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Sample records for sustained nevirapine exposure

  1. High exposure to nevirapine in plasma is associated with an improved virological response in HIV-1-infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, A. I.; Weverling, G. J.; Lange, J. M.; Montaner, J. S.; Reiss, P.; Cooper, D. A.; Vella, S.; Hall, D.; Beijnen, J. H.; Hoetelmans, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore relationships between exposure to nevirapine and the virological response in HIV-1-infected individuals participating in the INCAS trial. METHODS: The elimination rate constant of plasma HIV-1 RNA (k) was calculated during the first 2 weeks of treatment with nevirapine,

  2. Rilpivirine exposure in plasma and sanctuary site compartments after switching from nevirapine-containing combined antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Peris, Borja; Watson, Victoria; Vera, Jaime H; Weston, Rosy; Waldman, Adam D; Kaye, Steve; Khoo, Saye; Mackie, Nicola E; Back, David; Winston, Alan

    2014-06-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters following modifications to antiretroviral therapy and sanctuary site exposure are often unknown for recently licensed antiretrovirals. We assessed plasma, CSF and seminal plasma (SP) exposure of rilpivirine after switching from nevirapine. HIV-infected male subjects receiving tenofovir/emtricitabine/nevirapine (245/200/400 mg) once daily switched to tenofovir/emtricitabine/rilpivirine (245/200/25 mg) once daily for 60 days when CSF and semen samples were collected. Mean and individual plasma concentrations of nevirapine and rilpivirine were compared with the proposed plasma target concentration for nevirapine (3000 ng/mL) and the protein binding-adjusted EC90 for rilpivirine (12.1 ng/mL). Mean rilpivirine CSF and SP concentrations were calculated and individual values compared with the EC50 and EC90 for wild-type virus (0.27 and 0.66 ng/mL, respectively). Of 13 subjects completing study procedures including CSF examination, 8 provided seminal samples. By day 3, the mean plasma rilpivirine trough concentration was 29.7 ng/mL (95% CI: 23.8-37). No patient presented rilpivirine plasma concentrations under the proposed threshold. The mean rilpivirine concentration in CSF was 0.8 ng/mL (95% CI: 0.7-1.0), representing a CSF : plasma ratio of 1.4%, with concentrations above the EC90 in 85% (11/13) of patients. In SP, the mean rilpivirine concentration was 4.9 ng/mL (95% CI: 3.3-7.2), representing an SP : plasma ratio of 9.5%, with all concentrations above the EC90. Switching from nevirapine- to rilpivirine-containing antiretroviral therapy was safe and well tolerated, with plasma rilpivirine concentrations above the protein binding-adjusted EC90 in all subjects. Rilpivirine concentrations were always above the EC50 in the CSF and the EC90 in SP. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. [Hepatotoxicity in healthy infants exposed to nevirapine during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveli, Pablo; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Soler-Palacín, Pere; Martín-Nalda, Andrea; Rovira-Girabal, Núria; Fortuny-Guasch, Clàudia; Figueras-Nadal, Concepció

    2016-01-01

    The use of nevirapine in HIV-infected pregnant women is discouraged due to its potential to cause hepatotoxicity. There is limited information available on the toxicity in non-HIV infected newborn exposed to this drug during pregnancy. The aim of the study is to determine the extent of hepatotoxicity in the newborn exposed to nevirapine and HIV during pregnancy. A cross-sectional, observational, multicenter study was conducted on a cohort of healthy infants born to HIV-infected mothers, in whom the first determination of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), before 6weeks of age, was collected. Patients were allocated to 2groups according to exposure to nevirapine during pregnancy. Hepatotoxicity was rated according to the AIDS Table for Grading the Severity of Adult and Pediatric Adverse Events (DAIDS). This study included 160newborns from 159pregnancies (88exposed to nevirapine-based regimens and 71 exposed to protease inhibitors-based therapies). No cases of hepatotoxicity were observed according to the DAIDS Table for Grading. Two cases of ALT above normal values (2.8%; 95%CI: 0.3-9.8%) were observed in patients not exposed to nevirapine, and one case (1.1%; 95%CI: 0.0-6.1%) in the group exposed to nevirapine (P=.585). The lack of differences between groups suggests that highly active antiretroviral treatment regimens including nevirapine administered during pregnancy do not involve a higher risk of liver disease compared to other treatment combinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  4. Renal histoarchitectural changes in nevirapine therapy: possible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the attenuating effect of kolaviron in nevirapine- therapy on the histological structure ... virapine and vitamin C; Group G was given nevirapine and kolaviron ..... may be better explained using stereological techniques in.

  5. Effect of Lopinavir and Nevirapine Concentrations on Viral Outcomes in Protease Inhibitor-experienced HIV-infected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moholisa, Retsilisitsoe R; Schomaker, Michael; Kuhn, Louise; Castel, Sandra; Wiesner, Lubbe; Coovadia, Ashraf; Strehlau, Renate; Patel, Faeezah; Pinillos, Francoise; Abrams, Elaine J; Maartens, Gary; McIlleron, Helen

    2016-12-01

    Adequate exposure to antiretroviral drugs is necessary to achieve and sustain viral suppression. However, the target antiretroviral concentrations associated with long-term viral suppression have not been adequately defined in children. We assessed the relationship between plasma lopinavir or nevirapine concentrations and the risk of subsequent viremia in children initially suppressed on antiretroviral therapy. After an induction phase of antiretroviral treatment, 195 children with viral suppression (viral load ≤400 copies/mL) were randomized to continue a lopinavir/ritonavir-based regimen or to switch to a nevirapine-based regimen (together with lamivudine and stavudine). Viral load and lopinavir or nevirapine concentrations were measured at clinic visits 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 52, 64 and 76 weeks post randomization. Cox multiple failure event models were used to estimate the effects of drug concentrations on the hazard of viremia (viral load >50 copies/mL) RESULTS:: At randomization, the median (interquartile range) age, CD4 T-Lymphocyte percentage, weight-for-age and weight-for-height z scores were 19 (16-24) months, 29% (23-37), -0.6 (-1.3 to 0.2) and -3.2 (-4.1 to -2.1), respectively. The proportion of children with viral load 51-400 copies/mL at randomization was 43%. The hazard of subsequent viremia during follow-up was increased for lopinavir concentrations <1 versus ≥1 mg/L [adjusted hazard ratio 0.62 (95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.94)] and for children with viral loads 51-400 copies/mL at randomization. Nevirapine concentrations were not significantly associated with subsequent viremia. Plasma lopinavir concentrations predicted viral outcomes in children receiving lopinavir-based antiretroviral therapy. Our findings support a minimum target concentration of ≥1 mg/L of lopinavir to ensure sustained viral suppression.

  6. Compatibility studies of nevirapine in physical mixtures with excipients for oral HAART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, G.G.G. de; Ferraz, H.G. [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Health, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Severino, P. [Department of Biotechnological Processes, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas 13083-970 (Brazil); Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Fernando Pessoa University, Porto 4200-150 (Portugal); Souto, E.B., E-mail: eliana@ufp.edu.pt [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Fernando Pessoa University, Porto 4200-150 (Portugal); Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Genomics and Biotechnology, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro (IBB-CGB/UTAD), 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal)

    2013-03-01

    Nevirapine is a hydrophobic non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, used in first line regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The drug has more than one crystalline form, which may have implications for its behaviour during production and also for its in vivo performance. This study was aimed at exploring the suitability of thermoanalytical methods for the solid-state characterization of commercial crystalline forms of nevirapine. The drug powder was characterized by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, stereoscopy, scanning electron microscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, measurements of density, flowability, solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR), differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and photostability measurements. The results showed that nevirapine has high stability and is not susceptible to degradation under light exposure. The drug showed compatibility with the excipients tested (lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyvinyl acetate copolymer (PVP/PVA), and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)). Nevirapine has low solubility, an acid medium being the most appropriate medium for assessing the release of the drug from dosage forms. However, the data obtained from IDR testing indicate that dissolution is the critical factor for the bioavailability of this drug. - Graphical abstract: Bulk nevirapine powder analysed by scanning electron microscopy and the drug solubility profile in various buffer solutions. The pH values of the media in which the tests were conducted are also presented. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nevirapine shows more than one crystalline form, that influence its in vivo and in vitro behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DSC and TGA were used for solid-state characterization of crystalline forms of nevirapine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nevirapine is compatible with lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, PVP/PVA copolymers and HPMC. Black

  7. Compatibility studies of nevirapine in physical mixtures with excipients for oral HAART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, G.G.G. de; Ferraz, H.G.; Severino, P.; Souto, E.B.

    2013-01-01

    Nevirapine is a hydrophobic non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, used in first line regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The drug has more than one crystalline form, which may have implications for its behaviour during production and also for its in vivo performance. This study was aimed at exploring the suitability of thermoanalytical methods for the solid-state characterization of commercial crystalline forms of nevirapine. The drug powder was characterized by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, stereoscopy, scanning electron microscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, measurements of density, flowability, solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR), differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and photostability measurements. The results showed that nevirapine has high stability and is not susceptible to degradation under light exposure. The drug showed compatibility with the excipients tested (lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyvinyl acetate copolymer (PVP/PVA), and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)). Nevirapine has low solubility, an acid medium being the most appropriate medium for assessing the release of the drug from dosage forms. However, the data obtained from IDR testing indicate that dissolution is the critical factor for the bioavailability of this drug. - Graphical abstract: Bulk nevirapine powder analysed by scanning electron microscopy and the drug solubility profile in various buffer solutions. The pH values of the media in which the tests were conducted are also presented. Highlights: ► Nevirapine shows more than one crystalline form, that influence its in vivo and in vitro behaviour. ► DSC and TGA were used for solid-state characterization of crystalline forms of nevirapine. ► Nevirapine is compatible with lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, PVP/PVA copolymers and HPMC. ► The acid form of nevirapine is the most appropriate for assessing release profile from

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Nevirapine toxicity- implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nevirapine was the first non-nucleoside drug (NNRTI) to be approved by the ... related toxicities in pregnancy were highlighted by a study published in 2004 ..... health, of consumption of scarce financial resources, of concern about doctors ...

  9. A randomized, double-blind trial comparing combinations of nevirapine, didanosine, and zidovudine for HIV-infected patients: the INCAS Trial. Italy, The Netherlands, Canada and Australia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaner, J S; Reiss, P; Cooper, D; Vella, S; Harris, M; Conway, B; Wainberg, M A; Smith, D; Robinson, P; Hall, D; Myers, M; Lange, J M

    1998-03-25

    Current guidelines recommend that individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) be treated using combinations of antiretroviral agents to achieve sustained suppression of viral replication as measured by the plasma HIV-1 RNA assay, in the hopes of achieving prolonged remission of the disease. However, until recently, many drug combinations have not led to sustained suppression of HIV-1 RNA. To compare the virologic effects of various combinations of nevirapine, didanosine, and zidovudine. Double-blind, controlled, randomized trial. University-affiliated ambulatory research clinics in Italy, the Netherlands, Canada and Australia (INCAS). Antiretroviral therapy-naive adults free of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with CD4 cell counts between 0.20 and 0.60x10(9)/L (200-600/microL). Patients received zidovudine plus nevirapine (plus didanosine placebo), zidovudine plus didanosine (plus nevirapine placebo), or zidovudine plus didanosine plus nevirapine. Plasma HIV-1 RNA. Of the 153 enrolled patients, 151 were evaluable. At week 8, plasma HIV-1 RNA levels had decreased by log 2.18, 1.55, and 0.90 in the triple drug therapy, zidovudine plus didanosine, and zidovudine plus nevirapine groups, respectively (P<.05). The proportions of patients with plasma HIV-1 RNA levels below 20 copies per milliliter at week 52 were 51%, 12%, and 0% in the triple drug therapy, zidovudine plus didanosine, and zidovudine plus nevirapine groups, respectively (P<.001). Viral amplification was attempted in 59 patients at 6 months. Viral isolation was unsuccessful in 19 (79%) of 24, 10 (53%) of 19, and 5 (31%) of 16 patients in the triple drug therapy, zidovudine plus didanosine, and zidovudine plus nevirapine groups, respectively. Among patients from whom virus could be amplified, resistance to nevirapine was found in all 11 patients receiving zidovudine plus nevirapine and in all 5 patients receiving triple drug therapy. Rates of disease progression or death

  10. The efficacy, pharmacokinetics, safety and cardiovascular risks of switching nevirapine to rilpivirine in HIV-1 patients: the RPV switch study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rokx, C.; Blonk, M.; Verbon, A.; Burger, D.M.; Rijnders, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Nevirapine (NVP) induces cytochrome P450 3A4 by which rilpivirine (RPV) is metabolized. Switching NVP to RPV could result in decreased RPV exposure with subsequent virological failure and dyslipidemia because NVP is regarded as the least dyslipidemic, non-nucleoside, reverse

  11. Therapeutic drug monitoring of nevirapine in resource-limited settings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'homme, R.F.A.; Muro, E.P.; Droste, J.A.H.; Wolters, L.R.; Ewijk-Beneken Kolmer, E.W.J. van; Schimana, W.; Burger, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We developed a simple and inexpensive thin-layer chromatography (TLC) assay for semiquantitative detection of saliva concentrations of nevirapine in resource-limited settings. The method was validated in an African target population. METHODS: Paired plasma and saliva nevirapine

  12. Efficacy and durability of nevirapine in antiretroviral drug naive patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, Joep M. A.

    2003-01-01

    Nevirapine is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) that was first reported in the scientific literature in 1990. Varying doses of nevirapine (NVP) and a number of regimens containing this NNRTI have been studied in antiretroviral (ARV) naive patients. Four key studies have

  13. Incidence of nevirapine-associated hepatitis in an antenatal clinic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-01-22

    Jan 22, 2008 ... together with a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, either efavirenz or nevirapine.1 As efavirenz is thought to be a teratogen and is classified as a Food and Drug Administration. (FDA) category D drug, nevirapine is the preferred agent for use in pregnant women, for women planning a pregnancy ...

  14. Toxicogenomics of nevirapine-associated cutaneous and hepatic adverse events among populations of African, Asian, and European descent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Jing; Guo, Sheng; Hall, David; Cammett, Anna M.; Jayadev, Supriya; Distel, Manuel; Storfer, Stephen; Huang, Zimei; Mootsikapun, Piroon; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Podzamczer, Daniel; Haas, David W.; Benetucci, Jorge; Ortega, Gerardo; Cahn, Pedro; Cesar, Carina; Cassetti, Isabel; Bissio, Emiliano; Lupo, Sergio; Chuah, John; Workman, Cassy; Rees, Vanessa; Cooper, David A.; Hickey, Rebecca; Anderson, Jonathan; Moore, Richard; Hoy, Jennifer; Downs, Cath; Finlayson, Robert; Bodsworth, Neil; Eu, Beng; Lau, Helen; Montaner, Julio; Harris, Marianne; Walmsley, Sharon; d'Aquila, Adrianna; Conway, Brian; Tossonian, Harout; Morlat, Philippe; Louis, Isabelle; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Ajana, Faiza; Bollens, Diane; Girard, Pierre-Marie; May, Thierry; Pialoux, Gilles; Slama, Laurence; Lyavanc, Thomas; Piketty, Christophe; Reiss, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Nevirapine is widely prescribed for HIV-1 infection. We characterized relationships between nevirapine-associated cutaneous and hepatic adverse events and genetic variants among HIV-infected adults. We retrospectively identified cases and controls. Cases experienced symptomatic nevirapine-associated

  15. Ability to Discriminate Between Sustainable and Unsustainable Heat Stress Exposures-Part 1: WBGT Exposure Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Villalba, Ximena P; Wu, Yougui; Ashley, Candi D; Bernard, Thomas E

    2017-07-01

    Heat stress exposure limits based on wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) were designed to limit exposures to those that could be sustained for an 8-h day using limited data from Lind in the 1960s. In general, Sustainable exposures are heat stress levels at which thermal equilibrium can be achieved, and Unsustainable exposures occur when there is a steady increase in core temperature. This paper addresses the ability of the ACGIH® Threshold Limit Value (TLV®) to differentiate between Sustainable and Unsustainable heat exposures, to propose alternative occupational exposure limits, and ask whether an adjustment for body surface area improves the exposure decision. Two progressive heat stress studies provided data on 176 trials with 352 pairs of Sustainable and Unsustainable exposures over a range of relative humidities and metabolic rates using 29 participants wearing woven cotton clothing. To assess the discrimination ability of the TLV, the exposure metric was the difference between the observed WBGT and the TLV adjusted for metabolic rate. Conditional logistic regression models and receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) along with ROC's area under the curve (AUC) were used. Four alternative models for an occupational exposure limit were also developed and compared to the TLV. For the TLV, the odds ratio (OR) for Unsustainable was 2.5 per 1°C-WBGT [confidence interval (CI) 2.12-2.88]. The AUC for the TLV was 0.85 (CI 0.81-0.89). For the alternative models, the ORs were also about 2.5/°C-WBGT, with AUCs between 0.84 and 0.88, which were significantly different from the TLV's AUC but have little practical difference. This study (1) confirmed that the TLV is appropriate for heat stress screening; (2) demonstrated the TLV's discrimination accuracy with an ROC AUC of 0.85; and (3) established the OR of 2.5/°C-WBGT for unsustainable exposures. The TLV has high sensitivity, but its specificity is very low, which is protective. There were no important

  16. Pharmacological and clinical evidence of nevirapine immediate- and extended-release formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ena J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Javier Ena, Concepción Amador, Conxa Benito, Francisco PasquauHIV Unit, Hospital Marina Baixa, Villajoyosa, SpainAbstract: We reviewed the current information available on nevirapine immediate- and extended-release formulations and its role in single-dose and combination antiretroviral therapy. Nevirapine was approved in 1996 and was the first non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor available for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Nevirapine has demonstrated good efficacy and a well-characterized safety profile. A major drawback is the low genetic barrier, allowing the emergence of resistance in the presence of single mutations in the reverse-transcriptase gene. This shortcoming is particularly relevant when nevirapine is administered in a single dose to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 infection, compromising the efficacy of future non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase–inhibitor regimens. Studies published recently have probed the noninferiority of nevirapine compared to ritonavir-boosted atazanavir with both tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine in antiretroviral treatment–naïve patients. In 2011, a new formulation of nevirapine (nevirapine extended release that allowed once-daily dosing was approved by the Food and Drug Administration and by the European Medicines Agency. VERxVe, a study comparing nevirapine extended release with nevirapine immediate release in antiretroviral treatment–naïve patients, and TRANxITION, a study carried out in antiretroviral treatment–experienced patients who switched therapy from nevirapine immediate release to nevirapine extended release, provided data on the noninferiority of the new formulation of nevirapine compared with nevirapine immediate release in terms of efficacy and safety. Nevirapine extended release will further increase the durability and persistence of nevirapine-containing antiretroviral therapy, allowing once-daily dosing regimens.Keywords: nevirapine

  17. Foetal loss and enhanced fertility observed in mice treated with Zidovudine or Nevirapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuamah, Chika K; Ezechi, Oliver C; Herbertson, Ebiere C; Audu, Rosemary A; Ujah, Innocent A O; Odeigah, Peter G C

    2014-01-01

    Health concerns for HIV-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) have moved from morbidity to the challenges of long-term ART. We investigated the effect of Zidovudine or Nevirapine on reproductive capacity across two mouse generations. A prospective mouse study with drugs administered through one spermatogenic cycle. Mouse groups (16 males and 10 females) were given Zidovudine or Nevirapine for 56 days. Males were mated to untreated virgin females to determine dominant lethal effects. Twenty females (10 treated and 10 untreated) mated with the treated males per dose and gave birth to the F1 generation. Parental mice were withdrawn from drugs for one spermatogenic cycle and mated to the same dams to ascertain if effects are reversible. The F1 generation were exposed for another 56 days and mated to produce the F2 generation. Foetal loss was indicated in the dominant lethal assay as early as four weeks into drug administration to the males. At the first mating of the parental generation to produce the F1 generation, births from 10 dams/dose when the 'father-only' was exposed to Zidovudine (10, 100 and 250 mg/kg) was 3, 2 and 1 while it was 7, 1 and 4 respectively when 'both-parents' were exposed. Similarly births from the parental generation first mating when the 'father-only' was exposed to Nevirapine (5, 50 and 150 mg/kg) was 2, 2 and 0 while it was 6, 5 and 9 respectively when 'both-parents' were exposed. However, fertility was not significantly different neither by dose nor by the parental exposure. The F1 mice mated to produce the F2 generation recorded only one birth. The dominant lethal analysis showed foetal loss occurred when the "fathers-only" were treated while fertility was enhanced when "both-parents" were on therapy at the time of mating.

  18. Foetal loss and enhanced fertility observed in mice treated with Zidovudine or Nevirapine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika K Onwuamah

    Full Text Available Health concerns for HIV-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART have moved from morbidity to the challenges of long-term ART. We investigated the effect of Zidovudine or Nevirapine on reproductive capacity across two mouse generations.A prospective mouse study with drugs administered through one spermatogenic cycle. Mouse groups (16 males and 10 females were given Zidovudine or Nevirapine for 56 days. Males were mated to untreated virgin females to determine dominant lethal effects. Twenty females (10 treated and 10 untreated mated with the treated males per dose and gave birth to the F1 generation. Parental mice were withdrawn from drugs for one spermatogenic cycle and mated to the same dams to ascertain if effects are reversible. The F1 generation were exposed for another 56 days and mated to produce the F2 generation.Foetal loss was indicated in the dominant lethal assay as early as four weeks into drug administration to the males. At the first mating of the parental generation to produce the F1 generation, births from 10 dams/dose when the 'father-only' was exposed to Zidovudine (10, 100 and 250 mg/kg was 3, 2 and 1 while it was 7, 1 and 4 respectively when 'both-parents' were exposed. Similarly births from the parental generation first mating when the 'father-only' was exposed to Nevirapine (5, 50 and 150 mg/kg was 2, 2 and 0 while it was 6, 5 and 9 respectively when 'both-parents' were exposed. However, fertility was not significantly different neither by dose nor by the parental exposure. The F1 mice mated to produce the F2 generation recorded only one birth.The dominant lethal analysis showed foetal loss occurred when the "fathers-only" were treated while fertility was enhanced when "both-parents" were on therapy at the time of mating.

  19. Risk of nevirapine-associated Stevens-Johnson syndrome among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is an acute life-threatening condition often elicited by drugs. The government's indecisiveness in deciding to stop the use of nevirapine (NVP) in HIV-infected pregnant women owing to the increase of SJS among this population group in South Africa prompted this investigation ...

  20. a study of nevirapine toxicity in hiv infected pregnant women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    HIV infected women commenced on nevirapine-based regimen in the current pregnancy with CD4 counts up to. 3. 350 cells/mm at the University Teaching Hospital,. Lusaka, Zambia. Design: Longitudinal observational study with 2 arms. Group 1 (low CD4 count arm): HIV infected pregnant. 3 women with CD4 counts less ...

  1. Investigating the continuous synthesis of a nicotinonitrile precursor to nevirapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley R. Longstreet

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 2-Chloro-3-amino-4-picoline (CAPIC is a strategic building block for the preparation of nevirapine, a widely-prescribed non-nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitor for the treatment of HIV-infected patients. A continuous synthesis to the bromo derivative of a CAPIC intermediate, 2-bromo-4-methylnicotinonitrile, that terminates in a dead-end crystallization is described. The route uses inexpensive, acyclic commodity-based raw materials and has the potential to enable lower cost production of nevirapine as well as other value added structures that contain complex pyridines. The route terminates in a batch crystallization yielding high purity CAPIC. This outcome is expected to facilitate regulatory implementation of the overall process.

  2. Nevirapine Babies: A qualitative study about

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laz

    The effect of PMTCT programmes is only sustainable if the mother ... tional health sector to intensify the promotion of EBF ... nal decision making for infant care requires appre- ciation of ..... poverty; how difficult it is for them to purchase nu-.

  3. Identification of Nevirapine-Resistant HIV-1 in the Latent Reservoir after Single-Dose Nevirapine to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind-Rotolo, Megan; Durand, Christine; Cranmer, Lisa; Reid, Alison; Martinson, Neil; Doherty, Meg; Jilek, Benjamin L.; Kagaayi, Joseph; Kizza, Allan; Pillay, Visva; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Reynolds, Steven J.; Eshleman, Susan H.; Lau, Bryan; Ray, Stuart C.; Siliciano, Janet D.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Intrapartum single-dose nevirapine decreases mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) but promotes nevirapine resistance. Although resistant viruses fade to undetectable levels in plasma, they may persist as stably integrated proviruses within the latent reservoir in resting CD4+ T cells, potentially complicating future treatment. Methods Blood samples were collected from 60 women from South Africa and Uganda >6 months after they had received single-dose nevirapine. To selectively analyze the stable latent form of HIV-1, resting CD4+ T cells were isolated and activated in the presence of reverse-transcriptase inhibitors and integrase inhibitors, which allows for the specific isolation of viruses produced by cells with stably integrated proviral DNA. These viruses were then analyzed for nevirapine resistance. Results Although only a small number of latently infected cells were present in each blood sample (mean, 162 cells), nevirapine resistance mutations (K103N and G190A) were detected in the latent reservoir of 4 (8%) of 50 evaluable women. Conclusions A single dose of nevirapine can establish antiretroviral resistance within the latent reservoir. This results in a potentially lifelong risk of reemergence of nevirapine-resistant virus and highlights the need for strategies to prevent transmission that do not compromise successful future treatment. PMID:19338474

  4. Good performance of an immunoassay based method for nevirapine measurements in human breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Persson Theilgaard, Zahra; Chiduo, Mercy

    2011-01-01

    , developed and validated for plasma use. In this study, the ARK NVP-test was evaluated for measurement of nevirapine concentrations in breast milk. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the method currently used to determine nevirapine in breast milk. This method, however, requires complicated...

  5. Maternal deaths following nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Bera

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We report 2 cases illustrating that it is too simplistic to link nevirapine (NVP toxicity exclusively to individuals with immune preservation. Not enough is known about the mechanism of hepatotoxicity or cutaneous eruption to predict these events. This type of hypersensitivity reaction occurs rarely among HIV-exposed infants taking NVP prophylaxis or antiretroviral therapy (ART-experienced adults with complete plasma viral load suppression. Conversely, HIV-uninfected adults and ART-naive pregnant women appear to be disproportionately affected by the adverse effects of NVP.

  6. Post-marketing experience with nevirapine extended release (XR) tablets: effectiveness and tolerability in a population-based cohort in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepik, Katherine J; Yip, Benita; McGovern, Rachel A; Ding, Erin; Nohpal, Adriana; Watson, Birgit E; Toy, Junine; Akagi, Linda; Harrigan, P Richard; Moore, David M; Hogg, Robert S; Montaner, Julio S G; Barrios, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    Nevirapine 400 mg extended release tablets (nevirapine-XR) are a once-daily alternative to nevirapine 200 mg immediate release tablets (nevirapine-IR). Study objectives were to describe the effectiveness and tolerability of nevirapine-XR in clinical practice and, for patients who switched from once daily 2×200 mg nevirapine-IR to nevirapine-XR, compare virological suppression and plasma nevirapine concentrations during each treatment period. HIV-1-infected adults entered the study cohort if they initiated nevirapine-XR in British Columbia (BC) Canada between 1 April 2012 and 30 September 2012 and were followed until 30 September 2013. Demographic and clinical variables were abstracted from the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS databases. Patients who switched from once daily nevirapine-IR to nevirapine-XR were monitored for 6 months pre- and post-switch with comparison of virological suppression (McNeamer's test) and median random plasma nevirapine concentrations (Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test) in each period. The 536 nevirapine-XR-treated patients were 96% male, median (IQR) age 49.9 (44.0-56.9) years. Median follow-up was 15.6 (14.7-16.5) months, with 474/536 (88%) maintaining virological suppression. Emergent drug resistance developed in 5/536 (1%), adverse drug reactions in 17/536 (3%) and, although 31/536 (6%) reported 'whole' tablets in their stools, this was not associated with adverse outcomes. Among the 305 patients who switched from nevirapine-IR to nevirapine-XR, median (IQR) random plasma nevirapine concentration was higher during nevirapine-IR 5,000 (3,690-6,090) ng/ml than nevirapine-XR 3,930 (3,050-5,150) ng/ml (Pmarketing study affirms the effectiveness and tolerability of nevirapine-XR as an alternative to nevirapine-IR in adults.

  7. Suboptimal etravirine activity is common during failure of nevirapine-based combination antiretroviral therapy in a cohort infected with non-B subtype HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, Babafemi; Chaplin, Beth; Penugonda, Sudhir; Meloni, Seema; Akanmu, Sulaimon; Gashau, Wadzani; Idoko, John; Adewole, Isaac; Murphy, Robert; Kanki, Phyllis

    2010-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate etravirine activity in a cohort of patients infected with non-B subtype HIV-1 and failing nevirapine-based therapy. Genotypic resistance testing was performed if viral load was >OR= 1,000 copies/ml after receiving at least six months of therapy. Suboptimal response to etravirine was predicted by a score >OR= 2.5 on the Tibotec weighting schema, >OR= 4 in the Monogram schema, or classification as high to low-level resistant by a modification of the Stanford HIVdb algorithm (Version 5.1.2). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to determine the risk factors for suboptimal etravirine activity. The patients (n=91) were receiving nevirapine and lamivudine plus stavudine (57.1%) or zidovudine (42.9%). Median duration of nevirapine exposure was 53 weeks (IQR 46-101 weeks). The most common etravirine resistance associated mutations were Y181C (42.9%), G190A (25.3%), H221Y (19.8%), A98G (18.7%), K101E (16.5%), and V90I (12.1%). Suboptimal etravirine activity was predicted in 47.3 to 56.0%. There were disparities in mutations listed in Tibotec versus Monogram Schemas. Predicted suboptimal activity was not associated with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) used, gender, pretreatment or current CD4 cell count or viral load, subtype or NRTI mutations. Etravirine has compromised activity in approximately half of the patients failing nevirapine-based first-line treatment in this cohort, which supports guidelines that caution against using it with NRTIs alone in such patients.

  8. Harmonizing exposure metrics and methods for sustainability assessments of food contact materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Jolliet, Olivier; Niero, Monia

    2016-01-01

    ) and Cradle to Cradle to support packaging design. Each assessment has distinct context and goals, but can help manage exposure to toxic chemicals and other environmental impacts. Metrics a nd methods to quantify and characterize exposure to potentially toxic chemicals specifically in food packaging are......, however, notably lacking from such assessments. Furthermore, previous case studies demonstrated that sustainable packaging design focuses, such as decreasing greenhouse gas emissions or resource consumption, can increase exposure to toxic chemicals through packaging. Thereby, developing harmonized methods...... for quantifying exposure to chemicals in food packaging is critical to ensure ‘sustainable packages’ do not increase exposure to toxic chemicals. Therefore we developed modelling methods suitable for first-tier risk screening and environmental assessments. The modelling framework was based on the new product...

  9. Extended prophylaxis with nevirapine and cotrimoxazole among HIV-exposed uninfected infants is well tolerated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizire, Jim; Fowler, Mary Glenn; Wang, Jing; Shetty, Avinash K; Stranix-Chibanda, Lynda; Kamateeka, Moreen; Brown, Elizabeth R; Bolton, Steve G; Musoke, Philippa M; Coovadia, Hoosen

    2012-01-28

    Nevirapine and cotrimoxazole are associated with hematologic toxicities and skin-rash. Safety of their concurrent use for prophylaxis over extended periods among HIV-exposed uninfected infants has not been previously assessed. Secondary data analysis of the 'HIV Prevention Trials Network-046 protocol' (version 2.0), a phase-III, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that assessed efficacy and safety of nevirapine prophylaxis against breast milk transmission of HIV-1. Trial infants received 6-month study nevirapine/placebo, and standard-of-care peripartum single-dose nevirapine+/- zidovudine 'tail', and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis from 6 weeks through breastfeeding cessation. Adverse events were monitored using United States Division of AIDS Toxicity Tables (2004). Risk of neutropenia, anemia and skin-rash in the cotrimoxazole + nevirapine and the cotrimoxazole + placebo groups were compared using negative-binomial regression. Incidence of neutropenia and/or anemia, and skin-rash was highest during the first 6 weeks of life and declined, thereafter, regardless of study group. Time to first adverse event after 6 weeks was similar in cotrimoxazole + nevirapine and cotrimoxazole + placebo groups: hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) was 1.26 (0.96-1.66) for neutropenia and/or anemia (all grades), 1.27 (0.80-2.03) for neutropenia and/or anemia (grade ≥3) and 1.16 (0.46-2.90) for skin-rash (grade ≥2). There were no statistically significant differences in immediate (6 weeks-6 months) and long-term (6-12 months) adverse event risk among infants on cotrimoxazole + nevirapine versus cotrimoxazole + placebo. Extended nevirapine and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis through 6 months of age among HIV-exposed uninfected infants did not appear to increase the immediate or long-term risk of neutropenia, anemia or skin-rash. Concurrent use beyond 6 months, however, needs to be evaluated.

  10. Possible hepatotoxic consequence of nevirapine use in juvenile albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Adikwu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nevirapine (NVP is used in human immunodeficiency virus exposed neonates. This could present safety concern due to decreased liver metabolizing enzymes activity and renal clearance in neonates. Aims: To determine the hepatotoxic effect of NVP in juvenile albino rats. Methods: Juvenile albino rats were weighed, divided into groups and treated orally with 4-32 mg/kg/day of NVP for 14 days including a recovery group. The control groups were treated with water (placebo and normal saline (solvent. At the end of NVP treatment, rats were weighed and sacrificed, blood was collected and serum extracted. Serum was analyzed for alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin (TB and conjugated bilirubin (CB. The liver was harvested via dissection, weighed and evaluated for AST, ALT, ALP, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA levels and histological damage. Results: The body, absolute and relative liver weights of rats in NVP treated groups were not significantly different (p>0.05 when compared to placebo. However, serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, TB and CB were significantly increased (p<0.05 in a dose-dependent manner in NVP-treated groups. Furthermore, liver levels of ALT, ALP, AST and MDA were significantly increased (p<0.05 while SOD, CAT, and GSH were decreased in a dose dependent manner in NVP-treated groups. NVP-treated rats were characterized by varying degrees of hepatic morphological alterations. However, in the recovery group, the effects of NVP were reversed. Conclusions: This study observed dose-dependent and reversible hepatotoxicity in nevirapine- treated juvenile albino rats.

  11. Antioxidant modulation of nevirapine induced hepatotoxicity in rats

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    Awodele Olufunsho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS related mortality has been dramatically reduced by the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART. However, ART presents with associated adverse effects. One of such adverse effects is hepatotoxicity observed with nevirapine (NVP containing ART. Since previous studies showed that NVP hepatotoxicity may be due to oxidative stress via generation of oxidative radicals, this study sought to evaluate the protective effects of antioxidants in alleviating NVP induced hepatotoxicity. Rats were divided into 6 groups with 8 animals per group and received doses of the antioxidants jobelyn (10.7 mg/kg/day, vitamin C (8 mg/kg/day, vitamin E (5 mg/kg/day and/or NVP (6 mg/kg/day for 60 days. The animals were sacrificed on day 61 by cervical dislocation, blood samples were collected for biochemical and hematological examination. The liver of the sacrificed animals was weighed and subjected to histopathological examination. There was a statistically significant (p<0.05 elevation in MDA level observed in the NVP group as compared with control. The results further showed non-significant decreases in the levels of MDA in the NVP plus antioxidant groups, except vitamin C, when compared with the NVP alone group. Vitamin E and Vitamin E plus C treated groups showed significantly (p<0.05 higher levels of SOD, CAT and GSH. The results also showed statistically significantly (p<0.05 lower levels of ALT and AST in the antioxidant treated groups There was an observed significantly (p<0.05 higher level of TP and urea in the antioxidant treated rats. A significantly (p<0.05 higher white blood cell count was observed in the antioxidant groups. Histopathological assessment of the liver extracted from the rats showed no visible pathology across the groups. Observations from this study suggest a potentially positive modulatory effect of antioxidants and may be indicative for the inclusion of antioxidants in nevirapine containing ART.

  12. The impact of a Wastewater Treatment Works in Southern Gauteng, South Africa on efavirenz and nevirapine discharges into the aquatic environment

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    C. Schoeman

    2017-06-01

    Although an order of magnitude lower nevirapine concentrations displayed the opposite behaviour and gradually increased through the various stages of purification in the WWTP. Minor fluctuations occurred but the concentrations of nevirapine were higher at the effluent (between 92 and 473 ng/L than those entering the WWTP. No nevirapine was detected in the PST sludge. The increase in nevirapine concentrations are likely to be the result of the de-conjugation of the hydroxylated metabolites of nevirapine in the WWTP, its resistance to degradation and the lack of binding of the nevirapine to the PST sludge.

  13. Exposure to chemicals in food packaging as a sustainability trade-off in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Muncke, Jane; Trier, Xenia

    2016-01-01

    Hazardous chemicals in packaging, including ‘eco-friendly’ and recycled food packaging, can migrate into food and expose humans. LCA has been fundamental to indicate more ‘eco-friendly’ packages, but currently LCA does not consider exposure to chemical migrants and methods have not yet been...... but to provide life cycle context to compare the magnitude of characterized exposure to chemicals in packaging, in order to elucidate if this exposure pathway is important. We detail estimates of life cycle exposure to one known hazardous chemical in polystyrene packaging (styrene) that has data available...... developed. In this study we question if exposure to chemicals in food packaging should be considered as a sustainable design consideration, i.e. if this human health risk is relevant in a life cycle context. To answer this question, we focus on developing methods to quantify exposure to chemicals in food...

  14. Pregnancy rates in HIV-positive women using contraceptives and efavirenz-based or nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy in Kenya: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rena C; Onono, Maricianah; Gandhi, Monica; Blat, Cinthia; Hagey, Jill; Shade, Starley B; Vittinghoff, Eric; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Newmann, Sara J; Cohen, Craig R

    2015-11-01

    Concerns have been raised about efavirenz reducing the effectiveness of contraceptive implants. We aimed to establish whether pregnancy rates differ between HIV-positive women who use various contraceptive methods and either efavirenz-based or nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens. We did this retrospective cohort study of HIV-positive women aged 15-45 years enrolled in 19 HIV care facilities supported by Family AIDS Care and Education Services in western Kenya between Jan 1, 2011, and Dec 31, 2013. Our primary outcome was incident pregnancy diagnosed clinically. The primary exposure was a combination of contraceptive method and efavirenz-based or nevirapine-based ART regimen. We used Poisson models, adjusting for repeated measures, and demographic, behavioural, and clinical factors, to compare pregnancy rates among women receiving different contraceptive and ART combinations. 24,560 women contributed 37,635 years of follow-up with 3337 incident pregnancies. In women using implants, adjusted pregnancy incidence was 1.1 per 100 person-years (95% CI 0.72-1.5) for nevirapine-based ART users and 3.3 per 100 person-years (1.8-4.8) for efavirenz-based ART users (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 3.0, 95% CI 1.3-4.6). In women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, adjusted pregnancy incidence was 4.5 per 100 person-years (95% CI 3.7-5.2) for nevirapine-based ART users and 5.4 per 100 person-years (4.0-6.8) for efavirenz-based ART users (adjusted IRR 1.2, 95% CI 0.91-1.5). Women using other contraceptive methods, except for intrauterine devices and permanent methods, had 3.1-4.1 higher rates of pregnancy than did those using implants, with 1.6-2.8 higher rates in women using efavirenz-based ART. Although HIV-positive women using implants and efavirenz-based ART had a three-times higher risk of contraceptive failure than did those using nevirapine-based ART, these women still had lower contraceptive failure rates than did those receiving all other

  15. Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Mei, Ying; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of Sustainability. It is divided into the following sections : • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management.

  16. Effect of diurnal variation, CYP2B6 genotype and age on the pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bienczak, A.; Cook, A.; Wiesner, L.; Mulenga, V.; Kityo, C.; Kekitiinwa, A.; Walker, A.S.; Owen, A.; Gibb, D.M.; Burger, D.M.; McIlleron, H.; Denti, P.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To characterize the effects of CYP2B6 polymorphisms, diurnal variation and demographic factors on nevirapine pharmacokinetics in African children. METHODS: Non-linear mixed-effects modelling conducted in NONMEM 7.3 described nevirapine plasma concentration-time data from 414 children

  17. Ability to Discriminate Between Sustainable and Unsustainable Heat Stress Exposures-Part 2: Physiological Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Villalba, Ximena P; Wu, Yougui; Ashley, Candi D; Bernard, Thomas E

    2017-07-01

    There are times when it is not practical to assess heat stress using environmental metrics and metabolic rate, and heat strain may provide an alternative approach. Heat strain indicators have been used for decades as tools for monitoring physiological responses to work in hot environments. Common indicators of heat strain are body core temperature (assessed here as rectal temperature Tre), heart rate (HR), and average skin temperature (Tsk). Data collected from progressive heat stress trials were used to (1) demonstrate if physiological heat strain indicators (PHSIs) at the upper limit of Sustainable heat stress were below generally accepted limits; (2) suggest values for PHSIs that demonstrate a Sustainable level of heat stress; (3) suggest alternative PHSIs; and (4) determine if metabolic rate was an effect modifier. Two previous progressive heat stress studies included 176 trials with 352 pairs of Sustainable and Unsustainable exposures over a range of relative humidities and metabolic rates using 29 participants. To assess the discrimination ability of PHSIs, conditional logistic regression and stepwise logistic regression were used to find the best combinations of predictors of Unsustainable exposures. The accuracy of the models was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curves. Current recommendations for physiological heat strain limits were associated with probabilities of Unsustainable greater than 0.5. Screening limits for Sustainable heat stress were Tre of 37.5°C, HR of 105 bpm, and Tsk of 35.8°C. Tsk alone resulted in an area under the curve of 0.85 and the combination of Tsk and HR (area under the curve = 0.88) performed the best. The adjustment for metabolic rate was statistically significant for physiological strain index or ∆Tre-sk as main predictors, but its effect modification was negligible and could be ignored. Based on the receiver operating characteristic curve, PHSIs (Tre, HR, and Tsk) can accurately predict Unsustainable heat

  18. Comparison of nevirapine plasma concentrations between lead-in and steady-state periods in Chinese HIV-infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Kou

    Full Text Available To investigate the potential of nevirapine 200 mg once-daily regimen and evaluate the influence of patient characteristics on nevirapine concentrations.This was a prospective, multicentre cohort study with 532 HIV-infected patients receiving nevirapine as a part of their initial antiretroviral therapy. Plasma samples were collected at trough or peak time at the end of week 2 (lead-in period and week 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 (steady-state period, and nevirapine concentrations were determined using a validated HPLC method. Potential influencing factors associated with nevirapine concentrations were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression.A total of 2348 nevirapine plasma concentrations were collected, including 1510 trough and 838 peak values. The median nevirapine trough and peak concentration during the lead-in period were 4.26 µg/mL (IQR 3.05-5.61 and 5.07 µg/mL (IQR 3.92-6.44 respectively, which both exceeded the recommended thresholds of nevirapine plasma concentrations. Baseline hepatic function had a moderate effect on median nevirapine trough concentrations at week 2 (4.25 µg/mL v.s. 4.86 µg/mL, for ALT <1.5 × ULN and ≥ 1.5 × ULN, respectively, P = 0.045. No significant difference was observed in median nevirapine trough concentration between lead-in and steady-state periods in patients with baseline ALT and AST level ≥ 1.5 × ULN (P = 0.171, P = 0.769, which was different from the patients with ALT/AST level <1.5ULN. The median trough concentrations were significantly higher in HIV/HCV co-infected patients than those without HCV at week 48 (8.16 µg/mL v.s. 6.15 µg/mL, P = 0.004.The 200 mg once-daily regimen of nevirapine might be comparable to twice-daily in plasma pharmacokinetics in Chinese population. Hepatic function prior to nevirapine treatment and HIV/HCV coinfection were significantly associated with nevirapine concentrations.

