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Sample records for sustained neutralizing antibody

  1. Specificity of the autologous neutralizing antibody response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Penny L; Gray, Elin S; Morris, Lynn

    2009-09-01

    It has long been known that autologous neutralizing antibodies (AnAbs) exert pressure on the envelope of HIV, resulting in neutralization escape. However, recently, progress has been made in uncovering the precise targets of these potent early antibodies. AnAbs primarily target variable regions of the HIV-1 envelope, explaining the strain-specificity of these antibodies. Despite high neutralizing potential and cross-reactivity, anti-V3 antibodies do not contribute to autologous neutralization. The V1V2 is commonly immunogenic in early HIV-1 and simian human immunodeficiency virus infections, though the nature of these epitopes remains to be determined. In subtype C viruses, the C3 region is a neutralization target, possibly as a result of its more exposed and amphipathic structure. Autologous neutralization appears to be mediated by very few AnAb specificities that develop sequentially suggesting the possibility of immunological hierarchies for both binding and neutralizing antibodies. The role of AnAbs in preventing superinfection and in restricting virus replication is reexamined in the context of recent data. New studies have greatly contributed toward our understanding of the specificities mediating autologous neutralization and highlighted potential vulnerabilities on transmitted viruses. However, the contribution of AnAbs to the development of neutralization breadth remains to be characterized.

  2. Autologous HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies: emergence of neutralization-resistant escape virus and subsequent development of escape virus neutralizing antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Nielsen, C; Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    of neutralizing antibodies to the primary virus isolates was detected 13-45 weeks after seroconversion. Emergence of escape virus with reduced sensitivity to neutralization by autologous sera was demonstrated. The patients subsequently developed neutralizing antibodies against the escape virus but after a delay...... escape virus may be part of the explanation of the apparent failure of the immune system to control HIV infection....

  3. Autologous HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies: emergence of neutralization-resistant escape virus and subsequent development of escape virus neutralizing antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Nielsen, C; Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    The capacity of consecutive human sera to neutralize sequentially obtained autologous virus isolates was studied. HIV-1 was isolated three times over a 48-164-week period from three individuals immediately after seroconversion and from two individuals in later stages of infection. Development...... escape virus may be part of the explanation of the apparent failure of the immune system to control HIV infection....... of neutralizing antibodies to the primary virus isolates was detected 13-45 weeks after seroconversion. Emergence of escape virus with reduced sensitivity to neutralization by autologous sera was demonstrated. The patients subsequently developed neutralizing antibodies against the escape virus but after a delay...

  4. Incomplete Neutralization and Deviation from Sigmoidal Neutralization Curves for HIV Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E McCoy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The broadly neutralizing HIV monoclonal antibodies (bnMAbs PG9, PG16, PGT151, and PGT152 have been shown earlier to occasionally display an unusual virus neutralization profile with a non-sigmoidal slope and a plateau at <100% neutralization. In the current study, we were interested in determining the extent of non-sigmoidal slopes and plateaus at <100% for HIV bnMAbs more generally. Using both a 278 panel of pseudoviruses in a CD4 T-cell (U87.CCR5.CXCR4 assay and a panel of 117 viruses in the TZM-bl assay, we found that bnMAbs targeting many neutralizing epitopes of the spike had neutralization profiles for at least one virus that plateaued at <90%. Across both panels the bnMAbs targeting the V2 apex of Env and gp41 were most likely to show neutralization curves that plateaued <100%. Conversely, bnMAbs targeting the high-mannose patch epitopes were less likely to show such behavior. Two CD4 binding site (CD4bs Abs also showed this behavior relatively infrequently. The phenomenon of incomplete neutralization was also observed in a large peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC-grown molecular virus clone panel derived from patient viral swarms. In addition, five bnMAbs were compared against an 18-virus panel of molecular clones produced in 293T cells and PBMCs and assayed in TZM-bl cells. Examples of plateaus <90% were seen with both types of virus production with no consistent patterns observed. In conclusion, incomplete neutralization and non-sigmoidal neutralization curves are possible for all HIV bnMAbs against a wide range of viruses produced and assayed in both cell lines and primary cells with implications for the use of antibodies in therapy and as tools for vaccine design.

  5. Antibody function in neutralization and protection against HIV-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessell, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to induce neutralizing antibodies is generally thought to be of great importance for vaccine efficacy. In HIV-1 research this quality has been elusive as the HIV-1 virus has evolved multiple mechanisms to evade neutralizing antibodies. This thesis traces studies with four broadly

  6. Neutralizing Antibodies after Infection with Dengue 1 Virus

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    Alvarez, Mayling; Rodriguez-Roche, Rosmari; Bernardo, Lídice; Montes, Tibaire; Vazquez, Susana; Morier, Luis; Alvarez, Angel; Gould, Ernest A; Halstead, Scott B

    2007-01-01

    Severity of disease is markedly increased when infection with dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) follows infection with DENV-1. Studies have shown that heterologous neutralizing antibody titers are inversely correlated with severity of a second infection. If this mechanism controlled disease severity in Cuba, heterotypic antibody titers should have declined over time. To determine whether phenotypic changes in dengue antibodies occur over time, we analyzed serum samples collected 4–8 and 20–22 years after DENV-1 infection. We found a significant increase in mean titer of homologous DENV-1 neutralizing antibodies and a significant decrease in heterologous antibodies to 1 of 2 genotypes of DENV-2 virus (the American genotype). Asian DENV-2 viruses were not neutralized during either interval; however, the American genotype underwent phenotypic changes in heterotypic viral neutralizing antibodies in the predicted direction. This finding may be related to the time-dependent changes in severity of disease found with secondary dengue infection. PMID:17479892

  7. High throughput discovery of influenza virus neutralizing antibodies from phage-displayed synthetic antibody libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ing-Chien; Chiu, Yi-Kai; Yu, Chung-Ming; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Tung, Chao-Ping; Tsou, Yueh-Liang; Huang, Yi-Jen; Lin, Chia-Lung; Chen, Hong-Sen; Wang, Andrew H-J; Yang, An-Suei

    2017-10-31

    Pandemic and epidemic outbreaks of influenza A virus (IAV) infection pose severe challenges to human society. Passive immunotherapy with recombinant neutralizing antibodies can potentially mitigate the threats of IAV infection. With a high throughput neutralizing antibody discovery platform, we produced artificial anti-hemagglutinin (HA) IAV-neutralizing IgGs from phage-displayed synthetic scFv libraries without necessitating prior memory of antibody-antigen interactions or relying on affinity maturation essential for in vivo immune systems to generate highly specific neutralizing antibodies. At least two thirds of the epitope groups of the artificial anti-HA antibodies resemble those of natural protective anti-HA antibodies, providing alternatives to neutralizing antibodies from natural antibody repertoires. With continuing advancement in designing and constructing synthetic scFv libraries, this technological platform is useful in mitigating not only the threats of IAV pandemics but also those from other newly emerging viral infections.

  8. Nitrogen-neutrality: a step towards sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leip, Adrian; Leach, Allison; Musinguzi, Patrick; Tumwesigye, Trust; Olupot, Giregon; Tenywa, John Stephen; Mudiope, Joseph; Hutton, Olivia; Cordovil, Claudia M. d. S.; Bekunda, Mateete; Galloway, James

    2014-11-01

    We propose a novel indicator measuring one dimension of the sustainability of an entity in modern societies: Nitrogen-neutrality. N-neutrality strives to offset Nr releases an entity exerts on the environment from the release of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to the environment by reducing it and by offsetting the Nr releases elsewhere. N-neutrality also aims to increase awareness about the consequences of unintentional releases of nitrogen to the environment. N-neutrality is composed of two quantified elements: Nr released by an entity (e.g. on the basis of the N footprint) and Nr reduction from management and offset projects (N offset). It includes management strategies to reduce nitrogen losses before they occur (e.g., through energy conservation). Each of those elements faces specific challenges with regard to data availability and conceptual development. Impacts of Nr releases to the environment are manifold, and the impact profile of one unit of Nr release depends strongly on the compound released and the local susceptibility to Nr. As such, N-neutrality is more difficult to conceptualize and calculate than C-neutrality. We developed a workable conceptual framework for N-neutrality which was adapted for the 6th International Nitrogen Conference (N2013, Kampala, November 2013). Total N footprint of the surveyed meals at N2013 was 66 kg N. A total of US 3050 was collected from the participants and used to offset the conference’s N footprint by supporting the UN Millennium Village cluster Ruhiira in South-Western Uganda. The concept needs further development in particular to better incorporate the spatio-temporal variability of impacts and to standardize the methods to quantify the required N offset to neutralize the Nr releases impact. Criteria for compensation projects need to be sharply defined to allow the development of a market for N offset certificates.

  9. Rapid detection of anti-Vaccinia virus neutralizing antibodies

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    Lichtfuss Gregor F

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Increasing infections with Monkeypox and Cowpox viruses pose a continuous and growing threat to human health. The standard method for detecting poxvirus neutralizing antibodies is the plaque-reduction neutralization test that is specific but also time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, a rapid and reliable method was developed to determine neutralizing antibody titers within twelve hours. The new assay measures viral mRNA transcription as a marker for actively replicating virus after incomplete neutralization using real-time PCR.

  10. Antiviral Therapy by HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing and Inhibitory Antibodies

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    Zhiqing Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, a global epidemic for more than three decades. HIV-1 replication is primarily controlled through antiretroviral therapy (ART but this treatment does not cure HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, there is increasing viral resistance to ART, and side effects associated with long-term therapy. Consequently, there is a need of alternative candidates for HIV-1 prevention and therapy. Recent advances have discovered multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. In this review, we describe the key epitopes on the HIV-1 Env protein and the reciprocal broadly neutralizing antibodies, and discuss the ongoing clinical trials of broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibody therapy as well as antibody combinations, bispecific antibodies, and methods that improve therapeutic efficacy by combining broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs with latency reversing agents. Compared with ART, HIV-1 therapeutics that incorporate these broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibodies offer the advantage of decreasing virus load and clearing infected cells, which is a promising prospect in HIV-1 prevention and treatment.

  11. Neutralizing antibodies in slowly progressing HIV-1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Nielsen, C; Iversen, Johan

    1995-01-01

    with SPI generally neutralized the contemporaneous isolate, whereas serum from individuals with RPI did not [geometric mean antibody titer (GMT), 45 vs. 3; p = 0.0047]. There was no difference in neutralizing ability against HIVMN (GMT,2,593 vs. 2,263; p = 0.74) and only a small difference against HIVIIIB...

  12. Clinical testing for neutralizing antibodies to interferon-? in multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Creeke, Paul I.; Farrell, Rachel A.

    2013-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals are drugs which are based on naturally occurring proteins (antibodies, receptors, cytokines, enzymes, toxins), nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) or attenuated microorganisms. Immunogenicity of these agents has been commonly described and refers to a specific antidrug antibody response. Such immunogenicity represents a major factor impairing the efficacy of biopharmaceuticals due to biopharmaceutical neutralization. Indeed, clinical experience has shown that induction of antidrug ant...

  13. HIV-1 binding and neutralizing antibodies of injecting drug users

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    E.P. Ouverney

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated a stronger seroreactivity against some synthetic peptides responsible for inducing neutralizing antibodies in injecting drug users (IDU compared to that of individuals sexually infected with HIV-1 (S, but the effectiveness in terms of the neutralizing ability of these antibodies has not been evaluated. Our objective was to study the humoral immune response of IDU by determining the specificity of their antibodies and the presence of neutralizing antibodies. The neutralization capacity against the HIV-1 isolate MN (genotype B, the primary HIV-1 isolate 95BRRJ021 (genotype F, and the seroreactivity with peptides known to induce neutralizing antibodies, from the V2 and V3 loops of different HIV-1 subtypes, were analyzed. Seroreactivity indicates that IDU plasma are more likely to recognize a broader range of peptides than S plasma, with significantly higher titers, especially of V3 peptides. Similar neutralization frequencies of the MN isolate were observed in plasma of the IDU (16/47 and S (20/60 groups in the 1:10 dilution. The neutralization of the 95BRRJ021 isolate was more frequently observed for plasma from the S group (15/23 than from the IDU group (15/47, P = 0.0108. No correlation between neutralization and seroreactivity with the peptides tested was observed. These results suggest that an important factor responsible for the extensive and broad humoral immune response observed in IDU is their infection route. There was very little difference in neutralizing antibody response between the IDU and S groups despite their differences in seroreactivity and health status.

  14. Higher Throughput Quantification of Neutralizing Antibody to Herpes Simplex Viruses.

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    Tamara P Blevins

    Full Text Available We report a rapid, higher throughput method for measuring neutralizing antibody to herpes simplex virus (HSV in human sera. Clinical isolates and sera from the Herpevac Trial for Women were used in a colorimetric assay in which infection of tissue culture (lack of neutralization was indicated by substrate metabolism by beta-galactosidase induced in the ELVIS cell line. The neutralization assay was optimized by addition of guinea pig complement, which particularly enhanced neutralizing antibody titers to HSV-2. Higher neutralizing antibody titers were also achieved using virus particles isolated from the supernatant of infected cells rather than lysate of infected cells as the source of virus. The effect of assay incubation time and incubation time with substrate were also optimized. We found that incubating with substrate until a standard optical density of 1.0 was reached permitted a better comparison among virus isolates, and achieved reliable measurement of neutralizing antibody activity. Interestingly, in contrast to results in the absence of complement, addition of complement allowed sera from HSV-2 gD-vaccinated subjects to neutralize HSV-1 and HSV-2 clinical and laboratory isolates with equal potency.

  15. Worldwide epidemiology of neutralizing antibodies to adeno-associated viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcedo, Roberto; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Gao, Guangping; Lin, Jianping; Wilson, James M

    2009-02-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) have unique gene-transfer properties that speak to their potential as carriers for gene therapy or vaccine applications. However, the presence of neutralizing antibodies to AAV as a result of previous exposure can significantly limit effective gene transfer. In this study, we obtained 888 human serum samples from healthy volunteers in 10 countries around the world. Samples were assayed for neutralizing antibodies to AAV1, AAV2, AAV7, and AAV8, as well as to a novel, structurally distinct AAV vector, rh32.33, in an in vitro transduction inhibition assay. Our data revealed that neutralizing antibodies to AAV2 were the most prevalent antibodies in all regions, followed by antibodies to AAV1. The seroprevalences of antibodies to AAV7 and to AAV8 were lower than that for antibodies to AAV1, and neutralization of AAVrh32.33 was only rarely detected. Our data also indicate a strong linkage of seroreactivity between apparently distinct serotypes that has not been predicted previously in animal models.

  16. Neutralizing Antibodies and Pathogenesis of Hepatitis C Virus Infection

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    Françoise Stoll-Keller

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. The interplay between the virus and host innate and adaptive immune responses determines the outcome of infection. There is increasing evidence that host neutralizing responses play a relevant role in the resulting pathogenesis. Furthermore, viral evasion from host neutralizing antibodies has been revealed to be an important contributor in leading both to viral persistence in acute liver graft infection following liver transplantation, and to chronic viral infection. The development of novel model systems to study HCV entry and neutralization has allowed a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms of virus-host interactions during antibody-mediated neutralization. The understanding of these mechanisms will ultimately contribute to the development of novel antiviral preventive strategies for liver graft infection and an urgently needed vaccine. This review summarizes recent concepts of the role of neutralizing antibodies in viral clearance and protection, and highlights consequences of viral escape from neutralizing antibodies in the pathogenesis of HCV infection.

  17. Arenavirus Glycan Shield Promotes Neutralizing Antibody Evasion and Protracted Infection.

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    Rami Sommerstein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Arenaviruses such as Lassa virus (LASV can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. As a major impediment to vaccine development, delayed and weak neutralizing antibody (nAb responses represent a unifying characteristic of both natural infection and all vaccine candidates tested to date. To investigate the mechanisms underlying arenavirus nAb evasion we engineered several arenavirus envelope-chimeric viruses and glycan-deficient variants thereof. We performed neutralization tests with sera from experimentally infected mice and from LASV-convalescent human patients. NAb response kinetics in mice correlated inversely with the N-linked glycan density in the arenavirus envelope protein's globular head. Additionally and most intriguingly, infection with fully glycosylated viruses elicited antibodies, which neutralized predominantly their glycan-deficient variants, both in mice and humans. Binding studies with monoclonal antibodies indicated that envelope glycans reduced nAb on-rate, occupancy and thereby counteracted virus neutralization. In infected mice, the envelope glycan shield promoted protracted viral infection by preventing its timely elimination by the ensuing antibody response. Thus, arenavirus envelope glycosylation impairs the protective efficacy rather than the induction of nAbs, and thereby prevents efficient antibody-mediated virus control. This immune evasion mechanism imposes limitations on antibody-based vaccination and convalescent serum therapy.

  18. Structural basis for antibody-mediated neutralization of Lassa virus.

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    Hastie, Kathryn M; Zandonatti, Michelle A; Kleinfelter, Lara M; Heinrich, Megan L; Rowland, Megan M; Chandran, Kartik; Branco, Luis M; Robinson, James E; Garry, Robert F; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2017-06-02

    The arenavirus Lassa causes severe hemorrhagic fever and a significant disease burden in West Africa every year. The glycoprotein, GPC, is the sole antigen expressed on the viral surface and the critical target for antibody-mediated neutralization. Here we present the crystal structure of the trimeric, prefusion ectodomain of Lassa GP bound to a neutralizing antibody from a human survivor at 3.2-angstrom resolution. The antibody extensively anchors two monomers together at the base of the trimer, and biochemical analysis suggests that it neutralizes by inhibiting conformational changes required for entry. This work illuminates pH-driven conformational changes in both receptor-binding and fusion subunits of Lassa virus, illustrates the unique assembly of the arenavirus glycoprotein spike, and provides a much-needed template for vaccine design against these threats to global health. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Maturation Pathways of Cross-Reactive HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies

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    Dimiter S. Dimitrov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Several human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs and antibody fragments, including the best characterized in terms of structure-function b12 and Fab X5, exhibit relatively potent and broad HIV-1 neutralizing activity. However, the elicitation of b12 or b12-like antibodies in vivo by vaccine immunogens based on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env has not been successful. B12 is highly divergent from the closest corresponding germline antibody while X5 is less divergent. We have hypothesized that the relatively high degree of specific somatic hypermutations may preclude binding of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env to closest germline antibodies, and that identifying antibodies that are intermediates in the pathways to maturation could help design novel vaccine immunogens to guide the immune system for their enhanced elicitation. In support of this hypothesis we have previously found that a germline-like b12 (monovalent and bivalent scFv as an Fc fusion protein or IgG lacks measurable binding to an Env as measured by ELISA with a sensitivity in the μM range [1]; here we present evidence confirming and expanding these findings for a panel of Envs. In contrast, a germline-like scFv X5 bound Env with high (nM affinity. To begin to explore the maturation pathways of these antibodies we identified several possible b12 intermediate antibodies and tested their neutralizing activity. These intermediate antibodies neutralized only some HIV-1 isolates and with relatively weak potency. In contrast, germline-like scFv X5 neutralized a subset of the tested HIV-1 isolates with comparable efficiencies to that of the mature X5. These results could help explain the relatively high immunogenicity of the coreceptor binding site on gp120 and the abundance of CD4-induced (CD4i antibodies in HIV-1-infected patients (X5 is a CD4i antibody as well as the maturation pathway of X5. They also can help identify antigens that can bind specifically to b12 germline and

  20. Mapping the Human Memory B Cell and Serum Neutralizing Antibody Responses to Dengue Virus Serotype 4 Infection and Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivarthi, Usha K; Kose, Nurgun; Sapparapu, Gopal; Widman, Douglas; Gallichotte, Emily; Pfaff, Jennifer M; Doranz, Benjamin J; Weiskopf, Daniela; Sette, Alessandro; Durbin, Anna P; Whitehead, Steve S; Baric, Ralph; Crowe, James E; de Silva, Aravinda M

    2017-03-01

    The four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes are mosquito-borne flaviviruses responsible for dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. People exposed to DENV develop antibodies (Abs) that strongly neutralize the serotype responsible for infection. Historically, infection with DENV serotype 4 (DENV4) has been less common and less studied than infections with the other three serotypes. However, DENV4 has been responsible for recent large and sustained epidemics in Asia and Latin America. The neutralizing antibody responses and the epitopes targeted against DENV4 have not been characterized in human infection. In this study, we mapped and characterized epitopes on DENV4 recognized by neutralizing antibodies in people previously exposed to DENV4 infections or to a live attenuated DENV4 vaccine. To study the fine specificity of DENV4 neutralizing human antibodies, B cells from two people exposed to DENV4 were immortalized and screened to identify DENV-specific clones. Two human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that neutralized DENV4 were isolated, and their epitopes were finely mapped using recombinant viruses and alanine scan mutation array techniques. Both antibodies bound to quaternary structure epitopes near the hinge region between envelope protein domain I (EDI) and EDII. In parallel, to characterize the serum neutralizing antibody responses, convalescence-phase serum samples from people previously exposed to primary DENV4 natural infections or a monovalent DENV4 vaccine were analyzed. Natural infection and vaccination also induced serum-neutralizing antibodies that targeted similar epitope domains at the EDI/II hinge region. These studies defined a target of neutralizing antigenic site on DENV4 targeted by human antibodies following natural infection or vaccination. IMPORTANCE The four serotypes of dengue virus are the causative agents of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. People exposed to primary DENV infections develop long-term neutralizing antibody responses

  1. Broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1: templates for a vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, Marit J.; Sanders, Rogier W.

    2013-01-01

    The need for an effective vaccine to prevent the global spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is well recognized. Passive immunization and challenge studies in non-human primates testify that broadly neutralizing antibodies (BrNAbs) can accomplish protection against infection. In

  2. Thermodynamic Mechanism for the Evasion of Antibody Neutralization in Flaviviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the epitopes of antigenic proteins can confer viral resistance to antibody-mediated neutralization. However, the fundamental properties that characterize epitope residues and how mutations affect antibody binding to alter virus susceptibility to neutralization remain largely unknown. To address these questions, we used an ensemble-based algorithm to characterize the effects of mutations on the thermodynamics of protein conformational fluctuations. We applied this method to the envelope protein domain III (ED3) of two medically important flaviviruses: West Nile and dengue 2. We determined an intimate relationship between the susceptibility of a residue to thermodynamic perturbations and epitope location. This relationship allows the successful identification of the primary epitopes in each ED3, despite their high sequence and structural similarity. Mutations that allow the ED3 to evade detection by the antibody either increase or decrease conformational fluctuations of the epitopes through local effects or long-range interactions. Spatially distant interactions originate in the redistribution of conformations of the ED3 ensembles, not through a mechanically connected array of contiguous amino acids. These results reconcile previous observations of evasion of neutralization by mutations at a distance from the epitopes. Finally, we established a quantitative correlation between subtle changes in the conformational fluctuations of the epitope and large defects in antibody binding affinity. This correlation suggests that mutations that allow viral growth, while reducing neutralization, do not generate significant structural changes and underscores the importance of protein fluctuations and long-range interactions in the mechanism of antibody-mediated neutralization resistance. PMID:24950171

  3. [Neutralizing Monoclonal and Chimeric Antibodies to Human IFN-γ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, M V; Aliev, T K; Solopova, O N; Pozdnyakova, L P; Korobova, S V; Yakimov, S A; Sveshnikov, P G; Dolgikh, D A; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2015-01-01

    Autoiminune disorders are chronic diseases characterized by abnormal immune response directed against self-antigens that leads to tissue damage and violation of its normal functioning. Such diseases often result in disability or even death of patients. Nowadays a number of monoclonal antibodies to pro-inflammatory cytokines and their receptors are successfully used for the targeted treatment of autoimmune diseases. One of the perspective targets in autoimmune disease therapy is interferon gamma, a key cytokine in Th1 cells differentiation, activation of macrophages, and inflammation. In the present work, 5 monoclonal antibodies to human IFN-γ were obtained. For the development of potential therapeutic agent, we have performed neutralizing activity and affinity analysis of the antibodies. Based on the data obtained, the monoclonal antibody F1 was selected. This antibody has a dissociation constant 1.7 x 10(-9) M and IC90 = 8.9 ± 2.0 nM measured upon antibody inhibition of the IFN-γ-induced HLA-DR expression on the surface of U937 cells. We have constructed a bicistronic vector for the production of recombinant chimeric Fab fragment F1 chim in E. coli cells. The recombinant chimeric Fab fragment Fl chim neutralizes IFN-γ activity in vitro and has a dissociation constant 1.8 x 10(-9) M.

  4. GP4-specific neutralizing antibodies might be a driving force in PRRSV evolution.

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    Costers, Sarah; Vanhee, Merijn; Van Breedam, Wander; Van Doorsselaere, Jan; Geldhof, Marc; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2010-12-01

    The structural envelope glycoprotein GP4 of European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains contains a highly variable neutralizing epitope that is susceptible to neutralizing antibody-mediated selective pressure in vitro. In this study, it was analyzed what happens with this neutralizing epitope during infection in vivo in the presence of neutralizing antibodies. A neutralizing antibody-mediated selective pressure was created in 30 pigs by vaccination prior to inoculation with infectious Lelystad virus (LV). Nine viable neutralizing antibody-escape variants were isolated from 9 of these pigs and their neutralizing antibody-escape mutant-identity was confirmed by the acquired resistance to neutralization by autologous neutralizing sera. Six out of 9 neutralizing antibody-escape variants contained aa substitutions in the GP4 neutralizing epitope and had become resistant to neutralization by a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against this epitope. In addition, in all 6 corresponding pigs, antibodies against this epitope were detected early in infection. In contrast to these 6 virus variants, the 3 other antibody-escape variants did not contain aa substitutions in the GP4 neutralizing epitope and were still sensitive to neutralization by the GP4-specific mAb. These antibody-escape variants were isolated from pigs that did not contain antibodies against this epitope early in infection. All these findings together strongly indicate that aa substitutions in the GP4 neutralizing epitope can abrogate antibody recognition, and that neutralizing antibodies might be responsible for the selection of neutralizing antibody-resistant variants with aa substitutions in the neutralizing epitope on GP4. In conclusion, this study indicates that neutralizing antibodies in pigs might be a driving force in the rapid evolution of the neutralizing epitope on GP4 of European PRRSV strains. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural basis of hepatitis C virus neutralization by broadly neutralizing antibody HCV1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Leopold; Giang, Erick; Robbins, Justin B.; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Law, Mansun (Scripps)

    2012-10-29

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 2% of the global population and is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and end-stage liver diseases. Circulating HCV is genetically diverse, and therefore a broadly effective vaccine must target conserved T- and B-cell epitopes of the virus. Human mAb HCV1 has broad neutralizing activity against HCV isolates from at least four major genotypes and protects in the chimpanzee model from primary HCV challenge. The antibody targets a conserved antigenic site (residues 412-423) on the virus E2 envelope glycoprotein. Two crystal structures of HCV1 Fab in complex with an epitope peptide at 1.8-{angstrom} resolution reveal that the epitope is a {beta}-hairpin displaying a hydrophilic face and a hydrophobic face on opposing sides of the hairpin. The antibody predominantly interacts with E2 residues Leu{sup 413} and Trp{sup 420} on the hydrophobic face of the epitope, thus providing an explanation for how HCV isolates bearing mutations at Asn{sup 415} on the same binding face escape neutralization by this antibody. The results provide structural information for a neutralizing epitope on the HCV E2 glycoprotein and should help guide rational design of HCV immunogens to elicit similar broadly neutralizing antibodies through vaccination.

  6. Anti-HIV-1 antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity: is there more to antibodies than neutralization?

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    Lee, Wen Shi; Kent, Stephen J

    2017-11-30

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that nonneutralizing Fc effector functions including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) contribute to protection against HIV-1 acquisition. We discuss recent advances in anti-HIV-1 ADCC research with a particular focus on ADCC mediated by Env-specific antibodies in vitro and in vivo, the curative potential of HIV-1-specific ADCC antibodies and the mechanisms of HIV-1 resistance to ADCC. ADCC activities of broadly neutralizing and nonneutralizing monoclonal antibody panels were recently characterized in vitro against several lab-adapted and primary isolates of HIV-1. ADCC activity of these monoclonal antibodies generally correlated with binding to infected cells and were greater against the lab-adapted strains compared with primary HIV-1 isolates. Several recent studies in mouse and macaque models of HIV-1 infection suggest Fc-mediated effector functions contribute to the protective efficacy of broadly neutralizing antibodies and exert immune pressure on HIV-1 in vivo. An increasing body of evidence suggests that ADCC-mediating antibodies, particularly when combined with neutralizing functions, can facilitate prevention and control of HIV-1. The precise mechanisms of partial protection conferred by nonneutralizing antibodies in vivo remain unclear and will need to be fully investigated in order to realize their full potential for HIV-1 vaccines.

  7. Heparanase-neutralizing antibodies attenuate lymphoma tumor growth and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissmann, Marina; Arvatz, Gil; Horowitz, Netanel; Feld, Sari; Naroditsky, Inna; Zhang, Yi; Ng, Mary; Hammond, Edward; Nevo, Eviatar; Vlodavsky, Israel; Ilan, Neta

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that cleaves heparan sulfate side chains of proteoglycans, resulting in disassembly of the extracellular matrix underlying endothelial and epithelial cells and associating with enhanced cell invasion and metastasis. Heparanase expression is induced in carcinomas and sarcomas, often associating with enhanced tumor metastasis and poor prognosis. In contrast, the function of heparanase in hematological malignancies (except myeloma) was not investigated in depth. Here, we provide evidence that heparanase is expressed by human follicular and diffused non-Hodgkin's B-lymphomas, and that heparanase inhibitors restrain the growth of tumor xenografts produced by lymphoma cell lines. Furthermore, we describe, for the first time to our knowledge, the development and characterization of heparanase-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that inhibit cell invasion and tumor metastasis, the hallmark of heparanase activity. Using luciferase-labeled Raji lymphoma cells, we show that the heparanase-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies profoundly inhibit tumor load in the mouse bones, associating with reduced cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Notably, we found that Raji cells lack intrinsic heparanase activity, but tumor xenografts produced by this cell line exhibit typical heparanase activity, likely contributed by host cells composing the tumor microenvironment. Thus, the neutralizing monoclonal antibodies attenuate lymphoma growth by targeting heparanase in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26729870

  8. Recurrent Potent Human Neutralizing Antibodies to Zika Virus in Brazil and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Robbiani, Davide F.; Khouri, Ricardo; Gristick, Harry B.; Lee, Yu E.; West, Anthony P.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies to Zika virus (ZIKV) can be protective. To examine the antibody response in individuals who develop high titers of anti-ZIKV antibodies, we screened cohorts in Brazil and Mexico for ZIKV envelope domain III (ZEDIII) binding and neutralization. We find that serologic reactivity to dengue 1 virus (DENV1) EDIII before ZIKV exposure is associated with increased ZIKV neutralizing titers after exposure. Antibody cloning shows that donors with high ZIKV neutralizing antibody titers have e...

  9. Viral escape from HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies drives increased plasma neutralization breadth through sequential recognition of multiple epitopes and immunotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibmer, Constantinos Kurt; Bhiman, Jinal N; Gray, Elin S; Tumba, Nancy; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Williamson, Carolyn; Morris, Lynn; Moore, Penny L

    2013-10-01

    Identifying the targets of broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 and understanding how these antibodies develop remain important goals in the quest to rationally develop an HIV-1 vaccine. We previously identified a participant in the CAPRISA Acute Infection Cohort (CAP257) whose plasma neutralized 84% of heterologous viruses. In this study we showed that breadth in CAP257 was largely due to the sequential, transient appearance of three distinct broadly neutralizing antibody specificities spanning the first 4.5 years of infection. The first specificity targeted an epitope in the V2 region of gp120 that was also recognized by strain-specific antibodies 7 weeks earlier. Specificity for the autologous virus was determined largely by a rare N167 antigenic variant of V2, with viral escape to the more common D167 immunotype coinciding with the development of the first wave of broadly neutralizing antibodies. Escape from these broadly neutralizing V2 antibodies through deletion of the glycan at N160 was associated with exposure of an epitope in the CD4 binding site that became the target for a second wave of broadly neutralizing antibodies. Neutralization by these CD4 binding site antibodies was almost entirely dependent on the glycan at position N276. Early viral escape mutations in the CD4 binding site drove an increase in wave two neutralization breadth, as this second wave of heterologous neutralization matured to recognize multiple immunotypes within this site. The third wave targeted a quaternary epitope that did not overlap any of the four known sites of vulnerability on the HIV-1 envelope and remains undefined. Altogether this study showed that the human immune system is capable of generating multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies in response to a constantly evolving viral population that exposes new targets as a consequence of escape from earlier neutralizing antibodies.

  10. Viral escape from HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies drives increased plasma neutralization breadth through sequential recognition of multiple epitopes and immunotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos Kurt Wibmer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the targets of broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 and understanding how these antibodies develop remain important goals in the quest to rationally develop an HIV-1 vaccine. We previously identified a participant in the CAPRISA Acute Infection Cohort (CAP257 whose plasma neutralized 84% of heterologous viruses. In this study we showed that breadth in CAP257 was largely due to the sequential, transient appearance of three distinct broadly neutralizing antibody specificities spanning the first 4.5 years of infection. The first specificity targeted an epitope in the V2 region of gp120 that was also recognized by strain-specific antibodies 7 weeks earlier. Specificity for the autologous virus was determined largely by a rare N167 antigenic variant of V2, with viral escape to the more common D167 immunotype coinciding with the development of the first wave of broadly neutralizing antibodies. Escape from these broadly neutralizing V2 antibodies through deletion of the glycan at N160 was associated with exposure of an epitope in the CD4 binding site that became the target for a second wave of broadly neutralizing antibodies. Neutralization by these CD4 binding site antibodies was almost entirely dependent on the glycan at position N276. Early viral escape mutations in the CD4 binding site drove an increase in wave two neutralization breadth, as this second wave of heterologous neutralization matured to recognize multiple immunotypes within this site. The third wave targeted a quaternary epitope that did not overlap any of the four known sites of vulnerability on the HIV-1 envelope and remains undefined. Altogether this study showed that the human immune system is capable of generating multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies in response to a constantly evolving viral population that exposes new targets as a consequence of escape from earlier neutralizing antibodies.

  11. Limited Neutralizing Antibody Specificities Drive Neutralization Escape in Early HIV-1 Subtype C Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Rong; Bing Li; Lynch, Rebecca M.; Haaland, Richard E.; Murphy, Megan K.; Joseph Mulenga; Allen, Susan A.; Abraham Pinter; Shaw, George M.; Eric Hunter; Robinson, James E.; Gnanakaran, S.; Derdeyn, Cynthia A.

    2009-01-01

    One aim for an HIV vaccine is to elicit neutralizing antibodies (Nab) that can limit replication of genetically diverse viruses and prevent establishment of a new infection. Thus, identifying the strengths and weaknesses of Nab during the early stages of natural infection could prove useful in achieving this goal. Here we demonstrate that viral escape readily occurred despite the development of high titer autologous Nab in two subjects with acute/early subtype C infection. To provide a detail...

  12. Structural basis for the antibody neutralization of Herpes simplex virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lin, Li-Ling [Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Chan, Woan-Eng [Development Center for Biotechnology, New Taipei City 221, Taiwan (China); Ko, Tzu-Ping [Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Lai, Jiann-Shiun [Development Center for Biotechnology, New Taipei City 221, Taiwan (China); Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Wang, Andrew H.-J., E-mail: ahjwang@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-01

    The gD–E317-Fab complex crystal revealed the conformational epitope of human mAb E317 on HSV gD, providing a molecular basis for understanding the viral neutralization mechanism. Glycoprotein D (gD) of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds to a host cell surface receptor, which is required to trigger membrane fusion for virion entry into the host cell. gD has become a validated anti-HSV target for therapeutic antibody development. The highly inhibitory human monoclonal antibody E317 (mAb E317) was previously raised against HSV gD for viral neutralization. To understand the structural basis of antibody neutralization, crystals of the gD ectodomain bound to the E317 Fab domain were obtained. The structure of the complex reveals that E317 interacts with gD mainly through the heavy chain, which covers a large area for epitope recognition on gD, with a flexible N-terminal and C-terminal conformation. The epitope core structure maps to the external surface of gD, corresponding to the binding sites of two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1, which mediate HSV infection. E317 directly recognizes the gD–nectin-1 interface and occludes the HVEM contact site of gD to block its binding to either receptor. The binding of E317 to gD also prohibits the formation of the N-terminal hairpin of gD for HVEM recognition. The major E317-binding site on gD overlaps with either the nectin-1-binding residues or the neutralizing antigenic sites identified thus far (Tyr38, Asp215, Arg222 and Phe223). The epitopes of gD for E317 binding are highly conserved between two types of human herpesvirus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). This study enables the virus-neutralizing epitopes to be correlated with the receptor-binding regions. The results further strengthen the previously demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic potential of the E317 antibody.

  13. Combination effect on HIV infection in vitro of soluble CD4 and HIV-neutralizing antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Sørensen, A M; Olofsson, S

    1994-01-01

    In combination with HIV gp120 V3-loop antibody, two carbohydrate specific neutralizing antibodies (83D4 and 2G12) had a synergistic neutralizing effect on HIV infection. However, sCD4 and an antibody which blocks gp 120/CD4 binding (1B1) both displayed antagonism.......In combination with HIV gp120 V3-loop antibody, two carbohydrate specific neutralizing antibodies (83D4 and 2G12) had a synergistic neutralizing effect on HIV infection. However, sCD4 and an antibody which blocks gp 120/CD4 binding (1B1) both displayed antagonism....

  14. Aptamer-facilitated Protection of Oncolytic Virus from Neutralizing Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharemagic, Darija; Zamay, Anna; Ghobadloo, Shahrokh M; Evgin, Laura; Savitskaya, Anna; Bell, John C; Berezovski, Maxim V

    2014-06-03

    Oncolytic viruses promise to significantly improve current cancer treatments through their tumor-selective replication and multimodal attack against cancer cells. However, one of the biggest setbacks for oncolytic virus therapy is the intravenous delivery of the virus, as it can be cleared from the bloodstream by neutralizing antibodies before it reaches the tumor cells. We have selected DNA aptamers against an oncolytic virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, using a competitive binding approach, as well as against the antigen binding fragment (Fab) of antivesicular stomatitis virus polyclonal antibodies, in order to shield the virus from nAbs and enhance its in vivo survival. We used flow cytometry to identify these aptamers and evaluated their efficiency to shield vesicular stomatitis virus in a cell-based plaque forming assay. These oligonucleotides were then modified to obtain multivalent binders, which led to a decrease of viral aggregation, an increase in its infectivity and an increase in its stability in serum. The aptamers were also incubated in nondiluted serum, showing their effectiveness under conditions mimicking those in vivo. With this approach, we were able to increase viral infectivity by more than 70% in the presence of neutralizing antibodies. Thus, this method has the potential to enhance the delivery of vesicular stomatitis virus through the bloodstream without compromising the patient's immune system.

  15. Development of Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Mimitopes for Characterization of CRF01_AE HIV-1 Antibody Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse V. Schoen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mapping humoral immune responses to HIV-1 over the course of natural infection is important in understanding epitope exposure in relation to elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs, which is considered imperative for effective vaccine design. When analyzing HIV-specific immune responses, the antibody binding profiles may be a correlate for functional antibody activity. In this study, we utilized phage display technology to identify novel mimitopes that may represent Env epitope structures bound by bNAbs directed at V1V2 and V3 domains, CD4 binding site (CD4bs and the membrane proximal external region (MPER of Env. Mimitope sequence motifs were determined for each bNAb epitope. Given the ongoing vaccine development efforts in Thailand, these mimitopes that represent CD4bs and MPER epitopes were used to map immune responses of HIV-1 CRF01_AE-infected individuals with known neutralizing responses from two distinct time periods, 1996-98 and 2012-15. The more contemporary cohort showed an increase in binding breadth with binding observed for all MPER and CD4bs mimitopes, while the older cohort showed only 75% recognition of the CD4bs mimitopes and no MPER mimotope binding. Furthermore, mimitope binding profiles correlated significantly with magnitude (p=0.0036 and breadth (p=0.0358 of neutralization of a multi-subtype Tier 1 panel of pseudoviruses. These results highlight the utility of this mimitope mapping approach for detecting human plasma IgG-specificities that target known neutralizing antibody epitopes, and may also provide an indication of the plasticity of antibody binding within HIV-1 Env neutralization determinants.

  16. Stable Spheromaks Sustained by Neutral Beam Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T K; Jayakumar, R; McLean, H S

    2008-05-14

    It is shown that spheromak equilibria, stable at zero-beta but departing from the Taylor state, could be sustained by non-inductive current drive at acceptable power levels. Stability to both ideal MHD and tearing modes is verified using the NIMROD code for linear stability analysis. Non-linear NIMROD calculations with non-inductive current drive and pressure effects could point the way to improved fusion reactors.

  17. Defensins Potentiate a Neutralizing Antibody Response to Enteric Viral Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu P Gounder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available α-defensins are abundant antimicrobial peptides with broad, potent antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities in vitro. Although their contribution to host defense against bacteria in vivo has been demonstrated, comparable studies of their antiviral activity in vivo are lacking. Using a mouse model deficient in activated α-defensins in the small intestine, we show that Paneth cell α-defensins protect mice from oral infection by a pathogenic virus, mouse adenovirus 1 (MAdV-1. Survival differences between mouse genotypes are lost upon parenteral MAdV-1 infection, strongly implicating a role for intestinal defenses in attenuating pathogenesis. Although differences in α-defensin expression impact the composition of the ileal commensal bacterial population, depletion studies using broad-spectrum antibiotics revealed no effect of the microbiota on α-defensin-dependent viral pathogenesis. Moreover, despite the sensitivity of MAdV-1 infection to α-defensin neutralization in cell culture, we observed no barrier effect due to Paneth cell α-defensin activation on the kinetics and magnitude of MAdV-1 dissemination to the brain. Rather, a protective neutralizing antibody response was delayed in the absence of α-defensins. This effect was specific to oral viral infection, because antibody responses to parenteral or mucosal ovalbumin exposure were not affected by α-defensin deficiency. Thus, α-defensins play an important role as adjuvants in antiviral immunity in vivo that is distinct from their direct antiviral activity observed in cell culture.

  18. Selection pressure from neutralizing antibodies drives sequence evolution during acute infection with hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Kimberly A; Netski, Dale M; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Cox, Andrea L; Ray, Stuart C

    2009-06-01

    Despite recent characterization of hepatitis C virus-specific neutralizing antibodies, it is not clear to what extent immune pressure from neutralizing antibodies drives viral sequence evolution in vivo. This lack of understanding is particularly evident in acute infection, the phase when elimination or persistence of viral replication is determined and during which the importance of the humoral immune response has been largely discounted. We analyzed envelope glycoprotein sequence evolution and neutralization of sequential autologous hepatitis C virus pseudoparticles in 8 individuals throughout acute infection. Amino acid substitutions occurred throughout the envelope genes, primarily within the hypervariable region 1 of E2. When individualized pseudoparticles expressing sequential envelope sequences were used to measure neutralization by autologous sera, antibodies neutralizing earlier sequence variants were detected at earlier time points than antibodies neutralizing later variants, indicating clearance and evolution of viral variants in response to pressure from neutralizing antibodies. To demonstrate the effects of amino acid substitution on neutralization, site-directed mutagenesis of a pseudoparticle envelope sequence revealed amino acid substitutions in hypervariable region 1 that were responsible for a dramatic decrease in neutralization sensitivity over time. In addition, high-titer neutralizing antibodies peaked at the time of viral clearance in all spontaneous resolvers, whereas chronically evolving subjects displayed low-titer or absent neutralizing antibodies throughout early acute infection. These findings indicate that, during acute hepatitis C virus infection in vivo, virus-specific neutralizing antibodies drive sequence evolution and, in some individuals, play a role in determining the outcome of infection.

  19. Development of a Coxsackievirus A16 neutralization assay based on pseudoviruses for measurement of neutralizing antibody titer in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun; Ma, Hongxia; Xu, Lin; An, Dong; Sun, Shiyang; Huang, Xueyong; Kong, Wei; Jiang, Chunlai

    2013-02-01

    Serum neutralizing antibody titers are indicative of protective immunity against Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and Enterovirus 71 (EV71), the two main etiological agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), and provide the basis for evaluating vaccine efficacy. The current CV-A16 neutralization assay based on inhibition of cytopathic effects requires manual microscopic examination, which is time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this study, a high-throughput neutralization assay was developed by employing CV-A16 pseudoviruses expressing luciferase for detecting infectivity in rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells and measuring serum viral neutralizing antibodies. Without the need to use infectious CV-A16 strains, the neutralizing antibody titer against CV-A16 could be determined within 15h by measuring luciferase signals by this assay. The pseudovirus CV-A16 neutralization assay (pCNA) was validated by comparison with a conventional CV-A16 neutralization assay (cCNA) in testing 174 human serum samples collected from children (age <5 years). The neutralizing antibody titers determined by these two assays were well correlated (R(2)=0.7689). These results suggest that the pCNA can serve as a rapid and objective procedure for the measurement of neutralizing antibodies against CV-A16. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Human monoclonal antibodies broadly neutralizing against influenza B virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayo Yasugi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus has the ability to evade host immune surveillance through rapid viral genetic drift and reassortment; therefore, it remains a continuous public health threat. The development of vaccines producing broadly reactive antibodies, as well as therapeutic strategies using human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs with global reactivity, has been gathering great interest recently. Here, three hybridoma clones producing HuMAbs against influenza B virus, designated 5A7, 3A2 and 10C4, were prepared using peripheral lymphocytes from vaccinated volunteers, and were investigated for broad cross-reactive neutralizing activity. Of these HuMAbs, 3A2 and 10C4, which recognize the readily mutable 190-helix region near the receptor binding site in the hemagglutinin (HA protein, react only with the Yamagata lineage of influenza B virus. By contrast, HuMAb 5A7 broadly neutralizes influenza B strains that were isolated from 1985 to 2006, belonging to both Yamagata and Victoria lineages. Epitope mapping revealed that 5A7 recognizes 316G, 318C and 321W near the C terminal of HA1, a highly conserved region in influenza B virus. Indeed, no mutations in the amino acid residues of the epitope region were induced, even after the virus was passaged ten times in the presence of HuMAb 5A7. Moreover, 5A7 showed significant therapeutic efficacy in mice, even when it was administered 72 hours post-infection. These results indicate that 5A7 is a promising candidate for developing therapeutics, and provide insight for the development of a universal vaccine against influenza B virus.

  1. Neutralizing antibodies to hepatitis C virus in perinatally infected children followed up prospectively

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Bukh, Jens; Diaz, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    reactive NtAbs of maternal origin did not prevent vertical HCV transmission or progression to chronicity. NtAbs against homologous genotype or subtype appeared during the chronic phase and were more abundant and sustained in children with acute hepatitis. Cross-reactive NtAbs were present in both groups......Little is known about the presence and role of neutralizing antibodies (NtAbs) in perinatal hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Using HCV pseudoparticles, NtAbs were studied longitudinally in 12 HCV-infected children with or without evidence of acute hepatitis during the first year of life. Broadly...

  2. Coexistence of potent HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies and antibody-sensitive viruses in a viremic controller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freund, Natalia T.; Wang, Haoqing; Scharf, Louise; Nogueira, Lilian; Horwitz, Joshua A.; Bar-On, Yotam; Golijanin, Jovana; Sievers, Stuart A.; Sok, Devin; Cai, Hui; Cesar Lorenzi, Julio C.; Halper-Stromberg, Ariel; Toth, Ildiko; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Gristick, Harry B.; van Gils, Marit J.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Wang, Lai-Xi; Seaman, Michael S.; Burton, Dennis R.; Gazumyan, Anna; Walker, Bruce D.; West, Anthony P.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.

    2017-01-01

    Some HIV-1-infected patients develop broad and potent HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that when passively transferred to mice or macaques can treat or prevent infection. However, bNAbs typically fail to neutralize coexisting autologous viruses due to antibody-mediated selection against

  3. Chemokine receptor polymorphism and autologous neutralizing antibody response in long-term HIV-1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Joost, Mette; Gram, G J

    1998-01-01

    We have previously reported that slowly progressing HIV infection (SPI) was associated with the presence of contemporaneous autologous neutralizing antibodies. In contrast, a group of individuals with more rapidly progressing infection (RPI) generally lacked these antibodies. To understand the im...

