severe pain, inability to close mouth, and eat food since 2 days. Anterior closed reduction of TMJ resulted in reduction of joint and immediate pain relief. However, the maneuver failed due to recurrent dislocation of the joint. A Barton dressing was applied to prevent another dislocation. This was followed by autologous blood injection into the joint. This case focuses on the preponderance of clinical evaluation and accentuates the need for additional forethought to be taken during pain procedures, particularly in the geriatric population.

  11. The freedom to choose: integrating communitybased reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary, anecdotal reports from community members and programme staff indicate that this integrated Population-Health-Environment approach enables couples to plan and better provide for their families, empowers women, improves food security and directly supports the sustainability of local conservation efforts.

  12. 76 FR 3815 - Religious Freedom Day, 2011 (United States)


    ... not self- sustaining, and require a stalwart commitment by each generation to preserve and apply them... commemorate this day with events and activities that teach us about this critical foundation of our Nation's liberty, and to show us how we can protect it for future generations here and around the world. ] IN...

  13. Pain and pain management in haemophilia


    Auerswald, Günter; Dolan, Gerry; Duffy, Anne; Hermans, Cédric; Jiménez-Yuste, Victor; Ljung, Rolf; Morfini, Massimo; Lambert, Thierry; Šalek, Silva Zupančić


    Joint pain is common in haemophilia and may be acute or chronic. Effective pain management in haemophilia is essential to reduce the burden that pain imposes on patients. However, the choice of appropriate pain-relieving measures is challenging, as there is a complex interplay of factors affecting pain perception. This can manifest as differences in patients? experiences and response to pain, which require an individualized approach to pain management. Prophylaxis with factor replacement redu...

  14. Dialogue of Freedom. Asian Voices Challenge Cultural Assumptions about Democracy. (United States)

    Pon, Cynthia


    Discusses the concept of freedom in a global context, focusing on the Asian perspectives of three spokespersons: Zhuangzi or Chuang Tzu, a Daoist (Taoist) poet-philosopher in 4th-century-BCE China; Indian-born Nobel economist Amartya Sen, whose work on poverty links development with freedom; and Aung San Suu Kyi, Burmese democratic leader and…

  15. Book Review: "Financial Therapy: 5 Steps Toward Financial Freedom


    Megan McCoy; D. Bruce Ross


    Financial Therapy: 5 Steps Toward Financial Freedom and its accompanying workbook, Guide to Financial Therapy Forms and Handouts: 5 Steps Toward Financial Freedom, was created to provide an intervention model to help clients become more financially literate and protect them from financial predators.

  16. Book Review: "Financial Therapy: 5 Steps Toward Financial Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan McCoy


    Full Text Available Financial Therapy: 5 Steps Toward Financial Freedom and its accompanying workbook, Guide to Financial Therapy Forms and Handouts: 5 Steps Toward Financial Freedom, was created to provide an intervention model to help clients become more financially literate and protect them from financial predators.

  17. Freedom of expression and the Ethiopian anti-terrorism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Anti-Terrorism Proclamation of Ethiopia has a far-reaching effect on human rights, such as freedom of expression. The provisions of this law that impact freedom of expression are discussed in this article. The law gives leeway to criminalize innocent acts of individuals who are critical of government policies.

  18. 76 FR 26923 - 50th Anniversary of the Freedom Rides (United States)


    ... America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, do... discrimination, and to challenge the enforcement of local segregation laws and practices. The Freedom Rides... Freedom Riders also motivated and mobilized the next generation of civil rights leaders. The unflinching...

  19. The Tensions between Academic Freedom and Institutional Review Boards (United States)

    Tierney, William G.; Corwin, Zoe Blumberg


    Academic freedom and the protection of human research subjects are central tenets of American universities. Academic freedom protects the rights of tenured professors to conduct autonomous research; human subject protection ensures that research causes as minimal a risk as possible to study participants. Although the two principles are mutually…

  20. Access to information: the role of freedom of information legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constitutional guarantees of access to information and their enabling legislation, Freedom of Information Acts are present challenges, prospects and opportunities for records managers. It is widely accepted that records management plays a pivotal role in Freedom of Information implementation. For instance, the preface to ...

  1. A Utilitarian Case for Intellectual Freedom in Libraries. (United States)

    Doyle, Tony


    Outlines the history of censorship and intellectual and expressive freedom in American libraries; discusses the two main types of ethical theory, utilitarianism and deontology; and maintains that libraries have a special role to play in promoting unconditional intellectual freedom. (Author/LRW)

  2. On the relationship between economic freedom and economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Jakob de; Sturm, Jan-Egbert


    Often it is maintained that economic freedom may further high levels of economic growth. This paper compares various indicators for economic freedom. It is concluded that although these measures differ somewhat in their coverage, they show similar rankings for the countries covered. Some elements in

  3. The U.S. Freedom Agenda in the Middle East (United States)


    Political Islam. The progress of successful Muslim democracies, such as those in Turkey and Malaysia , further reinforce this view. THE RULE OF LAW...Press Freedom Prison Conditions and the Treatment of Prisoners Racism and Human Rights Refugees Religious Freedom Terrorism Torture and

  4. Toward a Normative Theory of Freedom of the Press. (United States)

    Jensen, Dwight Wm.

    In considering the possibility of a normative theory of freedom of the press, this paper examines arguments about such freedom in the Third World and elsewhere. Some of the arguments discussed in the paper are derived from the theories of John Locke and Karl Marx; others are drawn from the concepts of divine rights, elitism, liberal democracy, and…

  5. The theory of freedom in Jean Jacques Rousseau: A critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rousseau addresses freedom more than any other problem of political philosophy and aims to explain how man in the state of nature is blessed with an enviable total freedom. He believed that modern man's enslavement to his own needs was responsible for all sorts of societal ills, from exploitation and domination of ...

  6. Politics, Freedoms and Spirituality in Alaa Al Aswany's Yacoubian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article argues that the novel's power derives not only from its prophetic insight into Egyptian neo-colonial politics, but also from its expansive exploration of personal and collective freedoms. Connecting ideas about freedom to his scrutiny of how Islamic discourses have been represented and appropriated, Al Aswany ...

  7. Freedom, Constraint, or Both? Readings on Popular Music and Gender (United States)

    Bjorck, Cecilia


    This article examines how notions of freedom are linked to popular music practices in previous research literature. The author discusses how two competing discourses depict popular music practices on the one hand as "freedom," and on the other hand as "constraint," and how these ideas relate to gender. She also argues that…

  8. Copyright law and freedom of expression in South Africa | Holland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The claim, that there is indeed some tension between the imperative of copyright law and the core of the right to freedom of expression, has been ignored for a variety of intuitions and reasons. This article acknowledges the conflict between copyright law and freedom of expression right in South Africa; it recognises the ...

  9. Freedom of Speech and Adolescent Public School Students (United States)

    Hussain, Murad


    Some legal cases on the freedom of speech in adolescent public school students are discussed. It is suggested that schools, social scientists and psychologists should build a social consensus on the extent to which the freedom of speech for abusive students can be allowed so as not to affect development of other students.

  10. Freedom of Information Legislation In Esarbica Member States and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses the question of freedom of information. It begins by arguing that although all Citizens have the right of access to information, each citizen is entitled to enjoy certain rights that must be protected and must be enshrined in a freedom of information legislation. The paper identifies the major elements that ...

  11. Academic Freedom in International Higher Education: Right or Responsibility? (United States)

    Gibbs, Alexis


    This paper explores the conceptual history of academic freedom and its emergence as a substantive right that pertains to either the academic or the university. It is suggested that historical reconceptualisations necessitated by contingent circumstance may have led to academic freedom being seen as a form of protection for those working within…

  12. 78 FR 16611 - Freedom of Information Act; Correction (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 4 Freedom of Information Act; Correction AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final rule.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: An amendatory instruction in our final rule entitled ``Freedom of Information Act...

  13. Freedom of Speech: Its Exercise and Its Interpretation (United States)

    Turner, David A.


    Professor Roy Harris (2009) criticises me for ignoring freedom of speech in order to focus on "soft" issues, such as game theory, decision theory and chaos theory. In this response, I accept most of his arguments relating to freedom of speech, but argue that, in order to develop better systems of education, we need to pay more attention to the…

  14. Freedom Reconsidered: Heteronomy, Open Subjectivity, and the "Gift of Teaching" (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping


    This paper analyzes the entanglement of the modern concepts of freedom, autonomy, and the modern notion of the subject and how a passion for and insistence on freedom has undermined the reconstruction of human subjectivity in Heidegger and Foucault, and how such passion has also limited the educational effort at addressing the problems brought to…

  15. What is freedom--and does wealth cause it? (United States)

    Iyer, Ravi; Motyl, Matt; Graham, Jesse


    The target article's climato-economic theory will benefit by allowing for bidirectional effects and the heterogeneity of types of freedom, in order to more fully capture the coevolution of societal wealth and freedom. We also suggest alternative methods of testing climato-economic theory, such as longitudinal analyses of these countries' histories and micro-level experiments of each of the theory's hypotheses.

  16. Academic Freedom and University Autonomy: A Higher Education Policy Perspective (United States)

    Ren, Kai; Li, Jun


    This article reflects upon three seminal articles published in "Higher Education Policy" ("HEP") on academic freedom and university autonomy. The reflections indicate that "HEP" research contributes to a sophisticated and systematic understanding of the complexity of academic freedom, addressing both the original…

  17. Academic Freedom, Critique and the Humanities: some current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents some of the current challenges facing academic freedom and the humanities in South Africa as well as across the world. It focuses first on the shifting fortunes of academic freedom in South Africa, contrasting the pride of place given to it in the pre-1994 social imaginary with its current undermining in ...

  18. Freedom of information and records management in Ghana | Adams ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years there has been a drive towards the passage and implementation of freedom of information (FOI) legislations in many countries. Access to information is gaining acceptance as a necessary tool in ensuring the participation of the citizenry in democratic governance. An effective implementation of a freedom of ...

  19. 78 FR 53083 - Freedom of Information Act Administration (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PEACE CORPS 22 CFR Part 303 RIN 0420-AA29 Freedom of Information Act Administration AGENCY: Peace Corps. ACTION: Proposed rule... Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) to implement guidance given by the President and the Attorney General...

  20. The Challenge of Academic Freedom in the Nigerian University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper takes a cursory look at the extent to which the Nigerian university system has enjoyed academic freedom. It observes that within the framework of the National Policy on Education (2004), universities in Nigeria are expected to enjoy the traditional areas of freedom in the areas of selection of students; appointment ...

  1. The Historical Importance of Jury to Press Freedom. (United States)

    Olasky, Marvin N.