  19. A retrospective cohort analysis comparing pregnancy rates among HIV-positive women using contraceptives and efavirenz- or nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    PATEL, Rena C.; ONONO, Maricianah; GANDHI, Monica; BLAT, Cinthia; HAGEY, Jill; SHADE, Starley B.; VITTINGHOFF, Eric; BUKUSI, Elizabeth A.; NEWMANN, Sara J.; COHEN, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Given recent concerns of efavirenz reducing the efficacy of contraceptive implants, we sought to determine if pregnancy rates differ among HIV-positive women using various contraceptive methods and efavirenz- or nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of HIV-positive women aged 15–45 years enrolled in HIV care facilities in western Kenya from January 2011 to December 2013. Pregnancy was diagnosed clinically and the primary exposure was a combination of contraceptive method and ART regimen. We used Poisson models, adjusting for repeated measures, as well as demographic, behavioral and clinical factors, to compare pregnancy rates among women on different contraceptive/ART combinations. Findings 24,560 women contributed 37,635 years of follow-up with 3,337 incident pregnancies. Among women using implants, adjusted pregnancy incidence for nevirapine- and efavirenz-based ART users were 1·1 (95% CI 0·72–1·5) and 3·3 (95% CI 1·8–4·8) per 100 women-years (w-y), respectively (adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 3·0, 95% CI 1·3–4·6). Among women using depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), adjusted pregnancy incidence for nevirapine- and efavirenz-based ART users were 4·5 (95% CI 3·7–5·2) and 5·4 (95% CI 4·0–6·8) per 100 w-y, respectively (aIRR 1·2, 95% CI 0·91–1·5). Women using other contraceptive methods, except for intrauterine devices and permanent methods, experienced 3·1–4·1 higher rates of pregnancy than women using implants, with 1·6–2·8 higher rates specifically among women using efavirenz-based ART. Interpretation While HIV-positive women using implants on efavirenz-based ART faced three times higher risk of contraceptive failure than those on nevirapine-based ART, these women still experienced lower contraceptive failure rates than women on all other contraceptive methods, except for intrauterine devices and permanent methods

  20. Development of drug resistance in patients receiving combinations of zidovudine, didanosine and nevirapine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conway, B.; Wainberg, M. A.; Hall, D.; Harris, M.; Reiss, P.; Cooper, D.; Vella, S.; Curry, R.; Robinson, P.; Lange, J. M.; Montaner, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the development of phenotypic and genotypic resistance to zidovudine, didanosine and nevirapine as a function of the virologic response to therapy in a group of drug-naive individuals receiving various combinations of these agents. DESIGN: All patients were enrolled in a

  1. Toxicants exposures as novel zoonoses: reflections on sustainable development, food safety and veterinary public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazzoli, C; Mantovani, A

    2010-12-01

    The modern concept of zoonosis considers any detriment to the health and/or quality of human life resulting from relationships with (other) vertebrate or edible or toxic invertebrate animals. Whereas exposure to toxicants through foods of animal origin (a.o.) is a well-established issue, hereby we discuss it as novel zoonoses, from the standpoints of health implications as well as similarities and differences with classical zoonoses caused by biological agents. Novel toxicant-related zoonoses are linked with new issues in food safety, such as the environment-feed-food chain. In fact, the potential effect of the combined and repeated exposure to dietary toxicants is generally long-term and not readily discernible. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in staple foods of a.o. are discussed as a telling example of a food safety issue summing up critical points covered by the definition of sustainable development, also implicating health risks for generations to come. We suggest some critical points to implement the veterinary public health action in sustainable food safety, such as enhancement of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points systems for toxicological risk management. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Impact of repeated daily exposure to intermittent hypoxia and mild sustained hypercapnia on apnea severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokhana, Sanar S; Gerst, David G; Lee, Dorothy S; Badr, M Safwan; Qureshi, Tabarak; Mateika, Jason H

    2012-02-01

    We examined whether exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH) during wakefulness impacted on the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) during sleep in individuals with sleep apnea. Participants were exposed to twelve 4-min episodes of hypoxia in the presence of sustained mild hypercapnia each day for 10 days. A control group was exposed to sustained mild hypercapnia for a similar duration. The intermittent hypoxia protocol was completed in the evening on day 1 and 10 and was followed by a sleep study. During all sleep studies, the change in esophageal pressure (ΔPes) from the beginning to the end of an apnea and the tidal volume immediately following apneic events were used to measure respiratory drive. Following exposure to IH on day 1 and 10, the AHI increased above baseline measures (day 1: 1.95 ± 0.42 fraction of baseline, P ≤ 0.01, vs. day 10: 1.53 ± 0.24 fraction of baseline, P < 0.06). The indexes were correlated to the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) measured during the IH protocol but were not correlated to the magnitude of ventilatory long-term facilitation (vLTF). Likewise, ΔPes and tidal volume measures were greater on day 1 and 10 compared with baseline (ΔPes: -8.37 ± 0.84 vs. -5.90 ± 1.30 cmH(2)0, P ≤ 0.04; tidal volume: 1,193.36 ± 101.85 vs. 1,015.14 ± 119.83 ml, P ≤ 0.01). This was not the case in the control group. Interestingly, the AHI on day 10 (0.78 ± 0.13 fraction of baseline, P ≤ 0.01) was significantly less than measures obtained during baseline and day 1 in the mild hypercapnia control group. We conclude that enhancement of the HVR initiated by exposure to IH may lead to increases in the AHI during sleep and that initiation of vLTF did not appear to impact on breathing stability. Lastly, our results suggest that repeated daily exposure to mild sustained hypercapnia may lead to a decrease in breathing events.

  3. Determinants of virological outcome and adverse events in African children treated with paediatric nevirapine fixed-dose-combination tablets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bienczak, A.; Denti, P.; Cook, A.; Wiesner, L.; Mulenga, V.; Kityo, C.; Kekitiinwa, A.; Gibb, D.M.; Burger, D.M.; Walker, A.S.; McIlleron, H.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nevirapine is the only nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor currently available as a paediatric fixed-dose-combination tablet and is widely used in African children. Nonetheless, the number of investigations into pharmacokinetic determinants of virological suppression in African

  4. High rate of mutation K103N causing resistance to nevirapine in Indian children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehgal S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In north India the number of paediatric cases with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is on the rise. Most drug combinations used for treatment of AIDS incorporate nevirapine, resistance to which develops very fast if given singly or because of unplanned interruptions. This paper investigates presence of mutations at codon 103 and codon 215 of the HIV pol gene causing resistance to nevirapine and zidovudine (AZT respectively in 25 children with AIDS. Mutations T215Y and K103N were detected by a nested cum amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS PCR and the results were confirmed by direct sequencing in five randomly selected cases. Nineteen patients had received nevirapine containing regimen and six were drug naive. Mutation K103N was observed in 56% (14/25 of the children while mutation T215Y was found in none. Two of the six drug naοve children also showed K103N mutation. Thus, Indian children drug naοve or treated with nevirapine containing regimens show a high rate of mutation conferring resistance to nevirapine which calls for a judicious use of nevirapine both in antenatal and postnatal setting.

  5. Impaired sustained attention and altered reactivity to errors in an animal model of prenatal cocaine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendle, Mathew H; Strawderman, Myla S; Mactutus, Charles F; Booze, Rosemarie M; Levitsky, David A; Strupp, Barbara J

    2003-12-30

    Although correlations have been reported between maternal cocaine use and impaired attention in exposed children, interpretation of these findings is complicated by the many risk factors that differentiate cocaine-exposed children from SES-matched controls. For this reason, the present dose-response study (0, 0.5, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg cocaine HCl) was designed to explore the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on visual attention in a rodent model, using an intravenous injection protocol that closely mimics the pharmacokinetic profile and physiological effects of human recreational cocaine use. In adulthood, animals were tested on an attention task in which the duration, location, and onset time of a brief visual cue varied randomly between trials. The 3.0 mg/kg exposed males committed significantly more omission errors than control males during the final 1/3 of each testing session, specifically on trials that followed an error, which implicates impaired sustained attention and increased reactivity to committing an error. During the final 1/3 of each testing session, the 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg exposed females took longer to enter the testing alcove at trial onset, and failed to enter the alcove more frequently than control females. Because these effects were not seen in other tasks of similar duration and reinforcement density, these findings suggest an impairment of sustained attention. This inference is supported by the finding that the increase in omission errors in the final block of trials in each daily session (relative to earlier in the session) was significantly greater for the 1.0 mg/kg females than for controls, a trend also seen for the 0.5 mg/kg group. Unlike the cocaine-exposed males, who remain engaged in the task when attention is waning, the cocaine-exposed females appear to opt for another strategy; namely, refusing to participate when their ability to sustain attention is surpassed.

  6. Therapeutic drug monitoring of nevirapine in saliva in Uganda using high performance liquid chromatography and a low cost thin-layer chromatography technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamorde, Mohammed; Fillekes, Quirine; Sigaloff, Kim; Kityo, Cissy; Buzibye, Allan; Kayiwa, Joshua; Merry, Concepta; Nakatudde-Katumba, Lillian; Burger, David; de Wit, Tobias F Rinke

    2014-09-01

    In resource limited settings access to laboratory monitoring of HIV treatment is limited and therapeutic drug monitoring is generally unavailable. This study aimed to evaluate nevirapine concentrations in saliva using low-cost thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and nevirapine concentrations in plasma and saliva using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods; and to correlate nevirapine plasma concentrations to HIV treatment outcomes in Ugandan patients. Paired plasma and stimulated saliva samples were obtained from Ugandan, HIV-infected adults on nevirapine-based ART. Nevirapine concentrations were measured using a validated HPLC method and a novel TLC method. Plasma nevirapine concentrations HPLC were considered subtherapeutic. Negative/positive predictive values of different thresholds for subtherapeutic nevirapine concentrations in saliva were determined. Virologic testing and, if applicable, HIV drug resistance testing was performed. Median (interquartile range, IQR) age of 297 patients was 39.1 (32.8-45.2) years. Three hundred saliva and 287 plasma samples were available for analysis. Attempts failed to determine nevirapine saliva concentrations by TLC. Using HPLC, median (IQR) nevirapine concentrations in saliva and plasma were 3.40 (2.59-4.47) mg/L and 6.17 (4.79-7.96) mg/L, respectively. The mean (coefficient of variation,%) nevirapine saliva/plasma ratio was 0.58 (62%). A cut-off value of 1.60 mg/L nevirapine in saliva was associated with a negative/positive predictive value of 0.99/0.72 and a sensitivity/specificity of 87%/98% for predicting subtherapeutic nevirapine plasma concentrations, respectively. Only 5% (15/287) of patients had subtherapeutic nevirapine plasma concentrations, of which 3 patients had viral load results > 400 copies/mL. Patients with nevirapine concentrations in plasma 400 copies/mL). The low-cost TLC technique for monitoring nevirapine in saliva was unsuccessful but monitoring nevirapine saliva and plasma

  7. A New Validated RP- HPLC Method for the Determination of Nevirapine in Human Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Venkata Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, selective and sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of nevirapine in human plasma has been developed. Chromatography was carried out on a Hypersil BDS C18 column using a mixture of ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.0 ± 0.05 and acetonitrile (85:15 v/v as the mobile phase. The eluents were monitored for the drug by UV detection at 254 nm. Oxcarbazepine was used as an internal standard for this study. The retention times for nevirapine and oxcarbazepine were found to be 7.2 and 14.7 min respectively. The method was found to be linear in the concentration range of 50 ng/mL to 5003.7 ng/mL. The method was validated as per FDA guidelines and was found to be suitable for bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic studies.

  8. Children’s exposure to sustainability practices during the transition from preschool into school and their learning and socioemotional development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D.; Thornton, Anna; Crosnoe, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Evidence that the learning gains of preschool fade as children transition into elementary school has led to increased efforts to sustain preschool advantages during this key transitional period. This study explores whether the observed benefits of sustainability practices for a range of child outcomes are explained and/or moderated by family and school mechanisms selecting children into experiencing these practices. Analyses of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort revealed that both family and school factors predicted children’s exposure to several PK-3 sustainability practices. PK-3 sustainability practices were associated with reading (but not math) gains and better interpersonal skills (but not fewer externalizing behaviors) following the transition into kindergarten. These links were not conditioned by the selection mechanisms. The findings highlight who is more likely to seek out (at the family level) or offer (at the school level) sustainability practices and how relevant they are to fighting preschool fadeout. PMID:28794610

  9. Children's exposure to sustainability practices during the transition from preschool into school and their learning and socioemotional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D; Thornton, Anna; Crosnoe, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Evidence that the learning gains of preschool fade as children transition into elementary school has led to increased efforts to sustain preschool advantages during this key transitional period. This study explores whether the observed benefits of sustainability practices for a range of child outcomes are explained and/or moderated by family and school mechanisms selecting children into experiencing these practices. Analyses of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort revealed that both family and school factors predicted children's exposure to several PK-3 sustainability practices. PK-3 sustainability practices were associated with reading (but not math) gains and better interpersonal skills (but not fewer externalizing behaviors) following the transition into kindergarten. These links were not conditioned by the selection mechanisms. The findings highlight who is more likely to seek out (at the family level) or offer (at the school level) sustainability practices and how relevant they are to fighting preschool fadeout.

  10. Sustained exposure to catecholamines affects cAMP/PKA compartmentalised signalling in adult rat ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Laura A; Koschinski, Andreas; Zaccolo, Manuela

    2016-07-01

    In the heart compartmentalisation of cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signalling is necessary to achieve a specific functional outcome in response to different hormonal stimuli. Chronic exposure to catecholamines is known to be detrimental to the heart and disrupted compartmentalisation of cAMP signalling has been associated to heart disease. However, in most cases it remains unclear whether altered local cAMP signalling is an adaptive response, a consequence of the disease or whether it contributes to the pathogenetic process. We have previously demonstrated that isoforms of PKA expressed in cardiac myocytes, PKA-I and PKA-II, localise to different subcellular compartments and are selectively activated by spatially confined pools of cAMP, resulting in phosphorylation of distinct downstream targets. Here we investigate cAMP signalling in an in vitro model of hypertrophy in primary adult rat ventricular myocytes. By using a real time imaging approach and targeted reporters we find that that sustained exposure to catecholamines can directly affect cAMP/PKA compartmentalisation. This appears to involve a complex mechanism including both changes in the subcellular localisation of individual phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoforms as well as the relocalisation of PKA isoforms. As a result, the preferential coupling of PKA subsets with different PDEs is altered resulting in a significant difference in the level of cAMP the kinase is exposed to, with potential impact on phosphorylation of downstream targets. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Exposure to intermittent hypoxia and sustained hypercapnia reduces therapeutic CPAP in participants with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Chami, Mohamad; Sudan, Sukhesh; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Mateika, Jason H

    2017-10-01

    Our purpose was to determine whether exposure to mild intermittent hypoxia leads to a reduction in the therapeutic continuous positive airway pressure required to eliminate breathing events. Ten male participants were treated with twelve 2-min episodes of hypoxia ([Formula: see text] ≈50 mmHg) separated by 2-min intervals of normoxia in the presence of [Formula: see text] that was sustained 3 mmHg above baseline. During recovery from the last episode, the positive airway pressure was reduced in a stepwise fashion until flow limitation was evident. The participants also completed a sham protocol under normocapnic conditions, which mimicked the time frame of the intermittent hypoxia protocol. After exposure to intermittent hypoxia, the therapeutic pressure was significantly reduced (i.e., 5 cmH 2 O) without evidence of flow limitation (103.4 ± 6.3% of baseline, P = 0.5) or increases in upper airway resistance (95.6 ± 15.0% of baseline, P = 0.6). In contrast, a similar decrease in pressure was accompanied by flow limitation (77.0 ± 1.8% of baseline, P = 0.001) and an increase in upper airway resistance (167.2 ± 17.5% of baseline, P = 0.01) after the sham protocol. Consistent with the initiation of long-term facilitation of upper airway muscle activity, exposure to intermittent hypoxia reduced the therapeutic pressure required to eliminate apneic events that could improve treatment compliance. This possibility, coupled with the potentially beneficial effects of intermittent hypoxia on comorbidities linked to sleep apnea, suggests that mild intermittent hypoxia may have a multipronged therapeutic effect on sleep apnea. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our new finding is that exposure to mild intermittent hypoxia reduced the therapeutic pressure required to treat sleep apnea. These findings are consistent with previous results, which have shown that long-term facilitation of upper muscle activity can be initiated following exposure to intermittent hypoxia in humans.

  12. Hepatic adverse events during highly active antiretroviral therapy containing nevirapine: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamazhan Tansu

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatotoxicity is one of the most serious complications of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. The aim of this report is to analyse an HIV infected patient on HAART including nevirapine and taking antidepressive agents, with acute toxic hepatitis. Case presentation A 39 year old patient diagnosed as HIV positive one month ago administered to the clinical ward of the Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology in Ege University Medical School with high fever, malaise, nausea, diarrheae and elevated liver enzymes (ALT 1558 U/L, AST 4288 U/L. He has been using HAART including zidovudine+lamivudine (2 × 1/day and nevirapine (2 × 200 mg/day, following dose escalation for 22 days, sertralin and diazepam for 12 days and lithium for 10 days. The patient was hospitalized. Antiretroviral and antidepressant treatments were stopped. The day after admission, his fever dropped and his symptoms improved. Clinical improvement continued on the following days. The patient was discharged upon his request on the 14th day of hospitalization. The liver function tests returned to normal levels in two weeks following discharge. Conclusion Close monitoring of liver enzymes during the first 12 weeks of nevirapine therapy is critical to prevent life threatening events.

  13. Nevirapine Concentration in Hair Samples Is a Strong Predictor of Virologic Suppression in a Prospective Cohort of HIV-Infected Patients.

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    Sanjiv M Baxi

    Full Text Available Effective antiretroviral (ARV therapy depends on adequate drug exposure, yet methods to assess ARV exposure are limited. Concentrations of ARV in hair are the product of steady-state pharmacokinetics factors and longitudinal adherence. We investigated nevirapine (NVP concentrations in hair as a predictor of treatment response in women receiving ARVs. In participants of the Women's Interagency HIV Study, who reported NVP use for >1 month from 2003-2008, NVP concentrations in hair were measured via liquid-chromatography-tandem mass-spectrometry. The outcome was virologic suppression (plasma HIV RNA below assay threshold at the time of hair sampling and the primary predictor was nevirapine concentration categorized into quartiles. We controlled for age, race/ethnicity, pre-treatment HIV RNA, CD4 cell count, and self-reported adherence over the 6-month visit interval (categorized ≤ 74%, 75%-94% or ≥ 95%. We also assessed the relation of NVP concentration with changes in hepatic transaminase levels via multivariate random intercept logistic regression and linear regression analyses. 271 women contributed 1089 person-visits to the analysis (median 3 of semi-annual visits. Viral suppression was least frequent in concentration quartile 1 (86/178 (48.3% and increased in higher quartiles (to 158/204 (77.5% for quartile 4. The odds of viral suppression in the highest concentration quartile were 9.17 times (95% CI 3.2-26, P < 0.0001 those in the lowest. African-American race was associated with lower rates of virologic suppression independent of NVP hair concentration. NVP concentration was not significantly associated with patterns of serum transaminases. Concentration of NVP in hair was a strong independent predictor of virologic suppression in women taking NVP, stronger than self-reported adherence, but did not appear to be strongly predictive of hepatotoxicity.

  14. Electrochemical studies of nevirapine, an anti-HIV drug, and its assay in tablets and biological samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JALDAPPAGARI SEETHARAMAPPA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation of nevirapine, an anti-HIV drug, at a glassy carbon electrode has been studied by voltammetric techniques. Nevirapine showed one well defined irreversible oxidation peak with a potential of 0.749 V in phosphate buffer at pH 10. The effects of different electrolytes, pH and scan rate on the electrochemical behaviour of nevira¬pine were examined to determine the optimum reaction conditions. The oxidation peak current was found to vary linearly with the concentration of nevirapine in the range of 5.0 – 350 µM. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values were calculated and found to be 1.026 µM and 3.420 µM, respectively. The low relative standard deviation values of inter-day and intra-day assays highlighted the good reproducibility of the proposed m¬ethod for assay of nevirapine. Further, a sensitive and accurate differential pulse voltammetric method was developed for the determination of nevirapine concentrations in pharma¬ceutical formulations.

  15. Therapeutic drug monitoring of nevirapine in saliva in Uganda using high performance liquid chromatography and a low cost thin-layer chromatography technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamorde, M.; Fillekes, Q.; Sigaloff, K.; Kityo, C.; Buzibye, A.; Kayiwa, J.; Merry, C.; Nakatudde-Katumba, L.; Burger, D.M.; Wit, T.F. de

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In resource limited settings access to laboratory monitoring of HIV treatment is limited and therapeutic drug monitoring is generally unavailable. This study aimed to evaluate nevirapine concentrations in saliva using low-cost thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and nevirapine concentrations

  16. Therapeutic drug monitoring of nevirapine in saliva in Uganda using high performance liquid chromatography and a low cost thin-layer chromatography technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamorde, Mohammed; Fillekes, Quirine; Sigaloff, Kim; Kityo, Cissy; Buzibye, Allan; Kayiwa, Joshua; Merry, Concepta; Nakatudde-Katumba, Lillian; Burger, David; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2014-01-01

    In resource limited settings access to laboratory monitoring of HIV treatment is limited and therapeutic drug monitoring is generally unavailable. This study aimed to evaluate nevirapine concentrations in saliva using low-cost thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and nevirapine concentrations in plasma

  17. Detection of HIV drug resistance mutations in pregnant women receiving single dose Nevirapine in south India

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    Mini S Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Single dose of Nevirapine to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV is the commonest preventive regimen in resource-limited countries. Objectives: The objective of this study was to detect drug-resistant virus after single dose of Nevirapine (sdNVP provided to delivering HIV seropositive (HIV+ve women and to evaluate the time taken for its decay. Results: Of the 36 consenting HIV+ve pregnant women enrolled into the study, the mean hemoglobin and total lymphocyte counts were 10.8 g/dl and 1843 cells/mm 3 , respectively. Mean CD4 counts in 64% of women was 363 cells/mm 3 and mean viral load for 16/36 women was 28,143 copies/ml of plasma. Nevirapine-resistance mutations were detected in 28% of women at delivery; using OLA (Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay. K103N mutations were seen in 19.4% of women while the Y181C mutation was seen in 5%. Both the mutations were detected in 2.7% of women. Sequential blood samples collected at delivery, 7-10 days, 6 weeks, 4 months, 6 months and one year postpartum showed that 81% of K103N mutations and 66.7% of Y181C mutations were detected at 6 weeks postpartum . Wild-type virus had replaced the mutants by one year postpartum in all women except one. Conclusion : These observations are relevant for future treatment with antiretroviral therapy in these women for their HIV disease.

  18. Good performance of an immunoassay based method for nevirapine measurements in human breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Theilgaard, Zahra Persson; Chiduo, Mercy

    2011-01-01

    from HIV-uninfected women. Clinical samples from HIV-infected women receiving a single-dose of nevirapine were analyzed. Results: Precision and accuracy were evaluated with two concentrations of quality control materials analyzed in three replicates on four different days and was......, requires complicated extraction techniques. The ARK method employs an immunoassay technology and requires a small sample volume (40 μL) and no pre-treatment of the samples. Methods: Commercial enzyme and antibody were used and calibration standards and quality controls were prepared from pooled breast milk...

  19. Sex differences in apolipoprotein A1 and nevirapine-induced toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Marinho; Clara Dias; Alexandra Antunes; Umbelina Caixas; Teresa Branco; Matilde Marques; Emília Monteiro; Sofia Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Nevirapine (NVP) is associated with severe liver and skin toxicity through sulfotransferase (SULT) bioactivation of the phase I metabolite 12-hydroxy-NVP [1–3]. The female sex, a well-known risk factor for NVP-induced toxicity, is associated with higher SULT expression [4] and lower plasma levels of 12-hydroxy-NVP [3]. Interestingly, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) increases SULT2B1 activity and ApoA1 synthesis is increased by NVP [5, 6]. Herein, we explore the effect of ApoA1 levels on NVP metabol...

  20. Sex differences in hepatic and intestinal contributions to nevirapine biotransformation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, P F; Marinho, A T; Antunes, A M M; Marques, M M; Pereira, S A; Miranda, J P

    2015-05-25

    The understanding of the intestine contribution to drug biotransformation improved significantly in recent years. However, the sources of inter-individual variability in intestinal drug biotransformation, namely sex-differences, are still elusive. Nevirapine (NVP) is an orally taken anti-HIV drug associated with severe idiosyncratic reactions elicited by toxic metabolites, with women at increased risk. As such, NVP is a good model to assess sex-dimorphic metabolism. The aim of this study was to perform a comparative profiling of NVP biotransformation in rat intestine and liver and evaluate whether or not it is organ- and sex-dependent. Therefore, nevirapine-containing solutions were perfused through the intestine, in a specially designed chamber, or incubated with liver slices, from male and female Wistar rats. The levels of NVP and its Phase I metabolites were quantified by HPLC-UV. Liver incubation experiments yielded the metabolites 2-, 3-, 8-, and 12-OH-NVP, being 12-OH-NVP and 2-OH-NVP the major metabolites in males and females, respectively. Inter-sex differences in the metabolic profile were also detected in the intestine perfusion experiments. Herein, the metabolites 3- and 12-OH-NVP were only found in male rats, whereas 2-OH-NVP levels were higher in females, both in extraluminal (pbiotransformation was observed, strengthening the relevance of the intestinal contribution in the biotransformation of orally taken-drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Damage of rat liver tissue caused by repeated and sustained +Gz exposure and the mechanism thereof

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    Wen-bing LI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the mechanisms of positive acceleration (+Gz on the damage of rat liver tissue and the effect of +Gz on the expression of JNK/c-Jun in liver cells. Methods  Twenty four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=6: control, +2Gz, +6Gz and +10Gz group. With prone position, the rats in control group were fixed to the turning arm of centrifuge with head towards the axis for 5 minutes. The fixation method in +2Gz, +6Gz and +10Gz group was the same as in the control group. The increase rate of acceleration was 1G/s with a peak-time of 3 minutes, and each +Gz exposure repeated 5 times with an interval of 30 minutes. HE staining was used to observe the morphological changes of liver tissue, fluorescence real-time quantitative PCR to detect the expression of hepatic c-Jun mRNA, and Western blotting to detect the hepatic protein expression of p-c-Jun, c-Jun, p-JNK and JNK. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT were determined. Results  The levels of serum ALT and AST increased significantly in +6Gz and, especially, the +10Gz group than in control group and +2Gz group (P<0.05. The same situation also existed in the increase of c-Jun mRNA expression (P<0.05. Hepatic c-jun and p-c-Jun (c-Jun activated form protein expression increased with the increase of G value. Compared with control group, no change was found in JNK protein expression in the other three groups, but the expression of p-JNK (activated form of JNK increased in +6Gz and +10Gz groups (P<0.05. HE staining showed the disorganized liver cells with irregular shapes, the unclear cell gap and the vacuolar changes in +6Gz and +10Gz groups. Conclusions  Repeated and sustained +Gz may cause enhanced expression of c-Jun/ p-c-Jun and p-JNK in hepatic cells. JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway may play an important role in the process of hepatic stress injury. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.03.15

  2. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf powder on the pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in HIV-infected adults: a one sequence cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monera-Penduka, Tsitsi G; Maponga, Charles C; Wolfe, Alan R; Wiesner, Lubbe; Morse, Gene D; Nhachi, Charles F B

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam., an herb commonly consumed by HIV-infected people on antiretroviral therapy, inhibits cytochrome P450 3A4, 1A2 and 2D6 activity in vitro; and may alter the pharmacokinetics (PK) of antiretroviral drugs metabolized via the same pathways. However, in vitro drug interaction activity may not translate to a clinically significant effect. Therefore, the effect of moringa leaf powder on the PK of nevirapine in HIV-infected people was investigated. Adult patients at steady-state dosing with nevirapine were admitted for 12-h intensive PK sampling following a 21-day herbal medicine washout. Blood sampling was repeated after 14 days of nevirapine and moringa (1.85 g leaf powder/day) co-administration. Nevirapine plasma concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. To assess the effect of moringa on nevirapine PK, the change in nevirapine area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was determined. The mean difference in pre- and post-moringa nevirapine, maximum concentration (C max ) and concentration at 12 h (C 12h ) were also calculated. The PK parameters were compared by assessing the post/pre geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and associated 90% confidence intervals (CIs). Pharmacokinetics analyses were performed on the results from 11 participants for whom complete data were obtained. The post/pre GMRs and associated 90% CIs for nevirapine were 1.07 (1.00-1.14) for the AUC; 1.06 (0.98-1.16) for C max and 1.03 (0.92-1.16) for C 12h . Co-administration of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf powder at the traditional dose did not significantly alter the steady-state PK of nevirapine. Trial registration number NCT01410058 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

  3. Comparison of genotypic resistance profiles and virological response between patients starting nevirapine and efavirenz in EuroSIDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, Wendy P; Ruiz, Lidia; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare virological outcome and genotypic resistance profiles in HIV-1-infected patients starting non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-containing regimens. METHODS: NNRTI-naive patients were included who started treatment with nevirapine (NVP) or efavirenz (EFV) wi...

  4. The steady-state pharmacokinetics of nevirapine during once daily and twice daily dosing in HIV-1-infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heeswijk, R. P.; Veldkamp, A. I.; Mulder, J. W.; Meenhorst, P. L.; Wit, F. W.; Lange, J. M.; Danner, S. A.; Foudraine, N. A.; Kwakkelstein, M. O.; Reiss, P.; Beijnen, J. H.; Hoetelmans, R. M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate and to compare the steady-state plasma pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in a dosing regimen of 400 mg once daily versus 200 mg twice daily in HIV-1-infected individuals. DESIGN: Open-label, randomized, cross-over study. METHODS: Twenty HIV-1-infected individuals who already

  5. Shared peptide binding of HLA Class I and II alleles associate with cutaneous nevirapine hypersensitivity and identify novel risk alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlos, Rebecca; McKinnon, Elizabeth J.; Ostrov, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Genes of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system encode cell-surface proteins involved in regulation of immune responses, and the way drugs interact with the HLA peptide binding groove is important in the immunopathogenesis of T-cell mediated drug hypersensitivity syndromes. Nevirapine (NVP), is...

  6. The effect of efavirenz versus nevirapine-containing regimens on immunologic, virologic and clinical outcomes in a prospective observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaboration, H.-C.; Koopmans †, P.P.; Brouwer, A.M.; Dofferhoff, A.S.M.; Flier, M. van der; Groot, R. de; Hofstede, H.J.M. ter; Keuter, M.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; et al.,

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare regimens consisting of either efavirenz or nevirapine and two or more nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) among HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naive, and AIDS-free individuals with respect to clinical, immunologic, and virologic outcomes. DESIGN: Prospective

  7. Evaluation of nevirapine and/or hydroxyurea with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanckenberg, Daniel H.; Wood, Robin; Horban, Andrzej; Beniowski, Marek; Boron-Kaczmarska, Anna; Trocha, Hanna; Halota, Waldemar; Schmidt, Reinhold E.; Fatkenheuer, G.; Jessen, Heiko; Lange, Joep M. A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of adding nevirapine (NVP) and/or hydroxyurea (HU) to a triple nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) regimen in terms of efficacy and tolerability. Methods: HIV-1-infected, treatment-naive adults were randomized, using a factorial design, to add

  8. Reversal of atherogenic lipoprotein profile in HIV-1 infected patients with lipodystrophy after replacing protease inhibitors by nevirapine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negredo, Eugenia; Ribalta, Josep; Paredes, Roger; Ferré, Raimón; Sirera, Guillem; Ruiz, Lidia; Salazar, Juliana; Reiss, Peter; Masana, Lluís; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2002-01-01

    Background: The widespread use of protease inhibitors (PI) has been associated with abnormalities in the lipid profile of HIV-1-infected patients. Treatment simplification approaches in which PI are replaced by nevirapine (NVP) have been shown to improve PI-related toxicity. Objective: To assess the

  9. The antiretroviral efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy and plasma nevirapine concentrations in HIV-TB co-infected Indian patients receiving rifampicin based antituberculosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Sanjeev

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rifampicin reduces the plasma concentrations of nevirapine in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and tuberculosis (TB co-infected patients, who are administered these drugs concomitantly. We conducted a prospective interventional study to assess the efficacy of nevirapine-containing highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART when co-administered with rifampicin-containing antituberculosis treatment (ATT and also measured plasma nevirapine concentrations in patients receiving such a nevirapine-containing HAART regimen. Methods 63 cases included antiretroviral treatment naïve HIV-TB co-infected patients with CD4 counts less than 200 cells/mm3 started on rifampicin-containing ATT followed by nevirapine-containing HAART. In control group we included 51 HIV patients without tuberculosis and on nevirapine-containing HAART. They were assessed for clinical and immunological response at the end of 24 and 48 weeks. Plasma nevirapine concentrations were measured at days 14, 28, 42 and 180 of starting HAART. Results 97 out of 114 (85.1% patients were alive at the end of 48 weeks. The CD4 cell count showed a mean increase of 108 vs.113 cells/mm3 (p=0.83 at 24 weeks of HAART in cases and controls respectively. Overall, 58.73% patients in cases had viral loads of less than 400 copies/ml at the end of 48 weeks. The mean (± SD Nevirapine concentrations of cases and control at 14, 28, 42 and 180 days were 2.19 ± 1.49 vs. 3.27 ± 4.95 (p = 0.10, 2.78 ± 1.60 vs. 3.67 ± 3.59 (p = 0.08, 3.06 ± 3.32 vs. 4.04 ± 2.55 (p = 0.10 respectively and 3.04 μg/ml (in cases. Conclusions Good immunological and clinical response can be obtained in HIV-TB co-infected patients receiving rifampicin and nevirapine concomitantly despite somewhat lower nevirapine trough concentrations. This suggests that rifampicin-containing ATT may be co administered in resource limited setting with nevirapine-containing HAART regimen without substantial reduction in

  10. How Exposure to ”Role Model” Projects Can Lead to Decisions for More Sustainable Infrastructure

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    Nora Harris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A role model, whether an individual or a project, can inspire similar performance in others. This research examines such a phenomenon during the design process for more sustainable physical infrastructure. In this empirical study, engineering professionals (n = 54 were randomly assigned either a modified version of the Envision rating system for sustainable infrastructure, which was changed to include details from an exemplary role model project, or the current version of Envision, with no role model. Professionals given the role model version of Envision achieved on average 34% more points (SD = 27 than the control group (p = 0.001. A positive role model project appears to lead engineering professionals to higher goals for sustainability performance in their design decisions. This finding, and the corresponding line of interdisciplinary research, can be used in decision-structuring interventions, which are a relatively low-cost approach to support greater sustainability in physical infrastructure development.

  11. Epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT blocks the allergic esophago-gastro-enteropathy induced by sustained oral exposure to peanuts in sensitized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Mondoulet

    Full Text Available Food allergy may affect the gastrointestinal tract and eosinophilia is often associated with allergic gastrointestinal disorders. Allergy to peanuts is a life-threatening condition and effective and safe treatments still need to be developed. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of sustained oral exposure to peanuts on the esophageal and jejunal mucosa in sensitized mice. We also evaluated the effects of desensitization with epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT on these processes.Mice were sensitized by gavages with whole peanut protein extract (PPE given with cholera toxin. Sensitized mice were subsequently exposed to peanuts via a specific regimen and were then analysed for eosinophilia in the esophagus and gut. We also assessed mRNA expression in the esophagus, antibody levels, and peripheral T-cell response. The effects of EPIT were tested when intercalated with sensitization and sustained oral peanut exposure.Sustained oral exposure to peanuts in sensitized mice led to severe esophageal eosinophilia and intestinal villus sub-atrophia, i.e. significantly increased influx of eosinophils into the esophageal mucosa (136 eosinophils/mm(2 and reduced villus/crypt ratios (1.6±0.15. In the sera, specific IgE levels significantly increased as did secretion of Th2 cytokines by peanut-reactivated splenocytes. EPIT of sensitized mice significantly reduced Th2 immunological response (IgE response and splenocyte secretion of Th2 cytokines as well as esophageal eosinophilia (50 eosinophils/mm(2, p<0.05, mRNA expression of Th2 cytokines in tissue--eotaxin (p<0.05, IL-5 (p<0.05, and IL-13 (p<0.05--GATA-3 (p<0.05, and intestinal villus sub-atrophia (2.3±0.15. EPIT also increased specific IgG2a (p<0.05 and mRNA expression of Foxp3 (p<0.05 in the esophageal mucosa.Gastro-intestinal lesions induced by sustained oral exposure in sensitized mice are efficaciously treated by allergen specific EPIT.

  12. When Legitimacy Shapes Environmentally Responsible Behaviors: Considering Exposure to University Sustainability Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Lesley; Hegtvedt, Karen A.; Johnson, Cathryn; Parris, Christie L.; Subramanyam, Shruthi

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how perceptions of the legitimacy of university sustainability efforts--support by the administration (authorization) or from students' peers (endorsement)--as well as the physical context in which students live, matter in shaping students' environmentally responsible behaviors (ERBs). Using survey data collected from…

  13. Synergistic activity of tenofovir and nevirapine combinations released from polycaprolactone matrices for potential enhanced prevention of HIV infection through the vaginal route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Nhung T T; Sivakumaran, Haran; Harrich, David; Shaw, Paul N; Davis-Poynter, Nicholas; Coombes, Allan G A

    2014-10-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) matrices were simultaneously loaded with the antiviral agents, tenofovir (TFV) and nevirapine (NVP), in combination to provide synergistic activity in the prevention of HIV transmission through the vaginal route. TFV and NVP were incorporated in PCL matrices at theoretical loadings of 10%TFV-10% NVP, 5%TFV-5%NVP and 5%TFV-10%NVP, measured with respect to the PCL content of the matrices. Actual TFV loadings ranged from 2.1% to 4.2% equating to loading efficiencies of about 41-42%. The actual loadings of NVP were around half those of TFV (1.2-1.9%), resulting in loading efficiencies ranging from 17.2% to 23.5%. Approximately 80% of the initial content of TFV was released from the PCL matrices into simulated vaginal fluid (SVF) over a period of 30 days, which was almost double the cumulative release of NVP (40-45%). The release kinetics of both antivirals over 30 days were found to be described most satisfactorily by the Higuchi model. In vitro assay of release media containing combinations of TFV and NVP released from PCL matrices confirmed a potential synergistic/additive effect of the released antivirals on HIV-1 infection of HeLa cells. These findings indicate that PCL matrices loaded with combinations of TFV and NVP provide an effective strategy for the sustained vaginal delivery of antivirals with synergistic/additive activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. When Legitimacy Shapes Environmentally Responsible Behaviors: Considering Exposure to University Sustainability Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Lesley Watson; Karen A. Hegtvedt; Cathryn Johnson; Christie L. Parris; Shruthi Subramanyam

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how perceptions of the legitimacy of university sustainability efforts—support by the administration (authorization) or from students’ peers (endorsement)—as well as the physical context in which students live, matter in shaping students’ environmentally responsible behaviors (ERBs). Using survey data collected from fourth-year students at a university in the Southeastern US, we employ Seeming Unrelated Regression to analyze the impact of perceived legitimacy and context o...

  15. The Effect of Malnutrition on the Pharmacokinetics and Virologic Outcomes of Lopinavir, Efavirenz and Nevirapine in Food Insecure HIV-Infected Children in Tororo, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelink, Imke H.; Savic, Rada M.; Dorsey, Grant; Ruel, Theodore; Gingrich, David; Scherpbier, Henriette J.; Capparelli, Edmund; Jullien, Vincent; Young, Sera L.; Achan, Jane; Plenty, Albert; Charlebois, Edwin; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane; Aweeka, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Background Malnutrition may impact the pharmacokinetics (PK) of antiretroviral medications and virologic responses in HIV-infected children. We therefore evaluated the PK of nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz (EFV) and lopinavir (LPV) in associations with nutritional status in a cohort of HIV-infected Ugandan children. Methods Sparse dried blood spot (DBS) samples from Ugandan children were used to estimate plasma concentrations. Historical PK data from children from three resource-rich countries (RRC) were utilized to develop the PK models. Results Concentrations in 330 DBS from 163 Ugandan children aged 0.7–7 years were analyzed in reference to plasma PK data (1189 samples) from 204 children from RRC aged 0.5–12 years. Among Ugandan children 48% was malnourished (underweight, thin or stunted). Compared to RRC, Ugandan children exhibited reduced bioavailability of EFV and LPV; 11% (P=0.045) and 18% (P=0.008) respectively. In contrast, NVP bioavailability was 46% higher in Ugandan children (Pmalnutrition on bioavailability. In children receiving NVP, the relation between exposure, malnutrition and outcome turned out to be marginally significant. Further investigations are warranted using more intensive PK measurements and adequate adherence assessements, to further assess causes of virologic failure in Ugandan children. PMID:25742090

  16. Cutaneous vascular and core temperature responses to sustained cold exposure in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Grant H; Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Minson, Christopher T; Halliwill, John R

    2011-10-01

    We tested the effect of hypoxia on cutaneous vascular regulation and defense of core temperature during cold exposure. Twelve subjects had two microdialysis fibres placed in the ventral forearm and were immersed to the sternum in a bathtub on parallel study days (normoxia and poikilocapnic hypoxia with an arterial O(2) saturation of 80%). One fibre served as the control (1 mM propranolol) and the other received 5 mM yohimbine (plus 1 mM propranolol) to block adrenergic receptors. Skin blood flow was assessed at each site (laser Doppler flowmetry), divided by mean arterial pressure to calculate cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC), and scaled to baseline. Cold exposure was first induced by a progressive reduction in water temperature from 36 to 23°C over 30 min to assess cutaneous vascular regulation, then by clamping the water temperature at 10°C for 45 min to test defense of core temperature. During normoxia, cold stress reduced CVC in control (-44 ± 4%) and yohimbine sites (-13 ± 7%; both P cooling but resulted in greater reductions in CVC in control (-67 ± 7%) and yohimbine sites (-35 ± 11%) during cooling (both P cooling rate during the second phase of cold exposure was unaffected by hypoxia (-1.81 ± 0.23°C h(-1) in normoxia versus -1.97 ± 0.33°C h(-1) in hypoxia; P > 0.05). We conclude that hypoxia increases cutaneous (non-noradrenergic) vasoconstriction during prolonged cold exposure, while core cooling rate is not consistently affected.

  17. When Legitimacy Shapes Environmentally Responsible Behaviors: Considering Exposure to University Sustainability Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Watson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how perceptions of the legitimacy of university sustainability efforts—support by the administration (authorization or from students’ peers (endorsement—as well as the physical context in which students live, matter in shaping students’ environmentally responsible behaviors (ERBs. Using survey data collected from fourth-year students at a university in the Southeastern US, we employ Seeming Unrelated Regression to analyze the impact of perceived legitimacy and context on recycling and conservation behaviors, controlling for demographic characteristics, pro-environmental attitudes, and environmental identity. Our findings indicate that students’ perceptions of what university administrators support affect the likelihood of students to enact recycling and conservation behaviors, and peer support influences conservation behaviors. This research contributes to the literature on legitimacy by examining how legitimacy processes work in natural, rather than experimental, settings.

  18. Ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, and ethanol in urine after sustained exposure to an ethanol-based hand sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Crews, Bridgit O; Pesce, Amadeo J; Wilson, George R; Teitelbaum, Scott A; Bertholf, Roger L

    2011-03-01

    To assess the degree of ethanol absorption and subsequent formation of urinary ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) following sustained application of hand sanitizer, 11 volunteers cleansed their hands with Purell(™) hand sanitizer (62% ethanol) every 5 min for 10 h on three consecutive days. Urine specimens were obtained at the beginning and end of each day of the study, and on the morning of the fourth day. Urinary creatinine, ethanol, EtG, and EtS concentrations were measured. EtG was undetectable in all pre-study urine specimens, but two pre-study specimens had detectable EtS (73 and 37 ng/mL). None of the pre-study specimens had detectable ethanol. The maximum EtG and EtS concentrations over the course of the study were 2001 and 84 ng/mL, respectively, and nearly all EtG- and EtS-positive urine specimens were collected at the conclusion of the individual study days. Only two specimens had detectable EtG at the beginning of any study day (96 and 139 ng/mL), and only one specimen had detectable EtS at the beginning of a study day (64 ng/mL), in addition to the two with detectable EtS prior to the study. Creatinine-adjusted maximum EtG and EtS concentrations were 1998 and 94 μg/g creatinine, respectively. In patients being monitored for ethanol use by urinary EtG concentrations, currently accepted EtG cutoffs do not distinguish between ethanol consumption and incidental exposures, particularly when urine specimens are obtained shortly after sustained use of ethanolcontaining hand sanitizer. Our data suggest that EtS may be an important complementary biomarker in distinguishing ethanol consumption from dermal exposure.

  19. Protective effect of SP600125 against liver cell injury in rats under repeated and sustained high +Gz exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-bing LI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of JNK inhibitor SP600125 on expression of JNK/c-jun in liver cells of rats under repeated and sustained high +Gz exposure and its mechanism of the effect. Methods Eighteen inbred adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, +10Gz group and SP600125 group (n=6. The rats in +10Gz group and SP600125 group were fixed to the rotating arm of a centrifuge with head towards the axis. The increase rate of acceleration was 1G/s with a peak-time of 3 minutes, and the +Gz exposure was repeated 5 times with an interval of 30 minutes. SP600125 was given to rats of SP600125 group 30 minutes before the first centrifugation by intraperitoneal injection. All of the animals were sacrificed 30 minutes after centrifugation. Blood samples were collected from inferior vena cava to determine the plasma level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT. The expression of c-jun mRNA was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRTPCR. The expressions of p-JNK, JNK, p-c-jun and c-jun protein were determined by Western blotting. The morphological change in the liver tissue was observed after HE staining. Results The plasma level of ALT and AST, expression level of c-jun mRNA and p-JNK, p-c-jun, c-jun protein in the liver tissue of SP600125 group were significantly higher than those of control group (P0.05. HE staining revealed disorganized hepatic cords, irregular liver cells, vacuolar changes, and marked edema of hepatocytes, and collapsed hepatic sinusoids in +10Gz group, but these changes were alleviated obviously in SP600125 group. Conclusion SP600125 could alleviate the liver cell injury in rats under repeated and sustained high +Gz exposure. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.2577-7402.2014.11.02

  20. Formulation, optimization, and evaluation of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems of nevirapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintalapudi, Ramprasad; Murthy, T E G K; Lakshmi, K Rajya; Manohar, G Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to formulate and optimize the self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) of nevirapine (NVP) by use of 2(2) factorial designs to enhance the oral absorption of NVP by improving its solubility, dissolution rate, and diffusion profile. SEDDS are the isotropic mixtures of oil, surfactant, co-surfactant and drug that form oil in water microemulsion when introduced into the aqueous phase under gentle agitation. Solubility of NVP in different oils, surfactants, and co-surfactants was determined for the screening of excipients. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed by the aqueous titration method, and formulations were developed based on the optimum excipient combinations with the help of data obtained through the maximum micro emulsion region containing combinations of oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant. The formulations of SEDDS were optimized by 2(2) factorial designs. The optimum formulation of SEDDS contains 32.5% oleic acid, 44.16% tween 20, and 11.9% polyethylene glycol 600 as oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant respectively. The SEDDS was evaluated for the following drug content, self-emulsification time, rheological properties, zeta potential, in vitro diffusion studies, thermodynamic stability studies, and in vitro dissolution studies. An increase in dissolution was achieved by SEDDS compared to pure form of NVP. Overall, this study suggests that the dissolution and oral bioavailability of NVP could be improved by SEDDS technology.

  1. The effect of malnutrition on the pharmacokinetics and virologic outcomes of lopinavir, efavirenz and nevirapine in food insecure HIV-infected children in Tororo, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelink, Imke H; Savic, Rada M; Dorsey, Grant; Ruel, Theodore; Gingrich, David; Scherpbier, Henriette J; Capparelli, Edmund; Jullien, Vincent; Young, Sera L; Achan, Jane; Plenty, Albert; Charlebois, Edwin; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane; Aweeka, Francesca

    2015-03-01

    Malnutrition may impact the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of antiretroviral medications and virologic responses in HIV-infected children. The authors therefore evaluated the PK of nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz (EFV) and lopinavir (LPV) in associations with nutritional status in a cohort of HIV-infected Ugandan children. Sparse dried blood spot samples from Ugandan children were used to estimate plasma concentrations. Historical PK data from children from 3 resource-rich countries (RRC) were utilized to develop the PK models. Concentrations in 330 dried blood spot from 163 Ugandan children aged 0.7-7 years were analyzed in reference to plasma PK data (1189 samples) from 204 children from RRC aged 0.5-12 years. Among Ugandan children, 48% was malnourished (underweight, thin or stunted). Compared to RRC, Ugandan children exhibited reduced bioavailability of EFV and LPV; 11% (P=0.045) and 18% (P=0.008), respectively. In contrast, NVP bioavailability was 46% higher in Ugandan children (PChildren receiving LPV, EFV or NVP had comparable risk of virologic failure. Among children on NVP, low height and weight for age Z scores were associated with reduced risk of virologic failure (P=0.034, P=0.068, respectively). Ugandan children demonstrated lower EFV and LPV and higher NVP exposure compared to children in RRC, perhaps reflecting the consequence of malnutrition on bioavailability. In children receiving NVP, the relation between exposure, malnutrition and outcome turned out to be marginally significant. Further investigations are warranted using more intensive PK measurements and adequate adherence assessments, to further assess causes of virologic failure in Ugandan children.