  4. Vaccination of rhesus macaques with the live-attenuated HSV-1 vaccine VC2 stimulates the proliferation of mucosal T cells and germinal center responses resulting in sustained production of highly neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, Brent A; Pahar, Bapi; Chouljenko, Vladimir N; Veazey, Ronald; Kousoulas, Konstantin G

    2017-01-23

    We have shown that the live-attenuated HSV-1 VC2 vaccine strain with mutations in glycoprotein K (gK) and the membrane protein UL20 is unable to establish latency in vaccinated animals and produces a robust immune response capable of completely protecting mice against lethal vaginal HSV-1 or HSV-2 infections. To better understand the immune response generated by vaccination with VC2, we tested its ability to elicit immune responses in rhesus macaques. Vaccinated animals showed no signs of disease and developed increasing HSV-1 and HSV-2 reactive IgG 1 after two booster vaccinations, while IgG subtypes IgG 2 and IgG 3 remained at low to undetectable levels. All vaccinated animals produced high levels of cross protective neutralizing antibodies. Flow cytometry analysis of cells isolated from draining lymph nodes showed that VC2 vaccination stimulated significant increases in plasmablast (CD27 high CD38 high ) and mature memory (CD21 - IgM - ) B cells. T cell analysis on cells isolated from draining lymph node biopsies demonstrated a statistically significant increase in proliferating (Ki67 + ) follicular T helper cells and regulatory CXCR5 + CD8 + cytotoxic T cells. Analysis of plasma isolated two weeks post vaccination showed significant increases in circulating CXCL13 indicating increased germinal center activity. Cells isolated from vaginal biopsy samples collected over the course of the study exhibited vaccination-dependent increases in proliferating (Ki67 + ) CD4 + and CD8 + T cell populations. These results suggest that intramuscular vaccination with the live-attenuated HSV-1 VC2 vaccine strain can stimulate robust IgG 1 antibody responses that persist for >250days post vaccination. In addition, vaccination lead to the maturation of B cells into plasmablast and mature memory B cells, the expansion of follicular T helper cells, and affects in the mucosal immune responses. These data suggest that the HSV VC2 vaccine induces potent immune responses that could help

  5. Soluble HIV-1 Envelope Immunogens Derived from an Elite Neutralizer Elicit Cross-Reactive V1V2 Antibodies and Low Potency Neutralizing Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jolene; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Sather, D. Noah

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated four gp140 Envelope protein vaccine immunogens that were derived from an elite neutralizer, subject VC10042, whose plasma was able to potently neutralize a wide array of genetically distinct HIV-1 isolates. We sought to determine whether soluble Envelope proteins derived from the viruses circulating in VC10042 could be used as immunogens to elicit similar neutralizing antibody responses by vaccination. Each gp140 was tested in its trimeric and monomeric forms, and we evaluated two gp140 trimer vaccine regimens in which adjuvant was supplied at all four immunizations or at only the first two immunizations. Interestingly, all four Envelope immunogens elicited high titers of cross-reactive antibodies that recognize the variable regions V1V2 and are potentially similar to antibodies linked with a reduced risk of HIV-1 acquisition in the RV144 vaccine trial. Two of the four immunogens elicited neutralizing antibody responses that neutralized a wide array of HIV-1 isolates from across genetic clades, but those responses were of very low potency. There were no significant differences in the responses elicited by trimers or monomers, nor was there a significant difference between the two adjuvant regimens. Our study identified two promising Envelope immunogens that elicited anti-V1V2 antibodies and broad, but low potency, neutralizing antibody responses. PMID:24466285

  6. A monoclonal antibody that neutralizes poliovirus by cross-linking virions.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, A A; Brioen, P; Boeyé, A

    1985-01-01

    The neutralization of type 1 poliovirus by monoclonal antibody 35-1f4 was studied. The virions were rapidly linked by antibody into oligomers and larger aggregates, followed by slow redistribution of antibody between the immune complexes. The antibody content and infectivity of immune complexes were determined. Remaining single virions were fully infectious and free of antibody. The oligomers and larger aggregates did not significantly contribute to the residual infectivity, which therefore c...

  7. Co-evolution of a broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody and founder virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hua-Xin; Lynch, Rebecca; Zhou, Tongqing; Gao, Feng; Alam, S. Munir; Boyd, Scott D.; Fire, Andrew Z.; Roskin, Krishna M.; Schramm, Chaim A.; Zhang, Zhenhai; Zhu, Jiang; Shapiro, Lawrence; Mullikin, James C.; Gnanakaran, S.; Hraber, Peter; Wiehe, Kevin; Kelsoe, Garnett; Yang, Guang; Xia, Shi-Mao; Montefiori, David C.; Parks, Robert; Lloyd, Krissey E.; Scearce, Richard M.; Soderberg, Kelly A.; Cohen, Myron; Kaminga, Gift; Louder, Mark K.; Tran, Lillan M.; Chen, Yue; Cai, Fangping; Chen, Sheri; Moquin, Stephanie; Du, Xiulian; Joyce, Gordon M.; Srivatsan, Sanjay; Zhang, Baoshan; Zheng, Anqi; Shaw, George M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Kepler, Thomas B.; Korber, Bette T.M.; Kwong, Peter D.; Mascola, John R.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2013-01-01

    Current HIV-1 vaccines elicit strain-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies arise in ~20% of HIV-1-infected individuals, and details of their generation could provide a roadmap for effective vaccination. Here we report the isolation, evolution and structure of a broadly neutralizing antibody from an African donor followed from time of infection. The mature antibody, CH103, neutralized ~55% of HIV-1 isolates, and its co-crystal structure with gp120 revealed a novel loop-based mechanism of CD4-binding site recognition. Virus and antibody gene sequencing revealed concomitant virus evolution and antibody maturation. Notably, the CH103-lineage unmutated common ancestor avidly bound the transmitted/founder HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, and evolution of antibody neutralization breadth was preceded by extensive viral diversification in and near the CH103 epitope. These data elucidate the viral and antibody evolution leading to induction of a lineage of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies and provide insights into strategies to elicit similar antibodies via vaccination. PMID:23552890

  8. Mechanisms of equine infectious anemia virus escape from neutralizing antibody responses define epitope specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponseller, Brett A; Clark, Sandra K; Friedrich, Rachel A

    2012-08-01

    Determining mechanisms of viral escape to particular epitopes recognized by virus-neutralizing antibody can facilitate characterization of host-neutralizing antibody responses as type- versus group-specific, and provides necessary information for vaccine development. Our study reveals that a single N-glycan located in the 5' region of the Wyoming wild-type equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) principal neutralizing domain (PND) accounts for the differences in neutralization phenotype observed between PND variants, while variations in charged amino acids within the PND do not appear to play a key role in viral escape. Site-directed mutagenesis and peptide mapping of a conserved epitope to neutralizing antibody in the 3' region of the PND showed rapid selective pressure for acquisition of a 5' PND N-glycan responsible for defining the specificity of the neutralizing-antibody response.

  9. Paradoxical suppression of poly-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies in the presence of strain-specific neutralizing antibodies following HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupe, Stanca M; De Leenheer, Patrick; Kepler, Thomas B

    2011-05-21

    One of the first immunologic responses against HIV infection is the presence of neutralizing antibodies that seem able to inactivate several HIV strains. Moreover, in vitro studies have shown the existence of monoclonal antibodies that exhibit broad crossclade neutralizing potential. Yet their number is low and slow to develop in vivo. In this paper, we investigate the potential benefits of inducing poly-specific neutralizing antibodies in vivo throughout immunization. We develop a mathematical model that considers the activation of families of B lymphocytes producing poly-specific and strain-specific antibodies and use it to demonstrate that, even if such families are successful in producing neutralizing antibodies, the competition between them may limit the poly-specific response allowing the virus to escape. We modify this model to account for viral evolution under the pressure of antibody responses in natural HIV infection. The model can reproduce viral escape under certain conditions of B lymphocyte competition. Using these models we provide explanations for the observed antibody failure in controlling natural infection and predict quantitative measures that need to be satisfied for long-term control of HIV infection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Focused Evolution of HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies Revealed by Structures and Deep Sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xueling; Zhou, Tongqing; Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Baoshan; Georgiev, Ivelin; Wang, Charlene; Chen, Xuejun; Longo, Nancy S.; Louder, Mark; McKee, Krisha; O’Dell, Sijy; Perfetto, Stephen; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Shi, Wei; Wu, Lan; Yang, Yongping; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Yang, Zhongjia; Zhang, Zhenhai; Bonsignori, Mattia; Crump, John A.; Kapiga, Saidi H.; Sam, Noel E.; Haynes, Barton F.; Simek, Melissa; Burton, Dennis R.; Koff, Wayne C.; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Connors, Mark; Mullikin, James C.; Nabel, Gary J.; Roederer, Mario; Shapiro, Lawrence; Kwong, Peter D.; Mascola, John R. (Tumaini); (NIH); (Duke); (Kilimanjaro Repro.); (IAVI)

    2013-03-04

    Antibody VRC01 is a human immunoglobulin that neutralizes about 90% of HIV-1 isolates. To understand how such broadly neutralizing antibodies develop, we used x-ray crystallography and 454 pyrosequencing to characterize additional VRC01-like antibodies from HIV-1-infected individuals. Crystal structures revealed a convergent mode of binding for diverse antibodies to the same CD4-binding-site epitope. A functional genomics analysis of expressed heavy and light chains revealed common pathways of antibody-heavy chain maturation, confined to the IGHV1-2*02 lineage, involving dozens of somatic changes, and capable of pairing with different light chains. Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 immunity associated with VRC01-like antibodies thus involves the evolution of antibodies to a highly affinity-matured state required to recognize an invariant viral structure, with lineages defined from thousands of sequences providing a genetic roadmap of their development.

  11. Neutralizing antibody fails to impact the course of Ebola virus infection in monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendelien B Oswald

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Prophylaxis with high doses of neutralizing antibody typically offers protection against challenge with viruses producing acute infections. In this study, we have investigated the ability of the neutralizing human monoclonal antibody, KZ52, to protect against Ebola virus in rhesus macaques. This antibody was previously shown to fully protect guinea pigs from infection. Four rhesus macaques were given 50 mg/kg of neutralizing human monoclonal antibody KZ52 intravenously 1 d before challenge with 1,000 plaque-forming units of Ebola virus, followed by a second dose of 50 mg/kg antibody 4 d after challenge. A control animal was exposed to virus in the absence of antibody treatment. Passive transfer of the neutralizing human monoclonal antibody not only failed to protect macaques against challenge with Ebola virus but also had a minimal effect on the explosive viral replication following infection. We show that the inability of antibody to impact infection was not due to neutralization escape. It appears that Ebola virus has a mechanism of infection propagation in vivo in macaques that is uniquely insensitive even to high concentrations of neutralizing antibody.

  12. Recurrent Potent Human Neutralizing Antibodies to Zika Virus in Brazil and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbiani, Davide F; Bozzacco, Leonia; Keeffe, Jennifer R; Khouri, Ricardo; Olsen, Priscilla C; Gazumyan, Anna; Schaefer-Babajew, Dennis; Avila-Rios, Santiago; Nogueira, Lilian; Patel, Roshni; Azzopardi, Stephanie A; Uhl, Lion F K; Saeed, Mohsan; Sevilla-Reyes, Edgar E; Agudelo, Marianna; Yao, Kai-Hui; Golijanin, Jovana; Gristick, Harry B; Lee, Yu E; Hurley, Arlene; Caskey, Marina; Pai, Joy; Oliveira, Thiago; Wunder, Elsio A; Sacramento, Gielson; Nery, Nivison; Orge, Cibele; Costa, Federico; Reis, Mitermayer G; Thomas, Neena M; Eisenreich, Thomas; Weinberger, Daniel M; de Almeida, Antonio R P; West, Anthony P; Rice, Charles M; Bjorkman, Pamela J; Reyes-Teran, Gustavo; Ko, Albert I; MacDonald, Margaret R; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2017-05-04

    Antibodies to Zika virus (ZIKV) can be protective. To examine the antibody response in individuals who develop high titers of anti-ZIKV antibodies, we screened cohorts in Brazil and Mexico for ZIKV envelope domain III (ZEDIII) binding and neutralization. We find that serologic reactivity to dengue 1 virus (DENV1) EDIII before ZIKV exposure is associated with increased ZIKV neutralizing titers after exposure. Antibody cloning shows that donors with high ZIKV neutralizing antibody titers have expanded clones of memory B cells that express the same immunoglobulin VH3-23/VK1-5 genes. These recurring antibodies cross-react with DENV1, but not other flaviviruses, neutralize both DENV1 and ZIKV, and protect mice against ZIKV challenge. Structural analyses reveal the mechanism of recognition of the ZEDIII lateral ridge by VH3-23/VK1-5 antibodies. Serologic testing shows that antibodies to this region correlate with serum neutralizing activity to ZIKV. Thus, high neutralizing responses to ZIKV are associated with pre-existing reactivity to DENV1 in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rational Design of Vaccines to Elicit Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies to HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Peter D.; Mascola, John R.; Nabel, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    The development of a highly effective AIDS vaccine will likely depend on success in designing immunogens that elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies to naturally circulating strains of HIV-1. Although the antibodies induced after natural infection with HIV-1 are often directed to strain-specific or nonneutralizing determinants, it is now evident that 10%–25% of HIV-infected individuals generate neutralizing antibody responses of considerable breadth. In the past, only four broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies had been defined, but more than a dozen monoclonal antibodies of substantial breadth have more recently been isolated. An understanding of their recognition sites, the structural basis of their interaction with the HIV Env, and their development pathways provides new opportunities to design vaccine candidates that will elicit broadly protective antibodies against this virus. PMID:22229123

  14. Kinetics of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Neutralizing and Virus-Specific Antibodies after Primary Infection with EBV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wei; Hayes, Gregory M; Liu, Hui; Gemmell, Lorraine; Schmeling, David O; Radecki, Pierce; Aguilar, Fiona; Burbelo, Peter D; Woo, Jennifer; Balfour, Henry H; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2016-04-01

    Prospective studies of antibodies to multiple Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) proteins and EBV neutralizing antibodies in the same individuals before, during, and after primary EBV infection have not been reported. We studied antibody responses to EBV in college students who acquired primary EBV infection during prospective surveillance and correlated the kinetics of antibody response with the severity of disease. Neutralizing antibodies and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibodies to gp350, the major target of neutralizing antibody, reached peak levels at medians of 179 and 333 days after the onset of symptoms of infectious mononucleosis, respectively. No clear correlation was found between the severity of the symptoms of infectious mononucleosis and the peak levels of antibody to individual viral proteins or to neutralizing antibody. In summary, we found that titers of neutralizing antibody and antibodies to multiple EBV proteins increase over many months after primary infection with EBV. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Human antibody titers to Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) gp350 correlate with neutralization of infectivity better than antibody titers to EBV gp42 using a rapid flow cytometry-based EBV neutralization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashihara, Junji; Burbelo, Peter D; Savoldo, Barbara; Pierson, Theodore C; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2009-09-01

    Measurement of neutralizing antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is important for evaluation of candidate vaccines. The current neutralization assay is based on antibody inhibition of EBV transformation of B cells and requires 6 weeks to perform. We developed a rapid, quantitative flow cytometry assay and show that neutralizing antibody titers measured by the new assay strongly correlate with antibody titers in the standard transformation-based assay. Antibodies to EBV gp350 and gp42 have been shown to block infection of B cells by EBV. Using new assays to quantify antibodies to these glycoproteins, we show for the first time that human plasma contains high titers of antibody to gp42; these titers correlate with neutralization of EBV infectivity or transformation. Furthermore, we show that antibody titers to EBV gp350 correlate more strongly with neutralization than antibody titers to gp42. These assays should be useful in accessing antibody responses to candidate EBV vaccines.

  16. Prevalence and titers of yellow fever virus neutralizing antibodies in previously vaccinated adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Karina Takesaki; Avelino-Silva, Vivian Iida; Simões, Marisol; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Medeiros, Carlos Roberto de; Braga, Patrícia Emilia; Neves, Maria Angélica Acalá; Lopes, Marta Heloisa; Kallas, Esper Georges; Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam

    2017-04-03

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends one single dose of the Yellow Fever (YF) vaccine based on studies of antibody persistency in healthy adults. We assessed the prevalence and titers of YF virus neutralizing antibodies in previously vaccinated persons aged  60 years, in comparison to younger adults. We also evaluated the correlation between antibody titers and the time since vaccination among participants who received one vaccine dose, and the seropositivity among participants vaccinated prior to or within the past 10 years. previously vaccinated healthy persons aged  18 years were included. YF virus neutralizing antibody titers were determined by means of the 50% Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. 46 persons aged  60 years and 48 persons aged 18 to 59 years were enrolled. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of YF virus neutralizing antibodies between the two groups (p = 0.263). However, titers were significantly lower in the elderly (p = 0.022). There was no correlation between YF virus neutralizing antibody titers and the time since vaccination. There was no significant difference in seropositivity among participants vaccinated prior to or within the past 10 years. the clinical relevance of the observed difference in YF virus neutralizing antibody titers between the two groups is not clear.

  17. Respiratory syncytial virus neutralizing antibodies in cord blood, respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization, and recurrent wheeze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Ravn, Henrik; Kristensen, Kim

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization is associated with wheeze. OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of maternally derived RSV neutralizing antibodies in cord blood on RSV hospitalization and recurrent wheeze in infancy. METHODS: Among children from the Danish National Birth...

  18. Appearance and disappearance of neutralizing antibodies during interferon-beta therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, P Soelberg; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Ross, C

    2005-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies (NABs) occur frequently in patients receiving interferon (IFN)-beta for multiple sclerosis (MS), but it is unclear whether occurrence of NABs is predictive for the persistence of NABs during continued IFN-beta therapy....

  19. Immunogenic peptides comprising a T-helper epitope and a B-cell neutralizing antibody epitope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Barton F.; Korber, Bette T.; De Lorimier, Robert M.

    2006-12-26

    The present invention relates, generally, to a polyvalent immunogen and, more particularly, to a method of inducing neutralizing antibodies against HIV and to a polyvalent immunogen suitable for use in such a method.

  20. [Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to dengue virus serotypes in university students from Tabasco, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Burgos, Gilma Guadalupe; López-Alvarado, Miguel Angel; Castañeda-Desales, Deyanira; Ruiz-Gómez, Juan; Ramos-Castañeda, José

    2008-01-01

    Determine the seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies to dengue virus in students from the state university of Tabasco, Mexico. A transversal study was conducted of serum collected from students between September and November, 2005. The sera were screened for anti-dengue IgG and those that had evidence of dengue antibodies were analyzed by a plaque reduction neutralization test. Prevalence of anti-dengue IgG was 9.1%. The frequency of neutralizing antibodies was 100% for DENV-2, 68% for DENV-4, 20% for DENV-1, and 4 % for DENV-3. We found that in this population, DENV-2 circulates more than DENV-3 despite the fact that DENV-3 is more frequently isolated. Unexpectedly, neutralizing antibodies against DENV-4 were frequently found even though this serotype is almost extinct; thus, it is probable that cross-immunity could suppress DEN-4 transmission, as has been suggested.

  1. Predicting HIV-1 transmission and antibody neutralization efficacy in vivo from stoichiometric parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver F Brandenberg

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential of broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting the HIV-1 envelope trimer to prevent HIV-1 transmission has opened new avenues for therapies and vaccines. However, their implementation remains challenging and would profit from a deepened mechanistic understanding of HIV-antibody interactions and the mucosal transmission process. In this study we experimentally determined stoichiometric parameters of the HIV-1 trimer-antibody interaction, confirming that binding of one antibody is sufficient for trimer neutralization. This defines numerical requirements for HIV-1 virion neutralization and thereby enables mathematical modelling of in vitro and in vivo antibody neutralization efficacy. The model we developed accurately predicts antibody efficacy in animal passive immunization studies and provides estimates for protective mucosal antibody concentrations. Furthermore, we derive estimates of the probability for a single virion to start host infection and the risks of male-to-female HIV-1 transmission per sexual intercourse. Our work thereby delivers comprehensive quantitative insights into both the molecular principles governing HIV-antibody interactions and the initial steps of mucosal HIV-1 transmission. These insights, alongside the underlying, adaptable modelling framework presented here, will be valuable for supporting in silico pre-trial planning and post-hoc evaluation of HIV-1 vaccination or antibody treatment trials.

  2. Predicting HIV-1 transmission and antibody neutralization efficacy in vivo from stoichiometric parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusert, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The potential of broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting the HIV-1 envelope trimer to prevent HIV-1 transmission has opened new avenues for therapies and vaccines. However, their implementation remains challenging and would profit from a deepened mechanistic understanding of HIV-antibody interactions and the mucosal transmission process. In this study we experimentally determined stoichiometric parameters of the HIV-1 trimer-antibody interaction, confirming that binding of one antibody is sufficient for trimer neutralization. This defines numerical requirements for HIV-1 virion neutralization and thereby enables mathematical modelling of in vitro and in vivo antibody neutralization efficacy. The model we developed accurately predicts antibody efficacy in animal passive immunization studies and provides estimates for protective mucosal antibody concentrations. Furthermore, we derive estimates of the probability for a single virion to start host infection and the risks of male-to-female HIV-1 transmission per sexual intercourse. Our work thereby delivers comprehensive quantitative insights into both the molecular principles governing HIV-antibody interactions and the initial steps of mucosal HIV-1 transmission. These insights, alongside the underlying, adaptable modelling framework presented here, will be valuable for supporting in silico pre-trial planning and post-hoc evaluation of HIV-1 vaccination or antibody treatment trials. PMID:28472201

  3. Neutralization of botulinum neurotoxin by a human monoclonal antibody specific for the catalytic light chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad P Adekar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT are a family of category A select bioterror agents and the most potent biological toxins known. Cloned antibody therapeutics hold considerable promise as BoNT therapeutics, but the therapeutic utility of antibodies that bind the BoNT light chain domain (LC, a metalloprotease that functions in the cytosol of cholinergic neurons, has not been thoroughly explored.We used an optimized hybridoma method to clone a fully human antibody specific for the LC of serotype A BoNT (BoNT/A. The 4LCA antibody demonstrated potent in vivo neutralization when administered alone and collaborated with an antibody specific for the HC. In Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells, the 4LCA antibody prevented the cleavage of the BoNT/A proteolytic target, SNAP-25. Unlike an antibody specific for the HC, the 4LCA antibody did not block entry of BoNT/A into cultured cells. Instead, it was taken up into synaptic vesicles along with BoNT/A. The 4LCA antibody also directly inhibited BoNT/A catalytic activity in vitro.An antibody specific for the BoNT/A LC can potently inhibit BoNT/A in vivo and in vitro, using mechanisms not previously associated with BoNT-neutralizing antibodies. Antibodies specific for BoNT LC may be valuable components of an antibody antidote for BoNT exposure.

  4. Appearance and disappearance of neutralizing antibodies during interferon-beta therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, P Soelberg; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Ross, C

    2005-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies (NABs) occur frequently in patients receiving interferon (IFN)-beta for multiple sclerosis (MS), but it is unclear whether occurrence of NABs is predictive for the persistence of NABs during continued IFN-beta therapy.......Neutralizing antibodies (NABs) occur frequently in patients receiving interferon (IFN)-beta for multiple sclerosis (MS), but it is unclear whether occurrence of NABs is predictive for the persistence of NABs during continued IFN-beta therapy....

  5. Affinity maturation to improve human monoclonal antibody neutralization potency and breadth against hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Keck, Zhen-yong; Saha, Anasuya; Xia, Jinming; Conrad, Fraser; Lou, Jianlong; Eckart, Michael; Marks, James D; Foung, Steven K H

    2011-12-23

    A potent neutralizing antibody to a conserved hepatitis C virus (HCV) epitope might overcome its extreme variability, allowing immunotherapy. The human monoclonal antibody HC-1 recognizes a conformational epitope on the HCV E2 glycoprotein. Previous studies showed that HC-1 neutralizes most HCV genotypes but has modest potency. To improve neutralization, we affinity-matured HC-1 by constructing a library of yeast-displayed HC-1 single chain Fv (scFv) mutants, using for selection an E2 antigen from one of the poorly neutralized HCVpp. We developed an approach by parallel mutagenesis of the heavy chain variable (VH) and κ-chain variable (Vk) genes separately, then combining the optimized VH and Vk mutants. This resulted in the generation of HC-1-related scFv variants exhibiting improved affinities. The best scFv variant had a 92-fold improved affinity. After conversion to IgG1, some of the antibodies exhibited a 30-fold improvement in neutralization activity. Both surface plasmon resonance and solution kinetic exclusion analysis showed that the increase in affinity was largely due to a lowering of the dissociation rate constant, Koff. Neutralization against a panel of HCV pseudoparticles and infectious 2a HCV virus improved with the affinity-matured IgG1 antibodies. Interestingly, some of these antibodies neutralized a viral isolate that was not neutralized by wild-type HC-1. Moreover, propagating 2a HCVcc under the selective pressure of WT HC-1 or affinity-matured HC-1 antibodies yielded no viral escape mutants and, with the affinity-matured IgG1, needed 100-fold less antibody to achieve complete virus elimination. Taken together, these findings suggest that affinity-matured HC-1 antibodies are excellent candidates for therapeutic development.

  6. Neutralizing human antibodies prevent Zika virus replication and fetal disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapparapu, Gopal; Fernandez, Estefania; Kose, Nurgun; Bin Cao; Fox, Julie M; Bombardi, Robin G; Zhao, Haiyan; Nelson, Christopher A; Bryan, Aubrey L; Barnes, Trevor; Davidson, Edgar; Mysorekar, Indira U; Fremont, Daved H; Doranz, Benjamin J; Diamond, Michael S; Crowe, James E

    2016-12-15

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that can cause severe disease, including congenital birth defects during pregnancy. To develop candidate therapeutic agents against ZIKV, we isolated a panel of human monoclonal antibodies from subjects that were previously infected with ZIKV. We show that a subset of antibodies recognize diverse epitopes on the envelope (E) protein and exhibit potent neutralizing activity. One of the most inhibitory antibodies, ZIKV-117, broadly neutralized infection of ZIKV strains corresponding to African and Asian-American lineages. Epitope mapping studies revealed that ZIKV-117 recognized a unique quaternary epitope on the E protein dimer-dimer interface. We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of ZIKV-117 in pregnant and non-pregnant mice. Monoclonal antibody treatment markedly reduced tissue pathology, placental and fetal infection, and mortality in mice. Thus, neutralizing human antibodies can protect against maternal-fetal transmission, infection and disease, and reveal important determinants for structure-based rational vaccine design efforts.

  7. Reconstitution and characterization of antibody repertoires of HIV-1-infected "elite neutralizers".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zehua; Li, Jingjing; Hu, Xintao; Shao, Yiming; Zhang, Mei-Yun

    2015-06-01

    Around 3-5% HIV-1-infected individuals develop high titers of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies (bnAbs) during chronic infection. However, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from such "elite neutralizers" do not, in most cases, depict the serum IgGs in neutralizing the virus. We hypothesize that HIV-1-specific antibodies in infected subjects may work in a population manner in containing the virus in vivo, and in vitro reconstituted antibody repertoires of "elite neutralizers" may mimic the sera in binding and neutralizing the virus. This study aims to investigate the antibody repertoires of three such "elite neutralizers" by reconstituting the immune antibody repertories in vitro followed by a comparative study of the recombinant library IgGs with the corresponding serum IgGs. We found that the recombinant library IgGs were much weaker than the serum IgGs in binding to envelope glycoproteins (Envs) and in neutralizing the virus and inhibiting Env-mediated cell-cell fusion. However, the sorted libraries composing of HIV-1-specific neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in the three recombinant libraries exhibited comparable binding and inhibitory activities, as well as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), to the serum IgGs. The sorted library IgGs further showed neutralization profiles which are similar to those of the serum IgGs, but they were overall less potent than the serum IgGs. The sorted library IgGs and the serum IgGs bound weakly to the resurfaced Env gp120, RSC3, and did not bind to the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) knock-out mutant, ΔRSC3. Profiling with VRC01 binding site knock-out site mutants of gp120BaL indicates that, if there are any CD4bs bnAbs in these sera, they are more likely b12-like, but not VRC01-class bnAbs. Our results suggest that HIV-1-specific Ab-expressing B cells, especially potent nAb-expressing B cells may not be rich in the B cell repertoires of "elite neutralizers", but they may be highly active in producing nAbs in

  8. Hepatitis C virus epitope exposure and neutralization by antibodies is affected by time and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabo, Michelle C; Luca, Vincent C; Ray, Stuart C

    2012-01-01

    A recent study with flaviviruses suggested that structural dynamics of the virion impact antibody neutralization via exposure of ostensibly cryptic epitopes. To determine whether this holds true for the distantly related hepatitis C virus (HCV), whose neutralizing epitopes may be obscured...

  9. Lack of MERS coronavirus neutralizing antibodies in humans, eastern province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierer, Stefanie; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike; Albuali, Waleed H; Bertram, Stephanie; Al-Rubaish, Abdullah M; Yousef, Abdullah A; Al-Nafaie, Awatif N; Al-Ali, Amein K; Obeid, Obeid E; Alkharsah, Khaled R; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2013-12-01

    We used a lentiviral vector bearing the viral spike protein to detect neutralizing antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in persons from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. None of the 268 samples tested displayed neutralizing activity, which suggests that MERS-CoV infections in humans are infrequent in this province.

  10. HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies induced by native-like envelope trimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Rogier W.; van Gils, Marit J.; Derking, Ronald; Sok, Devin; Ketas, Thomas J.; Burger, Judith A.; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Cupo, Albert; Simonich, Cassandra; Goo, Leslie; Arendt, Heather; Kim, Helen J.; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Pugach, Pavel; Williams, Melissa; Debnath, Gargi; Moldt, Brian; van Breemen, Mariëlle J.; Isik, Gözde; Medina-Ramírez, Max; Back, Jaap Willem; Koff, Wayne C.; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Rakasz, Eva G.; Seaman, Michael S.; Guttman, Miklos; Lee, Kelly K.; Klasse, Per Johan; Labranche, Celia; Schief, William R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Overbaugh, Julie; Burton, Dennis R.; Ward, Andrew B.; Montefiori, David C.; Dean, Hansi; Moore, John P.

    2015-01-01

    A challenge for HIV-1 immunogen design is the difficulty of inducing neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against neutralization-resistant (tier 2) viruses that dominate human transmissions. We show that a soluble recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer that adopts a native conformation, BG505

  11. Antibody-Mediated Neutralization of Pertussis Toxin-Induced Mitogenicity of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Scott H Millen; Bernstein, David I.; Connelly, Beverly; Ward, Joel I.; Chang, Swei-Ju; Weiss, Alison A.

    2004-01-01

    Antibody-mediated neutralization of pertussis toxin-induced proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was assessed using alamarBlue and compared with results from the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell assay using sera from vaccinated adults and convalescent children. Neutralization values for the CHO assay were similar for vaccinated and convalescent subjects; however. the convalescent group had higher titers in the PBMC assay. Results for pertussis toxin neutralization ...

  12. Developmental pathway for potent V1V2-directed HIV-neutralizing antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Schramm, Chaim A.; Gorman, Jason; Moore, Penny L.; Bhiman, Jinal N.; Dekosky, Brandon J.; Ernandes, Michael J.; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Kim, Helen J.; Pancera, Marie; Staupe, Ryan P.; Altae-Tran, Han R.; Bailer, Robert T.; Crooks, Ema T.; Cupo, Albert; Druz, Aliaksandr; Garrett, Nigel J.; Hoi, Kam H.; Kong, Rui; Louder, Mark K.; Longo, Nancy S.; McKee, Krisha; Nonyane, Molati; O'Dell, Sijy; Roark, Ryan S.; Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Sheward, Daniel J.; Soto, Cinque; Wibmer, Constantinos Kurt; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Zhenhai; Mullikin, James C.; Binley, James M.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Wilson, Ian A.; Moore, John P.; Ward, Andrew B.; Georgiou, George; Williamson, Carolyn; Abdool Karim, Salim S.; Morris, Lynn; Kwong, Peter D.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Mascola, John R.; Becker, Jesse; Benjamin, Betty; Blakesley, Robert; Bouffard, Gerry; Brooks, Shelise; Coleman, Holly; Dekhtyar, Mila; Gregory, Michael; Guan, Xiaobin; Gupta, Jyoti; Han, Joel; Hargrove, April; Ho, Shi-ling; Johnson, Taccara; Legaspi, Richelle; Lovett, Sean; Maduro, Quino; Masiello, Cathy; Maskeri, Baishali; McDowell, Jenny; Montemayor, Casandra; Mullikin, James; Park, Morgan; Riebow, Nancy; Schandler, Karen; Schmidt, Brian; Sison, Christina; Stantripop, Mal; Thomas, James; Thomas, Pam; Vemulapalli, Meg; Young, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies capable of neutralizing HIV-1 often target variable regions 1 and 2 (V1V2) of the HIV-1 envelope, but the mechanism of their elicitation has been unclear. Here we define the developmental pathway by which such antibodies are generated and acquire the requisite molecular characteristics

  13. Relative contributions of measles virus hemagglutinin- and fusion protein- specific serum antibodies to virus neutralization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. de Swart (Rik); S. Yüksel (Selma); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe relative contribution of measles virus hemagglutinin (H)- or fusion protein (F)-specific antibodies to virus neutralization (VN) has not been demonstrated. We have depleted these specific antibodies from sera collected from young adults, who had been vaccinated during childhood, by

  14. A Therapeutic Antibody against West Nile Virus Neutralizes Infection by Blocking Fusion within Endosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, Bruce S.; Moesker, Bastiaan; Smit, Jolanda M.; Wilschut, Jan; Diamond, Michael S.; Fremont, Daved H.

    Defining the precise cellular mechanisms of neutralization by potently inhibitory antibodies is important for understanding how the immune system successfully limits viral infections. We recently described a potently inhibitory monoclonal antibody (MAb E16) against the envelope (E) protein of West

  15. Early detection of neutralizing antibodies to interferon-beta in multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegen, H; Millonig, A; Bertolotto, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neutralizing antibodies (NAb) affect efficacy of interferon-beta (IFN-b) treatment in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. NAbs evolve in up to 44% of treated patients, usually between 6-18 months on therapy. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether early binding antibody (BAb) titers...

  16. Comparison of a Micro-Neutralization Test with the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test for Measuring Rabies Virus Neutralizing Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd G. Smith

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT is routinely used in the United States to measure rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rVNA. RFFIT has a long history of reproducible and reliable results. The test has been modified over the years to use smaller volumes of reagents and samples, but requires a 50 μL minimum volume of test serum. To conduct pathogenesis studies, small laboratory animals such as mice are regularly tested for rVNA, but the minimum volume for a standard RFFIT may be impossible to obtain, particularly in scenarios of repeated sampling. To address this problem, a micro-neutralization test was developed previously. In the current study, the micro-neutralization test was compared to the RFFIT using 129 mouse serum samples from rabies vaccine studies. Using a cut-off value of 0.1 IU/mL, the sensitivity, specificity, and concordance of the micro-neutralization test were 100%, 97.5%, and 98%, respectively. The geometric mean titer of all samples above the cut-off was 2.0 IU/mL using RFFIT and 3.4 IU/mL using the micro-neutralization test, indicating that titers determined using the micro-neutralization test are not equivalent to RFFIT titers. Based on four rVNA-positive hamster serum samples, the intra-assay coefficient of variability was 24% and inter-assay coefficient of variability was 30.4%. These results support continued use of the micro-neutralization test to determine rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers for low-volume serum samples.

  17. Envelope deglycosylation enhances antigenicity of HIV-1 gp41 epitopes for both broad neutralizing antibodies and their unmutated ancestor antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Jiang Ma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The HIV-1 gp41 envelope (Env membrane proximal external region (MPER is an important vaccine target that in rare subjects can elicit neutralizing antibodies. One mechanism proposed for rarity of MPER neutralizing antibody generation is lack of reverted unmutated ancestor (putative naive B cell receptor antibody reactivity with HIV-1 envelope. We have studied the effect of partial deglycosylation under non-denaturing (native conditions on gp140 Env antigenicity for MPER neutralizing antibodies and their reverted unmutated ancestor antibodies. We found that native deglycosylation of clade B JRFL gp140 as well as group M consensus gp140 Env CON-S selectively increased the reactivity of Env with the broad neutralizing human mAbs, 2F5 and 4E10. Whereas fully glycosylated gp140 Env either did not bind (JRFL, or weakly bound (CON-S, 2F5 and 4E10 reverted unmutated ancestors, natively deglycosylated JRFL and CON-S gp140 Envs did bind well to these putative mimics of naive B cell receptors. These data predict that partially deglycoslated Env would bind better than fully glycosylated Env to gp41-specific naïve B cells with improved immunogenicity. In this regard, immunization of rhesus macaques demonstrated enhanced immunogenicity of the 2F5 MPER epitope on deglyosylated JRFL gp140 compared to glycosylated JRFL gp140. Thus, the lack of 2F5 and 4E10 reverted unmutated ancestor binding to gp140 Env may not always be due to lack of unmutated ancestor antibody reactivity with gp41 peptide epitopes, but rather, may be due to glycan interference of binding of unmutated ancestor antibodies of broad neutralizing mAb to Env gp41.

  18. Antibody to gp41 MPER alters functional properties of HIV-1 Env without complete neutralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur S Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human antibody 10E8 targets the conserved membrane proximal external region (MPER of envelope glycoprotein (Env subunit gp41 and neutralizes HIV-1 with exceptional potency. Remarkably, HIV-1 containing mutations that reportedly knockout 10E8 binding to linear MPER peptides are partially neutralized by 10E8, producing a local plateau in the dose response curve. Here, we found that virus partially neutralized by 10E8 becomes significantly less neutralization sensitive to various MPER antibodies and to soluble CD4 while becoming significantly more sensitive to antibodies and fusion inhibitors against the heptad repeats of gp41. Thus, 10E8 modulates sensitivity of Env to ligands both pre- and post-receptor engagement without complete neutralization. Partial neutralization by 10E8 was influenced at least in part by perturbing Env glycosylation. With unliganded Env, 10E8 bound with lower apparent affinity and lower subunit occupancy to MPER mutant compared to wild type trimers. However, 10E8 decreased functional stability of wild type Env while it had an opposite, stabilizing effect on MPER mutant Envs. Clade C isolates with natural MPER polymorphisms also showed partial neutralization by 10E8 with altered sensitivity to various gp41-targeted ligands. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism of virus neutralization by demonstrating how antibody binding to the base of a trimeric spike cross talks with adjacent subunits to modulate Env structure and function. The ability of an antibody to stabilize, destabilize, partially neutralize as well as alter neutralization sensitivity of a virion spike pre- and post-receptor engagement may have implications for immunotherapy and vaccine design.

  19. Optimized AAV rh.10 Vectors That Partially Evade Neutralizing Antibodies during Hepatic Gene Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchita Selot

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Of the 12 common serotypes used for gene delivery applications, Adeno-associated virus (AAVrh.10 serotype has shown sustained hepatic transduction and has the lowest seropositivity in humans. We have evaluated if further modifications to AAVrh.10 at its phosphodegron like regions or predicted immunogenic epitopes could improve its hepatic gene transfer and immune evasion potential. Mutant AAVrh.10 vectors were generated by site directed mutagenesis of the predicted targets. These mutant vectors were first tested for their transduction efficiency in HeLa and HEK293T cells. The optimal vector was further evaluated for their cellular uptake, entry, and intracellular trafficking by quantitative PCR and time-lapse confocal microscopy. To evaluate their potential during hepatic gene therapy, C57BL/6 mice were administered with wild-type or optimal mutant AAVrh.10 and the luciferase transgene expression was documented by serial bioluminescence imaging at 14, 30, 45, and 72 days post-gene transfer. Their hepatic transduction was further verified by a quantitative PCR analysis of AAV copy number in the liver tissue. The optimal AAVrh.10 vector was further evaluated for their immune escape potential, in animals pre-immunized with human intravenous immunoglobulin. Our results demonstrate that a modified AAVrh.10 S671A vector had enhanced cellular entry (3.6 fold, migrate rapidly to the perinuclear region (1 vs. >2 h for wild type vectors in vitro, which further translates to modest increase in hepatic gene transfer efficiency in vivo. More importantly, the mutant AAVrh.10 vector was able to partially evade neutralizing antibodies (~27–64 fold in pre-immunized animals. The development of an AAV vector system that can escape the circulating neutralizing antibodies in the host will substantially widen the scope of gene therapy applications in humans.

  20. Optimized AAV rh.10 Vectors That Partially Evade Neutralizing Antibodies during Hepatic Gene Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selot, Ruchita; Arumugam, Sathyathithan; Mary, Bertin; Cheemadan, Sabna; Jayandharan, Giridhara R

    2017-01-01

    Of the 12 common serotypes used for gene delivery applications, Adeno-associated virus (AAV)rh.10 serotype has shown sustained hepatic transduction and has the lowest seropositivity in humans. We have evaluated if further modifications to AAVrh.10 at its phosphodegron like regions or predicted immunogenic epitopes could improve its hepatic gene transfer and immune evasion potential. Mutant AAVrh.10 vectors were generated by site directed mutagenesis of the predicted targets. These mutant vectors were first tested for their transduction efficiency in HeLa and HEK293T cells. The optimal vector was further evaluated for their cellular uptake, entry, and intracellular trafficking by quantitative PCR and time-lapse confocal microscopy. To evaluate their potential during hepatic gene therapy, C57BL/6 mice were administered with wild-type or optimal mutant AAVrh.10 and the luciferase transgene expression was documented by serial bioluminescence imaging at 14, 30, 45, and 72 days post-gene transfer. Their hepatic transduction was further verified by a quantitative PCR analysis of AAV copy number in the liver tissue. The optimal AAVrh.10 vector was further evaluated for their immune escape potential, in animals pre-immunized with human intravenous immunoglobulin. Our results demonstrate that a modified AAVrh.10 S671A vector had enhanced cellular entry (3.6 fold), migrate rapidly to the perinuclear region (1 vs. >2 h for wild type vectors) in vitro, which further translates to modest increase in hepatic gene transfer efficiency in vivo. More importantly, the mutant AAVrh.10 vector was able to partially evade neutralizing antibodies (~27-64 fold) in pre-immunized animals. The development of an AAV vector system that can escape the circulating neutralizing antibodies in the host will substantially widen the scope of gene therapy applications in humans.

  1. Molecular evolution of broadly neutralizing Llama antibodies to the CD4-binding site of HIV-1.

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    Laura E McCoy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, no immunization of humans or animals has elicited broadly neutralizing sera able to prevent HIV-1 transmission; however, elicitation of broad and potent heavy chain only antibodies (HCAb has previously been reported in llamas. In this study, the anti-HIV immune responses in immunized llamas were studied via deep sequencing analysis using broadly neutralizing monoclonal HCAbs as a guides. Distinct neutralizing antibody lineages were identified in each animal, including two defined by novel antibodies (as variable regions called VHH identified by robotic screening of over 6000 clones. The combined application of five VHH against viruses from clades A, B, C and CRF_AG resulted in neutralization as potent as any of the VHH individually and a predicted 100% coverage with a median IC50 of 0.17 µg/ml for the panel of 60 viruses tested. Molecular analysis of the VHH repertoires of two sets of immunized animals showed that each neutralizing lineage was only observed following immunization, demonstrating that they were elicited de novo. Our results show that immunization can induce potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies in llamas with features similar to human antibodies and provide a framework to analyze the effectiveness of immunization protocols.

  2. Lack of Durable Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies Against Zika Virus from Dengue Virus Infection.

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    Collins, Matthew H; McGowan, Eileen; Jadi, Ramesh; Young, Ellen; Lopez, Cesar A; Baric, Ralph S; Lazear, Helen M; de Silva, Aravinda M

    2017-05-01

    Cross-reactive antibodies elicited by dengue virus (DENV) infection might affect Zika virus infection and confound serologic tests. Recent data demonstrate neutralization of Zika virus by monoclonal antibodies or human serum collected early after DENV infection. Whether this finding is true in late DENV convalescence (>6 months after infection) is unknown. We studied late convalescent serum samples from persons with prior DENV or Zika virus exposure. Despite extensive cross-reactivity in IgG binding, Zika virus neutralization was not observed among primary DENV infections. We observed low-frequency (23%) Zika virus cross-neutralization in repeat DENV infections. DENV-immune persons who had Zika virus as a secondary infection had distinct populations of antibodies that neutralized DENVs and Zika virus, as shown by DENV-reactive antibody depletion experiments. These data suggest that most DENV infections do not induce durable, high-level Zika virus cross-neutralizing antibodies. Zika virus-specific antibody populations develop after Zika virus infection irrespective of prior DENV immunity.

  3. Multiple pathways of escape from HIV broadly cross-neutralizing V2-dependent antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Penny L; Sheward, Daniel; Nonyane, Molati; Ranchobe, Nthabeleng; Hermanus, Tandile; Gray, Elin S; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Williamson, Carolyn; Morris, Lynn

    2013-05-01

    Broadly cross-neutralizing (BCN) antibodies are likely to be critical for an effective HIV vaccine. However, the ontogeny of such antibodies and their relationship with autologous viral evolution is unclear. Here, we characterized viral evolution in CAP256, a subtype C-infected individual who developed potent BCN antibodies targeting positions R166 and K169 in the V2 region. CAP256 was superinfected at 3 months postinfection with a virus that was highly sensitive to BCN V2-dependent monoclonal antibodies. The autologous neutralizing response in CAP256 was directed at V1V2, reaching extremely high titers (>1:40,000) against the superinfecting virus at 42 weeks, just 11 weeks prior to the development of the BCN response targeting the same region. Recombination between the primary and superinfecting viruses, especially in V2 and gp41, resulted in two distinct lineages by 4 years postinfection. Although neutralization of some CAP256 clones by plasma from as much as 2 years earlier suggested incomplete viral escape, nonetheless titers against later clones were reduced at least 40-fold to less than 1:1,000. Escape mutations were identified in each lineage, either at R166 or at K169, suggesting that strain-specific and BCN antibodies targeted overlapping epitopes. Furthermore, the early dependence of CAP256 neutralizing antibodies on the N160 glycan decreased with the onset of neutralization breadth, indicating a change in specificity. These data suggest rapid maturation, within 11 weeks, of CAP256 strain-specific antibodies to acquire breadth, with implications for the vaccine elicitation of BCN V2-dependent antibodies. Overall these studies demonstrate that ongoing viral escape is possible, even from BCN antibodies.

  4. Prevalence of measles neutralizing antibody in children under 15 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immune status of children under 15 years in the Southwestern region of Nigeria against measles virus was determined using the neutralization test with a view to assessing the herd immunity to the virus in these communities. A total of 256 serum samples collected from children were tested by the beta method of ...

  5. Human antibody repertoire after VSV-Ebola vaccination identifies novel targets and virus-neutralizing IgM antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Surender; Fuentes, Sandra; Coyle, Elizabeth M; Ravichandran, Supriya; Davey, Richard T; Beigel, John H

    2016-12-01

    Development of an effective vaccine against Ebola virus is of high priority. However, knowledge about potential correlates of protection and the durability of immune response after vaccination is limited. Here, we elucidate the human antibody repertoire after administration of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-Ebola vaccine at 3 million, 20 million and 100 million plaque-forming units (PFU) and homologous VSV-Ebola vaccine boost in healthy adult volunteers. Whole genome-fragment phage display libraries, expressing linear and conformational epitopes of Ebola glycoprotein (GP), showed higher diversity of antibody epitopes in individuals vaccinated with 20 million PFU than in those vaccinated with 3 million or 100 million PFU. Surface plasmon resonance kinetics showed higher levels of GP-binding antibodies after a single vaccination with 20 million or 100 million PFU than with 3 million PFU, and these correlated strongly with neutralization titers. A second vaccination did not boost antibody or virus neutralization titers, which declined rapidly, and induced only minimal antibody affinity maturation. Isotype analysis revealed a predominant IgM response even after the second vaccination, which contributed substantially to virus neutralization in vitro. These findings may help identify new vaccine targets and aid development and evaluation of effective countermeasures against Ebola.

  6. Antibodies against Marinobacter algicola and Salmonella typhimurium flagellins do not cross-neutralize TLR5 activation.

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    Raul Terron-Exposito

    Full Text Available Flagellins evoke strong innate and adaptive immune responses. These proteins may play a key role as radioprotectors, exert antitumoral activity in certain types of tumor and reduce graft-versus-host disease in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Notwithstanding, flagellins are highly immunogenic, and repeated use leads to their neutralization by systemic antibodies. This neutralization is not prevented by using functional deleted flagellins. These observations led us to explore the possibility of preventing initial neutralization by means of another functional flagellin that does not belong to common pathogenic bacteria but that has the capacity to activate TLR5. Here we characterized the functional capacity of the two-phase Marinobacter algicola (MA-derived flagellins (F and FR as systemic and mucosal adjuvants and compared their performance with that of Salmonella typhimurium (STF flagellins (FljB and FliC. We also report for the first time on the in vitro and in vivo capacity of various flagellins to trigger TLR5 activation in the presence of species-specific anti-flagellin antibodies, the cross-neutralization mediated by these antibodies, and the sequential use of these flagellins for TLR5 activation. Our results showed that MA flagellins behave in a similar way to STF ones, inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL8, CCL20, CCL2 and evoking a strong in vivo antibody response against a model epitope. More importantly, MA flagellins were fully functional, in vitro or in vivo, in the presence of a high concentration of neutralizing anti-flagellin STF antibodies, and STF flagellin was not inhibited by neutralizing anti-flagellin MA antibodies. The use of active flagellins from distinct bacteria could be a useful approach to prevent systemic neutralization of this group of adjuvants and to facilitate the rational design of flagellin-based vaccines and/or other therapeutic treatments (against ischemia, acute renal failure

  7. An improved microtiter assay for evaluating anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies from sera or plasma

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    Chen Yunyun

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibody assay is widely used in AIDS vaccine research and other experimental and clinical studies. The vital dye staining method applied in the detection of anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibody has been used in many laboratories. However, the unknown factor(s in sera or plasma affected cell growth and caused protection when the tested sera or plasma was continuously maintained in cell culture. In addition, the poor solubility of neutral red in medium (such as RPMI-1640 also limited the use of this assay. Methods In this study, human T cell line C8166 was used as host cells, and 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT instead of neutral red was used as vital dye. In order to avoid the effect of the unknown factor(s, the tested sera or plasma was removed by a washout procedure after initial 3–6 h culture in the assay. Result This new assay eliminated the effect of the tested sera or plasma on cell growth, improved the reliability of detection of anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibody, and showed excellent agreement with the p24 antigen method. Conclusion The results suggest that the improved assay is relatively simple, highly duplicable, cost-effective, and well reliable for evaluating anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies from sera or plasma.