    Staggered by some recent libel verdicts, many journalists are neglecting lessons about press freedom learned at great cost during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Journalists then learned that state power over the press, residing in the hands of either censors or judges, leads to a decrease in press freedom. In 1986, though, many media…

  2. Nursing Music Protocol and Postoperative Pain. (United States)

    Poulsen, Michael J; Coto, Jeffrey


    Pain has always been a major concern for patients and nurses during the postoperative period. Therapies, medicines, and protocols have been developed to improve pain and anxiety but have undesirable risks to the patient. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies have been studied but have not been applied as regular protocols in the hospital setting. Music is one type of complementary and alternative medicine therapy that has been reported to have favorable results on reducing postoperative pain, anxiety, and opioid usage. However, music lacks a protocol that nurses can implement during the perioperative process. This paper is an in-depth literature review assessing a best practice recommendation and protocol that establishes a consensus in the use of music therapy. The results suggest that music therapy may consist of calming, soft tones of 60-80 beats per minute for at least 15-30 minutes at least twice daily during the pre- and postoperative periods. It is suggested that music only be used in conjunction with standards of care and not as the primary intervention of pain or anxiety. This evidence suggests that proper use of music therapy can significantly reduce surgical pain. Implementing these protocols and allowing the freedom of nursing staff to use them may lead to greater reductions in surgical pain and anxiety and a reduction in opioid use. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Roundtabling Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano


    The willingness of public authority to delegate social and environmental regulation to the private sector has varied from sector to sector, but has often led to the establishment of ‘voluntary’ standards and certifications on sustainability. Many of these have taken the form of ‘stewardship...... councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity......-specific sustainability situations into a form that not only ‘hears more voices’ (as in ‘multi-stakeholder’), but also portrays to give them equal standing at the table of negotiations (roundtable), thus raising higher expectations on accountability, transparency and inclusiveness. In this article, I examine to what...

  4. Low back pain - acute (United States)

    Backache; Low back pain; Lumbar pain; Pain - back; Acute back pain; Back pain - new; Back pain - short-term; Back strain - new ... lower back supports most of your body's weight. Low back pain is the number two reason that Americans see ...

  5. Suicidal ideation in treatment-seeking Veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: the role of coping strategies, resilience, and social support. (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert H; Russo, Amanda R; Ling, Qi; Southwick, Steven M


    Recent epidemiologic studies have found an increased risk of suicide among Veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF-OIF) with psychiatric disorders. However, little is known about whether variables other than psychiatric conditions, such as coping strategies, resilience, and social support, may be related to suicidality in this population. A total of 167 OEF-OIF Veterans seeking behavioral or primary care services completed a survey containing measures of combat exposure, psychopathology, pain, psychological resilience, social support, and cognitive coping strategies. Thirty-six respondents (21.6%) reported contemplating suicide in the two weeks prior to completing the survey. Compared to suicide non-contemplators, suicide contemplators were older, and more likely to screen positive for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and to report a deployment-related pain condition or complaint. They also scored higher on measures of worry, self-punishment, and cognitive-behavioral avoidance strategies, and lower on measures of psychological resilience and postdeployment social support. Multivariate analysis revealed that a positive depression screen, and higher scores on measures of self-punishment and cognitive-social avoidance coping were positively associated with suicidal ideation, while higher scores on measures of psychological resilience (i.e., positive acceptance of change) were negatively related to suicidal ideation. Moderator analysis revealed that a positive screen for depression or PTSD significantly diminished the protective effect of postdeployment social support on suicidal ideation. 1 in 5 treatment-seeking OEF-OIF Veterans may contemplate suicide. Interventions to reduce depressive symptoms, and maladaptive cognitive-behavioral coping strategies of self-punishment and cognitive social avoidance, and to bolster psychological resilience may help mitigate suicidality in this population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Sustainability Evaluation. (United States)

    Stichnothe, Heinz


    The long-term substitution of fossil resources can only be achieved through a bio-based economy, with biorefineries and bio-based products playing a major role. However, it is important to assess the implications of the transition to a bio-based economy. Life cycle-based sustainability assessment is probably the most suitable approach to quantify impacts and to identify trade-offs at multiple levels. The extended utilisation of biomass can cause land use change and affect food security of the most vulnerable people throughout the world. Although this is mainly a political issue and governments should be responsible, the responsibility is shifted to companies producing biofuels and other bio-based products. Organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass are considered to be the preferred feedstock for the production of bio-based products. However, it is unlikely that a bio-based economy can rely only on organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass.It is crucial to identify potential problems related to socio-economic and environmental issues. Currently there are many approaches to the sustainability of bio-based products, both quantitative and qualitative. However, results of different calculation methods are not necessarily comparable and can cause confusion among decision-makers, stakeholders and the public.Hence, a harmonised, globally agreed approach would be the best solution to secure sustainable biomass/biofuels/bio-based chemicals production and trade, and to avoid indirect effects (e.g. indirect land use change). However, there is still a long way to go.Generally, the selection of suitable indicators that serve the purpose of sustainability assessment is very context-specific. Therefore, it is recommended to use a flexible and modular approach that can be adapted to various purposes. A conceptual model for the selection of sustainability indicators is provided that facilitates identifying suitable sustainability indicators based on relevance and significance in a

  7. Deep Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Pau; Cucurull, Guillem; Gonzàlez, Jordi


    appearance versus taking into account the whole image: As a result, we outperform current state- of-the-art AUC performance in the UNBC-McMaster Shoulder Pain Expression Archive Database. In addition, to evaluate the generalization properties of our proposed methodology on facial motion recognition, we also......Pain is an unpleasant feeling that has been shown to be an important factor for the recovery of patients. Since this is costly in human resources and difficult to do objectively, there is the need for automatic systems to measure it. In this paper, con- trary to current state-of-the-art techniques...... in pain assessment, which are based on facial features only, we suggest that the performance can be enhanced by feeding the raw frames to deep learning models, outperforming the latest state-of-the-art results while also directly facing the problem of imbalanced data. As a baseline, our approach first...

  8. Axel Honneth: The law of freedom – Institutionalization of freedom in modern societies - A reconstruction and some remarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl


    This paper reconstructs the argument of Axel Honneth's recent book Das Recht der Freiheit as a theory of the institutionalization of freedom in modern society. In particular, it looks at Honneth's argument for the realization of freedom in law and morality that is proposed as a contemporary re-in...

  9. Painful menstrual periods (United States)

    Menstruation - painful; Dysmenorrhea; Periods - painful; Cramps - menstrual; Menstrual cramps ... a few days during each menstrual cycle. Painful menstruation is the leading cause of lost time from ...

  10. Shoulder pain. (United States)

    Ramponi, Denise R


    Shoulder pain is a frequent complaint encountered in the emergency setting. A brief review of shoulder anatomy and physical examination sets the foundation for evaluation of shoulder pain. Considerations of patient's age are helpful to predict injuries. Fractured clavicles are often seen in traumatic injuries in children and young adults, whereas fractures of the humeral head are more often seen in the elderly from traumatic injuries. Shoulder dislocations are more common in teens to fourth decade. This article reviews specific acute injuries, chronic conditions, and radiologic considerations of patients with shoulder complaints encountered in emergency settings.

  11. Sustainable Soesterkwartier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahams, H.; Goosen, H.; Jong, de F.; Sickmann, J.; Prins, D.


    The municipality of Amersfoort wants to construct an endurable and sustainable eco-town in the Soesterkwartier neighbourhood, by taking future climate change into account. The impact of climate change at the location of the proposed eco-town was studied by a literature review.

  12. Sustainable agriculture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New farming techniques, better food security. Since 1970, IDRC-supported research has introduced sustainable agricultural practices to farmers and communities across the devel- oping world. The result: higher productivity, less poverty, greater food security, and a healthier environment. Opportunities grow on trees in ...

  13. Sustainable Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsegai Berhane Ghebretekle

    Abstract. This article examines the concept of sustainable development after the Post-. 2015 Paris Climate Change Agreement with particular emphasis on Ethiopia. Various African countries are vulnerable to climate change, as is evidenced by recent droughts. Ethiopia is selected as a case study in light of its pace in.

  14. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server


    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  15. Architecture Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich


    Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The

  16. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.


    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. It The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  17. Exergy sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.


    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  18. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine


    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  19. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Margreet F. Boersma-de Jong


    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence

  20. Filipino women demand freedom from debt. (United States)

    Taguiwalo, J


    Filipino women suffer from the dual burden of unpaid reproductive work and underpaid labor in the work force. They are also paying heavily for the huge foreign debt assumed by their country. The fact that economic development has stagnated in the Philippines is directly related to a government policy which provides for automatic debt repayment regardless of the economic status of the country. The strategy of honoring debt obligations and removing governmental market controls was intended to lead to economic development in the Philippines but has instead increased the burden of women who must cope with reductions in income, reductions in social and community services, increases in taxes, and higher prices for essentials. Increased work and less food have had an adverse impact on the women's health, and the emphasis on exports has resulted in an increased number of women migrating overseas to find jobs. Thus, even highly trained women must resort to performing domestic work overseas to earn a living. Cash-crop production has reduced women's role in food production and threatened food security while creating a pool of cheap labor among the newly displaced peasant families. Violence against women is increasing because of stress related to poverty, and women working abroad are subject to rape and sexual abuse. These conditions have led to the creation of women's groups such as the Freedom from Debt Coalition which is developing a comprehensive alternative development strategy which includes measures to reduce the burden of foreign debt.

  1. Seizure Freedom After Limited Hippocampal Radiofrequency Thermocoagulation. (United States)

    Li, Han-Tao; Lee, Ching-Yi; Lim, Siew-Na; Chang, Chun-Wei; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wu, Tony


    Surgical interventions are often used for freedom from seizure in patients with drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. A patient with seizure foci in the left mesiotemporal region underwent limited-size stereotactic radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RF-TC) over the left hippocampus. A 37-year-old woman with febrile convulsion in her childhood was admitted to our neurologic department with complex partial seizure with secondary generalization. Electroencephalography showed epileptogenic focus mainly from the left mesiotemporal region, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a left hippocampal atrophy. Because of failure to control seizure after use of several antiepileptic drugs, drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy was diagnosed. RF-TC was done in the left hippocampus. Unique features of our technique include intraoperative electroencephalography recordings directly from electrodes on the left hippocampus, an aura sensation provoked during the low-temperature test thermocoagulation, and therapeutic thermocoagulation performed via a Radionics radiofrequency lead. In the 16-week period following the surgery, the patient experienced no seizure attacks and no significant postoperative adverse effects or memory impairments. Compared with other reports using RF-TC, our case demonstrates a 1-step minimally invasive surgery that reduces hippocampal volume loss, shortens the length of hospital stay, decreases the occurrence of postoperative infection, and achieves good outcomes for epilepsy control. Favorable seizure control was achieved with minimally invasive RF-TC. Further use of this technique is warranted in cases of drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Involuntary freedom in elderly widows- Narrative insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Carriço


    Full Text Available Due to the existing age gap between the average life expectancy of males and females, the widowhood process in old age is mainly experienced by women. In light of this, this study aims to understand the state of widowhood from a female perspective, analysing its impact at the level of lifestyle choices, in addition to identifying the changes that took place in the lives of elderly women and to what extent widowhood influences the choice of daily life as well as leisure activities. This is an exploratory-descriptive study that resorts to a qualitative methodology, using a study group comprising 30 elderly widowed women, aged 65 or above. Data were collected during semi-structured individual interviews and its content was analysed with the WebQda Software (Web Qualitative Data Analysis. Results show that becoming a widow gave the elderly a greater sense of independence and freedom. Simultaneously, it also showed that in the early years of widowhood, widows experience more feelings of grief and nostalgia for their loved ones (feeling of missing someone immensely.  