  2. Frequency of Antiretroviral Resistance Mutations among Infants Exposed to Single-Dose Nevirapine and Short Course Maternal Antiretroviral Regimens: ACTG A5207.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitti, Jane; Halvas, Elias K; Zheng, Lu; Panousis, Constantinos G; Kabanda, Joseph; Taulo, Frank; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Pape, Jean William; Lalloo, Umesh; Sprenger, Heather; Klingman, Karin L; Chan, Ellen S; McMahon, Deborah; Mellors, John W

    2014-11-01

    Intrapartum single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) reduces HIV-1 perinatal transmission but selects NVP resistance among mothers and infants. We evaluated the frequency of antiretroviral resistance among infants with intrauterine HIV-1 infection exposed to sdNVP and maternal antenatal or breastfeeding antiretroviral therapy. This analysis included 429 infants from sub-Saharan Africa, India and Haiti whose 422 mothers received sdNVP plus maternal study treatment. At entry mothers had CD4>250/μL and were ART-naïve except for antenatal ZDV per local standard of care. Maternal study treatment started intrapartum and included ZDV/3TC, TDF/FTC or LPV/r for 7 or 21 days in a randomized factorial design. Infants received sdNVP study treatment and ZDV if local standard of care. Infant HIV RNA or DNA PCR and samples for genotype were obtained at birth and weeks 2, 4 and 12; infants who ever breast-fed were also tested at weeks 16, 24, 48 and 96. Samples from HIV-1-infected infants were tested for drug resistance by population genotype (ViroSeq). NVP or NRTI resistance mutations were assessed using the IAS-USA mutation list. Perinatal HIV-1 transmission occurred in 17 (4.0%) infants including 12 intrauterine infections. Resistance mutations were detected among 5 (42%) intrauterine-infected infants; of these, 3 had mutations conferring resistance to NVP alone, 1 had resistance to NRTI alone, and 1 had dual-class resistance mutations. Among the 2 infants with NRTI mutations, one (K70R) was likely maternally transmitted and one (K65R) occurred in the context of breastfeeding exposure to maternal antiretroviral therapy. Infants with intrauterine HIV infection are at risk of acquiring resistance mutations from exposure to maternal antiretroviral medications intrapartum and/or during breastfeeding. New approaches are needed to lower the risk of antiretroviral resistance in these infants.

  3. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection: Views and perceptions about swallowing nevirapine in rural Lilongwe, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyirenda Lot J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006 the World Health Organization described the status of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT service implementation as unacceptable, with an urgent need for a renewed public health approach to improve access. For PMTCT to be effective it needs to be accessible, acceptable and affordable; however research in Africa into accessibility, uptake and acceptability of PMTCT services has been predominately urban based and usually focusing on women who deliver in hospitals. The importance of involving other community members to strengthen both PMTCT uptake and adherence, and to support women emotionally, has been advocated. Urban men's and rural traditional birth attendants' (TBAs involvement have improved uptake of HIV testing and of nevirapine. Methods A qualitative study was carried out in a rural district of Malawi's central region to explore the views about and perceptions of PMTCT antiretroviral treatment. Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were held with antenatal and postnatal women, fathers, grandmothers, TBAs, community leaders and PMTCT health workers. Results Two broad themes of findings emerged: those that relate to the hospital PMTCT service, and those that relate to the community. Trust in the hospital was strong, but distance, transport costs and perceived harsh, threatening health worker attitudes were barriers to access. Grandmothers were perceived to have influence on the management of labour, unlike fathers, but both were suggested as key people to ensure that babies are brought to the hospital for nevirapine syrup. TBAs were seen as powerful, local, and important community members, but some as uneducated. Conclusion PMTCT was seen as a community issue in which more than the mother alone can be involved. To support access to PMTCT, especially for rural women, there is need for further innovation and implementation research on involving TBAs in some aspects of PMTCT services

  4. Oral Ezatiostat HCl (TLK199) and Myelodysplastic syndrome: a case report of sustained hematologic response following an abbreviated exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quddus, Fahd; Clima, Jessica; Seedham, Helen; Sajjad, Ghulam; Galili, Naomi; Raza, Azra

    2010-04-23

    Treatment options for patients with lower risk non-del(5q) myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) who fail erythroid stimulating agents are restricted to one of the hypomethylating drugs with an expected response rate of approximately 50%. Ezatiostat HCl, an agent with the potential for producing multi-lineage responses in this population is currently in clinical investigation phase. This case report describes a 77 year old male who received less than two cycles of therapy with ezatiostat HCl which had to be aborted due to intolerable side effects, but which produced a sustained normalization of all three blood counts. This trilineage response has now lasted for more than a year. Interestingly, the patient began with a del(5q) abnormality and responded briefly to lenalidomide. Upon relapse of the anemia, a bone marrow showed the disappearance of the del(5q) but the appearance of a new clonal abnormality t(2;3). Given that the patient had a complete cytogenetic response to a truncated exposure to lenalidomide followed by a trilineage response to an even briefer course of ezatiostat HCl suggests a potential role for ezatiostat HCl in del(5q) patients who relapse following lenalidomide.

  5. Validation and clinical application of a method to quantify nevirapine in dried blood spots and dried breast-milk spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olagunju, Adeniyi; Amara, Alieu; Waitt, Catriona; Else, Laura; Penchala, Sujan D; Bolaji, Oluseye; Soyinka, Julius; Siccardi, Marco; Back, David; Owen, Andrew; Khoo, Saye

    2015-10-01

    The validation and clinical application of an LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of nevirapine in dried blood spots (DBS) and dried breast-milk spots (DBMS) are presented. DBS and DBMS were prepared from 50 and 30 μL of nevirapine-spiked whole blood and human breast milk, respectively. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a reverse-phase C18 column with 0.1% formic acid in water/acetonitrile using a solvent gradient programme at a flow rate of 400 μL/min, and detection was by a TSQ Quantum Access triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The clinical application was evaluated in HIV-positive nursing mothers and their breastfed infants. The assay was validated over the concentration range 50-10,000 ng/mL. Accuracy ranged from 93.3% to 113.4% and precision ranged from 1.9% to 12.0%. The mean (percentage coefficient of variation) recovery of nevirapine from DBS and DBMS was ≥ 70.7% (≤ 8.2) and the matrix effect was ≤ 1.04 (≤ 6.1). Nevirapine was stable in DBS and DBMS for ≥ 15 months at room temperature and -80°C. Mean (SD) AUC0-12, Cmax and Cmin in maternal plasma versus breast milk were 57,808 ng · h/mL (24,315) versus 55,817 ng · h/mL (22,368), 6140 ng/mL (2605) versus 5231 ng/mL (2215) and 4334 ng/mL (1880) versus 4342 ng/mL (2245), respectively. The milk-to-plasma concentration ratio over the dosing interval was 0.94 (0.15). Infant plasma concentrations 2 and 8 h after maternal dosing were 580.6 ng/mL (464.7-1607) and 584.1 ng/mL (381.5-1570), respectively. These methods further extend opportunities for conducting clinical pharmacokinetic studies in nursing mother-infant pairs, especially in resource-limited settings. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Protein-mediated antagonism between HIV reverse transcriptase ligands nevirapine and MgATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xunhai; Mueller, Geoffrey A; DeRose, Eugene F; London, Robert E

    2013-06-18

    Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) play a central role in the treatment of AIDS, but their mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. The interaction of the NNRTI nevirapine (NVP) with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) is characterized by a preference for the open conformation of the fingers/thumb subdomains, and a reported variation of three orders of magnitude between the binding affinity of NVP for RT in the presence or absence of primer/template DNA. To investigate the relationship between conformation and ligand binding, we evaluated the use of methionine NMR probes positioned near the tip of the fingers or thumb subdomains. Such probes would be expected to be sensitive to changes in the local environment depending on the fractions of open and closed RT. Comparisons of the NMR spectra of three conservative mutations, I63M, L74M, and L289M, indicated that M63 showed the greatest shift sensitivity to the addition of NVP. The exchange kinetics of the M63 resonance are fast on the chemical shift timescale, but become slow in the presence of NVP due to the slow binding of RT with the inhibitor. The simplest model consistent with this behavior involves a rapid open/closed equilibrium coupled with a slow interaction of the inhibitor with the open conformation. Studies of RT in the presence of both NVP and MgATP indicate a strong negative cooperativity. Binding of MgATP reduces the fraction of RT bound to NVP, as indicated by the intensity of the NVP-perturbed M230 resonance, and enhances the dissociation rate constant of the NVP, resulting in an increase of the open/closed interconversion rate, so that the M63 resonance moves into the fast/intermediate-exchange regime. Protein-mediated interactions appear to explain most of the affinity variation of NVP for RT. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Minor drug-resistant HIV type-1 variants in breast milk and plasma of HIV type-1-infected Ugandan women after nevirapine single-dose prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilger, Daniel; Hauser, Andrea; Kuecherer, Claudia; Mugenyi, Kizito; Kabasinguzi, Rose; Somogyi, Sybille; Harms, Gundel; Kunz, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Nevirapine single-dose (NVP-SD) reduces mother-to-child transmission of HIV type-1 (HIV-1), but frequently induces resistance mutations in the HIV-1 genome. Little is known about drug-resistant HIV-1 variants in the breast milk of women who have taken NVP-SD. Blood and breast milk samples of 39 HIV-1-infected Ugandan women were taken 6-12 weeks after NVP-SD intake. Samples were analysed by population sequencing and allele-specific real-time PCR (AS-PCR) with detection limits for NVP-resistant HIV-1 variants (K103N and Y181C) of D n = 5, G n = 2 and C n = 1). A total of 7 (37%) and 10 (53%) women carried NVP-resistant virus in breast milk and plasma, respectively. Overall, 71% (5/7) women with NVP-resistant HIV-1 in breast milk displayed >1 drug-resistant variant. Resistance in breast milk was higher at week 6 (6/13 samples [46%]) compared with week 12 (1/6 samples [17%]). In total, 10 drug-resistant populations harbouring the K103N and/or Y181C mutation were detected in the 19 breast milk samples; 7 (70%) were caused by resistant minorities (< 5% of the total HIV-1 population). In the four women with drug-resistant virus in both plasma and breast milk, the mutation patterns differed between the two compartments. Minor populations of drug-resistant HIV-1 were frequently found in breast milk of Ugandan women after exposure to NVP-SD. Further studies need to explore the role of minor drug-resistant variants in the postnatal transmission of (resistant) HIV-1.

  8. The effect of malnutrition on the pharmacokinetics and virologic outcomes of lopinavir, efavirenz and nevirapine in food insecure HIV-infected children in Tororo, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelink, Imke H.; Savic, Rada M.; Dorsey, Grant; Ruel, Theodore; Gingrich, David; Scherpbier, Henriette J.; Capparelli, Edmund; Jullien, Vincent; Young, Sera L.; Achan, Jane; Plenty, Albert; Charlebois, Edwin; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane; Aweeka, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition may impact the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of antiretroviral medications and virologic responses in HIV-infected children. The authors therefore evaluated the PK of nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz (EFV) and lopinavir (LPV) in associations with nutritional status in a cohort of HIV-infected

  9. A comparison of the long-term durability of nevirapine, efavirenz and lopinavir in routine clinical practice in Europe: a EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reekie, J; Reiss, P; Ledergerber, B

    2011-01-01

    The durability of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens can be measured as time to discontinuation because of toxicity or treatment failure, development of clinical disease or serious long-term adverse events. The aim of this analysis was to compare the durability of nevirapine, efav...

  10. Prevalence of etravirine-associated mutations in clinical samples with resistance to nevirapine and efavirenz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llibre, J M; Santos, J R; Puig, T; Moltó, J; Ruiz, L; Paredes, R; Clotet, B

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the expected activity of etravirine in clinical samples, according to mutational patterns associated with decreased virological response (VR). We identified 1586 routine clinical samples with resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) to nevirapine and efavirenz (K103N 60%, Y181C 37%, G190A 27%, V108I 13%). Concerning in vitro identified etravirine mutations, samples with F227C, Y181I, M230L or L100I plus K103N plus Y181C were considered highly resistant. Samples with two RAMs plus Y181C or V179D or K101E or Y188L were considered intermediate. The prevalence of 13 RAMs recently associated with decreased VR to etravirine in the DUET clinical trials was also investigated. Most samples (69%) harboured more than one IAS-USA RAM to first-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs): 42% harboured two RAMs, 21% three RAMs and 6% four or more RAMs. The prevalence of 13 specific etravirine RAMs was V179F 0.12%, G190S 3.9%, Y181V 0.1%, V106I 2.6%, V179D 1.6%, K101P 2.0%, K101E 10.1%, Y181C 36.9%, A98G 5.9%, V90I 6.9%, Y181I 3.6%, G190A 27% and L100I 9.1%. The five RAMs with the most impact on VR (V179F/D, G190S, Y181V and V106I) occurred less often. Overall, 8.2% of the samples had three or more etravirine RAMs and only 1.1% had four or more. In addition, patterns of RAMs previously associated with intermediate etravirine resistance were present in 26.2% of the samples, whereas 4.85% displayed patterns of high-degree resistance. For RAMs associated with decreased VR, etravirine resistance in routine clinical samples was lower than previously reported. High-degree resistance was uncommon, even in patients with resistance to first-generation NNRTIs, whereas low-to-intermediate etravirine resistance was more common.

  11. Development of Nevirapine Resistance in Children Exposed to the Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV-1 Transmission Programme in Maputo, Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Antunes

    Full Text Available Single-dose nevirapine (sd-NVP has been the main option for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV-1 in low-resource settings. However, sd-NVP can induce the selection of HIV-1 resistant mutations in mothers and infants. In Mozambique, there are limited data regarding the profile of NVP resistance associated mutations (RAM in the context of PMTCT.To assess the prevalence and the factors associated with NVP RAM among children born to HIV-1 infected mothers enrolled in the PMTCT programme adopted in Mozambique.One hundred and fifty seven children aged 6 to 48 weeks were sequentially included (July 2011 to March 2012 at four centres in Maputo. Genotyping of RAM was performed in samples with HIV-1 RNA≥ 100 copies/μL (Viroseq. Sequencing was performed with ABI 3100 (Applied Biosystems. Logistic regression modelling was undertaken to identify the factors associated with NVP RAM.Seventy-nine children had their samples genotyped. Their median age was 7.0 (3-12 months and 92.4% received prophylaxis with sd-NVP at birth plus daily NVP. 35.4% of mothers received antiretrovirals (ARVs for PMTCT. ARV RAM were detected in 43 (54.4% of the children. 45.6% of these children had at least one NVP RAM. The most common mutations associated with NVP resistance were K103N (n = 16 and Y181C (n = 15. NVP RAM was significantly associated with mother exposure to PMTCT (crude odds ratio [OR] 30.3, 95% CI 4.93-186.34 and with mother's CD4 count < 350 cells/mm3 (crude OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.02-9.32. In the multivariable analysis the mother's exposure to PMTCT was the only variable significantly associated with NVP RAM (adjusted OR 48.65, 95% CI 9.33-253.66.We found a high prevalence of NVP RAM among children who were exposed to the drug regimen for PMTCT in Mozambique. The mothers' exposure to PMTCT significantly increased the risk of NVP RAM.

  12. Children's Exposure to Sustainability Practices during the Transition from Preschool into School and Their Learning and Socioemotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D.; Thornton, Anna; Crosnoe, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Evidence that the learning gains of preschool fade as children transition into elementary school has led to increased efforts to sustain preschool advantages during this key transitional period. This study explores whether the observed benefits of sustainability practices for a range of child outcomes are explained and/or moderated by family and…

  13. Development of chloride-induced corrosion in pre-cracked RC beams under sustained loading: Effect of load-induced cracks, concrete cover, and exposure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Linwen [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, LMDC, Toulouse (France); Université de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); François, Raoul, E-mail: raoul.francois@insa-toulouse.fr [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, LMDC, Toulouse (France); Dang, Vu Hiep [Hanoi Architectural University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Hanoi (Viet Nam); L' Hostis, Valérie [CEA Saclay, CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, Laboratoire d' Etude du Comportement des Bétons et des Argiles, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gagné, Richard [Université de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    This paper deals with corrosion initiation and propagation in pre-cracked reinforced concrete beams under sustained loading during exposure to a chloride environment. Specimen beams that were cast in 2010 were compared to specimens cast in 1984. The only differences between the two sets of beams were the casting direction in relation to tensile reinforcement and the exposure conditions in the salt-fog chamber. The cracking maps, corrosion maps, chloride profiles, and cross-sectional loss of one group of two beams cast in 2010 were studied and their calculated corrosion rates were compared to that of beams cast in 1984 in order to investigate the factors influencing the natural corrosion process. Experimental results show that, after rapid initiation of corrosion at the crack tip, the corrosion process practically halted and the time elapsing before corrosion resumed depended on the exposure conditions and cover depth.

  14. Sustained Interleukin-1β Exposure Modulates Multiple Steps in Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling, Promoting Split-Resistance to the Transactivation of Prominent Anti-Inflammatory Genes by Glucocorticoids

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    Pedro Escoll

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical treatment with glucocorticoids (GC can be complicated by cytokine-induced glucocorticoid low-responsiveness (GC-resistance, GCR, a condition associated with a homogeneous reduction in the expression of GC-receptor- (GR- driven anti-inflammatory genes. However, GR level and phosphorylation changes modify the expression of individual GR-responsive genes differently. As sustained IL-1β exposure is key in the pathogenesis of several major diseases with prevalent GCR, we examined GR signaling and the mRNA expression of six GR-driven genes in cells cultured in IL-1β and afterwards challenged with GC. After a GC challenge, sustained IL-1β exposure reduced the cytoplasmic GR level, GRSer203 and GRSer211 phosphorylation, and GR nuclear translocation and led to selective GCR in the expression of the studied genes. Compared to GC alone, in a broad range of GC doses plus sustained IL-1β, FKBP51 mRNA expression was reduced by 1/3, TTP by 2/3, and IRF8 was completely knocked down. In contrast, high GC doses did not change the expression of GILZ and DUSP1, while IGFBP1 was increased by 5-fold. These effects were cytokine-selective, IL-1β dose- and IL-1R1-dependent. The integrated gain and loss of gene functions in the “split GCR” model may provide target cells with a survival advantage by conferring resistance to apoptosis, chemotherapy, and GC.

  15. Lipid-based nutrient supplements do not affect efavirenz but lower plasma nevirapine concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdissa, A; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Yilma, D

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) are increasingly used in HIV programmes in resource-limited settings. However, the possible effects of LNSs on the plasma concentrations of antiretroviral drugs have not been assessed. Here, we aimed to assess the effects of LNSs on plasma...... efavirenz and nevirapine trough concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV-infected patients. METHODS: The effects of LNSs were studied in adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a randomized trial. Patients with body mass index (BMI) > 17 kg/m(2) (n = 282) received daily supplementation of an LNS.......9; -0.9 μg/mL; P = 0.01), respectively, compared with the group not receiving supplements. There were no differences between groups with respect to efavirenz plasma concentrations. The CYP2B6 516 G>T polymorphism was associated with a 5 μg/mL higher plasma efavirenz concentration compared with the wild...

  16. A376S in the connection subdomain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase confers increased risk of virological failure to nevirapine therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paredes, Roger; Puertas, Maria Carmen; Bannister, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Background. The clinical relevance of mutations in the connection subdomain and the ribonuclease (RNase) H domain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) is uncertain. Methods. The risk of virological failure to nonnucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) was evaluated...... in NNRTI-naive patients who started NNRTIs in the EuroSIDA study after July 1997 according to preexisting substitutions in the connection subdomain and the RNase H domain of HIV-1 RT. An observed association between A376S and virological failure was further investigated by testing in vitro NNRTI...... = .013). A376S conferred selective low-level nevirapine resistance in vitro, and led to greater affinity for double-stranded DNA. Conclusions. The A376S substitution in the connection subdomain of HIV-1 RT causes selective nevirapine resistance and confers an increased risk of virological failure...

  17. Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia exposure does not cause sustained alterations in autonomic control of blood pressure in young athletes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, Q.; Townsend, N.E.; Shiller, S.M.; Martini, E.R.; Okazaki, K.; Shibata, S.; Truijens, M.J.; Rodriquez, F.A.; Gore, C.J.; Stray-Gundersen, J.; Levine, B.D.

    2007-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH), which refers to the discontinuous use of hypoxia to reproduce some key features of altitude acclimatization, is commonly used in athletes to improve their performance. However, variations of IH are also used as a model for sleep apnea, causing sustained sympathoexcitation

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFICACY OF TWO ANTIRETROVIRAL REGIMENTS (ZIDOUVDINE+LAMIVUDINE+NEVIRAPHINE VS STAVUDINE+LAMIVUDINE+NEVIRAPINE IN HIV/AIDS PATIENTS

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    Mopuri Muneer Kanha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: AIDS, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, is the worst disease in the history of medicine due to HIV infection in many sexually active people. This disease is treated with two regimens of drugs in the ART centers at free of cost by the government. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study and compare the efficacy of two antiretroviral regimens (zidovudine +lamivudine+ nevirapine vs ( S tavudine + lamivudine +nevirapine in HIV/AIDS patients. Methods: It is a longitudinal, prospective, observational study, carried at ART centers of siddhartha medical college, Vijayawada, AP and Guntur medical college, Guntur, AP from October 2006 to March 2008. Results: 650 patients were enrolled into study. Out of 650, 325 patients were received Tab.Zidovudine +Tab.Lamivudine+Tab.Nevirapine (Regimen A and 325 patients were received Tab. Stavudine + Tab.Lamivudine + Tab. Nevirapine (Regimen B in fixed drug combination. The study is designed for a Period of 12 months by recording observations at 0 months, 6months and 12months. All the cases enrolled had been studied prospectively at the ART centers and the data entered into the case sheets. The adherence to the ART is assessed by asking the patients to get the empty drug bottles and checking the number of remaining tablets. The chi - square test is applied for all the parameters after 6 months data and after 12 months data with degree of freedom (D f of > 1 = and > P = value as 0.05 (p=0.05 and the level of significance as x 2 >3.84. CONCLUSIONS: Stavudine containing regimen B is having better efficacy than zidovudine containing regimen A

  19. Nevirapine, sodium concentration and HIV-1 RNA in breast milk and plasma among HIV-infected women receiving short-course antiretroviral prophylaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Theilgaard, Zahra Persson; Chiduo, Mercy G.

    2015-01-01

    and breast milk after intrapartum single-dose nevirapine combined with either 1-week tail of Combivir (zidovudine/lamivudine) or single-dose Truvada (tenofovir/emtricitabine). Methods Maternal plasma and bilateral breast milk samples were collected between April 2008 and April 2011 at 1, 4 and 6 weeks...... postpartum from HIV-infected Tanzanian women. Moreover, plasma samples were collected at delivery from mother and infant. Results HIV-1 RNA was quantified in 1,212 breast milk samples from 273 women. At delivery, 96% of the women and 99% of the infants had detectable nevirapine in plasma with a median...... (interquartile range, IQR) of 1.5 μg/mL (0.75–2.20 μg/mL) and 1.04 μg/mL (0.39–1.71 μg/mL), respectively (P women had detectable nevirapine in plasma and breast milk, with a median (IQR) of 0.13 μg/mL (0.13–0.39 μg/mL) and 0.22 μg/mL (0.13–0.34 μg...

  20. N348I in the connection domain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase confers zidovudine and nevirapine resistance.

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    Soo-Huey Yap

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The catalytically active 66-kDa subunit of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT consists of DNA polymerase, connection, and ribonuclease H (RNase H domains. Almost all known RT inhibitor resistance mutations identified to date map to the polymerase domain of the enzyme. However, the connection and RNase H domains are not routinely analysed in clinical samples and none of the genotyping assays available for patient management sequence the entire RT coding region. The British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS (the Centre genotypes clinical isolates up to codon 400 in RT, and our retrospective statistical analyses of the Centre's database have identified an N348I mutation in the RT connection domain in treatment-experienced individuals. The objective of this multidisciplinary study was to establish the in vivo relevance of this mutation and its role in drug resistance.The prevalence of N348I in clinical isolates, the time taken for it to emerge under selective drug pressure, and its association with changes in viral load, specific drug treatment, and known drug resistance mutations was analysed from genotypes, viral loads, and treatment histories from the Centre's database. N348I increased in prevalence from below 1% in 368 treatment-naïve individuals to 12.1% in 1,009 treatment-experienced patients (p = 7.7 x 10(-12. N348I appeared early in therapy and was highly associated with thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs M41L and T215Y/F (p < 0.001, the lamivudine resistance mutations M184V/I (p < 0.001, and non-nucleoside RTI (NNRTI resistance mutations K103N and Y181C/I (p < 0.001. The association with TAMs and NNRTI resistance mutations was consistent with the selection of N348I in patients treated with regimens that included both zidovudine and nevirapine (odds ratio 2.62, 95% confidence interval 1.43-4.81. The appearance of N348I was associated with a significant increase in viral load (p < 0.001, which

  1. Effects of Environment in the Microstructure and Properties of Sustainable Mortars with Fly Ash and Slag after a 5-Year Exposure Period

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    José Marcos Ortega

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, getting a more environmentally sustainable cement production is one of the main goals of the cement industry. In this regard, the use of active additions, like fly ash and ground granulated blast-furnace slag, has become very popular. The behaviour, in the short-term, of cement-based materials with those additions is well-known when their hardening is produced under optimum conditions. However, real structures are exposed to different environments during long periods, which could affect the development of microstructures and the service properties of cementitious materials. The objective of this work is to analyse the effects in the long-term (up to 5 years approximately produced by the exposure to different non-optimum laboratory conditions in the microstructure, mechanical and durability properties of mortars made with slag and fly ash commercial cements. Their performance was compared to that observed for ordinary Portland cement (OPC mortars. The microstructure has been analysed using mercury intrusion porosimetry. The effective porosity, the capillary suction coefficient, the chloride migration coefficient and mechanical strengths were analysed too. According to the results, mortars prepared using slag and fly ash sustainable commercial cements, exposed to non-optimum conditions, show a good performance after 5-years hardening period, similar or even better than OPC mortars.

  2. Possible promotion of neuronal differentiation in fetal rat brain neural progenitor cells after sustained exposure to static magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, Noritaka; Ishioka, Yukichi; Hirai, Takao; Ozawa, Shusuke; Tachibana, Masaki; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Takarada, Takeshi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2009-08-15

    We have previously shown significant potentiation of Ca(2+) influx mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, along with decreased microtubules-associated protein-2 (MAP2) expression, in hippocampal neurons cultured under static magnetism without cell death. In this study, we investigated the effects of static magnetism on the functionality of neural progenitor cells endowed to proliferate for self-replication and differentiate into neuronal, astroglial, and oligodendroglial lineages. Neural progenitor cells were isolated from embryonic rat neocortex and hippocampus, followed by culture under static magnetism at 100 mT and subsequent determination of the number of cells immunoreactive for a marker protein of particular progeny lineages. Static magnetism not only significantly decreased proliferation of neural progenitor cells without affecting cell viability, but also promoted differentiation into cells immunoreactive for MAP2 with a concomitant decrease in that for an astroglial marker, irrespective of the presence of differentiation inducers. In neural progenitors cultured under static magnetism, a significant increase was seen in mRNA expression of several activator-type proneural genes, such as Mash1, Math1, and Math3, together with decreased mRNA expression of the repressor type Hes5. These results suggest that sustained static magnetism could suppress proliferation for self-renewal and facilitate differentiation into neurons through promoted expression of activator-type proneural genes by progenitor cells in fetal rat brain.

  3. Anti-HIV drugs nevirapine and efavirenz affect anxiety-related behavior and cognitive performance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, Pedro R T; Lemos, Joelson C; Moreira, Jeverson; de Chaves, Gisele; Moretti, Morgana; Castro, Adalberto A; Andrade, Vanessa M; Boeck, Carina R; Quevedo, João; Gavioli, Elaine C

    2011-01-01

    Nevirapine (NVP) and efavirenz (EFV) belong to the class of anti-HIV drugs called non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), commonly used as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Although the HAART is able to bring down viral load to undetectable levels and restore immune function, their prolonged use causes several adverse effects. It has been demonstrated that both NVP and EFV are able to cross the blood-brain barrier, causing important central nervous system-related side effects. Thus, this study investigated the effects of chronic administration of EFV (10 mg/kg) and NVP (3.3 mg/kg) in mice submitted to two distinct series of experiments, which aimed to evaluate: (1) the emotional behavior (elevated plus-maze, forced swimming, and open-field test) and (2) the cognitive performance (object recognition and inhibitory avoidance test) of mice. Our results demonstrated that EFV, but not NVP, reduced the exploration to open arms in the elevated plus-maze test. Neither NVP nor EFV altered mouse behavior in the forced swimming and open-field tests. Both drugs reduced the recognition index in the object recognition test, but only EFV significantly impaired the aversive memory assessed in the inhibitory avoidance test 24 h after training. In conclusion, our findings point to a genuine anxiogenic-like effect to EFV, since it reduced exploration to open arms of elevated plus-maze test without affecting spontaneous locomotion. Additionally, both drugs impaired recognition memory, while only the treatment with EFV impaired significantly aversive memory.

  4. In vitro assessment of competitive and time-dependent inhibition of the nevirapine metabolism by nortriptyline in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usach, Iris; Ferrer, José-Maria; Peris, José-Esteban

    2018-04-17

    Nevirapine (NVP) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) widely used as a component of High Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) since it is inexpensive, readily absorbed after oral administration and non-teratogenic. In the present work, the mechanism of a previously described pharmacokinetic interaction between NVP and the antidepressant drug nortriptyline (NT) was studied using rat hepatic microsomes. The obtained results showed a competitive inhibition of the NVP metabolism by NT. The three main NVP metabolites (2-OH-NVP, 3-OH-NVP and 12-OH-NVP) where competitively inhibited with similar inhibitory constant values (K i  = 4.01, 3.97 and 4.40 μM, respectively). Time-dependent inhibition of the NVP metabolism was also detected, with a 2.5-fold reduction in the IC 50 values of NT for 2-, 3-, and 12-OH-NVP formation when NT was preincubated with the microsomal suspension in the presence of an NADPH-generating system. A concentration-dependent inhibition of the formation of NVP metabolites by the main NT metabolite (10-OH-NT) was also observed, however, the inhibitory potency of 10-OH-NT was much lower than that of the parent drug. The apparent hepatic intrinsic clearance of NVP determined in these in vitro experiments was used to predict the in vivo clearance of NVP using the "well-stirred" and the "parallel-tube" models, resulting in values close to those previously observed in vivo clearance. Finally, a good prediction of the increase in the plasma concentrations of NVP when co-administered with NT was obtained employing the inhibitory constant of NT determined in vitro and the estimated plasma concentration of NT entering the liver. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Similar HIV protection from four weeks of zidovudine versus nevirapine prophylaxis among formula-fed infants in Botswana

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    Kathleen M. Powis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization HIV guidelines recommend either infant zidovudine (ZDV or nevirapine (NVP prophylaxis for the prevention of intrapartum motherto-child HIV transmission (MTCT among formula-fed infants. No study has evaluated the comparative efficacy of infant prophylaxis with twice daily ZDV versus once daily NVP in exclusively formula-fed HIV-exposed infants.   Methods: Using data from the Mpepu Study, a Botswana-based clinical trial investigating whether prophylactic co-trimoxazole could improve infant survival, retrospective analyses of MTCT events and Division of AIDS (DAIDS Grade 3 or Grade 4 occurrences of anaemia or neutropenia were performed among infants born full-term (≥ 37 weeks gestation, with a birth weight ≥ 2500 g and who were formula-fed from birth. ZDV infant prophylaxis was used from Mpepu Study inception. A protocol modification mid-way through the study led to the subsequent use of NVP infant prophylaxis.   Results: Among infants qualifying for this secondary retrospective analysis, a total of 695 (52% infants received ZDV, while 646 (48% received NVP from birth for at least 25 days but no more than 35 days. Confirmed intrapartum HIV infection occurred in two (0.29% ZDV recipients and three (0.46% NVP recipients (p = 0.68. Anaemia occurred in 19 (2.7% ZDV versus 12 (1.9% NVP (p = 0.36 recipients. Neutropenia occurred in 28 (4.0% ZDV versus 21 (3.3% NVP recipients (p = 0.47.   Conclusions: Both ZDV and NVP resulted in low intrapartum transmission rates and no significant differences in severe infant haematologic toxicity (DAIDS Grade 3 or Grade 4 among formula-fed full-term infants with a birthweight ≥ 2500 g.

  6. Hepatocyte spheroids as a competent in vitro system for drug biotransformation studies: nevirapine as a bioactivation case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Pedro F; Pereira, Sofia A; Harjivan, Shrika G; Martins, Inês L; Marinho, Aline T; Cipriano, Madalena; Jacob, Cristina C; Oliveira, Nuno G; Castro, Matilde F; Marques, M Matilde; Antunes, Alexandra M M; Miranda, Joana P

    2017-03-01

    The development of metabolically competent in vitro models is of utmost importance for predicting adverse drug reactions, thereby preventing attrition-related economical and clinical burdens. Using the antiretroviral drug nevirapine (NVP) as a model, this work aimed to validate rat hepatocyte 3D spheroid cultures as competent in vitro systems to assess drug metabolism and bioactivation. Hepatocyte spheroids were cultured for 12 days in a stirred tank system (3D cultures) and exposed to equimolar dosages of NVP and its two major Phase I metabolites, 12-OH-NVP and 2-OH-NVP. Phase I NVP metabolites were detected in the 3D cultures during the whole culture time in the same relative proportions reported in in vivo studies. Moreover, the modulation of SULT1A1 activity by NVP and 2-OH-NVP was observed for the first time, pointing their synergistic effect as a key factor in the formation of the toxic metabolite (12-sulfoxy-NVP). Covalent adducts formed by reactive NVP metabolites with N-acetyl-L-cysteine and bovine serum albumin were also detected by high-resolution mass spectrometry, providing new evidence on the relative role of the reactive NVP metabolites, 12-sulfoxy-NVP, and NVP quinone methide, in toxicity versus excretion pathways. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the validity of the 3D culture system to evaluate drug bioactivation, enabling the identification of potential biomarkers of bioactivation/toxicity, and providing new evidence to the mechanisms underlying NVP-induced toxic events. This model, integrated with the analytical strategies described herein, is of anticipated usefulness to the pharmaceutical industry, as an upstream methodology for flagging drug safety alerts in early stages of drug development.

  7. Reversible reduction of nevirapine plasma concentrations during rifampicin treatment in patients coinfected with HIV-1 and tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteelli, Alberto; Saleri, Nuccia; Villani, Paola; Bonkoungou, Victor; Carvalho, Anna Cristina C; Kouanda, Seni; Sanou, Marie J; Simporé, Jacques; Monno, Laura; Carosi, Giampiero; Regazzi, Mario; Dembele, Mathurin

    2009-09-01

    Nevirapine (NVP) plasma levels are reduced in patients receiving rifampicin (RFM) for tuberculosis (TB) treatment. We determined variations over time of the pharmacokinetic parameters of NVP in patients who receive RFM. HIV-1-infected patients with CD4+ T-lymphocyte count

  8. Chronic exposure to triclosan sustains microbial community shifts and alters antibiotic resistance gene levels in anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel E; Zitomer, Daniel H; Kappell, Anthony D; Choi, Melinda J; Hristova, Krassimira R; McNamara, Patrick J

    2016-08-10

    Triclosan, an antimicrobial chemical found in consumer personal care products, has been shown to stimulate antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria. Although many studies focus on antibiotic resistance pertinent to medical scenarios, resistance developed in natural and engineered environments is less studied and has become an emerging concern for human health. In this study, the impacts of chronic triclosan (TCS) exposure on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and microbial community structure were assessed in lab-scale anaerobic digesters. TCS concentrations from below detection to 2500 mg kg(-1) dry solids were amended into anaerobic digesters over 110 days and acclimated for >3 solid retention time values. Four steady state TCS concentrations were chosen (30-2500 mg kg(-1)). Relative abundance of mexB, a gene coding for a component of a multidrug efflux pump, was significantly higher in all TCS-amended digesters (30 mg kg(-1) or higher) relative to the control. TCS selected for bacteria carrying tet(L) and against those carrying erm(F) at concentrations which inhibited digester function; the pH decrease associated with digester failure was suspected to cause this selection. Little to no impact of TCS was observed on intI1 relative abundance. Microbial communities were also surveyed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Compared to the control digesters, significant shifts in community structure towards clades containing commensal and pathogenic bacteria were observed in digesters containing TCS. Based on these results, TCS should be included in studies and risk assessments that attempt to elucidate relationships between chemical stressors (e.g. antibiotics), antibiotic resistance genes, and public health.

  9. In-home HIV testing and nevirapine dosing by traditional birth attendants in rural Zambia: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Alana T; Thea, Donald M; Semrau, Katherine; Goggin, Caitlin; Scott, Nancy; Pilingana, Portipher; Botha, Belinda; Mazimba, Arthur; Hamomba, Leoda; Seidenberg, Phil

    2014-01-01

    Access to lifesaving prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services is problematic in rural Zambia. The simplest intervention used in Zambia has been 2-dose nevirapine (NVP) administration in the peripartum period, a regimen of 1 NVP tablet to the mother at the onset of labor and 1 dose in the form of syrup to the newborn within 4 to 72 hours after birth. This 2-dose regimen has been shown to reduce MTCT by nearly 50%. We set out to demonstrate that in-home HIV testing and NVP dosing by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) is feasible and acceptable by women in rural Zambia. This was a pilot program using TBAs to perform rapid saliva-based HIV testing and administer single-dose NVP in tablet form to the mother at the onset of labor and syrup to the infant after birth. A total of 280 pregnant women were consented and enrolled into the program, of whom 124 (44.3%) gave birth at home with the assistance of a trained TBA. Of those, 16 (12.9%) were known to be HIV positive, and 101 of the remaining 108 (93.5%) accepted a rapid HIV test. All these women tested HIV negative. In the subset of 16 mothers who were HIV positive, 13 (81.3%) took single-dose NVP administered by a TBA between 1 and 24 hours prior to birth and 100% of exposed newborns (16 of 16) received NVP syrup within 72 hours after birth, 80% of whom were dosed in the first 24 hours of life. With the substantial shortage of human resources in public health care throughout sub-Saharan Africa, it is extremely valuable to utilize lay health care workers to help extended services beyond the level of the facility. Given the high uptake of PMTCT services we believe that TBAs with proper training and support can successfully provide country-approved PMTCT. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  10. [Nevirapine related hepatotoxicity: the prevalence and risk factors in a cohort of ART naive Han Chinese with AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shi-cheng; Gui, Xi-en; Deng, Li-ping; Zhang, Yong-xi; Yan, Ya-jun; Rong, Yu-ping; Liang, Ke; Yang, Rong-rong

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the incidence of hepatotoxicity in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients on combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) containing nevirapine (NVP) and to assess the risk factors and its impact on cART. 330 AIDS patients from March 2003 to June 2008 at local county were enrolled and a retrospective study using Kaplan-meier survival and Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted. 267 out of 330 patients received NVP based cART and 63 cases received EFV-based cART. The deference of prevalences of hepatotoxicity between the two groups is statistically significant (Chi2 = 6.691, P = 0.01). 133 out of 267 (49.8%) patients on NVP based cART had at least one episode of ALT elevation during a median 21 months (interquartile ranges, IQR 6, 37) follow-up time, amounts for 28.5 cases per 100 person-years. Baseline ALT elevation (OR = 14.368, P = 0.017)and HCV co-infection (OR = 3.009, P = 0.000) were risk factors for cART related hepatotoxicity, while greatly increased CD4+ T(CD4) cell count was protective against hepatotoxicity development (OR = 0.996, P = 0.000). Patients co-infected with HCV received NVP-based cART had the higher probability of hepatotoxicity than those without HCV co-infection (Log rank: Chi2 = 16.764, P = 0.000). 23 out of the 133 subjects (17.3%) with NVP related hepatotoxicity discontinued cART temporarily or shifted NVP to efavirenz. NVP related hepatotoxicity was common among ARV naive HIV infected subjects in our cohort. Baseline ALT elevation and HCV co-infection were associated statistically with the development of hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity led to discontinuing cART temporarily or switching to other regimens in some subjects. It suggested that NVP should be used with caution in patients co-infected with HCV among whom anti-HCV therapy before cART initiation may contribute to minimizing the probability of NVP associated hepatotoxicity.

  11. Nevirapine and efavirenz elicit different changes in lipid profiles in antiretroviral-therapy-naive patients infected with HIV-1.

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    Frank van Leth

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients infected with HIV-1 initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART containing a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI show presumably fewer atherogenic lipid changes than those initiating most ARTs containing a protease inhibitor. We analysed whether lipid changes differed between the two most commonly used NNRTIs, nevirapine (NVP and efavirenz (EFV. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Prospective analysis of lipids and lipoproteins was performed in patients enrolled in the NVP and EFV treatment groups of the 2NN study who remained on allocated treatment during 48 wk of follow-up. Patients were allocated to NVP (n = 417, or EFV (n = 289 in combination with stavudine and lamivudine. The primary endpoint was percentage change over 48 wk in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c, total cholesterol (TC, TC:HDL-c ratio, non-HDL-c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. The increase of HDL-c was significantly larger for patients receiving NVP (42.5% than for patients receiving EFV (33.7%; p = 0.036, while the increase in TC was lower (26.9% and 31.1%, respectively; p = 0.073, resulting in a decrease of the TC:HDL-c ratio for patients receiving NVP (-4.1% and an increase for patients receiving EFV (+5.9%; p < 0.001. The increase of non-HDL-c was smaller for patients receiving NVP (24.7% than for patients receiving EFV (33.6%; p = 0.007, as were the increases of triglycerides (20.1% and 49.0%, respectively; p < 0.001 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (35.0% and 40.0%, respectively; p = 0.378. These differences remained, or even increased, after adjusting for changes in HIV-1 RNA and CD4+ cell levels, indicating an effect of the drugs on lipids over and above that which may be explained by suppression of HIV-1 infection. The increases in HDL-c were of the same order of magnitude as those seen with the use of the investigational HDL-c-increasing drugs. CONCLUSION: NVP-containing ART shows larger increases in HDL

  12. Case Report: Stevens-Johnson syndrome following a single double dosing of nevirapine-containing regimen once in an HIV-infected woman on long-term antiretroviral therapy. [version 1; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Kakande

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year old HIV-infected African woman on nevirapine, tenofovir and lamivudine for more than 4 years presented with an 8-day history of symptoms and signs of Stevens-Johnson syndrome. She was on no other medication. Her viral load was undetectable and she had maintained a CD4 count of between 356 and 387cells/mm3 in the preceding 2½ years. She missed her antiretrovirals 10 days before the onset of her symptoms and subsequently doubled her daily dose the following day. She had been on no other medication in the preceding 8 weeks. Her ARVs were stopped and she fully re-epithelialized with the exception of the lips, over the following 10 days. She was started on a daily single tablet of Odimune® (a fixed drug combination antiretroviral containing tenofovir, emtricitabine and efavirenz.   Nevirapine is the most common offender in cases of antiretroviral-associated SJS in published literature. Lamivudine is very rarely implicated while there are no similar reports with tenofovir.  We concluded that nevirapine was by far the most likely offender in this case. Nevirapine toxicity is associated with high CD4 counts, undetectable viral load and high drug plasma level. We postulate that the sudden increase of the plasma levels of nevirapine in a patient with a high CD4 count and undetectable viral load created a perfect storm for the development of SJS in our patient, who had been on the NVP-containing regimen for many years. Clinicians should be aware that severe adverse drug reactions are dynamic and can occur even when the drug has been in use for a long time.

  13. Case Report: Stevens-Johnson syndrome following a single double dosing of nevirapine-containing regimen once in an HIV-infected woman on long-term antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakande, Betty; Isaacs, Thuraya; Muloiwa, Rudzani; Dlamini, Sipho; Lehloenya, Rannakoe

    2015-01-01

    A 31-year old HIV-infected African woman on nevirapine, tenofovir and lamivudine for more than 4 years presented with an 8-day history of symptoms and signs of Stevens-Johnson syndrome. She was on no other medication. Her viral load was undetectable and she had maintained a CD4 count of between 356 and 387cells/mm (3) in the preceding 2½ years. She missed her antiretrovirals 10 days before the onset of her symptoms and subsequently doubled her daily dose the following day. She had been on no other medication in the preceding 8 weeks. Her ARVs were stopped and she fully re-epithelialized with the exception of the lips, over the following 10 days. She was started on a daily single tablet of Odimune® (a fixed drug combination antiretroviral containing tenofovir, emtricitabine and efavirenz). Nevirapine is the most common offender in cases of antiretroviral-associated SJS in published literature. Lamivudine is very rarely implicated while there are no similar reports with tenofovir.  We concluded that nevirapine was by far the most likely offender in this case. Nevirapine toxicity is associated with high CD4 counts, undetectable viral load and high drug plasma level. We postulate that the sudden increase of the plasma levels of nevirapine in a patient with a high CD4 count and undetectable viral load created a perfect storm for the development of SJS in our patient, who had been on the NVP-containing regimen for many years. Clinicians should be aware that severe adverse drug reactions are dynamic and can occur even when the drug has been in use for a long time.