  8. Potent neutralization of staphylococcal enterotoxin B by synergistic action of chimeric antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Mulualem E; Rajagopalan, Govindarajan; Shah-Mahoney, Nalini; Lawlor, Rebecca G; Tilahun, Ashenafi Y; Xie, Chen; Natarajan, Kannan; Margulies, David H; Ratner, David I; Osborne, Barbara A; Goldsby, Richard A

    2010-06-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), a shock-inducing exotoxin synthesized by Staphylococcus aureus, is an important cause of food poisoning and is a class B bioterrorism agent. SEB mediates antigen-independent activation of a major subset of the T-cell population by cross-linking T-cell receptors (TCRs) with class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) molecules of antigen-presenting cells, resulting in the induction of antigen independent proliferation and cytokine secretion by a significant fraction of the T-cell population. Neutralizing antibodies inhibit SEB-mediated T-cell activation by blocking the toxin's interaction with the TCR or MHC-II and provide protection against the debilitating effects of this superantigen. We derived and searched a set of monoclonal mouse anti-SEB antibodies to identify neutralizing anti-SEB antibodies that bind to different sites on the toxin. A pair of non-cross-reactive, neutralizing anti-SEB monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was found, and a combination of these antibodies inhibited SEB-induced T-cell proliferation in a synergistic rather than merely additive manner. In order to engineer antibodies more suitable than mouse MAbs for use in humans, the genes encoding the VL and VH gene segments of a synergistically acting pair of mouse MAbs were grafted, respectively, onto genes encoding the constant regions of human Igkappa and human IgG1, transfected into mammalian cells, and used to generate chimeric versions of these antibodies that had affinity and neutralization profiles essentially identical to their mouse counterparts. When tested in cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells or splenocytes derived from HLA-DR3 transgenic mice, the chimeric human-mouse antibodies synergistically neutralized SEB-induced T-cell activation and cytokine production.

  9. Recombinant Sheep Pox Virus Proteins Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies

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    Olga V. Chervyakova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity and neutralizing activity of sheep pox virus (SPPV; genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae structural proteins as candidate subunit vaccines to control sheep pox disease. SPPV structural proteins were identified by sequence homology with proteins of vaccinia virus (VACV strain Copenhagen. Four SPPV proteins (SPPV-ORF 060, SPPV-ORF 095, SPPV-ORF 117, and SPPV-ORF 122, orthologs of immunodominant L1, A4, A27, and A33 VACV proteins, respectively, were produced in Escherichia coli. Western blot analysis revealed the antigenic and immunogenic properties of SPPV-060, SPPV-095, SPPV-117 and SPPV-122 proteins when injected with adjuvant into experimental rabbits. Virus-neutralizing activity against SPPV in lamb kidney cell culture was detected for polyclonal antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the virus-neutralizing activities of antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins.

  10. Recombinant Sheep Pox Virus Proteins Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervyakova, Olga V; Zaitsev, Valentin L; Iskakov, Bulat K; Tailakova, Elmira T; Strochkov, Vitaliy M; Sultankulova, Kulyaisan T; Sandybayev, Nurlan T; Stanbekova, Gulshan E; Beisenov, Daniyar K; Abduraimov, Yergali O; Mambetaliyev, Muratbay; Sansyzbay, Abylay R; Kovalskaya, Natalia Y; Nemchinov, Lev G; Hammond, Rosemarie W

    2016-06-07

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity and neutralizing activity of sheep pox virus (SPPV; genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae) structural proteins as candidate subunit vaccines to control sheep pox disease. SPPV structural proteins were identified by sequence homology with proteins of vaccinia virus (VACV) strain Copenhagen. Four SPPV proteins (SPPV-ORF 060, SPPV-ORF 095, SPPV-ORF 117, and SPPV-ORF 122), orthologs of immunodominant L1, A4, A27, and A33 VACV proteins, respectively, were produced in Escherichia coli. Western blot analysis revealed the antigenic and immunogenic properties of SPPV-060, SPPV-095, SPPV-117 and SPPV-122 proteins when injected with adjuvant into experimental rabbits. Virus-neutralizing activity against SPPV in lamb kidney cell culture was detected for polyclonal antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the virus-neutralizing activities of antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins.

  11. Neutralizing Antibodies Against Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV): Measurement and Influence on Retinal Gene Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Mélissa; Dalkara, Deniz

    2018-01-01

    Adeno-associated viral vectors have become widely used in the clinic for retinal gene therapy. Thanks to AAVs impeccable safety profile and positive functional outcomes in its clinical application, interest in retinal gene therapy has increased exponentially over the past decade. Although early clinical trials have shown there is little influence of neutralizing antibodies on the performance of AAV when vector is administered into the subretinal space, recent findings suggest neutralizing antibodies may play a role when AAV is delivered via the intravitreal route. These findings highlight the importance of microenvironment on gene delivery and stress the need for a versatile assay to screen subjects for the presence of AAV-neutralizing antibodies. Measuring NAb titers against AAV prior and after gene therapy will help us better understand the impact of preexisting immunity on gene transfer, especially when the vector is administered intravitreally.

  12. Antibody-Mediated Neutralization of the Exotoxin Mycolactone, the Main Virulence Factor Produced by Mycobacterium ulcerans.

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    Jean-Pierre Dangy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycolactone, the macrolide exotoxin produced by Mycobacterium ulcerans, causes extensive tissue destruction by inducing apoptosis of host cells. In this study, we aimed at the production of antibodies that could neutralize the cytotoxic activities of mycolactone.Using the B cell hybridoma technology, we generated a series of monoclonal antibodies with specificity for mycolactone from spleen cells of mice immunized with the protein conjugate of a truncated synthetic mycolactone derivative. L929 fibroblasts were used as a model system to investigate whether these antibodies can inhibit the biological effects of mycolactone. By measuring the metabolic activity of the fibroblasts, we found that anti-mycolactone mAbs can completely neutralize the cytotoxic activity of mycolactone.The toxin neutralizing capacity of anti-mycolactone mAbs supports the concept of evaluating the macrolide toxin as vaccine target.

  13. HIV-1 Cross-Reactive Primary Virus Neutralizing Antibody Response Elicited by Immunization in Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimeng; O'Dell, Sijy; Turner, Hannah L; Chiang, Chi-I; Lei, Lin; Guenaga, Javier; Wilson, Richard; Martinez-Murillo, Paola; Doria-Rose, Nicole; Ward, Andrew B; Mascola, John R; Wyatt, Richard T; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B; Li, Yuxing

    2017-11-01

    Elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) responses is a major goal for the development of an HIV-1 vaccine. Current HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) vaccine candidates elicit predominantly tier 1 and/or autologous tier 2 virus neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses, as well as weak and/or sporadic cross-reactive tier 2 virus NAb responses with unknown specificity. To delineate the specificity of vaccine-elicited cross-reactive tier 2 virus NAb responses, we performed single memory B cell sorting from the peripheral blood of a rhesus macaque immunized with YU2gp140-F trimers in adjuvant, using JR-FL SOSIP.664, a native Env trimer mimetic, as a sorting probe to isolate monoclonal Abs (MAbs). We found striking genetic and functional convergence of the SOSIP-sorted Ig repertoire, with predominant VH4 or VH5 gene family usage and Env V3 specificity. Of these vaccine-elicited V3-specific MAbs, nearly 20% (6/33) displayed cross-reactive tier 2 virus neutralization, which recapitulated the serum neutralization capacity. Substantial similarities in binding specificity, neutralization breadth and potency, and sequence/structural homology were observed between selected macaque cross-reactive V3 NAbs elicited by vaccination and prototypic V3 NAbs derived from natural infections in humans, highlighting the convergence of this subset of primate V3-specific B cell repertories. Our study demonstrated that cross-reactive primary virus neutralizing B cell lineages could be elicited by vaccination as detected using a standardized panel of tier 2 viruses. Whether these lineages could be expanded to acquire increased breadth and potency of neutralization merits further investigation.IMPORTANCE Elicitation of antibody responses capable of neutralizing diverse HIV-1 primary virus isolates (designated broadly neutralizing antibodies [bNAbs]) remains a high priority for the vaccine field. bNAb responses were so far observed only in response to natural infection within a subset

  14. Papillomavirus pseudovirions packaged with the L2 gene induce cross-neutralizing antibodies

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    Duarte-Forero Diego F

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current vaccines against HPVs are constituted of L1 protein self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs and they have been shown to protect against natural HPV16 and HPV18 infections and associated lesions. In addition, limited cross-protection has been observed against closely related types. Immunization with L2 protein in animal models has been shown to provide cross-protection against distant papillomavirus types, suggesting that the L2 protein contains cross-neutralizing epitopes. However, vaccination with L2 protein or L2 peptides does not induce high titers of anti-L2 antibodies. In order to develop a vaccine with the potential to protect against other high-risk HPV types, we have produced HPV58 pseudovirions encoding the HPV31 L2 protein and compared their capacity to induce cross-neutralizing antibodies with that of HPV L1 and HPV L1/L2 VLPs. Methods The titers of neutralizing antibodies against HPV16, HPV18, HPV31 and HPV58 induced in Balb/c mice were compared after immunization with L2-containing vaccines. Results Low titers of cross-neutralizing antibodies were detected in mice when immunized with L1/L2 VLPs, and the highest levels of cross-neutralizing antibodies were observed in mice immunized with HPV 58 L1/L2 pseudovirions encoding the HPV 31 L2 protein. Conclusions The results obtained indicate that high levels of cross-neutralizing antibodies are only observed after immunization with pseudovirions encoding the L2 protein. HPV pseudovirions thus represent a possible new strategy for the generation of a broad-spectrum vaccine to protect against high-risk HPVs and associated neoplasia.

  15. Mechanistic insights into the neutralization of cytotoxic abrin by the monoclonal antibody D6F10.

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    Shradha Bagaria

    Full Text Available Abrin, an A/B toxin obtained from the Abrus precatorius plant is extremely toxic and a potential bio-warfare agent. Till date there is no antidote or vaccine available against this toxin. The only known neutralizing monoclonal antibody against abrin, namely D6F10, has been shown to rescue the toxicity of abrin in cells as well as in mice. The present study focuses on mapping the epitopic region to understand the mechanism of neutralization of abrin by the antibody D6F10. Truncation and mutational analysis of abrin A chain revealed that the amino acids 74-123 of abrin A chain contain the core epitope and the residues Thr112, Gly114 and Arg118 are crucial for binding of the antibody. In silico analysis of the position of the mapped epitope indicated that it is present close to the active site cleft of abrin A chain. Thus, binding of the antibody near the active site blocks the enzymatic activity of abrin A chain, thereby rescuing inhibition of protein synthesis by the toxin in vitro. At 1∶10 molar concentration of abrin:antibody, the antibody D6F10 rescued cells from abrin-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis but did not prevent cell attachment of abrin. Further, internalization of the antibody bound to abrin was observed in cells by confocal microscopy. This is a novel finding which suggests that the antibody might function intracellularly and possibly explains the rescue of abrin's toxicity by the antibody in whole cells and animals. To our knowledge, this study is the first report on a neutralizing epitope for abrin and provides mechanistic insights into the poorly understood mode of action of anti-A chain antibodies against several toxins including ricin.

  16. Structure of a Human Astrovirus Capsid-Antibody Complex and Mechanistic Insights into Virus Neutralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanoff, Walter A.; Campos, Jocelyn; Perez, Edmundo I.; Yin, Lu; Alexander, David L.; DuBois, Rebecca M. (UCSC)

    2016-11-02

    ABSTRACT

    Human astroviruses (HAstVs) are a leading cause of viral diarrhea in young children, the immunocompromised, and the elderly. There are no vaccines or antiviral therapies against HAstV disease. Several lines of evidence point to the presence of protective antibodies in healthy adults as a mechanism governing protection against reinfection by HAstV. However, development of anti-HAstV therapies is hampered by the gap in knowledge of protective antibody epitopes on the HAstV capsid surface. Here, we report the structure of the HAstV capsid spike domain bound to the neutralizing monoclonal antibody PL-2. The antibody uses all six complementarity-determining regions to bind to a quaternary epitope on each side of the dimeric capsid spike. We provide evidence that the HAstV capsid spike is a receptor-binding domain and that the antibody neutralizes HAstV by blocking virus attachment to cells. We identify patches of conserved amino acids that overlap the antibody epitope and may comprise a receptor-binding site. Our studies provide a foundation for the development of therapies to prevent and treat HAstV diarrheal disease.

    IMPORTANCEHuman astroviruses (HAstVs) infect nearly every person in the world during childhood and cause diarrhea, vomiting, and fever. Despite the prevalence of this virus, little is known about how antibodies in healthy adults protect them against reinfection. Here, we determined the crystal structure of a complex of the HAstV capsid protein and a virus-neutralizing antibody. We show that the antibody binds to the outermost spike domain of the capsid, and we provide evidence that the antibody blocks virus attachment to human cells. Importantly, our findings suggest that a subunit-based vaccine focusing the immune system on the HAstV capsid spike domain could be effective in protecting children against HAstV disease.

  17. Cell-Based Measurement of Neutralizing Antibodies Against Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann, Andreas; Müller, Oliver; Rapti, Kleopatra

    2017-01-01

    In recent years gene therapy using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors to treat cardiac disease has seen an unprecedented surge, owing to its safety, low immunogenicity relative to other vectors and high and long-term transduction efficiency. This field has also been hampered by the presence of preexisting neutralizing antibodies, not only in patients participating in clinical trials but also in preclinical large animal models. These conflicting circumstances have generated the need for a simple, efficient, and fast assay to screen subjects for the presence of neutralizing antibodies, or lack thereof, in order for them to be included in gene therapy trials.

  18. Challenges to the development of vaccines to hepatitis C virus that elicit neutralizing antibodies.

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    Heidi Edelgard Drummer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite 20 years of research, a vaccine to prevent hepatitis C virus (HCV infection has not been developed. A vaccine to prevent HCV will need to induce broadly reactive immunity able to prevent infection by the 7 genetically and antigenically distinct genotypes circulating world-wide. Hepatitis C virus encodes two surface exposed glycoproteins, E1 and E2 that function as a heterodimer to mediate viral entry. Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs to both E1 and E2 have been described with the major NAb target being E2. The function of E2 is to attach virions to host cells via cell surface receptors that include, but is not limited to, the tetraspanin CD81 and scavenger receptor B class I. However, E2 has developed a number of immune evasion strategies to limit the effectiveness of the NAb response and possibly limit the ability of the immune system to generate potent NAbs in natural infection. Hypervariable regions that shield the underlying core domain, subdominant neutralization epitopes and glycan shielding combine to make E2 a difficult target for the immune system. This review summarizes recent information on the role of neutralizing antibodies to prevent HCV infection, the targets of the neutralizing antibody response and structural information on glycoprotein E2 in complex with neutralizing antibodies. This new information should provide a framework for the rational design of new vaccine candidates that elicit highly potent broadly reactive NAbs to prevent HCV infection.

  19. Interactions between HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies and Model Lipid Membranes imaged with AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauscher, Stefan; Hardy, Gregory; Alam, Munir; Shapter, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Lipid membrane interactions with rare, broadly neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), 2F5 and 4E10, play a critical role in HIV-1 neutralization. Our research is motivated by recent immunization studies that have shown that induction of antibodies that avidly bind the gp41-MPER antigen is not sufficient for neutralization. Rather, it is required that antigen designs induce polyreactive antibodies that recognize MPER antigens as well as the viral lipid membrane. However, the mechanistic details of how membrane properties influence NAb-lipid and NAb-antigen interactions remain unknown. Furthermore, it is well established that the native viral membrane is heterogeneous, representing a mosaic of lipid rafts and protein clustering. However, the size, physical properties, and dynamics of these regions are poorly characterized and their potential roles in HIV-1 neutralization are also unknown. To understand how membrane properties contribute to 2F5/4E10 membrane interactions, we have engineered biomimetic supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) and use atomic force microscopy to visualize membrane domains, antigen clustering, and antibody-membrane interactions at sub-nanometer z-resolution. Our results show that localized binding of HIV-1 antigens and NAbs occur preferentially with the most fluid membrane domain. This supports the theory that NAbs may interact with regions of low lateral lipid forces that allow antibody insertion into the bilayer.

  20. Isolation of HIV-1-neutralizing mucosal monoclonal antibodies from human colostrum.

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    James Friedman

    Full Text Available Generation of potent anti-HIV antibody responses in mucosal compartments is a potential requirement of a transmission-blocking HIV vaccine. HIV-specific, functional antibody responses are present in breast milk, and these mucosal antibody responses may play a role in protection of the majority of HIV-exposed, breastfeeding infants. Therefore, characterization of HIV-specific antibodies produced by B cells in milk could guide the development of vaccines that elicit protective mucosal antibody responses.We isolated B cells from colostrum of an HIV-infected lactating woman with a detectable neutralization response in milk and recombinantly produced and characterized the resulting HIV-1 Envelope (Env-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs.The identified HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum mAbs, CH07 and CH08, represent two of the first mucosally-derived anti-HIV antibodies yet to be reported. Colostrum mAb CH07 is a highly-autoreactive, weakly-neutralizing gp140-specific mAb that binds to linear epitopes in the gp120 C5 region and gp41 fusion domain. In contrast, colostrum mAb CH08 is a nonpolyreactive CD4-inducible (CD4i gp120-specific mAb with moderate breadth of neutralization.These novel HIV-neutralizing mAbs isolated from a mucosal compartment provide insight into the ability of mucosal B cell populations to produce functional anti-HIV antibodies that may contribute to protection against virus acquisition at mucosal surfaces.

  1. HIV therapy by a combination of broadly neutralizing antibodies in humanized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Florian; Halper-Stromberg, Ariel; Horwitz, Joshua A; Gruell, Henning; Scheid, Johannes F; Bournazos, Stylianos; Mouquet, Hugo; Spatz, Linda A; Diskin, Ron; Abadir, Alexander; Zang, Trinity; Dorner, Marcus; Billerbeck, Eva; Labitt, Rachael N; Gaebler, Christian; Marcovecchio, Paola; Incesu, Reha-Baris; Eisenreich, Thomas R; Bieniasz, Paul D; Seaman, Michael S; Bjorkman, Pamela J; Ravetch, Jeffrey V; Ploss, Alexander; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2012-12-06

    Human antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) can neutralize a broad range of viral isolates in vitro and protect non-human primates against infection. Previous work showed that antibodies exert selective pressure on the virus but escape variants emerge within a short period of time. However, these experiments were performed before the recent discovery of more potent anti-HIV-1 antibodies and their improvement by structure-based design. Here we re-examine passive antibody transfer as a therapeutic modality in HIV-1-infected humanized mice. Although HIV-1 can escape from antibody monotherapy, combinations of broadly neutralizing antibodies can effectively control HIV-1 infection and suppress viral load to levels below detection. Moreover, in contrast to antiretroviral therapy, the longer half-life of antibodies led to control of viraemia for an average of 60 days after cessation of therapy. Thus, combinations of potent monoclonal antibodies can effectively control HIV-1 replication in humanized mice, and should be re-examined as a therapeutic modality in HIV-1-infected individuals.

  2. Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies Display Potential for Prevention of HIV-1 Infection of Mucosal Tissue Superior to That of Nonneutralizing Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, Hannah M; Olejniczak, Natalia J; Rogers, Paul M; Evans, Abbey B; King, Deborah F L; Ziprin, Paul; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F; Shattock, Robin J

    2017-01-01

    Definition of the key parameters mediating effective antibody blocking of HIV-1 acquisition within mucosal tissue may prove critical to effective vaccine development and the prophylactic use of monoclonal antibodies. Although direct antibody-mediated neutralization is highly effective against cell-free virus, antibodies targeting different sites of envelope vulnerability may display differential activity against mucosal infection. Nonneutralizing antibodies (nnAbs) may also impact mucosal transmission events through Fc-gamma receptor (FcγR)-mediated inhibition. In this study, a panel of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) and nnAbs, including those associated with protection in the RV144 vaccine trial, were screened for the ability to block HIV-1 acquisition and replication across a range of cellular and mucosal tissue models. Neutralization potency, as determined by the TZM-bl infection assay, did not fully predict activity in mucosal tissue. CD4-binding site (CD4bs)-specific bnAbs, in particular VRC01, were consistent in blocking HIV-1 infection across all cellular and tissue models. Membrane-proximal external region (MPER) (2F5) and outer domain glycan (2G12) bnAbs were also efficient in preventing infection of mucosal tissues, while the protective efficacy of bnAbs targeting V1-V2 glycans (PG9 and PG16) was more variable. In contrast, nnAbs alone and in combinations, while active in a range of cellular assays, were poorly protective against HIV-1 infection of mucosal tissues. These data suggest that tissue resident effector cell numbers and low FcγR expression may limit the potential of nnAbs to prevent establishment of the initial foci of infection. The solid protection provided by specific bnAbs clearly demonstrates their superior potential over that of nonneutralizing antibodies for preventing HIV-1 infection at the mucosal portals of infection. Key parameters mediating effective antibody blocking of HIV-1 acquisition within mucosal tissue have not

  3. Neutralizing and IgG antibodies against simian virus 40 in healthy pregnant women in Italy.

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    Manola Comar

    Full Text Available Polyomavirus simian virus 40 (SV40 sequences have been detected in various human specimens and SV40 antibodies have been found in human sera from both healthy individuals and cancer patients. This study analyzed serum samples from healthy pregnant women as well as cord blood samples to determine the prevalence of SV40 antibodies in pregnancy.Serum samples were collected at the time of delivery from two groups of pregnant women as well as cord bloods from one group. The women were born between 1967 and 1993. Samples were assayed by two different serological methods, one group by neutralization of viral infectivity and the other by indirect ELISA employing specific SV40 mimotopes as antigens. Viral DNA assays by real-time polymerase chain reaction were carried out on blood samples.Neutralization and ELISA tests indicated that the pregnant women were SV40 antibody-positive with overall prevalences of 10.6% (13/123 and 12.7% (14/110, respectively. SV40 neutralizing antibodies were detected in a low number of cord blood samples. Antibody titers were generally low. No viral DNA was detected in either maternal or cord bloods.SV40-specific serum antibodies were detected in pregnant women at the time of delivery and in cord bloods. There was no evidence of transplacental transmission of SV40. These data indicate that SV40 is circulating at a low prevalence in the northern Italian population long after the use of contaminated vaccines.

  4. Naturally enveloped AAV vectors for shielding neutralizing antibodies and robust gene delivery in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    György, Bence; Fitzpatrick, Zachary; Crommentuijn, Matheus H W; Mu, Dakai; Maguire, Casey A

    2014-08-01

    Recently adeno-associated virus (AAV) became the first clinically approved gene therapy product in the western world. To develop AAV for future clinical application in a widespread patient base, particularly in therapies which require intravenous (i.v.) administration of vector, the virus must be able to evade pre-existing antibodies to the wild type virus. Here we demonstrate that in mice, AAV vectors associated with extracellular vesicles (EVs) can evade human anti-AAV neutralizing antibodies. We observed different antibody evasion and gene transfer abilities with populations of EVs isolated by different centrifugal forces. EV-associated AAV vector (ev-AAV) was up to 136-fold more resistant over a range of neutralizing antibody concentrations relative to standard AAV vector in vitro. Importantly in mice, at a concentration of passively transferred human antibodies which decreased i.v. administered standard AAV transduction of brain by 80%, transduction of ev-AAV transduction was not reduced and was 4000-fold higher. Finally, we show that expressing a brain targeting peptide on the EV surface allowed significant enhancement of transduction compared to untargeted ev-AAV. Using ev-AAV represents an effective, clinically relevant approach to evade human neutralizing anti-AAV antibodies after systemic administration of vector. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neutralizing and other antiviral antibodies in HIV-1 infection and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montefiori, David C; Morris, Lynn; Ferrari, Guido; Mascola, John R

    2007-05-01

    New findings continue to support the notion that broadly crossreactive neutralizing antibody induction is a worthwhile and achievable goal for HIV-1 vaccines. Immunogens are needed that can overcome the genetic variability and complex immune evasion tactics of the virus. Other antibodies might bridge innate and acquired immunity for possible beneficial vaccine effects. This review summarizes progress made over the past year that has enhanced our understanding of humoral immunity as it relates to HIV-1 vaccine development. Although a clear path to designing an effective neutralizing antibody-based HIV-1 vaccine remains elusive, there is new information on how antibodies neutralize HIV-1, the epitopes involved, and clues to the possible nature of protective immunogens that keep this goal alive. Moreover, there is a greater understanding of HIV-1 diversity and its possible limits under immune pressure. Other antibodies might possess antiviral activity by mechanisms involving Fc receptor engagement or complement activation that would be of value for HIV-1 vaccines. Recent developments strengthen the rationale for antibody-based HIV-1 vaccine immunogens and provide a stronger foundation for vaccine discovery.

  6. Immunoglobulin Gene Insertions and Deletions in the Affinity Maturation of HIV-1 Broadly Reactive Neutralizing Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepler, Thomas B.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Alam, S. Munir; Bhaskarabhatla, Rekha; Zhang, Ruijun; Stewart, Shelley; Anasti, Kara; Kelsoe, Garnett; Parks, Robert; Lloyd, Krissey E.; Stolarchuk, Christina; Pritchett, Jamie; Solomon, Erika; Friberg, Emma; Morris, Lynn; Karim, Salim S. Abdool; Cohen, Myron S.; Walter, Emmanuel; Moody, M. Anthony; Wu, Xueling; Altae-Tran, Han R.; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Kwong, Peter D.; Boyd, Scott D.; Fire, Andrew Z.; Mascola, John R.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Induction of HIV-1 broad neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a goal of HIV-1 vaccine development but has remained challenging partially due to unusual traits of bnAbs, including high somatic hypermutation (SHM) frequencies and in-frame insertions and deletions (indels). Here we examined the propensity and functional requirement for indels within HIV-1 bnAbs. High-throughput sequencing of the immunoglobulin (Ig) VHDJH genes in HIV-1 infected and uninfected individuals revealed that the indel frequency was elevated among HIV-1-infected subjects, with no unique properties attributable to bnAb-producing individuals. This increased indel occurrence depended only on the frequency of SHM point-mutations. Indel-encoded regions were generally proximal to antigen binding sites. Additionally, reconstruction of a HIV-1 CD4-binding site bnAb clonal lineage revealed that a large compound VHDJH indel was required for bnAb activity. Thus, vaccine development should focus on designing regimens targeted at sustained activation of bnAb lineages to achieve the required SHM and indel events. PMID:25211073

  7. Modeling neutralization kinetics of HIV by broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in genital secretions coating the cervicovaginal mucosa.

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    Scott A McKinley

    Full Text Available Eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAb in cervicovaginal mucus (CVM represents a promising "first line of defense" strategy to reduce vaginal HIV transmission. However, it remains unclear what levels of bnAb must be present in CVM to effectively reduce infection. We approached this complex question by modeling the dynamic tally of bnAb coverage on HIV. This analysis introduces a critical, timescale-dependent competition: to protect, bnAb must accumulate at sufficient stoichiometry to neutralize HIV faster than virions penetrate CVM and reach target cells. We developed a model that incorporates concentrations and diffusivities of HIV and bnAb in semen and CVM, kinetic rates for binding (kon and unbinding (koff of select bnAb, and physiologically relevant thicknesses of CVM and semen layers. Comprehensive model simulations lead to robust conclusions about neutralization kinetics in CVM. First, due to the limited time virions in semen need to penetrate CVM, substantially greater bnAb concentrations than in vitro estimates must be present in CVM to neutralize HIV. Second, the model predicts that bnAb with more rapid kon, almost independent of koff, should offer greater neutralization potency in vivo. These findings suggest the fastest arriving virions at target cells present the greatest likelihood of infection. It also implies the marked improvements in in vitro neutralization potency of many recently discovered bnAb may not translate to comparable reduction in the bnAb dose needed to confer protection against initial vaginal infections. Our modeling framework offers a valuable tool to gaining quantitative insights into the dynamics of mucosal immunity against HIV and other infectious diseases.

  8. Structural Basis for Recognition of Human Enterovirus 71 by a Bivalent Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody.

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    Xiaohua Ye

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is the main pathogen responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease with severe neurological complications and even death in young children. We have recently identified a highly potent anti-EV71 neutralizing monoclonal antibody, termed D5. Here we investigated the structural basis for recognition of EV71 by the antibody D5. Four three-dimensional structures of EV71 particles in complex with IgG or Fab of D5 were reconstructed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM single particle analysis all at subnanometer resolutions. The most critical EV71 mature virion-Fab structure was resolved to a resolution of 4.8 Å, which is rare in cryo-EM studies of virus-antibody complex so far. The structures reveal a bivalent binding pattern of D5 antibody across the icosahedral 2-fold axis on mature virion, suggesting that D5 binding may rigidify virions to prevent their conformational changes required for subsequent RNA release. Moreover, we also identified that the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3 of D5 heavy chain directly interacts with the extremely conserved VP1 GH-loop of EV71, which was validated by biochemical and virological assays. We further showed that D5 is indeed able to neutralize a variety of EV71 genotypes and strains. Moreover, D5 could potently confer protection in a mouse model of EV71 infection. Since the conserved VP1 GH-loop is involved in EV71 binding with its uncoating receptor, the scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2, the broadly neutralizing ability of D5 might attribute to its inhibition of EV71 from binding SCARB2. Altogether, our results elucidate the structural basis for the binding and neutralization of EV71 by the broadly neutralizing antibody D5, thereby enhancing our understanding of antibody-based protection against EV71 infection.

  9. Enhanced neutralization potency of botulinum neurotoxin antibodies using a red blood cell-targeting fusion protein.

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    Sharad P Adekar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT potently inhibits cholinergic signaling at the neuromuscular junction. The ideal countermeasures for BoNT exposure are monoclonal antibodies or BoNT antisera, which form BoNT-containing immune complexes that are rapidly cleared from the general circulation. Clearance of opsonized toxins may involve complement receptor-mediated immunoadherence to red blood cells (RBC in primates or to platelets in rodents. Methods of enhancing immunoadherence of BoNT-specific antibodies may increase their potency in vivo. We designed a novel fusion protein (FP to link biotinylated molecules to glycophorin A (GPA on the RBC surface. The FP consists of an scFv specific for murine GPA fused to streptavidin. FP:mAb:BoNT complexes bound specifically to the RBC surface in vitro. In a mouse model of BoNT neutralization, the FP increased the potency of single and double antibody combinations in BoNT neutralization. A combination of two antibodies with the FP gave complete neutralization of 5,000 LD50 BoNT in mice. Neutralization in vivo was dependent on biotinylation of both antibodies and correlated with a reduction of plasma BoNT levels. In a post-exposure model of intoxication, FP:mAb complexes gave complete protection from a lethal BoNT/A1 dose when administered within 2 hours of toxin exposure. In a pre-exposure prophylaxis model, mice were fully protected for 72 hours following administration of the FP:mAb complex. These results demonstrate that RBC-targeted immunoadherence through the FP is a potent enhancer of BoNT neutralization by antibodies in vivo.

  10. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies recognize antigenic variants among isolates of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, J.R.; Arakawa, C.N.; Lannan, C.N.; Fryer, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    eutralizing monoclonal antibodies were developed against strains of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) from steelhead trout Salmo gairdneri in the Deschutes River of Oregon, chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Sacramento River of California, and rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri reared in the Hagerman Valley of Idaho, USA. These antibodies were tested for neutralization of 12 IHNV isolates obtained from salmonids in Japan, Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, and Idaho. The antibodies recognized antigenic variants among the isolates and could be used to separate the viruses into 4 groups. The members of each group tended to be related by geographic area rather than by source host species, virulence, or date of isolation.

  11. Sub-domains of ricin's B subunit as targets of toxin neutralizing and non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.

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    Anastasiya Yermakova

    Full Text Available The B subunit (RTB of ricin toxin is a galactose (Gal-/N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNac-specific lectin that mediates attachment, entry, and intracellular trafficking of ricin in host cells. Structurally, RTB consists of two globular domains with identical folding topologies. Domains 1 and 2 are each comprised of three homologous sub-domains (α, β, γ that likely arose by gene duplication from a primordial carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD, although only sub-domains 1α and 2γ retain functional lectin activity. As part of our ongoing effort to generate a comprehensive B cell epitope map of ricin, we report the characterization of three new RTB-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs. All three mAbs, JB4, B/J F9 and C/M A2, were initially identified based on their abilities to neutralize ricin in a Vero cell cytotoxicity assay and to partially (or completely block ricin attachment to cell surfaces. However, only JB4 proved capable of neutralizing ricin in a macrophage apoptosis assay and in imparting passive immunity to mice in a model of systemic intoxication. Using a combination of techniques, including competitive ELISAs, pepscan analysis, differential reactivity by Western blot, as well as affinity enrichment of phage displayed peptides, we tentatively localized the epitopes recognized by the non-neutralizing mAbs B/J F9 and C/M A2 to sub-domains 2α and 2β, respectively. Furthermore, we propose that the epitope recognized by JB4 is within sub-domain 2γ, adjacent to RTB's high affinity Gal/GalNAc CRD. These data suggest that recognition of RTB's sub-domains 1α and 2γ are critical determinants of antibody neutralizing activity and protective immunity to ricin.

  12. Broadly-Reactive Neutralizing and Non-neutralizing Antibodies Directed against the H7 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Reveal Divergent Mechanisms of Protection.

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    Gene S Tan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the early spring of 2013, Chinese health authorities reported several cases of H7N9 influenza virus infections in humans. Since then the virus has established itself at the human-animal interface in Eastern China and continues to cause several hundred infections annually. In order to characterize the antibody response to the H7N9 virus we generated several mouse monoclonal antibodies against the hemagglutinin of the A/Shanghai/1/13 (H7N9 virus. Of particular note are two monoclonal antibodies, 1B2 and 1H5, that show broad reactivity to divergent H7 hemagglutinins. Monoclonal antibody 1B2 binds to viruses of the Eurasian and North American H7 lineages and monoclonal antibody 1H5 reacts broadly to virus isolates of the Eurasian lineage. Interestingly, 1B2 shows broad hemagglutination inhibiting and neutralizing activity, while 1H5 fails to inhibit hemagglutination and demonstrates no neutralizing activity in vitro. However, both monoclonal antibodies were highly protective in an in vivo passive transfer challenge model in mice, even at low doses. Experiments using mutant antibodies that lack the ability for Fc/Fc-receptor and Fc/complement interactions suggest that the protection provided by mAb 1H5 is, at least in part, mediated by the Fc-fragment of the mAb. These findings highlight that a protective response to a pathogen may not only be due to neutralizing antibodies, but can also be the result of highly efficacious non-neutralizing antibodies not readily detected by classical in vitro neutralization or hemagglutination inhibition assays. This is of interest because H7 influenza virus vaccines induce only low hemagglutination inhibiting antibody titers while eliciting robust antibody titers as measured by ELISA. Our data suggest that these binding but non-neutralizing antibodies contribute to protection in vivo.

  13. Neutralizing antibody responses against autologous and heterologous viruses in acute versus chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: evidence for a constraint on the ability of HIV to completely evade neutralizing antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, Steven G; Schweighardt, Becky; Wrin, Terri; Galovich, Justin; Hoh, Rebecca; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Hunt, Peter; McCune, Joseph M; Martin, Jeffrey N; Petropoulos, Christos J; Hecht, Frederick M

    2006-06-01

    Acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with the rapid development of neutralization escape mutations. The degree to which viral evolution persists in chronic infection has not been well characterized, nor is it clear if all patients develop high-level neutralization antibody escape. We therefore measured neutralizing antibody responses against autologous and heterologous viruses in a cohort of acutely and chronically infected subjects (n = 65). Neutralizing antibody responses against both autologous virus and heterologous viruses were lower among individuals with acute infection than among those with chronic infection. Among chronically infected individuals, there was a negative correlation between the level of neutralizing antibodies against autologous virus and the level of viremia. In contrast, there was a positive correlation between the level of neutralizing antibodies against a panel of heterologous viruses and the level of viremia. Viral evolution, as defined by the presence of higher neutralizing titers directed against earlier viruses than against contemporaneous viruses, was evident for subjects with recent infection but absent for those with chronic infection. In summary, neutralizing antibody responses against contemporaneous autologous viruses are absent in early HIV infection but can be detected at low levels in chronic infection, particularly among those controlling HIV in the absence of therapy. HIV replication either directly or indirectly drives the production of increasing levels of antibodies that cross-neutralize heterologous primary isolates. Collectively, these observations indicate that although HIV continuously drives the production of neutralizing antibodies, there may be limits to the capacity of the virus to evolve continuously in response to these antibodies. These observations also suggest that the neutralizing antibody response may contribute to the long-term control of HIV in some patients while protecting

  14. Coexistence of potent HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies and antibody-sensitive viruses in a viremic controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Natalia T.; Wang, Haoqing; Scharf, Louise; Nogueira, Lilian; Horwitz, Joshua A.; Bar-On, Yotam; Golijanin, Jovana; Sievers, Stuart A.; Sok, Devin; Cai, Hui; Cesar Lorenzi, Julio C.; Halper-Stromberg, Ariel; Toth, Ildiko; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Gristick, Harry B.; van Gils, Marit J.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Wang, Lai-Xi; Seaman, Michael S.; Burton, Dennis R.; Gazumyan, Anna; Walker, Bruce D.; West, Anthony P.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.

    2017-01-01

    Some HIV-1–infected patients develop broad and potent HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that when passively transferred to mice or macaques can treat or prevent infection. However, bNAbs typically fail to neutralize coexisting autologous viruses due to antibody-mediated selection against sensitive viral strains. We describe an HIV-1 controller expressing HLA-B57*01 and HLA-B27*05 who maintained low viral loads for 30 years after infection and developed broad and potent serologic activity against HIV-1. Neutralization was attributed to three different bNAbs targeting non-overlapping sites on the HIV-1 envelope trimer (Env). One of the three, BG18, an antibody directed against the glycan-V3 portion of Env, is the most potent member of this class reported to date and, as revealed by crystallography and electron microscopy, recognizes HIV-1 Env in a manner that is distinct from other bNAbs in this class. Single-genome sequencing of HIV-1 from serum samples obtained over a period of 9 years showed a diverse group of circulating viruses, 88.5%(31 of 35) of which remained sensitive to at least one of the temporally coincident autologous bNAbs and the individual’s serum. Thus, bNAb-sensitive strains of HIV-1 coexist with potent neutralizing antibodies that target the virus and may contribute to control in this individual. When administered as a mix, the three bNAbs controlled viremia in HIV-1YU2–infected humanized mice. Our finding suggests that combinations of bNAbs may contribute to control of HIV-1 infection. PMID:28100831

  15. Interferon beta-1b-neutralizing antibodies 5 years after clinically isolated syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartung, H.P.; Freedman, M.S.; Polman, C.H.; Edan, G.; Kappos, L.; Miller, D. H.; Montalban, X.; Barkhof, F.; Petkau, J.; White, R.; Sahajpal, V.; Knappertz, V.; Beckmann, K.; Lanius, V.; Sandbrink, R.; Pohl, C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency and consequences of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) in patients with a first event suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with interferon β-1b (IFNβ-1b). Methods: In the Betaseron/Betaferon in Newly Emerging MS For Initial Treatment (BENEFIT) study,

  16. High Rates of Neutralizing Antibodies to Toscana and Sandfly Fever Sicilian Viruses in Livestock, Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Nazli; Sherifi, Kurtesh; Taraku, Arber; Bërxholi, Kristaq; Charrel, Rémi N

    2017-06-01

    Toscana and sandfly fever Sicilian viruses (TOSV and SFSV, respectively), both transmitted by sand flies, are prominent human pathogens in the Old World. Of 1,086 serum samples collected from cattle and sheep during 2013 in various regions of Kosovo (Balkan Peninsula), 4.7% and 53.4% had neutralizing antibodies against TOSV and SFSV, respectively.

  17. Atypical and classical memory B cells produce Plasmodium falciparum neutralizing antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muellenbeck, Matthias F; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Amulic, Borko

    2013-01-01

    . We show at the single cell level that natural Pf infection induces the development of classical memory B cells (CM) and atypical memory B cells (AtM) that produce broadly neutralizing antibodies against blood stage Pf parasites. CM and AtM contribute to anti-Pf serum IgG production, but only AtM show...

  18. Broadly neutralizing antibodies targeted to mucin-type carbohydrate epitopes of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C; Arendrup, M

    1991-01-01

    The cancer-related mucin-type carbohydrate neoantigen Tn was found on gp160 and gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Tn neutralized infection with cell-free virus and blocked fusion between HIV-infected and uninfected cells...

  19. Escape from neutralization by the respiratory syncytial virus-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody palivizumab is driven by changes in on-rate of binding to the fusion protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, John T. [The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Departments of Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Keefer, Christopher J. [The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Departments of Pediatrics, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Slaughter, James C. [The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Departments of Biostatistics and Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Kulp, Daniel W. [IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center and Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States); Schief, William R. [IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center and Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States); Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States); Crowe, James E., E-mail: james.crowe@vanderbilt.edu [The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Departments of Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Departments of Pediatrics, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2014-04-15

    The role of binding kinetics in determining neutralizing potency for antiviral antibodies is poorly understood. While it is believed that increased steady-state affinity correlates positively with increased virus-neutralizing activity, the relationship between association or dissociation rate and neutralization potency is unclear. We investigated the effect of naturally-occurring antibody resistance mutations in the RSV F protein on the kinetics of binding to palivizumab. Escape from palivizumab-mediated neutralization of RSV occurred with reduced association rate (K{sub on}) for binding to RSV F protein, while alteration of dissociation rate (K{sub off}) did not significantly affect neutralizing activity. Interestingly, linkage of reduced K{sub on} with reduced potency mirrored the effect of increased K{sub on} found in a high-affinity enhanced potency palivizumab variant (motavizumab). These data suggest that association rate is the dominant factor driving neutralization potency for antibodies to RSV F protein antigenic site A and determines the potency of antibody somatic variants or efficiency of escape of viral glycoprotein variants. - Highlights: • The relationship of affinity to neutralization for virus antibodies is uncertain. • Palivizumab binds to RSV escape mutant fusion proteins, but with reduced affinity. • Association rate (K{sub on}) correlated well with the potency of neutralization.

  20. Development and characterization of novel chimeric monoclonal antibodies for broad spectrum neutralization of rabies virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Kyeom Kim

    Full Text Available Current post-exposure prophylaxis for rabies virus infection has several limitations in terms of supply, cost, safety, and efficacy. Attempts to replace human or equine rabies immune globulins (HRIG or ERIG have been made by several companies and institutes. We developed potent monoclonal antibodies to neutralize a broad spectrum of rabies viruses by screening hybridomas received from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Two kinds of chimeric human antibodies (chimeric #7 and #17 were constructed by cloning the variable regions from selected hybridomas and the constant region of a human antibody. Two antibodies were bound to antigenic site III and I/IV, respectively, and were able to neutralize 51 field isolates of rabies virus that were isolated at different times and places such as Asia, Africa, North America, South America, and Australia. These two antibodies neutralize rabies viruses with high efficacy in an in vivo test using Syrian hamster and mouse models and show low risk for adverse immunogenicity.

  1. Development and characterization of novel chimeric monoclonal antibodies for broad spectrum neutralization of rabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pan Kyeom; Keum, Sun Ju; Osinubi, Modupe O V; Franka, Richard; Shin, Ji Young; Park, Sang Tae; Kim, Man Su; Park, Mi Jung; Lee, Soo Young; Carson, William; Greenberg, Lauren; Yu, Pengcheng; Tao, Xiaoyan; Lihua, Wang; Tang, Qing; Liang, Guodong; Shampur, Madhusdana; Rupprecht, Charles E; Chang, Shin Jae

    2017-01-01

    Current post-exposure prophylaxis for rabies virus infection has several limitations in terms of supply, cost, safety, and efficacy. Attempts to replace human or equine rabies immune globulins (HRIG or ERIG) have been made by several companies and institutes. We developed potent monoclonal antibodies to neutralize a broad spectrum of rabies viruses by screening hybridomas received from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Two kinds of chimeric human antibodies (chimeric #7 and #17) were constructed by cloning the variable regions from selected hybridomas and the constant region of a human antibody. Two antibodies were bound to antigenic site III and I/IV, respectively, and were able to neutralize 51 field isolates of rabies virus that were isolated at different times and places such as Asia, Africa, North America, South America, and Australia. These two antibodies neutralize rabies viruses with high efficacy in an in vivo test using Syrian hamster and mouse models and show low risk for adverse immunogenicity.

  2. Characterization and neutralization of Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae) jellyfish venom using polyclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Changkeun; Han, Dae-Yong; Park, Kwang-Il; Pyo, Min-Jung; Heo, Yunwi; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Kim, Gon Sup; Kim, Euikyung

    2014-08-01

    Jellyfish stings have often caused serious health concerns for sea bathers especially in tropical waters. In the coastal areas of Korea, China and Japan, the blooming and stinging accidents of poisonous jellyfish species have recently increased, including Nemopilema nomurai. We have generated a polyclonal antibody against N. nomurai jellyfish venom (NnV) by the immunization of white rabbits with NnV antigen. In the present study, the antibody has been characterized for its neutralizing effect against NnV. At first, the presence of NnV polyclonal antibody has been confirmed from the immunized rabbit serum by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Then, the neutralizing activities of the polyclonal antibody have been investigated using cell-based toxicity test, hemolysis assay, and mice lethality test. When the polyclonal antibody was preincubated with NnV, it shows a high effectiveness in neutralizing the NnV toxicities in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, we explored proteomic analyses using 2-D SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to illustrate the molecular identities of the jellyfish venom. From this, 18 different protein families have been identified as jellyfish venom-derived proteins; the main findings of which are matrix metalloproteinase-14, astacin-like metalloprotease toxin 3 precursor. It is expected that the present results would have contributed to our understandings of the envenomation by N. nomurai, their treatment and some valuable knowledge on the pathological processes of the jellyfish stinging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural Basis for Escape of Human Astrovirus from Antibody Neutralization: Broad Implications for Rational Vaccine Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanoff, Walter A.; Perez, Edmundo I.; López, Tomás; Arias, Carlos F.; DuBois, Rebecca M.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2017-10-25

    ABSTRACT

    Human astroviruses are recognized as a leading cause of viral diarrhea worldwide in children, immunocompromised patients, and the elderly. There are currently no vaccines available to prevent astrovirus infection; however, antibodies developed by healthy individuals during previous infection correlate with protection from reinfection, suggesting that an effective vaccine could be developed. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which several strains of human astrovirus serotype 2 (HAstV-2) are resistant to the potent HAstV-2-neutralizing monoclonal antibody PL-2 (MAb PL-2). Sequencing of the HAstV-2 capsid genes reveals mutations in the PL-2 epitope within the capsid's spike domain. To understand the molecular basis for resistance from MAb PL-2 neutralization, we determined the 1.35-Å-resolution crystal structure of the capsid spike from one of these HAstV-2 strains. Our structure reveals a dramatic conformational change in a loop within the PL-2 epitope due to a serine-to-proline mutation, locking the loop in a conformation that sterically blocks binding and neutralization by MAb PL-2. We show that mutation to serine permits loop flexibility and recovers MAb PL-2 binding. Importantly, we find that HAstV-2 capsid spike containing a serine in this loop is immunogenic and elicits antibodies that neutralize all HAstV-2 strains. Taken together, our results have broad implications for rational selection of vaccine strains that do not contain prolines in antigenic loops, so as to elicit antibodies against diverse loop conformations.

    IMPORTANCEHuman astroviruses (HAstVs) infect nearly every person in the world during childhood and cause diarrhea, vomiting, and fever. In this study, we investigated how several strains of HAstV are resistant to a virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibody. We determined the crystal structure of the capsid protein spike domain from one of these HAstV strains and found that

  4. A Potent and Broad Neutralizing Antibody Recognizes and Penetrates the HIV Glycan Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pejchal, Robert; Doores, Katie J.; Walker, Laura M.; Khayat, Reza; Huang, Po-Ssu; Wang, Sheng-Kai; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Ramos, Alejandra; Crispin, Max; Depetris, Rafael; Katpally, Umesh; Marozsan, Andre; Cupo, Albert; Maloveste, Sebastien; Liu, Yan; McBride, Ryan; Ito, Yukishige; Sanders, Rogier W.; Ogohara, Cassandra; Paulson, James C.; Feizi, Ten; Scanlan, Christopher N.; Wong, Chi-Huey; Moore, John P.; Olson, William C.; Ward, Andrew B.; Poignard, Pascal; Schief, William R.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A. (UWASH); (Progenics); (ICL); (Weill-Med); (NIH); (JSTA); (Scripps); (Oxford)

    2015-10-15

    The HIV envelope (Env) protein gp120 is protected from antibody recognition by a dense glycan shield. However, several of the recently identified PGT broadly neutralizing antibodies appear to interact directly with the HIV glycan coat. Crystal structures of antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) PGT 127 and 128 with Man{sub 9} at 1.65 and 1.29 angstrom resolution, respectively, and glycan binding data delineate a specific high mannose-binding site. Fab PGT 128 complexed with a fully glycosylated gp120 outer domain at 3.25 angstroms reveals that the antibody penetrates the glycan shield and recognizes two conserved glycans as well as a short {beta}-strand segment of the gp120 V3 loop, accounting for its high binding affinity and broad specificify. Furthermore, our data suggest that the high neutralization potency of PGT 127 and 128 immunoglobulin Gs may be mediated by cross-linking Env trimers on the viral surface.

  5. Neutralizing antibodies to non-polio enteroviruses in human immune serum globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, R; Prather, S L; Powell, K R; Menegus, M A

    1983-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies to selected non-polio enteroviruses were found in three lots of human immune serum globulin (ISG) prepared from the sera of persons from different geographic regions. Reciprocal titers to coxsackieviruses B3 and B4 ranged from 400 to greater than or equal to 2000, whereas titers to coxsackievirus A9 and ECHO viruses 5 and 9 ranged from 100 to 400 in all three lots of ISG. The presence of neutralizing antibodies to commonly occurring (coxsackieviruses B1 to B5 and A9 and ECHO viruses 3, 4 and 9) and infrequently encountered (ECHO viruses 5 and 13) serotypes, coupled with the increasing evidence that antibodies are an important factor in preventing illness, support recommending the administration of ISG to those at high risk for serious disease.