  3. Posters: balancing overkill and freedom of expression

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Internal Communication and HR Department


    The number of posters put up at CERN to inform, engage and invite is growing quickly, and they are taking over an ever-increasing number of walls, doors, pillars and glass panels. In the interests of freedom of information, no official restrictions are in place, but we are nonetheless obliged to maintain a fair balance. Here we discuss this issue.   Posters clamour for our attention, becoming more and more invasive and often eternal as they are never taken down... While the need to inform and to be informed is a legitimate one, we also have to respect our workplace. It’s no surprise that walls or pillars (sometimes freshly painted) at junctions in corridors that are busy at peak times are seen as ideal targets by people who want to publicise their events or activities, but this abundance, or overabundance, of posters is sometimes seen as vandalism of communal areas. What's more, the posters themselves are sometimes vandalised: comments, sometimes offensive, may be added and the...

  4. Mesodynamics with implicit degrees of freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Keng-Hua; Strachan, Alejandro [School of Materials Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Holian, Brad Lee; Germann, Timothy C. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)


    Mesoscale phenomena—involving a level of description between the finest atomistic scale and the macroscopic continuum—can be studied by a variation on the usual atomistic-level molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique. In mesodynamics, the mass points, rather than being atoms, are mesoscopic in size, for instance, representing the centers of mass of polycrystalline grains or molecules. In order to reproduce many of the overall features of fully atomistic MD, which is inherently more expensive, the equations of motion in mesodynamics must be derivable from an interaction potential that is faithful to the compressive equation of state, as well as to tensile de-cohesion that occurs along the boundaries of the mesoscale units. Moreover, mesodynamics differs from Newton's equations of motion in that dissipation—the exchange of energy between mesoparticles and their internal degrees of freedom (DoFs)—must be described, and so should the transfer of energy between the internal modes of neighboring mesoparticles. We present a formulation where energy transfer between the internal modes of a mesoparticle and its external center-of-mass DoFs occurs in the phase space of mesoparticle coordinates, rather than momenta, resulting in a Galilean invariant formulation that conserves total linear momentum and energy (including the energy internal to the mesoparticles). We show that this approach can be used to describe, in addition to mesoscale problems, conduction electrons in atomic-level simulations of metals, and we demonstrate applications of mesodynamics to shockwave propagation and thermal transport.

  5. [Psychosocial stressors and pain sensitivity in chronic pain disorder with somatic and psychological factors (F45.41)]. (United States)

    Studer, M; Stewart, J; Egloff, N; Zürcher, E; von Känel, R; Brodbeck, J; Grosse Holtforth, M


    Increased pain sensitivity is characteristic for patients with chronic pain disorder with somatic and psychological factors (F45.41). Persistent stress can induce, sustain, and intensify pain sensitivity, thereby modulating pain perception. In this context, it would be favorable to investigate which psychosocial stressors are empirically linked to pain sensitivity. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between psychosocial stressors and pain sensitivity in a naturalistic sample of patients with chronic pain disorder with somatic and psychological factors (F45.41). We assessed 166 patients with chronic pain disorder with somatic and psychological factors (F45.41) at entry into an inpatient pain clinic. Pain sensitivity was measured with a pain provocation test (Algopeg) at the middle finger and earlobe. Stressors assessed were exposure to war experiences, adverse childhood experiences, illness-related inability to work, relationship problems, and potentially life-threatening accidents. Correlation analyses and structural equation modeling were used to examine which stressors showed the strongest prediction of pain sensitivity. Patients exhibited generally heightened pain sensitivity. Both exposure to war and illness-related inability to work showed significant bivariate correlations with pain sensitivity. In addition to age, they also predicted a further increase in pain sensitivity in the structural equation model. Bearing in mind the limitations of this cross-sectional study, these findings may contribute to a better understanding of the link between psychosocial stressors and pain sensitivity.

  6. Social justice and the formal principle of freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Olga


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show, contra the right-libertarian critique of social justice, that there are good reasons for defending policies of social justice within a free society. In the first part of the paper, we will present two influential right-libertarian critiques of social justice, found in Friedrich Hayek’s Law, Legislation and Liberty and Robert Nozick’s Anarchy, State and Utopia. Based on their approach, policies of social justice are seen as an unjustified infringement on freedoms of individual members of a society. In response to this critique, we will introduce the distincion between formal and factual freedom and argue that the formal principle of freedom defended by Hayek and Nozick does not suffice for the protection of factual freedom of members of a society, because it does not recognize (1 the moral obligation to help those who, without their fault, lack factual freedom to a significant degree, and (2 the legal obligation of the state to protect civic dignity of all members of a society. In the second part of the paper, we offer an interpretation of Kant’s argument on taxation, according to which civic dignity presupposes factual freedom, in order to argue that Kant’s justification of taxation offers good reasons for claiming that the state has the legal obligation to protect factual freedom via the policies of social justice.

  7. Germ-line engineering, freedom, and future generations. (United States)

    Cooke, Elizabeth F


    New technologies in germ-line engineering have raised many questions about obligations to future generations. In this article, I focus on the importance of increasing freedom and the equality of freedom for present and future generations, because these two ideals are necessary for a just society and because they are most threatened by the wide-scale privatisation of GLE technologies. However, there are ambiguities in applying these ideals to the issue of genetic technologies. I argue that Amartya Sen's capability theory can be used as a framework to ensure freedom and equality in the use of GLE technology. Capability theory articulates the goal of equalising real freedom by bringing all people up to a threshold of basic human capabilities. Sen's capability theory can clarify the proper moral goal of GLE insofar as this technology could be used to bring people up to certain basic human capabilities, thereby increasing their real freedom. And by increasing the freedom of those who lack basic human capabilities, GLE can aid in decreasing the inequalities of freedom among classes of people.

  8. Gastric pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diabetes, viral illness or drugs. Nausea, bloating and fullness. Oesophageal spasm. Substernal chest pain, with or without dysphagia for liquids and solids. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. • Heartburn. • Occasional reflux of acid or the stomach contents into the mouth. • Symptoms occasionally triggered by lying down.

  9. Achilles Pain. (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Five ailments which can cause pain in the achilles tendon area are: (1) muscular strain, involving the stretching or tearing of muscle or tendon fibers; (2) a contusion, inflammation or infection called tenosynovitis; (3) tendonitis, the inflammation of the tendon; (4) calcaneal bursitis, the inflammation of the bursa between the achilles tendon…

  10. Pain (PDQ) (United States)

    ... With Your Health Insurance Plan Federal Government Programs Patient Safety Informed Consent Children's Assent Scientific Review Ending Trials ... losing support once their care moves from their oncology team back to their primary ... Each patient needs a personal plan to control cancer pain. ...

  11. Orofacial pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolijn Oomens


    Full Text Available In the primary care sector, diagnosis and initial management of orofacial pain are often performed by familydoctors and dentists. Knowledge of the different types of orofacial pain and headache disorders is therefor of great importance. The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 provides an overview of the different types of orofacial pain and will be discussed in this lecture. The main focus will be on trigeminal neuralgia and cluster headache and the current research in this field. Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN is defined as a disorder characterized by recurrent, unilateral, brief, electricshock-like pains, abrupt in onset and termination, limited to the distribution of one or more divisions of thetrigeminal nerve and triggered by innocuous stimuli. Unfortunately, most TN is idiopathic, and the aetiology isnot clear. The guidelines on pharmaceutical TN management published by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN and the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS recommend carbamazepine (CBZ; 200–1200 mg/day or oxcarbazepine (OXC; 600–1800 mg/day as first-line therapy. Both are antiepileptics with well known interactions with other drugs and safety problems. An overview of the currently available literature on the pharmaceutical management of TN patients is discussed. Cluster headache (CH is one of the most painful primary headache disorders. It is characterized by daily or almost daily attacks of unilateral excruciating periorbital pain associated with ipsilateral cranial autonomic symptoms, typically lasting between 15 and 180 minutes if untreated. Cluster headache is caused by the relaesement of neurotransmitters and vasodilators from the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPH. The SPG is a large extracranial parasympathetic ganglion located in the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF. The current treatments for CH attacks are injectable sumatriptan and oxygen inhalation. Both treatments have well known side effects and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Alexandru MICU


    Full Text Available For much of human history, most individuals have lacked economic freedom and opportunity, condemning them to poverty and deprivation. Today, we live in the most prosperous time in human history. Poverty, sicknesses, and ignorance are receding throughout the world, due in large part to the advance of economic freedom. In 2015, the principles of economic freedom that have fueled this monumental progress are once again measured in the Index of Economic Freedom, In order to have an overall view on the evolution of the Chinese economic system, we have analysed the 10 components of the economic freedom index: financial freedom, investment freedom, commercial freedom, monetary freedom, freedom to make business, governmental expenses, ownership rights, tax freedom, labour market freedom, the corruption level.

  13. When Sex Is Painful (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS FAQ020 When Sex Is Painful • How common is painful sex? • What causes pain during sex? • Where is pain during sex felt? • When should ...

  14. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Already a member? Log In or Sign Up Home About Us Support the ACPA Contact Us Shop ... Pain Awareness Toolkits September is Pain Awareness Month Home Pain Management Tools Videos What Is Chronic Pain? ...

  15. Persistent facial pain conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forssell, Heli; Alstergren, Per; Bakke, Merete


    TMD, and different neuropathic or putative neuropathic facial pains such as persistent idiopathic facial pain and atypical odontalgia, trigeminal neuralgia and painful posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathy. The article presents an overview of TMD pain as a biopsychosocial condition, its prevalence...