  14. Sustained Domestic Vector Exposure Is Associated With Increased Chagas Cardiomyopathy Risk but Decreased Parasitemia and Congenital Transmission Risk Among Young Women in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplinski, Michelle; Jois, Malasa; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Rendell, Victoria R; Shah, Vishal; Do, Rose Q; Marcus, Rachel; Pena, Melissa S Burroughs; Abastoflor, Maria del Carmen; LaFuente, Carlos; Bozo, Ricardo; Valencia, Edward; Verastegui, Manuela; Colanzi, Rony; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn

    2015-09-15

    We studied women and their infants to evaluate risk factors for congenital transmission and cardiomyopathy in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected women. Women provided data and blood for serology and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Infants of infected women had blood tested at 0 and 1 month by microscopy, PCR and immunoblot, and serology at 6 and 9 months. Women underwent electrocardiography (ECG). Of 1696 women, 456 (26.9%) were infected; 31 (6.8%) transmitted T. cruzi to their infants. Women who transmitted had higher parasite loads than those who did not (median, 62.0 [interquartile range {IQR}, 25.8-204.8] vs 0.05 [IQR, 0-29.6]; P < .0001). Transmission was higher in twin than in singleton births (27.3% vs 6.4%; P = .04). Women who had not lived in infested houses transmitted more frequently (9.7% vs 4.6%; P = .04), were more likely to have positive results by PCR (65.5% vs 33.9%; P < .001), and had higher parasite loads than those who had lived in infested houses (median, 25.8 [IQR, 0-64.1] vs 0 [IQR, 0-12.3]; P < .001). Of 302 infected women, 28 (9.3%) had ECG abnormalities consistent with Chagas cardiomyopathy; risk was higher for older women (odds ratio [OR], 1.06 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.01-1.12] per year) and those with vector exposure (OR, 3.7 [95% CI, 1.4-10.2]). We observed a strong dose-response relationship between ECG abnormalities and reported years of living in an infested house. We hypothesize that repeated vector-borne infection sustains antigen exposure and the consequent inflammatory response at a higher chronic level, increasing cardiac morbidity, but possibly enabling exposed women to control parasitemia in the face of pregnancy-induced Th2 polarization. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Inactivation of uptake hydrogenase leads to enhanced and sustained hydrogen production with high nitrogenase activity under high light exposure in the cyanobacterium Anabaena siamensis TISTR 8012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khetkorn Wanthanee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biohydrogen from cyanobacteria has attracted public interest due to its potential as a renewable energy carrier produced from solar energy and water. Anabaena siamensis TISTR 8012, a novel strain isolated from rice paddy field in Thailand, has been identified as a promising cyanobacterial strain for use as a high-yield hydrogen producer attributed to the activities of two enzymes, nitrogenase and bidirectional hydrogenase. One main obstacle for high hydrogen production by A. siamensis is a light-driven hydrogen consumption catalyzed by the uptake hydrogenase. To overcome this and in order to enhance the potential for nitrogenase based hydrogen production, we engineered a hydrogen uptake deficient strain by interrupting hupS encoding the small subunit of the uptake hydrogenase. Results An engineered strain lacking a functional uptake hydrogenase (∆hupS produced about 4-folds more hydrogen than the wild type strain. Moreover, the ∆hupS strain showed long term, sustained hydrogen production under light exposure with 2–3 folds higher nitrogenase activity compared to the wild type. In addition, HupS inactivation had no major effects on cell growth and heterocyst differentiation. Gene expression analysis using RT-PCR indicates that electrons and ATP molecules required for hydrogen production in the ∆hupS strain may be obtained from the electron transport chain associated with the photosynthetic oxidation of water in the vegetative cells. The ∆hupS strain was found to compete well with the wild type up to 50 h in a mixed culture, thereafter the wild type started to grow on the relative expense of the ∆hupS strain. Conclusions Inactivation of hupS is an effective strategy for improving biohydrogen production, in rates and specifically in total yield, in nitrogen-fixing cultures of the cyanobacterium Anabaena siamensis TISTR 8012.

  16. A randomized trial comparing initial HAART regimens of nelfinavir/nevirapine and ritonavir/saquinavir in combination with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Ole; Lundgren, Jens D; Pedersen, Court

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A triple-class HAART regimen may be associated with a better virological effect than conventional regimens, but may also lead to toxicity and more profound resistance. METHODS: Randomized, controlled, open-label trial of 233 protease inhibitor- and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase...... inhibitor-naive HIV-infected patients allocated to a regimen of nelfinavir and nevirapine (1250/200 mg twice daily; n = 118) or ritonavir and saquinavir (400/400 mg twice daily; n = 115), both in combination with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The primary end-point was HIV RNA ... the long-term consequences of triple class HAART regimens, including the development of broad drug resistance....

  17. Repeat exposure to ciguatoxin leads to enhanced and sustained thermoregulatory, pain threshold and motor activity responses in mice: relationship to blood ciguatoxin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottein Dechraoui, Marie-Yasmine; Rezvani, Amir H; Gordon, Christopher J; Levin, Edward D; Ramsdell, John S

    2008-04-03

    Ciguatera is a common illness in tropical and subtropical regions that manifests in complex and long-lived symptoms which are more severe in subsequent exposures. This study measures central and peripheral neurologic signs, in parallel with blood toxin levels, in mice exposed once or twice (at 3 days interval) to a sublethal dose of ciguatoxin P-CTX-1 (0.26ng/g via i.p.). Mice were implanted with radiotransmitters to monitor motor activity and core temperature. A single exposure to ciguatoxin elicited an immediate and transient decrease in motor activity and temperature, and subsequent long-lasting thermoregulatory dysfunction resulting in stabilized body temperature around 36.0 degrees C with no observable circadian rhythm. The hypothermic response and the reduced activity were enhanced with a second exposure with 30% of the mice dying within 7h. Measurement of the peripheral nervous system by the tail flick assay revealed increased latency with a single ciguatoxin exposure, and a greater effect following the second exposure. Toxin was measurable in blood up to 3 days following the first exposure; at the 1h time point the concentrations were significantly elevated after a second exposure. These findings indicate an early response to ciguatoxin manifest in a central response to lower body temperature and reduce motor activity and a more persistent effect on the peripheral system leading to spinal heat antinociception and delayed fever-like response. The greater neurological response to a second ciguatoxin exposure was associated with elevated concentrations of ciguatoxin in the blood solely over the first hour of exposure. In conclusion, a single exposure to toxin exerts a significant neurological response which may be enhanced with subsequent exposure.

  18. Grassland Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah U. Potter; Paulette L. Ford

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss grassland sustainability in the Southwest, grassland management for sustainability, national and local criteria and indicators of sustainable grassland ecosystems, and monitoring for sustainability at various scales. Ecological sustainability is defined as: [T]he maintenance or restoration of the composition, structure, and processes of...

  19. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mavis Dora

    2012-01-01

    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  20. Reuse of single-dose nevirapine in subsequent pregnancies for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Lusaka, Zambia: A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinkala Moses

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-dose nevirapine (SDNVP for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT results in the selection of resistance mutants among HIV-infected mothers. The effects of these mutations on the efficacy of SDNVP use in a subsequent pregnancy are not well understood. Methods We compared risks of perinatal HIV transmission between multiparous women who had previously received a dose of SDNVP (exposed and those that had not (unexposed and who were given SDNVP for the index pregnancy within a PMTCT clinical study. We also compared transmission risks among exposed and unexposed women who had two consecutive pregnancies within the trial. Logistic regression modeling was used to adjust for possible confounders. Results Transmission risks did not differ between 59 SDNVP-exposed and 782 unexposed women in unadjusted analysis or after adjustment for viral load and disease stage (adjusted odds ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2 to 2.0. Among 43 women who had two consecutive pregnancies during the study, transmission risks were 7% (95% CI 1% to 19% at both the first (unexposed and second (exposed delivery. The results were unchanged, if infant death was included as an outcome. Conclusion These data suggest that the efficacy of SDNVP may not be diminished when reused in subsequent pregnancies.

  1. The impact of nevirapine- versus protease inhibitor-based regimens on virological markers of HIV-1 persistence during seemingly suppressive ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselinova, Maja; Anna, Maria; Malatinkova, Eva; Vervish, Karen; Beloukas, Apostolos; Messiaen, Peter; Bonczkowski, Pawel; Trypsteen, Wim; Callens, Steven; Verhofstede, Chris; De Spiegelaere, Ward; Vandekerckhove, Linos

    2014-01-01

    The source and significance of residual plasma HIV-1 RNA detection during suppressive ART remain controversial. It has been proposed that nevirapine (NVP)-based regimens achieve a greater HIV-1 RNA suppression than regimens containing a protease inhibitor (PI). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of receiving NVP- vs PI-based ART on the virological markers of HIV persistence in peripheral blood. The study population comprised 161 HIV-1 infected patients receiving either NVP-based (n=81) or PI-based (n=80) ART and showing a HIV-1 RNA load stably suppressed ART, with median (IQR) levels of 5 (3-6) and 5 (3-8) copies/mL, respectively. HIV-1 RNA detection was associated with shorter duration of suppressive ART regardless of treatment arm (p=0.007), and lower CD4 nadir (p=0.015). HIV-1 DNA levels were median 282 (120-484) and 213 (87-494) copies/106 PBMCs in the two groups respectively, and were lowest (ART HIV-1 RNA load (p=0.0001). In this comprehensive characterization of patients on long-term suppressive ART, we did not observe evidence for a greater suppressive activity of NVP-based over PI-based therapy on plasma and intracellular markers of virus persistence. Overall excellent correlation was observed between the markers, allowing the identification of a subset of treated patients with low HIV-1 expression as an important cohort for future HIV cure studies.

  2. Low rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 after nevirapine intervention in a pilot public health program in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayouba, Ahidjo; Tene, Gilbert; Cunin, Patrick; Foupouapouognigni, Yacouba; Menu, Elisabeth; Kfutwah, Anfumbom; Thonnon, Jocelyn; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Monny-Lobé, Marcel; Eteki, Nicole; Kouanfack, Charles; Tardy, Michèle; Leke, Robert; Nkam, Maurice; Nlend, Anne E; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Martin, Paul M V; Nerrienet, Eric

    2003-11-01

    To determine the percentage of infected children for whom nevirapine (NVP) was used to prevent peripartum mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in Yaoundé, Cameroon. The study was a prospective Public Health Pilot Program covering a 3-year period (January 2000-December 2002). Counseled and consenting HIV-1-positive pregnant women were given a single dose of NVP at the onset of labor. Babies were given 2 mg/kg NVP syrup within the first 72 hours of life. NVP-treated children were regularly followed up and examined for HIV-1 infection at 6-8 weeks and 5-6 months through plasma viral load (VL) quantification with the bDNA system. One hundred twenty-three children were diagnosed with perinatal HIV-1 infection at 6-8 weeks and 5-6 months. Thirteen children (10.6% [13/123]; 95% confidence interval, 5.1-16) were infected and presented with high VLs, in general >500,000 copies/mL. Two children had intermediate VLs (between 50 and 3500 copies/mL) at both time points. One hundred seven children (87%) were considered not infected at 6-8 weeks of age. Our results indicate that the HIV-1 MTCT rate 6-8 weeks after NVP administration was not >13% (16/123), thus demonstrating the effectiveness of NVP for lowering the risk of HIV-1 MTCT in real-life settings.

  3. Durability of Stavudine, Lamivudine and Nevirapine among Advanced HIV-1 Infected Patients with/without Prior Co-administration of Rifampicin: A 144-week Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasithisirikul Wisit

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, data on the durability of a regimen of stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine are very limited, particularly from the resource-limited settings. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among 140 antiretroviral-naïve patients who were enrolled to initiate d4T, 3TC and NVP between November 2004 and March 2005. The objectives were to determine immunological and virological responses after 144 weeks of antiretroviral therapy. Seventy patients with tuberculosis also received rifampicin during the early period of antiviral treatment (TB group. Results Of all, median (IQR baseline CD4 cell count was 31 (14–79 cells/mm3; median (IQR baseline HIV-1 RNA was 433,500 (169,000–750,000 copies/mL. The average body weight was 55 kilograms. By intention-to-treat analysis at 144 weeks, the overall percentage of patients who achieved plasma HIV-1 RNA P = 0.731. Eight (5.8% patients discontinued d4T due to neuropathy and/or symptomatic lactic acidosis. Conclusion The overall durability and efficacy of antiviral response of d4T, 3TC and NVP are satisfied and they are not different between HIV-1 infected patients with and without co-administration of rifampicin due to tuberculosis. However, stavudine-related adverse effects are concerns. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00703898

  4. Simultaneous quantitation of lamivudine, zidovudine and nevirapine in human plasma by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and application to a pharmacokinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Krishna Matta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive LC–MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantitation of lamivudine, zidovudine and nevirapine in human plasma using abacavir as internal standard has been developed and validated. The analytes and IS were extracted from plasma by solid phase extraction using Oasis HLB cartridges and separated on a Hypurity Advance C18 column using a mixture of acetonitrile:0.1% formic acid (76:24, v/v at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Detection involved an API-4000 LC–MS/MS with electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode and multiple-reaction monitoring for analysis. The method was validated according to FDA guidelines and shown to provide intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy within acceptable limits in a run time of only 3.5 min. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study involving a single oral administration of a combination tablet to human male volunteers.

  5. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  6. Impact of Nevirapine (NVP) Plasma Concentration on Selection of Resistant Virus in Mothers Who Received Single-Dose NVP To Prevent Perinatal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Transmission and Persistence of Resistant Virus in Their Infected Children▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chaix, Marie-Laure; Ekouevi, Didier Koumavi; Peytavin, Gilles; Rouet, François; Tonwe-Gold, Besigin; Viho, Ida; Bequet, Laurence; Amani-Bosse, Clarisse; Menan, Hervé; Leroy, Valériane; Rouzioux, Christine; Dabis, François

    2006-01-01

    Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance following the use of single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) remains a concern. In the ANRS-1201/1202 Ditrame study, conducted in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, a short-course regimen of zidovudine was associated with sdNVP for PMTCT. In this study, we estimate the frequency of NVP resistance and its relationship with NVP concentration in mothers. Genotypic resistance analysis was performed on ...

  7. Maintenance of C sinks sustains enhanced C assimilation during long-term exposure to elevated [CO2] in Mojave Desert shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Ebbets, Allison L; Evans, R Dave; Tissue, David T; Nogués, Salvador; van Gestel, Natasja; Payton, Paxton; Ebbert, Volker; Adams, Williams W; Nowak, Robert S; Smith, Stanley D

    2011-10-01

    During the first few years of elevated atmospheric [CO(2)] treatment at the Nevada Desert FACE Facility, photosynthetic downregulation was observed in desert shrubs grown under elevated [CO(2)], especially under relatively wet environmental conditions. Nonetheless, those plants maintained increased A (sat) (photosynthetic performance at saturating light and treatment [CO(2)]) under wet conditions, but to a much lesser extent under dry conditions. To determine if plants continued to downregulate during long-term exposure to elevated [CO(2)], responses of photosynthesis to elevated [CO(2)] were examined in two dominant Mojave Desert shrubs, the evergreen Larrea tridentata and the drought-deciduous Ambrosia dumosa, during the eighth full growing season of elevated [CO(2)] treatment at the NDFF. A comprehensive suite of physiological processes were collected. Furthermore, we used C labeling of air to assess carbon allocation and partitioning as measures of C sink activity. Results show that elevated [CO(2)] enhanced photosynthetic performance and plant water status in Larrea, especially during periods of environmental stress, but not in Ambrosia. δ(13)C analyses indicate that Larrea under elevated [CO(2)] allocated a greater proportion of newly assimilated C to C sinks than Ambrosia. Maintenance by Larrea of C sinks during the dry season partially explained the reduced [CO(2)] effect on leaf carbohydrate content during summer, which in turn lessened carbohydrate build-up and feedback inhibition of photosynthesis. δ(13)C results also showed that in a year when plant growth reached the highest rates in 5 years, 4% (Larrea) and 7% (Ambrosia) of C in newly emerging organs were remobilized from C that was assimilated and stored for at least 2 years prior to the current study. Thus, after 8 years of continuous exposure to elevated [CO(2)], both desert perennials maintained their photosynthetic capacities under elevated [CO(2)]. We conclude that C storage, remobilization

  8. Safety of nevirapine in HIV-infected pregnant women initiating antiretroviral therapy at higher CD4 counts: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Ebrahim; Mia, Rafiq

    2012-10-08

    The package insert for nevirapine (NVP) cautions use in HIV-infected women (including pregnant women) with CD4 counts ≥250 cells/µl. However, recent studies showed that the CD4 count of pregnant women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was not predictive of NVP toxicity. To determine whether ART-naive pregnant women initiating NVP-based ART at higher CD4 counts experience greater toxicity compared with pregnant women at lower CD4 counts. We reviewed studies comparing serious adverse NVP-related events among ART-naive pregnant women who commenced therapy at higher v. lower CD4 counts. Relevant studies were extracted from PubMed, SCOPUS and EMBASE, major journals and conference proceedings prior to December 2011. Authors were contacted for additional data. Data were independently extracted and entered into Review Manager. Fourteen studies (2 663 participants) were included for analysis. The odds ratio (OR) for overall NVP toxicity among pregnant women with CD4 <250 cells/µl was 0.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43 - 0.85). When analysis was restricted to prospective studies only (7 studies, 1 318 participants), the results were consistent for overall NVP toxicity (OR 0.43; 95% CI 0.25 - 0.73) and severe hepatotoxicity (OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.22 - 0.90), but not for severe cutaneous reaction (OR 0.53; 95% CI 0.26 - 1.10). Initiating NVP-based ART during pregnancy at CD4 ≥250 cells/µl increases toxicity risk and should be avoided, necessitating urgent revision of current guidelines supporting this practice.

  9. Role of Rilpivirine and Etravirine in Efavirenz and Nevirapine-Based Regimens Failure in a Resource-Limited Country: A Cross- Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phairote Teeranaipong

    Full Text Available Etravirine(ETR can be used for patients who have failed NNRTI-based regimen. In Thailand, ETR is approximately 45 times more expensive than rilpivirine(RPV. However, there are no data of RPV use in NNRTI failure. Therefore, we assessed the susceptibility and mutation patterns of first line NNRTI failure and the possibility of using RPV compared to ETV in patients who have failed efavirenz(EFV- and nevirapine(NVP-based regimens.Clinical samples with confirmed virological failure from EFV- or NVP-based regimens were retrospectively analyzed. Resistance-associated mutations (RAMs were interpreted by IAS-USA Drug Resistance Mutations. Susceptibility of ETR and RPV were interpreted by DUET, Monogram scoring system, and Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database.1,279 and 528 patients failed EFV- and NVP-based regimens, respectively. Y181C was the most common NVP-associated RAM (54.3% vs. 14.7%, p<0.01. K103N was the most common EFV-associated RAM (56.5% vs. 19.1%, P<0.01. The results from all three scoring systems were concordant. 165(11.1% and 161(10.9% patients who failed NVP-based regimen were susceptible to ETR and RPV, respectively (p = 0.85. 195 (32.2% and 191 (31.6% patients who failed EFV-based regimen, were susceptible to ETR and RPV, respectively (p = 0.79. The susceptibility of ETV and RPV in EFV failure was significantly higher than NVP failure (p<0.01.The mutation patterns for ETR and RPV were similar but 32% and 11% of patients who failed EFV and NVP -based regimen, respectivly were susceptible to RPV. This finding suggests that RPV can be used as the alternative antiretroviral agent in patients who have failed EFV-based regimen.

  10. Genotypic evaluation of etravirine sensitivity of clinical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates carrying resistance mutations to nevirapine and efavirenz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumar, A A; Jnaoui, K; Kabamba-Mukadi, B; Yombi, J C; Vandercam, B; Goubau, P; Ruelle, J

    2010-01-01

    Etravirine is a second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) with a pattern of resistance mutations quite distinct from the current NNRTIs. We collected all routine samples of HIV-1 patients followed in the AIDS reference laboratory of UCLouvain (in 2006 and 2007) carrying resistance-associated mutations to nevirapine (NVP) or efavirenz (EFV). The sensitivity to Etravirine was estimated using three different drug resistance algorithms: ANRS (July 2008), IAS (December 2008) and Stanford (November 2008). We also verified whether the mutations described as resistance mutations are not due to virus polymorphisms by the study of 58 genotypes of NNRTI-naive patients. Sixty one samples harboured resistance to NVP and EFV: 41/61 had at least one resistance mutation to Etravirine according to ANRS-IAS algorithms; 42/61 samples had at least one resistance mutation to Etravirine according to the Stanford algorithm. 48 and 53 cases were fully sensitive to Etravirine according to ANRS-IAS and Stanford algorithms, respectively. Three cases harboured more than three mutations and presented a pattern of high-degree resistance to Etravirine according to ANRS-IAS algorithm, while one case harboured more than three mutations and presented high degree resistance to Etravirine according to the Stanford algorithm. The V1061 and V179D mutations were more frequent in the ARV-naive group than in the NNRTI-experienced one. According to the currently available algorithms, Etravirine can still be used in the majority of patients with virus showing resistance to NVP and/or EFV, if a combination of other active drugs is included.

  11. Impact of glutathione transferases genes polymorphisms in nevirapine adverse reactions: a possible role for GSTM1 in SJS/TEN susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccacci, Cinzia; Latini, Andrea; Politi, Cristina; Mancinelli, Sandro; Marazzi, Maria C; Novelli, Giuseppe; Palombi, Leonardo; Borgiani, Paola

    2017-10-01

    Nevirapine (NVP) is used in developing countries as first-line treatment of HIV infection. Unfortunately, its use is associated with common serious adverse drug reactions, such as liver toxicity and the most severe and rare Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes code for enzymes involved in the metabolism of a wide range of drugs. We hypothesized that this gene variability could be implicated in NVP adverse reactions. We analyzed the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes by multiplex PCR in a population of 181 patients from Mozambique, treated with NVP. A case/control association study was performed. We also counted the number of risk alleles in SJS/TEN patients and in controls, including the GSTM1 null genotype and four previously identified risk alleles in CYP2B6, HCP5, and TRAF3IP2 genes. Among patients, 27 had developed SJS/TEN and 76 had developed hepatotoxicity during the treatment. The GSTM1 null genotype was more frequent in the cases with SJS/TEN than in the controls (OR = 2.94, P = 0.027). This association is also observed when other risk factors are taken into account, by a multivariate analysis (P = 0.024 and OR = 3.58). The risk allele counting analysis revealed a significantly higher risk for SJS/TEN in patients carrying three or four risk alleles. Moreover, all subjects with five or six risk alleles developed SJS/TEN, while subjects without any risk alleles were present only in the control group. We observed an association between GSTM1 and SJS/TEN susceptibility. Moreover, GSTM1 contributes to the definition of a genetic risk profile for SJS/TEN susceptibility.

  12. Role of Rilpivirine and Etravirine in Efavirenz and Nevirapine-Based Regimens Failure in a Resource-Limited Country: A Cross- Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeranaipong, Phairote; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Mekprasan, Suwanna; Ohata, Pirapon June; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Putcharoen, Opass

    2016-01-01

    Etravirine(ETR) can be used for patients who have failed NNRTI-based regimen. In Thailand, ETR is approximately 45 times more expensive than rilpivirine(RPV). However, there are no data of RPV use in NNRTI failure. Therefore, we assessed the susceptibility and mutation patterns of first line NNRTI failure and the possibility of using RPV compared to ETV in patients who have failed efavirenz(EFV)- and nevirapine(NVP)-based regimens. Clinical samples with confirmed virological failure from EFV- or NVP-based regimens were retrospectively analyzed. Resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) were interpreted by IAS-USA Drug Resistance Mutations. Susceptibility of ETR and RPV were interpreted by DUET, Monogram scoring system, and Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database. 1,279 and 528 patients failed EFV- and NVP-based regimens, respectively. Y181C was the most common NVP-associated RAM (54.3% vs. 14.7%, p<0.01). K103N was the most common EFV-associated RAM (56.5% vs. 19.1%, P<0.01). The results from all three scoring systems were concordant. 165(11.1%) and 161(10.9%) patients who failed NVP-based regimen were susceptible to ETR and RPV, respectively (p = 0.85). 195 (32.2%) and 191 (31.6%) patients who failed EFV-based regimen, were susceptible to ETR and RPV, respectively (p = 0.79). The susceptibility of ETV and RPV in EFV failure was significantly higher than NVP failure (p<0.01). The mutation patterns for ETR and RPV were similar but 32% and 11% of patients who failed EFV and NVP -based regimen, respectivly were susceptible to RPV. This finding suggests that RPV can be used as the alternative antiretroviral agent in patients who have failed EFV-based regimen.

  13. Outcomes for efavirenz versus nevirapine-containing regimens for treatment of HIV-1 infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prinitha Pillay

    Full Text Available There is conflicting evidence and practice regarding the use of the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI efavirenz (EFV and nevirapine (NVP in first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART.We systematically reviewed virological outcomes in HIV-1 infected, treatment-naive patients on regimens containing EFV versus NVP from randomised trials and observational cohort studies. Data sources include PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and conference proceedings of the International AIDS Society, Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, between 1996 to May 2013. Relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals were synthesized using random-effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2 statistic, and subgroup analyses performed to assess the potential influence of study design, duration of follow up, location, and tuberculosis treatment. Sensitivity analyses explored the potential influence of different dosages of NVP and different viral load thresholds.Of 5011 citations retrieved, 38 reports of studies comprising 114 391 patients were included for review. EFV was significantly less likely than NVP to lead to virologic failure in both trials (RR 0.85 [0.73-0.99] I(2 = 0% and observational studies (RR 0.65 [0.59-0.71] I(2 = 54%. EFV was more likely to achieve virologic success than NVP, though marginally significant, in both randomised controlled trials (RR 1.04 [1.00-1.08] I(2 = 0% and observational studies (RR 1.06 [1.00-1.12] I(2 = 68%.EFV-based first line ART is significantly less likely to lead to virologic failure compared to NVP-based ART. This finding supports the use of EFV as the preferred NNRTI in first-line treatment regimen for HIV treatment, particularly in resource limited settings.

  14. Differences in Lipid Measurements by Antiretroviral Regimen Exposure in Cohorts from Asia and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit C. Achhra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We explored the mean differences in routinely measured lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol according to exposure to different combination antiretroviral regimens in Asian (n=2051 and Australian (predominantly Caucasian, n=794 cohorts. The regimen was defined as at least 3 antiretroviral drugs with at least 2 nucleoside-reverse transcriptases (NRTIs and either of at least one protease inhibitor (PI or non-nucleoside-reverse transcriptases (NNRTIs. We categorised cART regimens as: NRTIs as tenofovir based or not; NNRTIs as nevirapine or efavirenz (but not both; and PI as atazanavir based or not. We found that the impact of various antiretroviral regimens on lipids in Asian and Australian cohorts was only different by cohort for total cholesterol (P for interaction between regimen and cohort: 0.05. The differences in total cholesterol were however small and unlikely to be of clinical significance. Overall, tenofovir with nevirapine or atazanavir was associated with the most favorable lipids, while the PI regimens without tenofovir and atazanavir were associated with least favorable lipids. We conclude that the impact of various ART regimens on lipids is largely similar in Asian and Australian cohorts and that the newer drugs such as tenofovir and atazanavir are likely to provide similar benefit in terms of lipid profiles in both populations.

  15. The Challenge of Urban Heat Exposure under Climate Change: An Analysis of Cities in the Sustainable Healthy Urban Environments (SHUE Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Milner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The so far largely unabated emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs are expected to increase global temperatures substantially over this century. We quantify the patterns of increases for 246 globally-representative cities in the Sustainable Healthy Urban Environments (SHUE database. We used an ensemble of 18 global climate models (GCMs run under a low (RCP2.6 and high (RCP8.5 emissions scenario to estimate the increase in monthly mean temperatures by 2050 and 2100 based on 30-year averages. Model simulations were from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5. Annual mean temperature increases were 0.93 degrees Celsius by 2050 and 1.10 degrees Celsius by 2100 under RCP2.6, and 1.27 and 4.15 degrees Celsius under RCP8.5, but with substantial city-to-city variation. By 2100, under RCP2.6 no city exceeds an increase in Tmean > 2 degrees Celsius (relative to a 2017 baseline, while all do under RCP8.5, some with increases in Tmean close to, or even greater than, 7 degrees Celsius. The increases were greatest in cities of mid to high latitude, in humid temperate and dry climate regions, and with large seasonal variation in temperature. Cities are likely to experience large increases in hottest month mean temperatures under high GHG emissions trajectories, which will often present substantial challenges to adaptation and health protection.

  16. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...

  17. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  18. Prolonged survival and improved glycemia in BioBreeding diabetic rats after early sustained exposure to glucagon-like peptide 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanay, Ofer; Moralejo, Daniel; Kernan, Kelly; Brzezinski, Margaret; Fuller, Jessica M; Barton, Randall W; Lernmark, Ake; Osborne, William R

    2010-06-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in both humans and BioBreeding (BB) rats is an autoimmune disease that results in complete destruction of islets and insulin dependency for life. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) promotes beta cell proliferation and neogenesis and has a potent insulinotropic effect. We hypothesized that the expression of GLP-1 before disease onset would increase islet mass, delay diabetes and prolong survival of BB rats. Vascular smooth muscle cells retrovirally transduced to secrete GLP-1 were seeded into TheraCyte encapsulation devices, implanted subcutaneously, and rats were monitored for diabetes. In untreated control rats, plasma GLP-1 levels were 34.5-39.5 pmol/l, whereas, in treated rats, plasma levels were elevated, in the range 90-250.4 pmol/l. Hypoglycemia was not detected and this was anticipated from the glucose-regulated action of GLP-1. Diabetes onset (mean + or - SEM) in untreated rats occurred at 56.5 + or - 0.6 days (n = 6) and, in GLP-1-treated rats, was delayed until 76.4 + or - 3.3 days (n = 5) (p 650 mg/dl) and did not survive beyond 11 days. At 5 days after diabetes onset, insulin-secreting islets were absent in untreated rats. By contrast, treated rats maintained weight for up to 143 days of age and showed insulin-secreting beta cells. Sustained GLP-1 expression delivered by encapsulated cells before diabetes onset in BB rats showed an improved clinical outcome, suggesting the potential for treating patients using long lasting GLP-1 analogs.

  19. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    Declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) can be viewed as a piece of international regulation. Over the past 30 years research at universities has produced convincing data to warn about deterioration of the environment, resource scarcity and the need for sustainability. This in turn....... Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...

  20. Enhancement of radial maze performances in CD1 mice after prenatal exposure to oxiracetam: possible role of sustained investigative responses developed during ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammassari-Teule, M; D'Amato, F R; Sansone, M; Oliverio, A

    1988-01-01

    A longitudinal study aimed at analyzing the behavioral effects of prenatal exposure to the nootropic compound oxiracetam was carried out in CD1 mice. Two groups of females were injected either with oxiracetam or saline from the beginning of pregnancy until parturition. Examination of pups from birth until the first month of age revealed no-influence of the treatment on litter size, body weights, sensory motor reflexes and motility. When placed in the open field at one month of age, mice born by mothers exposed to oxiracetam displayed more self grooming and spent less time in freezing than control mice. Prenatally treated mice were then found more interactive with their environment since the introduction of a novel object in the open field was followed by increased ambulation and higher sniffing object and rearing object scores. At three months of age, mice from both groups were tested in a radial six-arm maze task. Choice accuracy was significantly higher in prenatally treated mice which also tended to optimize their exploratory sequences by frequently running the maze in a clock-wise fashion. These results suggest that the better learning performances observed in the experimental group could be viewed as a consequence of an enhanced cognitive development based upon the higher rate of interactions with the environment shown by prenatally treated mice during ontogeny.

  1. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...

  2. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuil...

  3. Sustainability Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability labeling originated from a need to protect the identity of alternative systems of food production and to increase market transparency. From the 1980s onwards sustainability labeling has changed into a policy instrument replacing direct government regulation of the food market, and a

  4. Afterschool Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary D. Joyce

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth participation in quality extended learning opportunities (ELOs results in positive academic, physical, mental health, and social/emotional outcomes. Funding is essential to implementing and sustaining quality ELOs; however multiple funding barriers and challenges exist. Understanding the types of funds available for ELOs and the factors that influence sustainability is critical. Through surveys and telephone interviews of ELO providers, this descriptive study identified and examined ELO funding streams, the ways ELO providers use these funding streams, and the barriers and challenges to sustainability. ELO programs often relied on one major funding stream coupled with nutrition supports as well as in-kind resources. Barriers to sustainability included year-to-year funding, transportation costs, reducing community partnerships, and difficulty in diversifying funds. Recommendations to enhance ELO sustainability are offered, particularly in relation to overcoming the challenges to diversification of funding resources and establishing mutually supportive partnerships and collaboration.

  5. Virological failure of staggered and simultaneous treatment interruption in HIV patients who began Efavirenz-based regimens after allergic reactions to nevirapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripassorn Krittaecho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of this work was to study the virological outcomes associated with two different types of treatment interruption strategies in patients with allergic reactions to nevirapine (NVP. We compared the virological outcomes of (1 HIV-1-infected patients who discontinued an initial NVP-based regimen because of cutaneous allergic reactions to NVP; different types of interruption strategies were used, and second-line regimen was based on efavirenz (EFV; and (2 HIV-1-infected patients who began an EFV-based regimen as a first-line therapy (controls. Methods This retrospective cohort included patients who began an EFV-based regimen, between January 2002 and December 2008, as either an initial regimen or as a subsequent regimen after resolving a cutaneous allergic reaction against an initial NVP-based regimen. The study ended in March 2010. The primary outcome was virological failure, which was defined as either (a two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA levels >400 copies/mL or (b a plasma HIV-1 RNA level >1,000 copies/mL plus any genotypic resistance mutation. Results A total of 559 patients were stratified into three groups: (a Simultaneous Interruption, in which the subjects simultaneously discontinued all the drugs in an NVP-based regimen following an allergic reaction (n=161; (b Staggered Interruption, in which the subjects discontinued NVP treatment while continuing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI backbone therapy for a median of 7 days (n=82; and (c Control, in which the subjects were naïve to antiretroviral therapy (n=316. The overall median follow-up time was 43 months. Incidence of virological failure in Simultaneous Interruption was 12.9 cases per 1,000 person-years, which trended toward being higher than the incidences in Staggered Interruption (5.4 and Control (6.6. However, differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Among the patients who had an acute allergic reaction to first

  6. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  7. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  8. Agriculture: Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  9. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  10. Sustainable Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Futures is a voluntary program that encourages industry to use predictive models to screen new chemicals early in the development process and offers incentives to companies subject to TSCA section 5.

  11. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  12. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt......, that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  13. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  14. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs......” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resources. While growth has delivered benefits, however, it has done so unequally and unsustainably. This thesis focuses...... on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...

  15. Seeking Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L. Spash

    2014-01-01

    What does sustainability research do to help the environment? One might well wonder when observing the annual conference season with various academics and professors in sustainability science, ecological economics or environmental ethics driving to the airport to fly off to international meetings to discuss how bad things are getting, what should been done about it, and how time is running out for action. In fact, singling out a few academic groups is highly unfair because the link between pr...

  16. Local Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizosa Umana, Julio

    1998-01-01

    The current polemic about the possibilities of sustainable development has led to a renovated interest for the topic of the sustainability of the communities and the local sustainability. In front of the global sustainability whose conditions have been exposed by systemic ecologists and for macro economists, the sustainability of specific places arises in the planet whose conditions are object of study of the ecology of landscapes, of the ecological economy, of the cultural anthropology, of the environmental sociology and naturally, of the integral environmentalism. In this discussion the Colombian case charges unusual interest to be one of the few countries of Latin America, where a very dense net of municipalities exists, each one with its urban helmet and with a position and some functions defined by the political constitution of the nation. This net of municipalities and of urban helmets it also constitutes net of alternative to the current macro-cephalic situation. As well as Bogota grew, in a hundred years, of less than a hundred thousand inhabitants to six million inhabitants, each one of these municipalities contains a potential of growth that depends on the characteristics of its ecological, social, economic and politic sustainability

  17. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  18. Greenroads : a sustainability performance metric for roadway design and construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Greenroads is a performance metric for quantifying sustainable practices associated with roadway design and construction. Sustainability is defined as having seven key components: ecology, equity, economy, extent, expectations, experience and exposur...

  19. Environmentally Sustainable Occupational Exposure to Nanoparticles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this pilot study is to investigate and examine the health risks associated with generational nano particles inhaled by truck drivers. The data for the pilot study was collected between May-November 2012 using a random sample survey of 50 Birmingham-area truck drivers that was selected from the Alabama ...

  20. Roundtabling Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity...... and procedures to meet ‘good practice’ in standard setting and management. This is opening space for competing initiatives that are less democratic, quicker, and more aligned with industry interests to establish substantial presence in the market for sustainability certifications. These tend to more easily...

  1. Vorinostat with Sustained Exposure and High Solubility in Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(DL-lactic acid) Micelle Nanocarriers: Characterization and Effects on Pharmacokinetics in Rat Serum and Urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Elham A.; Zhao, Yunqi; Meshali, Mahasen M.; Remsberg, Connie M.; Borg, Thanaa M.; Foda, Abdel Monem M.; Takemoto, Jody K.; Sayre, Casey; Martinez, Stephanie; Davies, Neal M.; Forrest, M. Laird

    2015-01-01

    The histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, known as vorinostat, is a promising anti-cancer drug with a unique mode of action; however, it is plagued by low water solubility, low permeability, and suboptimal pharmacokinetics. In this study, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(DL-lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA) micelles of vorinostat were developed. Vorinostat’s pharmacokinetics in rats were investigated after intravenous (i.v.) (10 mg/kg) and oral (50 mg/kg) micellar administrations and compared to a conventional PEG400 solution and methylcellulose suspension. The micelles increased the aqueous solubility of vorinostat from 0.2 mg/ml to 8.15 ± 0.60 mg/ml and 10.24 ± 0.92 mg/ml at drug to nanocarrier ratios of 1:10 and 1:15, respectively. Micelles had nanoscopic mean diameters of 75.67 ± 7.57 nm and 87.33 ± 8.62 nm for 1:10 and 1:15 micelles, respectively, with drug loading capacities of 9.93 ± 0.21% and 6.91 ± 1.19 %, and encapsulation efficiencies of 42.74 ± 1.67% and 73.29 ± 4.78%, respectively. The micelles provided sustained exposure and improved pharmacokinetics characterized by a significant increase in serum half-life, area under curve, and mean residence time. The micelles reduced vorinostat clearance particularly after i.v. dosing. Thus, PEG-b-PLA micelles significantly improved the oral and intravenous pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of vorinostat, which warrants further investigation. PMID:22806441

  2. Vorinostat with sustained exposure and high solubility in poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(DL-lactic acid) micelle nanocarriers: characterization and effects on pharmacokinetics in rat serum and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Elham A; Zhao, Yunqi; Meshali, Mahasen M; Remsberg, Connie M; Borg, Thanaa M; Foda, Abdel Monem M; Takemoto, Jody K; Sayre, Casey L; Martinez, Stephanie E; Davies, Neal M; Forrest, M Laird

    2012-10-01

    The histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, known as vorinostat, is a promising anticancer drug with a unique mode of action; however, it is plagued by low water solubility, low permeability, and suboptimal pharmacokinetics. In this study, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(DL-lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA) micelles of vorinostat were developed. Vorinostat's pharmacokinetics in rats was investigated after intravenous (i.v.) (10 mg/kg) and oral (p.o.) (50 mg/kg) micellar administrations and compared with a conventional polyethylene glycol 400 solution and methylcellulose suspension. The micelles increased the aqueous solubility of vorinostat from 0.2 to 8.15 ± 0.60 and 10.24 ± 0.92 mg/mL at drug to nanocarrier ratios of 1:10 and 1:15, respectively. Micelles had nanoscopic mean diameters of 75.67 ± 7.57 and 87.33 ± 8.62 nm for 1:10 and 1:15 micelles, respectively, with drug loading capacities of 9.93 ± 0.21% and 6.91 ± 1.19%, and encapsulation efficiencies of 42.74 ± 1.67% and 73.29 ± 4.78%, respectively. The micelles provided sustained exposure and improved pharmacokinetics characterized by a significant increase in serum half-life, area under curve, and mean residence time. The micelles reduced vorinostat clearance particularly after i.v. dosing. Thus, PEG-b-PLA micelles significantly improved the p.o. and i.v. pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of vorinostat, which warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence

  4. Sustainable Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telles, Pedro; Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    and within it how sustainable requirements have increased the level of compliance required, particularly regulatory compliance. Compliance was already present in previous EU public procurement frameworks, but its extent on Directive 2014/24/EU leads the authors to consider the current legal framework...

  5. Exergy sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

    2006-05-01

    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  6. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  7. Sustainable Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltegger, Stefan; Beckmann, Markus; Hockerts, Kai

    2018-01-01

    . We also explore the transformation path of the case company, which starts with simple use and then moves to the feedback to core business pattern. By drawing on insights from lead user theory in innovation management and sustainable entrepreneurship, we ground the new concept in extant literature...

  8. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  9. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  10. Architecture Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich

    2013-01-01

    Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The

  11. Sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    2004-01-01

    Marcel Boiteux evokes the results of the work on the sustainable development by the Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques. This is a vast political programme with the goal of allowing all humanity to live well in growing unity while protecting the environment and favouring economic growth. (author)

  12. Sustainable Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsegai Berhane Ghebretekle

    Ethiopia is selected as a case study in light of its pace in economic growth ... Interrogating the Economy-First Paradigm in 'Sustainable Development' … 65 .... agreement, since such effective global cooperation on climate change ultimately ..... and foster innovation; reduce inequality within and among countries; make cities.

  13. Sustainable Soesterkwartier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahams, H.; Goosen, H.; Jong, de F.; Sickmann, J.; Prins, D.

    2010-01-01

    The municipality of Amersfoort wants to construct an endurable and sustainable eco-town in the Soesterkwartier neighbourhood, by taking future climate change into account. The impact of climate change at the location of the proposed eco-town was studied by a literature review.

  14. Sustainable Sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Kathleen M; Veitch, Daisy

    2016-08-01

    To provide a review of sustainable sizing practices that reduce waste, increase sales, and simultaneously produce safer, better fitting, accommodating products. Sustainable sizing involves a set of methods good for both the environment (sustainable environment) and business (sustainable business). Sustainable sizing methods reduce (1) materials used, (2) the number of sizes or adjustments, and (3) the amount of product unsold or marked down for sale. This reduces waste and cost. The methods can also increase sales by fitting more people in the target market and produce happier, loyal customers with better fitting products. This is a mini-review of methods that result in more sustainable sizing practices. It also reviews and contrasts current statistical and modeling practices that lead to poor fit and sizing. Fit-mapping and the use of cases are two excellent methods suited for creating sustainable sizing, when real people (vs. virtual people) are used. These methods are described and reviewed. Evidence presented supports the view that virtual fitting with simulated people and products is not yet effective. Fit-mapping and cases with real people and actual products result in good design and products that are fit for person, fit for purpose, with good accommodation and comfortable, optimized sizing. While virtual models have been shown to be ineffective for predicting or representing fit, there is an opportunity to improve them by adding fit-mapping data to the models. This will require saving fit data, product data, anthropometry, and demographics in a standardized manner. For this success to extend to the wider design community, the development of a standardized method of data collection for fit-mapping with a globally shared fit-map database is needed. It will enable the world community to build knowledge of fit and accommodation and generate effective virtual fitting for the future. A standardized method of data collection that tests products' fit methodically

  15. Media and sustainable apparel buying intention

    OpenAIRE

    Lenne, de, Orpha; Vandenbosch, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose Using the theory of planned behavior, this paper examined the relationships between different types of media and the intention to buy sustainable apparel and tested whether attitudes, social norms, and self-efficacy beliefs may explain these relationships. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional survey study was conducted among 681 young adults (18-26 years old). Findings Exposure to social media content of sustainable organizations, eco-activists and sustainable appar...

  16. Building sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mass Media

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available particu- lar social environment also being awarded. If a building can be used by the community after hours, it should be awarded extra points.” School sports facilities or meeting halls in corporate buildings, are some example. Multi-purpose use..., architect and senior researcher for the CSIR’s Built Environment Unit, the integra- tion of sustainability in building design cannot begin soon enough before it is too late. He says: “Unfortunately nothing is in place in South Africa. For a start...

  17. Performance of HIV Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission Programs in Sub-Saharan Africa: Longitudinal Assessment of 64 Nevirapine-Based Programs Implemented in 25 Countries, 2000-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Ladner

    Full Text Available To evaluate the performance and to identify predictive factors of performance in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programs (PMTCT in sub-Saharan African countries.From 2000 to 2011, PMTCT programs included in the Viramune Donation Programme (VDP were prospectively followed. Each institution included in the VDP provided data on program implementation, type of management institution, number of PMTCT sites, key programs outputs (HIV counseling and testing, NVP regimens received by mothers and newborns. Nevirapine Coverage Ratio (NCR, defined as the number of women who should have received nevirapine (observed HIV prevalence x number of women in antenatal care, was used to measure performance. Included programs were followed every six months through progress reports.A total of 64 programs in 25 sub-Saharan African countries were included. The mean program follow-up was 48.0 months (SD = 24.5; 20,084,490 women attended in antenatal clinics were included. The overall mean NCR was 0.52 (SD = 0.25, with an increase from 0.37 to 0.57 between the first and last progress reports (p<.0001; NCR increased by 3.26% per year-program. Between the first and the last report, the number of women counseled and tested increased from 64.3% to 86.0% (p<.0001, the number of women post-counseled from 87.5% to 91.3% (p = 0.08. After mixed linear regression analysis, type of responsible institution, number of women attended in ANC, and program initiation in 2005-2006 were significant predictive factors associated with the NCR. The effect of the time period increased from earlier to later periods.A longitudinal assessment of large PMTCT programs shows that scaling-up of programs was increased in sub-Saharan African countries. The PMTCT coverage increased throughout the study period, especially after 2006. Performance may be better for programs with a small or medium number of women attended in ANC. Identification of factors that predict PMTCT program

  18. Interdependences between sustainable development and sustainable economy

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Mioara CÂMPEANU; Carmen Valentina RĂDULESCU

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development and sustainable economy are mostly used concepts. Understanding clearly their meaning allows their use in an appropriate context and, therefore, their boundaries in terms of theoretical and practical approaches on which occasion it can be given their interdependencies. The paper aim is to analyze the interdependences between sustainable development and sustainable economy.