  6. Human Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody Inhibition of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Replication in the Common Marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Bao, Linlin; Chen, Cong; Zou, Tingting; Xue, Ying; Li, Fengdi; Lv, Qi; Gu, Songzhi; Gao, Xiaopan; Cui, Sheng; Wang, Jianmin; Qin, Chuan; Jin, Qi

    2017-06-15

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in humans is highly lethal, with a fatality rate of 35%. New prophylactic and therapeutic strategies to combat human infections are urgently needed. We isolated a fully human neutralizing antibody, MCA1, from a human survivor. The antibody recognizes the receptor-binding domain of MERS-CoV S glycoprotein and interferes with the interaction between viral S and the human cellular receptor human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a human neutralizing monoclonal antibody that completely inhibits MERS-CoV replication in common marmosets. Monotherapy with MCA1 represents a potential alternative treatment for human infections with MERS-CoV worthy of evaluation in clinical settings. © Crown copyright 2017.

  7. [Seroepidemiology investigation of neutralizing antibody against enterovirus 71 among healthy people in Tianjin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-meng; Zhang, Ying; Gao, Lu; Liu, Hui; Li, Li; Lü, Li-kun; Yang, Dong-jing

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the latent infection caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) among healthy people in Tianjin and to provide evidence on prevention and control hand-food and mouth diseases (HFMD). 1611 sera specimens were collected from healthy people in Tianjin while EV71 antibody was detected by neutralization test, and then the results were analyzed statistically. For determining positivity, the cut-point was set at 1:4. The positive rate was 66.79% (1076/1611) for EV71 neutralizing antibody. The lowest positive rate was 32.71% in the 0 - 5 age group while the highest rate was 76.67% in the 16 - 25 age group. Significant difference was seen in the positive rates among different age groups. The lowest positive rate (59.05%) was seen in the city areas while the highest rate (72.35%) was seen in the surrounding counties. 5.71% of the people being tested showed their neutralizing antibody as ≥ 1:256. The difference was statistically significant on positive rates among different areas. We constructed logistic regression models with the EV71 neutralizing antibody positive rate as the dependent variable and age, sex, floating population, area etc. as independent variables. There appeared statistical significances in all the independent variables. Age seemed a risk factor for recessive infection of EV71, and the neutralizing antibody against EV71 might not be kept permanently. In order to prevent and control the HFMD, more attention should be paid to the areas where more floating population were resided.

  8. Persistence of neutralizing antibodies after discontinuation of IFNbeta therapy in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bodil; Bendtzen, Klaus; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    The main objective was to follow serum levels of neutralizing antibodies (NABs) against interferon-beta (IFNbeta) after discontinuation of IFNbeta therapy.......The main objective was to follow serum levels of neutralizing antibodies (NABs) against interferon-beta (IFNbeta) after discontinuation of IFNbeta therapy....

  9. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against hepatitis C virus E2 protein bind discontinuous epitopes and inhibit infection at a postattachment step

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabo, Michelle C; Luca, Vincent C; Prentoe, Jannick

    2011-01-01

    The E2 glycoprotein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) mediates viral attachment and entry into target hepatocytes and elicits neutralizing antibodies in infected patients. To characterize the structural and functional basis of HCV neutralization, we generated a novel panel of 78 monoclonal antibodies (M...

  10. Mapping Polyclonal HIV-1 Antibody Responses via Next-Generation Neutralization Fingerprinting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Doria-Rose

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational neutralization fingerprinting, NFP, is an efficient and accurate method for predicting the epitope specificities of polyclonal antibody responses to HIV-1 infection. Here, we present next-generation NFP algorithms that substantially improve prediction accuracy for individual donors and enable serologic analysis for entire cohorts. Specifically, we developed algorithms for: (a selection of optimized virus neutralization panels for NFP analysis, (b estimation of NFP prediction confidence for each serum sample, and (c identification of sera with potentially novel epitope specificities. At the individual donor level, the next-generation NFP algorithms particularly improved the ability to detect multiple epitope specificities in a sample, as confirmed both for computationally simulated polyclonal sera and for samples from HIV-infected donors. Specifically, the next-generation NFP algorithms detected multiple specificities in twice as many samples of simulated sera. Further, unlike the first-generation NFP, the new algorithms were able to detect both of the previously confirmed antibody specificities, VRC01-like and PG9-like, in donor CHAVI 0219. At the cohort level, analysis of ~150 broadly neutralizing HIV-infected donor samples suggested a potential connection between clade of infection and types of elicited epitope specificities. Most notably, while 10E8-like antibodies were observed in infections from different clades, an enrichment of such antibodies was predicted for clade B samples. Ultimately, such large-scale analyses of antibody responses to HIV-1 infection can help guide the design of epitope-specific vaccines that are tailored to take into account the prevalence of infecting clades within a specific geographic region. Overall, the next-generation NFP technology will be an important tool for the analysis of broadly neutralizing polyclonal antibody responses against HIV-1.

  11. Neutralizing Antibodies in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C, Genotype 1, against a Panel of Genotype 1 Culture Viruses: Lack of Correlation to Treatment Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jannie; Jensen, Tanja B.; Carlsen, Thomas H. R.; Schønning, Kristian; Christensen, Peer Brehm; Laursen, Alex Lund; Krarup, Henrik; Bukh, Jens; Weis, Nina

    2013-01-01

    The correlation of neutralizing antibodies to treatment outcome in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether neutralizing antibodies could be used as an outcome predictor in patients with chronic HCV, genotype 1, infection treated with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin. Thirty-nine patients with chronic hepatitis C, genotype 1a or 1b, with either sustained virologic response (n = 23) or non-sustained virologic response (n = 16) were enrolled. Samples taken prior to treatment were tested for their ability to neutralize 6 different HCV genotype 1 cell culture recombinants (1a: H77/JFH1, TN/JFH1, DH6/JFH1; 1b: J4/JFH1, DH1/JFH1, DH5/JFH1). The results were expressed as the highest dilution yielding 50% neutralization (NAb50-titer). We observed no genotype or subtype specific differences in NAb50-titers between patients with chronic HCV infection with and without sustained virologic response when tested against any of the included culture viruses. However, NAb50-titers varied significantly with a mean reciprocal NAb50-titer of 800 (range: 100–6400) against DH6/JFH1 compared to a mean NAb50-titer of 50 (range: genotype 1 isolates could not predict treatment outcome in patients with chronic HCV infection. High neutralization susceptibility of DH6/JFH1 could be correlated with adaptive envelope mutations previously highlighted as important for neutralization. Our study emphasizes the importance of using multiple culture viruses for neutralization studies and contributes to the current knowledge about neutralizing epitopes, important for future therapeutic- and vaccine-studies. PMID:23667506

  12. A novel antibody discovery platform identifies anti-influenza A broadly neutralizing antibodies from human memory B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaodong; Chen, Yan; Varkey, Reena; Kallewaard, Nicole; Koksal, Adem C; Zhu, Qing; Wu, Herren; Chowdhury, Partha S; Dall'Acqua, William F

    2016-07-01

    Monoclonal antibody isolation directly from circulating human B cells is a powerful tool to delineate humoral responses to pathological conditions and discover antibody therapeutics. We have developed a platform aimed at improving the efficiencies of B cell selection and V gene recovery. Here, memory B cells are activated and amplified using Epstein-Barr virus infection, co-cultured with CHO-muCD40L cells, and then assessed by functional screenings. An in vitro transcription and translation (IVTT) approach was used to analyze variable (V) genes recovered from each B cell sample and identify the relevant heavy/light chain pair(s). We achieved efficient amplification and activation of memory B cells, and eliminated the need to: 1) seed B cells at clonal level (≤1 cell/well) or perform limited dilution cloning; 2) immortalize B cells; or 3) assemble V genes into an IgG expression vector to confirm the relevant heavy/light chain pairing. Cross-reactive antibodies targeting a conserved epitope on influenza A hemagglutinin were successfully isolated from a healthy donor. In-depth analysis of the isolated antibodies suggested their potential uses as anti-influenza A antibody therapeutics and uncovered a distinct affinity maturation pathway. Importantly, our results showed that cognate heavy/light chain pairings contributed to both the expression level and binding abilities of our newly isolated VH1-69 family, influenza A neutralizing antibodies, contrasting with previous observations that light chains do not significantly contribute to the function of this group of antibodies. Our results further suggest the potential use of the IVTT as a powerful antibody developability assessment tool.

  13. Cross-reactivity and phospholipase A{sub 2} neutralization of anti-irradiated Bothrops jararaca venom antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, P.J.; Nascimento, N. do; Paula, R.A. de; Cardi, B.A.; Rogero, J.R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    The detoxified Bothrops jararaca venom, immunized rabbits with the toxoid obtained and investigated cross-reactivity of the antibodies obtained against autologous and heterelogous venoms was presented. It was also investigated the ability of the IgGs, purified by affinity chromatography, from those sera to neutralize phospholipase. A{sub 2}, an ubiquous enzyme in animal venoms. Results indicate that venom irradiation leads to an attenuation of toxicity of 84%. Cross-reactivity was investigated by ELISA and Western blot and all venoms were reactive to the antibodies. On what refers to phospholipase A{sub 2} activity neutralization, the antibodies neutralized autologous venoms efficiently and, curiously, other venoms from the same genus were not neutralized, while Lachesis muta venom, a remote related specier, was neutralized by this serum. These data suggest that irradiation preserve important epitopes for induction of neutralizing antibodies and that these epitopes are not shared by all venoms assayed. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs.

  14. Serum Neutralization Assay Can Efficiently Replace Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test for Detection and Quantitation of West Nile Virus Antibodies in Human and Animal Serum Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gennaro, Annapia; Casaccia, Claudia; Conte, Annamaria; Monaco, Federica; Savini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    A serum neutralization assay (SN) was compared with the official plaque reduction neutralization test for the quantitation of West Nile virus antibodies. A total of 1,348 samples from equid sera and 38 from human sera were tested by these two methods. Statistically significant differences were not observed, thus supporting the use of SN for routine purposes. PMID:25100824

  15. Longitudinal studies of neutralizing antibody responses to rotavirus in stools and sera of children following severe rotavirus gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, B S

    1998-11-01

    Rotavirus-neutralizing antibody responses in sera and stools of children hospitalized with rotavirus gastroenteritis and then monitored longitudinally were optimally detected by using local rotavirus strains. Stool responses were highest on days 5 to 8 after the onset of diarrhea. Longitudinal monitoring suggested that serum neutralizing antibody responses were a more useful measure of severely symptomatic rotavirus infection than stool responses but that stool antibody responses may be a useful measure of rotavirus immunity.

  16. Longitudinal Studies of Neutralizing Antibody Responses to Rotavirus in Stools and Sera of Children following Severe Rotavirus Gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Coulson, Barbara S.

    1998-01-01

    Rotavirus-neutralizing antibody responses in sera and stools of children hospitalized with rotavirus gastroenteritis and then monitored longitudinally were optimally detected by using local rotavirus strains. Stool responses were highest on days 5 to 8 after the onset of diarrhea. Longitudinal monitoring suggested that serum neutralizing antibody responses were a more useful measure of severely symptomatic rotavirus infection than stool responses but that stool antibody responses may be a use...

  17. Cooperation of B Cell Lineages in Induction of HIV-1-Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Bonsignori, Mattia; Liao, Hua-Xin; Kumar, Amit; Xia, Shi-Mao; Lu, Xiaozhi; Cai, Fangping; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Song, Hongshuo; Zhou, Tongqing; Lynch, Rebecca M.; Alam, S. Munir; Moody, M. Anthony; Ferrari, Guido; Berrong, Mark; Kelsoe, Garnett; Shaw, George M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Montefiori, David C.; Kamanga, Gift; Cohen, Myron; Hraber, Peter; Kwong, Peter D.; Korber, Bette T.; Mascola, John R.; Kepler, Thomas B.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Development of strategies for induction of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) by vaccines is a priority. Determining the steps of bnAb induction in HIV-1-infected individuals who make bnAbs is a key strategy for immunogen design. Here we study the B cell response in a bnAb-producing individual, and report cooperation between two B cell lineages to drive bnAb development. We isolated an autologous virus-neutralizing antibody lineage that targeted an envelope region (loop D) and selected virus escape mutants that resulted in both enhanced bnAb lineage envelope binding and escape mutant neutralization—traits associated with increased B cell antigen drive. Thus, in this individual, two B cell lineages cooperated to induce the development of bnAbs. Design of vaccine immunogens that simultaneously drive both autologous and broadly neutralizing B cell lineages may be important for vaccine-induced recapitulation of events that transpire during the maturation of neutralizing antibodies in HIV-1-infected individuals. PMID:25065977

  18. Neutralizing antibodies in patients with chronic hepatitis C, genotype 1, against a panel of genotype 1 culture viruses: lack of correlation to treatment outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannie Pedersen

    Full Text Available The correlation of neutralizing antibodies to treatment outcome in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether neutralizing antibodies could be used as an outcome predictor in patients with chronic HCV, genotype 1, infection treated with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin. Thirty-nine patients with chronic hepatitis C, genotype 1a or 1b, with either sustained virologic response (n = 23 or non-sustained virologic response (n = 16 were enrolled. Samples taken prior to treatment were tested for their ability to neutralize 6 different HCV genotype 1 cell culture recombinants (1a: H77/JFH1, TN/JFH1, DH6/JFH1; 1b: J4/JFH1, DH1/JFH1, DH5/JFH1. The results were expressed as the highest dilution yielding 50% neutralization (NAb50-titer. We observed no genotype or subtype specific differences in NAb50-titers between patients with chronic HCV infection with and without sustained virologic response when tested against any of the included culture viruses. However, NAb50-titers varied significantly with a mean reciprocal NAb50-titer of 800 (range: 100-6400 against DH6/JFH1 compared to a mean NAb50-titer of 50 (range: <50-400 against all other included isolates. Subsequent studies demonstrated that the efficient neutralization of DH6/JFH1 could be linked to engineered adaptive mutations in the envelope-2 protein. In analysis of envelope 1 and 2 sequences of HCV, recovered from a subset of patients, we observed no apparent link between relatedness of patient sequences with culture viruses used and the corresponding neutralization results. In conclusion, pre-treatment levels of neutralizing antibodies against HCV genotype 1 isolates could not predict treatment outcome in patients with chronic HCV infection. High neutralization susceptibility of DH6/JFH1 could be correlated with adaptive envelope mutations previously highlighted as important for neutralization. Our

  19. Structural comparison of four different antibodies interacting with human papillomavirus 16 and mechanisms of neutralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Jian [Department of Medicine, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Bywaters, Stephanie M.; Brendle, Sarah A. [Department of Pathology, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Lee, Hyunwook; Ashley, Robert E. [Department of Medicine, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Makhov, Alexander M.; Conway, James F. [Department of Structural Biology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3501 5th Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Christensen, Neil D. [Department of Pathology, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Hafenstein, Susan, E-mail: shafenstein@hmc.psu.edu [Department of Medicine, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) was used to solve the structures of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) complexed with fragments of antibody (Fab) from three different neutralizing monoclonals (mAbs): H16.1A, H16.14J, and H263.A2. The structure-function analysis revealed predominantly monovalent binding of each Fab with capsid interactions that involved multiple loops from symmetry related copies of the major capsid protein. The residues identified in each Fab-virus interface map to a conformational groove on the surface of the capsomer. In addition to the known involvement of the FG and HI loops, the DE loop was also found to constitute the core of each epitope. Surprisingly, the epitope mapping also identified minor contributions by EF and BC loops. Complementary immunological assays included mAb and Fab neutralization. The specific binding characteristics of mAbs correlated with different neutralizing behaviors in pre- and post-attachment neutralization assays. - Highlights: • We present HPV16-Fab complexes from neutralizing mAbs: H16.1A, H16.14J, and H263.A2. • The structure-function analysis revealed predominantly monovalent binding of each mAb. • Capsid–Fab interactions involved multiple loops from symmetry related L1 proteins. • Besides the known FG and HI loops, epitope mapping also identified DE, EF, and BC loops. • Neutralizing assays complement the structures to show multiple neutralization mechanisms.

  20. A new method for the detection of neutralizing antibodies against mumps virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Keita; Fujino, Motoko; Takeuchi, Kaoru; Iwata, Satoshi; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Neutralization test is the most reliable method of evaluating immunity against viral diseases but there is no standard procedure for mumps virus, with tests differing in the infectivity of the challenge virus, 50% plaque reduction or complete inhibition of cytopathic effects (CPE), and usage of complement. A reliable, easy, and simple neutralization test for mumps virus was developed in this study. A recombinant mumps virus expressing GFP was generated as a challenge virus. Complement was added to the neutralizing mixture at 1∶200 when stocked serum samples were used. Neutralizing antibody titers were expressed as the reciprocal of the highest dilution that did not exceed two-fold of FU values (GFP expression) of the cell control wells. A total of 1,452 serum samples were assayed by inhibition of GFP expression in comparison with those examined by conventional 100% inhibition of CPE. 1,367 (94.1%) showed similar neutralizing antibody titers when examined by both methods. The GFP expression inhibition assay, using a recombinant mumps virus expressing GFP, is a simple and time- saving method.

  1. A new method for the detection of neutralizing antibodies against mumps virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Matsubara

    Full Text Available Neutralization test is the most reliable method of evaluating immunity against viral diseases but there is no standard procedure for mumps virus, with tests differing in the infectivity of the challenge virus, 50% plaque reduction or complete inhibition of cytopathic effects (CPE, and usage of complement. A reliable, easy, and simple neutralization test for mumps virus was developed in this study. A recombinant mumps virus expressing GFP was generated as a challenge virus. Complement was added to the neutralizing mixture at 1∶200 when stocked serum samples were used. Neutralizing antibody titers were expressed as the reciprocal of the highest dilution that did not exceed two-fold of FU values (GFP expression of the cell control wells. A total of 1,452 serum samples were assayed by inhibition of GFP expression in comparison with those examined by conventional 100% inhibition of CPE. 1,367 (94.1% showed similar neutralizing antibody titers when examined by both methods. The GFP expression inhibition assay, using a recombinant mumps virus expressing GFP, is a simple and time- saving method.

  2. Chemokine receptor polymorphism and autologous neutralizing antibody response in long-term HIV-1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Joost, Mette; Gram, G J

    1998-01-01

    the importance of autologous neutralizing antibodies in SPI more fully, we have now conducted a prospective study taking consecutive blood samples from the individuals with SPI (8 patients) and RPI (10 patients). Blood sampling in the group with SPI was done 110 and 123 months after the estimated seroconversion...... samples. Finally, late virus isolates from individuals with SPI generally remained sensitive to neutralization by early serum samples. Virus phenotype (SI/NSI) and CCR5 genotype was determined for all individuals. Neither showed significant correlation with SPI. However, all SPI individuals who were...

  3. Peptide Paratope Mimics of the Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibody b12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haußner, Christina; Damm, Dominik; Nirschl, Sandra; Rohrhofer, Anette; Schmidt, Barbara; Eichler, Jutta

    2017-04-04

    The broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody b12 recognizes the CD4 binding site of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 and efficiently neutralizes HIV-1 infections in vitro and in vivo. Based on the 3D structure of a b12⋅gp120 complex, we have designed an assembled peptide (b12-M) that presents the parts of the three heavy-chain complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of b12, which contain the contact sites of the antibody for gp120. This b12-mimetic peptide, as well as a truncated peptide presenting only two of the three heavy-chain CDRs of b12, were shown to recognize gp120 in a similar manner to b12, as well as to inhibit HIV-1 infection, demonstrating functional mimicry of b12 by the paratope mimetic peptides. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Duration of neutralizing antibody persisting in Thai individuals after childhood vaccination against smallpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwanchum, Kannikar; Ampol, Silawun; Thongput, Anchalee; Horthongkham, Navin; Udomphunthurak, Suthiphol; Siritantikorn, Sontana; Kantakamalakul, Wannee

    2017-06-01

    Although smallpox was completely eliminated by 1980, it remains possible that variola virus could be intentionally released in an act of bioterrorism. Thus, several studies have been performed to detect antibody levels after smallpox vaccination of the current population in various countries to indicate the duration of maintenance of immunological memory. Our study endeavored to investigate the level of neutralizing (Nt) antibody responses of Thai individuals who had been immunized with smallpox vaccine during childhood. The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) was used to study vaccinia Nt antibody responses in sera of individuals ranging in age from 35-4, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84 and > 84 years old, referred to as groups 1-6, respectively. Each group included 200 sera: 100 male sera and 100 female sera. An incubation time of 15 hours for sera and vaccinia virus was confirmed to be the optimal incubation period for PRNT. Positive Nt antibody titers (≥32) were detected in 135 (11.25%) of 1,200 sera: 81 (6.75%) male sera and 54 (4.5%) female sera. There were 4 (2%), 11 (5.5%), 19 (9.5%), 16 (8%), 33 (16.5%), and 52 (26%) positive sera in groups 1-6, respectively. Interestingly, the oldest individual with positive Nt antibody was a 98-year-old female. Two males aged 96 and 91 years old had the highest Nt antibody titers. Our data suggests that the vaccinia-specific Nt antibody response in the current Thai population could be maintained for more than 90 years after vaccination. However, the majority of the Thai population aged ≥35-74 years old is still highly susceptible to infection.

  5. Measles virus glycoprotein-based lentiviral targeting vectors that avoid neutralizing antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Kneissl

    Full Text Available Lentiviral vectors (LVs are potent gene transfer vehicles frequently applied in research and recently also in clinical trials. Retargeting LV entry to cell types of interest is a key issue to improve gene transfer safety and efficacy. Recently, we have developed a targeting method for LVs by incorporating engineered measles virus (MV glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin (H, responsible for receptor recognition, and the fusion protein into their envelope. The H protein displays a single-chain antibody (scFv specific for the target receptor and is ablated for recognition of the MV receptors CD46 and SLAM by point mutations in its ectodomain. A potential hindrance to systemic administration in humans is pre-existing MV-specific immunity due to vaccination or natural infection. We compared transduction of targeting vectors and non-targeting vectors pseudotyped with MV glycoproteins unmodified in their ectodomains (MV-LV in presence of α-MV antibody-positive human plasma. At plasma dilution 1:160 MV-LV was almost completely neutralized, whereas targeting vectors showed relative transduction efficiencies from 60% to 90%. Furthermore, at plasma dilution 1:80 an at least 4-times higher multiplicity of infection (MOI of MV-LV had to be applied to obtain similar transduction efficiencies as with targeting vectors. Also when the vectors were normalized to their p24 values, targeting vectors showed partial protection against α-MV antibodies in human plasma. Furthermore, the monoclonal neutralizing antibody K71 with a putative epitope close to the receptor binding sites of H, did not neutralize the targeting vectors, but did neutralize MV-LV. The observed escape from neutralization may be due to the point mutations in the H ectodomain that might have destroyed antibody binding sites. Furthermore, scFv mediated cell entry via the target receptor may proceed in presence of α-MV antibodies interfering with entry via the natural MV receptors. These results are

  6. Structure-based Design of Cyclically Permuted HIV-1 gp120 Trimers That Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavardhana, Sannula; Das, Raksha; Citron, Michael; Datta, Rohini; Ecto, Linda; Srilatha, Nonavinakere Seetharam; DiStefano, Daniel; Swoyer, Ryan; Joyce, Joseph G; Dutta, Somnath; LaBranche, Celia C; Montefiori, David C; Flynn, Jessica A; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2017-01-06

    A major goal for HIV-1 vaccine development is an ability to elicit strong and durable broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) responses. The trimeric envelope glycoprotein (Env) spikes on HIV-1 are known to contain multiple epitopes that are susceptible to bNAbs isolated from infected individuals. Nonetheless, all trimeric and monomeric Env immunogens designed to date have failed to elicit such antibodies. We report the structure-guided design of HIV-1 cyclically permuted gp120 that forms homogeneous, stable trimers, and displays enhanced binding to multiple bNAbs, including VRC01, VRC03, VRC-PG04, PGT128, and the quaternary epitope-specific bNAbs PGT145 and PGDM1400. Constructs that were cyclically permuted in the V1 loop region and contained an N-terminal trimerization domain to stabilize V1V2-mediated quaternary interactions, showed the highest homogeneity and the best antigenic characteristics. In guinea pigs, a DNA prime-protein boost regimen with these new gp120 trimer immunogens elicited potent neutralizing antibody responses against highly sensitive Tier 1A isolates and weaker neutralizing antibody responses with an average titer of about 115 against a panel of heterologous Tier 2 isolates. A modest fraction of the Tier 2 virus neutralizing activity appeared to target the CD4 binding site on gp120. These results suggest that cyclically permuted HIV-1 gp120 trimers represent a viable platform in which further modifications may be made to eventually achieve protective bNAb responses. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Influenza hemagglutinin stem-fragment immunogen elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies and confers heterologous protection

    OpenAIRE

    Mallajosyula, Vamsee V. A.; Citron, Michael; Ferrara, Francesca; Lu, Xianghan; Callahan, Cheryl; Heidecker, Gwendolyn J.; Sarma, Siddhartha P.; Flynn, Jessica A.; Temperton, Nigel J.; Liang, Xiaoping; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2014-01-01

    Influenza hemagglutinin (HA) is the primary target of the humoral response during infection/vaccination. Current influenza vaccines typically fail to elicit/boost broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs), thereby limiting their efficacy. Although several bnAbs bind to the conserved stem domain of HA, focusing the immune response to this conserved stem in the presence of the immunodominant, variable head domain of HA is challenging. We report the design of a thermotolerant, disulfide-free, and ...

  8. Vaccine-induced cross-genotype reactive neutralizing antibodies against hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Gottwein, Judith M; Houghton, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We detected cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (NtAb) against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in chimpanzees vaccinated with HCV-1 (genotype 1a) recombinant E1/E2 envelope glycoproteins. Five vaccinated chimpanzees, protected following HCV-1 challenge, were initially studied using the heterologous H77......a, with limited reactivity against 2a and 3a. Our study provides encouragement for the development of a recombinant envelope-based vaccine against hepatitis C....

  9. Neutralizing antibodies hamper IFNbeta bioactivity and treatment effect on MRI in patients with MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Soelberg; Tscherning, MD; Kahr Mathiesen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We measured neutralizing antibodies (NABs) and the in vivo biologic response to interferon-beta on neopterin and beta(2)-microglobulin blood levels. All NAB-negative patients had an in vivo biologic response (full or partial), whereas all high-level positive patients had no response. High-level N...... patients had more MRI activity than NAB-negative patients (p = 0.031). Patients with a full response had less MRI activity than patients without biologic response (p = 0.032)....

  10. Broadly neutralizing human antibody that recognizes the receptor-binding pocket of influenza virus hemagglutinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittle, James R.R.; Zhang, Ruijun; Khurana, Surender; King, Lisa R.; Manischewitz, Jody; Golding, Hana; Dormitzer, Philip R.; Haynes, Barton F.; Walter, Emmanuel B.; Moody, M. Anthony; Kepler, Thomas B.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Harrison, Stephen C. (Harvard-Med); (Novartis); (US-FDA); (Duke)

    2011-09-20

    Seasonal antigenic drift of circulating influenza virus leads to a requirement for frequent changes in vaccine composition, because exposure or vaccination elicits human antibodies with limited cross-neutralization of drifted strains. We describe a human monoclonal antibody, CH65, obtained by isolating rearranged heavy- and light-chain genes from sorted single plasma cells, coming from a subject immunized with the 2007 trivalent influenza vaccine. The crystal structure of a complex of the hemagglutinin (HA) from H1N1 strain A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 with the Fab of CH65 shows that the tip of the CH65 heavy-chain complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) inserts into the receptor binding pocket on HA1, mimicking in many respects the interaction of the physiological receptor, sialic acid. CH65 neutralizes infectivity of 30 out of 36 H1N1 strains tested. The resistant strains have a single-residue insertion near the rim of the sialic-acid pocket. We conclude that broad neutralization of influenza virus can be achieved by antibodies with contacts that mimic those of the receptor.

  11. Cross neutralizing antibodies in hamsters vaccinated with leptospiral bacterins produced with three serovars of serogroup Sejroe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Tabata

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Three leptospiral bacterins, produced with different serovars of Serogroup Sejroe, namely the hardjo (bacterin A, wolffi (bacterin B and guaricura (bacterin C, were evaluated in male hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus by comparing the agglutinating and neutralizing antibodies titers using microscopic agglutination (MAT and in vitro growth inhibition (GIT tests. The immunization schedule was based on two 1.0 mL doses of non-diluted formalininactivated whole culture bacterin given through subcutaneous route with 10-day interval. The challenge was performed ten days after the second vaccine dose, when the animals were inoculated with 0.2 mL of non-inactivated cultures of each serovar through intraperitoneal route. On the 21st post-challenge day (PCD, all animals were bled and their sera were joined in pools (n=8 and tested by MAT and GIT. All vaccinated and control animals presented no clinical signs of leptospirosis after the challenge, but the serovar guaricura was isolated from the kidneys of control animals on the 21st PCD. The MAT results showed cross agglutinins between serovars hardjo and wolffi, and between wolffi and guaricura. The GIT results revealed the presence of cross neutralizing antibodies between serovars wolffi or guaricura against hardjo, wolffi and guaricura. It was found that the tested strain of serovar hardjo did not produce detectable levels of neutralizing antibodies, indicating its poor immunogenicity.

  12. EL4 cell-based colorimetric toxin neutralization activity assays for determination of neutralizing anti-ricin antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Changhong Y; Brown, J Edward; Torabazar, Nahid R; Smith, Leonard A

    2013-01-01

    A recombinant ricin toxin A-chain 1-33/44-198 vaccine (RVEc), developed at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases as a vaccine candidate, is under investigation in a phase 1 clinical study. To effectively evaluate the immunogenicity of this ricin vaccine and to eliminate the use of radioactive material, an EL4 cell-based colorimetric toxin neutralization activity (TNA) assay using a CellTiter 96 AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay Reagent has been developed, optimized, and applied in the vaccine efficacy studies. The TNA assay measures the protective neutralizing anti-ricin antibodies in animal sera by determining the cell viability after ricin exposure in the assay system and comparing it to a purified mouse polyclonal antiricin IgG standard curve. The standard curve of the anti-ricin TNA assay closely fits a four-parameter logistic regression model. The unknown test sample concentration was expressed as microg/mL, but not the 50% effective concentration (EC50), which was determined by most TNA assays. The neutralizing endpoint titers, not the 50% effective dilution (ED50), of human specimens were measured with the TNA assay in support of the clinical study of the RVEc vaccine. The optimal amount of ricin toxin, EL4 cells, and concentration of standards used in the assay system was established to minimize false-negative and false-positive results of serum specimens from the nonclinical and clinical studies of RVEc. The testing conditions were adjusted to optimize assay performance. The colorimetric TNA assay replaced a radioactive TNA assay previously used in the ricin vaccine studies.

  13. Virologic effects of broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01 administration during chronic HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Rebecca M; Boritz, Eli; Coates, Emily E; DeZure, Adam; Madden, Patrick; Costner, Pamela; Enama, Mary E; Plummer, Sarah; Holman, Lasonji; Hendel, Cynthia S; Gordon, Ingelise; Casazza, Joseph; Conan-Cibotti, Michelle; Migueles, Stephen A; Tressler, Randall; Bailer, Robert T; McDermott, Adrian; Narpala, Sandeep; O'Dell, Sijy; Wolf, Gideon; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Freemire, Brandie A; Gorelick, Robert J; Pandey, Janardan P; Mohan, Sarumathi; Chomont, Nicolas; Fromentin, Remi; Chun, Tae-Wook; Fauci, Anthony S; Schwartz, Richard M; Koup, Richard A; Douek, Daniel C; Hu, Zonghui; Capparelli, Edmund; Graham, Barney S; Mascola, John R; Ledgerwood, Julie E

    2015-12-23

    Passive immunization with HIV-1-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is being considered for prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection. As therapeutic agents, mAbs could be used to suppress active virus replication, maintain suppression induced by antiretroviral therapy (ART), and/or decrease the size of the persistent virus reservoir. We assessed the impact of VRC01, a potent human mAb targeting the HIV-1 CD4 binding site, on ART-treated and untreated HIV-1-infected subjects. Among six ART-treated individuals with undetectable plasma viremia, two infusions of VRC01 did not reduce the peripheral blood cell-associated virus reservoir measured 4 weeks after the second infusion. In contrast, six of eight ART-untreated, viremic subjects infused with a single dose of VRC01 experienced a 1.1 to 1.8 log10 reduction in plasma viremia. The two subjects with minimal responses to VRC01 were found to have predominantly VRC01-resistant virus before treatment. Notably, two subjects with plasma virus load pressure for the outgrowth of less neutralization-sensitive viruses. In summary, a single infusion of mAb VRC01 significantly decreased plasma viremia and preferentially suppressed neutralization-sensitive virus strains. These data demonstrate the virological effect of this neutralizing antibody and highlight the need for combination strategies to maintain virus suppression. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Cure of Chronic Viral Infection and Virus-Induced Type 1 Diabetes by Neutralizing Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Ejrnaes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of neutralizing antibodies is one of the most successful methods to interfere with receptor-ligand interactions in vivo. In particular blockade of soluble inflammatory mediators or their corresponding cellular receptors was proven an effective way to regulate inflammation and/or prevent its negative consequences. However, one problem that comes along with an effective neutralization of inflammatory mediators is the general systemic immunomodulatory effect. It is therefore important to design a treatment regimen in a way to strike at the right place and at the right time in order to achieve maximal effects with minimal duration of immunosuppression or hyperactivation. In this review we reflect on two examples of how short time administration of such neutralizing antibodies can block two distinct inflammatory consequences of viral infection. First, we review recent findings that blockade of IL-10/IL-10R interaction can resolve chronic viral infection and second, we reflect on how neutralization of the chemokine CXCL10 can abrogate virus-induced type 1 diabetes.

  15. A novel human anti-interleukin-1β neutralizing monoclonal antibody showing in vivo efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Angeline X H; Bertin-Maghit, Sebastien; Ping Yeo, Siok; Ho, Adrian W S; Derks, Heidi; Mortellaro, Alessandra; Wang, Cheng-I

    2014-01-01

    The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β is a clinical target in many conditions involving dysregulation of the immune system; therapeutics that block IL-1β have been approved to treat diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory diseases, cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes, active systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Here, we report the generation and engineering of a new fully human antibody that binds tightly to IL-1β with a neutralization potency more than 10 times higher than that of the marketed antibody canakinumab. After affinity maturation, the derived antibody shows a>30-fold increased affinity to human IL-1β compared with its parent antibody. This anti-human IL-1β IgG also cross-reacts with mouse and monkey IL-1β, hence facilitating preclinical development. In a number of mouse models, this antibody efficiently reduced or abolished signs of disease associated with IL-1β pathology. Due to its high affinity for the cytokine and its potency both in vitro and in vivo, we propose that this novel fully human anti-IL-1β monoclonal antibody is a promising therapeutic candidate and a potential alternative to the current therapeutic arsenal.

  16. Lack of protection following passive transfer of polyclonal highly functional low-dose non-neutralizing antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Dugast

    Full Text Available Recent immune correlates analysis from the RV144 vaccine trial has renewed interest in the role of non-neutralizing antibodies in mediating protection from infection. While neutralizing antibodies have proven difficult to induce through vaccination, extra-neutralizing antibodies, such as those that mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC, are associated with long-term control of infection. However, while several non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies have been tested for their protective efficacy in vivo, no studies to date have tested the protective activity of naturally produced polyclonal antibodies from individuals harboring potent ADCC activity. Because ADCC-inducing antibodies are highly enriched in elite controllers (EC, we passively transferred highly functional non-neutralizing polyclonal antibodies, purified from an EC, to assess the potential impact of polyclonal non-neutralizing antibodies on a stringent SHIV-SF162P3 challenge in rhesus monkeys. Passive transfer of a low-dose of ADCC inducing antibodies did not protect from infection following SHIV-SF162P3 challenge. Passively administered antibody titers and gp120-specific, but not gp41-specific, ADCC and antibody induced phagocytosis (ADCP were detected in the majority of the monkeys, but did not correlate with post infection viral control. Thus these data raise the possibility that gp120-specific ADCC activity alone may not be sufficient to control viremia post infection but that other specificities or Fc-effector profiles, alone or in combination, may have an impact on viral control and should be tested in future passive transfer experiments.

  17. A weak neutralizing antibody response to hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein enhances virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Meyer

    Full Text Available We have completed a phase 1 safety and immunogenicity trial with hepatitis C virus (HCV envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2, with MF59 adjuvant as a candidate vaccine. Neutralizing activity to HCV genotype 1a was detected in approximately 25% of the vaccinee sera. In this study, we evaluated vaccinee sera from poor responders as a potential source of antibody dependent enhancement (ADE of HCV infection. Sera with poor neutralizing activity enhanced cell culture grown HCV genotype 1a or 2a, and surrogate VSV/HCV pseudotype infection titer, in a dilution dependent manner. Surrogate pseudotypes generated from individual HCV glycoproteins suggested that antibody to the E2 glycoprotein; but not the E1 glycoprotein, was the principle target for enhancing infection. Antibody specific to FcRII expressed on the hepatic cell surface or to the Fc portion of Ig blocked enhancement of HCV infection by vaccinee sera. Together, the results from in vitro studies suggested that enhancement of viral infectivity may occur in the absence of a strong antibody response to HCV envelope glycoproteins.

  18. A potent human neutralizing antibody Fc-dependently reduces established HBV infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; He, Wenhui; Liu, Ximing; Zheng, Sanduo; Qi, Yonghe; Li, Huiyu; Mao, Fengfeng; Liu, Juan; Sun, Yinyan; Pan, Lijing; Du, Kaixin; Ye, Keqiong; Li, Wenhui; Sui, Jianhua

    2017-09-26

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health problem. Currently-available therapies are ineffective in curing chronic HBV infection. HBV and its satellite hepatitis D virus (HDV) infect hepatocytes via binding of the preS1 domain of its large envelope protein to sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP). Here, we developed novel human monoclonal antibodies that block the engagement of preS1 with NTCP and neutralize HBV and HDV with high potency. One antibody, 2H5-A14, functions at picomolar level and exhibited neutralization-activity-mediated prophylactic effects. It also acts therapeutically by eliciting antibody-Fc-dependent immunological effector functions that impose durable suppression of viral infection in HBV-infected mice, resulting in reductions in the levels of the small envelope antigen and viral DNA, with no emergence of escape mutants. Our results illustrate a novel antibody-Fc-dependent approach for HBV treatment and suggest 2H5-A14 as a novel clinical candidate for HBV prevention and treatment of chronic HBV infection.

  19. Germline V-genes sculpt the binding site of a family of antibodies neutralizing human cytomegalovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, Christy A.; Bryson, Steve; McLean, Gary R.; Creagh, A. Louise; Pai, Emil F.; Schrader, John W. (Toronto); (UBC)

    2008-10-17

    Immunoglobulin genes are generated somatically through specialized mechanisms resulting in a vast repertoire of antigen-binding sites. Despite the stochastic nature of these processes, the V-genes that encode most of the antigen-combining site are under positive evolutionary selection, raising the possibility that V-genes have been selected to encode key structural features of binding sites of protective antibodies against certain pathogens. Human, neutralizing antibodies to human cytomegalovirus that bind the AD-2S1 epitope on its gB envelope protein repeatedly use a pair of well-conserved, germline V-genes IGHV3-30 and IGKV3-11. Here, we present crystallographic, kinetic and thermodynamic analyses of the binding site of such an antibody and that of its primary immunoglobulin ancestor. These show that these germline V-genes encode key side chain contacts with the viral antigen and thereby dictate key structural features of the hypermutated, high-affinity neutralizing antibody. V-genes may thus encode an innate, protective immunological memory that targets vulnerable, invariant sites on multiple pathogens.

  20. Molecular determinants of human neutralizing antibodies isolated from a patient infected with Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qihui; Yang, Huabing; Liu, Xiaoqing; Dai, Lianpan; Ma, Tong; Qi, Jianxun; Wong, Gary; Peng, Ruchao; Liu, Sheng; Li, Junfu; Li, Shihua; Song, Jian; Liu, Jianying; He, Jianhua; Yuan, Hui; Xiong, Ying; Liao, Yong; Li, Jianhua; Yang, Jianping; Tong, Zhou; Griffin, Bryan D; Bi, Yuhai; Liang, Mifang; Xu, Xiaoning; Qin, Chuan; Cheng, Gong; Zhang, Xinzheng; Wang, Peiyi; Qiu, Xiangguo; Kobinger, Gary; Shi, Yi; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, George F

    2016-12-14

    The 2015-2016 outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) disease has affected many countries and is a major public health concern. ZIKV is associated with fetal microcephaly and neurological complications, and countermeasures are needed to treat and prevent ZIKV infection. We report the isolation of 13 specific human monoclonal antibodies from a single patient infected with ZIKV. Two of the isolated antibodies (Z23 and Z3L1) demonstrated potent ZIKV-specific neutralization in vitro without binding or neutralizing activity against strains 1 to 4 of dengue virus, the closest relative to ZIKV. These two antibodies provided postexposure protection to mice in vivo. Structural studies revealed that Z23 and Z3L1 bound to tertiary epitopes in envelope protein domain I, II, or III, indicating potential targets for ZIKV-specific therapy. Our results suggest the potential of antibody-based therapeutics and provide a structure-based rationale for the design of future ZIKV-specific vaccines. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Neutralizing antibody response during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection: type and group specificity and viral escape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Sönnerborg, A; Svennerholm, B

    1993-01-01

    demonstrated, suggesting that the majority of the change in neutralization sensitivity is driven by the selective pressure of type-specific NA. Furthermore, no differences were observed in sensitivity to neutralization by anti-carbohydrate neutralizing monoclonal antibodies or the lectin concanavalin A......The paradox that group-specific neutralizing antibodies (NA) exist in the majority of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients, whereas the NA response against autologous HIV-1 virus isolates is highly type-specific, motivated us to study the type- and group-specific NA...

  2. Stoichiometry of monoclonal antibody neutralization of T-cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Lund, O; Lund, O S

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the stoichiometry of monoclonal antibody (MAb) neutralization of T-cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in antibody excess and under equilibrium conditions, we exploited the ability of HIV-1 to generate mixed oligomers when different env genes...... neutralization gradually increased. Virus neutralization by virion aggregation was minimal, as MAb binding to HIV-1 Env did not interfere with an AMLV Env-mediated infection by HIV-1(AMLV/HIV-1) pseudotypes of CD4(-) HEK293 cells. MAb neutralization of chimeric virions could be described as a third...

  3. Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Responses in a Large Longitudinal Sub-Saharan HIV Primary Infection Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Landais

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs are thought to be a critical component of a protective HIV vaccine. However, designing vaccines immunogens able to elicit bnAbs has proven unsuccessful to date. Understanding the correlates and immunological mechanisms leading to the development of bnAb responses during natural HIV infection is thus critical to the design of a protective vaccine. The IAVI Protocol C program investigates a large longitudinal cohort of primary HIV-1 infection in Eastern and South Africa. Development of neutralization was evaluated in 439 donors using a 6 cross-clade pseudo-virus panel predictive of neutralization breadth on larger panels. About 15% of individuals developed bnAb responses, essentially between year 2 and year 4 of infection. Statistical analyses revealed no influence of gender, age or geographical origin on the development of neutralization breadth. However, cross-clade neutralization strongly correlated with high viral load as well as with low CD4 T cell counts, subtype-C infection and HLA-A*03(- genotype. A correlation with high overall plasma IgG levels and anti-Env IgG binding titers was also found. The latter appeared not associated with higher affinity, suggesting a greater diversity of the anti-Env responses in broad neutralizers. Broadly neutralizing activity targeting glycan-dependent epitopes, largely the N332-glycan epitope region, was detected in nearly half of the broad neutralizers while CD4bs and gp41-MPER bnAb responses were only detected in very few individuals. Together the findings suggest that both viral and host factors are critical for the development of bnAbs and that the HIV Env N332-glycan supersite may be a favorable target for vaccine design.

  4. How germinal centers evolve broadly neutralizing antibodies: the breadth of the follicular helper T cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, Rob J; Perelson, Alan S

    2017-09-06

    Many HIV-1 infected patients evolve broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). This evolutionary process typically takes several years, and is poorly understood as selection taking place in germinal centers occurs on the basis of antibody affinity. B cells with the highest affinity receptors tend to acquire the most antigen from the FDC network, and present the highest density of cognate peptides to follicular helper T cells (Tfh), which provide survival signals to the B cell. BnAbs are therefore only expected to evolve when the B cell lineage evolving breadth is consistently capturing and presenting more peptides to Tfh cells than other lineages of more specific B cells. Here we develop mathematical models of Tfh in germinal centers to explicitly define the mechanisms of selection in this complex evolutionary process.Our results suggest that broadly reactive B cells presenting a high density of pMHC are readily outcompeted by B cells responding to lineages of HIV-1 that transiently dominate the within host viral population. Conversely, if broadly reactive B cells acquire a large variety of several HIV-1 proteins from the FDC network and present a high diversity of several pMHC, they be rescued by a large fraction of the Tfh repertoire in the germinal center. Under such circumstances the evolution of bnAbs is much more consistent. Increasing the magnitude of the Tfh response, or the breadth of the Tfh repertoire, both markedly facilitate the evolution of bnAbs. Because both can be increased by vaccination with several HIV-1 proteins, this calls for experiments testing.Importance Many HIV-infected patients slowly evolve antibodies that can neutralize a large variety of viruses. Such "broadly neutralizing antibodies" (bnAbs) could in the future become therapeutic agents. BnAbs appear very late and patients are typically not protected by them. At the moment we fail to understand why this takes so long, and how the immune system selects for broadly neutralizing capacity

  5. Stoichiometry of monoclonal antibody neutralization of T-cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Lund, O; Lund, O S

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the stoichiometry of monoclonal antibody (MAb) neutralization of T-cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in antibody excess and under equilibrium conditions, we exploited the ability of HIV-1 to generate mixed oligomers when different env genes are coexpr......In order to study the stoichiometry of monoclonal antibody (MAb) neutralization of T-cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in antibody excess and under equilibrium conditions, we exploited the ability of HIV-1 to generate mixed oligomers when different env genes...

  6. Structural bases of coronavirus attachment to host aminopeptidase N and its inhibition by neutralizing antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Reguera

    Full Text Available The coronaviruses (CoVs are enveloped viruses of animals and humans associated mostly with enteric and respiratory diseases, such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome and 10-20% of all common colds. A subset of CoVs uses the cell surface aminopeptidase N (APN, a membrane-bound metalloprotease, as a cell entry receptor. In these viruses, the envelope spike glycoprotein (S mediates the attachment of the virus particles to APN and subsequent cell entry, which can be blocked by neutralizing antibodies. Here we describe the crystal structures of the receptor-binding domains (RBDs of two closely related CoV strains, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV and porcine respiratory CoV (PRCV, in complex with their receptor, porcine APN (pAPN, or with a neutralizing antibody. The data provide detailed information on the architecture of the dimeric pAPN ectodomain and its interaction with the CoV S. We show that a protruding receptor-binding edge in the S determines virus-binding specificity for recessed glycan-containing surfaces in the membrane-distal region of the pAPN ectodomain. Comparison of the RBDs of TGEV and PRCV to those of other related CoVs, suggests that the conformation of the S receptor-binding region determines cell entry receptor specificity. Moreover, the receptor-binding edge is a major antigenic determinant in the TGEV envelope S that is targeted by neutralizing antibodies. Our results provide a compelling view on CoV cell entry and immune neutralization, and may aid the design of antivirals or CoV vaccines. APN is also considered a target for cancer therapy and its structure, reported here, could facilitate the development of anti-cancer drugs.

  7. Developmental Pathway of the MPER-Directed HIV-1-Neutralizing Antibody 10E8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinque Soto

    Full Text Available Antibody 10E8 targets the membrane-proximal external region (MPER of HIV-1 gp41, neutralizes >97% of HIV-1 isolates, and lacks the auto-reactivity often associated with MPER-directed antibodies. The developmental pathway of 10E8 might therefore serve as a promising template for vaccine design, but samples from time-of-infection-often used to infer the B cell record-are unavailable. In this study, we used crystallography, next-generation sequencing (NGS, and functional assessments to infer the 10E8 developmental pathway from a single time point. Mutational analysis indicated somatic hypermutation of the 2nd-heavy chain-complementarity determining region (CDR H2 to be critical for neutralization, and structures of 10E8 variants with V-gene regions reverted to genomic origin for heavy-and-light chains or heavy chain-only showed structural differences >2 Å relative to mature 10E8 in the CDR H2 and H3. To understand these developmental changes, we used bioinformatic sieving, maximum likelihood, and parsimony analyses of immunoglobulin transcripts to identify 10E8-lineage members, to infer the 10E8-unmutated common ancestor (UCA, and to calculate 10E8-developmental intermediates. We were assisted in this analysis by the preservation of a critical D-gene segment, which was unmutated in most 10E8-lineage sequences. UCA and early intermediates weakly bound a 26-residue-MPER peptide, whereas HIV-1 neutralization and epitope recognition in liposomes were only observed with late intermediates. Antibody 10E8 thus develops from a UCA with weak MPER affinity and substantial differences in CDR H2 and H3 from the mature 10E8; only after extensive somatic hypermutation do 10E8-lineage members gain recognition in the context of membrane and HIV-1 neutralization.