  16. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Covington, MD, director of the Cleveland Clinic Pain Management Program, explains some of the physiology of pain. Narrator: Most pain is temporary and manageable, but chronic pain is different. And because it is different, we need to ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In recent decades, the image of the international business environment has changed significantly. Studies conducted by UNCTAD shows that corporate phenomenon developments in the world economy is growing. Without claiming to present an exhaustive topic so vast we tried to capture some "facets" of sustainable development from the perspective of multinational corporations, given the expansion of these economic entities and strengthening their power in the global economy. We present more negative aspects of the actions of multinational corporations in terms of sustainable development, it is very important to know both sides of the coin, which will not only help transnational giants including release. Based on issues such as corporate social responsibility, environmental pollution and workers' rights, we sought to counter official statements. The conclusion is that these economic entities are real forces that can not be ignored in today's world and the obvious problem of sustainable development can not be addressed independently of the phenomenon, context we also identified some possible solutions to conflict of corporations and essence of the concept of sustainable development.

  18. [Freedom of movement: a basic right, a regulated restriction]. (United States)

    Bourbon-Vincent, Marilyn

    Freedom of movement is recognised by national and supranational law. It falls within the scope of the definition of freedom set out in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, in 1789. It is also legally formulated and recognised as a basic right in two European texts: the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 10th December 1948 and the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of 4th November 1950. How can it be respected in psychiatry, in view of the obligation to provide care and safety? Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Limitation of personal freedom by detention of suspect


    Knežević, Saša


    The right of personal freedom is one of the most important right from the set of basic human rights and freedoms, contained in the most important acts of international legal character, and the constitutions of states based on the rule of law. This right is directly related to the very human existence, and, therefore, it is necessary to make its legal articulation. Personal freedom means the right to security of the citizen, that he will not be arrested and detained in prison by the state auth...

  20. DoD Freedom of Information Act Policies Need Improvement (United States)


    Governmental Affairs requested that the DoD Inspector General determine whether noncareer officials were adversely affecting the Freedom of Information... determined whether noncareer2 officials were adversely affecting the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) process at DoD between January 2007 and July 2015...S T 1 6 , 2 0 1 6 DoD Freedom of Information Act Policies Need Improvement Report No. DODIG-2016-124 I N T E G R I T Y  E F F I C I E N C Y

  1. Freedom of Information Act Requests: Six Keys to Handling Them (United States)


    Defense AT&L: January–February 2016 50 Freedom of Information Act Requests Six Keys to Handling Them Michael A. Rodgers Rodgers is a professor of...Department of Defense Open Government websites. When I worked at an Air Force major com-mand, I noticed that receiving a Freedom of Information Act...Directive 5400.07 “Department of Defense Freedom of Information Act Program,” which estab- lishes overall DoD FOIA policy and dictates the FOIA roles and

  2. Freedom and the principles of morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Zagorka T.


    Full Text Available Freedom as an authentic and willed process, characteristic of man as a human rational being, enables the individual to act in accordance with the principles of morality, since the individual can choose between good and evil (between two possibilities, and in this way to get out of the sphere of the given to which the rest of the living world is limited. We should recall the forgotten Marx and his famous text on the essential difference between the animal world and humanity as a genus: "The animal is immediately united with its vital activity. It does not differ from it. It is vital activity. Man makes his own vital activity the subject of his will and consciousness. He has conscious vital activity. This is not a determination with which he merges immediately. Conscious vital activity distinguishes man directly from animal vital activity. It is exactly in this way alone that he is a generic being. Or a conscious being, i.e. his own life is a subject for him precisely because he is a generic being. It is only for this reason that his activity is free activity..." (K. Marx, "Alienation", Early Works. In other words, while animals live just the life of their species and cannot choose anything else, since the choice has been made by the fact of their belonging to a species, man can choose the world in which to live, overcoming in this way the natural givens. Here lies the core of the anthropological explanation of the principle of morality, inconceivable without man's ability to be an authentic free being.

  3. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge


    in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...... biophysical, distributional and economic conditions for high consumption in rich countries and then zooms in on the coevolution of provision systems and consumption, and how consumption is shaped by practices and projects in everyday life. Furthermore, the paper discusses whether and how transition...

  4. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems that ...... that need urgent action. The built environment is an obvious area to put effort into because of the large and cost-effective energy saving potential and potential for Renewable Energy-based supply systems for buildings.......The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rr. Tutik Sri Hariyati


    Full Text Available Spiritual emotional freedom technique (SEFT represents an combination technique from body’s energy system and spiritual therapy by tapping at certain points of the body. SEFT focuses on certain words or sentences pronounced several times in a rhythm, follows by resignation to God as in patients’ belief. This research was aimed to explore the effect of SEFT intervention to reduce of cancer pain patients at the Dr Soetomo General Hospital in Surabaya. Quasi experimental were used in this study using pre test and post test design with control group. Samples, 20 respondents (in 2 groups were recruited using consecutive sampling. The intervention group received SEFT intervention combined with analgesic therapy and the control group given only analgesic therapy. SEFT intervention implemented after administrating analgesic, for 5-10 minutes every day during five days. Pain was measured using numeric rating scale (NRS. The combination SEFT intervention and analgesic therapy was more effective than only analgesic therapy. SEFT can be employed for cancer patients to relieve their pain. Nursing intervention with SEFT encourages nurse’s role autonomy and steps to reduce patient’s dependency on analgesic therapy.

  6. Axel Honneth: The law of freedom – Institutionalization of freedom in modern societies - A reconstruction and some remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Dahl Rendtorff


    Full Text Available This paper reconstructs the argument of Axel Honneth's recent book Das Recht der Freiheit as a theory of the institutionalization of freedom in modern society. In particular, it looks at Honneth's argument for the realization of freedom in law and morality that is proposed as a contemporary re-interpretation of Hegel's Philosophy of Right. Then I discuss Honneth's argument for the reality of freedom in the ethical spheres of civil society, in particular in the family, the market and in democracy. Finally, the paper proposes some critical remarks to Honneth's theory.

  7. On Effective Degrees of Freedom in the Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Husdal


    Full Text Available We explore the effective degrees of freedom in the early Universe, from before the electroweak scale at a few femtoseconds after the Big Bang until the last positrons disappeared a few minutes later. We look at the established concepts of effective degrees of freedom for energy density, pressure, and entropy density, and introduce effective degrees of freedom for number density as well. We discuss what happens with particle species as their temperature cools down from relativistic to semi- and non-relativistic temperatures, and then annihilates completely. This will affect the pressure and the entropy per particle. We also look at the transition from a quark-gluon plasma to a hadron gas. Using a list a known hadrons, we use a “cross-over” temperature of 214 MeV, where the effective degrees of freedom for a quark-gluon plasma equals that of a hadron gas.

  8. Academic Freedom and the Humanities: some current challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John Higgins


    .... It focuses first on the shifting fortunes of academic freedom in South Africa, contrasting the pride of place given to it in the pre-1994 social imaginary with its current undermining in higher education policy...

  9. Freedom of expression: still a precondition for democracy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGonagle, T.


    This conference report was written in the capacity of General Rapporteur for the Council of Europe Conference, 'Freedom of Expression: Still a Precondition for Democracy?', Strasbourg, 13-14 October 2015.

  10. Health promotion and the freedom of the individual. (United States)

    Taylor, Gary; Hawley, Helen


    This article considers the extent to which health promotion strategies pose a threat to individual freedom. It begins by taking a look at health promotion strategies and at the historical development of health promotion in Britain. A theoretical context is then developed in which Berlin's distinction between negative and positive liberty is used alongside the ideas of John Stuart Mill, Charles Taylor and T.H. Green to discuss the politics of health promotion and to identify the implications of conflicting perspectives on freedom. The final section looks at current health promotion policy in Britain and beyond and argues that, if freedom is seen in terms of empowerment, health promotion can enhance individual freedom.

  11. Racialising Religion in the Debate on Religious Freedom in Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shafer, Saskia Louise


    ... of the country’s biggest daily newspapers, the New Straits Times. With regard to the controversial religious freedom debate, it summarises what actors are involved in the discussion and how their positions are presented in the mainstream media...

  12. Greene's Dialectics of Freedom and Dewey's Naturalistic Existential Metaphysics. (United States)

    Garrison, James W.


    This article attempts to develop the Deweyan naturalistic existential metaphysics which underlies Maxine Greene's diverse dialectics. Also included are reflections on the implications of the dialectic of freedom and Dewey's metaphysics for education and the arts. (IAH)

  13. Freedom House : Venemaa ei ole enam isegi osaliselt vaba riik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Rahvusvahelise organisatsiooni Freedom House raporti kohaselt on Venemaa osaliselt vabade riikide seast langenud mittevabade hulka, selle põhjus on autorite hinnangul mõjukate opositsiooniparteide sisuline hävitamine ning täitevvõimu tsentraliseerimine

  14. Sustainable Development: Does the Capability Approach have Anything to Offer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crabtree, Andrew


    Although the sustainability of development is one of the most important problems facing the world, it has received little attention from the capability approach. This article asks whether the capability approach has anything to offer the debate that has continued for over a quarter of a century. ....... Answering positively, the article outlines a legitimate freedom approach as a fruitful way forward. The approach draws on Thomas Scanlon's contractualist ethics, suggesting ways to understand the limits to freedoms, the non-identity problem and environmental ethics....

  15. Juridical Freedom and Its Social Pathologies according to Honneth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Luiz da Silva


    Full Text Available This article deals with Axel Honneth's theory about the right to freedom and the spheres of social ethics, particularly in regard to legal freedom, in which he highlights its reasons, limits and pathologies. In this sense, he sought to analyze his concept of juridification of social relations in private and family environments, in order to identify the applicability of legal pathologies in contemporary Brazilian society.