  19. A randomized, double-blind trial comparing combinations of nevirapine, didanosine, and zidovudine for HIV-infected patients: the INCAS Trial. Italy, The Netherlands, Canada and Australia Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montaner, J. S.; Reiss, P.; Cooper, D.; Vella, S.; Harris, M.; Conway, B.; Wainberg, M. A.; Smith, D.; Robinson, P.; Hall, D.; Myers, M.; Lange, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    CONTEXT: Current guidelines recommend that individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) be treated using combinations of antiretroviral agents to achieve sustained suppression of viral replication as measured by the plasma HIV-1 RNA assay, in the hopes of achieving

  20. Performance of sustainable investments : a comparison of sustainable and conventional mutual funds in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Christensson, Lars Stefan Bjerke; Skagestad, Ole Jakob

    2017-01-01

    This thesis compares the performance and risk factor exposure of sustainable and conventional mutual funds in emerging markets from January 2012 to July 2017. We use the latest sustainability ratings provided by Morningstar to define sustainable funds, and apply CAPM, Fama-French and Carhart models to control for the market, size, book-to-market and momentum factors. Additionally, we add a dummy to compare the risk-adjusted returns of the funds, and examine if the difference is...

  1. Efavirenz or nevirapine in three-drug combination therapy with two nucleoside or nucleotide-reverse transcriptase inhibitors for initial treatment of HIV infection in antiretroviral-naïve individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Mursleen, Sara; Irlam, James H; Spaulding, Alicen B; Rutherford, George W; Siegfried, Nandi

    2016-12-10

    The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced the morbidity and mortality due to HIV infection. The World Health Organization (WHO) ART guidelines focus on three classes of antiretroviral drugs, namely nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) and protease inhibitors. Two of the most common medications given as first-line treatment are the NNRTIs, efavirenz (EFV) and nevirapine (NVP). It is unclear which NNRTI is more efficacious for initial therapy. This systematic review was first published in 2010. To determine which non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, either EFV or NVP, is more effective in suppressing viral load when given in combination with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors as part of initial antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in adults and children. We attempted to identify all relevant studies, regardless of language or publication status, in electronic databases and conference proceedings up to 12 August 2016. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov to 12 August 2016. We searched LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature) and the Web of Science from 1996 to 12 August 2016. We checked the National Library of Medicine (NLM) Gateway from 1996 to 2009, as it was no longer available after 2009. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared EFV to NVP in people with HIV without prior exposure to ART, irrespective of the dosage or NRTI's given in combination.The primary outcome of interest was virological success. Other primary outcomes included mortality, clinical progression to AIDS, severe adverse events, and discontinuation of therapy for any reason. Secondary outcomes were change in CD4 count, treatment failure

  2. Virtual Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.

  3. Sustainability; Sustentabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter analyses the production chain of ethanol, considering the impacts on the quality of the air, water supplies, soil occupation and biodiversity, and the efforts for the soil preservation. It is pointed out the activities of the production cycle and use of bio ethanol due to great uncertainties as far the environmental impacts is concerning and that will deserve more attention in future evaluations. At same time, the chapter highlights another activities where the present acknowledge is sufficient to assure the control and/or prediction of consequences of the desired intervention on the environment media to accommodate the sugar and ethanol production expansion. The consideration is not conservative but to promote the sustainable development.

  4. Exposure Forecaster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Exposure Forecaster Database (ExpoCastDB) is EPA's database for aggregating chemical exposure information and can be used to help with chemical exposure...

  5. Sustainability Science Needs Sustainable Data!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    Sustainability science (SS) is an 'emerging field of research dealing with the interactions between natural and social systems, and with how those interactions affect the challenge of sustainability: meeting the needs of present and future generations while substantially reducing poverty and conserving the planet's life support systems' (Kates, 2011; Clark, 2007). Bettencourt & Kaur (2011) identified more than 20,000 scientific papers published on SS topics since the 1980s with more than 35,000 distinct authors. They estimated that the field is currently growing exponentially, with the number of authors doubling approximately every 8 years. These scholars are undoubtedly using and generating a vast quantity and variety of data and information for both SS research and applications. Unfortunately we know little about what data the SS community is actually using, and whether or not the data that SS scholars generate are being preserved for future use. Moreover, since much SS research is conducted by cross-disciplinary, multi-institutional teams, often scattered around the world, there could well be increased risks of data loss, reduced data quality, inadequate documentation, and poor long-term access and usability. Capabilities and processes therefore need to be established today to support continual, reliable, and efficient preservation of and access to SS data in the future, especially so that they can be reused in conjunction with future data and for new studies not conceived in the original data collection activities. Today's long-term data stewardship challenges include establishing sustainable data governance to facilitate continuing management, selecting data to ensure that limited resources are focused on high priority SS data holdings, securing sufficient rights to allow unforeseen uses, and preparing data to enable use by future communities whose specific research and information needs are not yet known. Adopting sustainable models for archival

  6. John Deakin: Double Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rousseau

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this series of short films made by Jonathan Law, the art historian James Boaden, and the curator of The John Deakin Archive, Paul Rousseau, discuss the double-exposure images made by the photographer John Deakin (1912-1972 in the 1950s and 1960s. The films ask you, firstly, to look closely at the images being discussed. Each one begins with a sustained and intense shot of a single image before opening up to a wide-ranging discussion about Deakin, double exposures, and photography.

  7. Sustainable NREL - Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-01

    NREL's Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015 reports on sustainability plans for the lab for the year 2015 based on Executive Order Goals and provides the status on planned actions cited in the FY 2014 report.

  8. Advances in Exposure Science (Washington, DC Modernized TSCA meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    I am describing current research from the Chemical Safety for Sustainability research program's Rapid Exposure and Dosimetry project that relates to predicting human exposure to environmental chemicals for thousands of chemicals.

  9. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  10. Sustainability in Transport Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Greve, Carsten

    Contribution to session J: Joint University Sustainability Initiatives. This session will provide an inspiring overview of interdisciplinary research and teaching activities on sustainability bridging DTU, KU, and CBS, and introduce the joint collaboration Copenhagen Sustainability Initiative (COSI...

  11. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable technologies

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to deal with the innovative technologies in the field of textiles and clothing sustainability. It details a number of sustainable and innovative technologies and highlights their implications in the clothing sector. There are currently various measures to achieve sustainability in the textiles and the clothing industry, including innovations in the manufacturing stage, which is the crux of this book.

  12. Sustainable diets within sustainable food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybeck, Alexandre; Gitz, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Sustainable diets and sustainable food systems are increasingly explored by diverse scientific disciplines. They are also recognised by the international community and called upon to orient action towards the eradication of hunger and malnutrition and the fulfilment of sustainable development goals. The aim of the present paper is to briefly consider some of the links between these two notions in order to facilitate the operationalisation of the concept of sustainable diet. The concept of sustainable diet was defined in 2010 combining two totally different perspectives: a nutrition perspective, focused on individuals, and a global sustainability perspective, in all its dimensions: environmental, economic and social. The nutrition perspective can be easily related to health outcomes. The global sustainability perspective is more difficult to analyse directly. We propose that it be measured as the contribution of a diet to the sustainability of food systems. Such an approach, covering the three dimensions of sustainability, enables identification of interactions and interrelations between food systems and diets. It provides opportunities to find levers of change towards sustainability. Diets are both the results and the drivers of food systems. The drivers of change for those variously involved, consumers and private individuals, are different, and can be triggered by different dimensions (heath, environment, social and cultural). Combining different dimensions and reasons for change can help facilitate the transition to sustainable diets, recognising the food system's specificities. The adoption of sustainable diets can be facilitated and enabled by food systems, and by appropriate policies and incentives.

  13. Meta-analysis of two randomized controlled trials comparing combined zidovudine and didanosine therapy with combined zidovudine, didanosine, and nevirapine therapy in patients with HIV. INCAS study team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboud, J M; Rae, S; Vella, S; Harrigan, P R; Bucciardini, R; Fragola, V; Ricciardulli, D; Montaner, J S

    1999-11-01

    To extend the range of CD4 counts in which a plasma viral load nadir (pVL) 100,000 copies/ml. Among triple therapy patients, the relative risk of virologic failure was higher for patients with higher baseline pVL (rate ratio [RR] = 2.51/log10 copies/ ml; p = .01), after controlling for compliance and pVL nadir. The relative risks of virologic failure associated with pVL nadir 400 copies/ml. We have extended our earlier results that achieving a pVL nadir <20 copies/ml is important for maintaining virologic suppression. In particular, we have demonstrated that a pVL nadir <20 copies/ml is at least fivefold more protective against virologic failure than achieving a pVL nadir between 20 and 400 copies/ml. Baseline pVL is significantly associated with the probability of achieving and sustaining virologic suppression.

  14. Analysis of nevirapine (NVP) resistance in Ugandan infants who were HIV infected despite receiving single-Dose (SD) NVP versus SD NVP plus daily NVP up to 6 weeks of age to prevent HIV vertical transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Jessica D; Omer, Saad B; Guay, Laura A; Huang, Wei; Lidstrom, Jessica; Musoke, Philippa; Mmiro, Francis; Jackson, J Brooks; Eshleman, Susan H

    2008-10-01

    Single-dose nevirapine (SD NVP) at birth plus NVP prophylaxis for the infant up to 6 weeks of age is superior to SD NVP alone for prevention of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through breastfeeding. We analyzed NVP resistance in HIV-infected Ugandan infants who received either SD NVP or extended NVP prophylaxis. We tested plasma HIV by using a genotyping assay (ViroSeq; Celera Diagnostics), a phenotypic resistance assay (PhenoSense; Monogram Biosciences), and sensitive point mutation assay (LigAmp, for K103N, Y181C, and G190A). When infants were 6 weeks old, ViroSeq detected NVP resistance in a higher proportion of infants in the extended NVP arm than in the SD NVP arm (21 of 25 [84%] vs. 12 of 24 [50%]; P = .01). Similar results were obtained with LigAmp and PhenoSense. In both study arms, infants who were HIV infected at birth frequently had NVP resistance detected. In contrast, infants in the extended NVP arm who were HIV infected after birth were more likely to have resistance detected at 6 weeks, compared with infants in the SD NVP arm. The use of extended NVP prophylaxis was also associated with detection of NVP resistance by ViroSeq at 6 months (7 of 7 [100%] infants in the extended NVP arm had resistance detected, compared with 1 of 6 [16.7%] infants in the SD NVP arm; P = .005). The use of extended NVP prophylaxis was associated with increased selection for and persistence of NVP resistance in HIV-infected Ugandan infants.

  15. Assessing sustainable remediation frameworks using sustainability principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridsdale, D Reanne; Noble, Bram F

    2016-12-15

    The remediation industry has grown exponentially in recent decades. International organizations of practitioners and remediation experts have developed several frameworks for integrating sustainability into remediation projects; however, there has been limited attention to how sustainability is approached and operationalized in sustainable remediation frameworks and practices - or whether sustainability plays any meaningful role at all in sustainable remediation. This paper examines how sustainability is represented in remediation frameworks and the guidance provided for practical application. Seven broad sustainability principles and review criteria are proposed and applied to a sample of six international remediation frameworks. Not all review criteria were equally satisfied and none of the frameworks fully met all criteria; however, the best performing frameworks were those identified as sustainability remediation frameworks. Intra-generational equity was addressed by all frameworks. Integrating social, economic and biophysical components beyond triple-bottom-line indicators was explicitly addressed only by the sustainable remediation frameworks. No frameworks provided principle- or rule-based guidance for dealing with trade-offs in sustainability decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Technology and sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Boersema, J.J.; Tellegen, E.; Cremers, A.

    2011-01-01

    In ten essays, this book addresses a broad range of issues related to the interplay of sustainability and technology. How do population growth and technology relate to sustainable development? Can globalization be reconciled with sustainable development? Is sustainability a subjective or an

  17. Sustainable consumption and marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the

  18. Externality or sustainability economics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  19. Engineering Sustainability: A Technical Approach to Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Marc A.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability is a critically important goal for human activity and development. Sustainability in the area of engineering is of great importance to any plans for overall sustainability given 1) the pervasiveness of engineering activities in societies, 2) their importance in economic development and living standards, and 3) the significant impacts that engineering processes and systems have had, and continue to have, on the environment. Many factors that need to be considered and appropriate...

  20. Sustainability in Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollin, Karin; Vej, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    How do companies integrate sustainability into their strategy and practices, and what factors explain their approach? In this paper a typology of sustainability strategies is presented as well as a conceptual framework relating sustainability at the company level to the functional level of market...... managers' mindsets, a framework addressing sustainability from four organisational learning schools was designed and followed......How do companies integrate sustainability into their strategy and practices, and what factors explain their approach? In this paper a typology of sustainability strategies is presented as well as a conceptual framework relating sustainability at the company level to the functional level...... of marketing. The central contribution of the typology is a strategic and managerial view on sustainability. Furthermore, the typology shows that sustainability in business is enacted from different areas of competences and fields in the literature (e.g. supply chain management, corporate branding, value...

  1. Sustainable Table | Welcome to Sustainable Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Seafood Industrial Agriculture Industrial Livestock Production Antibiotics Hormones rBGH Animal , safeguarding animal welfare and supporting local communities. Questions to Ask Asking questions is the best way Livestock Husbandry Sustainable Crop Production Innovative Agriculture New Farmers Organic Agriculture Local

  2. Education for sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2009-01-01

     An introduction to the idea of sustainable development (SD) and education for sustainable development (ESD) with reference to the international Decade for Education for Sustainable Development . The chapter includes a focus on conflicting interests between present and future generations related ...... to the use of natural resources and other matters, and how that kind of issues can be dealt with in education as ESD....... An introduction to the idea of sustainable development (SD) and education for sustainable development (ESD) with reference to the international Decade for Education for Sustainable Development . The chapter includes a focus on conflicting interests between present and future generations related...

  3. Smart Sustainable Islands VS Smart Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, D. N.; Moussas, V. C.; Murgante, B.; Daverona, A. C.; Stratakis, P.; Vlissidis, N.; Kavadias, A.; Economou, D.; Santimpantakis, K.; Karathanasis, B.; Kyriakopoulou, V.; Gadolou, E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper has several aims: a) the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms "smart sustainable cities" and "smart sustainable islands" b) the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors) which concern the insular municipalities c) the creation of an island's smartification and sustainability index d) the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e) the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  4. Conceptualising sustainability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, Jenny; Annandale, David; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2004-01-01

    Sustainability assessment is being increasingly viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainability. However, this is a new and evolving concept and there remain very few examples of effective sustainability assessment processes implemented anywhere in the world. Sustainability assessment is often described as a process by which the implications of an initiative on sustainability are evaluated, where the initiative can be a proposed or existing policy, plan, programme, project, piece of legislation, or a current practice or activity. However, this generic definition covers a broad range of different processes, many of which have been described in the literature as 'sustainability assessment'. This article seeks to provide some clarification by reflecting on the different approaches described in the literature as being forms of sustainability assessment, and evaluating them in terms of their potential contributions to sustainability. Many of these are actually examples of 'integrated assessment', derived from environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA), but which have been extended to incorporate social and economic considerations as well as environmental ones, reflecting a 'triple bottom line' (TBL) approach to sustainability. These integrated assessment processes typically either seek to minimise 'unsustainability', or to achieve TBL objectives. Both aims may, or may not, result in sustainable practice. We present an alternative conception of sustainability assessment, with the more ambitious aim of seeking to determine whether or not an initiative is actually sustainable. We term such processes 'assessment for sustainability'. 'Assessment for sustainability' firstly requires that the concept of sustainability be well-defined. The article compares TBL approaches and principles-based approaches to developing such sustainability criteria, concluding that the latter are more appropriate, since they avoid many

  5. Opinion on the behalf of the Commission for Sustainable Development and Land Planning on the bill project, modified by the Senate, related to sobriety, transparency, information and consultation with respect to exposure to electromagnetic waves (nr 2062). Nr 2501

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallard, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    This report first recalls the evolution of the bill project with its accepted or refused amendments associated with its main articles. Those articles addressed the return of the notion of sobriety for the exposure to electromagnetic fields, the crucial role of local executive power in the information and consultation procedure in the case of new installations of relay antennas, a more reliable definition of some atypical issues, obligations of information and awareness heightening of public and users, and maintaining the taking into account of the health impact of electromagnetic waves. Discussions of the commission on general issues and on the bill project articles are reported

  6. Handbook of sustainable engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kun-Mo

    2013-01-01

    "The efficient utilization of energy, sustainable use of natural resources, and large-scale adoption of sustainable technologies is the key to a sustainable future. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering provides tools that will help us achieve these goals". Nobel Prize Winner Dr. R.K. Pauchauri, Chairman, UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change As global society confronts the challenges of diminishing resources, ecological degradation, and climate change, engineers play a crucial role designing and building technologies and products that fulfil our needs for utility and sustainability. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering equips readers with the context and the best practices derived from both academic research and practical examples of successful implementations of sustainable technical solutions. The handbook’s content revolves around the two themes, new ways of thinking and new business models, including sustainable production, products, service systems and consumption while addressing key asse...

  7. Sustainable Water Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources for state and local environmental and public health officials, and water, infrastructure and utility professionals to learn about sustainable water infrastructure, sustainable water and energy practices, and their role.

  8. Sustainable development. First part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, U.; Lanzavecchia, G.; Berrini, M; Zambrini, M.; Bologna, G.; Carraro, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Mastino, G.; Federico, A.; Gaudioso, D.; Luise, A.; Mauro, F.; Padovani, L.; Federico, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes a collective effort and represents the second edition of: Environment, energy, economy: a sustainable future. In this work are reported various interventions on sustainable development problem [it

  9. Sustainable Public Bids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil César Costa de Paula

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will discuss the issue of sustainability in public procurement, given that the government in Brazil is constituted as a great promoter of economic development and needs to adapt its acquisitions worldwide sustainability agenda.

  10. Neighbourhood facilities for sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available . In this paper these are referred to as ‘Neighbourhood Facilities for Sustainability’. Neighbourhood Facilities for Sustainability (NFS) are initiatives undertaken by individuals and communities to build local sustainable systems which not only improve...

  11. FORUM: Is Ecotourism Sustainable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall

    1997-07-01

    / It is legitimate to ask whether and in what form tourism might contribute to sustainable development. This is not the same as sustainable tourism which, as a single-sector approach to development, may overlook important linkages with other sectors. If tourism is to contribute to sustainable development, then it must be economically viable, ecologically sensitive and culturally appropriate. Ecotourism is often advocated as being a sustainable form of tourism but imprecision in terminology clouds basic issues and there are strong economic, ecological, and cultural reasons for believing that, even in its purest forms, ecotourism is likely to present substantial challenges to destination areas, particularly if it competes for scarce resources and displaces existing uses and users. Sustainable tourism and ecotourism are not synonyms, many forms of ecotourism may not be sustainable, and if ecotourism is to contribute to sustainable development, then careful planning and management will be required.KEY WORDS: Ecotourism; Sustainable development; Development; Tourism

  12. Energy and sustainable development: issues and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, O.

    2001-01-01

    Future development needs to be sustainable in all of its dimensions if it is to continue to fully contribute to human welfare. In the achievement of this objective, the manner in which energy is produced and consumed is of crucial importance. In the wake of these insights, first attempts begin to provide concrete options for steps towards sustainability in the energy sector. Two criteria can be identified for developing sustainable development policies. First, such policies need to strike a balance between the three dimensions of sustainable development - economic, environmental and social - acknowledging that all three are intrinsically linked. Second, policies in the energy sector need to reduce exposure to large-scale risks and improve the resilience of the energy system through active risk management and diversification. (authors)

  13. Comparing two service delivery models for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV during transition from single-dose nevirapine to multi-drug antiretroviral regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugwaneza Placidie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV has been eliminated from the developed world with the introduction of multi-drug antiretroviral (md-ARV regimens for the prevention of MTCT (PMTCT; but remains the major cause of HIV infection among sub-Saharan African children. This study compares two service delivery models of PMTCT interventions and documents the lessons learned and the challenges encountered during the transition from single-dose nevirapine (sd-nvp to md-ARV regimens in a resource-limited setting. Methods Program data collected from 32 clinical sites was used to describe trends and compare the performance (uptake of HIV testing, CD4 screening and ARV regimens initiated during pregnancy of sites providing PMTCT as a stand-alone service (stand-alone site versus sites providing PMTCT as well as antiretroviral therapy (ART (full package site. CD4 cell count screening, enrolment into ART services and the initiation of md-ARV regimens during pregnancy, including dual (zidovudine [AZT] +sd-nvp prophylaxis and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART were analysed. Results From July 2006 to December 2008, 1,622 pregnant women tested HIV positive (HIV+ during antenatal care (ANC. CD4 cell count screening during pregnancy increased from 60% to 70%, and the initiation of md-ARV regimens increased from 35.5% to 97% during this period. In 2008, women attending ANC at full package sites were 30% more likely to undergo CD4 cell count assessment during pregnancy than women attending stand-alone sites (relative risk (RR = 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.1-1.4. Enrolment of HIV+ pregnant women in ART services was almost twice as likely at full package sites than at stand-alone sites (RR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.5-2.3. However, no significant differences were detected between the two models of care in providing md-ARV (RR = 0.9; 95% CI: 0.9-1.0. Conclusions All sites successfully transitioned from sd-nvp to md-ARV regimens for PMTCT

  14. A cross-sectional study of the magnitude, barriers, and outcomes of HIV status disclosure among women participating in a perinatal HIV transmission study, "the Nevirapine Repeat Pregnancy study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiweewa, Flavia M; Bakaki, Paul M; McConnell, Michelle S; Musisi, Maria; Namirembe, Constance; Nakayiwa, Frances; Kusasira, Fiona; Nakintu, Dorothy; Mubiru, Michael C; Musoke, Philippa; Fowler, Mary Glenn

    2015-09-29

    HIV status disclosure is a difficult emotional task for HIV-infected persons and may create the opportunity for both social support and rejection. In this study, we evaluated the proportions, patterns, barriers and outcomes of HIV- 1 status disclosure among a group of women in Uganda. An exit interview was conducted one year post-partum for 85 HIV-infected women who participated in a study of HIV-1 transmission rates among NVP-experienced compared with NVP-naïve women in "The Nevirapine Repeat Pregnancy (NVP-RP) Study" at the Makerere University-Johns Hopkins University Research Collaboration, Kampala-Uganda, between June 2004 and June 2006. Of the 85 women interviewed, 99 % had disclosed their HIV status to at least one other person. Disclosure proportions ranged between 1 % to employer(s) and 69 % to a relative other than a parent. Only 38 % of the women had disclosed to their sex partners. Women with an HIV-infected baby were more likely than those with an uninfected baby to disclose to their sex partner, OR 4.9 (95 % CI, 2.0 -11.2), and women were less likely to disclose to a partner if they had previously disclosed to another relative than if they had not, OR 0.19 (95 % CI, 0.14-0.52). The most common reasons for non-disclosure included fear of separation from the partner and subsequent loss of financial support 34 %, and not living with the partner (not having opportunities to disclose) 26 %. While most women (67 %) reported getting social support following disclosure, 22 % reported negative outcomes (neglect, separation from their partners, and loss of financial support). Following disclosure of HIV status, 9 % of women reported that their partner (s) decided to have an HIV test. Results from this study show high overall HIV disclosure proportions and how this disclosure of HIV status can foster social support. However, proportions of disclosure specifically to male sex partners were low, which suggests the need for interventions aimed at increasing male

  15. Sustainability Statement and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nine resources that focus on environmental education and sustainability. These include: (1) "Sustainability Statement and Policy," Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2009, which is available at http://office.sustainability.dal.ca/Governance; (2) "Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate…

  16. The sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of the sustainable development week (june 2003), Actu Environnement published a complete document on the sustainable development to inform the public, recall the main steps of this notion (Rio conference and the following conferences) and the possible employments. It presents also the main organizations acting in the sustainable development domain. (A.L.B.)

  17. Toward sustainable logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soysal, Mehmet; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M.

    2017-01-01

    The fast evolution of sustainability leads to the development of a new fast-growing concept called sustainable logistics management. This research addresses recent business trends and challenges in logistics and their implications for sustainable logistics management. Additionally, we discuss policy

  18. ORNL Annual Sustainability Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nichols, Teresa A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-02-01

    As described in this report, we have made substantial progress across the 25 roadmaps of the Sustainable Campus Initiative. The report also outlines our plans to continue integrating sustainable practices into the planning, execution, and evaluation of all ORNL activities. We appreciate your interest in our journey to sustainability, and we welcome your comments, questions, and suggestions.

  19. Toward sustainable logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soysal, Mehmet; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M.

    2018-01-01

    The fast evolution of sustainability leads to the development of a new fast-growing concept called sustainable logistics management. This research addresses recent business trends and challenges in logistics and their implications for sustainable logistics management. Additionally, we discuss policy

  20. Sustainable Learning Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Luis E.; Esquer, Javier; Munguia, Nora E.; Moure-Eraso, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to debate how companies may better become a sustainable learning organization by offering the most used and insightful concepts of sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: Through literature review, learning organization and sustainability perspectives are explored and compared. Findings: Learning…

  1. Sustainability Annual Report 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  2. Sustainability Annual Report 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  3. Sustainability Annual Report 2017

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  4. Sustainability Annual Report 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  5. Sustainability Annual Report 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  6. Sustainability Annual Report 2015

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  7. Sustainability Annual Report 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  8. Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traverso, Marzia; Finkbeiner, Matthias; Jørgensen, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    One method to assess the sustainability performance of products is life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), which assesses product performance considering the environmental,economic, and social dimensions of the life cycle. The results of LCSA can be used to compare different products...... of sustainability is the communicability of the results by means of a graphical representation (a cartogram), characterized by a suitable chromatic scale and ranking score. The integration of LCSA and the dashboard of sustainability into a so-called Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard (LCSD) is described here...

  9. LCA and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltesen, Andreas; Bjørn, Anders

    2018-01-01

    LCA is often presented as a sustainability assessment tool. This chapter analyses the relationship between LCA and sustainability. This is done by first outlining the history of the sustainability concept, which gained momentum with the Brundtland Commission’s report ‘Our Common Future report...... is then demonstrated, and the strategy of LCA to achieving environmental protection, namely to guide the reduction of environmental impacts per delivery of a function, is explained. The attempt to broaden the scope of LCA, beyond environmental protection, by so-called life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA......) is outlined. Finally, the limitations of LCA in guiding a sustainable development are discussed....

  10. Fur and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else; Csaba, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of deeper luxury, which insists that 'real' luxury should involve sustainable practices in the production and consumption of luxury goods. It traces historical and recent developments in the field of fur, to understand the implications, uncertainties and ambiguities...... of luxury’s confrontation with sustainability. Considering fur in relation to future standards for luxury products, we raise questions about moral problematisation and justification of luxury in terms of sustainability. We first examine the encounter of luxury with sustainability and explain...... the significance of the notion of ‘deeper luxury’. After taking stock of the impact of sustainability on luxury and various directions in which sustainable luxury is evolving, we discuss concepts of sustainable development in relation to the history of moral problematisation of luxury. This leads to the case...

  11. Sustainability index for Taipei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-J.; Huang Chingming

    2007-01-01

    Sustainability indicators are an effective means of determining whether a city is moving towards sustainable development (SD). After considering the characteristics of Taipei, Taiwan, discussions with experts, scholars and government departments and an exhaustive literature review, this study selected 51 sustainability indicators corresponding to the socio-economic characteristic of Taipei City. Such indicators should be regarded as a basis for assessing SD in Taipei City. The 51 indicators are classified into economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions. Furthermore, statistical data is adopted to identify the trend of SD from 1994 to 2004. Moreover, the sustainability index is calculated for the four dimensions and for Taipei as a whole. Analysis results demonstrate that social and environmental indicators are moving towards SD, while economic and institutional dimensions are performing relatively poorly. However, since 2002, the economic sustainability index has gradually moved towards SD. Overall, the Taipei sustainability index indicates a gradual trend towards sustainable development during the past 11 years

  12. Sustainability and Entrepreneurial Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.; Anderson, Alistair

    Abstract Objectives - This paper explores how entrepreneurial action can lead to environmental sustainability. It builds on the assumption that the creation of sustainble practices is one of the most important challenges facing the global society, and that entrepreneurial action is a vital......: resource oriented sustainable entrepreneurial action.  Approach - The paper uses a case study approach to build deeper theoretical knowledge of environmentally sustainable entrepreneurship.  Results - The paper identifies and analyses a distinct form of sustainable entrepreneurship -  resource oriented...... entrepreneurship - which uses bricolage in various ways to create sustainable solutions. Implications and value - The concept of resource oriented sustainable entrepreneurship contributes to the theoretical understanding of how entrepreneurial action can support sustainability, Furthermore the case study has...

  13. Health and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjӕrgård, Bente; Land, Birgit; Bransholm Pedersen, Kirsten

    2014-09-01

    In the present article, we explore how sustainable development strategies and health promotion strategies can be bridged. The concept of the 'duality of structure' is taken as our starting point for understanding the linkages between health promotion and sustainable development, and for uncovering the structural properties or conditions which either enable or constrain sustainable public health initiatives. We argue that strategies towards health promotion are not sufficiently integrated with strategies for sustainable development, and thus political strategies aimed at solving health problems or sustainability problems may cause new, undesired and unforeseen environmental or health problems. First, we explore how the relation between health and sustainability is articulated in international policy documents. Next, we develop a model for understanding the relation between health promotion and sustainability. Third, we use examples from agriculture and food production to illustrate that health and sustainability are mutually enabling and constraining. We conclude that while the renewed focus on food security and food inequalities has brought the health and sustainability dimensions of the food system onto the political agenda, the conceptualization of duality between health and sustainability could be a new platform for a critical and theoretical stance towards the market-oriented food system strategy. Thinking along the lines of duality means that the integration of health promotion strategies and sustainable development strategies cannot be based on an approach to integration in which either health or sustainability is given precedence over the other. From a duality perspective, integration means conceiving sustainability from a health perspective and health from a sustainability perspective. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. SMART SUSTAINABLE ISLANDS VS SMART SUSTAINABLE CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Pantazis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper has several aims: a the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms “smart sustainable cities” and “smart sustainable islands” b the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors which concern the insular municipalities c the creation of an island’s smartification and sustainability index d the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  15. Health and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Birgit; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Kjærgård, Bente

    2014-01-01

    In the present article, we explore how sustainable development strategies and health promotion strategies can be bridged. The concept of the ‘duality of structure’ is taken as our starting point for understanding the linkages between health promotion and sustainable development, and for uncovering...... the structural properties or conditions which either enable or constrain sustainable public health initiatives. We argue that strategies towards health promotion are not sufficiently integrated with strategies for sustainable development, and thus political strategies aimed at solving health problems...... or sustainability problems may cause new, undesired and unforeseen environmental or health problems. First, we explore how the relation between health and sustainability is articulated in international policy documents. Next, we develop a model for understanding the relation between health promotion...

  16. ICT innovations for sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Aebischer, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    ICT Innovations for Sustainability is an investigation of how information and communication technology can contribute to sustainable development. It presents clear definitions of sustainability, suggesting conceptual frameworks for the positive and negative effects of ICT on sustainable development. It reviews methods of assessing the direct and indirect impact of ICT systems on energy and materials demand, and examines the results of such assessments. In addition, it investigates ICT-based approaches to supporting sustainable patterns of production and consumption, analyzing them at various levels of abstraction – from end-user devices, Internet infrastructure, user behavior, and social practices to macro-economic indicators.   Combining approaches from Computer Science, Information Systems, Human-Computer Interaction, Economics, and Environmental Sciences, the book presents a new, holistic perspective on ICT for Sustainability (ICT4S). It is an indispensable resource for anyone working in the area of ICT...

  17. Engineering students' sustainability approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S.

    2014-05-01

    Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The empirical base of the article is a nation-wide, web-based survey sent to all newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark commencing their education in the fall term 2010. The response rate was 46%. The survey focused on a variety of different aspects of what can be conceived as sustainability. By means of cluster analysis, three engineering student approaches to sustainability are identified and described. The article provides knowledge on the different prerequisites of engineering students in relation to the role of sustainability in engineering. This information is important input to educators trying to target new engineering students and contribute to the provision of engineers equipped to meet sustainability challenges.

  18. Sustainable Concrete Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing concern over global warming and significant ecological changes requires sustainable development in all fields of science and technology. Concrete not only consumes huge amount of energy and natural sources, but also emits large amount of CO2, mainly due to the production of cement. It is evident that such large amount of concrete production has put significant impact on the energy, resource, environment, and ecology of the society. Hence, how to develop the concrete technology in a sustainable way has become a significant issue. In this paper, some of Korean researches for sustainable development of concrete are presented. These are sustainable strengthening for deteriorated concrete structure, sustainable reinforcement of new concrete structure, sustainable concrete using recycled aggregate and supplementary cementing materials and finally application of each technique to precast concrete.

  19. Sustainable Housing Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Gert Michael

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Housing Design. Integrating technical and housing quality aspects of sustainable architecture in civil engineering education. Summary An integrated design approach to sustainable architecture is outlined that combines concerns for zero energy building, good indoor climate and adequate...... phases. The outcome shows that integrated design further solutions where sustainable urban forms of settlement can be highly energy efficient while also attractive from a user perspective. Key words: Sustainable architecture, integrated design, zero-energy-housing, dense urban living. 1. Introduction...... When designing sustainable housing, energy optimization and satisfactory indoor climates are central issues that need to be incorporated from early design phases if to reach a coherent design. It might also be argued that the energy consumption of contemporary buildings only plays a rela-tively minor...

  20. Is Mass Customization Sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    Mass customizers are like other companies currently experiencing an increasing customer demand for environmentally sustainable products as well as an increasingly strict legislation regarding environmental sustainability. This paper addresses the issue whether the concepts mass customization...... and sustainability are fundamentally compatible by asking the question: can a mass customized product be sustainable? Several factors could indicate that mass customized products are less sustainable than standardized products; however other factors suggest the opposite. This paper explores these factors during...... three life cycle phases for a product: Production, Use and End of Life. It is concluded that there is not an unambiguous causal relationship between mass customization and sustainability; however several factors unique to mass customized products are essential to consider during product and process...

  1. Motivations Behind Sustainable Purchasing

    OpenAIRE

    Vörösmarty, Gyöngyi; Dobos, Imre; Tátrai, Tünde

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability issues in purchasing are receiving greater attention. Literature is rapidly growing, with several research programs being initiated to investigate the topic. This study presents the results of a research project which aims to reveal and structure the motivating forces leading companies to make efforts in sustainability purchasing and the means used to attain achievements in some fields of sustainability. Results presented in the literature are scattered in terms of ...

  2. Monitor Sustainable Netherlands 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    The Monitor provides an image of the sustainability of the Dutch society. It shows which areas are successful and what the 'concerns for tomorrow' are from the point of view of sustainability. An analysis is conducted of how the Netherlands are doing in the fields of climate change, biodiversity, health, knowledge, graying and social cohesion. These and many other topics are discussed in this monitor by means of a number of sustainability indicators and detail analyses [mk]. [nl

  3. Monitor Sustainable Netherlands 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    The Monitor provides an image of the sustainability of the Dutch society. It shows which areas are successful and what the 'concerns for tomorrow' are from the point of view of sustainability. An analysis is conducted of how the Netherlands are doing in the fields of climate change, biodiversity, health, knowledge, graying and social cohesion. These and many other topics are discussed in this monitor by means of a number of sustainability indicators and detail analyses [mk] [nl

  4. Managing Supplier Sustainability Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Harilainen, Hanna-Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Supply chains are increasingly global, often reaching to developing regions. The media pressure brand owners to be responsible, but a product is only as sustainable as the practices of all the companies involved in manufacturing it are. It’s not enough that the brand owner acts responsibly; sustainable practices have to reach component and raw material suppliers upstream. Image risk has often been recognized as reason for investing in sustainability. In the supply chain context, supplier m...

  5. Sustainability and Organizational Change

    OpenAIRE

    Sitnikov, Catălina

    2012-01-01

    The relevant and, above all, remarkable feature of sustainability is due to its "duality": on the one hand, it is an indispensable element within the companies even if, on the other hand, it increases the costs of many activities and processes. Facing the challenge of sustainability will determine and create, in the coming years, emerging organizational forms. If ten years ago, many managers clearly expressed their doubts regarding the financial feasibility of sustainability, today, they admi...

  6. Towards a Sustainable Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Patuel Chust, Pascual

    2014-01-01

    The growing awareness of the importance of ecology in the last decades has led many architects to rethink their construction proposals to make them more respectful of the environment and sustainability. The present article analyzes the legislation, conferences and international declarations (Earth Summit, Declaration of Interdependence for a Sustainable Future, Introduction to Sustainable Design) that have advocated the practice of a more ecological architecture. Also examined ...

  7. Sustainable Management of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information to organizations to help them implement sustainable food management, including joining the Food Recovery Challenge. To provide education and information to communities and concerned citizens.

  8. Sustainable wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Zhongming; Xuemin

    2013-01-01

    This brief focuses on network planning and resource allocation by jointly considering cost and energy sustainability in wireless networks with sustainable energy. The characteristics of green energy and investigating existing energy-efficient green approaches for wireless networks with sustainable energy is covered in the first part of this brief. The book then addresses the random availability and capacity of the energy supply. The authors explore how to maximize the energy sustainability of the network and minimize the failure probability that the mesh access points (APs) could deplete their

  9. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    on urban sustainability the need to move towards sustainability at societal level is conceptualised as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By understanding sustainability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously to renew itself without...... with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, the work shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia, where aspects...

  10. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to provide local citizens with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, this book shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia...

  11. Sustained induction of cytochrome P4501A1 in human hepatoma cells by co-exposure to benzo[a]pyrene and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole underlies the synergistic effects on DNA adduct formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gábelová, Alena, E-mail: alena.gabelova@savba.sk [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Poláková, Veronika [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Prochazka, Gabriela [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Kretová, Miroslava; Poloncová, Katarína; Regendová, Eva; Luciaková, Katarína [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Segerbäck, Dan [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    To gain a deeper insight into the potential interactions between individual aromatic hydrocarbons in a mixture, several benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC) binary mixtures were studied. The biological activity of the binary mixtures was investigated in the HepG2 and WB-F344 liver cell lines and the Chinese hamster V79 cell line that stably expresses the human cytochrome P4501A1 (hCYP1A1). In the V79 cells, binary mixtures, in contrast to individual carcinogens, caused a significant decrease in the levels of micronuclei, DNA adducts and gene mutations, but not in cell survival. Similarly, a lower frequency of micronuclei and levels of DNA adducts were found in rat liver WB-F344 cells treated with a binary mixture, regardless of the exposure time. The observed antagonism between B[a]P and DBC may be due to an inhibition of Cyp1a1 expression because cells exposed to B[a]P:DBC showed a decrease in Cyp1a1 mRNA levels. In human liver HepG2 cells exposed to binary mixtures for 2 h, a reduction in micronuclei frequency was also found. However, after a 24 h treatment, synergism between B[a]P and DBC was determined based on DNA adduct formation. Accordingly, the up-regulation of CYP1A1 expression was detected in HepG2 cells exposed to B[a]P:DBC. Our results show significant differences in the response of human and rat cells to B[a]P:DBC mixtures and stress the need to use multiple experimental systems when evaluating the potential risk of environmental pollutants. Our data also indicate that an increased expression of CYP1A1 results in a synergistic effect of B[a]P and DBC in human cells. As humans are exposed to a plethora of noxious chemicals, our results have important implications for human carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • B[a]P:DBC mixtures were less genotoxic in V79MZh1A1 cells than B[a]P and DBC alone. • An antagonism between B[a]P and DBC was determined in rat liver WB-F344 cells. • The inhibition of CYP1a1 expression by B[a]P:DBC mixture

  12. Neutron exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prillinger, G.; Konynenburg, R.A. van

    1998-01-01

    As a result of the popularity of the Agencies report 'Neutron Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels' of 1975, it was decided that another report on this broad subject would be of use. In this report, background and contemporary views on specially identified areas of the subject are considered as self-contained chapters, written by experts. In chapter 6, LWR-PV neutron transport calculations and dosimetry methods and how they are combined to evaluate the neutron exposure of the steel of pressure vessels are discussed. An effort to correlate neutron exposure parameters with damage is made

  13. "They call our children 'Nevirapine Babies'"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lise Rosendal; Bula, Agatha

    2010-01-01

    Infant feeding is estimated to be responsible for 5%-20% of the burden of HIV transmission from mother to child. HIV positive women who cannot afford safe formula feeding are advised to practise exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) followed by prompt weaning. We conducted a qualitative study using...... as well as on EBF but much less knowledge on basic facts about breastfeeding. Despite their inten-tions less than half of the interviewed women managed to practice EBF and the barriers were explained by perceived lack of milk, lack of control over the feeding situation, felt and enacted stigma as well...

  14. Nelfinavir and nevirapine side effects during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, S; Tempelman, C; Godfried, MH; Nellen, J; Sprenger, H; Schneider, MEE; de Wolf, F; Boer, K; van der Ende, Marchina E.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The risk of vertical transmission of HIV has been substantially reduced since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); however, the impact of taking HAART during pregnancy on the woman, the fetus and the infant is not yet understood. Objective: To assess and

  15. Nelfinavir and nevirapine side effects during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Sarah; Tempelman, Claire; Godfried, Mieke H.; Nellen, Jeanine; Dieleman, Jeanne; Sprenger, Herman; Schneider, Margriet Ee; de Wolf, Frank; Boer, Kees; van der Ende, Marchina E.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of vertical transmission of HIV has been substantially reduced since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); however, the impact of taking HAART during pregnancy on the woman, the fetus and the infant is not yet understood. OBJECTIVE: To assess and

  16. Exposure Prophylaxis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opsig

    health care workers who report exposure to HIV at work whether given PEP or not ... breast milk, amniotic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, pericardial fluid ... or skin lesions [1]. Other body fluid like sweat, tears, saliva, urine and stool do not contain significant quantities of HIV unless there is blood mixed with them[1,2]. HIV is not ...

  17. Sustainable building organisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, P.

    1998-01-01

    Sustainable Development and Sustainable Building is mainly a question of (human) environmentally-conscious Organisation and Management Criteria are needed in order to capture the best practices in the field. Therefore we developed modells and methods, which help to choose the most adequate

  18. At Home with Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    2018-01-01

    of default rules in subconscious decision-making, this research finds that, ultimately, awareness drives the demand necessary for the creation of sustainable consumption. Whereas direct appeal to individuals has a disappointing level of influence on sustainability choices, it is understood that green...

  19. Predicting Sustainable Work Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable work behavior is an important issue for operations managers – it has implications for most outcomes of OM. This research explores the antecedents of sustainable work behavior. It revisits and extends the sociotechnical model developed by Brown et al. (2000) on predicting safe behavior...

  20. Sustainability in Software Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfram, N.J.E.; Lago, P.; Osborne, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The intersection between software engineering research and issues related to sustainability and green IT has been the subject of increasing attention. In spite of that, we observe that sustainability is still not clearly defined, or understood, in the field of software engineering. This lack of

  1. Sustainable Agriculture: Cover Cropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Megan

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture practices are increasingly being used by farmers to maintain soil quality, increase biodiversity, and promote production of food that is environmentally safe. There are several types of sustainable agriculture practices such as organic farming, crop rotation, and aquaculture. This lesson plan focuses on the sustainable…

  2. Sustaining Urban Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak

    2003-01-01

    The significance of the urban forest resource and the powerful forces for change in the urban environment make sustainability a critical issue in urban forest management. The diversity, connectedness, and dynamics of the urban forest establish the context for management that will determine the sustainability of forest structure, health, functions, and benefits. A...

  3. Engineering Students' Sustainability Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S.

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The…

  4. Thermodynamics and sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Rene

    1997-01-01

    It is the objective of this thesis to demonstrate exergy analysis as a powerful instrument to obtain sustainable development. An important aspect of sustainable development is the minimisation of irreversibilities caused by the use of non-renewables. In order to limit the scope of this thesis

  5. Sustainability at BPA 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-01

    BPA’s Sustainability Action Plan is grounded in our commitment to environmental stewardship and Executive Order 13514 that calls on the federal agencies to “lead by example” by setting a 2020 greenhouse gas emissions target, increasing energy efficiency; reducing fleet petroleum consumption; conserving water; reducing waste; supporting sustainable communities; and leveraging federal purchasing power to promoting environmentally responsible products and technologies.

  6. Gut microbiota sustains hematopoiesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilgaard-Mönch, Kim

    2017-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Josefsdottir et al provide substantial evidence that commensal gut microbes regulate and sustain normal steady-state hematopoiesis.1......In this issue of Blood, Josefsdottir et al provide substantial evidence that commensal gut microbes regulate and sustain normal steady-state hematopoiesis.1...

  7. Sustainable economic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellink, R.B.; Bennis, M.; Verbruggen, H.

    1999-01-01

    The paper introduces four scenarios for sustainable economic structures in the Netherlands for 2030. The aim of this paper is to provide possible answers to what a sustainable future might look like in terms of alternative economic structures. To this end, an empirical economy-ecology model is

  8. Measurement in Sustainable Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    2018-01-01

    Measurement is a necessary aspect of planning and constructing buildings. However, recent attempts to integrate the social dimension of sustainable building into building design and specifications demand measurement of non-technical qualities, such as well-being. The Active House Alliance, in lieu...... and continued provision of sustainable buildings to market demand....