  8. HIV-1 neutralizing antibody response and viral genetic diversity characterized with next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Christoph C; Wagner, Gabriel A; Hightower, George K; Caballero, Gemma; Phung, Pham; Richman, Douglas D; Pond, Sergei L Kosakovsky; Smith, Davey M

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the dynamics of HIV-specific neutralizing antibody (NAb), we examined associations between viral genetic diversity and the NAb response against a multi-subtype panel of heterologous viruses in a well-characterized, therapy-naïve primary infection cohort. Using next generation sequencing (NGS), we computed sequence-based measures of diversity within HIV-1 env, gag and pol, and compared them to NAb breadth and potency as calculated by a neutralization score. Contemporaneous env diversity and the neutralization score were positively correlated (p=0.0033), as were the neutralization score and estimated duration of infection (EDI) (p=0.0038), and env diversity and EDI (p=0.0005). Neither early env diversity nor baseline viral load correlated with future NAb breadth and potency (p>0.05). Taken together, it is unlikely that neutralizing capability in our cohort was conditioned on viral diversity, but rather that env evolution was driven by the level of NAb selective pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Booster Vaccination with Inactivated Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus on Neutralizing Antibody Response in Mammary Secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Thomas; Song, Qinye; Inskeep, Megan; Stone, Suzanne; Murtaugh, Michael P

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes acute diarrhea, dehydration in pigs, and high mortality rates in piglets gilts through a feedback program before introduction into the sow herd. Since neutralizing antibodies in the gut are critical for protection against enteric viral infections such as PEDV, we evaluated the effect of a conditionally licensed, adjuvanted inactivated PEDV vaccine on neutralizing antibody levels in milk and colostrum in both naive and previously naturally exposed sow herds. The results illustrate that intramuscular vaccination increased neutralizing antibody titers, and anti-PEDV IgA and IgG in milk and colostrum of sows that were previously infected. Thus, inactivated PEDV vaccines may provide increased protection to piglets nursing on previously infected sows against exposure to PEDV through increased delivery of lactogenic neutralizing antibodies to the enteric site of infection.

  10. Neutralizing and enhancing antibody responses to five genotypes of dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) in DENV-1 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Moi, Meng Ling; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Kurane, Ichiro; Konishi, Eiji

    2017-02-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) has four distinct serotypes, DENV-1-4, with four to six genotypes in each serotype. The World Health Organization recommends tetravalent formulations including one genotype of each serotype as safe and effective dengue vaccines. Here, we investigated the impact of genotype on the neutralizing antibody responses to DENV-1 in humans. Convalescent sera collected from patients with primary infection of DENV-1 were examined for neutralizing antibody against single-round infectious particles of the five DENV-1 genotypes (GI-GV). In both GI- and GIV-infected patients, their neutralizing antibody titres against the five genotypes were similar, differing ≤4-fold from the homogenotypic responses. The enhancing activities against the five genotypes were also similar in these sera. Thus, the genotype strains of DENV-1 showed no significant antigenic differences in these patients, suggesting that GI- or GIV-derived vaccine antigens should induce equivalent levels of neutralizing antibodies against all DENV-1 genotypes.

  11. A novel highly potent therapeutic antibody neutralizes multiple human chemokines and mimics viral immune modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalley-Kim, Michelle L; Hess, Bruce W; Kelly, Ryan L; Krostag, Anne-Rachel F; Lustig, Kurt H; Marken, John S; Ovendale, Pamela J; Posey, Aaron R; Smolak, Pamela J; Taylor, Janelle D L; Wood, C L; Bienvenue, David L; Probst, Peter; Salmon, Ruth A; Allison, Daniel S; Foy, Teresa M; Raport, Carol J

    2012-01-01

    Chemokines play a key role in leukocyte recruitment during inflammation and are implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of autoimmune diseases. As such, inhibiting chemokine signaling has been of keen interest for the development of therapeutic agents. This endeavor, however, has been hampered due to complexities in the chemokine system. Many chemokines have been shown to signal through multiple receptors and, conversely, most chemokine receptors bind to more than one chemokine. One approach to overcoming this complexity is to develop a single therapeutic agent that binds and inactivates multiple chemokines, similar to an immune evasion strategy utilized by a number of viruses. Here, we describe the development and characterization of a novel therapeutic antibody that targets a subset of human CC chemokines, specifically CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5, involved in chronic inflammatory diseases. Using a sequential immunization approach, followed by humanization and phage display affinity maturation, a therapeutic antibody was developed that displays high binding affinity towards the three targeted chemokines. In vitro, this antibody potently inhibits chemotaxis and chemokine-mediated signaling through CCR1 and CCR5, primary chemokine receptors for the targeted chemokines. Furthermore, we have demonstrated in vivo efficacy of the antibody in a SCID-hu mouse model of skin leukocyte migration, thus confirming its potential as a novel therapeutic chemokine antagonist. We anticipate that this antibody will have broad therapeutic utility in the treatment of a number of autoimmune diseases due to its ability to simultaneously neutralize multiple chemokines implicated in disease pathogenesis.

  12. Increased titers of neutralizing antibodies after immunization with both envelope proteins of the porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denner Joachim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite enormous difficulties to induce antibodies neutralizing HIV-1, especially broadly neutralizing antibodies directed against the conserved membrane proximal external region (MPER of the transmembrane envelope protein, such antibodies can be easily induced in the case of gammaretroviruses, among them the porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs. In addition to neutralizing antibodies directed against the transmembrane envelope protein p15E, neutralizing antibodies were also induced by immunization with the surface envelope protein gp70. PERVs represent a special risk for xenotransplantation using pig tissues or organs since they are integrated in the genome of all pigs and infect human cells and a vaccine may protect from transmission to the recipient. To investigate the effect of simultaneous immunization with both proteins in detail, a study was performed in hamsters. Gp70 and p15E of PERV were produced in E. coli, purified and used for immunization. All animals developed binding antibodies against the antigens used for immunization. Sera from animals immunized with p15E recognized epitopes in the MPER and the fusion peptide proximal region (FPPR of p15E. One MPER epitope showed a sequence homology to an epitope in the MPER of gp41 of HIV-1 recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies found in HIV infected individuals. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in all sera. Most importantly, sera from animals immunized with gp70 had a higher neutralizing activity when compared with the sera from animals immunized with p15E and sera from animals immunized with gp70 together with p15E had a higher neutralizing activity compared with sera from animals immunized with each antigen alone. These immunization studies are important for the development of vaccines against other retroviruses including the human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1.

  13. The Role of the Hendra Virus and Nipah Virus Attachment Glycoproteins in Receptor Binding and Antibody Neutralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-31

    The Role of the Hendra Virus and Nipah Virus Attachment Glycoproteins in Receptor Binding and Antibody Neutralization by...Henipavirus mediated membrane fusion, virus entry and targeted therapeutics. Viruses 4:280-308. and Bossart KN, Fusco DL, Broder CC. 2013. Paramyxovirus...of the hendra virus attachment G glycoprotein bound to a potent cross-reactive neutralizing human monoclonal antibody. PLoS pathogens 9:e1003684

  14. Neutralizing antibody response in the patients with hand, foot and mouth disease to enterovirus 71 and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Liye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has emerged as a significant pathogen causing large outbreaks in China for the past 3 years. Developing an EV71 vaccine is urgently needed to stop the spread of the disease; however, the adaptive immune response of humans to EV71 infection remains unclear. We examined the neutralizing antibody titers in HFMD patients and compared them to those of asymptomatic healthy children and young adults. We found that 80% of HFMD patients became positive for neutralizing antibodies against EV71 (GMT = 24.3 one day after the onset of illness. The antibody titers in the patients peaked two days (GMT = 79.5 after the illness appeared and were comparable to the level of adults (GMT = 45.2. Noticeably, the antibody response was not correlated with disease severity, suggesting that cellular immune response, besides neutralizing antibodies, could play critical role in controlling the outcome of EV71 infection in humans.

  15. Recombinant Encephalomyocarditis Viruses Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies against PRRSV and CSFV in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu; Guo, Xin; Keyes, Lisa R; Yang, Hanchun; Ge, Xinna

    2015-01-01

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is capable of infecting a wide range of species and the infection can cause myocarditis and reproductive failure in pigs as well as febrile illness in human beings. In this study, we introduced the entire ORF5 of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) or the neutralization epitope regions in the E2 gene of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV), into the genome of a stably attenuated EMCV strain, T1100I. The resultant viable recombinant viruses, CvBJC3m/I-ΔGP5 and CvBJC3m/I-E2, respectively expressed partial PRRSV envelope protein GP5 or CSFV neutralization epitope A1A2 along with EMCV proteins. These heterologous proteins fused to the N-terminal of the nonstructural leader protein could be recognized by anti-GP5 or anti-E2 antibody. We also tested the immunogenicity of these fusion proteins by immunizing BALB/c mice with the recombinant viruses. The immunized animals elicited neutralizing antibodies against PRRSV and CSFV. Our results suggest that EMCV can be engineered as an expression vector and serve as a tool in the development of novel live vaccines in various animal species.

  16. Meta-analysis of neutralizing antibody conversion with onabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX®) across multiple indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Markus; Carruthers, Alastair; Carruthers, Jean; Aurora, Sheena K; Zafonte, Ross; Abu-Shakra, Susan; Boodhoo, Terry; Miller-Messana, Mary Ann; Demos, George; James, Lynn; Beddingfield, Frederick; VanDenburgh, Amanda; Chapman, Mary Ann; Brin, Mitchell F

    2010-10-15

    This meta-analysis evaluated the frequency of neutralizing antibody (nAb) conversion with onabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX®; Allergan) across five studied indications. The analysis was based on large, controlled or prospective, open-label trials (durations 4 months to ≥2 years). Serum samples were analyzed for nAbs using the Mouse Protection Assay. Subjects who were antibody negative at baseline and had at least one analyzable postbaseline antibody assay result were included. The 16 clinical studies included 3,006 subjects; of these, 2,240 met the inclusion criteria for this analysis. Subjects received 1-15 treatments (mean 3.8 treatments) with onabotulinumtoxinA. Total doses per treatment cycle ranged from 10 or 20 units in glabellar lines to 20-500 units in cervical dystonia. The numbers of subjects who converted from an antibody-negative status at baseline to antibody-positive status at any post-treatment time point were: cervical dystonia 4/312 (1.28%), glabellar lines 2/718 (0.28%), overactive bladder 0/22 (0%), post-stroke spasticity 1/317 (0.32%), and primary axillary hyperhidrosis 4/871 (0.46%). Across all indications, 11/2,240 subjects (0.49%) converted from antibody negative at baseline to positive at one or more post-treatment time points, but only three subjects became clinically unresponsive to onabotulinumtoxinA at some point following a positive assay. Based on these large trials, the frequency of antibody conversion after onabotulinumtoxinA treatment is very low, and infrequently leads to loss of efficacy. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  17. Transient immune suppression of inapparent carriers infected with a principal neutralizing domain-deficient equine infectious anaemia virus induces neutralizing antibodies and lowers steady-state virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigo, Jodi K; Leroux, Caroline; Howe, Laryssa; Steckbeck, Jonathan D; Cook, Sheila J; Issel, Charles J; Montelaro, Ronald C

    2002-06-01

    The genetic variation of equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) clearly affects the antigenic properties of the viral envelope; however, effects on immunogenicity remain undefined, although widely assumed. Here, the immunogenicity is reported of a novel, neutralization-resistant, pony-isolate envelope EIAV(PV564DeltaPND) that contains a 14-residue deletion in the designated principal neutralizing domain (PND) of the gp90 protein. Two ponies inoculated with a chimeric virus, EIAV(DeltaPND), containing the EIAV(PV564DeltaPND) envelope in a reference provirus strain, remained asymptomatic through 14 months post-inoculation, producing high steady-state levels of envelope-specific antibodies but no detectable serum-neutralizing antibodies. Consequent dexamethasone-induced immune suppression produced characteristic EIA that resolved concomitantly with the development of high-titre, strain-specific, neutralizing antibodies and a 100-fold reduction in steady-state virus loads. These results demonstrate: natural variations in the EIAV envelope have profound effects on both antigenic and immunogenic properties; the PND is not required for neutralizing antibody responses; and transient immune suppression can enhance established host immunity to achieve more effective control of steady-state lentivirus replication.

  18. Broad neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies against influenza virus from vaccinated healthy donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Mizuta, Hiroyuki [Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Oshita, Masatoshi; Ideno, Shoji [Osaka Research Laboratory, Benesis Corporation, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-6505 (Japan); Yunoki, Mikihiro [Osaka Research Laboratory, Benesis Corporation, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-6505 (Japan); Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kuhara, Motoki [Ina Laboratory, Medical and Biological Laboratories Corporation, Ltd., Ina, Nagano 396-0002 (Japan); Yamamoto, Naomasa [Department of Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ohu University, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8611 (Japan); Okuno, Yoshinobu [Kanonji Institute, The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University, Kanonji, Kagawa 768-0061 (Japan); Ikuta, Kazuyoshi, E-mail: ikuta@biken.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2009-09-11

    Human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) prepared from patients with viral infections could provide information on human epitopes important for the development of vaccines as well as potential therapeutic applications. Through the fusion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a total of five influenza-vaccinated volunteers, with newly developed murine-human chimera fusion partner cells, named SPYMEG, we obtained 10 hybridoma clones stably producing anti-influenza virus antibodies: one for influenza A H1N1, four for influenza A H3N2 and five for influenza B. Surprisingly, most of the HuMAbs showed broad reactivity within subtype and four (two for H3N2 and two for B) showed broad neutralizing ability. Importantly, epitope mapping revealed that the two broad neutralizing antibodies to H3N2 derived from different donors recognized the same epitope located underneath the receptor-binding site of the hemagglutinin globular region that is highly conserved among H3N2 strains.

  19. Antibodies to a conformational epitope on gp41 neutralize HIV-1 by destabilizing the Env spike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Hyun; Leaman, Daniel P.; Kim, Arthur S.; Torrents de La Peña, Alba; Sliepen, Kwinten; Yasmeen, Anila; Derking, Ronald; Ramos, Alejandra; de Taeye, Steven W.; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Klein, Florian; Burton, Dennis R.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Poignard, Pascal; Moore, John P.; Klasse, Per Johan; Sanders, Rogier W.; Zwick, Michael B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Ward, Andrew B.

    2015-09-01

    The recent identification of three broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against gp120-gp41 interface epitopes has expanded the targetable surface on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer. By using biochemical, biophysical and computational methods, we map the previously unknown trimer epitopes of two related antibodies, 3BC315 and 3BC176. A cryo-EM reconstruction of a soluble Env trimer bound to 3BC315 Fab at 9.3 Å resolution reveals that the antibody binds between two gp41 protomers, and neutralizes the virus by accelerating trimer decay. In contrast, bnAb 35O22 binding to a partially overlapping quaternary epitope at the gp120-gp41 interface does not induce decay. A conserved gp41-proximal glycan at N88 was also shown to play a role in the binding kinetics of 3BC176 and 3BC315. Finally, our data suggest that the dynamic structure of the Env trimer influences exposure of bnAb epitopes.

  20. Induction of neutralizing antibodies in mice immunized with scorpion toxins detoxified by liposomal entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca S.G.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of producing neutralizing antibodies against the lethal effects of scorpion toxins was evaluated in the mouse model by immunization with an immunogen devoid of toxicity. A toxic fraction (5 mg from the venom of the scorpion Tityus serrulatus was entrapped in sphingomyelin-cholesterol liposomes. The liposomes were treated for 1 h at 37oC with a 1% (w/w trypsin solution in 0.2 M sodium carbonate buffer, pH 8.3. This treatment led to a strong reduction in venom toxicity. Immunization was performed as follows: mice were injected sc with 20 µg of the liposome-entrapped toxic fraction on days 1 and 21 and a final injection (20 µg was administered ip on day 36. After injection of the immunogen, all mice developed an IgG response which was shown to be specific for the toxic antigen. The antibodies were measured 10 days after the end of the immunization protocol. In an in vitro neutralization assay we observed that pre-incubation of a lethal dose of the toxic fraction with immune serum strongly reduced its toxicity. In vivo protection assays showed that mice with anti-toxin antibodies could resist the challenge with the toxic fraction, which killed, 30 min after injection, all non-immune control mice

  1. Ninhydrin sweat test: a simple method for detecting antibodies neutralizing botulinum toxin type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voller, Bernhard; Moraru, Ekaterina; Auff, Eduard; Benesch, Michael; Poewe, Werner; Wissel, Jörg; Müller, Jörg; Entner, Tanja; Bigalke, Hans; Schnider, Peter

    2004-08-01

    Approximately 5% of patients with cervical dystonia receiving repeated botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) injections develop secondary loss of treatment benefit. Currently available tests to directly detect neutralizing BoNT/A antibodies (BoNT/A-AB) are either expensive or time consuming. To establish a simple, clinically useful test for antibody detection, we adapted the ninhydrin sweat test (NST). Eighteen dystonic patients with secondary nonresponse and clinically suspected BoNT/A-AB formation were tested for BoNT/A-AB in the mouse diaphragm test (MDT). In addition, the size of the anhidrotic area was determined by the NST 21 days after an intradermal dose of 10 U Dysport into the hypothenar region of the left palm. In nine patients, positive BoNT-AB titers were found in the MDT. There was a significant correlation between the BoNT/A-AB titers and the anhidrotic area (Spearman's rho = -0.9, P < 0.0001). Both tests provided comparably good results with respect to qualitative antibody detection. In the clinical situation of secondary nonresponse to BoNT/A therapy, the economical NST may be a helpful tool to detect neutralizing BoNT/A-AB. Copyright 2004 Movement Disorder Society

  2. Germline-encoded neutralization of a Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor by the human antibody repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Yik Andy; Foletti, Davide; Deng, Xiaodi; Abdiche, Yasmina; Strop, Pavel; Glanville, Jacob; Pitts, Steven; Lindquist, Kevin; Sundar, Purnima D; Sirota, Marina; Hasa-Moreno, Adela; Pham, Amber; Melton Witt, Jody; Ni, Irene; Pons, Jaume; Shelton, David; Rajpal, Arvind; Chaparro-Riggers, Javier

    2016-11-18

    Staphylococcus aureus is both an important pathogen and a human commensal. To explore this ambivalent relationship between host and microbe, we analysed the memory humoral response against IsdB, a protein involved in iron acquisition, in four healthy donors. Here we show that in all donors a heavily biased use of two immunoglobulin heavy chain germlines generated high affinity (pM) antibodies that neutralize the two IsdB NEAT domains, IGHV4-39 for NEAT1 and IGHV1-69 for NEAT2. In contrast to the typical antibody/antigen interactions, the binding is primarily driven by the germline-encoded hydrophobic CDRH-2 motifs of IGHV1-69 and IGHV4-39, with a binding mechanism nearly identical for each antibody derived from different donors. Our results suggest that IGHV1-69 and IGHV4-39, while part of the adaptive immune system, may have evolved under selection pressure to encode a binding motif innately capable of recognizing and neutralizing a structurally conserved protein domain involved in pathogen iron acquisition.

  3. Protective efficacy of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in a nonhuman primate model of Ebola hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea; Yoshida, Reiko; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Ishijima, Mari; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Higuchi, Megumi; Matsuyama, Yukie; Igarashi, Manabu; Nakayama, Eri; Kuroda, Makoto; Saijo, Masayuki; Feldmann, Friederike; Brining, Douglas; Feldmann, Heinz; Takada, Ayato

    2012-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) is the causative agent of severe hemorrhagic fever in primates, with human case fatality rates up to 90%. Today, there is neither a licensed vaccine nor a treatment available for Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF). Single monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) have been successfully used in passive immunization experiments in rodent models, but have failed to protect nonhuman primates from lethal disease. In this study, we used two clones of human-mouse chimeric MAbs (ch133 and ch226) with strong neutralizing activity against ZEBOV and evaluated their protective potential in a rhesus macaque model of EHF. Reduced viral loads and partial protection were observed in animals given MAbs ch133 and ch226 combined intravenously at 24 hours before and 24 and 72 hours after challenge. MAbs circulated in the blood of a surviving animal until virus-induced IgG responses were detected. In contrast, serum MAb concentrations decreased to undetectable levels at terminal stages of disease in animals that succumbed to infection, indicating substantial consumption of these antibodies due to virus replication. Accordingly, the rapid decrease of serum MAbs was clearly associated with increased viremia in non-survivors. Our results indicate that EBOV neutralizing antibodies, particularly in combination with other therapeutic strategies, might be beneficial in reducing viral loads and prolonging disease progression during EHF.

  4. 9G4+ antibodies isolated from HIV-infected patients neutralize HIV-1 and have distinct autoreactivity profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle C Alcéna

    Full Text Available Potent HIV-1 specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (BNA are uncommon in HIV infected individuals, and have proven hard to elicit by vaccination. Several, isolated monoclonal BNA are polyreactive and also recognize self-antigens, suggesting a breach of immune tolerance in persons living with HIV (PLWH. Persons with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE often have elevated levels of autoreactive antibodies encoded by the VH4-34 heavy chain immunoglobulin gene whose protein product can be detected by the 9G4 rat monoclonal antibody. We have recently found that levels of these "9G4+" antibodies are also elevated in PLWH. However, the putative autoreactive nature of these antibodies and the relationship of such reactivities with HIV neutralization have not been investigated. We therefore examined the autoreactivity and HIV neutralization potential of 9G4+ antibodies from PLWH. Results show that 9G4+ antibodies from PLWH bound to recombinant HIV-1 envelope (Env and neutralized viral infectivity in vitro, whereas 9G4+ antibodies from persons with SLE did not bind to Env and failed to neutralize viral infectivity. In addition, while 9G4+ antibodies from PLWH retained the canonical anti-i reactivity that mediates B cell binding, they did not display other autoreactivities common to SLE 9G4+ antibodies, such as binding to cardiolipin and DNA and had much lower reactivity with apoptotic cells. Taken together, these data indicate that the autoreactivity of 9G4+ antibodies from PLWH is distinct from that of SLE patients, and therefore, their expansion is not due to a general breakdown of B cell tolerance but is instead determined in a more disease-specific manner by self-antigens that become immunogenic in the context of, and possibly due to HIV infection. Further studies of 9G4+ B cells may shed light on the regulation of B cell tolerance and interface between the generation of specific autoreactivities and the induction of antiviral immunity in persons

  5. Analysis of memory B cell responses and isolation of novel monoclonal antibodies with neutralizing breadth from HIV-1-infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Corti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs that neutralize a broad spectrum of primary HIV-1 isolates and the characterization of the human neutralizing antibody B cell response to HIV-1 infection are important goals that are central to the design of an effective antibody-based vaccine.We immortalized IgG(+ memory B cells from individuals infected with diverse clades of HIV-1 and selected on the basis of plasma neutralization profiles that were cross-clade and relatively potent. Culture supernatants were screened using various recombinant forms of the envelope glycoproteins (Env in multiple parallel assays. We isolated 58 mAbs that were mapped to different Env surfaces, most of which showed neutralizing activity. One mAb in particular (HJ16 specific for a novel epitope proximal to the CD4 binding site on gp120 selectively neutralized a multi-clade panel of Tier-2 HIV-1 pseudoviruses, and demonstrated reactivity that was comparable in breadth, but distinct in neutralization specificity, to that of the other CD4 binding site-specific neutralizing mAb b12. A second mAb (HGN194 bound a conserved epitope in the V3 crown and neutralized all Tier-1 and a proportion of Tier-2 pseudoviruses tested, irrespective of clade. A third mAb (HK20 with broad neutralizing activity, particularly as a Fab fragment, recognized a highly conserved epitope in the HR-1 region of gp41, but showed striking assay-dependent selectivity in its activity.This study reveals that by using appropriate screening methods, a large proportion of memory B cells can be isolated that produce mAbs with HIV-1 neutralizing activity. Three of these mAbs show unusual breadth of neutralization and therefore add to the current panel of HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies with potential for passive protection and template-based vaccine design.

  6. Enhancement of toxin- and virus-neutralizing capacity of single-domain antibody fragments by N-glycosylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.M.; Smits, C.B.; Fijten, H.P.D.

    2009-01-01

    Single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) have several beneficial properties as compared to conventional antibody fragments. However, their small size complicates their toxin- and virus-neutralizing capacity. We isolated 27 VHHs binding Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin and expressed these in

  7. Selection pressure on HIV-1 envelope by broadly neutralizing antibodies to the conserved CD4-binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xueling; Wang, Charlene; O'Dell, Sijy; Li, Yuxing; Keele, Brandon F; Yang, Zhongjia; Imamichi, Hiromi; Doria-Rose, Nicole; Hoxie, James A; Connors, Mark; Shaw, George M; Wyatt, Richard T; Mascola, John R

    2012-05-01

    The monoclonal antibody (MAb) VRC01 was isolated from a slowly progressing HIV-1-infected donor and was shown to neutralize diverse HIV-1 strains by binding to the conserved CD4 binding site (CD4bs) of gp120. To better understand the virologic factors associated with such antibody development, we characterized HIV-1 envelope (Env) variants from this donor and five other donors who developed broadly neutralizing antibodies. A total of 473 env sequences were obtained by single-genome amplification, and 100 representative env clones were expressed and tested for entry and neutralization sensitivity. While VRC01 neutralizes about 90% of the genetically diverse heterologous HIV-1 strains tested, only selective archival Env variants from the VRC01 donor were sensitive to VRC01 and all of the Env variants derived from the donor plasma were resistant, indicating strong antibody-based selection pressure. Despite their resistance to this broadly reactive MAb that partially mimics CD4, all Env variants required CD4 for entry. Three other CD4bs MAbs from the same donor were able to neutralize some VRC01 escape variants, suggesting that CD4bs antibodies continued to evolve in response to viral escape. We also observed a relatively high percentage of VRC01-resistant Env clones in the plasma of four of five additional broadly neutralizing donors, suggesting the presence of CD4bs-directed neutralizing antibodies in these donors. In total, these data indicate that the CD4bs-directed neutralizing antibodies exert ongoing selection pressure on the conserved CD4bs epitope of HIV-1 Env.

  8. Presence of neutralizing antibodies to Orthopoxvirus in capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, André Victor; Medaglia, Maria Luiza G; Soares, Herbert S; Quixabeira-Santos, Jociane C; Gennari, Solange M; Damaso, Clarissa R

    2014-12-15

    Cantagalo virus is a strain of vaccinia virus (genus Orthopoxvirus) and the etiological agent of an important vesicopustular disease that affects dairy cows and milkers in Brazil. The reservoirs involved in the maintenance of this virus in nature are unknown. In the present work, the detection of neutralizing antibodies to Orthopoxvirus in capybaras collected in São Paulo state is reported. Capybaras are the largest rodent species native to South America and have already been reported as putative reservoirs of other pathogenic microorganisms. Thirteen out of thirty-three serum samples were found positive in plaque-reduction neutralization tests, some of them showing high titers compared to positive controls. These results suggest that capybaras may play a role in the infection cycle of vaccinia virus in Brazil.

  9. Human broadly neutralizing antibodies to the envelope glycoprotein complex of hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giang, Erick; Dorner, Marcus; Prentoe, Jannick C

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects ∼2% of the world's population. It is estimated that there are more than 500,000 new infections annually in Egypt, the country with the highest HCV prevalence. An effective vaccine would help control this expanding global health burden. HCV is highly variable......, and an effective vaccine should target conserved T- and B-cell epitopes of the virus. Conserved B-cell epitopes overlapping the CD81 receptor-binding site (CD81bs) on the E2 viral envelope glycoprotein have been reported previously and provide promising vaccine targets. In this study, we isolated 73 human m......bs on the E1E2 complex, has an exceptionally broad neutralizing activity toward diverse HCV genotypes and protects against heterologous HCV challenge in a small animal model. The mAb panel will be useful for the design and development of vaccine candidates to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies...

  10. Characterization of the glycoprotein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chienjin; Chien, Maw-Sheng; Landolt, Marsha; Winton, James

    1994-01-01

    To study the antigenic nature of the glycoprotein (G protein) of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), 31 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against a reference isolate of the virus. The MAbs were compared using a neutralization assay, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and by immunoblotting of the G protein in the native, reduced, and deglycosylated forms. Hybridoma culture fluids of the various MAbs could be diluted from 1:2 to 1:512 and still completely neutralize 1 X 104 plaque-forming units of IHNV. Similarly, the end point dilutions that produced optical density readings of 0.1 or greater in the ELISA were 1:40 to 1:10240. Western blotting showed that all of the MAbs reacted with the G protein in the unreduced (i.e. native) conformation; however, only 9 nine of the MAbs were able to react with the G protein following reduction by 2-mercaptoethanol. Deglycosylation of the protein did not influence the binding ability of any of the MAbs. These data indicate that all the MAbs recognized amino acid sequences on the protein itself and that the IHNV glycoprotein contains linear as well as conformation-dependent neutralizing epitopes. When rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fingerlings were passively immunized with MAbs against either a linear or a conformation-dependent epitope, the fish were protected against challenge with wild-type IHNV.

  11. Neutralization resistance of hepatitis C virus can be overcome by recombinant human monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jannie L; Carlsen, Thomas H R; Prentoe, Jannick

    2013-01-01

    Immunotherapy and vaccine development for hepatitis C virus (HCV) will depend on broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). However, studies in infectious strain JFH1-based culture systems expressing patient-derived Core-NS2 proteins have suggested neutralization resistance for specific HCV......-derived genotype 2a (strain T9), 2b (strains DH8 and DH10), and 2c (strain S83) consensus sequences, were viable in Huh7.5 hepatoma cells without requirement for adaptive mutations, reaching HCV infectivity titers of 3.9-4.5 log10 focus-forming units per milliliter. In in vitro neutralization assays, we...... demonstrated that the novel genotype 2 viruses as well as prototype strains J6/JFH1(2a) and J8/JFH1(2b), all with authentic envelope proteins, were resistant to neutralization by genotype 2a, 2b, 2c, 2j, 2i, and 2q patient sera. However, these patient sera had high titers of HCV-specific NAbs, because...

  12. A human inferred germline antibody binds to an immunodominant epitope and neutralizes Zika virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo M Magnani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nmAbs against the Zika virus (ZIKV might lead to novel preventative strategies for infections in at-risk individuals, primarily pregnant women. Here we describe the characterization of human mAbs from the plasmablasts of an acutely infected patient. One of the 18 mAbs had the unusual feature of binding to and neutralizing ZIKV despite not appearing to have been diversified by affinity maturation. This mAb neutralized ZIKV (Neut50 ~ 2 μg/ml but did not react with any of the four dengue virus serotypes. Except for the expected junctional diversity created by the joining of the V-(D-J genes, there was no deviation from immunoglobulin germline genes. This is a rare example of a human mAb with neutralizing activity in the absence of detectable somatic hypermutation. Importantly, binding of this mAb to ZIKV was specifically inhibited by human plasma from ZIKV-exposed individuals, suggesting that it may be of value in a diagnostic setting.

  13. Most neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies target novel epitopes requiring both Lassa virus glycoprotein subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James E.; Hastie, Kathryn M.; Cross, Robert W.; Yenni, Rachael E.; Elliott, Deborah H.; Rouelle, Julie A.; Kannadka, Chandrika B.; Smira, Ashley A.; Garry, Courtney E.; Bradley, Benjamin T.; Yu, Haini; Shaffer, Jeffrey G.; Boisen, Matt L.; Hartnett, Jessica N.; Zandonatti, Michelle A.; Rowland, Megan M.; Heinrich, Megan L.; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis; Cheng, Benson; de la Torre, Juan C.; Andersen, Kristian G.; Goba, Augustine; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohamed; Gbakie, Michael; Kanneh, Lansana; Koroma, Veronica J.; Fonnie, Richard; Jalloh, Simbirie C.; Kargbo, Brima; Vandi, Mohamed A.; Gbetuwa, Momoh; Ikponmwosa, Odia; Asogun, Danny A.; Okokhere, Peter O.; Follarin, Onikepe A.; Schieffelin, John S.; Pitts, Kelly R.; Geisbert, Joan B.; Kulakoski, Peter C.; Wilson, Russell B.; Happi, Christian T.; Sabeti, Pardis C.; Gevao, Sahr M.; Khan, S. Humarr; Grant, Donald S.; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Branco, Luis M.; Garry, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Lassa fever is a severe multisystem disease that often has haemorrhagic manifestations. The epitopes of the Lassa virus (LASV) surface glycoproteins recognized by naturally infected human hosts have not been identified or characterized. Here we have cloned 113 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for LASV glycoproteins from memory B cells of Lassa fever survivors from West Africa. One-half bind the GP2 fusion subunit, one-fourth recognize the GP1 receptor-binding subunit and the remaining fourth are specific for the assembled glycoprotein complex, requiring both GP1 and GP2 subunits for recognition. Notably, of the 16 mAbs that neutralize LASV, 13 require the assembled glycoprotein complex for binding, while the remaining 3 require GP1 only. Compared with non-neutralizing mAbs, neutralizing mAbs have higher binding affinities and greater divergence from germline progenitors. Some mAbs potently neutralize all four LASV lineages. These insights from LASV human mAb characterization will guide strategies for immunotherapeutic development and vaccine design. PMID:27161536

  14. A Role for Small Antibody Fragments to Bind and Neutralize HIV | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is studded with numerous copies of the glycoprotein Env. Each Env spike is composed of three copies of the proteins gp41, which sits in the viral membrane, and gp120, which rests on top of each gp41 molecule. Env is essential for HIV-mediated infection because the binding of gp120 to the T cell surface receptor CD4 initiates a conformational change in Env exposing the fusion peptide, which inserts into the T cell membrane and helps fuse the T cell and virus together. This makes Env an attractive target for designing therapeutic inhibitory antibodies. However, the complexities of the HIV surface proteins and the tight association of the virus and T cell during infection have hampered the identification of full-length antibodies with effective HIV neutralizing activity.

  15. Neutralization of the pharmacological effects of Cobra and Krait venoms by chicken egg yolk antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenatchisundaram, S; Parameswari, G; Michael, A; Ramalingam, S

    2008-08-01

    Five-month-old white leghorn chickens were immunized with 50 microg of Common Cobra (Naja naja) and 30 microg of Krait venoms (Bungarus caeruleus) to generate antivenom antibodies against the venom antigen. Chickens received booster doses of increasing concentrations of venom at 14 days time intervals to raise the antivenom level in egg yolk. The antivenom from immunized chicken egg yolk was extracted by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and ammonium sulphate precipitation method which was further purified by DEAE cellulose ion exchange column chromatography. A high molecular weight protein of 180 kDa was detected by electrophoretic analysis which shows the purity of antivenom generated in chicken. Antibodies generated were specific and sensitive to the venom antigen. Various pharmacological activities of Cobra and Krait venoms were carried out by both in-vivo and in-vitro methods. The neutralization of lethality, hemorrhagic, edema, PLA(2) and procoagulant activity was evaluated in assays involving pre-incubation of venom and antivenom prior to testing. The antivenom was effective in neutralizing the toxic and enzymatic activities of venom. The LD(50) of venom for 18 g of mice was found to be 10 microg for Cobra and 3 microg for Krait venoms. The median effective dose (ED(50)) of anti-Cobra venom was 4.48 mg/5LD(50) and 1.0 ml neutralized 0.127 mg of Cobra venom and the median effective dose (ED(50)) of anti-Krait venom was 3.18 mg/5LD(50) and 1.0 ml neutralized 0.051 mg of Krait venom. The results indicate that antivenom generated in chicken could be used for therapeutic purposes in case of snakebite envenomation.

  16. Evaluating the synergistic neutralizing effect of anti-botulinum oligoclonal antibody preparations.

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    Eran Diamant

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT are considered some of the most lethal known substances. There are seven botulinum serotypes, of which types A, B and E cause most human botulism cases. Anti-botulinum polyclonal antibodies (PAbs are currently used for both detection and treatment of the disease. However, significant improvements in immunoassay specificity and treatment safety may be made using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs. In this study, we present an approach for the simultaneous generation of highly specific and neutralizing MAbs against botulinum serotypes A, B, and E in a single process. The approach relies on immunization of mice with a trivalent mixture of recombinant C-terminal fragment (Hc of each of the three neurotoxins, followed by a parallel differential robotic hybridoma screening. This strategy enabled the cloning of seven to nine MAbs against each serotype. The majority of the MAbs possessed higher anti-botulinum ELISA titers than anti-botulinum PAbs and had up to five orders of magnitude greater specificity. When tested for their potency in mice, neutralizing MAbs were obtained for all three serotypes and protected against toxin doses of 10 MsLD50-500 MsLD50. A strong synergistic effect of up to 400-fold enhancement in the neutralizing activity was observed when serotype-specific MAbs were combined. Furthermore, the highly protective oligoclonal combinations were as potent as a horse-derived PAb pharmaceutical preparation. Interestingly, MAbs that failed to demonstrate individual neutralizing activity were observed to make a significant contribution to the synergistic effect in the oligoclonal preparation. Together, the trivalent immunization strategy and differential screening approach enabled us to generate highly specific MAbs against each of the A, B, and E BoNTs. These new MAbs may possess diagnostic and therapeutic potential.

  17. Reporter gene assay for the quantification of the activity and neutralizing antibody response to TNFα antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lallemand, Christophe; Kavrochorianou, Nadia; Steenholdt, Casper

    2011-01-01

    A cell-based assay has been developed for the quantification of the activity of TNFα antagonists based on human erythroleukemic K562 cells transfected with a NFκB regulated firefly luciferase reporter-gene construct. Both drug activity and anti-drug neutralizing antibodies can be quantified...... with a high degree of precision within 2h, and without interference from cytokines and other factors known to activate NFκB. The assay cells also contain the Renilla luciferase reporter gene under the control of a constitutive promoter that allows TNFα-induced firefly luciferase activity to be normalized...

  18. Broadly neutralizing antibodies targeted to mucin-type carbohydrate epitopes of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C; Arendrup, M

    1991-01-01

    The cancer-related mucin-type carbohydrate neoantigen Tn was found on gp160 and gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Tn neutralized infection with cell-free virus and blocked fusion between HIV-infected and uninfected cells....... This inhibition was found in infection of both lymphocytic cells and monocytoid cells. Viruses tested included six HIV-1 and five HIV-2 isolates propagated in different cells, as well as infectious plasma from AIDS patients. The antiviral effect of anti-Tn MAbs occurred by specific binding of the MAb to the virus...

  19. The amino acid residues at 102 and 104 in GP5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus regulate viral neutralization susceptibility to the porcine serum neutralizing antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Baochao; Liu, Xing; Bai, Juan; Zhang, Tingjie; Zhang, Qiaoya; Jiang, Ping

    2015-06-02

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is mainly responsible for the heavy economic losses in pig industry in the world. A number of neutralizing epitopes have been identified in the viral structural proteins GP3, GP4, GP5 and M. In this study, the important amino acid (aa) residues of HP-PRRSV strain BB affecting neutralization susceptibility of antibody were examined using resistant strains generated under neutralizing antibody (NAb) pressure in MARC-145 cells, reverse genetic technique and virus neutralization assay. HP-PRRSV strain BB was passaged under the pressure of porcine NAb serum in vitro. A resistant strain BB34s with 102 and 104 aa substitutions in GP5, which have been predicted to be the positive sites for pressure selection (Delisle et al., 2012), was cloned and identified. To determine the effect of the two aa residues on neutralization, eight recombinant PRRSV strains were generated, and neutralization assay results confirmed that the aa residues 102 and 104 in GP5 played an important role in NAbs against HP-PRRSV in MARC-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages. Alignment of GP5 sequences revealed that the variant aa residues at 102 and 104 were frequent among type 2 PRRSV strains. It may be helpful for understanding the mechanism regulating the neutralization susceptibility of PRRSV to the NAbs and monitoring the antigen variant strains in the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Early low-titer neutralizing antibodies impede HIV-1 replication and select for virus escape.

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    Katharine J Bar

    Full Text Available Single genome sequencing of early HIV-1 genomes provides a sensitive, dynamic assessment of virus evolution and insight into the earliest anti-viral immune responses in vivo. By using this approach, together with deep sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, antibody adsorptions and virus-entry assays, we found evidence in three subjects of neutralizing antibody (Nab responses as early as 2 weeks post-seroconversion, with Nab titers as low as 1∶20 to 1∶50 (IC(50 selecting for virus escape. In each of the subjects, Nabs targeted different regions of the HIV-1 envelope (Env in a strain-specific, conformationally sensitive manner. In subject CH40, virus escape was first mediated by mutations in the V1 region of the Env, followed by V3. HIV-1 specific monoclonal antibodies from this subject mapped to an immunodominant region at the base of V3 and exhibited neutralizing patterns indistinguishable from polyclonal antibody responses, indicating V1-V3 interactions within the Env trimer. In subject CH77, escape mutations mapped to the V2 region of Env, several of which selected for alterations of glycosylation. And in subject CH58, escape mutations mapped to the Env outer domain. In all three subjects, initial Nab recognition was followed by sequential rounds of virus escape and Nab elicitation, with Nab escape variants exhibiting variable costs to replication fitness. Although delayed in comparison with autologous CD8 T-cell responses, our findings show that Nabs appear earlier in HIV-1 infection than previously recognized, target diverse sites on HIV-1 Env, and impede virus replication at surprisingly low titers. The unexpected in vivo sensitivity of early transmitted/founder virus to Nabs raises the possibility that similarly low concentrations of vaccine-induced Nabs could impair virus acquisition in natural HIV-1 transmission, where the risk of infection is low and the number of viruses responsible for transmission and productive clinical

  1. Broadly Neutralizing Antibody-Guided Carbohydrate-Based HIV Vaccine Design: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Cheng; Zheng, Xiu-Jing; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2016-02-17

    The HIV envelope (Env) is heavily glycosylated, facilitating the spread and survival of HIV in many ways. Some potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) such as 2G12, PG9, PG16, and PGTs can recognize the conserved glycan residues on Env. The bnAbs, which often emerge after many years of chronic infection, provide insight into the vulnerability of HIV and can therefore guide the design of vaccines. Many carbohydrate-conjugated vaccines have been designed to induce bnAb-like antibodies, but none have yet been successful. The low antigenicity of these vaccines is one possible explanation. New strategies have been applied to obtain high-affinity antigens of glycan-dependent and other bnAbs. However, when used as immunogens in vivo, high-affinity antigens are still insufficient in eliciting bnAb-like antibodies. bnAbs generally possess some unusual features and may therefore be suppressed by the host immune system. In view of this situation, some immunization regimens based on the affinity maturation of antibodies have been tested. Herein we summarize recent studies into the design of carbohydrate-based HIV vaccines and some valuable experiences gained in work with other bnAb-based HIV vaccines. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Nef decreases HIV-1 sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies that target the membrane-proximal external region of TMgp41.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel P J Lai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Primate lentivirus nef is required for sustained virus replication in vivo and accelerated progression to AIDS. While exploring the mechanism by which Nef increases the infectivity of cell-free virions, we investigated a functional link between Nef and Env. Since we failed to detect an effect of Nef on the quantity of virion-associated Env, we searched for qualitative changes by examining whether Nef alters HIV-1 sensitivity to agents that target distinct features of Env. Nef conferred as much as 50-fold resistance to 2F5 and 4E10, two potent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nAbs that target the membrane proximal external region (MPER of TMgp41. In contrast, Nef had no effect on HIV-1 neutralization by MPER-specific nAb Z13e1, by the peptide inhibitor T20, nor by a panel of nAbs and other reagents targeting gp120. Resistance to neutralization by 2F5 and 4E10 was observed with Nef from a diverse range of HIV-1 and SIV isolates, as well as with HIV-1 virions bearing Env from CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic viruses, clade B and C viruses, or primary isolates. Functional analysis of a panel of Nef mutants revealed that this activity requires Nef myristoylation but that it is genetically separable from other Nef functions such as the ability to enhance virus infectivity and to downregulate CD4. Glycosylated-Gag from MoMLV substituted for Nef in conferring resistance to 2F5 and 4E10, indicating that this activity is conserved in a retrovirus that does not encode Nef. Given the reported membrane-dependence of MPER-recognition by 2F5 and 4E10, in contrast to the membrane-independence of Z13e1, the data here is consistent with a model in which Nef alters MPER recognition in the context of the virion membrane. Indeed, Nef and Glycosylated-Gag decreased the efficiency of virion capture by 2F5 and 4E10, but not by other nAbs. These studies demonstrate that Nef protects lentiviruses from one of the most broadly-acting classes of neutralizing antibodies. This newly

  3. Reduced Potency and Incomplete Neutralization of Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies against Cell-to-Cell Transmission of HIV-1 with Transmitted Founder Envs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongru; Zony, Chati; Chen, Ping

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) have been isolated from HIV-1 patients and can potently block infection of a wide spectrum of HIV-1 subtypes. These antibodies define common epitopes shared by many viral isolates. While bNAbs potently antagonize infection with cell-free virus, inhibition of HIV-1 transmission from infected to uninfected CD4+ T cells through virological synapses (VS) has been found to require greater amounts of antibody. In this study, we examined two well-studied molecular clones and two transmitted/founder (T/F) clones for their sensitivities to a panel of bNAbs in cell-free and cell-to-cell infection assays. We observed resistance of cell-to-cell transmission to antibody neutralization that was reflected not only by reductions of antibody potency but also by decreases in maximum neutralization capacity relative to the levels seen with cell-free infections. BNAbs targeting different epitopes exhibited incomplete neutralization against cell-associated virus with T/F Envs, which was not observed with the cell-free form of the same virus. We further identified the membrane-proximal internal tyrosine-based sorting motif as a determinant that can affect the incomplete neutralization of these T/F clones in cell-to-cell infection. These findings indicate that the signal that affects surface expression and/or internalization of Env from the plasma membrane can modulate the presentation of neutralizing epitopes on infected cells. These results highlight that a fraction of virus can escape from high concentrations of antibody through cell-to-cell infection while remaining sensitive to neutralization in cell-free infection. The ability to fully inhibit cell-to-cell transmission may represent an important consideration in the development of antibodies for treatment or prophylaxis. IMPORTANCE In recent years, isolation of new-generation HIV-1 bNAbs has invigorated HIV vaccine research. These bNAbs display remarkable potency and breadth of

  4. Reduced Potency and Incomplete Neutralization of Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies against Cell-to-Cell Transmission of HIV-1 with Transmitted Founder Envs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongru; Zony, Chati; Chen, Ping; Chen, Benjamin K

    2017-05-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) have been isolated from HIV-1 patients and can potently block infection of a wide spectrum of HIV-1 subtypes. These antibodies define common epitopes shared by many viral isolates. While bNAbs potently antagonize infection with cell-free virus, inhibition of HIV-1 transmission from infected to uninfected CD4(+) T cells through virological synapses (VS) has been found to require greater amounts of antibody. In this study, we examined two well-studied molecular clones and two transmitted/founder (T/F) clones for their sensitivities to a panel of bNAbs in cell-free and cell-to-cell infection assays. We observed resistance of cell-to-cell transmission to antibody neutralization that was reflected not only by reductions of antibody potency but also by decreases in maximum neutralization capacity relative to the levels seen with cell-free infections. BNAbs targeting different epitopes exhibited incomplete neutralization against cell-associated virus with T/F Envs, which was not observed with the cell-free form of the same virus. We further identified the membrane-proximal internal tyrosine-based sorting motif as a determinant that can affect the incomplete neutralization of these T/F clones in cell-to-cell infection. These findings indicate that the signal that affects surface expression and/or internalization of Env from the plasma membrane can modulate the presentation of neutralizing epitopes on infected cells. These results highlight that a fraction of virus can escape from high concentrations of antibody through cell-to-cell infection while remaining sensitive to neutralization in cell-free infection. The ability to fully inhibit cell-to-cell transmission may represent an important consideration in the development of antibodies for treatment or prophylaxis.IMPORTANCE In recent years, isolation of new-generation HIV-1 bNAbs has invigorated HIV vaccine research. These bNAbs display remarkable potency and breadth of coverage

  5. Antibody neutralization escape mediated by point mutations in the intracytoplasmic tail of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Vandana; Sarkar, Surojit; Gupta, Phalguni; Montelaro, Ronald C

    2005-02-01

    The persistence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in the presence of robust host immunity has been associated in part with variation in viral envelope proteins leading to antigenic variation and escape from neutralizing antibodies. Previous studies of natural neutralization escape mutants have predominantly focused on gp120 and gp41 ectodomain sequence variations that alter antibody binding via changes in conformation or glycosylation pattern of the Env, likely due to the immune pressure exerted on the exposed ectodomain component of the glycoprotein. Here, we show for the first time a novel mechanism by which point mutations in the intracytoplasmic tail of the transmembrane component (gp41) of envelope can render the virus resistant to neutralization by monoclonal antibodies and broadly neutralizing polyclonal serum antibodies. Point mutations in a highly conserved structural motif within the intracytoplasmic tail resulted in decreased binding of neutralizing antibodies to the Env ectodomain, evidently due to allosteric changes both in the gp41 ectodomain and in gp120. While receptor binding and infectivity of the mutant virus remained unaltered, the changes in Env antigenicity were associated with an increase in neutralization resistance of the mutant virus. These studies demonstrate the structurally integrated nature of gp120 and gp41 and underscore a previously unrecognized potentially critical role for even minor sequence variation of the intracytoplasmic tail in modulating the antigenicity of the ectodomain of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex.