  16. Degrees of Freedom for Allan Deviation Estimates of Multiple Clocks (United States)


    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ULTRASONICS, FERROELECTRICS, AND FREQUENCY CONTROL, VOL. 63, NO. 4, APRIL 2016 571 Degrees of Freedom for Allan Deviation... Allan deviation, degrees of freedom, Grubbs’ estimate,M-cornered-hat (MCH), three-cornered-hat (TCH). I. INTRODUCTION E STIMATING the performance of a...similar properties. The Allan deviation is the most widely used statis- tic to estimate the frequency stability of an oscillator. The three-cornered-hat


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rizzuto


    Full Text Available Foundry Alfe Chem is an industrial reality working in the field of lubrication and chemical auxiliaries for industrial processes, which falls within the framework of the emerging and increasingly important «green chemistry». The goal of the company is to develop products that are more environmentally friendly by using raw materials from renewable sources; specifically, Foundry Alfe Chem has a program of self-sustainability that contemplates, for the foreseeable future, the direct production of renewable raw materials. The company has developed a new dedicated product line, Olitema, whose purpose is to offer highly technological solutions with complete environmental sustainability. In this context, Foundry Alfe CHEM has created a new product which represents a breakthrough in the class of HFC hydraulic fluids: Ecosafe Plus is a biodegradable fire-resistant hydraulic fluid with high engineering and technological performances, high environmental sustainability and the best security guarantees in workplaces. Its formulation is glycols-free, and it allows for easier disposal of the exhausted fluid, compared to a traditional water/ glycol-based HFC hydraulic fluid. For what concern the technological properties, Ecosafe Plus has been tested by accredited laboratories with tribological trials (4 Ball wear test ASTM D 4172, Ball on disc test ASTM 6425, Brugger test DIN 51347, Vickers test ASTM D 2882, with elastomer compatibility test (ASTM D 471 and biodegradability test (OECD 310 F.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Staples


    Full Text Available This paper will firstly examine the international framework of human rights law and its guidelines for safeguarding the right to freedom of speech in the press. Secondly, it will describe the constitutional and other legal rights protecting freedom of speech in Indonesia and assess their compatibility with the right to freedom of speech under the international human rights law framework. Thirdly it will consider the impact of Indonesia’s constitutional law and criminal and civil law, including sedition and defamation laws, and finally media ownership, on the interpretation and scope of the right to freedom of speech in the press. Consideration of these laws will be integrated with a discussion of judicial processes. This discussion will be used to determine how and in what circumstances the constitutional right to freedom of speech in the press may be facilitated or enabled, or on the other hand, limited, overridden or curtailed in Indonesia. Conclusions will then be drawn regarding the strengths and weaknesses of Indonesian laws in safeguarding the right to freedom of speech in the press and the democratic implications from an international human rights perspective. This inquiry will be restricted to Indonesian laws in existence during the post-New Order period of 1998 to the present, and to the information and analysis provided by English-language sources.

  19. Freedom and the Non-Instrumental Value of Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    This paper is an intervention in two debates, one concerning the instrumental vs noninstrumental value of democracy, the other concerning the relationship between freedom and democracy. I reject the purely instrumental justification of democracy and defend the idea that democracy has noninstrumen......This paper is an intervention in two debates, one concerning the instrumental vs noninstrumental value of democracy, the other concerning the relationship between freedom and democracy. I reject the purely instrumental justification of democracy and defend the idea that democracy has...... noninstrumental value. I see the noninstrumental value of democracy in terms of freedom rather than the now more common reference to equality or fairness. The freedom argument can better show the noninstrumenal value of democracy and can better respond to some core objections to democratic noninstrumentalism than...... the equality argument. A main aim of this paper is to show that freedom and democracy are not merely instrumentally linked but, rather, intrinsically related. I argue this mainly via a critical engagement with Philip Pettit’s conception of freedom as nondomination. My defense of the noninstrumental value...

  20. Sustainable Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telles, Pedro; Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard


    and within it how sustainable requirements have increased the level of compliance required, particularly regulatory compliance. Compliance was already present in previous EU public procurement frameworks, but its extent on Directive 2014/24/EU leads the authors to consider the current legal framework...... as subject to substantial regulatory compliance obligations external to the process of procurement. In short, procurement has been transformed in a way to enforce regulatory obligations that are not intrinsic to the process of buying. This leads to the conclusion that questions such as the cost and trade...

  1. Freedom of Movement and Position in the First Stage of Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Canhoto Ferrão


    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse the scientific evidence, in the literature published between january 2007 and february 2016, about the benefits of freedmon of movement and position in the first stage of labor. Method: Review of literature with articles researched in selected databases on plataforms b-On and EBSCOhost, using descriptors: first stage of labour/labor, ambulation, upright positions, benefits and midwife/midwives. Results: Sample with 15 studies that showed, almost unanimously, that the free movement associated with the vertical position provides numerous benefits, especially in the progression of the first stage of labor, reduction of pain and increased maternal satisfaction, in the quality of uterine contractions and maternal-fetal circulation compared to the dorsal lithotomy position. Conclusion: Woman should have the right of choice as to freedom of movement and position during first stage of labor, being informed about the benefits of this intervention by the nurse midwife who cares for her.

  2. Sustainable consumption and marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.


    Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the

  3. Veterans health administration vocational services for operation iraqi freedom/operation enduring freedom veterans with mental health conditions


    Elizabeth W. Twamley, PhD; Dewleen G. Baker, MD; Sonya B. Norman, PhD; James O. E. Pittman, MSW; James B. Lohr, MD; Sandra G. Resnick, PhD


    High rates of mental health conditions and unemployment are significant problems facing Veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF). We examined two national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) databases from fiscal years 2008–2009: a larger database (n = 75,607) of OIF/OEF Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, substance use disorder, or traumatic brain injury (TBI) and a smaller subset (n = 1,010) of those Veterans whose employment was tracked...

  4. Design and development of a telerehabilitation platform for patients with phantom limb pain : a user-centered approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreas Rothgangel; Susy Braun; Rob Smeets; Anna Beurskens


    Background: Phantom limb pain is a frequent and persistent problem following amputation. Achieving sustainable favorable effects on phantom limb pain requires therapeutic interventions such as mirror therapy that target maladaptive neuroplastic changes in the central nervous system. Unfortunately,

  5. Psychological Distress and Pain Reporting in Australian Coal Miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy N. Carlisle


    Conclusion: The study findings support the existence of widespread musculoskeletal pain among the coal-mining workforce, and this pain is associated with increased psychological distress. Operators (truck drivers and workers reporting poor sleep quality during work periods are most likely to report increased distress, which highlights the importance of supporting the mining workforce for sustained productivity.

  6. Ocular surface symptoms in veterans returning from operation Iraqi freedom and operation enduring freedom. (United States)

    Modi, Yasha S; Qurban, Qirat; Zlotcavitch, Leonid; Echeverri, Roberto J; Feuer, William; Florez, Hermes; Galor, Anat


    To correlate situational exposures and psychiatric disease with self-reported ocular surface symptoms in a younger veteran population involved in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF). Cross-sectional study of all veterans evaluated in the OIF/OEF clinic between December 2012 and April 2013 who completed the dry eye questionnaire and screening evaluations for environmental exposures, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression. The main outcome measures were the influence of environmental exposure and psychiatric disease on ocular surface symptoms. Of 115 participants, the average age was 33 years. While overseas, exposure to incinerated waste (odds ratio [OR] 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-5.81, P = 0.02) and PTSD (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.23-5.85, P = 0.02) were associated with self-reported ocular surface symptoms. On return to the United States, older age (OR per decade 2.66, 95% CI 1.65-4.31, P = 0.04) was associated with persistent symptoms and incinerated waste was associated with resolution of symptoms (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.07-0.90, P = 0.04). When evaluating symptom severity, 26% of the responders complained of severe ocular surface symptoms, with PTSD (OR 3.10, 95% CI 1.22-7.88, P = 0.02) and depression (OR 4.28, 95% CI 1.71-10.68, P = 0.002) being significant risk factors for their presence. PTSD was significantly associated with ocular surface symptoms both abroad and on return to the United States, whereas air pollution in the form of incinerated waste, was correlated with reversible symptoms.

  7. Overview of Scientific Freedom and National Security (United States)

    Lerch, Irving


    The subject of our scrutiny is very much in the news, punctuated with nouns and modifiers both inflammatory and mundane such as espionage, justice, scientific accountability and scientific freedom. And while our discussion will focus on these issues, I want to raise some of the pragmatic questions that bear on the foundation of our support for international science. Beneath questions of guilt and the loss of secrets in the Wen Ho Lee case lay the inherent tension between the tradition of open exchange in the scientific enterprise and the need to protect the nation's security. How this balance is to be achieved in a democratic society has bedeviled us ever since the Manhattan project heralded the emergence of science and technology as instruments of great national power. If we do not find this balance, we run the risk of damaging some of the most important intellectual treasures that the US has produced the Department of Energy's national laboratories and the entire system that we call the international scientific enterprise. For while the superheated charges of lax security and criminal negligence have led some to call for ``firewalls" to isolate and protect the secrets in our weapons labs, such measures may have severe consequences for weapons and non-weapons labs alike and their many associated universities. It's estimated that from 70% to as much as 80% in the expansion of our economy is technology-driven, derived from the most productive system of scientific innovation in the world. This is also true of our national security. Science is indispensable to the development and maintenance of the nation's arsenals. The Department of Energy's Nuclear Stockpile Stewardship Program is central to the safety and reliability of American nuclear weapons and to our hope for a worldwide ban on nuclear tests. But this program will fail without a continuing intense development effort based on cutting-edge science. And a great deal of the science needed is being pursued in

  8. Freedom of the Press In the Scope of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ayu Astuti


    Full Text Available Freedom of expression and press freedom is the embodiment of the recognition of human rights. Freedom of expression is also the existence of press to disclose the news with honesty and do not get a pressure to deliver the news to the public space, which in news production is known as a work of journalism. Now the  press has gained freedom of expression in the news production process which is guaranteed in the state constitution. Although Article 28 of the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia 1945 does not point directly at the press, However, Article 28 F emphasis on processing and storage as well as ownership, excavations to information. It also contains provisions on the freedom of expression of others, which should be valued and respected. It shows equality for everyone in his position before the law in accordance with Article 27 1945 Constitution, which emphasizes the recognition of constitutional rights that belong to every person in the state of law in the Republic of Indonesia. Thus the press, which have freedom of expression in the writings of journalistic works are required to be responsible for the published news. So as not to face the legal issues and criminalization, then press should perform tasks and functions to enforce ethics as the precautionary principle when processing the news and broadcast it to the public space, as well as upholding human rights. How To Cite: Astuti, S. (2014. Freedom of the Press In the Scope of Human Rights. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 101-118. doi:

  9. Human Rights, Fundamental Freedoms and Universal Values in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev S. Voronkov


    Full Text Available The author analyzes the evolution of human rights and fundamental freedoms in domestic political life of individual states and in international relations as well over the latest two centuries. The article traces the role of struggle for liberal political human rights and civilian freedoms in the dismantling of the feudal-absolutist regimes as well as the challenges of radical left-wing (communist and far right-wing (national-socialistic threats to be met by the supporters of liberal political rights and civil freedoms in the interwar period. The list of human rights and fundamental freedoms had constantly been updating in the postwar period, including by the efforts of the UNO and other international organizations, and fixing in different international documents. The author emphasizes the import role of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE in transforming the issues of human rights and fundamental freedoms into the essential element of public diplomacy of contemporary states. He traces the process of the increasing utilization of liberal political rights and civilian freedoms, which are usually the effective tools for domestic democratic transformation, within the framework of diplomatic practice of European and North-American states, aimed at ensuring their political and economic interests on the world stage. In this regard the author addresses the attempts of Western countries to legalize "humanitarian"interventions in circumvention of the UN Security Council. The article emphasizes the necessity to replenish the understanding of universal human rights and freedoms by the values, developed both by the international community within the framework of implementing the Millennium Development Goals and by various countries and peoples, which in sum constitute the modern international civilizational baggage.