  9. Leading Sustainability in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Katie

    2016-01-01

    What is the role of schools, and more specifically school leadership, in the transition to a sustainable future for humankind? What different forms of leadership are needed to enable this role? The challenges are huge and complex and for those of us engaged in promoting sustainability learning, it is clear that the issue has never been more…

  10. Aesthetics of sustainable architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Hill, G.; Sauerbruch, M.; Hutton, L.; Knowles, R.; Bothwell, K.; Brennan, J.; Jauslin, D.; Holzheu, H.; AlSayyad, N.; Arboleda, G.; Bharne, V.; Røstvik, H.; Kuma, K.; Sunikka-Blank, M.; Glaser, M.; Pero, E.; Sjkonsberg, M.; Teuffel, P.; Mangone, G.; Finocchiaro, L.; Hestnes, A.; Briggs, D.; Frampton, K.; Lee, S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to reveal, explore and further the debate on the aesthetic potentials of sustainable architecture and its practice. This book opens a new area of scholarship and discourse in the design and production of sustainable architecture, one that is based in aesthetics. The

  11. Sustaining the wild equals sustaining the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, G

    1994-01-01

    Sustainable development and carrying capacity are concepts that denote meeting society's needs without compromising the survival of future generations. The United States and other industrialized countries are pursuing a self-destructive course when fueling their economies by consuming their capital and degrading and depleting their resource base. Maximum exploitation of all resources has been the guiding ethic without paying respect to the environmental consequences. A sustainable society is still possible if strong political leadership and an ecologically literate society with an environmental ethic evolves. In the 1990s the world's population is calculated to increase to 6.3 billion people, the population of the United States already exceeds its carrying capacity and neither of these population increases are sustainable in the long run. In 1916 the US had 98 million people, and in 1994 it had about 260 million and it is still growing. The consequences are already obvious: the National Park System had just 358,000 visitors in 1916, 33 million in 1950, 172 million in 1970, and over 270 million in 1993. Often economists are an impediment to a sustainable economy because they fail to factor in the accumulated environmental deficit or annual cost of environmental deterioration when measuring annual economic output. Fortunately, in the US a conservation ethic is beginning to develop that will eventually become a strong social, political, and economic force. For instance, Wisconsin has mandated environmental education in every school from kindergarten through 12th grade. Such a program will provide the moral and political support to move the country to a sustainable economy. Even losing nations have recovered from World War II, but there is no recovery from destroyed ecosystems.

  12. Sustainable nuclear energy dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afgan Naim H.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development implies the need for the emerging potential energy sources which are not producing adverse effect to the environment. In this respect nuclear energy has gained the complimentary favor to be considered as the potential energy source without degradation of the environment. The sustainability evaluation of the nuclear energy systems has required the special attention to the criteria for the assessment of nuclear energy system before we can make firm justification of the sustainability of nuclear energy systems. In order to demonstrate the sustainability assessment of nuclear energy system this exercise has been devoted to the potential options of nuclear energy development, namely: short term option, medium term option, long term option and classical thermal system option. Criteria with following indicators are introduced in this analysis: nuclear indicator, economic indicator, environment indicator, social indicator... The Sustainability Index is used as the merit for the priority assessment among options under consideration.

  13. Sustaining Participatory Design Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While many participatory design (PD) projects succeed in establishing new organisational initiatives or creating technology that is attuned to the people affected, the issue of how such results are sustained after the project ends remains an important challenge. We explore the challenge...... these various forms of sustainability may be pursued in PD practice and how they can become a resource in reflecting on PD activities. Finally, we discuss implications for PD practice, suggesting that a nuanced conception of sustainability and how it may relate to PD practice are useful resources for designers...... of sustaining PD initiatives beyond the individual project and discuss implications for PD practice. First, based on current PD literature, we distinguish between four ideal typical forms of sustainability: maintaining, scaling, replicating and evolving. Second, we demonstrate from a case study how...

  14. The challenge of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses sustainability in a world that has changed rapidly. The author suggests that ecological assumptions embedded in communism and capitalism are badly flawed, but the flaws were not apparent when there were fewer than a billion people on earth living at low technology levels. Sustaining the earth's vital signs is a challenge to our perception of time, and the numbers - population, environmental damage, oil consumption, waste disposal - are too large to comprehend easily. There is a global debate about what sustainability means. In fact the challenge of sustainability is 6 different challenges: overcoming the tendency to deny inconvenient realities; establishing accurate indicators of human and ecological health; questions about the kinds of technology necessary to make the transition to sustainability; education; the need for an emotional bond between man and nature; rebuilding the existing democratic institutions. 16 refs

  15. Sustainable built environments

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable design is a collective process whereby the built environment achieves unprecedented levels of ecological balance through new and retrofit construction, with the goal of long-term viability and humanization of architecture. Focusing on the environmental context, sustainable design merges the natural, minimum resource conditioning solutions of the past (daylight, solar heat, and natural ventilation) with the innovative technologies of the present.  The desired result is an integrated “intelligent” system that supports individual control with expert negotiation for resource consciousness. International experts in the field address the fundamental questions of sustainable design and landscape management: How should the sustainability of landscapes and buildings be evaluated? Which targets have to be set and which thresholds should not be exceeded? What forms of planning and governance structures exist and to what extent do they further the goals of sustainability?  Gathering 30 peer-reviewed ent...

  16. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  17. Sustainability Marketing Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollin, Karin; Bech Christensen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    sustainability in marketing, processes associated with sustainability marketing commitment, drivers of sustainability marketing at the functional level of marketing, and its organizational context. Using survey data from 269 managers in marketing, covering a broad range of industries in Sweden and Denmark, we...... took a structural modelling approach to examine construct relationships, mediation, and moderation effects. Overall, the findings show that marketing capabilities associated with the innovation of new products, services, and business models constitute a strong driver to leverage sustainability......Corporate sustainability is an important strategy and value orientation for marketing, but scarce research addresses the organizational drivers and barriers to including it in companies’ marketing strategies and processes. The purpose of this study is to determine levels of commitment to corporate...

  18. Sustainability and Organizational Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catălina Sitnikov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevant and, above all, remarkable feature of sustainability is due to its "duality": on the one hand, it is an indispensable element within the companies even if, on the other hand, it increases the costs of many activities and processes. Facing the challenge of sustainability will determine and create, in the coming years, emerging organizational forms. If ten years ago, many managers clearly expressed their doubts regarding the financial feasibility of sustainability, today, they admit the importance of sustainability for the competitive advantage of the companies they manage. Currently, companies have great opportunities to support build a sustainable global economy, becoming one of the solutions to the most pressing societal challenges. Whether it is about reducing pollution, global warming, reducing use of water resources and other limited resources or ensuring a better work environment for employees throughout the supply chain, there are many things that companies can and should do.

  19. What is sustainability economics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgaertner, Stefan [Department of Sustainability Sciences, Leuphana University of Lueneburg (Germany); Department of Economics, Leuphana University of Lueneburg (Germany); Quaas, Martin [Department of Economics, University of Kiel (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    While economists have been contributing to the discussion of various aspects of sustainability for decades, it is just recently that the term 'sustainability economics' was used explicitly in the ecological, environmental, and resource economics community. Yet, the contributions that use the term 'sustainability economics' do not refer to any explicit definition of the term, and are not obviously joined by common or unifying characteristics, such as subject focus, methodology, or institutional background. The question thus arises: what is 'sustainability economics'? In this essay, we systematically define and delineate 'sustainability economics' in terms of its normative foundation, aims, subject matter, ontology, and genuine research agenda. (author)

  20. Sustainability and uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    The widely used concept of sustainability is seldom precisely defined, and its clarification involves making up one's mind about a range of difficult questions. One line of research (bottom-up) takes sustaining a system over time as its starting point and then infers prescriptions from...... this requirement. Another line (top-down) takes an economical interpretation of the Brundtland Commission's suggestion that the present generation's needsatisfaction should not compromise the need-satisfaction of future generations as its starting point. It then measures sustainability at the level of society...... a clarified ethical goal, disagreements can arise. At present we do not know what substitutions will be possible in the future. This uncertainty clearly affects the prescriptions that follow from the measure of sustainability. Consequently, decisions about how to make future agriculture sustainable...

  1. Sustainability of abrasive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aurich, J.C.; Linke, B.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2013-01-01

    , the content of technical presentations in STC G, and the results of a comprehensive literature study. The approach to sustainability includes environmental, social, and economic sustainability in accordance with the definition proposed in the Brundtland Report of the United Nations [156]. The main focus......This paper presents an overview of research on sustainability of abrasive processes. It incorporates results from a round robin study on ‘‘energy-efficiency of abrasive processes’’ which has been carried out within the scientific technical committee ‘‘abrasive processes’’ (STC G) of CIRP...... is on environmental and social sustainability. Economic sustainability will be considered as manufacturing productivity. © 2013 CIRP....

  2. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced around the world are carried out through civil organizations. Furthermore; some of these initiatives have also launched by farmers, consumers, food processors and retailers. The long-term strategies to increase these initiatives should be determined due to the fact that examples of successful sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives are inadequate and cannot be spread in Turkey. In this context, first of all, the supports provided by the government to improve agricultural marketing systems, such as EU funds for rural development should be compatible with the goals of sustainable marketing. For this purpose, it should be examined whether all proposed projects related to agricultural marketing meet the social, economic, and environmental principles of sustainable marketing. It is important that supporting organizations, especially civil society organisations, should take an active role for faster dissemination and adoption of sustainable agricultural marketing practices in Turkey. These organizations may provide technical assistance in preparing successful project proposals and training to farm groups. In addition, the other organizations, such as local administrations, producers' associations, cooperatives, can contribute to the success of sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives. The use of direct marketing strategies and vertical integration attempts in sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives that will likely be implemented in Turkey is

  3. Interpreting sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, the term" sustainable development"has emerged as the principal concept in the development field. The concept emerged in the 1970s and was first promoted in the international environmental and development communities with the publication of the " world conservation strategy"(1980). It was popularized by the Brundtland report, " Our common future"(1987). The Brundtland Commission defined sustainable development as " development which meets the needs of the present, without compromising the sustainability of future generation to meet their own needs". The Earth Summit(1992) established "sustainable development" as the most important policy of the 21st century. Since then, the relationship between development and environment has been widely discussed and sustainabale development is now an important part of the vocabulary of environmental policy research and analysis. In this paper, we begin by tracing the evolution of the concept of sustainable development. Definitions of sustainable development in ecology, economics and sociology are then explored and discussed. This paper also examine the contribution that a broadly-based concept of sustainable development can make: as a goal, an attitude and as a guiding principle for integrating economic development and environmental protection.

  4. Sustainable winegrowing: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Angela Mariani,1 Antonella Vastola2 1Department of Economic and Legal Studies, University Parthenope, Naples, 2School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy Abstract: The winegrowing sector worldwide is strongly committed to improving environmental and social sustainability. The aim of this work, based on a literature review, is to highlight current sustainability perspectives and the related main issues. There is a broad consensus that the challenge to achieve a greater spread of sustainable practices is to enhance environmental and social sustainability while maintaining economic viability. From the producers' point of view, the priority is to bridge the still substantial knowledge gaps in terms of perceived environmental benefits, economic benefits, and costs. Thus, an increased research effort focusing on the costs and benefits of different winegrowing practices and technical assistance with implementation might support their diffusion. Moreover, targeted marketing strategies are needed to: enhance consumers' involvement and their attitude toward sustainable wine; improve understanding and use of sustainable labels and claims; and raise awareness of some environmental credentials of wine packaging, mainly with reference to lightweight glass bottles. Keywords: winegrower, sustainability, wine, consumer, marketing strategies

  5. Exposures series

    OpenAIRE

    Stimson, Blake

    2011-01-01

    Reaktion Books’ Exposures series, edited by Peter Hamilton and Mark Haworth-Booth, is comprised of 13 volumes and counting, each less than 200 pages with 80 high-quality illustrations in color and black and white. Currently available titles include Photography and Australia, Photography and Spirit, Photography and Cinema, Photography and Literature, Photography and Flight, Photography and Egypt, Photography and Science, Photography and Africa, Photography and Italy, Photography and the USA, P...

  6. Sustainability Infused Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Independent Schools Foundation Academy (ISF) in Hong Kong established a sustainability policy in 2015, which explicitly states, "an experimentally integrated, environmentally and ethically sustainable system of science education and conservation practices based on the 2012 Jeju Declaration of the World Conservation Congress will be implemented through the school". ISF Academy is a private Chinese bilingual school in Hong Kong serving over 1500 students K-12, following the framework and curriculum of the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO). The strategy behind the implementation of this policy includes: development of a scientific sustainable curriculum that is age appropriate; establish a culture of sustainability within the ISF community and beyond to the wider HK community; install sustainable infrastructure that allows students to learn; and learn first hand sustainable living practices. It is well understood that solutions to the environmental challenges facing Hong Kong and our planet will require multiple disciplines. The current sustainability programs at ISF include: a) a whole school aerobic food waste composting system and organic farming, b) energy consumption monitoring of existing buildings, c) upcoming installation of an air pollution monitoring equipment that will correlate with the AQHI data collected by the Hong Kong government, d) a Renewable Energy Education Center (REEC) that will teach students about RE and also produce solar energy for classroom consumption, and e) student lead environmental group that manages the paper and used cooking oil recycling on campus. The Shuyuan Science and Sustainability faculty work closely with classroom teachers to ensure that the above mentioned projects are incorporated into the curriculum throughout the school. Interdisciplinary units (IDU) of study are being developed that encourage faculty and students to work across subject areas. Projects include Personal Projects, Extended Essays

  7. Textiles and clothing sustainability nanotextiles and sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the sustainability aspects of textiles and clothing sector in light of nanomaterials and technologies. The invasion of nano in every industrial sector has been important and has made remarkable changes as well as posed new challenges, including the textiles and clothing sector. There is quite a great deal of research happening in terms of nano materials for textiles across the globe, some of which are covered in this book. .

  8. The sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robreau, Y.; Porcher, P.

    2002-11-01

    This document aims to define the sustainable development concept with a special attention for France and Israel position. The first part recalls the history of the sustainable development from the ''Man and Biosphere'' program of the UNESCO to Rio protocol. Then are described the principles of the sustainable development, the France plans and the France position at Johannesburg conference. The last part is devoted to the Israel position and a short presentation of the consequences of the greenhouse gases on the human health and the environment. (A.L.B.)

  9. Lean maturity, lean sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Matthiesen, Rikke; Nielsen, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    . A framework for describing levels of lean capability is presented, based on a brief review of the literature and experiences from 12 Danish companies currently implementing lean. Although still in its emerging phase, the framework contributes to both theory and practice by describing developmental stages......Although lean is rapidly growing in popularity, its implementation is far from problem free and companies may experience difficulties sustaining long term success. In this paper, it is suggested that sustainable lean requires attention to both performance improvement and capability development...... that support lean capability development and consequently, lean sustainability....

  10. Sustainable Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten; Hoffmann, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    The Danish public housing sector has more than 20 years of experience with sustainable facilities management based on user involvement. The paper outlines this development in a historical perspective and gives an analysis of different approaches to sustainable facilities management. The focus...... is on the housing departments and strateies for the management of the use of resources. The research methods used are case studies based on interviews in addition to literature studies. The paper explores lessons to be learned about sustainable facilities management in general, and points to a need for new...

  11. Sustainable development - an entrepreneur's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahrni, F.

    1995-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with in this paper: prizing the environment, inducing change, getting the right mix, energy and market place, financing sustainable development, trade and sustainable development, managing corporate change, the Sulzer strategy for sustainable development. (author)

  12. Analyse that! : understanding sustainable design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den G.J.W.; Wit, de M.H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a method for the analysis of sustainable building projects. Sustainable technology measures can easily be misinterpreted, consequently leading to unsustainable building solutions. Our research and educations aims at discovering new approaches for sustainable design. For building

  13. Sustainable Transportation and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Mundorf

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We are experiencing a shift in thinking about Transportation and Mobility, which makes this Special Issue on Sustainable Transportation and Health in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health especially timely.[...

  14. Food, Globalization and Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Sonnenfeld, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Food is increasingly traded internationally, thereby transforming the organisation of food production and consumption globally and influencing most food-related practices. This transition is generating unfamiliar challenges related to sustainability of food provision, the social impacts of

  15. The macroecology of sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joseph R.; Allen, Craig D.; Brown, James H.; Burnside, William R.; Davidson, Ana D.; Fristoe, Trevor S.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Nekola, Jeffrey C.; Okie, Jordan G.; Zuo, Wenyun

    2012-01-01

    The discipline of sustainability science has emerged in response to concerns of natural and social scientists, policymakers, and lay people about whether the Earth can continue to support human population growth and economic prosperity. Yet, sustainability science has developed largely independently from and with little reference to key ecological principles that govern life on Earth. A macroecological perspective highlights three principles that should be integral to sustainability science: 1) physical conservation laws govern the flows of energy and materials between human systems and the environment, 2) smaller systems are connected by these flows to larger systems in which they are embedded, and 3) global constraints ultimately limit flows at smaller scales. Over the past few decades, decreasing per capita rates of consumption of petroleum, phosphate, agricultural land, fresh water, fish, and wood indicate that the growing human population has surpassed the capacity of the Earth to supply enough of these essential resources to sustain even the current population and level of socioeconomic development.

  16. Environmentally Sustainable Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Brad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth and sustainable development are important issues for social prosperity. Sustainable development strives for moderate and responsible use within the economic activity of the limited resources of our planet, whereas economic growth does not limit the resource exploitation and energy, being mainly focused on productivity increase. From this perspective, both conceptual and operational contradictions occur between the two pillars of prosperity. This paper looks to these contradictions and proposes some streams of intervention such as economic growth and environmental sustainability to operate in harmony. A structured framework for innovative problem solving is considered in this respect. Results of this research show that it is possible to induce smart measures in the economic system for directing businesses towards new paradigms where economic growth is possible without negative effects on environmental sustainability.

  17. Sustainable Materials Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    To introduce businesses, NGOs, and government officials to the concept of Sustainable Materials Management (SMM). To provide tools to allow stakeholders to take a lifecycle approach managing their materials, & to encourage them to join a SMM challenge.

  18. Sustainable roadway lighting seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and conduct a half-day educational seminar on sustainable : roadway lighting at three locations within New York State: Rochester, New York City, and Albany. : Primary attendees were engineers from the New ...

  19. Sustainable Practices Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Better sustainability means more environmentally conscious and efficient businesses and communities. EPA helps modify the way we consume energy, deal with waste, and grow our economy through programs such as Energy Star, E3, Smart Growth, and WaterSense.

  20. Sustainable Building Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    of sustainable building operation and a survey amongst building administrators from the private and the social housing sector. Our results show that there are many good examples on sustainable building operation in Danish housing estates, where local building managers, residents etc. have gained impressive......Energy-savings in the existing building stock have becomes a main goal in national and international policies. Often focus is on building-renovations, whereas the potential of sustainable building operation to a large extent has been neglected. Nevertheless, international research as well...... as practical experiences from Danish housing estates indicates that there are large potentials for energy savings by focusing on the operation of the buildings. We suggest that in order to achieve sustainability in the existing housing, renovation and operations should be seen as integrated parts...

  1. Teaching sustainable design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, P.; Haggard, K.; Knuckles, A.; Le Noble, J. [California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Sustainable design is inclusive, holistic and integrative. It require humility and guts, caring and a certain degree of stubbornness. It helps to do it cooperatively in a group. Human interest in sustainability has gained a great deal of impetus over the last several years as the problems of the late 20th and the early 21st century have become clearer. Design for sustainability broadens and integrates many previously separate design concerns to create a unified approach that is both compelling and ripe with new possibilities. Ecosystem regeneration, ecological land use planning, biometric design, regional environmental and economic viability, natural landscape maintenance, resource optimization, integrated infrastructure system, neotraditional and pedestrian oriented urban design, passive solar architecture, appropriate technology, renewable building materials, healthy buildings, and the aesthetics of place; are a few of these design concerns that, when welded together, can create sustainability.

  2. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Williams, Joseph; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    , supply chain, customer-related, human capital, financial, marketplace, societal, and environmental performance. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence integrates ethical, efficient and effective (E3) enterprise governance with 3E (equity, ecology, economy) Triple Top Line strategy throughout enterprise...

  3. Education for Sustainable development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ESD (education for sustainable development) planning and implementation, and regular ... between the environment and socio-economic issues of poverty and ..... capacity to make informed decisions (T7) and a sense of responsibility (T9), ...

  4. Sustainable Buildings in Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    The first attempts to build sustainable buildings in Denmark were typically located on the countryside. The basic idea was to create buildings that were independent of the technical infrastructure. District heating has, however, been the dominating solution to heating in buildings in Denmark......, and the focus on sustainable building have gradually turned from special houses on the countryside to normally looking houses in the urban fabric, integrated in the technical infrastructure. Some new built urban areas in Denmark will, however, not have to be supplied with district heating – these developments...... are going to consist of passive houses. The first sustainable buildings were built by their users, and the user – building interaction still play a decisive role for the performance of the present sustainable buildings. The users have to understand how the building functions. Urban design is essential...

  5. Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for achieving sustainable cities, Intelligent and Knowledge City Programmes (ICPs and KCPs represent cost-efficient strategies for improving the overall performance of urban systems. However, even though nobody argues on the desirability of making cities “smarter”, the fundamental questions of how and to what extent can ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement of urban sustainability lack a precise answer. In the attempt of providing a structured answer to these interrogatives, this paper presents a methodology developed for investigating the modalities through which ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement or urban sustainability. Results suggest that ICPs and KCPs efficacy lies in supporting cities achieve a sustainable urban metabolism through optimization, innovation and behavior changes.

  6. Packaging for Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Helen; Fitzpatrick, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    The packaging industry is under pressure from regulators, customers and other stakeholders to improve packaging’s sustainability by reducing its environmental and societal impacts. This is a considerable challenge because of the complex interactions between products and their packaging, and the many roles that packaging plays in the supply chain. Packaging for Sustainability is a concise and readable handbook for practitioners who are trying to implement sustainability strategies for packaging. Industry case studies are used throughout the book to illustrate possible applications and scenarios. Packaging for Sustainability draws on the expertise of researchers and industry practitioners to provide information on business benefits, environmental issues and priorities, environmental evaluation tools, design for environment, marketing strategies, and challenges for the future.

  7. Energy and Sustainable Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    None of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) adopted by the United Nations in 2000 directly addressed energy, although for nearly all of them - from eradicating poverty and hunger to improving education and health - progress has depended on greater access to modern energy. Thirteen years later, energy is being given more attention. The target date for the MDGs is 2015, and in 2012 the UN began deliberations to develop sustainable development goals to guide support for sustainable development beyond 2015. The Future We Want, the outcome document of the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (also known as Rio+20) gives energy a central role: ''We recognize the critical role that energy plays in the development process, as access to sustainable modern energy services contributes to poverty eradication, saves lives, improves health and helps provide for basic human needs''

  8. Strategic sustainability performance plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    In October 2009, President Obama signed Executive Order (EO) 13514 that sets sustainability : goals for Federal agencies and focuses on making improvements in environmental, energy and : economic performance. The Executive Order requires Federal agen...

  9. System Innovation for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    System Innovation for Sustainability 2 focuses on change towards sustainable personal mobility based on implemented cases analysed from a system perspective. It examines what changes can be made to help us reduce our need for mobility, or start to make use of more sustainable mobility systems...... in order to provide sustainable solutions to our current ‘lock-in’ problems. Three major problem areas are considered (the ‘three Cs’): carbon emissions (and the growing contribution of mobility to the climate change crisis), congestion, and casualties. And each strategy proposed addresses one or more...... of these problem areas. Among the cases discussed are: Norway’s carbon compensation scheme for air travel; Madrid’s high-occupancy vehicle lanes; London’s congestion charge scheme; market-based instruments such as eco-labelling for cars; and taxation. The book identifies opportunities for actors...

  10. Biorefinery Sustainability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. S. M. Silva, Carla; Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Gernaey, Krist

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with sustainability analysis of biorefinery systems in terms of environmental and socio-economic indicators . Life cycle analysis has methodological issues related to the functional unit (FU), allocation , land use and biogenic carbon neutrality of the reference system and of t......This chapter deals with sustainability analysis of biorefinery systems in terms of environmental and socio-economic indicators . Life cycle analysis has methodological issues related to the functional unit (FU), allocation , land use and biogenic carbon neutrality of the reference system...... and of the biorefinery-based system. Socio-economic criteria and indicators used in sustainability frameworks assessment are presented and discussed. There is not one single methodology that can aptly cover the synergies of environmental, economic, social and governance issues required to assess the sustainable...

  11. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Structured Abstract Purpose: Sustainable Enterprise Excellence (SEE) is defined and developed through integration and expansion of business excellence modeling and sustainability thought. The intent is to enable simple yet reliable enterprise assessment of triple bottom line (TBL) performance...... and produce actionable enterprise foresight that can enable next best practices and sources of sustainable competitive advantage through innovation. Methodology: Key elements of SEE are identified from various business excellence and sustainability reporting sources, including the Global Reporting Initiative...... assessment approach similar in structure to those behind established excellence awards are developed that enable enterprise assessment of progress toward SEE. The resulting assessment is delivered in a highly consumable, combined narrative and graphic format referred to as a SEE NEWS Report. Practical...

  12. Fur and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else; Ræbild, Ulla; Tanderup, Sisse

    2016-01-01

    interviews and observations at the premises of Kopenhagen Fur, as well as with stakeholders and collaborate partners in Denmark and in China. The definition of sustainability in the report must be seen as related to Design School Kolding's research umbrella of Sustainable Futures - a term chosen to unite...... practices around retail and communication (by Else Skjold, PhD in user studies and business management). On the basis of these four sub-projects, the report concludes the following: Currently, fur is placed very centrally in the moral debates around sustainability, as fur farming highligts environmental...... sustainability within the garment sector at large, and to define its own unique position for the future. With a departure in the the four sub-projects, the report lists a line of recommendations for how it would be possible to develop and revitalise traditional and current practices around fur design...

  13. Transport, environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joumard, Robert; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Kehagia, Fotini

    2010-01-01

    This report is the final report of the action COST 356 'EST - Towards the definition of a measurable environmentally sustainable transport'. It tries to answer the following questions: How can environmental impacts of transport be measured? How can measurements be transformed into operational...... indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? Firstly we provide definition of 'indicator of environmental sustainability in transport'. The functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators as measurement tools, and as decision...... support tools are discussed. We define what "environmental sustainability in transport" may mean through the transport system, the concepts of sustainable development and of environment. The concept of 'chain of causality' between a source and a final target is developed, as a common reference...

  14. 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) is a measure of overall progress towards environmental sustainability, developed for 146 countries. The index...

  15. 2002 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2002 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) measures overall progress toward environmental sustainability for 142 countries based on environmental systems,...

  16. Involving citizens in sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika

    2010-01-01

    Local Environment The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, Volume 15 Issue 6, 541......Local Environment The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, Volume 15 Issue 6, 541...

  17. Wrapping Our Brains around Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ann Curran

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available As many of us begin to embrace the concept of sustainability, we realize that it is not simply something that we ‘do.’ Rather, sustainability is a destination that we aspire to reach with the selection of the sustainable pathways that we choose as we proceed along the journey. We are embarking on a new journey with the creation of Sustainability, an on-line, open access journal. As stated on the journal’s website, Sustainability is an international and cross-disciplinary scholarly journal of environmental, cultural, economic and social sustainability of human beings, which provides an advanced forum for studies that are related to sustainability and sustainable development. To genuinely wrap our brains around the impact that our actions have on the sustainability of our planet, we must first understand something of the big picture and have a firm grasp of the terminology. To help further clarify the elusive term ‘sustainability,’ without attempting to provide an exact definition, this paper outlines various, inter-related concepts and basic practices and approaches that are being used in the name of sustainability, including: traditional end-of-pipe control strategies, life cycle, environmental sustainability, urban sustainability, industrial ecology, business sustainability, sustainable supply chain systems, sustainability indicators and metrics, green chemistry and green engineering, design for the environment, sustainable buildings, eco-tourism, and renewable and sustainable energy and fuels.

  18. Innovating for sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The theme of the articles is innovating for sustainability. Empirically the articles shows how enterprises makes environmental innovations related to their processes and products within the organic dairy industry, the fish processing industry and the car industry.......The theme of the articles is innovating for sustainability. Empirically the articles shows how enterprises makes environmental innovations related to their processes and products within the organic dairy industry, the fish processing industry and the car industry....

  19. SUSTAINABLE TRAILER FLOORING

    OpenAIRE

    John Lu; Marc Chorney; Lowell Peterson

    2009-01-01

    Different trailer flooring materials, including wood-based, aluminum, steel, and synthetic plastic floors, were evaluated in accordance with their durability and sustainability to our natural environment. Wood-based trailer flooring is an eco-friendly product. It is the most sustainable trailer flooring material compared with fossil fuel-intensive steel, aluminum, and plastics. It is renewable and recyclable. Oak, hard maple, and apitong are strong and durable hardwood species that are curren...

  20. Business travel and sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    AGUILERA, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Although it contributes significantly to the demand for transport, in particular air transport, business travel has been relatively neglected in thinking about the strategies needed to promote more sustainable mobility practices. This paper provides a two-stage approach to this subject. We begin by showing how the sustainability of business travel is relevant not only in environmental terms, but also from an economic and social perspective. In the second stage, we consider the strategies that...

  1. ETHICAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Amantova-Salmane, Liene

    2015-01-01

    Ethics can be defined as a reflection on nature and a definition of “the good”. Individuals value qualities and things dissimilarly, most visibly, but they also value their goods in different ways, in different relations to each other, for different reasons, and to different ends. These differences are very applicable to sustainability. In other words, sustainability cannot be achieved without attention to its ethical dimensions. The aim of this research is to examine the ethical aspects of s...

  2. Sustainable development. Uncertain futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Ch.; Sciama, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The last 30 years show that the human being did not dominate the Nature. After an introduction on the historical relations between the human and the environment, the authors present the different research ways (irrigation with recovery, renewable energies, new agriculture,...). They show that science is not always the enemy of the sustainable development. The third part presents the constraints that the society puts on the way of the sustainable development, which explain the limitations of the progress. (A.L.B.)

  3. Sustainability, accounting and reporting

    CERN Document Server

    Balachandran, Kashi

    2011-01-01

    The topic of business sustainability is multidisciplinary in nature, and its complexity calls for putting in place a wide variety of research approaches, such as action research, case studies, surveys, model development etc. The papers presented in this ebook represent a comprehensive overview of recent advances in this area of accounting and reporting research. It contains six papers, covering how leasing can increase environmental benefits, CSR, developing social, environmental and economic indicators for SMEs, sustainability reporting and reputation risk and others.

  4. Biofuels and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Barry D

    2010-01-01

    Interest in liquid biofuels production and use has increased worldwide as part of government policies to address the growing scarcity and riskiness of petroleum use, and, at least in theory, to help mitigate adverse global climate change. The existing biofuels markets are dominated by U.S. ethanol production based on cornstarch, Brazilian ethanol production based on sugarcane, and European biodiesel production based on rapeseed oil. Other promising efforts have included programs to shift toward the production and use of biofuels based on residues and waste materials from the agricultural and forestry sectors, and perennial grasses, such as switchgrass and miscanthus--so-called cellulosic ethanol. This article reviews these efforts and the recent literature in the context of ecological economics and sustainability science. Several common dimensions for sustainable biofuels are discussed: scale (resource assessment, land availability, and land use practices); efficiency (economic and energy); equity (geographic distribution of resources and the "food versus fuel" debate); socio-economic issues; and environmental effects and emissions. Recent proposals have been made for the development of sustainable biofuels criteria, culminating in standards released in Sweden in 2008 and a draft report from the international Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels. These criteria hold promise for accelerating a shift away from unsustainable biofuels based on grain, such as corn, and toward possible sustainable feedstock and production practices that may be able to meet a variety of social, economic, and environmental sustainability criteria.

  5. Sustainability at BPA 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    THIS IS THE THIRD YEAR BPA has reported on sustainability program accomplishments. The report provides an opportunity to review progress made on sustainability initiatives, evaluate how far we have come and how much we can improve. The program has demonstrated maturation as the concepts of sustainability and resource conservation are communicated and understood. The sustainability program started as an employee-driven “grass roots” effort in 2010. Sustainability is becoming a consideration in how work is performed. The establishment of several policies supporting sustainability efforts proves the positive progress being made. In 2009, BPA became a founder and member of The Climate Registry, a nonprofit collaboration that sets standards to calculate, verify and report greenhouse gas emissions. This year, BPA completed and published our Greenhouse Gas inventory for the years of 2009, 2010 and 2011. The 2012 inventory is currently in the process of third-party verification and scheduled for public release in January 2014. These inventories provide a concrete measure of the progress we are making.

  6. Sustainable Biofuels Development Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, Kenneth F. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The mission of the Sustainable Bioenergy Development Center (SBDC) is to enhance the capability of America’s bioenergy industry to produce transportation fuels and chemical feedstocks on a large scale, with significant energy yields, at competitive cost, through sustainable production techniques. Research within the SBDC is organized in five areas: (1) Development of Sustainable Crops and Agricultural Strategies, (2) Improvement of Biomass Processing Technologies, (3) Biofuel Characterization and Engine Adaptation, (4) Production of Byproducts for Sustainable Biorefining, and (5) Sustainability Assessment, including evaluation of the ecosystem/climate change implication of center research and evaluation of the policy implications of widespread production and utilization of bioenergy. The overall goal of this project is to develop new sustainable bioenergy-related technologies. To achieve that goal, three specific activities were supported with DOE funds: bioenergy-related research initiation projects, bioenergy research and education via support of undergraduate and graduate students, and Research Support Activities (equipment purchases, travel to attend bioenergy conferences, and seminars). Numerous research findings in diverse fields related to bioenergy were produced from these activities and are summarized in this report.

  7. Past exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dropkin, G.; Clark, D.

    1992-01-01

    Past Exposure uses confidential company documents, obtained by the Namibia Support Committee over several years, to draw attention to risks to workers' health and the environment at Roessing Uranium mine. Particular reference is made to discussion of dust levels, radiation hazards, uranium poisoning, environmental leaks, especially from the tailings dam, and the lack of monitoring of thorium. In relation to agreements between trades unions and mines, agreements reached by RTZ-owned Canadian in Canada, and British Nuclear Fuels in the UK, are discussed. (UK)

  8. Sustainable IT and IT for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenhua

    Energy and sustainability have become one of the most critical issues of our generation. While the abundant potential of renewable energy such as solar and wind provides a real opportunity for sustainability, their intermittency and uncertainty present a daunting operating challenge. This thesis aims to develop analytical models, deployable algorithms, and real systems to enable efficient integration of renewable energy into complex distributed systems with limited information. The first thrust of the thesis is to make IT systems more sustainable by facilitating the integration of renewable energy into these systems. IT represents the fastest growing sectors in energy usage and greenhouse gas pollution. Over the last decade there are dramatic improvements in the energy efficiency of IT systems, but the efficiency improvements do not necessarily lead to reduction in energy consumption because more servers are demanded. Further, little effort has been put in making IT more sustainable, and most of the improvements are from improved "engineering" rather than improved "algorithms". In contrast, my work focuses on developing algorithms with rigorous theoretical analysis that improve the sustainability of IT. In particular, this thesis seeks to exploit the flexibilities of cloud workloads both (i) in time by scheduling delay-tolerant workloads and (ii) in space by routing requests to geographically diverse data centers. These opportunities allow data centers to adaptively respond to renewable availability, varying cooling efficiency, and fluctuating energy prices, while still meeting performance requirements. The design of the enabling algorithms is however very challenging because of limited information, non-smooth objective functions and the need for distributed control. Novel distributed algorithms are developed with theoretically provable guarantees to enable the "follow the renewables" routing. Moving from theory to practice, I helped HP design and implement

  9. Delineating a sustainable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Lester R

    1996-01-01

    The expression Develop Sustainable of wide use today in day is used among national political leaders and among environmentalists. The sustainable economy from the environmental point of view is that that obeys the basic principles or laws of the sustainability; principles so real as those of the aerodynamic one or those of the thermodynamic. If somebody intends, for example, to design an airplane, it will have to be adjusted to the aerodynamic principles and to print to the apparatus a certain stability degree so that it can fly. In the same way, an economic system environmentally sustainable it must respond to the balance principles if it doesn't want to be condemned to the failure. The fundamental laws or sustainability principles are as rigorous as the aerodynamic laws. The society can violate these laws in the short term; but not long term. As well as an airplane can lose height in a brief lapse without falling; the economy can violate the principles of the sustainability in the short term without collapsing. Among of the sustainability principles figure the following: long term; the extinction of species cannot exceed the evolution of the species; the soil erosion cannot exceed the soils formation; the destruction of forests cannot exceed the regeneration of the forests; the emissions of carbon cannot exceed the fixation of carbon; the fishing cannot exceed the regenerative capacity of the banks of fish and, in the human land, the morbidity cannot exceed the mortality. The author also speaks of the disappearance of species, ozone layer, stability of the climate, earth, water fertilizers and alimentary systems among others

  10. Proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance: The mediating effect of sustainability control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijethilake, Chaminda

    2017-07-01

    This study examines to what extent corporations use sustainability control systems (SCS) to translate proactive sustainability strategy into corporate sustainability performance. The study investigates the mediating effect of SCS on the relationship between proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance. Survey data were collected from top managers in 175 multinational and local corporations operating in Sri Lanka and analyzed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). SCS were observed to only partially mediate the relationship between proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance. The mediating effect of SCS is further examined under three sustainability strategies; environmental and social strategies reveal a partial mediation, while the economic strategy exhibits no mediation. The study also finds that (i) a proactive sustainability strategy is positively associated with SCS and corporate sustainability performance and (ii) SCS are positively associated with corporate sustainability performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. APPROACHES FOR SUSTAINABLE MANUFACTURING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G(U)NTHER Seliger; SEBASTIAN Kernbaum; MARCO Zettl

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable development is a holistic approach harmonizing ecological, economical and socio-political needs with respect to the superior objective of enhancing human living standards. Thereby the availability of natural resources and the conservation of the ecosystems have to be considered that future generations have the possibility to meet their own needs. A long-term economical development demands the transition from a source-sink economy to a cycle economy as a result of limited resources, limited environmental capacities to absorb waste and emissions as well as increasing needs of a growing population. A reference model for sustainability in manufacturing is presented and used to illustrate sustainable approaches with respect to management, technology, process and product. Adaptation of products and components is a vital element for supporting efficient reuse of products and components. Consequently adaptation contributes to the ambitious goals of sustainability. Technological enablers for adaptation as modularity, information and communication technology are exemplarily introduced. Moreover, approaches for disseminating knowledge in sustainability are given.

  12. Sustainable Consumption Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Vringer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To examine which considerations play a role when individuals make decisions to purchase sustainable product varieties or not, we have conducted a large scale field experiment with more than 600 participating households. Households can vote on whether the budgets they receive should only be spent on purchasing the sustainable product variety, or whether every household in a group is free to spend their budget on any product variety. By conducting several treatments, we tested whether people tend to view sustainable consumption as a social dilemma or as a moral dilemma. We find little support for the hypothesis that social dilemma considerations are the key drivers of sustainable consumption behaviour. Participants seem to be caught in a moral dilemma in which they not only weigh their individual financial costs with the sustainable benefits but they also consider the consequences of restricting other people’s freedom of choice. Complementary survey results further substantiate this claim and show that many people are reluctant to impose restrictions on their peers, but, at the same time, our results also suggest substantial support for the government to regulate the availability of unsustainable product varieties.

  13. Methodology of sustainability accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.H. Sokil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern challenges of the theory and methodology of accounting are realized through the formation and implementation of new concepts, the purpose of which is to meet the needs of users in standard and unique information. The development of a methodology for sustainability accounting is a key aspect of the management of an economic entity. The purpose of the article is to form the methodological bases of accounting for sustainable development and determine its goals, objectives, object, subject, methods, functions and key aspects. The author analyzes the theoretical bases of the definition and considers the components of the traditional accounting methodology. Generalized structural diagram of the methodology for accounting for sustainable development is offered in the article. The complex of methods and principles of sustainable development accounting for systematized and non-standard provisions has been systematized. The new system of theoretical and methodological provisions of accounting for sustainable development is justified in the context of determining its purpose, objective, subject, object, methods, functions and key aspects.

  14. Sustainability in coastal tourism development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Marie Visbech; Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Liburd, Janne J.

    2018-01-01

    explicitly requested nominations for sustainable tourism projects. A comparison between academic sustainability discourse and the approved projects suggests that tourism actors do not address sustainable tourism development as a holistic concept. Long-term perspectives are largely absent, whereas economic...... benefits are emphasized. Key findings also indicate weak political leadership in the envisaged transfer towards sustainable tourism development....

  15. Market solutions for sustainable cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursem, Thomas; Nijkamp, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Sustainable development has become a globally accepted policy objective. It is however, increasingly recognized that the implementation of sustainability strategies has to take place at a decentralized level. This has also provoked the idea of urban sustainability. The notion of sustainable city is

  16. Sustainable Supply Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy

    A significant conceptual and practical challenge is how to integrate triple bottom line (TBL; including economic, social and environmental) sustainability into global supply chains. Although this integration is necessary to slow down global resource depletion, understanding is limited of how...... to implement TBL goals across the supply chain. In supply chain design, the classic economic perspective still dominates, although the idea of the TBL is more widely disseminated. The purpose of this research is to add to the sustainable supply chain management literature (SSCM) research agenda...... by incorporating the physical chain, and the (information and financial) support chains into supply chain design. This manuscript tackles issues of what the chains are designed for and how they are designed structurally. Four sustainable businesses are used as illustrative case examples of innovative supply chain...

  17. Nuclear and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audebert, P.; Balle, St.; Barandas, Ch.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Bellefontaine, E.; Bernard, H.; Bouhand, M.H.; Bourg, D.; Bourgoignon, F.; Bourlat, Y.; Brunet, F.; Buclet, N.; Buquet, N.; Caron, P.; Cartier, M.; Chagneau, E.; Charles, D.; Chateau, G.; Collette, P.; Collignon, A.; Comtesse, Ch.; Crammer, B.; Dasnias, J.; Decroix, G.; Defoy, B.; Delafontaine, E.; Delcroix, V.; Delerue, X.; Demet, M.; Dimmers, G.; Dodivers, S.; Dubigeon, O.; Eimer, M.; Fadin, H.; Foos, J.; Ganiage, D.; Garraud, J.; Girod, J.P.; Gourod, A.; Goussot, D.; Guignard, C.; Heloury, J.; Hondermarck, B.; Hurel, S.; Jeandron, C.; Josse, A.; Lagon, Ch.; Lalleron, Ch.; Laurent, M.; Legrand, H.; Leveau, E.

    2006-01-01

    On September 15. and 16., 2004, at Rene Delcourt invitation, President of the C.L.I. of Paluel and Penly, took place the 4. colloquium of the A.N.C.L.I.. Jean Dasnias, new President of the C.L.I., welcomed the colloquium. Hundred of persons participated. The place of the nuclear power in the energy perspectives of tomorrow, its assets and its weaknesses in front of the other energies and within the framework of a sustainable development, are so many subjects which were discussed. The different tackled subjects are: the stakes in the sustainable development; energy perspectives; the reactors of the fourth generation; nuclear power and transparency; sustainable development and I.R.S.N. (N.C.)

  18. Staircase To Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doorasamy Mishelle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article to provide a theoretical framework on the concepts of Sustainable Development and the process that companies need to follow in order to ensure the future sustainability of business operations. Various secondary sources and previous literature was reviewed to clearly identify why companies are finding it difficult to conduct their business operations in a sustainable manner. Stricter legislation and regulations, increased competition, depletion of natural resources and market pressures have placed organisations under increased pressure to improve environmental performance and achieve eco-efficiency. This paper provides comprehensive overview of how companies can achieve the ‘Triple bottom line’ by committing to continuous improvement and adhering to the regulations stipulated according to the International Standards of Organisations (ISO14001.

  19. Sustainable urban development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    Sustainability in urban planning has a long history and it has been a widespread solution to build high and compact in order to minimise the need for transportation, land use and heating. Recent research, however, points towards the need for a supplementary approach which includes the consumer...... behaviour of the household. This approach necessarily has to work from below and include the citizens, as it is their daily practices that have to be challenged. This article reviews the literature of to what extent compact cities are the most sustainable and it use lifestyle interpretations of urbane forms...... to challenge the compact cities approach. As an alternative or supplementary approach the article introduce practice theory as a way to understand consumption and it gives examples on how this approach can be used to inspire local authorities to alternative and supplementary strategies of achieving sustainable...

  20. The road to sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrao, John L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crabtree, George [ANL

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability is the hottest topic in energy research today, but what does it actually mean? George Crabtree and John Sarrao describe what makes a technology sustainable, and outline the materials-science challenges standing between us and clean, long-lasting energy. Although most people agree that more-sustainable energy technologies are desirable, they often find it harder to agree on exactly how sustainable these technologies need to be, and even precisely what is meant by sustainability. To clarify the debate, we suggest three criteria for sustainability, each of which captures a different feature of the problem. While we do not have the lUxury of achieving full sustainability for all of our next-generation energy technologies, we can use these definitions to select our strategic sustainability targets and track our progress toward achieving them. As will become clear, the most sustainable energy technologies require the most challenging fundamental science breakthroughs. The first criterion for sustainability is 'lasts a long time'. This quality has been a feature of many energy sources we have used historically, including wood in ancient times and oil throughout most of the 20th century. The definition of 'long time' is, of course, relative: the world's demand for energy long ago outpaced the ability of wood to supply it, and the production of oil is likely to peak sometime within the next few decades. Substantial reductions in the rate of oil consumption through higher-efficiency processes can significantly impact on how long non-renewable resources last. In applying the 'long time' criterion, we need to distinguish between energy sources that are effectively limitless and those that are finite but, for the moment, adequate. The second criterion for sustainability is 'does no harm'. Burning fossil fuels releases pollutants such as sulphur and mercury that endanger human health, as well as greenhouse gases like

  1. Citizens in sustainable transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Agger, Annika

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores how local public authorities can support and facilitate citizens’ participa-tion and learning in sustainable transition in urban neighbourhoods, by supporting local in-termediaries. The role of intermediaries can be performed by a variety of actors such as public housing...... associations; NGO´s, or semi public institutions. Our claim is that intermediary actors have the potential to facilitate new platforms for citizens’ participation in urban sustainable transition due to their particular role in between public authorities and civil society. The key question of the paper is how...... the intermediary actors facilitate citizens' participatory processes in sustainable urban transitions, and the paper explores the concept of institutional capacity building as a way to develop learning processes and new practises? The aim is to analyse approaches of creating platforms for involving citizens...

  2. Sustainability and sacred values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns Jr.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Successful implementation of the quest for sustainable use of the planet requires that human society both reexamine and expand present views of what is sacred and what is not. The most important aspect will be going beyond a homocentric focus to a biocentric emphasis. A unifying theme would be the desire to leave a habitable planet for human descendants and those of other species. It is unlikely that society can be confident of achieving sustainability until persuasive evidence supporting this belief has existed for several generations. In order for sustainable use of the planet to persist indefinitely, the conditions essential to this state must be morally preserved on sacred grounds. Viewing natural systems as sacred requires not only preventing damage to them but, wherever possible, repairing damage to them caused by humankind.