  6. Peptides designed to spatially depict the Epstein-Barr virus major virion glycoprotein gp350 neutralization epitope elicit antibodies that block virus-neutralizing antibody 72A1 interaction with the native gp350 molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Jerome E; Coinçon, Mathieu; Leblond, Valérie; Hu, Jing; Fang, Janey M; Sygusch, Jurgen; Alfieri, Caroline

    2015-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the etiologic agent of infectious mononucleosis and the root cause of B-cell lymphoproliferative disease in individuals with a weakened immune system, as well as a principal cofactor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, various lymphomas, and other cancers. The EBV major virion surface glycoprotein gp350 is viewed as the best vaccine candidate to prevent infectious mononucleosis in healthy EBV-naive persons and EBV-related cancers in at-risk individuals. Previous epitope mapping of gp350 revealed only one dominant neutralizing epitope, which has been shown to be the target of the monoclonal antibody 72A1. Computer modeling of the 72A1 antibody interaction with the gp350 amino terminus was used to identify gp350 amino acids that could form strong ionic, electrostatic, or hydrogen bonds with the 72A1 antibody. Peptide DDRTTLQLAQNPVYIPETYPYIKWDN (designated peptide 2) and peptide GSAKPGNGSYFASVKTEMLGNEID (designated peptide 3) were designed to spatially represent the gp350 amino acids predicted to interact with the 72A1 antibody paratope. Peptide 2 bound to the 72A1 antibody and blocked 72A1 antibody recognition of the native gp350 molecule. Peptide 2 and peptide 3 were recognized by human IgG and shown to elicit murine antibodies that could target gp350 and block its recognition by the 72A1 antibody. This work provides a structural mapping of the interaction between the EBV-neutralizing antibody 72A1 and the major virion surface protein gp350. gp350 mimetic peptides that spatially depict the EBV-neutralizing epitope would be useful as a vaccine to focus the immune system exclusively to this important virus epitope. The production of virus-neutralizing antibodies targeting the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) major surface glycoprotein gp350 is important for the prevention of infectious mononucleosis and EBV-related cancers. The data presented here provide the first in silico map of the gp350 interaction with a virus-blocking monoclonal antibody

  7. HIV-1-Specific Chimeric Antigen Receptors Based on Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ayub; Kitchen, Scott G; Chen, Irvin S Y; Ng, Hwee L; Zack, Jerome A; Yang, Otto O

    2016-08-01

    Although the use of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) based on single-chain antibodies for gene immunotherapy of cancers is increasing due to promising recent results, the earliest CAR therapeutic trials were done for HIV-1 infection in the late 1990s. This approach utilized a CAR based on human CD4 as a binding domain and was abandoned for a lack of efficacy. The growing number of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (BNAbs) offers the opportunity to generate novel CARs that may be more active and revisit this modality for HIV-1 immunotherapy. We used sequences from seven well-defined BNAbs varying in binding sites and generated single-chain-antibody-based CARs. These CARs included 10E8, 3BNC117, PG9, PGT126, PGT128, VRC01, and X5. Each novel CAR exhibited conformationally relevant expression on the surface of transduced cells, mediated specific proliferation and killing in response to HIV-1-infected cells, and conferred potent antiviral activity (reduction of viral replication in log10 units) to transduced CD8(+) T lymphocytes. The antiviral activity of these CARs was reproducible but varied according to the strain of virus. These findings indicated that BNAbs are excellent candidates for developing novel CARs to consider for the immunotherapeutic treatment of HIV-1. While chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) using single-chain antibodies as binding domains are growing in popularity for gene immunotherapy of cancers, the earliest human trials of CARs were done for HIV-1 infection. However, those trials failed, and the approach was abandoned for HIV-1. The only tested CAR against HIV-1 was based on the use of CD4 as the binding domain. The growing availability of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (BNAbs) affords the opportunity to revisit gene immunotherapy for HIV-1 using novel CARs based on single-chain antibodies. Here we construct and test a panel of seven novel CARs based on diverse BNAb types and show that all these CARs are functional against HIV-1

  8. Multiplex Evaluation of Influenza Neutralizing Antibodies with Potential Applicability to In-Field Serological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Molesti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased number of outbreaks of H5 and H7 LPAI and HPAI viruses in poultry has major public and animal health implications. The continuous rapid evolution of these subtypes and the emergence of new variants influence the ability to undertake effective surveillance. Retroviral pseudotypes bearing influenza haemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA envelope glycoproteins represent a flexible platform for sensitive, readily standardized influenza serological assays. We describe a multiplex assay for the study of neutralizing antibodies that are directed against both influenza H5 and H7 HA. This assay permits the measurement of neutralizing antibody responses against two antigenically distinct HAs in the same serum/plasma sample thus increasing the amount and quality of serological data that can be acquired from valuable sera. Sera obtained from chickens vaccinated with a monovalent H5N2 vaccine, chickens vaccinated with a bivalent H7N1/H5N9 vaccine, or turkeys naturally infected with an H7N3 virus were evaluated in this assay and the results correlated strongly with data obtained by HI assay. We show that pseudotypes are highly stable under basic cold-chain storage conditions and following multiple rounds of freeze-thaw. We propose that this robust assay may have practical utility for in-field serosurveillance and vaccine studies in resource-limited regions worldwide.

  9. Staged induction of HIV-1 glycan–dependent broadly neutralizing antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignori, Mattia; Kreider, Edward F.; Fera, Daniela; Meyerhoff, R. Ryan; Bradley, Todd; Wiehe, Kevin; Alam, S. Munir; Aussedat, Baptiste; Walkowicz, William E.; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Saunders, Kevin O.; Zhang, Ruijun; Gladden, Morgan A.; Monroe, Anthony; Kumar, Amit; Xia, Shi-Mao; Cooper, Melissa; Louder, Mark K.; McKee, Krisha; Bailer, Robert T.; Pier, Brendan W.; Jette, Claudia A.; Kelsoe, Garnett; Williams, Wilton B.; Morris, Lynn; Kappes, John; Wagh, Kshitij; Kamanga, Gift; Cohen, Myron S.; Hraber, Peter T.; Montefiori, David C.; Trama, Ashley; Liao, Hua-Xin; Kepler, Thomas B.; Moody, M. Anthony; Gao, Feng; Danishefsky, Samuel J.; Mascola, John R.; Shaw, George M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Harrison, Stephen C.; Korber, Bette T.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2017-01-01

    A preventive HIV-1 vaccine should induce HIV-1–specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). However, bnAbs generally require high levels of somatic hypermutation (SHM) to acquire breadth, and current vaccine strategies have not been successful in inducing bnAbs. Because bnAbs directed against a glycosylated site adjacent to the third variable loop (V3) of the HIV-1 envelope protein require limited SHM, the V3-glycan epitope is an attractive vaccine target. By studying the cooperation among multiple V3-glycan B cell lineages and their coevolution with autologous virus throughout 5 years of infection, we identify key events in the ontogeny of a V3-glycan bnAb. Two autologous neutralizing antibody lineages selected for virus escape mutations and consequently allowed initiation and affinity maturation of a V3-glycan bnAb lineage. The nucleotide substitution required to initiate the bnAb lineage occurred at a low-probability site for activation-induced cytidine deaminase activity. Cooperation of B cell lineages and an improbable mutation critical for bnAb activity defined the necessary events leading to breadth in this V3-glycan bnAb lineage. These findings may, in part, explain why initiation of V3-glycan bnAbs is rare, and suggest an immunization strategy for inducing similar V3-glycan bnAbs. PMID:28298420

  10. Cell-to-cell spread of HIV-1 and evasion of neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffner, Torben; Sattentau, Quentin J; Duncan, Christopher J A

    2013-12-02

    Cell-to-cell spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) between immune cells was first observed over 20 years ago. During this time, the question of whether this infection route favours viral evasion of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) targeting the virus envelope glycoprotein (Env) has been repeatedly investigated, but with conflicting results. A clearer picture has formed in the last few years as more broadly neutralizing antibodies have been isolated and we gain further insight into the mechanisms of HIV-1 transmission at virological and infectious synapses. Nevertheless consensus is still lacking, a situation which may be at least partly explained by variability in the experimental approaches used to study the activity of NAbs in the cell-to-cell context. In this review we focus on the most critical question concerning the activity of NAbs against cell-to-cell transmission: is NAb inhibition of cell-to-cell HIV-1 quantitatively or qualitatively different from cell-free infection? Overall, data consistently show that NAbs are capable of blocking HIV-1 infection at synapses, supporting the concept that cell-to-cell infection occurs through directed transfer of virions accessible to the external environment. However, more recent findings suggest that higher concentrations of certain NAbs might be needed to inhibit synaptic infection, with important potential implications for prophylactic vaccine development. We discuss several mechanistic explanations for this relative and selective loss of activity, and highlight gaps in knowledge that are still to be explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Rapid Zika Diagnostic Assay to Measure Neutralizing Antibodies in Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Shan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential association of microcephaly and other congenital abnormalities with Zika virus (ZIKV infection during pregnancy underlines the critical need for a rapid and accurate diagnosis. Due to the short duration of ZIKV viremia in infected patients, a serologic assay that detects antibody responses to viral infection plays an essential role in diagnosing patient specimens. The current serologic diagnosis of ZIKV infection relies heavily on the labor-intensive Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT that requires more than one-week turnaround time and represents a major bottleneck for patient diagnosis. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a high-throughput assay for ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV diagnosis that can attain the “gold standard” of the current PRNT assay. The new assay is homogeneous and utilizes luciferase viruses to quantify the neutralizing antibody titers in a 96-well format. Using 91 human specimens, we showed that the reporter diagnostic assay has a higher dynamic range and maintains the relative specificity of the traditional PRNT assay. Besides the improvement of assay throughput, the reporter virus technology has also shortened the turnaround time to less than two days. Collectively, our results suggest that, along with the viral RT-PCR assay, the reporter virus-based serologic assay could be potentially used as the first-line test for clinical diagnosis of ZIKV infection as well as for vaccine clinical trials.

  12. Seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies against dengue virus in two localities in the state of Morelos, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya-Larios, Irma Y; Martínez-Vega, Ruth Aralí; Mayer, Sandra V; Galeana-Hernández, Marisol; Comas-García, Andreu; Sepúlveda-Salinas, Karla J; Falcón-Lezama, Jorge A; Vasilakis, Nikos; Ramos-Castañeda, José

    2014-11-01

    Humoral immune response against dengue virus (DENV) is an important component in dengue-endemic transmission. We conducted a cross-sectional nested cohort study to determine the seroprevalence and frequency of neutralizing antibodies against DENV serotypes in two endemic localities in the state of Morelos, Mexico. The cohort participants (N = 1,196) were screened to determine previous exposure to DENV. Overall seroprevalence was 76.6% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 73.6-79.2), and prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in the 5- to 9-year-old group was 82.5% (95% CI = 67.2-92.7), 45% (95% CI = 29.3-61.5), and 65% (95% CI = 48.3-79.4) for DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-3, respectively. For participants older than 10 years, the observed seroprevalence was above 60% for each serotype, except DENV-4 in the 10- to 25-year-old group (42.9%); 81% of humoral responses were multitypic. The outcomes of our study contribute to understanding the immune component of dengue transmission and provide focal information for the evaluation of vaccine candidates under development. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  13. Seroprevalence of Neutralizing Antibodies Against Dengue Virus in Two Localities in the State of Morelos, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya-Larios, Irma Y.; Martínez-Vega, Ruth Aralí; Mayer, Sandra V.; Galeana-Hernández, Marisol; Comas-García, Andreu; Sepúlveda-Salinas, Karla J.; Falcón-Lezama, Jorge A.; Vasilakis, Nikos; Ramos-Castañeda, José

    2014-01-01

    Humoral immune response against dengue virus (DENV) is an important component in dengue-endemic transmission. We conducted a cross-sectional nested cohort study to determine the seroprevalence and frequency of neutralizing antibodies against DENV serotypes in two endemic localities in the state of Morelos, Mexico. The cohort participants (N = 1,196) were screened to determine previous exposure to DENV. Overall seroprevalence was 76.6% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 73.6–79.2), and prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in the 5- to 9-year-old group was 82.5% (95% CI = 67.2–92.7), 45% (95% CI = 29.3–61.5), and 65% (95% CI = 48.3–79.4) for DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-3, respectively. For participants older than 10 years, the observed seroprevalence was above 60% for each serotype, except DENV-4 in the 10- to 25-year-old group (42.9%); 81% of humoral responses were multitypic. The outcomes of our study contribute to understanding the immune component of dengue transmission and provide focal information for the evaluation of vaccine candidates under development. PMID:25294613

  14. Development of Germline-Humanized Antibodies Neutralizing Botulinum Neurotoxin A and B.

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    Sebastian Miethe

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs are counted among the most toxic substances known and are responsible for human botulism, a life-threatening disease characterized by flaccid muscle paralysis that occurs naturally by food poisoning or colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by BoNT-producing clostridia. To date, 7 serologically distinct serotypes of BoNT (serotype A-G are known. Due to the high toxicity of BoNTs the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC have classified BoNTs as category A agent, including the six biological agents with the highest potential risk of use as bioweapons. Well tolerated antibodies neutralizing BoNTs are required to deal with the potential risk. In a previous work, we described the development of scFv and scFv-Fc (Yumab from macaque origin (Macaca fascicularis neutralizing BoNT/A and B by targeting the heavy and light chain of each serotype. In the present study, we humanized the macaque antibodies SEM120-IIIC1 (anti-BoNT/A light chain, A1HC38 (anti-BoNT/A heavy chain, BLC3 (anti-BoNT/B light chain and B2-7 (anti-BoNT/B heavy chain by germline-humanization to obtain a better potential immunotolerance in humans. We increased the Germinality Index (GI of SEM120-IIIC1 to 94.5%, for A1HC38, to 95% for BLC3 and to 94.4% for B2-7. Furthermore, the neutralization efficacies of the germline-humanized antibodies were analyzed in lethal and non-lethal in vivo mouse assays as full IgG. The germline-humanized IgGs hu8SEM120-IIIC1, hu8A1HC38, hu8BLC3 and hu8B2-7 were protective in vivo, when anti-heavy and anti-light chain antibodies were combined. The synergistic effect and high humanness of the selected IgGs makes them promising lead candidates for further clinical development.

  15. Dengue Virus Evades AAV-Mediated Neutralizing Antibody Prophylaxis in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Diogo M; Ricciardi, Michael J; Bailey, Varian K; Gutman, Martin J; Pedreño-Lopez, Núria; Silveira, Cassia G T; Maxwell, Helen S; Domingues, Aline; Gonzalez-Nieto, Lucas; Su, Qin; Newman, Ruchi M; Pack, Melissa; Martins, Mauricio A; Martinez-Navio, José M; Fuchs, Sebastian P; Rakasz, Eva G; Allen, Todd M; Whitehead, Stephen S; Burton, Dennis R; Gao, Guangping; Desrosiers, Ronald C; Kallas, Esper G; Watkins, David I

    2017-10-04

    Development of vaccines against mosquito-borne Flaviviruses is complicated by the occurrence of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), which can increase disease severity. Long-term delivery of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) has the potential to effectively block infection and represents an alternative to vaccination. The risk of ADE may be avoided by using prophylactic nAbs harboring amino acid mutations L234A and L235A (LALA) in the immunoglobulin G (IgG) constant region. Here, we used recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) to deliver the anti-dengue virus 3 (DENV3) nAb P3D05. While the administration of rAAV-P3D05-rhesus immunoglobulin G1 (rhIgG1)-LALA to rhesus macaques engendered DENV3-neutralizing activity in serum, it did not prevent infection. The emergence of viremia following DENV3 challenge was delayed by 3-6 days in the rAAV-treated group, and replicating virus contained the envelope mutation K64R. This neutralization-resistant variant was also confirmed by virus outgrowth experiments in vitro. By delivering P3D05 with unmutated Fc sequences, we further demonstrated that DENV3 also evaded wild-type nAb prophylaxis, and serum viral loads appeared to be higher in the presence of low levels of unmutated P3D05-rhIgG1. Our study shows that a vectored approach for long-term delivery of nAbs with the LALA mutations is promising, but prophylaxis using a single nAb is likely insufficient at preventing DENV infection and replication. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of Poliovirus Neutralization Escape Mutants of Single-Domain Antibody Fragments (VHHs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotte, Lise; Thys, Bert; Strauss, Mike; Filman, David J.; Rombaut, Bart

    2015-01-01

    To complete the eradication of poliovirus and to protect unvaccinated people subsequently, the development of one or more antiviral drugs will be necessary. A set of five single-domain antibody fragments (variable parts of the heavy chain of a heavy-chain antibody [VHHs]) with an in vitro neutralizing activity against poliovirus type 1 was developed previously (B. Thys, L. Schotte, S. Muyldermans, U. Wernery, G. Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh, and B. Rombaut, Antiviral Res 87:257–264, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2010.05.012), and their mechanisms of action have been studied (L. Schotte, M. Strauss, B. Thys, H. Halewyck, D. J. Filman, M. Bostina, J. M. Hogle, and B. Rombaut, J Virol 88:4403–4413, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.03402-13). In this study, neutralization escape mutants were selected for each VHH. Sequencing of the P1 region of the genome showed that amino acid substitutions are found in the four viral proteins of the capsid and that they are located both in proximity to the binding sites of the VHHs and in regions further away from the canyon and hidden beneath the surface. Characterization of the mutants demonstrated that they have single-cycle replication kinetics that are similar to those of their parental strain and that they are all drug (VHH) independent. Their resistant phenotypes are stable, as they do not regain full susceptibility to the VHH after passage over HeLa cells in the absence of VHH. They are all at least as stable as the parental strain against heat inactivation at 44°C, and three of them are even significantly (P < 0.05) more resistant to heat inactivation. The resistant variants all still can be neutralized by at least two other VHHs and retain full susceptibility to pirodavir and 35-1F4. PMID:26014941

  17. Dengue virus neutralizing antibody levels associated with protection from infection in thai cluster studies.

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    Darunee Buddhari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Long-term homologous and temporary heterologous protection from dengue virus (DENV infection may be mediated by neutralizing antibodies. However, neutralizing antibody titers (NTs have not been clearly associated with protection from infection.Data from two geographic cluster studies conducted in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand were used for this analysis. In the first study (2004-2007, cluster investigations of 100-meter radius were triggered by DENV-infected index cases from a concurrent prospective cohort. Subjects between 6 months and 15 years old were evaluated for DENV infection at days 0 and 15 by DENV PCR and IgM ELISA. In the second study (2009-2012, clusters of 200-meter radius were triggered by DENV-infected index cases admitted to the provincial hospital. Subjects of any age ≥6 months were evaluated for DENV infection at days 0 and 14. In both studies, subjects who were DENV PCR positive at day 14/15 were considered to have been "susceptible" on day 0. Comparison subjects from houses in which someone had documented DENV infection, but the subject remained DENV negative at days 0 and 14/15, were considered "non-susceptible." Day 0 samples were presumed to be from just before virus exposure, and underwent plaque reduction neutralization testing (PRNT. Seventeen "susceptible" (six DENV-1, five DENV-2, and six DENV-4, and 32 "non-susceptible" (13 exposed to DENV-1, 10 DENV-2, and 9 DENV-4 subjects were evaluated. Comparing subjects exposed to the same serotype, receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves identified homotypic PRNT titers of 11, 323 and 16 for DENV-1, -2 and -4, respectively, to differentiate "susceptible" from "non-susceptible" subjects.PRNT titers were associated with protection from infection by DENV-1, -2 and -4. Protective NTs appeared to be serotype-dependent and may be higher for DENV-2 than other serotypes. These findings are relevant for both dengue epidemiology studies and vaccine development efforts.

  18. A camelid single-domain antibody neutralizes botulinum neurotoxin A by blocking host receptor binding

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    Yao, Guorui; Lam, Kwok-ho; Weisemann, Jasmin; Peng, Lisheng; Krez, Nadja; Perry, Kay; Shoemaker, Charles B.; Dong, Min; Rummel, Andreas; Jin, Rongsheng (BCH); (Cornell); (Tufts CTSI); (UCI); (MHH)

    2017-08-07

    Antibody treatment is currently the only available countermeasure for botulism, a fatal illness caused by flaccid paralysis of muscles due to botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) intoxication. Among the seven major serotypes of BoNT/A-G, BoNT/A poses the most serious threat to humans because of its high potency and long duration of action. Prior to entering neurons and blocking neurotransmitter release, BoNT/A recognizes motoneurons via a dual-receptor binding process in which it engages both the neuron surface polysialoganglioside (PSG) and synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2). Previously, we identified a potent neutralizing antitoxin against BoNT/A1 termed ciA-C2, derived from a camelid heavy-chain-only antibody (VHH). In this study, we demonstrate that ciA-C2 prevents BoNT/A1 intoxication by inhibiting its binding to neuronal receptor SV2. Furthermore, we determined the crystal structure of ciA-C2 in complex with the receptor-binding domain of BoNT/A1 (HCA1) at 1.68 Å resolution. The structure revealed that ciA-C2 partially occupies the SV2-binding site on HCA1, causing direct interference of HCA1 interaction with both the N-glycan and peptide-moiety of SV2. Interestingly, this neutralization mechanism is similar to that of a monoclonal antibody in clinical trials, despite that ciA-C2 is more than 10-times smaller. Taken together, these results enlighten our understanding of BoNT/A1 interactions with its neuronal receptor, and further demonstrate that inhibiting toxin binding to the host receptor is an efficient countermeasure strategy.

  19. VLPs displaying a single L2 epitope induce broadly cross-neutralizing antibodies against human papillomavirus.

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    Ebenezer Tumban

    Full Text Available Virus-like Particles (VLPs display can be used to increase the immunogenicity of heterologous antigens. Here, we report the use of a bacteriophage MS2-based VLP display platform to develop a monovalent vaccine targeting a broadly neutralizing epitope in the minor capsid protein human papillomavirus (HPV that provides broad protection from diverse HPV types in a mouse pseudovirus infection model.Peptides spanning a previously described cross-neutralizing epitope from HPV type 16 were genetically inserted at the N-terminus of MS2 bacteriophage coat protein. Three of the four recombinant L2-coat proteins assembled into VLPs. L2-VLPs elicited high-titer anti-L2 antibodies in mice, similar to recombinant VLPs that we had previously made in which the L2 peptide was displayed on a surface-exposed loop on VLPs of a related bacteriophage, PP7. Somewhat surprisingly, L2-MS2 VLPs elicited antibodies that were much more broadly cross-reactive with L2 peptides from diverse HPV isolates than L2-PP7 VLPs. Similarly, mice immunized with L2-MS2 VLPs were protected from genital and cutaneous infection by highly diverse HPV pseudovirus types.We show that peptides can be displayed in a highly immunogenic fashion at the N-terminus of MS2 coat protein VLPs. A VLP-based vaccine targeting HPV L2 elicits broadly cross-reactive and cross-protective antibodies to heterologous HPV types. L2-VLPs could serve as the basis of a broadly protective second generation HPV vaccine.

  20. Evidence that active protection following oral immunization of mice with live rotavirus is not dependent on neutralizing antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R L; McNeal, M M; Sheridan, J F

    1992-05-01

    Studies were performed to determine whether active immunity against murine rotavirus (EDIM) infection of mice correlated with titers of neutralizing antibody to the challenge virus. Neonatal mice administered either murine or heterologous rotaviruses all developed diarrhea and high titers of serum rotavirus IgG. However, only mice given EDIM, the murine EB, or simian SA11-FEM strains were protected against EDIM infection when challenged 60 days later. Other serotype 3 strains (RRV, SA11-SEM), as well as strains belonging to serotypes 5 and 6 (OSU, NCDV, WC3), were not protective. Serum neutralizing antibody titers to EDIM were almost undetectable after rotavirus infection with any strain and could not, therefore, be correlated with protection. Likewise, intestinal neutralizing antibody titers were extremely low 21 days after EDIM infection, and by 60 days after inoculation, EDIM-infected mice had no greater intestinal neutralizing antibody titers than uninoculated controls. Mice inoculated with SA11-FEM as neonates had much higher serum rotavirus IgG responses than mice inoculated as adults, and only those infected with this virus as neonates were protected. Thus, although immunity to EDIM did not correlate with the presence of neutralizing antibody to EDIM, it did correlate with the overall magnitude of the immune response after inoculation with SA11-FEM.

  1. Use of Monoclonal Antibodies in the Sensitive Detection and Neutralization of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Luisa W; Henderson, Thomas D; Lam, Tina I; Stanker, Larry H

    2015-11-27

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are some of nature's most potent toxins. Due to potential food contamination, and bioterrorism concerns, the development of detection reagents, therapeutics and countermeasures are of urgent interest. Recently, we have developed a sensitive electrochemiluminescent (ECL) immunoassay for BoNT/B, using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) MCS6-27 and anti-BoNT/B rabbit polyclonal antibodies as the capture and detector. The ECL assay detected as little as 1 pg/mL BoNT/B in the buffer matrix, surpassing the detection sensitivities of the gold standard mouse bioassays. The ECL assay also allowed detection of BoNT/B in sera matrices of up to 100% sera with negligible matrix effects. This highly-sensitive assay allowed the determination of the biological half-lives of BoNT/B holotoxin in vivo. We further tested the toxin neutralization potential of our monoclonal antibodies using the mouse systemic and oral intoxication models. A combination of mAbs protected mice in both pre- and post-exposure models to lethal doses of BoNT/B. MAbs were capable of increasing survival of animals when administered even 10 h post-intoxication in an oral model, suggesting a likely time for BoNT/B complexes to reach the blood stream. More sensitive detection assays and treatments against BoNT intoxication will greatly enhance efforts to combat botulism.

  2. Somatic populations of PGT135-137 HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies identified by 454 pyrosequencing and bioinformatics

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    Jiang eZhu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Select HIV-1-infected individuals develop sera capable of neutralizing diverse viral strains. The molecular basis of this neutralization is currently being deciphered by the isolation of HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies. In one infected donor, three neutralizing antibodies, PGT135-137, were identified by assessment of neutralization from individually sorted B cells and found to recognize an epitope containing an N-linked glycan at residue 332 on HIV-1 gp120. Here we use deep sequencing and bioinformatics methods to interrogate the B cell record of this donor to gain a more complete understanding of the humoral immune response. PGT135-137-gene family-specific primers were used to amplify heavy and light chain-variable domain sequences. 454 pyrosequencing produced 141,298 heavy-chain sequences of IGHV4-39 origin and 87,229 light-chain sequences of IGKV3-15 origin. A number of heavy and light chain sequences of ~90% identity to PGT137, several to PGT136, and none of high identity to PGT135 were identified. After expansion of these sequences to include close phylogenetic relatives, a total of 202 heavy-chain sequences and 72 light-chain sequences were identified. These sequences were clustered into populations of 95% identity comprising 15 for heavy chain and 10 for light chain, and a select sequence from each population was synthesized and reconstituted with a PGT137-partner chain. Reconstituted antibodies showed varied neutralization phenotypes for HIV-1 clade A and D isolates. Sequence diversity of the antibody population represented by these tested sequences was notably higher than observed with a 454 pyrosequencing-control analysis on 10 antibodies of defined sequence, suggesting that this diversity results primarily from somatic maturation. Our results thus provide an example of how pathogens like HIV-1 are opposed by a varied humoral immune response, derived from intrinsic mechanisms of antibody development, and embodied by somatic populations

  3. Characterization of a Large Panel of Rabbit Monoclonal Antibodies against HIV-1 gp120 and Isolation of Novel Neutralizing Antibodies against the V3 Loop.

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    Yali Qin

    Full Text Available We recently reported the induction of potent, cross-clade neutralizing antibodies (nAbs against Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1 in rabbits using gp120 based on an M-group consensus sequence. To better characterize these antibodies, 93 hybridomas were generated, which represent the largest panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs ever generated from a vaccinated rabbit. The single most frequently recognized epitope of the isolated mAbs was at the very C-terminal end of the protein (APTKAKRRVVEREKR, followed by the V3 loop. A total of seven anti-V3 loop mAbs were isolated, two of which (10A3 and 10A37 exhibited neutralizing activity. In contrast to 10A3 and most other anti-V3 loop nAbs, 10A37 was atypical with its epitope positioned more towards the C-terminal half of the loop. To our knowledge, 10A37 is the most potent and broadly neutralizing anti-V3 loop mAb induced by vaccination. Interestingly, all seven anti-V3 loop mAbs competed with PGT121, suggesting a possibility that early induction of potent anti-V3 loop antibodies could prevent induction of more broadly neutralizing PGT121-like antibodies that target the conserved base of the V3 loop stem.

  4. Cross-reactive antibodies in convalescent SARS patients' sera against the emerging novel human coronavirus EMC (2012) by both immunofluorescent and neutralizing antibody tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwok-Hung; Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Tse, Herman; Chen, Honglin; Lau, Candy Choi-Yi; Cai, Jian-Piao; Tsang, Alan Ka-Lun; Xiao, Xincai; To, Kelvin Kai-Wang; Lau, Susanna Kar-Pui; Woo, Patrick Chiu-Yat; Zheng, Bo-Jiang; Wang, Ming; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2013-08-01

    A severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like disease due to a novel betacoronavirus, human coronavirus EMC (HCoV-EMC), has emerged recently. HCoV-EMC is phylogenetically closely related to Tylonycteris-bat-coronavirus-HKU4 and Pipistrellus-bat-coronavirus-HKU5 in Hong Kong. We conducted a seroprevalence study on archived sera from 94 game-food animal handlers at a wild life market, 28 SARS patients, and 152 healthy blood donors in Southern China to assess the zoonotic potential and evidence for intrusion of HCoV-EMC and related viruses into humans. Anti-HCoV-EMC and anti-SARS-CoV antibodies were detected using screening indirect immunofluorescence (IF) and confirmatory neutralizing antibody tests. Two (2.1%) animal handlers had IF antibody titer of ≥ 1:20 against both HCoV-EMC and SARS-CoV with neutralizing antibody titer of SARS patients had significant IF antibody titers with 7/28 (25%) having anti-HCoV-EMC neutralizing antibodies at low titers which significantly correlated with that of HCoV-OC43. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated a significant B-cell epitope overlapping the heptad repeat-2 region of Spike protein. Virulence of SARS-CoV over other betacoronaviruses may boost cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies against other betacoronaviruses. Convalescent SARS sera may contain cross-reactive antibodies against other betacoronaviruses and confound seroprevalence study for HCoV-EMC. Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Humanization and characterization of an anti-ricin neutralization monoclonal antibody.

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    Wei-Gang Hu

    Full Text Available Ricin is regarded as a high terrorist risk for the public due to its high toxicity and ease of production. Currently, there is no therapeutic or vaccine available against ricin. D9, a murine monoclonal antibody developed previously in our laboratory, can strongly neutralize ricin and is therefore a good candidate for humanization. Humanization of D9 variable regions was achieved by a complementarity-determining region grafting approach. The humanized D9 (hD9 variable regions were further grafted onto human heavy and light chain constant regions to assemble the complete antibody gene. A foot-and-mouth-disease virus-derived 2A self-processing sequence was introduced between heavy and light chain DNA sequences to cleave the recombinant protein into a functional full-length antibody molecule from a single open reading frame driven by a single promoter in an adenoviral vector. After expression in mammalian cells and purification, the hD9 was demonstrated to have equimolar expression of the full-length antibody heavy and light chains. More importantly, the hD9 exhibited high affinity to ricin with K(D of 1.63 nM, comparable to its parental murine D9 (2.55 nM. In a mouse model, intraperitoneal (i.p. administration of hD9, at a low dose of 5 µg per mouse, 4 hours after the i.p. challenge with 5×LD50 ricin was found to rescue 100% of the mice. In addition, administered 6 hours post-challenge, hD9 could still rescue 50% of the mice. The hD9 has the potential to be used for prophylactic or therapeutic purposes against ricin poisoning.

  6. Humanization and characterization of an anti-ricin neutralization monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei-Gang; Yin, Junfei; Chau, Damon; Negrych, Laurel M; Cherwonogrodzky, John W

    2012-01-01

    Ricin is regarded as a high terrorist risk for the public due to its high toxicity and ease of production. Currently, there is no therapeutic or vaccine available against ricin. D9, a murine monoclonal antibody developed previously in our laboratory, can strongly neutralize ricin and is therefore a good candidate for humanization. Humanization of D9 variable regions was achieved by a complementarity-determining region grafting approach. The humanized D9 (hD9) variable regions were further grafted onto human heavy and light chain constant regions to assemble the complete antibody gene. A foot-and-mouth-disease virus-derived 2A self-processing sequence was introduced between heavy and light chain DNA sequences to cleave the recombinant protein into a functional full-length antibody molecule from a single open reading frame driven by a single promoter in an adenoviral vector. After expression in mammalian cells and purification, the hD9 was demonstrated to have equimolar expression of the full-length antibody heavy and light chains. More importantly, the hD9 exhibited high affinity to ricin with K(D) of 1.63 nM, comparable to its parental murine D9 (2.55 nM). In a mouse model, intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of hD9, at a low dose of 5 µg per mouse, 4 hours after the i.p. challenge with 5×LD50 ricin was found to rescue 100% of the mice. In addition, administered 6 hours post-challenge, hD9 could still rescue 50% of the mice. The hD9 has the potential to be used for prophylactic or therapeutic purposes against ricin poisoning.

  7. Glycosylation of gp41 of simian immunodeficiency virus shields epitopes that can be targets for neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuste, Eloìsa; Bixby, Jacqueline; Lifson, Jeffrey; Sato, Shuji; Johnson, Welkin; Desrosiers, Ronald

    2008-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and simian immunodeficiency virus possess three closely spaced, highly conserved sites for N-linked carbohydrate attachment in the extracellular domain of the transmembrane protein gp41. We infected rhesus monkeys with a variant of cloned SIVmac239 lacking the second and third sites or with a variant strain lacking all three of SIVmac239's glycosylation sites in gp41. For each mutation, asparagine (N) in the canonical N-X-S/T recognition sequence for carbohydrate attachment was changed to the structurally similar glutamine such that two nucleotide changes would be required for a reversion of the mutated codon. By 16 weeks, experimentally infected monkeys made antibodies that neutralized the mutant viruses to high titers. Such antibodies were not observed in monkeys infected with the parental virus. Thus, new specificities were revealed as a result of the carbohydrate attachment mutations, and antibodies of these specificities had neutralizing activity. Unlike monkeys infected with the parental virus, monkeys infected with the mutant viruses made antibodies that reacted with peptides corresponding to the sequences in this region. Furthermore, there was strong selective pressure for the emergence of variant sequences in this region during the course of infection. By analyzing the neutralization profiles of sequence variants, we were able to define three mutations (Q625R, K631N, and Q634H) in the region of the glycosylation site mutations that conferred resistance to neutralization by plasma from the monkeys infected with mutant virus. Based on the reactivity of antibodies to peptides in this region and the colocalization of neutralization escape mutations, we conclude that N-linked carbohydrates in the ectodomain of the transmembrane protein shield underlying epitopes that would otherwise be the direct targets of neutralizing antibodies.

  8. Neutralizing antibody affords comparable protection against vaginal and rectal simian/human immunodeficiency virus challenge in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldt, Brian; Le, Khoa M; Carnathan, Diane G; Whitney, James B; Schultz, Niccole; Lewis, Mark G; Borducchi, Erica N; Smith, Kaitlin M; Mackel, Joseph J; Sweat, Shelby L; Hodges, Andrew P; Godzik, Adam; Parren, Paul W H I; Silvestri, Guido; Barouch, Dan H; Burton, Dennis R

    2016-06-19

    Passive administration of broadly neutralizing antibodies has been shown to protect against both vaginal and rectal challenge in the simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)/macaque model of HIV transmission. However, the relative efficacy of antibody against the two modes of exposure is unknown and, given differences in the composition and immunology of the two tissue compartments, this is an important gap in knowledge. To investigate the significance of the challenge route for antibody-mediated protection, we performed a comparative protection study in macaques using the highly potent human monoclonal antibody, PGT126. Animals were administered PGT126 at three different doses before challenged either vaginally or rectally with a single dose of SHIVSF163P3. Viral loads, PGT126 serum concentrations, and serum neutralizing titers were monitored. In vaginally challenged animals, sterilizing immunity was achieved in all animals administered 10 mg/kg, in two of five animals administered 2 mg/kg and in one of five animals administered 0.4 mg/kg PGT126. Comparable protection was observed for the corresponding groups challenged rectally as sterilizing immunity was achieved in three of four animals administered 10 mg/kg, in two of four animals administered 2 mg/kg and in none of four animals administered 0.4 mg/kg PGT126. Serological analysis showed similar serum concentrations of PGT126 and serum neutralization titers in animals administered the same antibody dose. Our data suggest that broadly neutralizing antibody-mediated protection is not strongly dependent on the mucosal route of challenge, which indicates that a vaccine aimed to induce a neutralizing antibody response would have broadly similar efficacy against both primary transmission routes for HIV.

  9. Rapid high-level production of functional HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in transient plant expression systems.

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    Yvonne Rosenberg

    Full Text Available Passive immunotherapy using anti-HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs has shown promise as an HIV treatment, reducing mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV in non-human primates and decreasing viral rebound in patients who ceased receiving anti-viral drugs. In addition, a cocktail of potent mAbs may be useful as mucosal microbicides and provide an effective therapy for post-exposure prophylaxis. However, even highly neutralizing HIV mAbs used today may lose their effectiveness if resistance occurs, requiring the rapid production of new or engineered mAbs on an ongoing basis in order to counteract the viral resistance or the spread of a certain HIV-1 clade in a particular region or patient. Plant-based expression systems are fast, inexpensive and scalable and are becoming increasingly popular for the production of proteins and monoclonal antibodies. In the present study, Agrobacterium-mediated transient transfection of plants, utilizing two species of Nicotiana, have been tested to rapidly produce high levels of an HIV 89.6PΔ140env and several well-studied anti-HIV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (b12, 2G12, 2F5, 4E10, m43, VRC01 or a single chain antibody construct (m9, for evaluation in cell-based viral inhibition assays. The protein-A purified plant-derived antibodies were intact, efficiently bound HIV envelope, and were equivalent to, or in one case better than, their counterparts produced in mammalian CHO or HEK-293 cells in both neutralization and antibody dependent viral inhibition assays. These data indicate that transient plant-based transient expression systems are very adaptable and could rapidly generate high levels of newly identified functional recombinant HIV neutralizing antibodies when required. In addition, they warrant detailed cost-benefit analysis of prolonged incubation in plants to further increase mAb production.

  10. Rapid high-level production of functional HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in transient plant expression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Yvonne; Sack, Markus; Montefiori, David; Forthal, Donald; Mao, Lingjun; Hernandez-Abanto, Segundo; Urban, Lori; Landucci, Gary; Fischer, Rainer; Jiang, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Passive immunotherapy using anti-HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has shown promise as an HIV treatment, reducing mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in non-human primates and decreasing viral rebound in patients who ceased receiving anti-viral drugs. In addition, a cocktail of potent mAbs may be useful as mucosal microbicides and provide an effective therapy for post-exposure prophylaxis. However, even highly neutralizing HIV mAbs used today may lose their effectiveness if resistance occurs, requiring the rapid production of new or engineered mAbs on an ongoing basis in order to counteract the viral resistance or the spread of a certain HIV-1 clade in a particular region or patient. Plant-based expression systems are fast, inexpensive and scalable and are becoming increasingly popular for the production of proteins and monoclonal antibodies. In the present study, Agrobacterium-mediated transient transfection of plants, utilizing two species of Nicotiana, have been tested to rapidly produce high levels of an HIV 89.6PΔ140env and several well-studied anti-HIV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (b12, 2G12, 2F5, 4E10, m43, VRC01) or a single chain antibody construct (m9), for evaluation in cell-based viral inhibition assays. The protein-A purified plant-derived antibodies were intact, efficiently bound HIV envelope, and were equivalent to, or in one case better than, their counterparts produced in mammalian CHO or HEK-293 cells in both neutralization and antibody dependent viral inhibition assays. These data indicate that transient plant-based transient expression systems are very adaptable and could rapidly generate high levels of newly identified functional recombinant HIV neutralizing antibodies when required. In addition, they warrant detailed cost-benefit analysis of prolonged incubation in plants to further increase mAb production.

  11. Immune perturbations in HIV-1-infected individuals who make broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, M Anthony; Pedroza-Pacheco, Isabela; Vandergrift, Nathan A; Chui, Cecilia; Lloyd, Krissey E; Parks, Robert; Soderberg, Kelly A; Ogbe, Ane T; Cohen, Myron S; Liao, Hua-Xin; Gao, Feng; McMichael, Andrew J; Montefiori, David C; Verkoczy, Laurent; Kelsoe, Garnett; Huang, Jinghe; Shea, Patrick R; Connors, Mark; Borrow, Persephone; Haynes, Barton F

    2016-07-29

    Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a goal of HIV-1 vaccine development. bnAbs occur in some HIV-1-infected individuals and frequently have characteristics of autoantibodies. We have studied cohorts of HIV-1-infected individuals who made bnAbs and compared them with those who did not do so, and determined immune traits associated with the ability to produce bnAbs. HIV-1-infected individuals with bnAbs had a higher frequency of blood autoantibodies, a lower frequency of regulatory CD4+ T cells, a higher frequency of circulating memory T follicular helper CD4+ cells, and a higher T regulatory cell level of programmed cell death-1 expression compared with HIV-1-infected individuals without bnAbs. Thus, induction of HIV-1 bnAbs may require vaccination regimens that transiently mimic immunologic perturbations in HIV-1-infected individuals. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Rapid High-Level Production of Functional HIV Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies in Transient Plant Expression Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yvonne Rosenberg; Markus Sack; David Montefiori; Donald Forthal; Lingjun Mao; Segundo Hernandez-Abanto; Lori Urban; Gary Landucci; Rainer Fischer; Xiaoming Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Passive immunotherapy using anti-HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has shown promise as an HIV treatment, reducing mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in non-human primates and decreasing viral rebound in patients who ceased receiving anti-viral drugs. In addition, a cocktail of potent mAbs may be useful as mucosal microbicides and provide an effective therapy for post-exposure prophylaxis. However, even highly neutralizing HIV...

  13. HPV16/18 L1 VLP Vaccine Induces Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies that May Mediate Cross-Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Troy J; Hildesheim, Allan; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Dauner, Joseph G.; Pan, Yuanji; Porras, Carolina; Schiller, John T.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Herrero, Rolando; Pinto, Ligia A

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 VLP-based vaccines are protective against HPV vaccine-related types; however, the correlates of protection have not been defined. We observed that vaccination with Cervarix™ induced cross-neutralizing antibodies for HPV types for which evidence of vaccine efficacy has been demonstrated (HPV31/45) but not for other types (HPV52/58). In addition, HPV31/45 cross-neutralizing titers showed a significant increase with number of doses (HPV31, p

  14. HIV type 1 subtype A envelope genetic evolution in a slow progressing individual with consistent broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieltjens, Tessa; Loots, Nathalie; Vereecken, Katleen; Grupping, Katrijn; Heyndrickx, Leo; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Vanham, Guido; Davis, David; Janssens, Wouter

    2009-11-01

    Studies of viruses taken from individuals with broad cross-neutralizing antibodies against primary isolates may reveal novel antibody specificities and their associated epitopes that could be useful for immunogen design. We report on the Env antigenic variability of a slow progressing HIV-1 subtype A-infected donor with consistent broad cross-neutralizing antibodies during the second decade of disease progression after vertical transmission. The Env evolution is characterized by a genetic shift to variants with altered V1-V5 loop sequences, marked by consecutive changes in V1, V4-V5, and C3 and largely conserved V2 and V3 loop sequences. Major V1 Env sequence expansion, variation by a duplication event, and cumulative addition of cysteine residues and potential N-glycosylation sites over time may contribute to escape from antibody pressure directed to Env receptor domains by changing the exposure of neutralization-sensitive epitopes. Conservation of functional epitopes may correlate with the continued presence of broad cross-neutralizing antibodies.

  15. Structure of a Major Antigenic Site on the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Glycoprotein in Complex with Neutralizing Antibody 101F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLellan, Jason S.; Chen, Man; Chang, Jung-San; Yang, Yongping; Kim, Albert; Graham, Barney S.; Kwong, Peter D. (NIH)

    2010-11-19

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in infants and elderly people. Currently there is no effective vaccine against RSV, but passive prophylaxis with neutralizing antibodies reduces hospitalizations. To investigate the mechanism of antibody-mediated RSV neutralization, we undertook structure-function studies of monoclonal antibody 101F, which binds a linear epitope in the RSV fusion glycoprotein. Crystal structures of the 101F antigen-binding fragment in complex with peptides from the fusion glycoprotein defined both the extent of the linear epitope and the interactions of residues that are mutated in antibody escape variants. The structure allowed for modeling of 101F in complex with trimers of the fusion glycoprotein, and the resulting models suggested that 101F may contact additional surfaces located outside the linear epitope. This hypothesis was supported by surface plasmon resonance experiments that demonstrated 101F bound the peptide epitope {approx}16,000-fold more weakly than the fusion glycoprotein. The modeling also showed no substantial clashes between 101F and the fusion glycoprotein in either the pre- or postfusion state, and cell-based assays indicated that 101F neutralization was not associated with blocking virus attachment. Collectively, these results provide a structural basis for RSV neutralization by antibodies that target a major antigenic site on the fusion glycoprotein.

  16. HIV-1 superinfection in women broadens and strengthens the neutralizing antibody response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Cortez

    Full Text Available Identifying naturally-occurring neutralizing antibodies (NAb that are cross-reactive against all global subtypes of HIV-1 is an important step toward the development of a vaccine. Establishing the host and viral determinants for eliciting such broadly NAbs is also critical for immunogen design. NAb breadth has previously been shown to be positively associated with viral diversity. Therefore, we hypothesized that superinfected individuals develop a broad NAb response as a result of increased antigenic stimulation by two distinct viruses. To test this hypothesis, plasma samples from 12 superinfected women each assigned to three singly infected women were tested against a panel of eight viruses representing four different HIV-1 subtypes at matched time points post-superinfection (~5 years post-initial infection. Here we show superinfected individuals develop significantly broader NAb responses post-superinfection when compared to singly infected individuals (RR = 1.68, CI: 1.23-2.30, p = 0.001. This was true even after controlling for NAb breadth developed prior to superinfection, contemporaneous CD4+ T cell count and viral load. Similarly, both unadjusted and adjusted analyses showed significantly greater potency in superinfected cases compared to controls. Notably, two superinfected individuals were able to neutralize variants from four different subtypes at plasma dilutions >1∶300, suggesting that their NAbs exhibit elite activity. Cross-subtype breadth was detected within a year of superinfection in both of these individuals, which was within 1.5 years of their initial infection. These data suggest that sequential infections lead to augmentation of the NAb response, a process that may provide insight into potential mechanisms that contribute to the development of antibody breadth. Therefore, a successful vaccination strategy that mimics superinfection may lead to the development of broad NAbs in immunized individuals.

  17. Transition to Sustainable Energy Neutral Districts before 2050. Innovative Concepts and Pilots for the Built Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonska, B.; Ruijg, G.J.; Opstelten, I.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Epema, T. [TNO Bouw en Ondergrond, Delft (Netherlands); Willems, E.M.M. [Cauberg-Huygen Consulting Engineers, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    The Dutch project 'Transition in Energy and Process for a Sustainable District Development' focuses on the transition to sustainable, energy neutral districts in 2050, particularly in energy concepts and decision processes. The main objective of the technical research is to develop four to six innovative energy concepts for 2050 for the four Dutch cities of Almere, Apeldoorn, Nijmegen and Tilburg, as well as the roadmap for realising this target. Firstly, 14 variations of six general energy concepts have been developed and calculations conducted on the energy neutrality in 2020, 2035 and 2050 by means of an Excel model designed for this purpose. Three concepts are based on the idea of an energy hub (smart district heating, cooling and electricity networks, in which generation, storage, conversion and exchange of energy are all incorporated): the geo hub (using waste heat and/or geothermal energy), the bio hub (using waste heat and/or biomass) and the solar hub (using only solar energy). The fourth concept is the so-called all-electric concept, based predominantly on heat pumps, PV and conversion of high temperature heat from vacuum collectors to electricity. The fifth concept uses only conventional technologies that have been applied since the second half of the previous century, and the sixth one uses only hydrogen. Calculations show that by implementing the hub concepts, the energy neutrality in 2050 ranges from 130 % (solar hubs) to 164% (geo hubs), excluding personal transport within the district. With the all-electric concept, an energy neutrality of 157% can be reached. Hydrogen only and Conventional concepts perform worse, but nevertheless reach an energy neutrality of around 115% in 2050. The energy neutrality shows the extent to which a district, in which the given concept is implemented, can supply itself with sustainable energy generated within the boundaries of that district. Based on the six general concepts, the most optimal energy concepts

  18. Kinetic and HPV infection effects on cross-type neutralizing antibody and avidity responses induced by Cervarix®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Troy J.; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Hildesheim, Allan; Pan, Yuanji; Penrose, Kerri J.; Porras, Carolina; Schiller, John T.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Herrero, Rolando; Pinto, Ligia A.