  10. Pregabalin for Neuropathic Pain: Why Benefits Could Be Expected for Multiple Pain Conditions. (United States)

    Ogawa, Setsuro; Arakawa, Akio; Hayakawa, Kazuhiro; Yoshiyama, Tamotsu


    Limited research exists to support the extrapolation of the analgesic efficacy of pregabalin from one neuropathic pain condition to another. This retrospective analysis evaluated similarities in the efficacy of pregabalin for treating neuropathic pain associated with post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), and spinal cord injury (SCI) in a Japanese population, as a basis for considering the extrapolation of these data to other neuropathic pain conditions. Data were analysed across pregabalin doses within each pain condition, from three comparable 13- to 16-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) and the corresponding 52-week, open-label extension trials of pregabalin in Japanese patients with PHN, DPN or SCI. Efficacy outcomes in the RCTs included endpoint and weekly mean pain and sleep interference scores; endpoint proportions of responders in pain; Patient Global Impression of Change scores; and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) scores or Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) assessments. Study discontinuation rates were compared between treatment groups. The extension trials assessed pain intensity, using the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. In the RCTs for all pain conditions, significant improvements in comparison with placebo in mean pain and sleep interference scores were evident after 1 week with pregabalin and were sustained throughout the treatment periods (p pregabalin-treated patients experienced a ≥30 % reduction in pain across the RCTs (p pregabalin significantly improved six of 16 SF-36 subscale scores in the PHN and DPN trials (p pregabalin-treated patients had numerically better outcomes of HADS scores. In the extension trials, improvements in pain intensity were maintained over a 52-week period. Similarities in the pregabalin efficacy profiles, including time to onset and magnitude of response, were confirmed regardless of the neuropathic pain condition. These data support

  11. Freedom of Speech: A Clear and Present Need to Teach. ERIC Report. (United States)

    Boileau, Don M.


    Presents annotations of 21 documents in the ERIC system on the following subjects: (1) theory of freedom of speech; (2) theorists; (3) research on freedom of speech; (4) broadcasting and freedom of speech; and (5) international questions of freedom of speech. (PD)

  12. Development of the Concept of Freedom over a 15-year Age Span. (United States)

    Foley, Daniel P.

    Freedom is subject to a variety of conceptions in life because people think of it from where they are in life. Psychological literature contains a great deal about freedom but it is almost always found under the rubric of freedom versus determinism. This study examined the concepts of freedom in subjects (N=450) who ranged in age from 7 to 21…

  13. 77 FR 64496 - Freedom Falls, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Freedom Falls, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis.... Project No.: 14421-000. c. Date filed: June 1, 2012. d. Applicant: Freedom Falls, LLC. e. Name of Project: Freedom Falls Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On Sandy Stream, in the Town of Freedom, Waldo County...

  14. 77 FR 58203 - Freedom Environmental Services, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Freedom Environmental Services, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading September 17, 2012. It... concerning the securities of Freedom Environmental Services, Inc. (``Freedom'') because of questions regarding the adequacy and accuracy of publicly disseminated information by Freedom, and by others, in press...

  15. Pain and Nociception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; Dickenson, Anthony H


    but also exhibiting elements that seem unique to cancer pain. In addition, the pain state is often unpredictable, and the intensity of the pain is highly variable, making it difficult to manage. The establishment of translational animal models has started to reveal some of the molecular components involved......Cancer pain, especially pain caused by metastasis to bone, is a severe type of pain, and unless the cause and consequences can be resolved, the pain will become chronic. As detection and survival among patients with cancer have improved, pain has become an increasing challenge, because traditional...... therapies are often only partially effective. Until recently, knowledge of cancer pain mechanisms was poor compared with understanding of neuropathic and inflammatory pain states. We now view cancer-induced bone pain as a complex pain state involving components of both inflammatory and neuropathic pain...

  16. Executive Functioning in Pediatric Chronic Pain: Do Deficits Exist? (United States)

    Weiss, Karen E; Harbeck-Weber, Cynthia; Zaccariello, Michael J; Kimondo, Jacqueline N; Harrison, Tracy E; Bruce, Barbara K


    Despite ample research documenting deficits in executive functioning for adults with chronic pain, the literature on pediatric patients with chronic pain is limited and provides mixed results. The current study sought to further investigate the nature of executive dysfunction in this population and also examine the relationships between pain intensity, duration, and catastrophizing with sustained attention, working memory, and self- and parent-report of executive functioning. Pediatric pain clinic and rehabilitation program. Forty adolescents with chronic pain and their parents participated in this study. Participants completed neuropsychological measures and standardized self-report questionnaires during a 45- to 60-minute testing session. Fifty percent of this sample of adolescents with chronic pain demonstrated significant difficulties on at least one measure, with nine participants indicating difficulties on multiple measures. Pain significantly increased during the testing session. Pain variables of intensity, duration, and catastrophizing are related to sustained attention and working memory. This study adds support to previous findings suggesting subclinical struggles with executive functioning for adolescents with chronic pain. One-half of the sample indicated difficulties in either sustained attention and/or working memory. Future studies that would more thoroughly examine more complex executive functioning skills in this population would be helpful to further guide multidisciplinary treatment of these patients, particularly regarding whether or not school accommodations are warranted.

  17. Virtual Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge


    Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.

  18. Sustainability; Sustentabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This chapter analyses the production chain of ethanol, considering the impacts on the quality of the air, water supplies, soil occupation and biodiversity, and the efforts for the soil preservation. It is pointed out the activities of the production cycle and use of bio ethanol due to great uncertainties as far the environmental impacts is concerning and that will deserve more attention in future evaluations. At same time, the chapter highlights another activities where the present acknowledge is sufficient to assure the control and/or prediction of consequences of the desired intervention on the environment media to accommodate the sugar and ethanol production expansion. The consideration is not conservative but to promote the sustainable development.

  19. An ancient Greek pain remedy for athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M; Swaddling, Judith; Harrison, Adrian P


    While Hippocratic writings make no reference to the actual Olympics, there is frequent mention of diet, exercise, and the treatment of injuries sustained by the athletic participants. Indeed, Galen in his Composition of Medicines gives details of a remedy prescribed for the relief of pains and sw...

  20. An ancient greek pain remedy for athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M.; Swaddling, Judith; Harrison, Adrian Paul


    While Hippocratic writings make no reference to the actual Olympics, there is frequent mention of diet, exercise, and the treatment of injuries sustained by the athletic participants. Indeed, Galen in his Composition of Medicines gives details of a remedy prescribed for the relief of pains and sw...

  1. Optimising pain management- An update

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Types of pain. There are three types of pain, namely acute pain, chronic non- cancer (non-malignant) pain and cancer pain (chronic malignant pain). These types are explained in more detail below. Acute pain. This is defined as pain of recent onset and of short or limited duration. The pain is related to an identifiable cause.

  2. Particle Damping with Granular Materials for Multi Degree of Freedom System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanobu Inoue


    Full Text Available A particle damper consists of a bed of granular materials moving in cavities within a multi degree-of-freedom (MDOF structure. This paper deals with the damping effects on forced vibrations of a MDOF structure provided with the vertical particle dampers. In the analysis, the particle bed is assumed to be a single mass, and the collisions between the granules and the cavities are completely inelastic, i.e., all energy dissipation mechanisms are wrapped into zero coefficient of restitution. To predict the particle damping effect, equations of motion are developed in terms of equivalent single degree-of-freedom (SDOF system and damper mass with use made of modal approach. In this report, the periodic vibration model comprising sustained contact on or separation of the damper mass from vibrating structure is developed. A digital model is also formulated to simulate the damped motion of the physical system, taking account of all vibration modes. Numerical and experimental studies are made of the damping performance of plural dampers located at selected positions throughout a 3MDOF system. The experimental results confirm numerical prediction that collision between granules and structures is completely inelastic as the contributing mechanism of damping in the vertical vibration. It is found that particle dampers with properly selected mass ratios and clearances effectively suppress the resonance peaks over a wide frequency range.

  3. Melanocortins and Neuropathic Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrinten, Dorien Henriëtte


    Neuropathic pain (pain initiated by a lesion or dysfunction of the nervous system) is characterised by symptoms such as allodynia (pain due to a stimulus that does not normally provoke pain) and hyperalgesia (an increased response to a stimulus that is normally painful). It constitutes a major

  4. Measuring postoperative pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J.F.M. van


    Many patients experience pain after surgery. Adequate pain treatment begins with a reliable pain assessment. The Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) is often used for this purpose; patients are asked to score their pain on a scale from 0 to 10, where 0 indicates no pain and 10 indicates the worst imaginable

  5. Sustainability Science Needs Sustainable Data! (United States)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.


    Sustainability science (SS) is an 'emerging field of research dealing with the interactions between natural and social systems, and with how those interactions affect the challenge of sustainability: meeting the needs of present and future generations while substantially reducing poverty and conserving the planet's life support systems' (Kates, 2011; Clark, 2007). Bettencourt & Kaur (2011) identified more than 20,000 scientific papers published on SS topics since the 1980s with more than 35,000 distinct authors. They estimated that the field is currently growing exponentially, with the number of authors doubling approximately every 8 years. These scholars are undoubtedly using and generating a vast quantity and variety of data and information for both SS research and applications. Unfortunately we know little about what data the SS community is actually using, and whether or not the data that SS scholars generate are being preserved for future use. Moreover, since much SS research is conducted by cross-disciplinary, multi-institutional teams, often scattered around the world, there could well be increased risks of data loss, reduced data quality, inadequate documentation, and poor long-term access and usability. Capabilities and processes therefore need to be established today to support continual, reliable, and efficient preservation of and access to SS data in the future, especially so that they can be reused in conjunction with future data and for new studies not conceived in the original data collection activities. Today's long-term data stewardship challenges include establishing sustainable data governance to facilitate continuing management, selecting data to ensure that limited resources are focused on high priority SS data holdings, securing sufficient rights to allow unforeseen uses, and preparing data to enable use by future communities whose specific research and information needs are not yet known. Adopting sustainable models for archival

  6. The Freedom of Information Law and Democratization in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Nigeria is rife with marginalisation and human rights abuses, which have been aggravated by inequitable distribution of national wealth. This situation calls for viable institutional arrangements for the protection of fundamental human rights. The press has been empowered in this regard but Nigeria remains rife with a plethora of human rights abuses. The present paper therefore examines the freedom of information law and democratization in Nigeria. The paper is conceptualised within the ambit of Mills’ Theory of Sociological Imagination. Data used for the paper were derived from relevant documents and key informant interviews. A total of 64 journalists were purposively selected from 16 print and electronic press organisations in Lagos and Oyo states of Nigeria. Findings show that the press has been empowered through the Freedom of Information Bill, which was signed into law after a decade of its presentation to the Nigerian government. Most of the informants mentioned that the Freedom of Information Law would stimulate democratization, although they expressed doubts about its efficacy. Also, two-third of the informants expressed dissatisfaction over continuity of press freedom abuse in Nigeria. The results of this paper suggest the need for national consciousness to ensure protection of press freedom and human rights in the Nigerian democracy.