  3. TOURISM AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ionela Butnaru

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and sustainable development are the subject of many initiatives and public or private debates in Romania. The main problem to which these initiatives try to find an answer is mostly related to the income generation for the local communities by using rationally and efficiently the local potential, in agreement with the economic, social, natural, and cultural factors. Consequently, some measures should be taken, and the tourist sector as a whole needs all the methods of sustainable development: new technologies, change of social behaviour, change of environmental legislation, methods of environmental management, better planning and development of control procedures. In this article, we presented a model of tourism development which should be applied in all the regions of great tourist attraction, and we realised a synthesis of the socio-economic advantages of sustainable tourism.

  4. Geoscience and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores how scientists entangle themselves in between keywords and buzzwords when they make use of concepts like sustainability. It sketches out theoretical distinctions between keywords and buzzwords. Then it turns to the concept of nature discussing the paradox that nature embraces...... the same fuzzy, slippery and contingent character as does sustainability, yet the former has a deep ontological status, the latter does not. The paper explores a related paradox: natural sciences claim we live in the Anthropocene, in which humans have transformed geochemical cycles, e.g. of methane...... and carbon dioxide as much as they changed between glacial and interglacial periods. Yet, science favors (external) nature as a keyword, sustainability as a buzzword. This should cause deep reflections on how scientists make use of the power of reference in between keywords and buzzwords – as well...

  5. Policy for Sustainable Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Rosina; Nielsen, Kristian Roed; Wilson, Hugh N.

    open innovation with SME entrepreneurs, business execs, academics and policymakers via an online crowdsourcing event with 150 participants. Through inductive analysis of 1,696 text comments, five policy domains are identified: creating awareness/skills; building networks; funding/investing; measuring......Sustainable entrepreneurship—entrepreneurship with social and ecological gains as well as economic ones—can significantly address societal and environmental challenges, however, it is not clear how policy can support it. The authors develop a policy framework for sustainable entrepreneurship, using...... impact/performance; and innovating government. Contributions to entrepreneurship policy literature include measuring impact/performance and open policy innovation for entrepreneurship policy. Contributions to sustainability policy literature include empowering individuals as entrepreneurs and not just...

  6. Managing Sustainability in Fruit Production

    OpenAIRE

    Taragola, N.; Van Passel, S.; Zwiekhorst, W.

    2012-01-01

    As fruit growers are faced with a growing need for sustainable development, it is important to integrate sustainability into their management processes. This research applies and evaluates a self-analysis tool for entrepreneurs called the ‘sustainability scan’. The scan identifies 23 sustainability themes, divided according to the 3P-framework (People, Planet and Profit). In the scan, it is assumed that the management of these themes is at the core of sustainable entrepren...

  7. Human Exposure Model (HEM): A modular, web-based application to characterize near-field chemical exposures and releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA’s Chemical Safety and Sustainability research program is developing the Human Exposure Model (HEM) to assess near-field exposures to chemicals that occur in various populations over the entire life cycle of a consumer product. The model will be implemented as a...

  8. Hydroelectricity and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubeau, D.

    1995-01-01

    From 1975 to 1992, hydroelectricity helped reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Quebec by 20%. For Hydro-Quebec, energy conservation and hydroelectric development are basic complementary tools for sustainable development. Recent studies show that developing only 50% of economically exploitable hydroelectric potential (30% of the gross theoretical potential) of different regions worldwide would considerably reduce greenhouse gas and SO 2 emissions. However, hydroelectric systems produce environmental and social impacts locally that require mitigative measures. To fulfill its mandate in a sustainable development context, Hydro-Quebec has adopted methods such as integrated resource planning, the assessment of externalities, multi criteria decision tools and public participations

  9. Sustainable building; Duurzaam bouwen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, Ch.F. [ed.] [Interfacultair Onderzoek Centrum ' De Ecologische Stad' DIOC, Delft (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    A complete overview is given of starting points and targets for the sustainable construction of buildings. The notion of sustainable indicates the necessity of managing specific flows: materials, energy, water and transport (traffic). Also, the monitoring and calculation of environmental effects must be clarified by the generally accepted method of life cycle analysis. This book is for the larger part the result of research carried out at the Interdepartmental Research Centre 'The Ecological City' at the Delft University of Technology in Delft, Netherlands. refs.

  10. Sustainability as Opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawrence, Joanne; Rasche, Andreas; Kenny, Kevina

    2019-01-01

    Sustainability, as it relates to both social and environmental issues, is treated very differently among companies that incorporate the subject into their business strategies. In this case, we explore sustainability at Unilever whose management addresses it not as a risk to be managed or cost...... product development and marketing expertise, to realise the potential of the fast-growing emerging markets (57% of its 2014 revenues came from emerging markets compared to less than 17% of most multinationals). Issues considered are the role of corporate culture and competencies, the importance...

  11. Engineering sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prendergast, J.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses sustainable development, a policy which attempts to balance environmental preservation and economic growth, and promises a way to provide a decent life for Earth's human inhabitants without destroying the global ecosystem. Sustainable development is an effort to use technology to help clean up the mess it helped make, and engineers will be central players in its success or failure. Key aspects include more efficient energy use through conservation measures and switching to renewable sources, waste minimization, much greater recycling and reuse of materials, more comprehensive economic/environmental assessments employing life-cycle analyses, and better management of resources

  12. Physics and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emre, B.

    2005-01-01

    Is there a relationship with between physics and sustainable development? The answer of this question is yes since in the past to the health and welfare of people and nations physics has made tremendous contributions. Think of the contributions that physics has made to the world economy in areas such as electronics, materials, and computer technology, also to health x-rays, magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear medicine. However, many of these contributions have benefited people in the developed world more than those in the developing world. Moreover current physics curricula do not have vision of to offer the student a full perspective of sustainable development

  13. Existing Sustainable Renovation Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Gustavsson, Leif

    The Nordic single-family house renovation market is dominated by a craftsman based approach with individual solutions, traditional warehouses ”do-it-yourself-shops” and some actors marketing single products. To speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses there is......The Nordic single-family house renovation market is dominated by a craftsman based approach with individual solutions, traditional warehouses ”do-it-yourself-shops” and some actors marketing single products. To speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses...

  14. Consumerism and sustainable tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne Mette

    2000-01-01

    This article recognises the immense and growing interest for the development of a sustainable tourism. However, it demonstrates a gap between general awareness and preferences on the one hand, and the practices and behaviour of tourists and tourist industries on the other hand. The constraints...... for the development of a consumerism in the fields of tourism are addressed in the article. A particular emphasis is put on a lack of appropriate institutional frameworks that provide individual tourists with reliable information and co-ordinate their purchasing power in order to enhance the issues of environmental...... sustainability....

  15. Emergent pedagogy of sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Mia; Frøkjær, Thorleif

    of societal life. Most often, the experimental activities tends to favor learning about responsible behavior, but the intension was formation of critical curiosity. While the difficulties to find pedagogical forms to present sustainability frustrate the participating pedagogues, the teachers teaching student.......S. Nielsen, N. Sriskandarajah, & E. Gunnarsson (eds) (2016). Commons, Sustainability, Democratization: Action Research and the Basic Renewal of Society. New York. RoutledgeLewin, K. (1948). Resolving Social Conflicts. New York, Harper and RowSachs, W. (1999). Planet dialectics. Explorations in Environment...

  16. Sustainability Base Construction Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewhinney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Construction of the new Sustainability Base Collaborative support facility, expected to become the highest performing building in the federal government continues at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, Calif. The new building is designed to achieve a platinum rating under the leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED) new construction standards for environmentally sustainable construction developed by the U. S. Green Building Council, Washington, D. C. When completed by the end of 2011, the $20.6 million building will feature near zero net energy consumption, use 90 percent less potable water than conventionally build buildings of equivalent size, and will result in reduced building maintenance costs.

  17. Developing Ecological Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Jonas; Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    IS initiatives become part of a firm’s overall strategy and part of the organizational sustainability process. We find that Green IS initiatives are initiated through a bottom-up process where environmentally concerned individuals identify issues and become Green IS champions. They use their authority...... and edification skills to promote Green IS to the organizational agenda. If the issue is aligned with the organizational agenda, it receives management’s endorsement. The empirical case also shows two types of systemic feedback that can fuel a self-reinforcing sustainability process. The first type of feedback...

  18. Growth, Development and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Virginia Dragulanescu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Describing the relationship of interdependence through the materials balance, will be argued how the economy is a subset of the environment and the environment the natural limit to any economic initiative, or the limits imposed by the laws of thermodynamics. The theoretical debate moves, then, from the concept of growth to that of development, understood this in its three dimensions: economic, social, environmental. Bring the different environmental positions in four versions of sustainability, with the gained awareness that it’s “a spectrum of overlapping sustainability positions from very weak to very strong”.

  19. Sustainable Soil Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Evgrafova, Alevtina; Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren

    Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. This report provides an overview on new technologies for integrate sustainable and resilient management practices in arable ecosystems for advanced farmers, consultants, NGOs and policy makers. By following sustainable soil...... and soil quality in short- and long-terms. This report also illustrates the importance to combine a system approach for plant production by assessing field readiness, managing in-field traffic management, implementing the sitespecific controlled as well as sensor-controlled seedbed preparation, seeding...

  20. Ecosystem stewardship: sustainability strategies for a rapidly changing planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Stuart Chapin; Stephen R. Carpenter; Gary P. Kofinas; Carl Folke; Nick Abel; William C. Clark; Per Olsson; D. Mark Stafford Smith; Brian Walker; Oran R. Young; Fikret Berkes; Reinette Biggs; J. Morgan Grove; Rosamond L. Naylor; Evelyn Pinkerton; Will Steffen; Frederick J. Swanson

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem stewardship is an action-oriented framework intended to foster the social-ecological sustainability of a rapidly changing planet. Recent developments identify three strategies that make optimal use of current understanding in an environment of inevitable uncertainty and abrupt change: reducing the magnitude of, and exposure and sensitivity to, known stresses...

  1. Sustainable Energy (SUSEN) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    Research Centre Rez and University of West Bohemia started preparatory work on the 'Sustainable Energy' project, financed from EU structural funds. The goals and expected results of the project, its organization, estimated costs, time schedule and current status are described. (orig.)

  2. Governance for sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A. Loorbach (Derk)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractSustainable development is rapidly moving from the periphery to the mainstream of politics, business, and science. Over the past several years, a strong consensus has started to emerge that some of the major global problems can only be overcome through large-scale concerted action.

  3. Paying for sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo; Veeman, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Increasing environmental concerns of consumers and global supply chains center on the impacts of carbon dioxide emissions and water usage. This study analyzes consumers’ preferences for sustainable products as indicated by water and carbon footprint labels, enabling a rare cross-cultural comparison...... and policy stakeholders in designing targeted footprint labeling initiatives....

  4. Sustainability in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahanshahi, Asghar Afshar; Brem, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    with their innovativeness and sustainability orientation. To accomplish this, we surveyed 40 TMTs in Iranian small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) at two points in time. We ran a hierarchical multiple regression in order to test the hypotheses of the study. Building a theoretical model based on the Upper...

  5. Strategic corporate sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grewatsch, Sylvia; Rohrbeck, René; Madsen, Henning

    antecedents and outcomes. To overcome this limitation we propose an integrated typology which may facilitate more research on the link between corporate sustainability performance (CSP) and corporate financial performance (CFP). Our expectation is that the strategy type might play a moderating or mediating...

  6. Sustainable growth in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreini, P.

    1993-01-01

    The measures till now adopted did not stop environmental deterioration in Europe and the growth of economic activities in the future will make the situation more and more heavy. The European Communities (EEC) Cabinet launched a long term program for a sustainable growth in Europe, which could conciliate economic needs with environmental protection. This paper presents the first part of the program

  7. Sustainable consumption dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vringer, Kees; Heijden, Eline Van Der; Soest, Daan Van; Vollebergh, Herman; Dietz, Frank

    To examine which considerations play a role when individuals make decisions to purchase sustainable product varieties or not, we have conducted a large scale field experiment with more than 600 participating households. Households can vote on whether the budgets they receive should only be spent on

  8. Nanotechnologies for sustainable construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Andersen, Maj Munch

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to highlight key aspects and recent trends in the development and application of nanotechnology to facilitate sustainable construction, use and demolition of buildings and infrastructure structures, ‘nanoconstruction’. Nanotechnology is not a technology but a very diverse...

  9. Environmental sustainability of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    A national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted in collaboration with the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association through the support of the Beef Checkoff. This includes surveys and visits to cattle operations throughout the U.S. to gather production information. With this infor...

  10. Sustainable Use of Electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    An overview is presented of the need for keeping electricity consumption low, including a suggested definition of sustainable development. Specific attention is devoted to present and future electricity production´s contribution to the environmental problems. Prognoses are shown from before any...

  11. Why sustain oak forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Wm. Smith

    2006-01-01

    A brief overview and some personal thoughts are offered that deal with the implications of our social and political systems on the long-term sustainability of our forest resources. The connection of the most recent climatic events, in a geologic-time context, to the development of present day oak dominated forests of the Eastern United States is discussed. The impacts...

  12. Assembling Sustainable Territories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandergeest, Peter; Ponte, Stefano; Bush, Simon

    2015-01-01

    that territorialisation is accomplished not just through (re)defining bounded space, but more broadly through the assembling of four elements: space, subjects, objects, and expertise. Four case studies of sustainability certification in seafood are analyzed to show that ‘green gabbing’ is not necessarily the central...

  13. Environmental Education and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In the fall of 2013, Inverness Associates conducted a comprehensive national survey of environmental education and sustainability among private independent schools. The National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) and 14 regional and state associations supported the research. The survey sought to understand how schools' environmental…

  14. Indicators for environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    . In this study, we reviewed indicators applied in life cycle assessment (LCA), planetary boundary framework (PB), and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) developed under United Nation. The aim is to 1) identify their applications and relevant decision context; 2) Review their indicators and categorize them...

  15. Sustainable consumer behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    We summarise the contributions in this special issue on sustainable consumer behaviour and place them in perspective. Several studies focus on macro- and meso-issues, and others on micro-issues of consumer behaviour. The studies employ a variety of methods, including surveys, field experiments,

  16. Partitioning ecosystems for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Martyn G

    2016-03-01

    Decline in the abundance of renewable natural resources (RNRs) coupled with increasing demands of an expanding human population will greatly intensify competition for Earth's natural resources during this century, yet curiously, analytical approaches to the management of productive ecosystems (ecological theory of wildlife harvesting, tragedy of the commons, green economics, and bioeconomics) give only peripheral attention to the driving influence of competition on resource exploitation. Here, I apply resource competition theory (RCT) to the exploitation of RNRs and derive four general policies in support of their sustainable and equitable use: (1) regulate resource extraction technology to avoid damage to the resource base; (2) increase efficiency of resource use and reduce waste at every step in the resource supply chain and distribution network; (3) partition ecosystems with the harvesting niche as the basic organizing principle for sustainable management of natural resources by multiple users; and (4) increase negative feedback between consumer and resource to bring about long-term sustainable use. A simple policy framework demonstrates how RCT integrates with other elements of sustainability science to better manage productive ecosystems. Several problem areas of RNR management are discussed in the light of RCT, including tragedy of the commons, overharvesting, resource collapse, bycatch, single species quotas, and simplification of ecosystems.

  17. Sustainable urban environmental quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošković Dobrivoje

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available MEANING as the essential element of urban quality. The role of the three main factors for the urban quality achievement: PLANNING, DEVELOPMENT and PEOPLE. Next to that, it is important to assume the identity of the local CONTEXT as the essential base for designing and shaping of form development. The problems of the quality achievements in the situation of the permanent changes. In such an environment - the RENEWAL of the towns become the basic strategic orientation requiring - evaluation of the development policy instruments. On the road of changes there are PROBLEMS of a strategic nature which should be, firstly, defined and, then, solved before entering in the process of structuring and arrangement. One of these problems is NEW versus OLD. Transition to a new policy of urbanism relying, first of all, on the private investors and international funds of the local authorities - call for a NEW STRATEGY in urbanism, in the context of the sustainability of environment. The sustainability of quality and the categories of the influencing factors. The sustainability of quality as a twofold process of urban design. The quality of environment as an aesthetic phenomenon. The urban situation and environmental quality: feasibility of changes and effects; the environmental capacity as an indicator and quality determinant. The urban quality and international experience. The evaluation of our urban situation. INSTEAD OF CONCLUSION: A general review on the visions and urban quality policy and planning. Toward an evaluation of urban environmental quality: negative and positive indicators; sustainable communities environmental ruling and urban quality planning.

  18. Sustainability by Default

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wals, Arjen E.J.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, based on a keynote address presented at the 68th OMEP World Assembly and International Conference held in Seoul in July 2016, it is argued that children are more in tune with sustainability than most adults and that both adults and children can benefit from intergenerational

  19. Sustainability through precision agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    As population and standard of living increase in many parts of the world, so will the need for food and other agriculturally-based products. To be sustainable, these increases in production must occur with minimum impact on the environment and with efficient use of production resources, including la...

  20. Industrialization for sustainable construction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond - de Wilde De Ligny, van E.L.C.; Barrett, P; Amaratunga, D.; Haigh, R; Keraminiyage, K.; Pathirage, C

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable construction (SuCo), which genesis dates in the early 1990’s, advocates the creation and operation of a quality and healthy built environment based on resource efficiency, life cycle economics and ecological principles. (Kibert, 2003). Currently the Construction Industry does not meet

  1. Mainstreaming sustainable coffee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2013-01-01

    This overview article examines the various dimensions of sustainable coffee as well as the actors involved and their perceptions of how to advance the market from niche to mainstream. The issues at hand are very complex, with different types of coffee producers, manufacturing/roasting companies and

  2. Sustaining alliances for integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werhane, P H

    2000-01-01

    Research in business ethics has shown that value-grounded organizations outperform their counterparts in business terms and that industries can successfully regulate themselves. The market in health care, systems theory, and stakeholder analysis are used to generate a set of five potential core values to sustain an Ethics Alliance of Oral Health Organizations.

  3. Transport and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Ph.D. study of the scope for sustainable transport in Denmark, and particularly of the role of the motor vehicle in this context. The distribution of groceries is used as case study of the introduction of the motor vehicle in Denmark, concluding that this has resulted in increases of the transport...

  4. Sustainable mining management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejera Oliver, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Mining activities are carried out by the older man and have provided resources, since ancient times, for their development and progress. With the discovery of fire will show the first metals that have marked the civilizations of copper, bronze and iron, and is the prehistory of the Stone Age tools that man has made from the exploitation of quarries first. The industrial revolution of the nineteenth century is linked to coal and steel, and could not conceiver of todays society without oil and gas, without silicon and coltan. But the mines are often aggressive and, despite their need and what they contribute to the development are answered by the societies where are made. during recent years there has been growing international efforts to try to make the minimum requirements of sustainable exploitation (European Directives, GMI, GRI, etc.) In AENOR, and within the Technical Committee of Standardization 22 Mining and Explosives, chaired by AITEMIN, was established the subcommittee 3, chaired by IGME, where, with the participation of all stake holders, have developed some standards on sustainable mining management sustainable mining that will be a tool available to mining companies to demonstrate their sustainable use to Society. (Author)

  5. The sustainable livelihoods approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2008-01-01

    food chain has on producers and their families, an analysis was conducted of the use of the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA). The SLA provides a holistic and integrative approach which researchers can use as the overriding frame for their research. The application of the approach is recommended...

  6. Sustainability issues in civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Saride, Sireesh; Basha, B

    2017-01-01

    This compilation on sustainability issues in civil engineering comprises contributions from international experts who have been working in the area of sustainability in civil engineering. Many of the contributions have been presented as keynote lectures at the International Conference on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure (ICSCI) held in Hyderabad, India. The book has been divided into core themes of Sustainable Transportation Systems, Sustainable Geosystems, Sustainable Environmental and Water Resources and Sustainable Structural Systems. Use of sustainability principles in engineering has become an important component of the process of design and in this context, design and analysis approaches in civil engineering are being reexamined to incorporate the principles of sustainable designs and construction in practice. Developing economies are on the threshold of rapid infrastructure growth and there is a need to compile the developments in various branches of civil engineering and highlight the issues. It is th...

  7. Sustainability of Fossil Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, K. S.

    2002-05-01

    For a sustainable world economy, energy is a bottleneck. Energy is at the basis of a modern, technological society, but unlike materials it cannot be recycled. Energy or more precisely "negentropy" (the opposite of entropy) is always consumed. Thus, one either accepts the use of large but finite resources or must stay within the limits imposed by dilute but self-renewing resources like sunlight. The challenge of sustainable energy is exacerbated by likely growth in world energy demand due to increased population and increased wealth. Most of the world still has to undergo the transition to a wealthy, stable society with the near zero population growth that characterizes a modern industrial society. This represents a huge unmet demand. If ten billion people were to consume energy like North Americans do today, world energy demand would be ten times higher. In addition, technological advances while often improving energy efficiency tend to raise energy demand by offering more opportunity for consumption. Energy consumption still increases at close to the 2.3% per year that would lead to a tenfold increase over the course of the next century. Meeting future energy demands while phasing out fossil fuels appears extremely difficult. Instead, the world needs sustainable or nearly sustainable fossil fuels. I propose the following definition of sustainable under which fossil fuels would well qualify: The use of a technology or resource is sustainable if the intended and unintended consequences will not force its abandonment within a reasonable planning horizon. Of course sustainable technologies must not be limited by resource depletion but this is only one of many concerns. Environmental impacts, excessive land use, and other constraints can equally limit the use of a technology and thus render it unsustainable. In the foreseeable future, fossil fuels are not limited by resource depletion. However, environmental concerns based on climate change and other environmental

  8. The sustainable company: new challenges and strategies for more sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor DANCIU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability becomes a model of development only if countries, industries, businesses and citizens become sustainable. The contribution of the business to a promising future should come from a fully integrated sustainability in its DNA and strategies.This paper focuses on the needed sustainable strategies for scaling up the contribution of the companies to sustainable development in the future. At the beginning, we analyze the main theoretical points of view on sustainability. Then, we explain how companies could achieve the sustainability by following the steps of a difficult process and the present performances in sustainability of large companies around the world. Finally, we suggest four strategies that businesses could design and implement in order to scaling up their sustainability in the future.The research has two important conclusions on sustainability in business. One is that the sustainability pays off if it is integrated in the DNA of the companies. The other conclusion says that the companies will succeed to make the needed transformation for achieving a better sustainability in the future only if they design and perform strategies focused on improving sustainability.

  9. Sustainable Geophysical Observatory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemann, R. J.; Lerner-Lam, A.; Aster, R.; Beck, S.; Ekstrom, G.; Nyblade, A.; Sandvol, E.

    2007-05-01

    Geophysical networks are defined not only by their technical specifications, but also by the characteristics and needs of the communities that use them. Growing populations supported by more elaborate urban infrastructure with its fine-grained socio-economic interdependencies and relying on global and regional connections for sustainability make new demands for natural hazard risk management. Taking advantage of advances in the underlying science to provide society with accurate risk assessments often requires higher fidelity measurements, entirely new types of observations, and an evolutionary sense of data products and information management. Engineering a high-tech system to address stakeholder needs is difficult, and designing for unpredictable developments requires an emphasis on adaptation. Thus, it is essential to promote formation of organizations or communities that can support evolution of a technological system, imagine new uses, and develop the societal relationships that sustain operations and provide capital for improvement. The owners must have a deep understanding of why the system works in particular ways and how to manage data products for the benefits of stakeholders. To be effective, community promotion must be sustained over a longer period of time than required to build a network and should be aimed at integrating the community into worldwide partnerships. Practices that can promote community formation if they are sustained include repeated training and scientific exchange workshops, extended visits by experts and staff at all levels to and from countries where networks are installed, mechanisms that make timely upgrades realistically possible, and routine exchange and wide dissemination of data in all directions. The combination of international research and educational collaborations, supported by open data exchange, with regionalized and specific assessments of local stakeholder needs and concerns, provides a sustainable model for

  10. Marketing Sustainable Retail Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Ilić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary benefits of sustainable retail over the long run has to be the marketing gain from having something other competitors do not: lower operating costs, a more socially responsible public profile, ease of gaining planning approval for new projects, better access to certain investment pools, higher rents (in the case of developers, ease of recruiting and retaining key people. Each of these benefits needs marketing and public relations support; each benefits from a clear and consistent corporate message that promotes sustainable retail. To date, there are very few retailers or developers who have championed sustainability long enough, consistently enough and with enough actual demonstration of changes in standard operations to gain the benefits of green marketing, but the very paucity of examples serves to underscore the point: the green marketing space is wide open for large retailers and developers. What would be the marketing steps that a company could take to benefit from its “sustainability focus?” The key to any marketing program is to differentiate a company’s actions from those of competitors and to do it along lines that its various stakeholders care about. This practice of differentiation is often expressed as “finding a difference that makes a difference, to someone who makes difference to you.” For retail developers, the first differentiator should be to attract more and better tenants to all of their centers, tenants who value lower operating costs and the developer’s program of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility.

  11. Safe and Sustainable: Optimizing Material Flows in a Circular Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter

    (unsustainable). When maximizing resource use efficiency and reducing carbon and other emissions through recycling (sustainable), direct consumer exposure is often increased through cross-contamination of recycled materials (unsafe). Hence, circular economy currently fails to unite the required expertise...... to imultaneously increase sustainability and reduce exposure to chemicals in materials reused across life cycles of different products. For a way out of this dilemma, a paradigm shift is needed towards a comprehensive and quantitative assessment framework.......Increasing the sustainability of a globally connected economy is gaining wide attention in a world with limited natural resources and growing chemical pollution. The circular economy has emerged as away to reduce carbon and other emissions, while increasing resource efficiency over several product...

  12. The Globe Sustained: Shakespeare’s allegory for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casteren van Cattenburch, Iris

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability theory shows that the sustainability problem is a value orientation problem. In a recent study, Klaas van Egmond identified an underlying pattern of a crossed circle, representing affirmative and adversative value orientations, whose disintegration engenders unsustainable tendencies.

  13. Advancing a sustainable highway system : highlights of FHWA sustainability activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    FHWA is undertaking a significant amount of work related to sustainability across a number of program areas throughout the Agency. The purpose of this report is to showcase some of the ways in which FHWA is incorporating and embedding sustainability ...

  14. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable textile chemical processes

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the challenges in sustainable wet processing of textiles, natural dyes, enzymatic textiles and sustainable textile finishes. Textile industry is known for its chemical processing issues and many NGO’s are behind the textile sector to streamline its chemical processing, which is the black face of clothing and fashion sector. Sustainable textile chemical processes are crucial for attaining sustainability in the clothing sector. Seven comprehensive chapters are aimed to highlight these issues in the book.

  15. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable fashion and consumption

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to introduce and explain the concept of sustainable consumption with reference to the clothing sector. It uses various case studies to detail sustainable consumption behavior in the industry. Consumption is a key issue and is a major driver when it comes to sustainability in any industry, including clothing sector. Several studies which have highlighted the need for sustainable consumption in the clothing sector are discussed in this book.

  16. PATHWAYS TO SUSTAINABLE BANKING MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan (Santamarian Oana Raluca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes one of the major challenges of the future: the sustainable development of the society. Sustainability is now increasingly recognized as central to the growth of emerging market economies. For the banking sector, this represents both a demand for greater social and environmental responsibility as well as a new landscape of business opportunity. Several years ago, the main part of the banks did not consider the social and environmental problems relevant for their operations. Recently, the banks began to realize the major impact of the sustainable development over the way of ulterior development of the society and, implicitly over the way of creating of the banking value in the future. In this context, the development of a banking management system, based on sustainable principles represents one of the provocations of these days.Starting from literature in the sustainable banking management field in this paper are presented several relevant issues related to risk management in the context of sustainable banking financing: the need to implement the sustainable management principles in financial and banking industry; the role of banks in sustainable development of society; social and environmental risk management policies, events that have shaped the role of the banking sector in sustainable development; international standards regarding sustainable banking management such us: Equator Principles for sustainable investment projects’ financing or GRI principles for sustainable reporting. Furthermore, we developed a practical case study related to the implementation of sustainable banking management at Bank of America.

  17. No-Self, Natural Sustainability and Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Ling

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the significance of sustainability and several ways in which education for sustainable development (ESD) can be considered. It presents several issues related to the theories of sustainability and ESD, which are generated based on a firm concept of anthropocentrism. ESD has been used for developing a scientific understanding…

  18. Corporate Sustainability Reporting in the BIST Sustainability Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Demirel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there is a growing focus on corporate operations especially since the publication of the first environmental reports in 1989. Companies have started to publish information about its environmental, social and sustainability policies. The study examines the sustainability reporting elements of Borsa Istanbul Sustainability Index (BIST in Turkey and to evaluate which elements is most vital in this context. This study will begin with the sustainability reporting that will be examined under the roof of corporation sustainability and end with the examination of sustainability reports of 15 firms, which are included in the BIST Sustainability Index in Turkey, and a content analysis. The reports of companies under study were taken from special web site and GRI (Global Reporting Initiative database of companies. Being the first study in examining the sustainability report of companies in BIST Sustainability Index, it is expected to contribute in literature about sustainability reporting recently started to gain importance in Turkey. Overall our findings suggest that the sustainability index established in Turkey is still in development stage, but the enterprises in the endeavor are working day by day to develop the sustainability qualities.

  19. THE JUDICIARY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    ABSTRACT. The approval of 17 goals and 169 targets for sustainable development by the ... commentary evaluates the role of the judiciary in promoting sustainable .... a healthy quality of life, imposing on the Public Power and the community.

  20. Towards Sustainable Flow Management - Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, Timothy; Elle, Morten

    2001-01-01

    Outlines the conditions for the three Local Agenda 21 case-studies in the Sustainable Flow Management project......Outlines the conditions for the three Local Agenda 21 case-studies in the Sustainable Flow Management project...

  1. Towards Sustainable Flow Management - Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, Timothy; Elle, Morten

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the conditions for the three Local Agenda 21 case-studies in the Sustainable Flow Management Project......Outlines the conditions for the three Local Agenda 21 case-studies in the Sustainable Flow Management Project...

  2. Economic theories of sustainable consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada; Bergh, van den Jeroen C.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The term `sustainable consumption' denotes the search for consumption patterns that reduce human pressure on the environment and nature. This searchinvolves three levels of research. First, the relationship between consumption, lifestyles and environmental sustainability has to be clarified.

  3. An Evolution of Sustainable Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    . This paper is framed within the understanding that while sustainable architecture has showcased ethical technology, it lacks the holistic aesthetic language needed for the discipline to progress. A discussion of literature concerning sustainability, architecture, and aesthetics, articulating the particularly...

  4. Strategies for Sustainable Energy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses international strategies for establishing a sustainable energy development. Proposals are given for mitigation of global warming.......The paper analyses international strategies for establishing a sustainable energy development. Proposals are given for mitigation of global warming....

  5. Interpreting Sustainability for Urban Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ordóñez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Incisive interpretations of urban-forest sustainability are important in furthering our understanding of how to sustain the myriad values associated with urban forests. Our analysis of earlier interpretations reveals conceptual gaps. These interpretations are attached to restrictive definitions of a sustainable urban forest and limited to a rather mechanical view of maintaining the biophysical structure of trees. The probing of three conceptual domains (urban forest concepts, sustainable development, and sustainable forest management leads to a broader interpretation of urban-forest sustainability as the process of sustaining urban forest values through time and across space. We propose that values—and not services, benefits, functions or goods—is a superior concept to refer to what is to be sustained in and by an urban forest.

  6. Property company's sustainability goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsby, Kim

    2014-11-01

    In a keynote presentation on the second morning of this year's Healthcare Estates conference, Kim Ormsby (pictured), national corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability manager at NHS Property Services, discussed how, as part of its broader goals of 'supporting the NHS in delivering clinical services', and 'helping to enhance the experience' of patients visiting its buildings, the organization would continue to pursue and embed in its activities sustainable policies wherever and whenever possible, encouraging both its staff and tenants to take a similar approach. In an informative address, she highlighted some of the key steps the property company had already taken to encourage a proactive approach. Echoing the sentiments of Day One keynote speaker, Julian Hartley (see pages 55-60), she argued that one of the fundamentals to success was wide-ranging staff engagement.

  7. SUSTAINABLE TRAILER FLOORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Different trailer flooring materials, including wood-based, aluminum, steel, and synthetic plastic floors, were evaluated in accordance with their durability and sustainability to our natural environment. Wood-based trailer flooring is an eco-friendly product. It is the most sustainable trailer flooring material compared with fossil fuel-intensive steel, aluminum, and plastics. It is renewable and recyclable. Oak, hard maple, and apitong are strong and durable hardwood species that are currently extensively used for trailer flooring. For manufacture, wood-based flooring is higher in energy efficiency and lower in carbon emission than steel, aluminum and plastics. Moreover, wood per se is a natural product that sequesters carbon. Accordingly, using more wood-based trailer flooring is effective to reduce global warming.

  8. Sustainability and specialisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns Jr.

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Society depends heavily on its major universities and independent research organisations for new ideas. Arguable, sustainable use of the planet will require conceptual paradigms unprecedented in human history. Educational systems, especially major universities and research organisations, must produce students in all phases of the educational continuum who are capable of transdisciplinary activities. A much larger group of such students will be required to implement these new undertakings. Until the perception of the need for transdisciplinary education becomes widespread, nothing significant is likely to happen. One major obstacle is the lack of employment for transdisciplinary individuals. A commitment to sustainable use of the planet will provide employment and make better use of increasingly scarce resources.

  9. Sustainable Consumption: Research Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Cohen, Maurie J.; Thøgersen, John

    The Board of the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research (Mistra) decided in October 2015 that a proposal for a funding application call in the research area of “sustainable consumption” should be drawn up. According to the statutes of Mistra, research funded by the foundation...... international senior researchers in the eld — Lucia A. Reisch, Maurie J. Cohen, John B. Thøgersen and Arnold Tukker (see Appendix 3) — to draft a background report to prepare the call. The group’s tasks were outlined as follows: ► to describe the challenges facing society in this area, and the political (and...... the orientation of a new research program to be used as draft text for the call for funding applications. The aim of this background report is hence to shed light on future research topics within sustainable consumption from a Swedish perspective. The research pro- moted should help to develop Sweden...

  10. Fundamentals of sustainable neighbourhoods

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avi

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces architects, engineers, builders, and urban planners to a range of design principles of sustainable communities and illustrates them with outstanding case studies. Drawing on the author’s experience as well as local and international case studies, Fundamentals of Sustainable Neighbourhoods presents planning concepts that minimize developments' carbon footprint through compact communities, adaptable and expandable dwellings, adaptable landscapes, and smaller-sized yet quality-designed housing. This book also: Examines in-depth global strategies for minimizing the residential carbon footprint, including district heating, passive solar gain, net-zero residences, as well as preserving the communities' natural assets Reconsiders conceptual approaches in building design and urban planning to promote a better connection between communities and nature Demonstrates practical applications of green architecture Focuses on innovative living spaces in urban environments

  11. Mathematics for sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Roe, John; Jamshidi, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Designed for the 21st century classroom, this textbook poses, refines, and analyzes questions of sustainability in a quantitative environment. Building mathematical knowledge in the context of issues relevant to every global citizen today, this text takes an approach that empowers students of all disciplines to understand and reason with quantitative information. Whatever conclusions may be reached on a given topic, this book will prepare the reader to think critically about their own and other people’s arguments and to support them with careful, mathematical reasoning. Topics are grouped in themes of measurement, flow, connectivity, change, risk, and decision-making. Mathematical thinking is at the fore throughout, as students learn to model sustainability on local, regional, and global scales. Exercises emphasize concepts, while projects build and challenge communication skills. With no prerequisites beyond high school algebra, instructors will find this book a rich resource for engaging all majors in the...

  12. Sustainable Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia; Eberle, Ulrike; Lorek, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary food production and consumption cannot be regarded as sustainable and raises problems with its wide scope involving diverse actors. Moreover, in the face of demographic change and a growing global population, sus-tainability problems arising from food systems will likely become more...... and globalization of agriculture and food processing, the shift of consumption patterns toward more dietary animal protein, the emergence of modern food styles that entail heavily processed products, the growing gap on a global scale between rich and poor, and the paradoxical lack of food security amid an abundance...... of food. These factors are attributable to national and international policies and regulations, as well as to prevalent business prac-tices and, in particular, consumers' values and habits. The most effective ways for affluent societies to reduce the environmental impact of their diets are to reduce...

  13. Sustainable Energy for All

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    - renewable energy and energy efficiency. The promise of renewable energy can only be realised through significant R&D investments on technologies such as solar, biomass, wind, hydropower, geothermal power, ocean energy sources, solar-derived hydrogen fuel coupled with energy storage technologies necessary......Energy crisis is one of the most pressing issues of our century. The world currently invests more than $1 trillion per year in energy, much of it going toward the energy systems of the past instead of building the clean energy economies of the future. Effectively, the provision of energy should...... be such that it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Investment in sustainable energy is a smart strategy for growing markets, improving competitiveness, and providing greater equity and opportunity. Sustainable energy has two key elements...

  14. Sustaining a Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinova, Svetla Trifonova; Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    2015-01-01

    The chapter explores how internationalisation accounted for sustained business success during the turbulent time of radical economic, political and social transformation in Eastern Europe. The study adopts a longitudinal approach to exploring the evolution of internationalisation – from a partner......The chapter explores how internationalisation accounted for sustained business success during the turbulent time of radical economic, political and social transformation in Eastern Europe. The study adopts a longitudinal approach to exploring the evolution of internationalisation – from...... system was under way. Dyadic and triadic relationships are investigated by applying sets of theoretical approaches to the creation of an East-West business relationship. They encompass the role of the country’s government, the management of the focal company and the foreign partner. Furthermore, the role...... and the integration of the company into global business structures....

  15. Electricity and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.

    2003-11-01

    The sustainable development is a political project. Its purpose is to erase the contradictions between the requirements of Environment and social development. the first article of the law of February 10, 2000 erects a sustainable electricity. For the first time. a law integrates the environmental requirements into the electrical industry. The starting point of this study is in the observation of the effects of this integration in a central sector for the developed countries. electricity is the motive of social development. However, it is carried by a Network. This network results from the confusion between the energy policy and the rules which aim at ensuring the construction and the management of structures of production and transport. Nevertheless, if the energy policy integrates the requirements of the environment, the structures subject them to a dominant social logic which aim is to satisfy an increasing demand for electricity. (author)

  16. Towards sustainable food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aramyan, Lusine H; Hoste, Robert; van den Broek, Willie

    2011-01-01

    continuous innovation of supply chain network structures, reconsideration of business processes, relocation of logistics infrastructures and renewed allocation of chain activities to these infrastructures in order to achieve sustainable performances. This paper presents a scenario analysis of the spatial...... of pigs, processing of pork and pork consumption, is used to analyse the scenarios. The results reveal major opportunities for reductions in cost as well as in CO2 equivalent emissions if a European sector perspective is taken and some chain activities are relocated to other countries. However......, as minimizing costs will not always lead to an optimal reduction in CO2 equivalent emissions, a differentiated strategy is needed for the European pork sector to move towards more sustainable production...

  17. Making sustainability work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binswanger, Hans Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Today's economic theory usually neglects the role of nature and environment. To make sustainability work it is, however, essential to (re-)integrate nature into the standard concepts of economics, especially by incorporating natural factors into the production function. It must be acknowledged that economic growth is not (only) the result of technical change but is mainly caused by rising energy-inputs into the economy, and that this is necessarily followed by resource exhaustion and pollution. Therefore, nature must not only be taken into account as a central factor of production but also in the form of environmental quality which is the basis for human quality of life. A numeric example shows that a small, but steady decrease of yearly resource consumption is already apt to redirect the economy on a path of sustainable development

  18. Sustainable Soil Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Evgrafova, Alevtina; Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren

    management strategies, which consider the site- and field-specific parameters and agricultural machinery’s improvements, it is possible to maximize production and income, while reducing negative environmental impacts and human health issues induced by agricultural activities as well as improving food......Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. This report provides an overview on new technologies for integrate sustainable and resilient management practices in arable ecosystems for advanced farmers, consultants, NGOs and policy makers. By following sustainable soil...... and soil quality in short- and long-terms. This report also illustrates the importance to combine a system approach for plant production by assessing field readiness, managing in-field traffic management, implementing the sitespecific controlled as well as sensor-controlled seedbed preparation, seeding...

  19. Sustainable tourism types

    OpenAIRE

    Ion-Danut JUGANARU; Mariana JUGANARU; Andreea ANGHEL

    2008-01-01

    Tourism development must be based on sustainability criteria, be long term bearable economically and ethically and socially equitable for the local populations of the destinations. Tourism forms identified by the literature as being “sustainable” are numerous: ecological tourism (ecotourism), green tourism, soft, rural tourism and agrotourism, community tourism, solidarity and responsible tourism, all these opposing to the traditional, mass tourism. According to some specialists only tourism ...

  20. Sustainable Bridge Infrastructure Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safi, Mohammed; Du, Guangli; Simonsson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The lack of a flexible but systematic approach for integrating lifecycle aspects into bridge investment decisions is a major obstacle hindering the procurement of sustainable bridge infrastructures. This paper addresses this obstacle by introducing a holistic approach that agencies could use...... to procure the most “sustainable” (lifecycle-efficient) bridge through a fair design-build (D-B) tendering process, considering all the main aspects: life-cycle cost (LCC), service life-span, aesthetic demands and environmental impacts (LCA)....

  1. Carbon offsetting: sustaining consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Lovell; Harriet Bulkeley; Diana Liverman

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine how theories of sustainable and ethical consumption help us to understand a new, rapidly expanding type of consumer product designed to mitigate climate change: carbon offsets. The voluntary carbon offset market grew by 200% between 2005 and 2006, and there are now over 150 retailers of voluntary carbon offsets worldwide. Our analysis concentrates on the production and consumption of carbon offsets, drawing on ideas from governmentality and political ecology about how...

  2. Sustainable development report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Gaz de France strategic choices and management systems have long been inspired by the principles of sustainable development. This document presents the involvement of the Group in this policy: the profile of the gaz de France group, the highlights 2005, from the strategy to the action, the corporate culture of sharing and the dialogue, the corporate governance, the performance 2005 and indicators and external evaluation. (A.L.B.)

  3. Maintenance in sustainable manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stuchly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sustainable development is about reaching a balance between economic, social, and environmental goals, as well as people's participation in the planning process in order to gain their input and support. For a company, sustainable development means adoption of such business strategy and actions that contribute to satisfying present needs of company and stakeholders, as well as simultaneous protection, maintenance and strengthening of human and environmental potential which will be needed in the future. This new approach forces manufacturing companies to change their previous management paradigms. New management paradigm should include new issues and develop innovative methods, practices and technologies striving for solving problem of shortages of resources, softening environment overload and enabling development of environment-friendly lifecycle of products. Hence, its realization requires updating existing production models as they are based on previously accepted paradigm of unlimited resources and unlimited regeneration capabilities. Maintenance plays a crucial role because of its impact on availability, reliability, quality and life cycle cost, thus it should be one of the main pillars of new business running model.  Material and methods: The following paper is a result of research on the literature and observation of practices undertaken by a company within maintenance area. Results and conclusions: The main message is that considering sustainable manufacturing requires considerable expanding range of analysis and focusing on supporting processes. Maintenance offers numerous opportunities of decreasing influence of business processes on natural environment and more efficient resources utilization. The goal of maintenance processes realizing sustainable development strategy is increased profitability of exploitation and optimization of total lifecycle cost without disturbing safety and environmental issues. 

  4. Wetlands and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Smardon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This editorial provides an overview of the special issue “Wetlands and Sustainability”. In particular, the special issue contains a review of Paul Keddy’s book “Wetland Ecology” with specific reference to wetland sustainability. It also includes papers addressing wetland data acquisition via radar and remote sensing to better understand wetland system dynamics, hydrologic processes linked to wetland stress and restoration, coastal wetlands land use conflict/management, and wetland utilization for water quality treatment.

  5. Sustainability and Business Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Joy Davidson

    2017-01-01

    This session will consider the longer term sustainability of ROM services and provide an introduction to Business Model Canvas (BMC) as a tool to help develop a longer term business plan. Working in institutional groups, each group will work together to develop a BMC for their institution. This will be revisited at several stages over the life of the project and updated accordingly. By the end of this session, participants will: •be able to flesh out a Business Model C...

  6. Nanotechnologies for sustainable construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Andersen, Maj Munch

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to highlight key aspects and recent trends in the development and application of nanotechnology to facilitate sustainable construction, use and demolition of buildings and infrastructure structures, ‘nanoconstruction’. Nanotechnology is not a technology but a very diverse...... technological field which covers many aspects. The chapter therefore seeks to provide a framework for addressing relevant issues of green nanoconstruction and to bring an overview and illustrative examples of current early developments....

  7. MARKETING AND SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Muhcină

    2007-01-01

    Among others, tourism marketing has the purpose to facilitate the process of conceiving and developing those specific tourism products, which better corresponding to different tourists categories' needs. These products are created going from utilization of some natural and human resources, considered as tourism attraction. In the sustainable development spirit, marketers must conceive harmonious tourism product policies; as to satisfy the actual tourists' needs and future tourists generation'...

  8. Science Shaping Sustainable Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Osuna, V.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Koehler, D.; Klop, P.; Spengler, J.; Buonocore, J.; Cak, A. D.; Tessler, Z. D.; Corsi, F.; Green, P. A.; Sánchez, R.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable investment is confronting a period of rapid growth and fundamental change. However, the methods used to evaluate corporate sustainability are failing to keep pace with this new reality. In contrast to the 1990s when corporate data on pollution or occupational health were not available in the public domain, today's investors can take advantage of rich data streams, owing to voluntary corporate disclosures of their business practices. Yet, the data companies declare are hardly standardized, difficult to verify, and thus run the risk of creating unreliable assertions, a form of "green-washing". A partnership comprising a pension fund, an asset manager and two research universities has created a science-based approach to quantify context and place it into a decision-making framework for investors. We have tested this framework on US$2.5 billion of assets held by a large European pension fund with an initial focus on four domains—water, climate change, human health and food security. Our standardized metrics enable coherent comparison of individual company and portfolios over time. To place a company's impact on water systems or climate change into context requires geographically co-locating company operations, combining these with estimates of industrial emissions or mitigation potential, baseline Earth system science data and geopolitical and demographic statistics. Recent developments regarding the Paris Accord are a warning that progress toward a sustainable future requires rethinking the roles that the public and private sectors can play in effecting meaningful change. The finance sector, if given the proper guideposts, could rapidly transform fraught public policy challenges like climate adaptation or the global loss of biodiversity into business opportunities. By utilizing a science-based yardstick to evaluate and compare companies on the basis of their impacts, attention could be drawn to companies that are verifiably contributing to sustainability.