    2012-01-01

    Background We previously demonstrated that Cervarix® elicits antibody responses against vaccine-related types for which clinical efficacy was demonstrated (HPV-31 and -45). Here, we evaluated the kinetics of neutralization titers and avidity of Cervarix®-induced antibodies up to 36 months of follow-up in unexposed and HPV infected women. Methods A subset of women who participated in the Cost Rica HPV-16/18 Vaccine Trial had pre- and post-vaccination sera tested for antibody responses to HPV-16, -18, -31, -45, and -58 using a pseudovirion-based neutralization assay, and HPV-16 antibody avidity using an HPV-16 L1 VLP (virus-like particle)-based ELISA developed in our laboratory. Results In uninfected women, neutralizing antibody titers did not reach significance until after the 3rd dose for HPV-31 (month 12, p=0.009) and HPV-45 (month 12, p=0.003), but then persisted up to month 36 (HPV-31, p=0.01; HPV-45, p=0.002). Individuals infected with HPV-16 or HPV-31 at enrollment developed a significantly higher median antibody response to the corresponding HPV type after one dose, but there was not a difference between median titers after three doses compared to the HPV negative group. Median HPV-16 antibody avidity and titer increased over time up to month 12; however, the HPV-16 avidity did not correlate well with HPV-16 neutralizing antibody titers at each time point examined, except for month 6. The median avidity levels were higher in HPV-16 infected women at month 1 (p=0.04) and lower in HPV-16 infected women at month 12 (p=0.006) compared to the HPV negative women. Conclusions The persistence of cross-neutralization titers at month 36 suggests cross-reactive antibody responses are likely to persist long-term and are not influenced by infection status at enrollment. However, the weak correlation between avidity and neutralization titers emphasizes the need for examining avidity in efficacy studies to determine if high avidity antibodies play a critical role in

  19. Kinetic and HPV infection effects on cross-type neutralizing antibody and avidity responses induced by Cervarix(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Troy J; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Hildesheim, Allan; Pan, Yuanji; Penrose, Kerri J; Porras, Carolina; Schiller, John T; Lowy, Douglas R; Herrero, Rolando; Pinto, Ligia A

    2012-12-17

    We previously demonstrated that Cervarix(®) elicits antibody responses against vaccine-related types for which clinical efficacy was demonstrated (HPV-31 and -45). Here, we evaluated the kinetics of neutralization titers and avidity of Cervarix(®)-induced antibodies up to 36 months of follow-up in unexposed and HPV infected women. A subset of women who participated in the Cost Rica HPV-16/18 Vaccine Trial had pre- and post-vaccination sera tested for antibody responses to HPV-16, -18, -31, -45, and -58 using a pseudovirion-based neutralization assay, and HPV-16 antibody avidity using an HPV-16 L1 VLP (virus-like particle)-based ELISA developed in our laboratory. In uninfected women, neutralizing antibody titers did not reach significance until after the 3rd dose for HPV-31 (month 12, p=0.009) and HPV-45 (month 12, p=0.003), but then persisted up to month 36 (HPV-31, p=0.01; HPV-45, p=0.002). Individuals infected with HPV-16 or HPV-31 at enrollment developed a significantly higher median antibody response to the corresponding HPV type after one dose, but there was not a difference between median titers after three doses compared to the HPV negative group. Median HPV-16 antibody avidity and titer increased over time up to month 12; however, the HPV-16 avidity did not correlate well with HPV-16 neutralizing antibody titers at each time point examined, except for month 6. The median avidity levels were higher in HPV-16 infected women at month 1 (p=0.04) and lower in HPV-16 infected women at month 12 (p=0.006) compared to the HPV negative women. The persistence of cross-neutralization titers at month 36 suggests cross-reactive antibody responses are likely to persist long-term and are not influenced by infection status at enrollment. However, the weak correlation between avidity and neutralization titers emphasizes the need for examining avidity in efficacy studies to determine if high avidity antibodies play a critical role in protection against infection. Copyright

  20. A natural anatoxin, Amm VIII, induces neutralizing antibodies against the potent scorpion alpha-toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Eauclaire, M-F; Alami, M; Giamarchi, A; Missimilli, V; Rosso, J-P; Bougis, P E

    2006-03-15

    In this study, we have used Amm VIII, a natural anatoxin from the scorpion Androctonus mauretanicus mauretanicus, to elicit specific polyclonal antibodies in rabbit. Using liquid-phase radioimmunoassay, we have studied its selectivity and its neutralizing activity both in vitro and in vivo for the most lethal scorpion alpha-toxins described, in particular the alpha-toxin of reference AaH II. We have shown that the anti-Amm VIII serum prevents the association of 125I-AaH II with its receptor and is able to remove 125I-AaH II already bound to its site (the half-life of the complex 125I-AaH II-receptor site was 12 min in the absence of anti-Amm VIII serum but decreased to only 2 min in the presence of anti-Amm VIII serum). In vivo, the serum also has a protective effect in mice: 42 LD50 of AaH II by millilitre are neutralized, measured by subcutaneous injection.

  1. Structure of adeno-associated virus-2 in complex with neutralizing monoclonal antibody A20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCraw, Dustin M. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Mail code L224, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 S.W. Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239-3098 (United States); O& #x27; Donnell, Jason K. [Institute of Molecular Biophysics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4380 (United States); Taylor, Kenneth A. [Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4295 (United States); Stagg, Scott M. [Institute of Molecular Biophysics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4380 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Chapman, Michael S., E-mail: chapmami@ohsu.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Mail code L224, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 S.W. Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239-3098 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    The use of adeno-associated virus (AAV) as a gene therapy vector is limited by the host neutralizing immune response. The cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structure at 8.5 A resolution is determined for a complex of AAV-2 with the Fab' fragment of monoclonal antibody (MAb) A20, the most extensively characterized AAV MAb. The binding footprint is determined through fitting the cryo-EM reconstruction with a homology model following sequencing of the variable domain, and provides a structural basis for integrating diverse prior epitope mappings. The footprint extends from the previously implicated plateau to the side of the spike, and into the conserved canyon, covering a larger area than anticipated. Comparison with structures of binding and non-binding serotypes indicates that recognition depends on a combination of subtle serotype-specific features. Separation of the neutralizing epitope from the heparan sulfate cell attachment site encourages attempts to develop immune-resistant vectors that can still bind to target cells.

  2. AAV natural infection induces broad cross-neutralizing antibody responses to multiple AAV serotypes in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcedo, Roberto; Wilson, James M

    2016-06-01

    Cross-sectional studies of primates have revealed that natural neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses to adeno-associated viruses (AAV) span multiple serotypes. This differs from the phenotype of the NAb response to an AAV vector delivered to sero-negative nonhuman primates which is typically restricted to the administered AAV serotype. To better understand the mechanism by which natural AAV infections result in broad NAb responses, we conducted a longitudinal study spanning 10 years in which we evaluated serum-circulating AAV NAb levels in captive-housed chimpanzees. In a cohort of 25 chimpanzees we identified three distinct groups of animals: those which never sero-converted to AAV (naïve); those which were persistently seropositive (chronic); and those that seroconverted during the 10 year period (acute). For the chronic group we found a broad sero-response characterized by NAbs reacting to multiple AAV serotypes. A similar cross-neutralization pattern of NAbs was observed in the acute group. These data support our hypothesis that a single natural infection with AAV induces a broadly cross-reactive NAb response to multiple AAV serotypes.

  3. Generation and characterization of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against baculo-expressed HPV 16 VLPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyasagar, P; Sridevi, V N; Rajan, S; Praveen, A; Srikanth, A; Abhinay, G; Siva Kumar, V; Verma, R R; Rajendra, L

    2014-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the well-known second most cause of cervical cancer in women worldwide. According to the WHO survey, 70% of the total cervical cancers are associated with types HPV 16 and 18. Presently used prophylactic vaccine for HPV contains mainly capsid protein of L1 virus like particles (VLPs). Correct folding of VLPs and display of neutralizing epitopes are the major constraint for VLP-based vaccines. Further, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) play a vital role in developing therapeutics and diagnostics. mAbs are also useful for the demonstration of VLP conformation, virus typing and product process assessment as well. In the present study, we have explored the usefulness of mAbs generated against sf-9 expressed HPV 16 VLPs demonstrated as type-specific and conformational dependent against HPV 16 VLPs by ELISA. High affinity and high pseudovirion neutralization titer of mAbs indicated their potential for the development of prophylactic vaccines for HPV. Also, the type-specific and conformational reactivity of the mAbs to HPV 16 VLPs in sf-9 cells by immunofluorescence assay proved their diagnostic potential.

  4. Mouse in Vivo Neutralization of Escherichia coli Shiga Toxin 2 with Monoclonal Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry H. Stanker

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC food contaminations pose serious health concerns, and have been the subject of massive food recalls. STEC has been identified as the major cause of the life-threatening complication of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS. Besides supportive care, there currently are no therapeutics available. The use of antibiotics for combating pathogenic E. coli is not recommended because they have been shown to stimulate toxin production. Clearing Stx2 from the circulation could potentially lessen disease severity. In this study, we tested the in vivo neutralization of Stx2 in mice using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs. We measured the biologic half-life of Stx2 in mice and determined the distribution phase or t1/2 α to be 3 min and the clearance phase or t1/2 β to be 40 min. Neutralizing mAbs were capable of clearing Stx2 completely from intoxicated mouse blood within minutes. We also examined the persistence of these mAbs over time and showed that complete protection could be passively conferred to mice 4 weeks before exposure to Stx2. The advent of better diagnositic methods and the availability of a greater arsenal of therapeutic mAbs against Stx2 would greatly enhance treatment outcomes of life threatening E. coli infections.

  5. Clinical laboratory application of a reporter-gene assay for measurement of functional activity and neutralizing antibody response to infliximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Igor Y; Carper, James; Lázár-Molnár, Eszter; Delgado, Julio C

    2016-01-30

    TNF-α antagonists such as infliximab are effective for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and other inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Development of an immune response and subsequent neutralizing antibodies against these protein-based drugs is a major impediment that contributes to therapeutic failure, or adverse effects such as hypersensitivity reactions. As opposed to empirical dose-escalation strategies, rational and cost-effective evaluation of clinical non-responsiveness includes measurement of serum drug levels, and detection of drug-specific antibodies. We present the validation and 2-y experience using a functional, cell-based reporter gene assay (RGA) developed for measuring the biological activity and antibody response to serum infliximab. The RGA was used to test 4699 clinical specimens from patients suspected of therapeutic failure. In contrast to binding assays, which detect an overall antibody response, the RGA specifically detects those antibodies that have drug-neutralizing function, and thus, poses higher risk for therapeutic failure. The RGA presented here is currently the only functional clinical test available to measure serum infliximab activity and neutralizing antibodies. Due to its accuracy and precision, and suitability for high-throughput testing, this robust platform can be applied to any TNF-α antagonist, providing an invaluable tool for the clinical management of patients with treatment failure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolation of a human-like antibody fragment (scFv that neutralizes ricin biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thullier Philippe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ricin is a lethal toxin that inhibits protein synthesis. It is easily extracted from a ubiquitously grown plant, Ricinus communis, and thus readily available for use as a bioweapon (BW. Anti-ricin antibodies provide the only known therapeutic against ricin intoxication. Results In this study, after immunizing a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis with the ricin chain A (RTA, a phage-displayed immune library was built (2 × 108 clones, that included the λ light chain fragment. The library was screened against ricin, and specific binders were sequenced and further analyzed. The best clone, 43RCA, was isolated using a new, stringent neutralization test. 43RCA had a high, picomolar affinity (41 pM and neutralized ricin efficiently (IC50 = 23 ± 3 ng/ml, corresponding to a [scFv]/[ricin] molar ratio of 4. The neutralization capacity of 43RCA compared favourably with that of polyclonal anti-deglycosylated A chain (anti-dgRCA IgGs, obtained from hyperimmune mouse serum, which were more efficient than any monoclonal at our disposal. The 43RCA sequence is very similar to that for human IgG germline genes, with 162 of 180 identical amino acids for the VH and VL (90% sequence identity. Conclusion Results of the characterization studies, and the high degree of identity with human germline genes, altogether make this anti-ricin scFv, or an IgG derived from it, a likely candidate for use in humans to minimize effects caused by ricin intoxication.

  7. Mimicry of an HIV broadly neutralizing antibody epitope with a synthetic glycopeptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, S. Munir; Aussedat, Baptiste; Vohra, Yusuf; Meyerhoff, R. Ryan; Cale, Evan M.; Walkowicz, William E.; Radakovich, Nathan A.; Anasti, Kara; Armand, Lawrence; Parks, Robert; Sutherland, Laura; Scearce, Richard; Joyce, M. Gordon; Pancera, Marie; Druz, Aliaksandr; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Von Holle, Tarra; Eaton, Amanda; Fox, Christopher; Reed, Steven G.; Louder, Mark; Bailer, Robert T.; Morris, Lynn; Abdool-Karim, Salim S.; Cohen, Myron; Liao, Hua-Xin; Montefiori, David C.; Park, Peter K.; Fernández-Tejada, Alberto; Wiehe, Kevin; Santra, Sampa; Kepler, Thomas B.; Saunders, Kevin O.; Sodroski, Joseph; Kwong, Peter D.; Mascola, John R.; Bonsignori, Mattia; Moody, M. Anthony; Danishefsky, Samuel; Haynes, Barton F.

    2017-01-01

    A goal for an HIV-1 vaccine is to overcome virus variability by inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). One key target of bnAbs is the glycan-polypeptide at the base of the envelope (Env) third variable loop (V3). We have designed and synthesized a homogeneous minimal immunogen with high-mannose glycans reflective of a native Env V3-glycan bnAb epitope (Man9-V3). V3-glycan bnAbs bound to Man9-V3 glycopeptide and native-like gp140 trimers with similar affinities. Fluorophore-labeled Man9-V3 glycopeptides bound to bnAb memory B cells and were able to be used to isolate a V3-glycan bnAb from an HIV-1–infected individual. In rhesus macaques, immunization with Man9-V3 induced V3-glycan-targeted antibodies. Thus, the Man9-V3 glycopeptide closely mimics an HIV-1 V3-glycan bnAb epitope and can be used to isolate V3-glycan bnAbs. PMID:28298421

  8. Structural basis for the recognition of human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B by a neutralizing human antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Spindler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infections are life-threating to people with a compromised or immature immune system. Upon adhesion, fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell is initiated. In this step, the viral glycoprotein gB is considered to represent the major fusogen. Here, we present for the first time structural data on the binding of an anti-herpes virus antibody and describe the atomic interactions between the antigenic domain Dom-II of HCMV gB and the Fab fragment of the human antibody SM5-1. The crystal structure shows that SM5-1 binds Dom-II almost exclusively via only two CDRs, namely light chain CDR L1 and a 22-residue-long heavy chain CDR H3. Two contiguous segments of Dom-II are targeted by SM5-1, and the combining site includes a hydrophobic pocket on the Dom-II surface that is only partially filled by CDR H3 residues. SM5-1 belongs to a series of sequence-homologous anti-HCMV gB monoclonal antibodies that were isolated from the same donor at a single time point and that represent different maturation states. Analysis of amino acid substitutions in these antibodies in combination with molecular dynamics simulations show that key contributors to the picomolar affinity of SM5-1 do not directly interact with the antigen but significantly reduce the flexibility of CDR H3 in the bound and unbound state of SM5-1 through intramolecular side chain interactions. Thus, these residues most likely alleviate unfavorable binding entropies associated with extra-long CDR H3s, and this might represent a common strategy during antibody maturation. Models of entire HCMV gB in different conformational states hint that SM5-1 neutralizes HCMV either by blocking the pre- to postfusion transition of gB or by precluding the interaction with additional effectors such as the gH/gL complex.

  9. A next-generation cleaved, soluble HIV-1 Env trimer, BG505 SOSIP.664 gp140, expresses multiple epitopes for broadly neutralizing but not non-neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Rogier W; Derking, Ronald; Cupo, Albert; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Yasmeen, Anila; de Val, Natalia; Kim, Helen J; Blattner, Claudia; de la Peña, Alba Torrents; Korzun, Jacob; Golabek, Michael; de Los Reyes, Kevin; Ketas, Thomas J; van Gils, Marit J; King, C Richter; Wilson, Ian A; Ward, Andrew B; Klasse, P J; Moore, John P

    2013-09-01

    A desirable but as yet unachieved property of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidate is the ability to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). One approach to the problem is to create trimeric mimics of the native envelope glycoprotein (Env) spike that expose as many bNAb epitopes as possible, while occluding those for non-neutralizing antibodies (non-NAbs). Here, we describe the design and properties of soluble, cleaved SOSIP.664 gp140 trimers based on the subtype A transmitted/founder strain, BG505. These trimers are highly stable, more so even than the corresponding gp120 monomer, as judged by differential scanning calorimetry. They are also homogenous and closely resemble native virus spikes when visualized by negative stain electron microscopy (EM). We used several techniques, including ELISA and surface plasmon resonance (SPR), to determine the relationship between the ability of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to bind the soluble trimers and neutralize the corresponding virus. In general, the concordance was excellent, in that virtually all bNAbs against multiple neutralizing epitopes on HIV-1 Env were highly reactive with the BG505 SOSIP.664 gp140 trimers, including quaternary epitopes (CH01, PG9, PG16 and PGT145). Conversely, non-NAbs to the CD4-binding site, CD4-induced epitopes or gp41ECTO did not react with the trimers, even when their epitopes were present on simpler forms of Env (e.g. gp120 monomers or dissociated gp41 subunits). Three non-neutralizing MAbs to V3 epitopes did, however, react strongly with the trimers but only by ELISA, and not at all by SPR and to only a limited extent by EM. These new soluble trimers are useful for structural studies and are being assessed for their performance as immunogens.

  10. A next-generation cleaved, soluble HIV-1 Env trimer, BG505 SOSIP.664 gp140, expresses multiple epitopes for broadly neutralizing but not non-neutralizing antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier W Sanders

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A desirable but as yet unachieved property of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 vaccine candidate is the ability to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs. One approach to the problem is to create trimeric mimics of the native envelope glycoprotein (Env spike that expose as many bNAb epitopes as possible, while occluding those for non-neutralizing antibodies (non-NAbs. Here, we describe the design and properties of soluble, cleaved SOSIP.664 gp140 trimers based on the subtype A transmitted/founder strain, BG505. These trimers are highly stable, more so even than the corresponding gp120 monomer, as judged by differential scanning calorimetry. They are also homogenous and closely resemble native virus spikes when visualized by negative stain electron microscopy (EM. We used several techniques, including ELISA and surface plasmon resonance (SPR, to determine the relationship between the ability of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs to bind the soluble trimers and neutralize the corresponding virus. In general, the concordance was excellent, in that virtually all bNAbs against multiple neutralizing epitopes on HIV-1 Env were highly reactive with the BG505 SOSIP.664 gp140 trimers, including quaternary epitopes (CH01, PG9, PG16 and PGT145. Conversely, non-NAbs to the CD4-binding site, CD4-induced epitopes or gp41ECTO did not react with the trimers, even when their epitopes were present on simpler forms of Env (e.g. gp120 monomers or dissociated gp41 subunits. Three non-neutralizing MAbs to V3 epitopes did, however, react strongly with the trimers but only by ELISA, and not at all by SPR and to only a limited extent by EM. These new soluble trimers are useful for structural studies and are being assessed for their performance as immunogens.

  11. Sufficient virus-neutralizing antibody in the central nerve system improves the survival of rabid rats

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    Liao Pi-Hung

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabies is known to be lethal in human. Treatment with passive immunity for the rabies is effective only when the patients have not shown the central nerve system (CNS signs. The blood–brain barrier (BBB is a complex functional barrier that may compromise the therapeutic development in neurological diseases. The goal of this study is to determine the change of BBB integrity and to assess the therapeutic possibility of enhancing BBB permeability combined with passive immunity in the late stage of rabies virus infection. Methods The integrity of BBB permeability in rats was measured by quantitative ELISA for total IgG and albumin levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and by exogenously applying Evans blue as a tracer. Western blotting of occludin and ZO-1, two tight junction proteins, was used to assess the molecular change of BBB structure. The breakdown of BBB with hypertonic arabinose, recombinant tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rTNF-γ, and focused ultrasound (FUS were used to compare the extent of BBB disruption with rabies virus infection. Specific humoral immunity was analyzed by immunofluorescent assay and rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. Virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb 8-10E was administered to rats with hypertonic breakdown of BBB as a passive immunotherapy to prevent the death from rabies. Results The BBB permeability was altered on day 7 post-infection. Increased BBB permeability induced by rabies virus infection was observed primarily in the cerebellum and spinal cord. Occludin was significantly decreased in both the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. The rabies virus-specific antibody was not strongly elicited even in the presence of clinical signs. Disruption of BBB had no direct association with the lethal outcome of rabies. Passive immunotherapy with virus-neutralizing mAb 8-10E with the hypertonic breakdown of BBB prolonged the survival of rabies virus-infected rats. Conclusions We demonstrated

  12. Broadly neutralizing human monoclonal JC polyomavirus VP1–specific antibodies as candidate therapeutics for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelcic, Ivan; Combaluzier, Benoit; Jelcic, Ilijas; Faigle, Wolfgang; Senn, Luzia; Reinhart, Brenda J.; Ströh, Luisa; Nitsch, Roger M.; Stehle, Thilo; Sospedra, Mireia; Grimm, Jan; Martin, Roland

    2016-01-01

    In immunocompromised individuals, JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) may mutate and gain access to the central nervous system resulting in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an often fatal opportunistic infection for which no treatments are currently available. Despite recent progress, the contribution of JCPyV-specific humoral immunity to controlling asymptomatic infection throughout life and to eliminating JCPyV from the brain is poorly understood. We examined antibody responses against JCPyV major capsid protein VP1 (viral protein 1) variants in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of healthy donors (HDs), JCPyV-positive multiple sclerosis patients treated with the anti-VLA-4 monoclonal antibody natalizumab (NAT), and patients with NAT-associated PML. Before and during PML, CSF antibody responses against JCPyV VP1 variants show “recognition holes”; however, upon immune reconstitution, CSF antibody titers rise, then recognize PML-associated JCPyV VP1 variants, and may be involved in elimination of the virus. We therefore reasoned that the memory B cell repertoire of individuals who recovered from PML could be a source for the molecular cloning of broadly neutralizing antibodies for passive immunization. We generated a series of memory B cell-derived JCPyV VP1-specific human monoclonal antibodies from HDs and a patient with NAT-associated PML-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). These antibodies exhibited diverse binding affinity, cross-reactivity with the closely related BK polyomavirus, recognition of PML-causing VP1 variants, and JCPyV neutralization. Almost all antibodies with exquisite specificity for JCPyV, neutralizing activity, recognition of all tested JCPyV PML variants, and high affinity were derived from one patient who had recovered from PML. These antibodies are promising drug candidates for the development of a treatment of PML. PMID:26400911

  13. Llama-derived single domain antibodies to build multivalent, superpotent and broadened neutralizing anti-viral molecules.

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    Anna Hultberg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available For efficient prevention of viral infections and cross protection, simultaneous targeting of multiple viral epitopes is a powerful strategy. Llama heavy chain antibody fragments (VHH against the trimeric envelope proteins of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Fusion protein, Rabies virus (Glycoprotein and H5N1 Influenza (Hemagglutinin 5 were selected from llama derived immune libraries by phage display. Neutralizing VHH recognizing different epitopes in the receptor binding sites on the spikes with affinities in the low nanomolar range were identified for all the three viruses by viral neutralization assays. By fusion of VHH with variable linker lengths, multimeric constructs were made that improved neutralization potencies up to 4,000-fold for RSV, 1,500-fold for Rabies virus and 75-fold for Influenza H5N1. The potencies of the VHH constructs were similar or better than best performing monoclonal antibodies. The cross protection capacity against different viral strains was also improved for all three viruses, both by multivalent (two or three identical VHH and biparatopic (two different VHH constructs. By combining a VHH neutralizing RSV subtype A, but not subtype B with a poorly neutralizing VHH with high affinity for subtype B, a biparatopic construct was made with low nanomolar neutralizing potency against both subtypes. Trivalent anti-H5N1 VHH neutralized both Influenza H5N1 clade1 and 2 in a pseudotype assay and was very potent in neutralizing the NIBRG-14 Influenza H5N1 strain with IC(50 of 9 picomolar. Bivalent and biparatopic constructs against Rabies virus cross neutralized both 10 different Genotype 1 strains and Genotype 5.The results show that multimerization of VHH fragments targeting multiple epitopes on a viral trimeric spike protein is a powerful tool for anti-viral therapy to achieve "best-in-class" and broader neutralization capacity.

  14. Universal antibodies against the highly conserved influenza fusion peptide cross-neutralize several subtypes of influenza A virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashem, Anwar M. [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Van Domselaar, Gary [National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Li, Changgui; Wang, Junzhi [National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, Beijing (China); She, Yi-Min; Cyr, Terry D. [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Sui, Jianhua [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); He, Runtao [National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Marasco, Wayne A. [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Li, Xuguang, E-mail: Sean.Li@hc-sc.gc.ca [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-12-10

    Research highlights: {yields} The fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza viral hemagglutinins. {yields} Anti-fusion peptide antibodies are universal antibodies that cross-react with all influenza HA subtypes. {yields} The universal antibodies cross-neutralize different influenza A subtypes. {yields} The universal antibodies inhibit the fusion process between the viruses and the target cells. -- Abstract: The fusion peptide of influenza viral hemagglutinin plays a critical role in virus entry by facilitating membrane fusion between the virus and target cells. As the fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza A and B viruses, it could be an attractive target for vaccine-induced immune responses. We previously reported that antibodies targeting the first 14 amino acids of the N-terminus of the fusion peptide could bind to virtually all influenza virus strains and quantify hemagglutinins in vaccines produced in embryonated eggs. Here we demonstrate that these universal antibodies bind to the viral hemagglutinins in native conformation presented in infected mammalian cell cultures and neutralize multiple subtypes of virus by inhibiting the pH-dependant fusion of viral and cellular membranes. These results suggest that this unique, highly-conserved linear sequence in viral hemagglutinin is exposed sufficiently to be attacked by the antibodies during the course of infection and merits further investigation because of potential importance in the protection against diverse strains of influenza viruses.

  15. Mimotopes selected with a neutralizing antibody against urease B from Helicobacter pylori induce enzyme inhibitory antibodies in mice upon vaccination

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    Long Min

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urease B is an important virulence factor that is required for Helicobacter pylori to colonise the gastric mucosa. Mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs that inhibit urease B enzymatic activity will be useful as vaccines for the prevention and treatment of H. pylori infection. Here, we produced murine mAbs against urease B that neutralize the enzyme's activity. We mapped their epitopes by phage display libraries and investigated the immunogenicity of the selected mimotopes in vivo. Results The urease B gene was obtained (GenBank accession No. DQ141576 and the recombinant pGEX-4T-1/UreaseB protein was expressed in Escherichia coli as a 92-kDa recombinant fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase (GST. Five mAbs U001-U005 were produced by a hybridoma-based technique with urease B-GST as an immunogen. Only U001 could inhibit urease B enzymatic activity. Immunoscreening via phage display libraries revealed two different mimotopes of urease B protein; EXXXHDM from ph.D.12-library and EXXXHSM from ph.D.C7C that matched the urease B proteins at 347-353 aa. The antiserum induced by selected phage clones clearly recognised the urease B protein and inhibited its enzymatic activity, which indicated that the phagotope-induced immune responses were antigen specific. Conclusions The present work demonstrated that phage-displayed mimotopes were accessible to the mouse immune system and triggered a humoral response. The urease B mimotope could provide a novel and promising approach for the development of a vaccine for the diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori infection.

  16. In vivo neutralization of α-cobratoxin with high-affinity llama single-domain antibodies (VHHs and a VHH-Fc antibody.

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    Gabrielle Richard

    Full Text Available Small recombinant antibody fragments (e.g. scFvs and VHHs, which are highly tissue permeable, are being investigated for antivenom production as conventional antivenoms consisting of IgG or F(ab'2 antibody fragments do not effectively neutralize venom toxins located in deep tissues. However, antivenoms composed entirely of small antibody fragments may have poor therapeutic efficacy due to their short serum half-lives. To increase serum persistence and maintain tissue penetration, we prepared low and high molecular mass antivenom antibodies. Four llama VHHs were isolated from an immune VHH-displayed phage library and were shown to have high affinity, in the low nM range, for α-cobratoxin (α-Cbtx, the most lethal component of Naja kaouthia venom. Subsequently, our highest affinity VHH (C2 was fused to a human Fc fragment to create a VHH2-Fc antibody that would offer prolonged serum persistence. After in planta (Nicotiana benthamiana expression and purification, we show that our VHH2-Fc antibody retained high affinity binding to α-Cbtx. Mouse α-Cbtx challenge studies showed that our highest affinity VHHs (C2 and C20 and the VHH2-Fc antibody effectively neutralized lethality induced by α-Cbtx at an antibody:toxin molar ratio as low as ca. 0.75×:1. Further research towards the development of an antivenom therapeutic involving these anti-α-Cbtx VHHs and VHH2-Fc antibody molecules should involve testing them as a combination, to determine whether they maintain tissue penetration capability and low immunogenicity, and whether they exhibit improved serum persistence and therapeutic efficacy.

  17. Neutralizing antibody and perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. New York City Perinatal HIV Transmission Collaborative Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengel, R L; Kennedy, M S; Steketee, R W; Thea, D M; Abrams, E J; Lambert, G; McDougal, J S

    1998-04-10

    The major immunologic determinants for perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remain largely unknown. The presence of maternal neutralizing antibodies has been proposed as an explanation for why the majority of infants born to untreated HIV-1-infected women do not become infected. Using maternal and infant specimens collected as part of a longitudinal cohort study of perinatal transmission in New York City between 1991 and 1995, we successfully obtained primary viral isolates from 10 of 20 perinatally nontransmitting (NTR) women, 14 of 20 perinatally transmitting (TR) women, and 13 of 13 of their HIV-1-infected infants. Neutralizing antibody titers were then determined using a titer reduction assay. TR and NTR women did not differ in their ability to neutralize autologous virus or laboratory strains LAI and MN. Infant viruses were not less sensitive to neutralization by maternal sera than autologous viruses. Similarly, TR and NTR isolates were neutralized equally well using a reference serum with broad neutralizing ability. Finally, a heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA) was used to analyze the degree of viral homology within 13 TR maternal-infant pairs. In eight pairs, maternal and infant isolates were highly homologous. In five pairs, lesser degrees of homology were observed, consistent with perinatal transmission of a minor species. However, these isolates were no more or less resistant to maternal sera than were homologous isolates. Thus we found no association between the presence of neutralizing antibody in maternal sera as measured by a titer reduction neutralization (inactivation) assay and perinatal transmission of HIV-1.

  18. In vivo evaluation of the cross-genotype neutralizing activity of polyclonal antibodies against hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meuleman, Philip; Bukh, Jens; Verhoye, Lieven

    2011-01-01

    , the outcome of a homologous challenge is highly influenced by the amount of challenge virus injected. Depending on the viral genotype used, H06-antibodies were able to protect up to 50% of chimeric mice from a heterologous challenge. Animals in which the antibody pretreatment failed displayed a clear delay......Control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a huge challenge of global medical importance. Using a variety of in vitro approaches, neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) have been identified in patients with acute and chronic hepatitis C. The exact role these nAbs play in the resolution of acute...... genotypes (gt) in vivo. Following passive immunization with H06-antibodies, chimeric mice were challenged with the consensus strains H77C (gt1a), ED43 (gt4a), or HK6a (gt6a). In accordance with previous results, H06-antibodies prevented infection of chimeric mice with the autologous virus. However...

  19. Novel human monoclonal antibody combination effectively neutralizing natural rabies virus variants and individual in vitro escape mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Alexander B. H.; Marissen, Wilfred E.; Kramer, R. Arjen; Rice, Amy B.; Weldon, William C.; Niezgoda, Michael; Hanlon, Cathleen A.; Thijsse, Sandra; Backus, Harold H. J.; de Kruif, John; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2005-01-01

    The need to replace rabies immune globulin (RIG) as an essential component of rabies postexposure prophylaxis is widely acknowledged. We set out to discover a unique combination of human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) able to replace RIG. Stringent criteria concerning neutralizing potency, affinity,

  20. A New Glycan-Dependent CD4-Binding Site Neutralizing Antibody Exerts Pressure on HIV-1 In Vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freund, Natalia T.; Horwitz, Joshua A.; Nogueira, Lilian; Sievers, Stuart A.; Scharf, Louise; Scheid, Johannes F.; Gazumyan, Anna; Liu, Cassie; Velinzon, Klara; Goldenthal, Ariel; Sanders, Rogier W.; Moore, John P.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Seaman, Michael S.; Walker, Bruce D.; Klein, Florian; Nussenzweig, Michel C.

    2015-01-01

    The CD4 binding site (CD4bs) on the envelope glycoprotein is a major site of vulnerability that is conserved among different HIV-1 isolates. Many broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to the CD4bs belong to the VRC01 class, sharing highly restricted origins, recognition mechanisms and viral escape

  1. Isolation and characterization of broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to the e1 glycoprotein of hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Russell, Rodney S.; Goossens, Vera

    2008-01-01

    The relative importance of humoral and cellular immunity in the prevention or clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is poorly understood. However, there is considerable evidence that neutralizing antibodies are involved in disease control. Here we describe the detailed analysis of human...

  2. Generation of recombinant single-chain antibodies neutralizing the cytolytic activity of vaginolysin, the main virulence factor of Gardnerella vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleckaityte, Milda; Mistiniene, Edita; Lasickiene, Rita; Zvirblis, Gintautas; Zvirbliene, Aurelija

    2011-11-03

    Gardnerella vaginalis is identified as the predominant colonist of the vaginal tract in women with bacterial vaginosis. Vaginolysin (VLY) is a protein toxin released by G. vaginalis. VLY possesses cytolytic activity and is considered as a main virulence factor of G. vaginalis. Inhibition of VLY-mediated cell lysis by antibodies may have important physiological relevance. Single-chain variable fragments of immunoglobulins (scFvs) were cloned from two hybridoma cell lines producing neutralizing antibodies against VLY and expressed as active proteins in E. coli. For each hybridoma, two variants of anti-VLY scFv consisting of either VL-VH or VH-VL linked with a 20 aa-long linker sequence (G₄S)₄ were constructed. Recovery of scFvs from inclusion bodies with subsequent purification by metal-chelate chromatography resulted in VLY-binding proteins that were predominantly monomeric. The antigen-binding activity of purified scFvs was verified by an indirect ELISA. The neutralizing activity was investigated by in vitro hemolytic assay and cytolytic assay using HeLa cell line. Calculated apparent Kd values and neutralizing potency of scFvs were in agreement with those of parental full-length antibodies. VH-VL and VL-VH variants of scFvs showed similar affinity and neutralizing potency. The anti-VLY scFvs derived from hybridoma clone 9B4 exhibited high VLY-neutralizing activity both on human erythrocytes and cervical epithelial HeLa cells. Hybridoma-derived scFvs with VLY-binding activity were expressed in E. coli. Recombinant anti-VLY scFvs inhibited VLY-mediated cell lysis. The monovalent scFvs showed reduced affinity and neutralizing potency as compared to the respective full-length antibodies. The loss of avidity could be restored by generating scFv constructs with multivalent binding properties. Generated scFvs is the first example of recombinant single-chain antibodies with VLY-neutralizing activity produced in prokaryote expression system. G. vaginalis caused

  3. Generation of recombinant single-chain antibodies neutralizing the cytolytic activity of vaginolysin, the main virulence factor of Gardnerella vaginalis

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    Pleckaityte Milda

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gardnerella vaginalis is identified as the predominant colonist of the vaginal tract in women with bacterial vaginosis. Vaginolysin (VLY is a protein toxin released by G. vaginalis. VLY possesses cytolytic activity and is considered as a main virulence factor of G. vaginalis. Inhibition of VLY-mediated cell lysis by antibodies may have important physiological relevance. Results Single-chain variable fragments of immunoglobulins (scFvs were cloned from two hybridoma cell lines producing neutralizing antibodies against VLY and expressed as active proteins in E. coli. For each hybridoma, two variants of anti-VLY scFv consisting of either VL-VH or VH-VL linked with a 20 aa-long linker sequence (G4S4 were constructed. Recovery of scFvs from inclusion bodies with subsequent purification by metal-chelate chromatography resulted in VLY-binding proteins that were predominantly monomeric. The antigen-binding activity of purified scFvs was verified by an indirect ELISA. The neutralizing activity was investigated by in vitro hemolytic assay and cytolytic assay using HeLa cell line. Calculated apparent Kd values and neutralizing potency of scFvs were in agreement with those of parental full-length antibodies. VH-VL and VL-VH variants of scFvs showed similar affinity and neutralizing potency. The anti-VLY scFvs derived from hybridoma clone 9B4 exhibited high VLY-neutralizing activity both on human erythrocytes and cervical epithelial HeLa cells. Conclusions Hybridoma-derived scFvs with VLY-binding activity were expressed in E. coli. Recombinant anti-VLY scFvs inhibited VLY-mediated cell lysis. The monovalent scFvs showed reduced affinity and neutralizing potency as compared to the respective full-length antibodies. The loss of avidity could be restored by generating scFv constructs with multivalent binding properties. Generated scFvs is the first example of recombinant single-chain antibodies with VLY-neutralizing activity produced in

  4. Virus-neutralizing antibody response of mice to consecutive infection with human and avian influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janulíková, J; Stropkovská, A; Bobišová, Z; Košík, I; Mucha, V; Kostolanský, F; Varečková, E

    2015-06-01

    In this work we simulated in a mouse model a naturally occurring situation of humans, who overcame an infection with epidemic strains of influenza A, and were subsequently exposed to avian influenza A viruses (IAV). The antibody response to avian IAV in mice previously infected with human IAV was analyzed. We used two avian IAV (A/Duck/Czechoslovakia/1956 (H4N6) and the attenuated virus rA/Viet Nam/1203-2004 (H5N1)) as well as two human IAV isolates (virus A/Mississippi/1/1985 (H3N2) of medium virulence and A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) of high virulence). Two repeated doses of IAV of H4 or of H5 virus elicited virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice. Exposure of animals previously infected with human IAV (of H3 or H1 subtype) to IAV of H4 subtype led to the production of antibodies neutralizing H4 virus in a level comparable with the level of antibodies against the human IAV used for primary infection. In contrast, no measurable levels of virus-neutralizing (VN) antibodies specific to H5 virus were detected in mice infected with H5 virus following a previous infection with human IAV. In both cases the secondary infection with avian IAV led to a significant increase of the titer of VN antibodies specific to the corresponding human virus used for primary infection. Moreover, cross-reactive HA2-specific antibodies were also induced by sequential infection. By virtue of these results we suggest that the differences in the ability of avian IAV to induce specific antibodies inhibiting virus replication after previous infection of mice with human viruses can have an impact on the interspecies transmission and spread of avian IAV in the human population.

  5. Induction and characterization of monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies reactive with idiotopes of canine parvovirus neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); J. van Es (Johan); G.A. Drost; F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractMonoclonal anti-idiotypic (anti-Id) antibodies (Ab2) were generated against idiotypes (Id) of canine parvovirus (CPV) specific monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs). The binding of most of these anti-Id antibodies to their corresponding Id could be inhibited by antigen, thus classifying these

  6. Molecular aspects of antibody-antigen interactions : size reduction of a herpes simplex virus neutralizing antibody and its antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, Gerardus Antonius

    1996-01-01

    Antibody molecules, produced as a response against foreign substances, interact with their antigen in a very specific manner. Antibodies with a predetermined specificity (monoclonal antibodies) can be produced and are widely used in medicine and science as indicator molecules. Genetic engineering of

  7. Protective levels of canine distemper virus antibody in an urban dog population using plaque reduction neutralization test

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    O.I. Oyedele

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples from 50 dogs were collected at three veterinary clinics in Ibadan and Abuja, Nigeria and the serum from each sample was evaluated serologically for neutralizing antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV by the highly sensitive plaque reduction (PRN neutralization assay. Thirteen dogs had plaque reduction neutralization titres of 0-100, seven had titres of 100-1 000 while 30 had titres ranging from 1 000-6 000. The PRN titres of vaccinated dogs were found to be significantly higher than unvaccinated dogs. The widespread use of the highly reproducible PRN test for the evaluation of antibody response to CDV may be very important in the generation of international CDV positive serum standards that should help to improve pre-and post-vaccination testing of dogs worldwide.

  8. Identification of a CD4-Binding-Site Antibody to HIV that Evolved Near-Pan Neutralization Breadth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jinghe; Kang, Byong H.; Ishida, Elise; Zhou, Tongqing; Griesman, Trevor; Sheng, Zizhang; Wu, Fan; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Zhang, Baoshan; McKee, Krisha; O’Dell, Sijy; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Druz, Aliaksandr; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Schramm, Chaim A.; Zheng, Anqi; Joyce, M.  Gordon; Asokan, Mangaiarkarasi; Ransier, Amy; Darko, Sam; Migueles, Stephen A.; Bailer, Robert T.; Louder, Mark K.; Alam, S.  Munir; Parks, Robert; Kelsoe, Garnett; Von Holle, Tarra; Haynes, Barton F.; Douek, Daniel C.; Hirsch, Vanessa; Seaman, Michael S.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.; Connors, Mark

    2016-11-01

    Detailed studies of the broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that underlie the best available examples of the humoral immune response to HIV are providing important information for the development of therapies and prophylaxis for HIV-1 infection. Here, we report a CD4-binding site (CD4bs) antibody, named N6, that potently neutralized 98% of HIV-1 isolates, including 16 of 20 that were resistant to other members of its class. N6 evolved a mode of recognition such that its binding was not impacted by the loss of individual contacts across the immunoglobulin heavy chain. In addition, structural analysis revealed that the orientation of N6 permitted it to avoid steric clashes with glycans, which is a common mechanism of resistance. Thus, an HIV-1-specific bNAb can achieve potent, near-pan neutralization of HIV-1, making it an attractive candidate for use in therapy and prophylaxis.

  9. Holes in the Glycan Shield of the Native HIV Envelope Are a Target of Trimer-Elicited Neutralizing Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. McCoy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A major advance in the search for an HIV vaccine has been the development of a near-native Envelope trimer (BG505 SOSIP.664 that can induce robust autologous Tier 2 neutralization. Here, potently neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nAbs from rabbits immunized with BG505 SOSIP.664 are shown to recognize an immunodominant region of gp120 centered on residue 241. Residue 241 occupies a hole in the glycan defenses of the BG505 isolate, with fewer than 3% of global isolates lacking a glycan site at this position. However, at least one conserved glycan site is missing in 89% of viruses, suggesting the presence of glycan holes in most HIV isolates. Serum evidence is consistent with targeting of holes in natural infection. The immunogenic nature of breaches in the glycan shield has been under-appreciated in previous attempts to understand autologous neutralizing antibody responses and has important potential consequences for HIV vaccine design.

  10. Potent neutralization of influenza A virus by a single-domain antibody blocking M2 ion channel protein.

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    Guowei Wei

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus poses serious health threat to humans. Neutralizing antibodies against the highly conserved M2 ion channel is thought to offer broad protection against influenza A viruses. Here, we screened synthetic Camel single-domain antibody (VHH libraries against native M2 ion channel protein. One of the isolated VHHs, M2-7A, specifically bound to M2-expressed cell membrane as well as influenza A virion, inhibited replication of both amantadine-sensitive and resistant influenza A viruses in vitro, and protected mice from a lethal influenza virus challenge. Moreover, M2-7A showed blocking activity for proton influx through M2 ion channel. These pieces of evidence collectively demonstrate for the first time that a neutralizing antibody against M2 with broad specificity is achievable, and M2-7A may have potential for cross protection against a number of variants and subtypes of influenza A viruses.

  11. Development of a blocking ELISA for detection of serum neutralizing antibodies against newly emerged duck Tembusu virus.

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    Xuesong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since April 2010, domesticated ducks in China have been suffering from an emerging infectious disease characterized by retarded growth, high fever, loss of appetite, decline in egg production, and death. The causative agent was identified as a duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV, a member of the Ntaya virus (NTAV group within the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. DTMUV is highly contagious and spreads rapidly in many species of ducks. More than 10 million shelducks have been infected and approximately 1 million died in 2010. The disease remains a constant threat to the duck industry; however, it is not known whether DTMUV can infect humans or other mammalians, despite the fact that the virus has spread widely in southeast China, one of the most densely populated areas in the world. The lack of reliable methods to detect the serum antibodies against DTMUV has limited our ability to conduct epidemiological investigations in various natural hosts and to evaluate the efficiency of vaccines to DTMUV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb 1F5 binding specifically to the E protein was developed. Based on the mAb, a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed for the detection of neutralizing antibodies against DTMUV. The average value of percent inhibition (PI of 350 duck serum samples obtained from DTMUV-free farms was 1.0% ± 5.8% (mean ± SD. The selected cut-off PI values for negative and positive sera were 12.6% (mean +2SD and 18.4% (mean +3SD, respectively. When compared with a serum neutralizing antibody test (SNT using chicken embryonated eggs, the rate of coincidence was 70.6% between the blocking ELISA and SNT, based on the titration of 20 duck DTMUV-positive serum samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The blocking ELISA based on a neutralizing mAb allowed rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of neutralization-related antibodies against DTMUV.

  12. Prevalence of Neutralizing Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus among High-Risk Age Groups in South Korea, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Young Ran; Han, Myung Guk; Lee, Won-Ja; Jeong, Young Eui

    2016-01-01

    After an extensive vaccination policy, Japanese encephalitis (JE) was nearly eliminated since the mid-1980s in South Korea. Vaccination in children shifted the affected age of JE patients from children to adults. However, an abrupt increase in JE cases occurred in 2010, and this trend has continued. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to the JE virus (JEV) among high-risk age groups (≥40 years) in South Korea. A plaque reduction neutralization test was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to JEV in 945 subjects within four age groups (30–39, 40–49, 50–59, and 60–69 years) in 10 provinces. Of the 945 enrolled subjects, 927 (98.1%) exhibited antibodies against JEV. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies according to sex, age, or occupation. However, there were significant differences in the plaque reduction rate according to age and occupation; oldest age group had a higher reduction rate, and subjects who were employed in agriculture or forestry also had a higher value than the other occupations. We also found that three provinces (Gangwon, Jeonnam, and Gyeongnam) had a relatively lower plaque reduction rate than the other locations. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were conducted to determine recent viral infections and 12 (2.2%) subjects were found to have been recently infected by the virus. In conclusion, the present study clearly indicated that the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies has been maintained at very high levels among adult age groups owing to vaccination or natural infections, or both. In the future, serosurveillance should be conducted periodically using more representative samples to better understand the population-level immunity to JE in South Korea. PMID:26807709

  13. Influenza virus neutralizing antibodies and IgG isotype profiles after immunization of mice with influenza A subunit vaccine using various adjuvants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benne, CA; Harmsen, M; vanderGraaff, W; Verheul, AFM; Snippe, H; Kraaijeveld, CA

    The influence of various adjuvants on the development of influenza virus neutralizing antibodies and distribution of anti-influenza virus IgG isotypes after immunization of mice with influenza A (H3N2) subunit vaccine was investigated. Serum titres of influenza virus neutralizing antibodies and

  14. Neutralizing antibodies induced by recombinant virus-like particles of enterovirus 71 genotype C4 inhibit infection at pre- and post-attachment steps.

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    Zhiqiang Ku

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is a major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease, which has been prevalent in Asia-Pacific regions, causing significant morbidity and mortality in young children. Antibodies elicited by experimental EV71 vaccines could neutralize infection in vitro and passively protect animal models from lethal challenge, indicating that neutralizing antibodies play an essential role in protection. However, how neutralizing antibodies inhibit infection in vitro remains unclear. METHODS/FINDINGS: In the present study, we explored the mechanisms of neutralization by antibodies against EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs. Recombinant VLPs of EV71 genotype C4 were produced in insect cells using baculovirus vectors. Immunization with the VLPs elicited a high-titer, EV71-specific antibody response in mice. Anti-VLP mouse sera potently neutralized EV71 infection in vitro. The neutralizing antibodies in the anti-VLP mouse sera were found to target mainly an extremely conserved epitope (FGEHKQEKDLEYGAC located at the GH loop of the VP1 protein. The neutralizing anti-VLP antisera were able to inhibit virus binding to target cells efficiently. In addition, post-attachment treatment of virus-bound cells with the anti-VLP antisera also neutralized virus infection, although the antibody concentration required was higher than that of the pre-attachment treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our findings represent a valuable addition to the understanding of mechanisms of EV71 neutralization and have strong implications for EV71 vaccine development.

  15. Eradication of neutralizing antibodies to factor VIII in canine hemophilia A after liver gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Jonathan D; Ozelo, Margareth C; Sabatino, Denise E; Franck, Helen W G; Merricks, Elizabeth P; Crudele, Julie M; Zhou, Shangzhen; Kazazian, Haig H; Lillicrap, David; Nichols, Timothy C; Arruda, Valder R

    2010-12-23

    Inhibitory antibodies to factor VIII (FVIII) are a major complication in the treatment of hemophilia A, affecting approximately 20% to 30% of patients. Current treatment for inhibitors is based on long-term, daily injections of large amounts of FVIII protein. Liver-directed gene therapy has been used to induce antigen-specific tolerance, but there are no data in hemophilic animals with pre-existing inhibitors. To determine whether sustained endogenous expression of FVIII could eradicate inhibitors, we injected adeno-associated viral vectors encoding canine FVIII (cFVIII) in 2 strains of inhibitor hemophilia A dogs. In 3 dogs, a transient increase in inhibitor titers (up to 7 Bethesda Units [BU]) at 2 weeks was followed by continuous decline to complete disappearance within 4-5 weeks. Subsequently, an increase in cFVIII levels (1.5%-8%), a shortening of clotting times, and a reduction (> 90%) of bleeding episodes were observed. Immune tolerance was confirmed by lack of antibody formation after repeated challenges with cFVIII protein and normal protein half-life. A fourth dog exhibited a strong early anamnestic response (216 BU), with slow decline to 0.8 BU and cFVIII antigen detection by 18 months after vector delivery. These data suggest that liver gene therapy has the potential to eradicate inhibitors and could improve the outcomes of hemophilia A patients.