  7. Article 43 EC - A Freedom with Limitations? : What Constitutes a "Wholly Artificial Arrangement"?


    Vrana, Amela; Andersson, Johanna


    Abstract The freedom of establishment in Articles 43 and 48 EC is a fundamental freedom within the EU meaning that companies are free to set up secondary establishments in any other Member State. The freedom of establishment is an important means to achieve the com-pletion of the internal market and therefore it is important that this freedom is protected. Member States are obliged to legislate in accordance with the objectives of the fundamental freedoms, still Member States are restricting ...

  8. Chronic pain in the setting of Parkinson's disease and depression. (United States)

    Stein, W M; Read, S


    A 65-year-old woman with chronic pain was admitted to the hospital for severe recurrent major depression complicating Parkinson's disease (PD). Pain complaints were closely related to the fluctuating motor syndrome of PD. Specifically, pain was experienced in conjunction with hypomobility, and, as a result, she self-medicated with extra carbidopa/levodopa. A regimen of tramadol and cyclobenzaprine, along with sustained-release carbidopa/levodopa for PD and buproprion for her depression resulted in sustained symptomatic and functional improvement. Craving for, and self-medication with, supplemental carbidopa/levodopa ceased. Theoretical support for synergism among dopamine and opioid neurotransmitter systems can be found in recent literature.

  9. Treatment-Based Classification versus Usual Care for Management of Low Back Pain (United States)


    physi- cal therapist with a complaint of right elbow pain after a fall sustained while playing basketball several hours earlier. The pain was primarily...constant, slightly vari- able ache to sharp pain (10/10 at worst) with intermittent intense tin- gling that extended from the anterior pelvic region

  10. Zoo agent's measure in applying the five freedoms principles for animal welfare. (United States)

    Demartoto, Argyo; Soemanto, Robertus Bellarminus; Zunariyah, Siti


    Animal welfare should be prioritized not only for the animal's life sustainability but also for supporting the sustainability of living organism's life on the earth. However, Indonesian people have not understood it yet, thereby still treating animals arbitrarily and not appreciating either domesticated or wild animals. This research aimed to analyze the zoo agent's action in applying the five freedoms principle for animal welfare in Taman Satwa Taru Jurug (thereafter called TSTJ) or Surakarta Zoo and Gembira Loka Zoo (GLZ) of Yogyakarta Indonesia using Giddens structuration theory. The informants in this comparative study with explorative were organizers, visitors, and stakeholders of zoos selected using purposive sampling technique. The informants consisted of 19 persons: 8 from TSTJ (Code T) and 10 from GLZ (Code G) and representatives from Natural Resource Conservation Center of Central Java (Code B). Data were collected through observation, in-depth interview, and Focus Group Discussion and Documentation. Data were analyzed using an interactive model of analysis consisting of three components: Data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing. Data validation was carried out using method and data source triangulations. Food, nutrition, and nutrition level have been given consistent with the animals' habit and natural behavior. Animal keepers always maintain their self-cleanliness. GLZ has provided cages according to the technical instruction of constructing ideal cages, but the cages in TSTJ are worrying as they are not consistent with standard, rusty, and damaged, and animals have no partner. Some animals in GLZ are often sick, whereas some animals in TSTJ are dead due to poor maintenance. The iron pillars of cages restrict animal behavior in TSTJ so that they have not had freedom to behave normally yet, whereas, in GLZ, they can move freely in original habitat. The animals in the two zoos have not been free from disruption, stress, and pressure due to the

  11. Fighting Chronic Pain (United States)

    ... Disease-Related Pain: Various cancers, ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease), tuberculosis, HIV-AIDs, and others Head/Neck: Migraine, headaches, jaw pain (TMJ), earache, toothache, sore throat, sinus pain, facial numbness ...

  12. Side Effects: Pain (United States)

    Controlling pain is an important part of your cancer treatment plan. Learn how to track levels of pain. Find out how pain, a side effect of cancer treatment, is treated using acupuncture, biofeedback, and physical therapy.

  13. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Going to the ER Communication Tools Pain Management Programs Videos Resources FAQs Glossary Surveys Resource Guide to ... MD, director of the Cleveland Clinic Pain Management Program, explains some of the physiology of pain. Narrator: ...

  14. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the pain will go away. Part of the problem with chronic pain is that when we start ... is that the presence of a severe pain problem which exists for some period of time can ...

  15. Low back pain - chronic (United States)

    ... this page: // Low back pain - chronic To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Low back pain refers to pain that you feel in your ...

  16. Buprenorphine Buccal (chronic pain) (United States)

    Buprenorphine (Belbuca) is used to relieve severe pain in people who are expected to need pain medication ... and who cannot be treated with other medications. Buprenorphine (Belbuca) should not be used to treat pain ...

  17. Pain dilates time perception

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amandine E Rey; George A Michael; Corina Dondas; Marvin Thar; Luis Garcia-Larrea; Stéphanie Mazza


    .... We show that being in pain leads to an expansion of subjective time whereby a stronger increase in pain perception relative to non-painful stimulation leads to a stronger time-estimate distortion...

  18. Managing your chronic pain (United States)

    ... Managing your chronic back pain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Managing chronic pain means finding ways to make your back pain ...

  19. Operability of Space Station Freedom's meteoroid/debris protection system (United States)

    Kahl, Maggie S.; Stokes, Jack W.


    The design of Space Station Freedom's external structure must not only protect the spacecraft from the hazardous environment, but also must be compatible with the extra vehicular activity system for assembly and maintenance. The external procedures for module support are utility connections, external orbital replaceable unit changeout, and maintenance of the meteoroid/debris shields and multilayer insulation. All of these interfaces require proper man-machine engineering to be compatible with the extra vehicular activity and manipulator systems. This paper discusses design solutions, including those provided for human interface, to the Space Station Freedom meteoroid/debris protection system. The system advantages and current access capabilities are illustrated through analysis of its configuration over the Space Station Freedom resource nodes and common modules, with emphasis on the cylindrical sections and endcones.

  20. Achievements and challenges of Space Station Freedom's safety review process (United States)

    Robinson, David W.


    The most complex space vehicle in history, Space Station Freedom, is well underway to completion, and System Safety is a vital part of the program. The purpose is to summarize and illustrate the progress that over one-hundred System Safety engineers have made in identifying, documenting, and controlling the hazards inherent in the space station. To date, Space Station Freedom has been reviewed by NASA's safety panels through the first six assembly flights, when Freedom achieves a configuration known as Man Tended Capability. During the eight weeks of safety reviews spread out over a year and a half, over 200 preliminary hazard reports were presented. Along the way NASA and its contractors faced many challenges, made much progress, and even learned a few lessons.

  1. The Role of Freedom in Kant's Philosophy of Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sayf


    Full Text Available Freedom is a fundamental concept in Kant's philosophy, including theoretical and practical philosophy, though its role in the latter is more significant. In his philosophy of ethics Kant considers freedom as the basis of his reasoning for ethics and in order to rule out the view that considers ethics as illusion he maintains that if we possess a free will, then ethics will turn out to be real and ethical laws will be valid for all.This article is an attempt to study the role of freedom in Kant's philosophy of ethics with special reference to his two main books on practical reason, namely, The Foundations of the Metaphysics of Ethics and Critique of Practical Reason.

  2. In defence of academic freedom: bioethics journals under siege. (United States)

    Schüklenk, Udo


    This article analyses, from a bioethics journal editor's perspective, the threats to academic freedom and freedom of expression that academic bioethicists and academic bioethics journals are subjected to by political activists applying pressure from outside of the academy. I defend bioethicists' academic freedom to reach and defend conclusions many find offensive and 'wrong'. However, I also support the view that academics arguing controversial matters such as, for instance, the moral legitimacy of infanticide should take clear responsibility for the views they defend and should not try to hide behind analytical philosophers' rationales such as wanting to test an argument for the sake of testing an argument. This article proposes that bioethics journals establish higher-quality requirements and more stringent mechanisms of peer review than usual for iconoclastic articles.

  3. Academic Freedom, Tenure, and Student Evaluation of Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Haskell


    Full Text Available Despite a history of conflicting research on the reliability and validity of student evaluation of faculty (SEF it has typically not been viewed as an infringement on academic freedom. When it is suggested that SEF may impinge on academic freedom, it is often considered an attack on either student rights, or on the process of evaluating faculty performance in general. Faculty and educational administrator views and surveys are reviewed as SEF is used in salary, promotion and tenure decisions. It is suggested that the literature shows that SEF infringe on instructional responsibilities of faculty by providing a control mechanism over curricular, course content, grading, and teaching methodology. It is further suggested that SEF play a significant role in current attacks on tenure, and that its role in a demographically diverse 21st century educational system has changed from its benign historical origins. It is concluded that contrary to current views, SEF is a serious unrecognized infringement on academic freedom.

  4. Ethics in psychiatry--the patient's freedom and bondage. (United States)

    Ledermann, E K


    Ethics is defined as the realm of the 'ought', the realm of conscience which postulates that Man has the freedom to carry out what he judges to be morally right. By such acts he realizes his freedom of making himself into a truer, more authentic person than he was before. A libertarian psychotherapy, based on this ethic, is outlined. Medical science (as all science) belongs to the realm of the 'is' and postulates that the phenomena which it studies follow a necessary course. It is therefore deterministic. In psychiatry, allowance is made for a neurological determinism in cases in which personal freedom has been diminished or abolished by mental illness, but the determinisms of behaviour therapy and of psycho-analysis are rejected by the author.