  9. Armenia's Economic Growth Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Tatsuji

    2015-01-01

    Armenia enjoyed 15 years of uninterrupted high economic growth prior to the global financial crisis in 2009. Investment, particularly in the mining and metallurgy sectors, played a key role as a driver of economic growth. Remittances,mostly from Russia, had an effect in sustaining consumption and boosting construction. Armenia has shown some weaknesses in the external sector, due to demands for natural gas, mineral products, machinery, and equipment. Armenia's exports and FDI suffer from the ...

  10. The Fiction of Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mubanda Rasmussen, Louise

    research with organisations providing help to "Orphans and Vulnerable Children" in Malawi, this paper discusses how donors, international and local NGOs, and CBOs all participate in keeping alive 'the fiction of sustainability', each for their different reasons. Rather than overt resistance to the power...... of international donors, the processes I discuss reflect how actors from their different positions become skilled in using established policy models and available resources for their own ends....

  11. Humanitarian logistics and sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Leeuw, Sander; Regattieri, Alberto; Souza, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This contributed volume combines conceptual and strategic research articles dealing with the "why" and "to what end" of sustainable operations in humanitarian logistics, as well as operational research contributions regarding the "how" from the United Nations as well as from researchers and organizations from different countries (Germany, Australia, Singapore, Italy, Denmark, Jordan). The target audience primarily comprises research experts, decision makers  and practitioners in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  12. Chemistry of sustainable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Nancy E

    2014-01-01

    Energy BasicsWhat Is Energy?Energy, Technology, and SustainabilityEnergy Units, Terms, and AbbreviationsElectricity Generation and StorageOther ResourcesReferencesFossil FuelsFormation of Oil and GasExtraction of Fossil FuelsRefiningCarbon Capture and StorageSummaryOther ResourcesOnline Resources Related to Carbon Capture andSequestrationReferencesThermodynamicsIntroductionThe First Law of ThermodynamicsThe Second Law and Thermodynamic Cycles: the Carnot EfficiencyExerg

  13. Taxation and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Common, Mick S.

    1992-01-01

    Clearly, the question which is the workshop title permits of no single simple answer. This paper addresses it in the particular context of taxation. The argument is that in this context the sustainability debate seems to have had rather little effect on economists' thinking and policy advice. While it is true that taxation is looked upon more favourably than some alternative instruments for environmental policy implementation, there does not appear to have been much in the way of thinking abo...

  14. Sustainability or profitability?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khennas, Smail; Doig, Alsion [Intermediate Technology, Bourton on Dunsmore, Rugby (United Kingdom)

    1999-10-01

    For small rural communities off-grid, micro-hydro power is often the most cost-effective means of providing electricity. Whether the electricity should be provided without cost to the beneficiaries or whether it should be paid for are the points under discussion. Details of cost and technology of schemes in both Nepal and Sri Lanka show that micro hydro can be sustainable in small isolated communities. (UK)

  15. Implementing Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Rydin, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This paper highlights the scope for making progress towards sustainable development through changes in current practices and decision-making processes that do not need international agreements. It outlines seven key areas for improving implementation, including: using monitoring and evaluation (and the information these produce) to change attitudes and behaviour; participation that involves the public constructively; better use of “soft” instruments of persuasion and communication; and ensuri...

  16. Sustainable consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    We summarise the contributions in this special issue on sustainable consumer behaviour and place them in perspective. Several studies focus on macro- and meso-issues, and others on micro-issues of consumer behaviour. The studies employ a variety of methods, including surveys, field experiments, eye tracking, scale development, and contingent valuation. The 12 contributions from authors of 13 different countries show the wide and varied application of consumer research focused on sustainabilit...

  17. Towards Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Victor

    2010-01-01

    GHG emissions can be reduced by shifting travel to a more efficient mode, which can be achieved by offering high quality public transport integrated to land use and density policies. However, there is a scarcity of efficient and low-cost alternatives to improve urban transport and tackle GHG emis......). The review highlights empirical evidence of the development and implementation of creative solutions, which integrate transport infrastructure, land use policies and street design strategies for fostering sustainable mobility and GHG emission reduction....

  18. Strategic Leadership of Corporate Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Strategic leadership and corporate sustainability have recently come together in conspicuously explicit fashion through the emergence of top management team (TMT) positions with dedicated corporate sustainability responsibilities. These TMT positions, commonly referred to as 'Chief Sustainability......? What effects do corporate sustainability TMT positions have at their organizations? We consider these questions through strategic leadership and neoinstitutional theoretical frameworks. Through the latter, we also engage with Weberian considerations of bureaucracy. We find that the reasons why...

  19. Environmentally sustainable economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.G.; Woodruffe, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Shell Canada adopted Sustainable Development in 1990 as the approach to managing the environment. The corporation's president, representing the energy industry on the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, provided key direction on the development of the process. This paper reports on national concepts of Sustainable Development principles that were utilized as a starting point, but quickly a Shell specific policy was approved, followed by Corporate Principles and Targets and Undertakings. These are being further developed in both the upstream and downstream with leadership from Resources (E and P) Department. Cascading of Targets and Undertakings has occurred to E and P followed by operating complexes, the drilling sites and the seismic lines. Steps were carefully programmed to learn from specific application before expanding to all areas. All plans are expected to be in place by mid 1992. Place contain short and long term target but focus on a rolling 2 year identification of actions to meet those targets. The plans permit an annual appraisal of accomplishments as well as budgeting for successive years. The move to Sustainable Development planning is a significant shift in industry attitude and approach but demonstrates the ability for the coexistence of environmental and economic demands

  20. Sustainable Urban Transport Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boitor Melania R.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection has become a common issue in every area, but extremely important for the domains which deal with intensive energy consumption as it is the case of the transportation. Achieving the sustainable cities on the other hand, is also focused on the protection of the environment in order to provide a higher quality of life for the population. Therefore it is considered that by improving the urban transportation planning additional benefits could be provided for both the environment and the sustainable development of the cities. One possibility is to supplement the traditionally land-use plans with the transportrelated zones analysis, where the city is divided in public transport, pedestrian and caroriented zones. Analyzing the transport-related zones of a city is important as it provides additional information in the assessment of the development trend. The process of zoning was conducted for the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. In this paper, the outcome of the zoning was analyzed for a more comprehensive review of the urban transport in order to attain a sustainable-oriented approach of the urban area development.

  1. Modeling Sustainable Food Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Thomas; Prosperi, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    The processes underlying environmental, economic, and social unsustainability derive in part from the food system. Building sustainable food systems has become a predominating endeavor aiming to redirect our food systems and policies towards better-adjusted goals and improved societal welfare. Food systems are complex social-ecological systems involving multiple interactions between human and natural components. Policy needs to encourage public perception of humanity and nature as interdependent and interacting. The systemic nature of these interdependencies and interactions calls for systems approaches and integrated assessment tools. Identifying and modeling the intrinsic properties of the food system that will ensure its essential outcomes are maintained or enhanced over time and across generations, will help organizations and governmental institutions to track progress towards sustainability, and set policies that encourage positive transformations. This paper proposes a conceptual model that articulates crucial vulnerability and resilience factors to global environmental and socio-economic changes, postulating specific food and nutrition security issues as priority outcomes of food systems. By acknowledging the systemic nature of sustainability, this approach allows consideration of causal factor dynamics. In a stepwise approach, a logical application is schematized for three Mediterranean countries, namely Spain, France, and Italy.

  2. Indicators of sustainable tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dobrica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The indicators, precisely describing the linkages between tourism and the environment, social and cultural base, are not easily available. How ever, some relevant organizations (WTO, EU, OECD, etc., institutions and experts, have been hardly working to create the indicators of sustainable tourism. Whereas the economic objectives are easily defined by the use of the traditional indicators used in national and business economics, it is very difficult to identify widely applicable environmental, social and cultural indicators. In order to stimulate and alleviate the process of sustainable tourism development, EU created the list of comparative indicators of sustainable tourism. In preparing this list, special attention is paid to identification of valid indicators of real tourism impacts on the social and cultural environment (the entire set of traditions, customs, history, hospitality and culture that characterize a given area, that is a very complex task. Assuming the fact that the related indicators have been analyzed in many European countries, this paper is focused on applying the related indicators in research of tourism development in villages of the Kosjerić community. .

  3. Day one sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, John; Ibell, Timothy; Evernden, Mark; Darby, Antony

    2015-05-01

    Emissions reductions targets for the UK set out in the Climate Change Act for the period to 2050 will only be achieved with significant changes to the built environment, which is currently estimated to account for 50% of the UK's carbon emissions. The socio-technological nature of Civil Engineering means that this field is uniquely placed to lead the UK through such adaptations. This paper discusses the importance of interdisciplinary teaching to produce multi-faceted team approaches to sustainable design solutions. Methods for measuring success in education are often not fit for purpose, producing good students but poor engineers. Real-world failures to apply sustainable design present a serious, difficult to detect, and ultimately economically negative situation. Techniques to replace summative examinations are presented and discussed, with the aim of enhancing core technical skills alongside those required for sustainable design. Finally, the role of our future engineers in policy-making is discussed. In addition to carbon, the provision of water and food will heavily influence the work of civil engineers in the coming decades. Leadership from civil engineers with the technical knowledge and social awareness to tackle these issues will be required. This provides both opportunities and challenges for engineering education in the UK.

  4. SUSTAINABLE YACHT TOURISM PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen SEVİNÇ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Yacht tourism has become an important asset for the countries which consider tourism as a means of development due to its environment awareness, national and international investments, the volume of business, employment opportunities, foreign exchange income, socio-economic and socio-cultural impact, and an increasing number of investments and incentives for yacht tourism have made and used in a number of countries. In the presence of such rapid developments, the environmental damage caused by yacht tourism has been of importance for coastal countries, and action plans and special projects involving many countries have been developed in order to enhance the awareness of the sustainability of yacht tourism. Given that environment is not a limited source, it is blatant that national or international sustainable tourism practices have been essential for coastal countries and environmental threats are now so severe that they cannot be overlooked. The purpose of the study is to discuss sustainable tourism practices as a part of the measures to eliminate the negative impacts of yacht tourism and provide relevant suggestions.

  5. If Development, Then Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bóna Péter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore how the effects of components belonging to the concept of strategic management system influence outstanding achievement and success in the processing industry in Hungary as well as the sustainability success component within that. In order to do that, the study defines the factors having an influence. Thereafter, it explains the successful operation of companies with the help of factors emerging via path analysis using regression models. It uses the balanced scorecard as a tool for success criteria describing success. This is a non-market aspect that has an impact on the whole system, making it of crucial importance. Via the exploration of effects, it can be shown the deliberate use of those factors that generate outstanding results and success from the point of view of sustainability, and thus internal development, customer appreciation, and financial success. By taking the results of the research into consideration, it will also be revealed that success factors in the processing industry in Hungary have the most direct and the largest impact on outstanding sustainability performance.

  6. Sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, N.; Al Gobaisi, D.; Carvalho, M.; Cumo, M.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that present energy strategy requires adaptation of new criterions to be followed in the future energy system development. No doubt that there is a link between energy consumption and environment capacity reduction. This is an alarming sign, which recently has become the leading theme for our near and distant future. Modern engineering science has to be oriented to those areas which may directly assist in our future energy planning. In this respect, it is demanding need that our attention be oriented to the global aspect og the energy development. Modern technology will help to adopt essential principles of the sustainable energy development. With the appropriate renewable energy resources introduction in our energy future and with the increase of safety of nuclear energy, it will be possible to comply with the main principles to be adapted in the sustainable energy strategy. in order to promote the sustainable energy development the respective education system is required. It was recognized that the present energy education system can not meet future demand for the knowledge dissemination. It was shown that the potential option for the future education system is the distance learning with multimedia telematic system. (authors). 46 refs, 14 figs, 1 tab

  7. Transforming Innovation for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Leach

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of charting pathways to sustainability that keep human societies within a "safe operating space" has now been clarified. Crises in climate, food, biodiversity, and energy are already playing out across local and global scales and are set to increase as we approach critical thresholds. Drawing together recent work from the Stockholm Resilience Centre, the Tellus Institute, and the STEPS Centre, this commentary article argues that ambitious Sustainable Development Goals are now required along with major transformation, not only in policies and technologies, but in modes of innovation themselves, to meet them. As examples of dryland agriculture in East Africa and rural energy in Latin America illustrate, such "transformative innovation" needs to give far greater recognition and power to grassroots innovation actors and processes, involving them within an inclusive, multi-scale innovation politics. The three dimensions of direction, diversity, and distribution along with new forms of "sustainability brokering" can help guide the kinds of analysis and decision making now needed to safeguard our planet for current and future generations.

  8. Sustainability curricula in design education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casais, M.; Christiaans, H.H.C.M.; Almendra, R.

    2012-01-01

    While sustainability in Design finds much attention in the literature, the education of sustainability in Design courses lacks discussion regarding curricula and importance. In an attempt to map the way sustainability is taught in Design Bachelor and Master Courses in the European Union, we began

  9. Educating Professionals for Sustainable Futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hille Janhonen-Abruquah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent discourse on sustainability science calls for interdisciplinary research. The home economics science approach ranges from individual actions to the involvement of communities and societies at large, and thus it can provide important perspectives on cultural sustainability. The aim of the research is to study the linkage between cultural sustainability and service sector education to support the creation of sustainable professions. In the present small-scale empirical study, the food service degree curriculum of a Finnish vocational college and teachers’ group interview data were analyzed to find how cultural sustainability is presented in the curriculum and how it is understood by teachers and integrated into teaching practices. Previous cultural sustainability research identifies four perspectives of cultural sustainability: (1 vitality of cultural traditions; (2 economic starting point; (3 diversity together with maintenance of local culture; and (4 possible influence on the balance between human actions and environment. Findings indicate that sustainability, including cultural sustainability, is integrated in the curriculum and considered important by teachers. Translating these into practice remains a challenge. The balance between human and nature was mostly understood as recycling, use of public transport, sustainable consumption, and taking trips to the nature nearby. Cultural sustainability as a concept is not well known, although themes such as multicultural issues, equality, charity, and environmental responsibility were included in teachers’ practical lessons daily. Feasts and celebrations in learning were opportunities to view cultural sustainability widely. This paper provides a way forward for the teachers to develop further their pedagogical practices.

  10. Sustainability in the Business Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ron Schipper; Gilbert Gilbert Silvius

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the integration of indicators that reflect the concepts of sustainability into business cases and business case evaluation methods. It is based on the observations that sustainability is one of the most important challenges of our time and that sustainable development requires

  11. The sustainable wood production initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert. Deal

    2004-01-01

    To address concerns about sustainable forestry in the region, the Focused Science Delivery Program is sponsoring a three year Sustainable Wood Production Initiative. The Pacific Northwest is one of the world's major timber producing regions, and the ability of this region to produce wood on a sustained yield basis is widely recognized. Concerns relating to the...

  12. Sustainability in the food sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2011-01-01

    Consumers have, through their food choices, a major role in bringing about more sustainable food production. However, this presupposes that differences in sustainability are communicated to consumers. Even if food products are eco-labelled and consumers are motivated to support sustainability...

  13. Sustainability in the textile industry

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book examines in detail key aspects of sustainability in the textile industry, especially environmental, social and economic sustainability in the textiles and clothing sector. It highlights the various faces and facets of sustainability and their implications for textiles and the clothing sector.

  14. Organizational citizenship behavior towards sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Dhiman Deb

    2013-01-01

    This article extends literature of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) in the context of corporate sustainability. The author presents the concept of Organizational Citizenship Behavior towards Sustainability (OCBS) as a variant, contending it's appropriateness for today's much needed behavioral competence to implement sustainability measure at organizational level. The formulation of OCBS espouses Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) with a twist. The viewpoint defended that a for...

  15. Cork for sustainable product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mestre, A.C.; Gil, L.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable Product Design is currently accepted as one of the most promising trends in the “Sustainable Development” movement. It is often seen as a facilitation tool to implement Sustainability in practice, by improving the life cycle and eco-efficiency of products, by promoting dematerialization

  16. Deliverable 2 (SustainAQ)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, O.; Julian, B.; Bosman, R.; Eding, E.

    2009-01-01

    The European Project SustainAQ (Framework 6) aims to identify the limiting factors for the sustainable production of aquatic origin food in Eastern Europe. It focuses on the possible use of Recirculation Aquaculture Systems (RAS) as sustainable method for the production of aquatic animals as

  17. Viral Innovation, Sustainability, and Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    Enterprises strive to be economically sustainable. In doing so, they either contribute to or detract from environmental and social sustainability. Sustainability is hence multi-dimensional with formulations that include the familiar triple-bottom-line and BEST models. Any assessment regimen for t...

  18. Sustainability: Higher Education's New Fundamentalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Rachelle; Wood, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    "Sustainability" is a key idea on college campuses in the United States and the rest of the Western world. To the unsuspecting, sustainability is just a new name for environmentalism. This report is the first in-depth critical study of the sustainability movement in higher education. The focus of this study is on how the sustainability…

  19. Embedding Sustainability and Renewable Energy Concepts into Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belu, R.; Cioca, L.

    2017-12-01

    Human society is facing an uncertain future due to the present unsustainable use of natural resources and the growing imbalance with our natural environment. Creation of a sustainable society is a complex multi-disciplinary and multi-stage project, believed to dominate our century, requiring collaboration, teamwork, and abilities to work with respect and learn from other disciplines and professions. Sustainable development means technological progress meeting the present needs without compromising future generation ability to meet its needs and aspirations. It has four aspects: environment, technology, economy, and societal organizations. Students are often taught to deal with technological developments and economic analysis to assess the process or product viability, but are not fully familiar with sustainability and optimization of technology development benefits and the environment. Schools in many disciplines are working to include sustainability concepts into their curricula. Teaching sustainability and renewable energy has become an essential feature today higher education. Sustainable and green design is about designs recognizing the constraints of the natural resource uses and the environment. It applies to all of engineering and science areas, as all systems interact with the environment in complex and important ways. Our project goals are to provide students with multiple and comprehensive exposures to sustainability and renewable energy concepts, facilitating the development of passion and skills to integrate them into practice. The expected outcomes include an increased social responsibility; development of innovative thinking skills; understanding of sustainability issues, and increasing student interests in the engineering and science programs. The project aims to incorporate sustainability and renewable energy concepts into our undergraduate curricula, employing the existing course resources, and developing new courses and laboratory experiments

  20. Sustainable Lifestyle Marketing of Individuals: the Base of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Rakic

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the sustainable lifestyle marketing of an individual (SLMOI. The SLMOI is the activity, a set of institutions and processes for creating, communicating and maintaining the sustainable lifestyle of an individual (SLOI. The SLOI is an individual’s sustainability-oriented pattern of living represented by his or her activities, interests and opinions. The SLOI refers to a sustainable pattern of life (daily activities within the family, a sustainable pattern of consumption, a sustainable pattern of work and production (as employees in organizations and a sustainable pattern of behavior in the society and the environment they live in. The SLOI reflects an individual’s choices with respect to spending time, money and energy in accordance with the sustainable pattern of life. The SLOI stands for sustainable behavioral patterns on the basis of attitudes and values. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the attitudes of the population towards sustainable lifestyles and the SLMOI (performed by different actors and behaviors on the basis of attitudes.Using a face-to-face questionnaire interview, the study was conducted on a sample of 400 citizens of Serbia. There are three key conclusions. First, the SLMOI leads to the SLOI, and the SLOI further leads to sustainability. Second, the creation and maintenance of the SLOI is a long-term process. Third, a holistic approach is needed as well as the engagement of numerous actors in that process of creating and maintaining the SLOI.

  1. Sustainability dilemmas in emerging economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama K. Jayanti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence of climate change is forcing businesses to play an active role in reducing sustainability burdens and preserving resources for future generations. Extant research on sustainability has an exclusive focus on developed countries with stringent environmental regulations and activist scrutiny. Emerging markets present interesting dilemmas since rapid mass urbanisation aimed at raising standards of living poses concomitant threats to environmental health. This round table aimed to showcase best practices in sustainability within the Indian business context. Insights from the discussion regarding sustainability dilemmas provide a fertile ground for bench marking global sustainability best practices.

  2. Catalysis and sustainable (green) chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centi, Gabriele; Perathoner, Siglinda [Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale ed Ingegneria dei Materiali, University of Messina, Salita Sperone 31, 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2003-01-15

    Catalysis is a key technology to achieve the objectives of sustainable (green) chemistry. After introducing the concepts of sustainable (green) chemistry and a brief assessment of new sustainable chemical technologies, the relationship between catalysis and sustainable (green) chemistry is discussed and illustrated via an analysis of some selected and relevant examples. Emphasis is also given to the concept of catalytic technologies for scaling-down chemical processes, in order to develop sustainable production processes which reduce the impact on the environment to an acceptable level that allows self-depuration processes of the living environment.

  3. Sustainability in Fashion Business Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsan-Ming Choi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Under the global trend of sustainability, many companies selling fashion products have to reshape their operational strategies. Over the past few years, we have witnessed many fashion companies going green by re-engineering their business processes and establishing their formal sustainability programs. Many important topics, such as closed-loop supply chain management, corporate social responsibility, and economic sustainability, are all related to sustainable fashion business operations management. This paper provides a brief review of these critical topics, introduces the special issue, and proposes future research areas to achieve sustainable operations management in the fashion business.

  4. Entrepreneurial action, sustainability and bricolage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.

    This paper explores the relation between entrepreneurship and sustainability. It is explored whether bricolage, a specific form of entrepreneurial action, is particularly conducive to the creation of sustainable solutions. This question is investigated through a case study of an entrepreneur who...... has a long history of sustainable entrepreneurship in which bricolage plays a central role. The study identifies six distinct forms of bricolage practised by the entrepreneur. Furthermore, it is found that, while there is no direct link between bricolage and sustainability, the two concepts have...... a potentially synergetic relationship between them so that bricolage skills may enhance a sustainable mindset, and vice versa....

  5. A New Agenda for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Nielsen, Kurt

    Two decades after the Brundtland Commission's Report "Our Common Future" adopted the concept of 'sustainable development', this book provides a renewal of the concept exploring the potential for new practices and fields for those involved in sustainability activity. The book addresses a number...... on sustainability. The material dealt with in the book offers a wide variety of perspectives on sustainability and reflects the importance of interdisciplinary and transdiciplinary work in the field. Suggesting targets for future analytical and political efforts in achieving global sustainability, this book offers...

  6. Wrapping Our Brains around Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Ann Curran

    2009-01-01

    As many of us begin to embrace the concept of sustainability, we realize that it is not simply something that we ‘do.’ Rather, sustainability is a destination that we aspire to reach with the selection of the sustainable pathways that we choose as we proceed along the journey. We are embarking on a new journey with the creation of Sustainability , an on-line, open access journal. As stated on the journal’s website, Sustainability is an international and cross-disciplinary scholarly journal of...

  7. Towards Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Traverso

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is nowadays accepted by all stakeholders as a guiding principle for both public policy making and corporate strategies. However, the biggest challenge for most organizations remains in the real and substantial implementation of the sustainability concept. The core of the implementation challenge is the question, how sustainability performance can be measured, especially for products and processes. This paper explores the current status of Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA for products and processes. For the environmental dimension well established tools like Life Cycle Assessment are available. For the economic and social dimension, there is still need for consistent and robust indicators and methods. In addition to measuring the individual sustainability dimensions, another challenge is a comprehensive, yet understandable presentation of the results. The “Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard” and the “Life Cycle Sustainability Triangle” are presented as examples for communication tools for both experts and non expert stakeholders.

  8. What is Sustainability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Farrington

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability as a policy concept has its origin in the Brundtland Report of 1987. That document was concerned with the tension between the aspirations of mankind towards a better life on the one hand and the limitations imposed by nature on the other hand. In the course of time, the concept has been re-interpreted as encompassing three dimensions, namely social, economic and environmental. The paper argues that this change in meaning (a obscures the real contradiction between the aims of welfare for all and environmental conservation; (b risks diminishing the importance of the environmental dimension; and (c separates social from economic aspects, which in reality are one and the same. It is proposed instead to return to the original meaning, where sustainability is concerned with the well-being of future generations and in particular with irreplaceable natural resources—as opposed to the gratification of present needs which we call well-being. A balance needs to be found between those two, but not by pretending they are three sides of the same coin. Although we use up natural resources at the expense of future generations, we also generate capital (including knowledge which raises future well-being. A major question is to what extent the one compensates for the other. This debate centres around the problem of substitutability, which has been cast into a distinction between ‘weak’ and ‘strong’ sustainability. It is argued that these two do not need to be in opposition but complement one another.

  9. HCI and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Hoff, Jens Villiam; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Sustained behavior changes are required to reduce the impact of human society on the environment. Much research on how HCI may help to do so focuses on changing behaviour by providing information directed at an individual or a microstructure (e.g. household). We propose societal macrostructures (e.......g. municipalities) and their interaction with microstructures as a focus for HCI aimed at designing behavior change. We present two ongoing case studies involving municipalities in Denmark and discuss how and why macrostructures may be used in the design of HCI for behavior based environmental suatainability....

  10. Settlement patterns and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre

    This paper discusses settlement patterns and sustainability. Generally urbanization is recognised as an inevitable development driven by job opportunities, better service supply, education, and health services, and it is argued that this is the main driver for centralisation. Research based...... on economic and demographic studies and a large series of interviews problematize this. In Greenland the historical correlation between settlement pattern and livelihood has been decoupled, so that distributions of jobs and potential earnings to a growing extend is a consequence of political and...

  11. Procurement Sustainability Tensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayezi, Sajad; Zomorrodi, Maryam; Bals, Lydia

    2018-01-01

    as stakeholder and institutional theory. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use a multiple case study approach. Data are collected through multiple interviews and archival data from eight case companies in Australia. Findings: The authors identify supply chain and company procurement sustainability...... of institutional distance, can characterize the manifestation of PSTs. Practical implications: The findings are instrumental for managers to make informed decisions when dealing with PSTs, and they pave the way for paradoxical leadership given the increasing importance of simultaneous development and balancing...

  12. Ethics and sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Mejia, Jose Fernando

    2002-01-01

    It could be said that the concept of sustainability is based on ethic postulates, because it claims to bear in mind the set of necessities of future generations as a control variable for human development models and for consumption patterns. Ethics, in its own, mainly in the spinozist line of thinking, is a philosophical proposal directed to empowering the operations of expression of the beings (not only of the human being). This ethics outlines multiple developments and conceive future generations not as undifferentiated, passive and impotent collectives, but as active and joyful communities, who are sensitive to the possibilities of their own devenir

  13. Sustainable hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

  14. Sustainable web ecosystem design

    CERN Document Server

    O'Toole, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This book is about the process of creating web-based systems (i.e., websites, content, etc.) that consider each of the parts, the modules, the organisms - binary or otherwise - that make up a balanced, sustainable web ecosystem. In the current media-rich environment, a website is more than a collection of relative html documents of text and images on a static desktop computer monitor. There is now an unlimited combination of screens, devices, platforms, browsers, locations, versions, users, and exabytes of data with which to interact. Written in a highly approachable, practical style, this boo

  15. Social Health and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi Lene

    2015-01-01

    ?’ (Kickbusch, 2011: p. 7). The empirical case study presented here describes the local planning process of a health project in a deprived community in Copenhagen, Denmark. This setting opened an opportunity for intersectional cooperation and interaction between the municipality’s Environmental and Healthcare...... language in the search for a shared agenda is based in the social aspect of heath and sustainability. The other conclusion is that the search for a shared agenda is in itself a strategy for achieving integration between health and the environmental, economic and social impacts, both within the field...

  16. Crowdfunding for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Roed

    benefit entrepreneurs with social and/or environmentally-oriented products. The dissertation employs four articles in order to explore this. The first sets the stage by systematically reviewing the various roles that end-users can adopt within sustainable innovation process. The second serves to present...... a conceptual understanding of how the process of crowdfunding is organized. Finally papers three and four respectively present the dissertation’s empirical evidence. Paper three focuses on uncovering the distributive qualities of reward-based crowdfunding in terms of its ability to increase innovation finance...

  17. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...... can identify and then work with one another. Changes to parameters that would seem to make cooperation more attractive, such as an increase in the discount factor or the fraction of conditional cooperators, can reduce equilibrium cooperation if they decrease a selfish player's incentive to sort....

  18. Institute for Sustainable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Ajay [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2016-03-28

    Alternate fuels offer unique challenges and opportunities as energy source for power generation, vehicular transportation, and industrial applications. Institute for Sustainable Energy (ISE) at UA conducts innovative research to utilize the complex mix of domestically-produced alternate fuels to achieve low-emissions, high energy-efficiency, and fuel-flexibility. ISE also provides educational and advancement opportunities to students and researchers in the energy field. Basic research probing the physics and chemistry of alternative fuels has generated practical concepts investigated in a burner and engine test platforms.

  19. Focus on sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R J; Godiksen, L; Hansen, G; Gustafson, D J; Brinkerhoff, D W; Ingle, M D; Rounds, T; Wing, H

    1990-01-01

    In recent years, sustainability has become one of the most critical concepts in international development and is having a dramatic impact on the way development is conceptualized and carried out. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is incorporating this concept into its programs and projects. Factors encouraging sustainability of projects and programs include host government policies that support or constrain program objectives, national and/or local commitment to project goals, managerial leadership that helps shape improved policies, collaboration at all staff levels in program management, financial resources that cover program operational costs, appropriate program technology, integration of the program with the social and cultural setting of the country, community involvement in the program, sound environmental management, technical assistance oriented to transferring skills and increasing institutional capacity, perception by the host country that the project is "effective," training provided by the project to transfer skill needed for capacity-building, integration of the program into existing institutional framework, and external political, economic and environmental factors. Impediments to sustainability are often inherent in the donor agency's programming process. This includes the implicit assumption that program objectives can be accomplished in a relatively short time frame, when in fact capacity-building requires a lengthy commitment. USAID professionals are pressured to show near-term results which emphasize outputs rather than purpose and goal-level accomplishments achievable only after extensive effort. The emphasis on obligating money and on the project paper as a sales document leads project designers to talk with a great deal more certainty about project results than is warranted by the complex development situation. Uncertainty and flexibility should be designed into projects so activities and objects can change as more

  20. BEYOND SUSTAINABILITY: SHOULD WE EXPECT MORE FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    education for sustainability," particu- larly the .... and the need to nurture alternative perspectives. Yet another author ... education for sustainable development or sustain- ability. ..... ing for sustainable tourism: Problems, possibilities and cautious first ...

  1. Developing sustainable transportation performance measures for ALDOT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Sustainable transportation is generally used to refer to transportation that contributes to the sustainable development of the community that owns and uses the system. The Transportation Research Board defines sustainability as: Sustainability is ...

  2. Computational Exposure Science: An Emerging Discipline to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Computational exposure science represents a frontier of environmental science that is emerging and quickly evolving.Objectives: In this commentary, we define this burgeoning discipline, describe a framework for implementation, and review some key ongoing research elements that are advancing the science with respect to exposure to chemicals in consumer products.Discussion: The fundamental elements of computational exposure science include the development of reliable, computationally efficient predictive exposure models; the identification, acquisition, and application of data to support and evaluate these models; and generation of improved methods for extrapolating across chemicals. We describe our efforts in each of these areas and provide examples that demonstrate both progress and potential.Conclusions: Computational exposure science, linked with comparable efforts in toxicology, is ushering in a new era of risk assessment that greatly expands our ability to evaluate chemical safety and sustainability and to protect public health. The National Exposure Research Laboratory’s (NERL’s) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA’s mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD’s research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA’s strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source

  3. Canadian environmental sustainability indicators 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, the Canadian government committed to reporting annual national indicators of air quality, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and freshwater quality in order to provide Canadians with more regular and consistent information on the state of the environment and how it is linked with human activities. The national air quality indicators in this report focused on human exposure to ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ). The report showed that from 1990 to 2004, the ozone indicator showed year-to-year variability, with an averaged increase of 0.9 per cent per year. Stations in southern Ontario reported the highest levels of ozone and PM 2.5 in the country in 2004. There was no discernible upward or downward trend in PM 2.5 levels at the national level for the 2000 to 2004 period, and GHG emissions rose 27 per cent from 1990 to 2004. In 2004, emissions were 35 per cent above the target to which Canada committed under the Kyoto Protocol. However, while total emissions rose, emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) fell by 14 per cent from 1990 to 2004. GHG emissions also grew faster than the Canadian population, resulting in a 10 per cent rise in emissions per person. The freshwater quality indicator presented in this report covered the period from 2002 to 2004, and focused on the ability of Canada's surface waters to support aquatic life. For the 340 sites selected across southern Canada, water quality was rated as good or excellent at 44 per cent of sites, fair at 34 per cent of sites, and marginal or poor at 22 per cent of sites. The report included a chapter which attempted to integrate the indicators with other environmental impacts, measures of economic performance, and indices of social progress to improve the ability of the report to influence decision-making that fully accounts for environmental sustainability. 63 refs., 18 figs

  4. Sustainable flood risk management – What is sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Brudler, Sarah; Lerer, Sara Maria

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable flood risk management has to be achieved since flood protection is a fundamental societal service that we must deliver. Based on the discourse within the fields of risk management and sustainable urban water management, we discuss the necessity of assessing the sustainability of flood...... risk management, and propose an evaluation framework for doing so. We argue that it is necessary to include quantitative sustainability measures in flood risk management in order to exclude unsustainable solutions. Furthermore, we use the concept of absolute sustainability to discuss the prospects...... of maintaining current service levels without compromising future generation’s entitlement of services. Discussions on the sustainability of different overall flood risk schemes must take place. Fundamental changes in the approaches will require fundamental changes in the mind-sets of practitioners as well...

  5. Sustained spheromak physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, E.B.; Bulmer, R.H.; Cohen, B.I.

    2001-01-01

    The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment, SSPX, will study spheromak physics with particular attention to energy confinement and magnetic fluctuations in a spheromak sustained by electrostatic helicity injection. In order to operate in a low collisionality mode, requiring T e >100 eV, vacuum techniques developed for tokamaks will be applied, and a divertor will be used for the first time in a spheromak. The discharge will operate for pulse lengths of several milliseconds, long compared to the time to establish a steady-state equilibrium but short compared to the L/R time of the flux conserver. The spheromak and helicity injector ('gun') are closely coupled, as shown by an ideal MHD model with force-free injector and edge plasmas. The current from the gun passes along the symmetry axis of the spheromak, and the resulting toroidal magnetic field causes the safety factor, q, to diverge on the separatrix. The q-profile depends on the ratio of the injector current to spheromak current and on the magnetic flux coupling the injector to the spheromak. New diagnostics include magnetic field measurements by a reflectometer operating in combined O- and X-modes and by a transient internal probe (TIP). (author)

  6. Sustained spheromak physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, E.B.; Bulmer, R.H.; Cohen, B.I.

    1999-01-01

    The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment, SSPX, will study spheromak physics with particular attention to energy confinement and magnetic fluctuations in a spheromak sustained by electrostatic helicity injection. In order to operate in a low collisionality mode, requiring T e > 100 eV, vacuum techniques developed for tokamaks will be applied, and a divertor will be used for the first time in a spheromak. The discharge will operate for pulse lengths of several milliseconds, long compared to the time to establish a steady-state equilibrium but short compared to the L/R time of the flux conserver. The spheromak and helicity injector ('gun') are closely coupled, as shown by an ideal MHD model with force-free injector and edge plasmas. The current from the gun passes along the symmetry axis of the spheromak, and the resulting toroidal magnetic field causes the safety factor, q, to diverge on the separatrix. The q-profile depends on the ratio of the injector current to spheromak current and on the magnetic flux coupling the injector to the spheromak. New diagnostics include magnetic field measurements by a reflectometer operating in combined O- and X-modes and by a transient internal probe (TIP). (author)

  7. Energy and sustainable lifestyle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lausmaa, Toenu

    1997-01-01

    Sustainable development sets limits to our energy use within our economy. The main reason is the anthropologic greenhouse effect, limiting our fossil fuel consumption. It is important to emphasise that the greenhouse effect is not a political slogan but a well established scientific fact, with solid evidence brought into limelight about the phenomena over the last hundred years. But care should be taken about energy use even if we switch over to renewable s, for the sun radiation energy is not unlimited either. There is no danger that limitations on energy use would bring our life quality down, for we could produce all the needed goods and services with lower energy intensity, increasing the efficiency of our production processes and switching over from fossil fuels to renewable s. One should notice that it is impossible to solve the problems of excessive energy use only on the economical level. It's needed to change the public attitudes to ensure the proper support in combating the climate change and meeting the requirements of sustainable development

  8. Creating sustainable performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreitzer, Gretchen; Porath, Christine

    2012-01-01

    What makes for sustainable individual and organizational performance? Employees who are thriving-not just satisfied and productive but also engaged in creating the future. The authors found that people who fit this description demonstrated 16% better overall performance, 125% less burnout, 32% more commitment to the organization, and 46% more job satisfaction than their peers. Thriving has two components: vitality, or the sense of being alive and excited, and learning, or the growth that comes from gaining knowledge and skills. Some people naturally build vitality and learning into their jobs, but most employees are influenced by their environment. Four mechanisms, none of which requires heroic effort or major resources, create the conditions for thriving: providing decision-making discretion, sharing information about the organization and its strategy, minimizing incivility, and offering performance feedback. Organizations such as Alaska Airlines, Zingerman's, Quicken Loans, and Caiman Consulting have found that helping people grow and remain energized at work is valiant on its own merits-but it can also boost performance in a sustainable way.

  9. Humanity and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available So far our open access publishing company MDPI (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute has published mainly science, medicine and technology journals. To become a multidisciplinary publisher, we launched the journal Sustainability [1]. More recently, we started to run several social science journals, including Societies [2], Religions [3], Administrative Sciences [4] and Behavioral Sciences [5]. Today we published the first paper [6] of the inaugural issue of Humanities (ISSN 2076-0787. This will be an international open access journal, publishing scholarly papers of high quality across all humanities disciplines. As a publisher, I would like to publish journals surrounding the topics of sustainability and I believe the humanities as a discipline of academic studies are very important. As a scientist, I believed science and technology will only benefit human beings. I was raised in a small village, living a very primitive life in a peasant family: no electricity, no machines, of course no TV and no refrigerator. Now, the life of my children is completely different. Even my own life has completely changed. I have witnessed very rapid changes: more and more machines are used to consume mineral resources and energy and to pollute the environment, in order to produce more and more powerful machines (we are also launching a journal titled Machines, in which the relationship between Man and machine should be an interesting topic.. Machines are more and more like human individuals consuming resources themselves (we are launching a journal titled Resources. [...

  10. Sustainability. An economic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    The economic perspective of sustainability focuses on the trade off of current consumption for future consumption. This was the question that faced the economists of the late 19th century such as Malthus who noticed growth in the population outpaced that of food. Yet, Malthusian prediction of famine and disaster did not come to pass due to technological innovation. There was a substitution of created capital (machines) for natural capital (labor and land). Thus, whether created- and natural capital are substitute or complementary goods is key to sustainability. Many economists believe we can maintain current consumption and that technological innovation will take care of the needs of future generations. However other economists believe that created capital and natural capital are complementary goods; as we consume more created capital, we will also have to consume more natural capital. The relationship between natural and created capital has an impact on what policies and incentives we consider for the preservation of opportunities for future generations. If they are substitutes, current efforts need to focus on development of new technologies which will allow us to do more with less. If they are complements we need to consider efforts of preservation and conservation. We understand that we cannot have our cake and eat it too. The debate is whether we emphasize finding a new way to bake more cake, or carefully consume the cake we have

  11. Searching for sustainable solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, David

    2001-01-01

    At the summit meeting in June 2001, the members of the European Union confirmed their intention to follow up the climate agreement from the UN meeting in Kyoto in 1997. This article reviews the policy and work of Norsk Hydro with respect to climate issues. The core businesses of Norsk Hydro are (1) Oil and energy, (2) Light metal and (3) Agriculture. The company tries to steadily reduce the emission of climate gases and the emission of oil and chemicals to the sea from offshore installations, but it is difficult to balance the progress in this respect with what can be economically realised. The Norwegian aluminium industry has reduced the emission of climate gases with 52 per cent in 2000 compared to 1990. There is some concern among the aluminium works that the EU proposal of emission taxes may increase production costs, which may reduce the European production and increase the import from countries with less stringent standards for sustainable development. As a leading global supplier of mineral fertilizers, Norsk Hydro has an important role to play in providing sustainable production of food

  12. Medium wave exposure characterisation using exposure quotients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Jesús M; Rufo, Montaña; Jiménez, Antonio; Antolín, Alicia; Pinar, Iván

    2010-06-01

    One of the aspects considered in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines is that, in situations of simultaneous exposure to fields of different frequencies, exposure quotients for thermal and electrical stimulation effects should be examined. The aim of the present work was to analyse the electromagnetic radiation levels and exposure quotients for exposure to multiple-frequency sources in the vicinity of medium wave radio broadcasting antennas. The measurements were made with a spectrum analyser and a monopole antenna. Kriging interpolation was used to prepare contour maps and to estimate the levels in the towns and villages of the zone. The results showed that the exposure quotient criterion based on electrical stimulation effects to be more stringent than those based on thermal effects or power density levels. Improvement of dosimetry evaluations requires the spectral components of the radiation to be quantified, followed by application of the criteria for exposure to multiple-frequency sources.

  13. Sustainability and Risk Disclosure: An Exploratory Study on Sustainability Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Truant; Laura Corazza; Simone Domenico Scagnelli

    2017-01-01

    Recent policy changes in sustainability reporting, such as the ones related to the new European Directive on non-financial disclosure (2014/95/EU), the standards issued by the American Sustainability Accounting Standard Board (SASB), the G4 guidelines issued by the Global Sustainability Standard Board (GSSB), and the framework of the International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC) stress the importance of extending the disclosure of ethical, social, and environmental risks within financial ...

  14. Principles and practices of sustainable water management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bixia Xu

    2010-01-01

    Literature related to sustainable water management is reviewed to illustrate the relationship among water management, sustainability (sustainable development), and sustainable water management. This review begins with the explanation on the definition of sustainable water management, followed by a discussion of sustainable water management principles and practices.

  15. Personal exposure control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Ken-ichi; Akashi, Michio

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power stations are under strict radiation control. Exposure control for nuclear workers is the most important operation, and so carefully thought out measures are taken. This paper introduces Fuji Electric's personal exposure control system that meets strict exposure control and rationalizes control operations. The system has a merit that it can provide required information in an optimum form using the interconnection of a super minicomputer and exposure control facilities and realizes sophisticated exposure control operations. (author)

  16. The association between exposure to psychosocial work factors and mental health in older employees, a 3-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, B.M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Hoekstra, T.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Unfavourable exposure to psychosocial work factors threatens older employees’ mental health, and their sustained employment. This study assesses whether an improved compared to stable unfavourable and stable favourable exposure to psychosocial work factors is associated with a change in

  17. The association between exposure to psychosocial work factors and mental health in older employees : A 3-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, B.M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Hoekstra, T.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; Van Der Beek, A.J.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Unfavourable exposure to psychosocial work factors threatens older employees' mental health, and their sustained employment. This study assesses whether an improved compared to stable unfavourable and stable favourable exposure to psychosocial work factors is associated with a change in

  18. Mything out on sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, W.E. [British Columbia Univ., BC (Canada). School of Community and Regional Planning

    2000-12-01

    Two myths are deeply ingrained in our modern psyche, that of unlimited growth and technology efficiency. In that context, it becomes increasingly difficult to define sustainability. The first factor helping us define the meaning of sustainability is that there are no inherent conflicts between continuous economic growth and the environment. The second factor contradicts the first: the economy is a subsystem, fully-contained within a materially closed, non-growing biosphere/ecosphere, or better yet, that the economy is parasitic on nature. In this light, society is prevented from consuming renewable resources faster than their production rate, nor can it use those non-renewable resources faster than technology can find renewable substitutes, and finally cannot produce wastes faster than their assimilation by the biosphere. It is obvious that our society consumes resources faster than they can be produced, as evidenced by deforestation, soil degradation, falling water tables, etc. Wastes production also is faster than assimilation by the biosphere, proved by climate change, smog, air, water, and land pollution, etc. It is widely believed that the knowledge industries contribute to reducing harm to the environment, but this is not true, as the manufacturing of products is shifted to countries with less stringent environmental standards that are poorly enforced. The author emphasized the point that gains from energy efficiency lead to lower prices and higher incomes, as history demonstrated. A number of factors have an impact: (1) savings in energy efficiency might prompt consumers to use more of the goods in question, (2) efficiency-induced savings realized by individuals might lead to alternative forms of consumption which consume more energy, and (3) energy efficiency leads to higher incomes, which prompt increased levels of consumption. A reference was made to a report produced by the World Resources Institute in 1997. The report focused on the economies of Germany

  19. Work activities within sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Duarte

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main results of a Franco-Brazilian Research project entitled "Work, Innovation and Development". The aim is to conceptually consider work activity within sustainable development, and to contribute methodologically towards developing strategies for designing sustainable work systems. After a brief description of the factors and the dimensions that have contributed to the creation of ideas on sustainable development, we will put forward two main approaches for understanding work activity within the context of sustainability, these being: the durability of work activity and the development of work activities for sustainable development. Both approaches are presented and examples are given. This is followed by a discussion of the design of sustainable work systems that focuses particularly on the political and technical dimensions of project management.

  20. Sustainability in Modern Art Museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campolmi, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes the concept of sustainability in European governmental museum policies. It takes into consideration great modern art museums, particularly Tate Modern. On the one hand, the issue of sustainability is linked to art museums inasmuch these institutions operate for the sustainable...... to their eligibility for funding and it is indeed an economic rather than a cultural issue. Though, modern art museums’ sustainability relies not only in developing economic and environmental strategies but mostly in creating cultural policies that favor art museums in accomplishing same tasks but from different...... curatorial and managerial perspectives. A long-term sustainable museum model steps beyond Foucault’s notion that art museums are “heterotopy”, i.e. spaces that present art as an alternative phenomenon outside reality. On the contrary, a sustainable model for museums acts as “archètopy”, i.e. a space (tòpos...