  5. Persistent orodental pain, atypical odontalgia, and phantom tooth pain: when are they neuropathic disorders? (United States)

    Clark, Glenn T


    Patients with unrelenting pain in the teeth, gingival, palatal or alveolar tissues often see multiple dentists and have multiple irreversible procedures performed and still have their pain. Up to one-third of patients attending a chronic facial pain clinic have undergone prior irreversible dental procedures for their pain without success. In these cases, if no local source of infectious, inflammatory, or other pathology can be found, then the differential diagnosis must include a focal neuropathic pain disorder. The common diagnoses given include the terms atypical odontalgia, persistent orodental pain, or if teeth have been extracted, phantom tooth pain. One possibility is that these pain complaints are due to a neuropathic alteration of the trigeminal nerve. There are several diagnostic procedures that need to be performed in any patient suspected of having a trigeminal neuropathic disorder including (1) cold testing of involved teeth for pulpal nonvitality; (2) a periapical radiograph examining the teeth for apical change; (3) a panoramic radiograph examining for other maxillofacial disease; (4) a thorough head and neck examination also looking for abnormality; (5) a cranial nerve examination including anesthetic testing which documents any increased or decreased nerve trigeminal nerve sensitivity and rules out other neurologic changes outside the trigeminal nerve; and (6) MRI imaging in some cases. Finally, when a nonobvious atypical toothache first presents, direct microscopic examination of the tooth for incomplete tooth fracture is also suggested. The majority of these patients are women over the age 30 with pain in the posterior teeth/alveolar arch. Multiple causes exist for sustained neuropathic pain including direct nerve injury (e.g., associated with fracture or surgical treatment), nerve injection injury, nerve compression injury (e.g., implant, osseous growth, neoplastic invasion) and infection-inflammation damage to the nerve itself. Sustained nerve

  6. Soul Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Jirek


    Full Text Available This study extends prior research on vicarious traumatization and emotion management by exploring a deeper, more life-altering effect of working with traumatized clients—namely, “soul pain.” Analyses of in-depth interviews with 29 advocates working with survivors of physical and sexual violence reveal that, as a direct consequence of hearing countless stories of human brutality, some staff members experience a profound wounding of their spirit. This finding expands our understanding of the occupational hazards of the helping professions by revealing another dimension of advocates’ lives—that of the soul or spirit—that may be affected by their work with trauma survivors.

  7. Freedom of religion as part of EU 'ideology'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treneska-Deskoska Renata


    Full Text Available It has been already written that Europe is not geographical entity but an 'imagined space', created out of our mental maps. That supports the idea that Europe is entity with fluid borders, which 'are matter of ideology and politics rather than cartography,,. When EU launched the Common Foreign and Security Policy, it placed human rights at the heart of this ideology and policy. Individual rights, the rule of law and constitutional democracy are condition for EU entry for all countries candidates for EU members. This paper will analyze the meaning and content of the freedom of religion according to the EU standards. The emphasis will be given to the Article 9 of the European Convention of Human Rights and its interpretation by the European Court of Human Rights. The most important cases, in which violation of Article 9 was established, will be analyzed. The importance of the issue of freedom of religion for EU can be seen in the adopted EU Guidelines on the promotion and protection of the freedom of religion or belief on which this paper will also point. Also, this paper will point to the constitutional and legal frame on freedom of religion in Macedonia, as well as to the interpretation of the Constitutional court of the Republic of Macedonia to the freedom of religion. Also, Macedonia was brought in front of the European Court of Human Rights with regard to the Article 9. Case Kosteski v Macedonia is one of the cases with broader meaning in which the issue of the need to prove the belongingness in certain religion, in order to enjoy the rights that belong to the members of that religion was raised. The judicial portfolio of Macedonia in front of the European Court of Human rights regarding freedom of religion will be also subject of analysis.

  8. Sustainable Scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan


    Scientists are front and center in quantifying and solving environmental problems. Yet, as a spate of recent news articles in scientific journals point out, much can be done to enhance sustainability within the scientific enterprise itself, particularly by trimming the energy use associated with research facilities and the equipment therein (i,ii,iii, iv). Sponsors of research unwittingly spend on the order of $10 billion each year on energy in the U.S. alone, and the underlying inefficiencies drain funds from the research enterprise while causing 80 MT CO2-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions (see Box). These are significant sums considering the opportunity costs in terms of the amount of additional research that could be funded and emissions that could be reduced if the underlying energy was used more efficiently. By following commercially proven best practices in facility design and operation, scientists--and the sponsors of science--can cost-effectively halve these costs, while doing their part to put society on alow-carbon diet.

  9. Office of FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl Boucher


    size of the advanced nanoparticle lubricants in the following ways: (1) by supplying nano to sub-micron size lubricating agents which reduce friction and wear at the asperity contact zone, (2) by enabling strong metal adsorption and easy wetting, (3) by reacting with the surface to form durable lubricating 'transient transfer' films, sustain high loads and also retain under high temperatures, and (4) by enabling all these at minimal cost and great environmental safety. Suitably designed nanomaterials can significantly lower sulfur and phosphorus level in the lubricant additive pack, and therefore positively impact after-treatment catalyst life and exhaust emissions.

  10. Multiple degree of freedom force-state component identification (United States)

    Masters, Brett P.; Crawley, Edward F.


    Force-state mapping is extended to allow the quasistatic characterization of realistic multiple degree of freedom systems whose constitutive relations are nonlinear, dissipative, coupled and depend on memory of past states. A general constitutive force-state model is formulated, which includes dynamic hysteresis phenomena typical of that found in deployable structures. A two step parameter identification approach is developed, which employs a linear extended Kalman filter and a nonlinear least squares fit. A six degree of freedom force-state testing device was constructed, and used to obtain data on one bay of a simple truss and on one bay of the MODE deployable truss.

  11. Dostoevsky’s and Frank’s ideas of freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    _ _


    in his salvation. The article is devoted to the comparison of the basic anthropological and personality concepts, as well as the idea of freedom and its characteristics in the works and works of both thinkers, in order to trace the continuity of Dostoevsky’s tradition with Frank in the framework of his anthropology and personalism in order to prove that for him human freedom and self-Man is an absolute value, his anthropology can be viewed in the context of his philosophy of unity and not contradict it.

  12. Academic Freedom and the Humanities: some current challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Higgins


    Full Text Available This article presents some of the current challenges facing academic freedom and the humanities in South Africa as well as across the world.  It focuses first on the shifting fortunes of academic freedom in South Africa, contrasting the pride of place given to it in the pre-1994 social imaginary with its current undermining in higher education policy.  It further examines how this undermining is related to a general trend in a global higher education policy which privileges STEM disciplines, and argues that a fuller understanding of the contribution of the NAIL disciplines to the public good is essential to help counter current challenges.

  13. Reputational Risk, Academic Freedom and Research Ethics Review. (United States)

    Hedgecoe, Adam


    Drawing on scholarship around academic freedom and new public management, this article explores the way in which research ethics committees in UK universities (URECs) can come to exhibit behaviour - common in their US equivalents - that prioritises the reputational protection of their host institution over and above academic freedom and the protection of research subjects. Drawing on two case studies the article shows both how URECs can serve to restrict research that may be 'embarrassing' for a university and how, in high profile cases, university management come to use such committees as mechanisms for internal discipline.

  14. James Baldwin: Biographical Dispatches on a Freedom Writer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Luke Sinitiere


    Full Text Available This essay presents the idea of James Baldwin as a freedom writer, the organizing idea of my biography in progress. As a freedom writer, Baldwin was a revolutionary intellectual, an essayist and novelist committed unfailingly to the realization of racial justice, interracial political equality, and economic democracy. While the book is still in process, this short essay narrates autobiographically how I came to meet and know Baldwin’s work, explains in critical fashion my work in relation to existing biographies, and reflects interpretively my thoughts-in- progress on this fascinating and captivating figure of immense historical and social consequence.

  15. Membrane triangles with corner drilling freedoms. I - The EFF element (United States)

    Alvin, Ken; De La Fuente, Horacio M.; Haugen, Bjorn; Felippa, Carlos A.


    The formulation of 3-node 9-DOF membrane elements with normal-to-element-plane rotations (drilling freedoms) is examined in the context of parametrized variational principles. In particular, attention is given to the application of the extended free formulation (EFF) to the construction of a triangular membrane element with drilling freedoms that initially has complete quadratic polynomial expansions in each displacement component. The main advantage of the EFF over the free formulation triangle is that an explicit form is obtained for the higher-order stiffness.

  16. Burqa Ban, Freedom of Religion and ‘Living Together’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune


    In the summer of 2014, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the French 2010 law banning face-covering clothing in public spaces, the so-called burqa ban, did not violate the right to freedom of religion. Due to the ‘wide margin of appreciation’, the Court deemed the ban proportionate...... to the French state’s legitimate aim with the ban of preserving the conditions of ‘living together’. The paper analyses and provides an internal criticism of the Court’s justification for this judgement focusing on the aim of living together and the right to freedom of religion. The Court’s justification...

  17. Free as in Freedom Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Sam


    Free as in Freedom interweaves biographical snapshots of GNU project founder Richard Stallman with the political, social and economic history of the free software movement. It examines Stallman's unique personality and how that personality has been at turns a driving force and a drawback in terms of the movement's overall success. Free as in Freedom examines one man's 20-year attempt to codify and communicate the ethics of 1970s era "hacking" culture in such a way that later generations might easily share and build upon the knowledge of their computing forebears. The book documents Stallman'

  18. On heterogeneity of treatment effects and clinical freedom. (United States)

    Sacristán, J A; Avendaño-Solá, C


    Three decades ago, John R Hampton announced the death of clinical freedom. Since then, evidence-based medicine has been the predominant paradigm in clinical research. By applying a population-based approach, the randomised controlled trial has become the cornerstone for demonstrating the overall effect of a treatment and for developing guidelines. The new patient-centred medicine movement is rediscovering the important implications of heterogeneity of treatment effects for clinical practice and that a better understanding of such variability can contribute to improve health outcomes for individual patients through practicing a science-based clinical freedom. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Clinical Practice Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. On creative machines and the physical origins of freedom. (United States)

    Briegel, Hans J


    We discuss the possibility of free behavior in embodied systems that are, with no exception and at all scales of their body, subject to physical law. We relate the discussion to a model of an artificial agent that exhibits a primitive notion of creativity and freedom in dealing with its environment, which is part of a recently introduced scheme of information processing called projective simulation. This provides an explicit proposal on how we can reconcile our understanding of universal physical law with the idea that higher biological entities can acquire a notion of freedom that allows them to increasingly detach themselves from a strict dependence on the surrounding world.

  20. [Benign chronic pain]. (United States)

    Serrie, A; Thurel, C


    Recent data indicate that 25 to 30% of the population in industrialized countries suffers from benign chronic pain. Among these patients, 50 to 75% are professionally incapable for varied lengths of time, from a few days to some weeks or months, or even definitively. The aetiology and clinical presentation of chronic benign pain are enormously varied because this definition includes such different pathologies as headache, pain of rheumatologic, postsurgical, organic, and post-zoster origin, lombalgia, radiculalgia, post-amputation pain, neuropathologic pain, causalgia, algoneurodystrophic pain, psychosomatic and idiopathic pain. Since these syndromes and causes of pain could not be discussed individually, they have been grouped according to their neurophysiology and pathophysiology.