  16. An autoreactive antibody from an SLE/HIV-1 individual broadly neutralizes HIV-1

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    Bonsignori, Mattia; Wiehe, Kevin; Grimm, Sebastian K.; Lynch, Rebecca; Yang, Guang; Kozink, Daniel M.; Perrin, Florence; Cooper, Abby J.; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Chen, Xi; Liu, Mengfei; McKee, Krisha; Parks, Robert J.; Eudailey, Joshua; Wang, Minyue; Clowse, Megan; Criscione-Schreiber, Lisa G.; Moody, M. Anthony; Ackerman, Margaret E.; Boyd, Scott D.; Gao, Feng; Kelsoe, Garnett; Verkoczy, Laurent; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Kepler, Thomas B.; Montefiori, David C.; Mascola, John R.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2014-01-01

    Broadly HIV-1–neutralizing antibodies (BnAbs) display one or more unusual traits, including a long heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 (HCDR3), polyreactivity, and high levels of somatic mutations. These shared characteristics suggest that BnAb development might be limited by immune tolerance controls. It has been postulated that HIV-1–infected individuals with autoimmune disease and defective immune tolerance mechanisms may produce BnAbs more readily than those without autoimmune diseases. In this study, we identified an HIV-1–infected individual with SLE who exhibited controlled viral load (<5,000 copies/ml) in the absence of controlling HLA phenotypes and developed plasma HIV-1 neutralization breadth. We collected memory B cells from this individual and isolated a BnAb, CH98, that targets the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120). CH98 bound to human antigens including dsDNA, which is specifically associated with SLE. Anti-dsDNA reactivity was also present in the patient’s plasma. CH98 had a mutation frequency of 25% and 15% nt somatic mutations in the heavy and light chain variable domains, respectively, a long HCDR3, and a deletion in the light chain CDR1. The occurrence of anti-dsDNA reactivity by a HIV-1 CD4bs BnAb in an individual with SLE raises the possibility that some BnAbs and SLE-associated autoantibodies arise from similar pools of B cells. PMID:24614107

  17. Lyophilized Silk Fibroin Hydrogels for the Sustained Local Delivery of Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guziewicz, Nicholas; Best, Annie; Perez-Ramirez, Bernardo; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The development of sustained delivery systems compatible with protein therapeutics continues to be a significant unmet need. A lyophilized silk fibroin hydrogel matrix (lyogel) for the sustained release of pharmaceutically relevant monoclonal antibodies is described. Sonication of silk fibroin prior to antibody incorporation avoids exposing the antibody to the sol-gel transition inducing shear stress. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis showed no change in silk structural composition between hydrogel and lyogel or with increasing silk fibroin concentration. Antibody release from hydrogels occurred rapidly over 10 days regardless of silk concentration. Upon lyophilization, sustained antibody release was observed over 38 days from lyogels containing 6.2% (w/w) silk fibroin and above. In 3.2% (w/w) silk lyogels, antibody release was comparable to hydrogels. Swelling properties of lyogels followed a similar threshold behavior. Lyogels at 3.2% (w/w) silk recovered approximately 90% of their fluid mass upon rehydration, while approximately 50% fluid recovery was observed at 6.2% (w/w) silk and above. Antibody release was primarily governed by hydrophobic/hydrophilic silk-antibody interactions and secondarily altered by the hydration resistance of the lyogel. Hydration resistance was controlled by altering β-sheet (crystalline) density of the matrix. The antibody released from lyogels maintained biological activity. Silk lyogels offer an advantage as a delivery matrix over other hydrogel materials for the slow release of the loaded protein, making lyogels suitable for long-term sustained release applications. PMID:21216004

  18. Structural basis for diverse N-glycan recognition by HIV-1-neutralizing V1-V2-directed antibody PG16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pancera, Marie; Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; McLellan, Jason S.; Bailer, Robert T.; Dai, Kaifan; Loesgen, Sandra; Louder, Mark K.; Staupe, Ryan P.; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Parks, Robert; Eudailey, Joshua; Lloyd, Krissey E.; Blinn, Julie; Alam, S. Munir; Haynes, Barton F.; Amin, Mohammed N.; Wang, Lai-Xi; Burton, Dennis R.; Koff, Wayne C.; Nabel, Gary J.; Mascola, John R.; Bewley, Carole A; Kwong, Peter D. [NIH; (Scripps); (Duke); (Maryland-MED); (IAVI)

    2013-08-05

    HIV-1 uses a diverse N-linked-glycan shield to evade recognition by antibody. Select human antibodies, such as the clonally related PG9 and PG16, recognize glycopeptide epitopes in the HIV-1 V1–V2 region and penetrate this shield, but their ability to accommodate diverse glycans is unclear. Here we report the structure of antibody PG16 bound to a scaffolded V1–V2, showing an epitope comprising both high mannose–type and complex-type N-linked glycans. We combined structure, NMR and mutagenesis analyses to characterize glycan recognition by PG9 and PG16. Three PG16-specific residues, arginine, serine and histidine (RSH), were critical for binding sialic acid on complex-type glycans, and introduction of these residues into PG9 produced a chimeric antibody with enhanced HIV-1 neutralization. Although HIV-1–glycan diversity facilitates evasion, antibody somatic diversity can overcome this and can provide clues to guide the design of modified antibodies with enhanced neutralization.

  19. Neutralization of Zika virus by germline-like human monoclonal antibodies targeting cryptic epitopes on envelope domain III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanling; Li, Shun; Du, Lanying; Wang, Chunyu; Zou, Peng; Hong, Binbin; Yuan, Mengjiao; Ren, Xiaonan; Tai, Wanbo; Kong, Yu; Zhou, Chen; Lu, Lu; Zhou, Xiaohui; Jiang, Shibo; Ying, Tianlei

    2017-10-11

    The Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, has emerged as a global public health concern. Pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies against other flaviviruses could modulate immune responses to ZIKV infection by antibody-dependent enhancement, highlighting the importance of understanding the immunogenicity of the ZIKV envelope protein. In this study, we identified a panel of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target domain III (DIII) of the ZIKV envelope protein from a very large phage-display naive antibody library. These germline-like antibodies, sharing 98%-100% hoLogy with their corresponding germline IGHV genes, bound ZIKV DIII specifically with high affinities. One mAb, m301, broadly neutralized the currently circulating ZIKV strains and showed a synergistic effect with another mAb, m302, in neutralizing ZIKV in vitro and in a mouse model of ZIKV infection. Interestingly, epitope mapping and competitive binding studies suggest that m301 and m302 bind adjacent regions of the DIII C-C' loop, which represents a recently identified cryptic epitope that is intermittently exposed in an uncharacterized virus conformation. This study extended our understanding of antigenic epitopes of ZIKV antibodies and has direct implications for the design of ZIKV vaccines.

  20. In Vitro Neutralization Is Not Predictive of Prophylactic Efficacy of Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies CR6261 and CR9114 against Lethal H2 Influenza Virus Challenge in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Troy C; Lamirande, Elaine W; Bock, Kevin W; Moore, Ian N; Koudstaal, Wouter; Rehman, Muniza; Weverling, Gerrit Jan; Goudsmit, Jaap; Subbarao, Kanta

    2017-12-15

    Influenza viruses of the H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 subtypes have caused previous pandemics. H2 influenza viruses represent a pandemic threat due to continued circulation in wild birds and limited immunity in the human population. In the event of a pandemic, antiviral agents are the mainstay for treatment, but broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) may be a viable alternative for short-term prophylaxis or treatment. The hemagglutinin stem binding bNAbs CR6261 and CR9114 have been shown to protect mice from severe disease following challenge with H1N1 and H5N1 and with H1N1, H3N2, and influenza B viruses, respectively. Early studies with CR6261 and CR9114 showed weak in vitro activity against human H2 influenza viruses, but the in vivo efficacy against H2 viruses is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated these antibodies against human- and animal-origin H2 viruses A/Ann Arbor/6/1960 (H2N2) (AA60) and A/swine/MO/4296424/06 (H2N3) (Sw06). In vitro, CR6261 neutralized both H2 viruses, while CR9114 only neutralized Sw06. To evaluate prophylactic efficacy, mice were given CR6261 or CR9114 and intranasally challenged 24 h later with lethal doses of AA60 or Sw06. Both antibodies reduced mortality, weight loss, airway inflammation, and pulmonary viral load. Using engineered bNAb variants, antibody-mediated cell cytotoxicity reporter assays, and Fcγ receptor-deficient (Fcer1g-/-) mice, we show that the in vivo efficacy of CR9114 against AA60 is mediated by Fcγ receptor-dependent mechanisms. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of CR6261 and CR9114 against H2 viruses and emphasize the need for in vivo evaluation of bNAbs.IMPORTANCE bNAbs represent a strategy to prevent or treat infection by a wide range of influenza viruses. The evaluation of these antibodies against H2 viruses is important because H2 viruses caused a pandemic in 1957 and could cross into humans again. We demonstrate that CR6261 and CR9114 are effective against infection with H2 viruses of

  1. Mumps-specific cross-neutralization by MMR vaccine-induced antibodies predicts protection against mumps virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouma, Sigrid; Ten Hulscher, Hinke I; Schurink-van 't Klooster, Tessa M; de Melker, Hester E; Boland, Greet J; Kaaijk, Patricia; van Els, Cécile A C M; Koopmans, Marion P G; van Binnendijk, Rob S

    2016-07-29

    Similar to other recent mumps genotype G outbreaks worldwide, most mumps patients during the recent mumps genotype G outbreaks in the Netherlands had received 2 doses of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine during childhood. Here, we investigate the capacity of vaccine-induced antibodies to neutralize wild type mumps virus strains, including mumps virus genotype G. In this study, we tested 105 pre-outbreak serum samples from students who had received 2 MMR vaccine doses and who had no mumps virus infection (n=76), symptomatic mumps virus infection (n=10) or asymptomatic mumps virus infection (n=19) during the mumps outbreaks. In all samples, mumps-specific IgG concentrations were measured by multiplex immunoassay and neutralization titers were measured against the Jeryl Lynn vaccine strain and against wild type genotype G and genotype D mumps virus strains. The correlation between mumps-specific IgG concentrations and neutralization titers against Jeryl Lynn was poor, which suggests that IgG concentrations do not adequately represent immunological protection against mumps virus infection by antibody neutralization. Pre-outbreak neutralization titers in infected persons were significantly lower against genotype G than against the vaccine strain. Furthermore, antibody neutralization of wild type mumps virus genotype G and genotype D was significantly reduced in pre-outbreak samples from infected persons as compared with non-infected persons. No statistically significant difference was found for the vaccine strain. The sensitivity/specificity ratio was largest for neutralization of the genotype G strain as compared with the genotype D strain and the vaccine strain. The reduced neutralization of wild type mumps virus strains in MMR vaccinated persons prior to infection indicates that pre-outbreak mumps virus neutralization is partly strain-specific and that neutralization differs between infected and non-infected persons. Therefore, we recommend the use of wild

  2. Structure-Based Design of Hepatitis C Virus Vaccines That Elicit Neutralizing Antibody Responses to a Conserved Epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Brian G; Boucher, Elisabeth N; Piepenbrink, Kurt H; Ejemel, Monir; Rapp, Chelsea A; Thomas, William D; Sundberg, Eric J; Weng, Zhiping; Wang, Yang

    2017-10-15

    Despite recent advances in therapeutic options, hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a severe global disease burden, and a vaccine can substantially reduce its incidence. Due to its extremely high sequence variability, HCV can readily escape the immune response; thus, an effective vaccine must target conserved, functionally important epitopes. Using the structure of a broadly neutralizing antibody in complex with a conserved linear epitope from the HCV E2 envelope glycoprotein (residues 412 to 423; epitope I), we performed structure-based design of immunogens to induce antibody responses to this epitope. This resulted in epitope-based immunogens based on a cyclic defensin protein, as well as a bivalent immunogen with two copies of the epitope on the E2 surface. We solved the X-ray structure of a cyclic immunogen in complex with the HCV1 antibody and confirmed preservation of the epitope conformation and the HCV1 interface. Mice vaccinated with our designed immunogens produced robust antibody responses to epitope I, and their serum could neutralize HCV. Notably, the cyclic designs induced greater epitope-specific responses and neutralization than the native peptide epitope. Beyond successfully designing several novel HCV immunogens, this study demonstrates the principle that neutralizing anti-HCV antibodies can be induced by epitope-based, engineered vaccines and provides the basis for further efforts in structure-based design of HCV vaccines.IMPORTANCE Hepatitis C virus is a leading cause of liver disease and liver cancer, with approximately 3% of the world's population infected. To combat this virus, an effective vaccine would have distinct advantages over current therapeutic options, yet experimental vaccines have not been successful to date, due in part to the virus's high sequence variability leading to immune escape. In this study, we rationally designed several vaccine immunogens based on the structure of a conserved epitope that is the target of broadly

  3. Structure-Based Design of Hepatitis C Virus Vaccines That Elicit Neutralizing Antibody Responses to a Conserved Epitope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Brian G.; Boucher, Elisabeth N.; Piepenbrink, Kurt H.; Ejemel, Monir; Rapp, Chelsea A.; Thomas, William D.; Sundberg, Eric J.; Weng, Zhiping; Wang, Yang; Diamond, Michael S.

    2017-08-09

    Despite recent advances in therapeutic options, hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a severe global disease burden, and a vaccine can substantially reduce its incidence. Due to its extremely high sequence variability, HCV can readily escape the immune response; thus, an effective vaccine must target conserved, functionally important epitopes. Using the structure of a broadly neutralizing antibody in complex with a conserved linear epitope from the HCV E2 envelope glycoprotein (residues 412 to 423; epitope I), we performed structure-based design of immunogens to induce antibody responses to this epitope. This resulted in epitope-based immunogens based on a cyclic defensin protein, as well as a bivalent immunogen with two copies of the epitope on the E2 surface. We solved the X-ray structure of a cyclic immunogen in complex with the HCV1 antibody and confirmed preservation of the epitope conformation and the HCV1 interface. Mice vaccinated with our designed immunogens produced robust antibody responses to epitope I, and their serum could neutralize HCV. Notably, the cyclic designs induced greater epitope-specific responses and neutralization than the native peptide epitope. Beyond successfully designing several novel HCV immunogens, this study demonstrates the principle that neutralizing anti-HCV antibodies can be induced by epitope-based, engineered vaccines and provides the basis for further efforts in structure-based design of HCV vaccines.

    IMPORTANCEHepatitis C virus is a leading cause of liver disease and liver cancer, with approximately 3% of the world's population infected. To combat this virus, an effective vaccine would have distinct advantages over current therapeutic options, yet experimental vaccines have not been successful to date, due in part to the virus's high sequence variability leading to immune escape. In this study, we rationally designed several vaccine immunogens based on the structure of a conserved epitope that

  4. The effects of acylation stimulating protein supplementation VS antibody neutralization on energy expenditure in wildtype mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Ying

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acylation stimulating protein (ASP is an adipogenic hormone that stimulates triglyceride (TG synthesis and glucose transport in adipocytes. Previous studies have shown that ASP-deficient C3 knockout mice are hyperphagic yet lean, as they display increased oxygen consumption and fatty acid oxidation compared to wildtype mice. In the present study, antibodies against ASP (Anti-ASP and human recombinant ASP (rASP were tested in vitro and in vivo. Continuous administration for 4 weeks via osmotic mini-pump of Anti-ASP or rASP was evaluated in wildtype mice on a high-fat diet (HFD to examine their effects on body weight, food intake and energy expenditure. Results In mature murine adipocytes, rASP significantly stimulated fatty acid uptake (+243% vs PBS, P Conclusion In vitro, Anti-ASP effectively neutralized ASP stimulated fatty acid uptake. In vivo, Anti-ASP treatment increased whole body energy utilization while rASP increased energy storage. Therefore, ASP is a potent anabolic hormone that may also be a mediator of energy expenditure.

  5. A broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody is effective against H7N9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharakaraman, Kannan; Subramanian, Vidya; Viswanathan, Karthik; Sloan, Susan; Yen, Hui-Ling; Barnard, Dale L; Leung, Y H Connie; Szretter, Kristy J; Koch, Tyree J; Delaney, James C; Babcock, Gregory J; Wogan, Gerald N; Sasisekharan, Ram; Shriver, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    Emerging strains of influenza represent a significant public health threat with potential pandemic consequences. Of particular concern are the recently emerged H7N9 strains which cause pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Estimates are that nearly 80% of hospitalized patients with H7N9 have received intensive care unit support. VIS410, a human antibody, targets a unique conserved epitope on influenza A. We evaluated the efficacy of VIS410 for neutralization of group 2 influenza strains, including H3N2 and H7N9 strains in vitro and in vivo. VIS410, administered at 50 mg/kg, protected DBA mice infected with A/Anhui/2013 (H7N9), resulting in significant survival benefit upon single-dose (-24 h) or double-dose (-12 h, +48 h) administration (P cytokine responses for nine of the 11 cytokines measured. Based on these results, we find that VIS410 may be effective either as monotherapy or combined with antivirals in treating H7N9 disease, as well as disease from other influenza strains.

  6. Detection of Infertility-related Neutralizing Antibodies with a Cell-free Microfluidic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, Klaus; Root, Katharina; Verboket, Pascal E.; Dittrich, Petra S.

    2015-11-01

    The unwanted emergence of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against an endogenous or a therapeutic protein can result in deficiency diseases or therapy failure. Here, we developed a cell-free microfluidic method for the sensitive detection and quantification of nAbs in human serum that are associated with infertility. We used cell-derived vesicles containing the luteinizing hormone (LH)/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHHCGR) to detect nAbs against LH. The method exploits the entire cellular signal amplification mechanism, and facilitates the detection of as little as 0.44 nM of LH-nAb (Kd 1.5 nM) in human serum matrix within only 15 minutes. In addition, dose-response curves can be generated in less than 2 hours to evaluate the nAB concentration and dissociation constant. The developed system is devoid of problems associated with cell-based assays and we believe that this simple effect-directed analysis can be used in clinical environments, and is adaptable to other hormones or cytokines and their respective nAbs.

  7. Neutralizing Antibodies to Enterovirus 71 in Belém, Brazil

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    Maria de Lourdes C Gomes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-polio enteroviruses (Coxsackievirus A, Coxsackievirus B, Echovirus and EV 68-72 which belong to the enterovirus (EV genus, Picornaviridae family, may be responsible for acute flaccid paralysis, aseptic meningitis, myocarditis, hepatitis, pleurodinia, neonatal sepsis, hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD even though 50-80% of infections are asymptomatic. EV 71 has been responsible for outbreaks and epidemics of HFMD and acute neurologic disease justifying its study in our country. The aim of this study was to detect neutralizing antibodies (NtAb to EV 71 in individuals up to 15 years of age living in Belém, State of Pará, northern Brazil. Serum samples from 238 patients attending the Virology Sector of Evandro Chagas Institute in Belém, Brazil, were analyzed using microneutralization tests that included RD cells and BrCr strain. Overall 40.8% (97/238 of tested samples had NtAb to EV 71. Regarding the distribution per age group, 85.2% (92/108 of patients aged 0-3 years had no NtAb to this virus and 69.2% of those 12 to15 years of age were seropositive. These results confirm that EV 71 infection occurs in the city of Belém; and that a high rate of individuals in this study were infected aged 3 years and over and, when aged 15 years nearly 70% had EV 71 NtAb.

  8. Postdose 3 G1 serum neutralizing antibody as correlate of protection for pentavalent rotavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G Frank; Hille, Darcy; Kaplan, Susan S; Goveia, Michelle G

    2017-10-03

    Although clinical trials of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq®, RV5) have demonstrated efficacy against RV gastroenteritis (RGE) in low and high-income settings, a clear correlate of protection or a measure of immune response that could predict efficacy has yet to be identified. This is the first time that immunogenicity data with both serum neutralized antibody (SNA) titers and anti-RV IgA titers from several clinical efficacy trials were pooled to provide a unique context for evaluating the correlation between immunogenicity and RGE risk or efficacy of RV5. The correlation between immunogenicity and RGE risk is evaluated with data at the individual subject level. The analyses show that higher Postdose 3 (PD3) G1 SNA titers are associated with lower odds of contracting any RGE. The correlation between immunogenicity and efficacy is assessed using aggregated population level data, which shows higher efficacy associated with higher PD3 G1 SNA geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio (between RV5 and placebo) and PD3 serum anti-RV IgA GMT ratio. Among high-income countries, efficacy plateaus over the range of PD3 G1 SNA GMT ratios and PD3 serum anti-RV IgA GMT ratios. From both individual- and population-level analyses, PD3 G1 SNA titers correlated most closely with the RGE risk or efficacy for RV5.

  9. Development of Patient-specific AAV Vectors After Neutralizing Antibody Selection for Enhanced Muscle Gene Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengwen; Wu, Shuqing; Albright, Blake; Hirsch, Matthew; Li, Wuping; Tseng, Yu-Shan; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; McPhee, Scott; Asokan, Aravind; Samulski, R Jude

    2016-02-01

    A major hindrance in gene therapy trials with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors is the presence of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that inhibit AAV transduction. In this study, we used directed evolution techniques in vitro and in mouse muscle to select novel NAb escape AAV chimeric capsid mutants in the presence of individual patient serum. AAV mutants isolated in vitro escaped broad patient-specific NAb activity but had poor transduction ability in vivo. AAV mutants isolated in vivo had enhanced NAb evasion from cognate serum and had high muscle transduction ability. More importantly, structural modeling identified a 100 amino acid motif from AAV6 in variable region (VR) III that confers this enhanced muscle tropism. In addition, a predominantly AAV8 capsid beta barrel template with a specific preference for AAV1/AAV9 in VR VII located at threefold symmetry axis facilitates NAb escape. Our data strongly support that chimeric AAV capsids composed of modular and nonoverlapping domains from various serotypes are capable of evading patient-specific NAbs and have enhanced muscle transduction.

  10. High-Avidity and Potently Neutralizing Cross-Reactive Human Monoclonal Antibodies Derived from Secondary Dengue Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Yang; Lai, Chih-Yun; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Lin, Hong-En; Edwards, Carolyn; Jumnainsong, Amonrat; Kliks, Srisakul; Halstead, Scott; Mongkolsapaya, Juthathip; Screaton, Gavin R.

    2013-01-01

    The envelope (E) protein of dengue virus (DENV) is the major target of neutralizing antibodies (Abs) and vaccine development. Previous studies of human dengue-immune sera reported that a significant proportion of anti-E Abs, known as group-reactive (GR) Abs, were cross-reactive to all four DENV serotypes and to one or more other flaviviruses. Based on studies of mouse anti-E monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), GR MAbs were nonneutralizing or weakly neutralizing compared with type-specific MAbs; a GR response was thus not regarded as important for vaccine strategy. We investigated the epitopes, binding avidities, and neutralization potencies of 32 human GR anti-E MAbs. In addition to fusion loop (FL) residues in E protein domain II, human GR MAbs recognized an epitope involving both FL and bc loop residues in domain II. The neutralization potencies and binding avidities of GR MAbs derived from secondary DENV infection were stronger than those derived from primary infection. GR MAbs derived from primary DENV infection primarily blocked attachment, whereas those derived from secondary infection blocked DENV postattachment. Analysis of the repertoire of anti-E MAbs derived from patients with primary DENV infection revealed that the majority were GR, low-avidity, and weakly neutralizing MAbs, whereas those from secondary infection were primarily GR, high-avidity, and potently neutralizing MAbs. Our findings suggest that the weakly neutralizing GR anti-E Abs generated from primary DENV infection become potently neutralizing MAbs against the four serotypes after secondary infection. The observation that the dengue immune status of the host affects the quality of the cross-reactive Abs generated has implications for new strategies for DENV vaccination. PMID:24027331

  11. Neutralizing Antibody Responses to Viral Infections Are Linked to the Non-classical MHC Class II Gene H2-Ob.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Lisa K; Khan, Aly A; Virdis, Francesca; Wilks, Jessica; Kane, Melissa; Beilinson, Helen A; Dikiy, Stanislav; Case, Laure K; Roopenian, Derry; Witkowski, Michele; Chervonsky, Alexander V; Golovkina, Tatyana V

    2017-08-15

    Select humans and animals control persistent viral infections via adaptive immune responses that include production of neutralizing antibodies. The precise genetic basis for the control remains enigmatic. Here, we report positional cloning of the gene responsible for production of retrovirus-neutralizing antibodies in mice of the I/LnJ strain. It encodes the beta subunit of the non-classical major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-like molecule H2-O, a negative regulator of antigen presentation. The recessive and functionally null I/LnJ H2-Ob allele supported the production of virus-neutralizing antibodies independently of the classical MHC haplotype. Subsequent bioinformatics and functional analyses of the human H2-Ob homolog, HLA-DOB, revealed both loss- and gain-of-function alleles, which could affect the ability of their carriers to control infections with human hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses. Thus, understanding of the previously unappreciated role of H2-O (HLA-DO) in immunity to infections may suggest new approaches in achieving neutralizing immunity to viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural basis of differential neutralization of DENV-1 genotypes by an antibody that recognizes a cryptic epitope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kyle Austin

    Full Text Available We previously developed a panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against Dengue virus (DENV-1, of which few exhibited inhibitory activity against all DENV-1 genotypes. This finding is consistent with reports observing variable neutralization of different DENV strains and genotypes using serum from individuals that experienced natural infection or immunization. Herein, we describe the crystal structures of DENV1-E111 bound to a novel CC' loop epitope on domain III (DIII of the E protein from two different DENV-1 genotypes. Docking of our structure onto the available cryo-electron microscopy models of DENV virions revealed that the DENV1-E111 epitope was inaccessible, suggesting that this antibody recognizes an uncharacterized virus conformation. While the affinity of binding between DENV1-E111 and DIII varied by genotype, we observed limited correlation with inhibitory activity. Instead, our results support the conclusion that potent neutralization depends on genotype-dependent exposure of the CC' loop epitope. These findings establish new structural complexity of the DENV virion, which may be relevant for the choice of DENV strain for induction or analysis of neutralizing antibodies in the context of vaccine development.

  13. Structural basis for immunization with postfusion respiratory syncytial virus fusion F glycoprotein (RSV F) to elicit high neutralizing antibody titers

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    Swanson, Kurt A.; Settembre, Ethan C.; Shaw, Christine A.; Dey, Antu K.; Rappuoli, Rino; Mandl, Christian W.; Dormitzer, Philip R.; Carfi, Andrea (Novartis)

    2012-02-07

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the main cause of infant bronchiolitis, remains a major unmet vaccine need despite more than 40 years of vaccine research. Vaccine candidates based on a chief RSV neutralization antigen, the fusion (F) glycoprotein, have foundered due to problems with stability, purity, reproducibility, and potency. Crystal structures of related parainfluenza F glycoproteins have revealed a large conformational change between the prefusion and postfusion states, suggesting that postfusion F antigens might not efficiently elicit neutralizing antibodies. We have generated a homogeneous, stable, and reproducible postfusion RSV F immunogen that elicits high titers of neutralizing antibodies in immunized animals. The 3.2-{angstrom} X-ray crystal structure of this substantially complete RSV F reveals important differences from homology-based structural models. Specifically, the RSV F crystal structure demonstrates the exposure of key neutralizing antibody binding sites on the surface of the postfusion RSV F trimer. This unanticipated structural feature explains the engineered RSV F antigen's efficiency as an immunogen. This work illustrates how structural-based antigen design can guide the rational optimization of candidate vaccine antigens.

  14. Relationship between the loss of neutralizing antibody binding and fusion activity of the F protein of human respiratory syncytial virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarisky Robert T

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To elucidate the relationship between resistance to HRSV neutralizing antibodies directed against the F protein and the fusion activity of the F protein, a recombinant approach was used to generate a panel of mutations in the major antigenic sites of the F protein. These mutant proteins were assayed for neutralizing mAb binding (ch101F, palivizumab, and MAb19, level of expression, post-translational processing, cell surface expression, and fusion activity. Functional analysis of the fusion activity of the panel of mutations revealed that the fusion activity of the F protein is tolerant to multiple changes in the site II and IV/V/VI region in contrast with the somewhat limited spectrum of changes in the F protein identified from the isolation of HRSV neutralizing antibody virus escape mutants. This finding suggests that aspects other than fusion activity may limit the spectrum of changes tolerated within the F protein that are selected for by neutralizing antibodies.

  15. Comparison of agglutinating and neutralizing antibodies to serovar hardjo in sows immunized with two commercial whole culture polivalent anti-leptospira bacterins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Francisco Rafael Martins; Pinheiro, Sônia Regina; Morais, Zenaide Maria; Gonçales, Amane Paldês; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Bernardi, Fernanda; Camargo, Sebastião Rodrigues; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda

    2008-07-01

    It was performed the comparison of the intensity and duration of agglutinating and neutralizing antibodies to serovar Hardjo in swines vaccinated with two commercial anti-leptospira bacterins. Sows no reactive to 24 Leptospira sp serovars in the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) were divided in three groups: Group A (n=08): received two vaccine A doses with 30 days interval, Group B (n=08) two vaccine B doses with 30 days interval and Group C (n=08): control no vaccinated against leptospirosis.Blood samples were collected each 30 days during six months following the first vaccination. The sera were tested by MAT and growth inhibition test (GIT) to serovar Hardjo in order to evaluate respectively agglutinating and neutralizing antibodies. It was found that neutralizing antibodies persisted for a longer time than the agglutinating ones and that the absence of agglutinating antibodies does not means in the absence of the neutralizing. The peaks of agglutinating antibodies was obtained at least 30 days earlier than that produced by neutralizing. The duration of both kinds of antibodies measured differed between the two bacterines tested. The period for inducing neutralizing antibodies against serovar Hardjo indicated that gilts must be immunized with two doses of whole culture anti-leptospira bacterines applied 30 days each other at least 90 days before the first mating. For the maintenance of hight levels of neutralizing antibodies the revaccinations must be performed every six months after the first vaccination.

  16. Enhanced inflammation in New Zealand white rabbits when MERS-CoV reinfection occurs in the absence of neutralizing antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Katherine V; Broadbent, Andrew J; Gretebeck, Lisa; Vogel, Leatrice; Lamirande, Elaine W; Sutton, Troy; Bock, Kevin W; Minai, Mahnaz; Orandle, Marlene; Moore, Ian N; Subbarao, Kanta

    2017-08-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic betacoronavirus that was first detected in humans in 2012 as a cause of severe acute respiratory disease. As of July 28, 2017, there have been 2,040 confirmed cases with 712 reported deaths. While many infections have been fatal, there have also been a large number of mild or asymptomatic cases discovered through monitoring and contact tracing. New Zealand white rabbits are a possible model for asymptomatic infection with MERS-CoV. In order to discover more about non-lethal infections and to learn whether a single infection with MERS-CoV would protect against reinfection, we inoculated rabbits with MERS-CoV and monitored the antibody and inflammatory response. Following intranasal infection, rabbits developed a transient dose-dependent pulmonary infection with moderately high levels of viral RNA, viral antigen, and perivascular inflammation in multiple lung lobes that was not associated with clinical signs. The rabbits developed antibodies against viral proteins that lacked neutralizing activity and the animals were not protected from reinfection. In fact, reinfection resulted in enhanced pulmonary inflammation, without an associated increase in viral RNA titers. Interestingly, passive transfer of serum from previously infected rabbits to naïve rabbits was associated with enhanced inflammation upon infection. We further found this inflammation was accompanied by increased recruitment of complement proteins compared to primary infection. However, reinfection elicited neutralizing antibodies that protected rabbits from subsequent viral challenge. Our data from the rabbit model suggests that people exposed to MERS-CoV who fail to develop a neutralizing antibody response, or persons whose neutralizing antibody titers have waned, may be at risk for severe lung disease on re-exposure to MERS-CoV.

  17. A consensus envelope protein domain III can induce neutralizing antibody responses against serotype 2 of dengue virus in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Wei; Liu, Shih-Jen; Li, Yi-Shiuan; Liu, Hsueh-Hung; Tsai, Jy-Ping; Chiang, Chen-Yi; Chen, Mei-Yu; Hwang, Chyi-Sing; Huang, Chin-Cheng; Hu, Hui-Mei; Chung, Han-Hsuan; Wu, Sze-Hsien; Chong, Pele; Leng, Chih-Hsiang; Pan, Chien-Hsiung

    2013-07-01

    We have previously demonstrated that vaccination with a subunit dengue vaccine containing a consensus envelope domain III with aluminum phosphate elicits neutralizing antibodies against all four serotypes of dengue virus in mice. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity of the subunit dengue vaccine in non-human primates. After vaccination, monkeys that received the subunit vaccine with aluminum phosphate developed a significantly strong and long-lasting antibody response. A specific T cell response with cytokine production was also induced, and this correlated with the antibody response. Additionally, neutralizing antibodies against serotype 2 were detected in two of three monkeys. The increase in serotype-2-specific antibody titers and avidity observed in these two monkeys suggested that a serotype-2-biased antibody response occurs. These data provide evidence that a protective neutralizing antibody response was successfully elicited in non-human primates by the dengue subunit vaccine with aluminum phosphate adjuvant.

  18. Evaluation of two types of sponges used to collect cervical secretions and assessment of antibody extraction protocols for recovery of neutralizing anti-human papillomavirus type 16 antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Troy J; Hildesheim, Allan; Falk, Roni T; Schiller, John T; Lowy, Douglas R; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Pinto, Ligia A

    2008-01-01

    Immunogenicity evaluations in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine trials have relied on serological samples, yet cervical antibodies are likely to be most relevant for protection against infection. In order to assess functional antibody levels at the cervix, the secreted-alkaline-phosphatase neutralization assay (SEAPNA) was used to measure HPV-neutralizing activity. We assessed the variability of the SEAPNA with serum samples after vaccination with an HPV type 16 (HPV16) L1 virus-like particle vaccine and whether the SEAPNA can be used to monitor neutralizing activity at the cervix. The SEAPNA has an overall coefficient of variation of 29.3%. Recovery from ophthalmic sponges was assessed by spiking V5 (mouse anti-HPV16) antibody onto and extracting it from sterile Merocel and Ultracell sponges and sponges used to collect specimens from participants. V5 recovery from sterile Merocel sponges was complete, yet that from Ultracell sponges was null. The mean V5 recoveries from participant Ultracell and Merocel sponges were 61.2% and 93.5%, respectively, suggesting that Merocel sponges are more appropriate for specimen collection. The SEAPNA can be applied to determine the surrogates of protection and to examine the durability of protection at the cervix.

  19. A monoclonal rat anti-mouse EMAP II antibody that functionally neutralizes pro- and mature-EMAP II in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekhar, Gangaraju; Mitnacht-Kraus, Rita; Ispe, Ute; Garrison, Jana; Hou, Yonghao; Taylor, Brian; Petrache, Irina; Vestweber, Dietmar; Clauss, Matthias

    2009-10-31

    EMAP II is an endothelial cell and monocyte activating proinflammatory cytokine, which has been demonstrated to induce endothelial cell apoptosis. In order to analyze its role in disease models linked to inflammation and endothelial cell death, we aimed to develop a neutralizing antibody against mouse EMAP II. Therefore, we generated rat monoclonal anti-mouse EMAP II antibodies by immunization with recombinant full length, mouse pro-EMAP II protein. We could identify by ELISA, hybridoma clones from fusion with mouse myeloma SP2/0 cells which produced antibodies recognizing both full length and mature EMAP II. We further characterized one antibody, M7/1 and demonstrated its ability to detect both EMAP II forms in Western blotting and to neutralize EMAP II directed migration of human peripheral blood monocytes as well as EMAP II induced apoptosis of tumor and endothelial cells. We conclude that this antibody can be useful to both target and analyze murine disease models, in which EMAP II may be involved.

  20. Comparisons of VLP-Based ELISA, Neutralization Assays with Native HPV, and Neutralization Assays with PsV in Detecting HPV Antibody Responses in HIV-Infected Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ping; Brendle, Sarah; Milici, Janice; Camacho, Fabian; Zurlo, John; Christensen, Neil; Meyers, Craig

    2015-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers are important public health problems in HIV-infected people. Assays based on HPV virus-like particles (VLP) and pseudoviruses (PsV) are commonly used to examine HPV antibody responses in HIV-infected people, but neutralization assays with native HPV have not been utilized and a comparison of these three assays is lacking. We evaluated the agreement of assays using VLP, native HPV and PsV in detecting HPV16 and 18 antibodies in HIV-infected women. The VLP-based ELISA (VLP-ELISA) was used to detect antibody responses to HPV16 and 18 and cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) VLP antigens. Neutralization assays with native HPV (NA-HPV) and with PsV (NA-PsV) were conducted to examine HPV16 or 18 neutralizing antibodies. Intra class correlation coefficients (ICC) and kappa coefficients were used to assess the agreements of seropositivity between the assays. The seroprevalence detected by the VLP-ELISA, NA-HPV and NA-PsV in 94 HIV-infected women was 35%, 51% and 27% for HPV16 and 14%, 44% and 21% for HPV18. Cross-reactivity between HPV16 and HPV18 was 0.35, 0.04 and 0.33 (kappa coefficients) for the VLP-ELISA, NA-HPV and NA-PsV. The agreements of seropositivity between the three assays were low. Six women who were HPV16 DNA positive were seropositive by the NA-HPV but only two were HPV16 seropositive by the VLP-ELISA or NA-PsV. One HPV18 DNA positive woman was seropositive by all three assays. Repeated tests indicated excellent reproducibility of the NA-HPV. HPV serology results vary across different assays. The NA-HPV appears to be a sensitive and reliable approach in detecting natural HPV antibodies in HIV-infected women. The NA-HPV can be applied in both HPV natural history studies and vaccine studies in HIV-infected people.

  1. A New Glycan-Dependent CD4-Binding Site Neutralizing Antibody Exerts Pressure on HIV-1 In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Freund, Natalia?T.; Horwitz, Joshua A.; Lilian Nogueira; Sievers, Stuart A.; Louise Scharf; Scheid, Johannes F.; Anna Gazumyan; Cassie Liu; Klara Velinzon; Ariel Goldenthal; Sanders, Rogier W.; Moore, John P.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Seaman, Michael S.; Walker, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    The CD4 binding site (CD4bs) on the envelope glycoprotein is a major site of vulnerability that is conserved among different HIV-1 isolates. Many broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to the CD4bs belong to the VRC01 class, sharing highly restricted origins, recognition mechanisms and viral escape pathways. We sought to isolate new anti-CD4bs bNAbs with different origins and mechanisms of action. Using a gp120 2CC core as bait, we isolated antibodies encoded by IGVH3-21 and IGVL3-1 genes wi...

  2. Serum-neutralizing, non-precipitating, partially protective monoclonal IgA antibody against VSV-NJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englen, M.D.; Ristow, S.; Yilma, T.

    1986-03-05

    A BALB/c mouse hybridoma that secretes an isotype IgA kappa-antibody specific for the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-NJ) has been cloned. This antibody is serum-neutralizing yet fails to immunoprecipitate /sup 35/S-labeled G glycoprotein from virus-infected cell lysates. To determine if the antibody could protect mice from a lethal challenge dose of VSV-NJ, passive transfer experiments were performed with ascites fluid containing the IgA antibody. Mice given antibody IP or IV 24 hr before challenge all succumbed to progressive encephalitis, as did control mice. The only mice to survive were those given a virus preparation that had been preincubated with the ascites fluid for 1 hr at 37/sup 0/C. To characterize this antibody physically, Coomassie-stained polyacrylamide gels were prepared in which samples of affinity-purified antibody were prepared under reducing and non-reducing conditions. The results indicate that the molecule is composed of a disulfide bonded light-chain dimer and a disulfide bonded heavy-chain dimer.

  3. Molecular signatures of hemagglutinin stem-directed heterosubtypic human neutralizing antibodies against influenza A viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Avnir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown high usage of the IGHV1-69 germline immunoglobulin gene for influenza hemagglutinin stem-directed broadly-neutralizing antibodies (HV1-69-sBnAbs. Here we show that a major structural solution for these HV1-69-sBnAbs is achieved through a critical triad comprising two CDR-H2 loop anchor residues (a hydrophobic residue at position 53 (Ile or Met and Phe54, and CDR-H3-Tyr at positions 98±1; together with distinctive V-segment CDR amino acid substitutions that occur in positions sparse in AID/polymerase-η recognition motifs. A semi-synthetic IGHV1-69 phage-display library screen designed to investigate AID/polη restrictions resulted in the isolation of HV1-69-sBnAbs that featured a distinctive Ile52Ser mutation in the CDR-H2 loop, a universal CDR-H3 Tyr at position 98 or 99, and required as little as two additional substitutions for heterosubtypic neutralizing activity. The functional importance of the Ile52Ser mutation was confirmed by mutagenesis and by BCR studies. Structural modeling suggests that substitution of a small amino acid at position 52 (or 52a facilitates the insertion of CDR-H2 Phe54 and CDR-H3-Tyr into adjacent pockets on the stem. These results support the concept that activation and expansion of a defined subset of IGHV1-69-encoded B cells to produce potent HV1-69-sBnAbs does not necessarily require a heavily diversified V-segment acquired through recycling/reentry into the germinal center; rather, the incorporation of distinctive amino acid substitutions by Phase 2 long-patch error-prone repair of AID-induced mutations or by random non-AID SHM events may be sufficient. We propose that these routes of B cell maturation should be further investigated and exploited as a pathway for HV1-69-sBnAb elicitation by vaccination.

  4. Generation and characterization of ixekizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that neutralizes interleukin-17A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu L

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ling Liu,1 Jirong Lu,1 Barrett W Allan,2 Ying Tang,2 Jonathan Tetreault,1 Chi-kin Chow,1 Barbra Barmettler,2 James Nelson,2 Holly Bina,1 Lihua Huang,3 Victor J Wroblewski,4 Kristine Kikly1 1Biotechnology Discovery Research, Indianapolis, IN, 2Applied Molecular Evolution, Lilly Biotechnology Center, San Diego, CA, 3Bioproduct Research and Development, 4Drug Disposition, Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Abstract: Interleukin (IL-17A exists as a homodimer (A/A or as a heterodimer (A/F with IL-17F. IL-17A is expressed by a subset of T-cells, called Th17 cells, at inflammatory sites. Most cell types can respond to the local production of IL-17A because of the near ubiquitous expression of IL-17A receptors, IL-17RA and IL-17RC. IL-17A stimulates the release of cytokines and chemokines designed to recruit and activate both neutrophils and memory T-cells to the site of injury or inflammation and maintain a proinflammatory state. IL-17A-producing pathogenic T-cells contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. This study describes the generation and characterization of ixekizumab, a humanized IgG4 variant IL-17A-neutralizing antibody. Ixekizumab binds human and cynomolgus monkey IL-17A with high affinity and binds rabbit IL-17A weakly but does not bind to rodent IL-17A or other IL-17 family members. Ixekizumab effectively inhibits the interaction between IL-17A and its receptor in binding assays and potently blocks IL-17A-induced GRO or KC secretion in cell-based assays. In an in vivo mouse pharmcodynamic model, ixekizumab blocks human IL-17A-induced mouse KC secretion. These data provide a comprehensive preclinical characterization of ixekizumab, for which the efficacy and safety have been demonstrated in human clinical trials in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.Keywords: ixekizumab, IL-17A monoclonal antibody

  5. Large-scale analysis of B-cell epitopes on influenza virus hemagglutinin - implications for cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eSun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Fast gene mutation on surface proteins of influenza virus result in increasing resistance to current vaccines and available antiviral drugs. Broadly neutralizing antibodies represent targets for prophylactic and therapeutic treatments of influenza. We performed a systematic bioinformatics study of cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies against influenza virus surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA. This study utilized the available crystal structures of HA complexed with the antibodies for the analysis of tens of thousands of HA sequences. The detailed description of B-cell epitopes, measurement of epitope area similarity among different strains, and estimation of antibody neutralizing coverage provide insights into cross-reactivity status of existing neutralizing antibodies against influenza virus. We have developed a method to assess the likely cross-reactivity potential of broadly neutralizing antibodies for influenza strains, either newly emerged or existing. Our method catalogs influenza strains by a new concept named discontinuous peptide, and then provide assessment of cross-reactivity. Potentially cross-reactive strains are those that share 100% identity with experimentally verified neutralized strains. By cataloging influenza strains and their B-cell epitopes for known broadly neutralizing antibodies, our method provides guidance for selection of representative strains for further experimental design. The knowledge of sequences, their B-cell epitopes, and differences between historical influenza strains, we enhance our preparedness and the ability to respond to the emerging pandemic threats.

  6. Differential neutralizing activities of a single domain camelid antibody (VHH specific for ricin toxin's binding subunit (RTB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Herrera

    Full Text Available Ricin, a member of the A-B family of ribosome-inactivating proteins, is classified as a Select Toxin by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because of its potential use as a biothreat agent. In an effort to engineer therapeutics for ricin, we recently produced a collection of alpaca-derived, heavy-chain only antibody VH domains (VHH or "nanobody" specific for ricin's enzymatic (RTA and binding (RTB subunits. We reported that one particular RTB-specific VHH, RTB-B7, when covalently linked via a peptide spacer to different RTA-specific VHHs, resulted in heterodimers like VHH D10/B7 that were capable of passively protecting mice against a lethal dose challenge with ricin. However, RTB-B7 itself, when mixed with ricin at a 1 ∶ 10 toxin:antibody ratio did not afford any protection in vivo, even though it had demonstrable toxin-neutralizing activity in vitro. To better define the specific attributes of antibodies associated with ricin neutralization in vitro and in vivo, we undertook a more thorough characterization of RTB-B7. We report that RTB-B7, even at 100-fold molar excess (toxin:antibody was unable to alter the toxicity of ricin in a mouse model. On the other hand, in two well-established cytotoxicity assays, RTB-B7 neutralized ricin with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 that was equivalent to that of 24B11, a well-characterized and potent RTB-specific murine monoclonal antibody. In fact, RTB-B7 and 24B11 were virtually identical when compared across a series of in vitro assays, including adherence to and neutralization of ricin after the toxin was pre-bound to cell surface receptors. RTB-B7 differed from both 24B11 and VHH D10/B7 in that it was relatively less effective at blocking ricin attachment to receptors on host cells and was not able to form high molecular weight toxin:antibody complexes in solution. Whether either of these activities is important in ricin toxin neutralizing activity in vivo remains to be determined.

  7. Structural and Functional Characterization of Anti-A33 Antibodies Reveal a Potent Cross-Species Orthopoxviruses Neutralizer.

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    Michael H Matho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus A33 is an extracellular enveloped virus (EEV-specific type II membrane glycoprotein that is essential for efficient EEV formation and long-range viral spread within the host. A33 is a target for neutralizing antibody responses against EEV. In this study, we produced seven murine anti-A33 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs by immunizing mice with live VACV, followed by boosting with the soluble A33 homodimeric ectodomain. Five A33 specific MAbs were capable of neutralizing EEV in the presence of complement. All MAbs bind to conformational epitopes on A33 but not to linear peptides. To identify the epitopes, we have adetermined the crystal structures of three representative neutralizing MAbs in complex with A33. We have further determined the binding kinetics for each of the three antibodies to wild-type A33, as well as to engineered A33 that contained single alanine substitutions within the epitopes of the three crystallized antibodies. While the Fab of both MAbs A2C7 and A20G2 binds to a single A33 subunit, the Fab from MAb A27D7 binds to both A33 subunits simultaneously. A27D7 binding is resistant to single alanine substitutions within the A33 epitope. A27D7 also demonstrated high-affinity binding with recombinant A33 protein that mimics other orthopoxvirus strains in the A27D7 epitope, such as ectromelia, monkeypox, and cowpox virus, suggesting that A27D7 is a potent cross-neutralizer. Finally, we confirmed that A27D7 protects mice against a lethal challenge with ectromelia virus.

  8. Structural and Functional Characterization of Anti-A33 Antibodies Reveal a Potent Cross-Species Orthopoxviruses Neutralizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matho, Michael H; Schlossman, Andrew; Meng, Xiangzhi; Benhnia, Mohammed Rafii-El-Idrissi; Kaever, Thomas; Buller, Mark; Doronin, Konstantin; Parker, Scott; Peters, Bjoern; Crotty, Shane; Xiang, Yan; Zajonc, Dirk M

    2015-09-01

    Vaccinia virus A33 is an extracellular enveloped virus (EEV)-specific type II membrane glycoprotein that is essential for efficient EEV formation and long-range viral spread within the host. A33 is a target for neutralizing antibody responses against EEV. In this study, we produced seven murine anti-A33 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) by immunizing mice with live VACV, followed by boosting with the soluble A33 homodimeric ectodomain. Five A33 specific MAbs were capable of neutralizing EEV in the presence of complement. All MAbs bind to conformational epitopes on A33 but not to linear peptides. To identify the epitopes, we have adetermined the crystal structures of three representative neutralizing MAbs in complex with A33. We have further determined the binding kinetics for each of the three antibodies to wild-type A33, as well as to engineered A33 that contained single alanine substitutions within the epitopes of the three crystallized antibodies. While the Fab of both MAbs A2C7 and A20G2 binds to a single A33 subunit, the Fab from MAb A27D7 binds to both A33 subunits simultaneously. A27D7 binding is resistant to single alanine substitutions within the A33 epitope. A27D7 also demonstrated high-affinity binding with recombinant A33 protein that mimics other orthopoxvirus strains in the A27D7 epitope, such as ectromelia, monkeypox, and cowpox virus, suggesting that A27D7 is a potent cross-neutralizer. Finally, we confirmed that A27D7 protects mice against a lethal challenge with ectromelia virus.

  9. Development and Evaluation of a Pseudovirus-Luciferase Assay for Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Neutralizing Antibodies against Enterovirus 71

    OpenAIRE

    Xing Wu; Qunying Mao; Xin Yao; Pan Chen; Xiangmei Chen; Jie Shao; Fan Gao; Xiang Yu; Fengcai Zhu; Rongcheng Li; Wenhui Li; Zhenglun Liang; Junzhi Wang; Fengmin Lu

    2013-01-01

    The level of neutralizing antibodies (NtAb) induced by vaccine inoculation is an important endpoint to evaluate the efficacy of EV71 vaccine. In order to evaluate the efficacy of EV71 vaccine, here, we reported the development of a novel pseudovirus system expression firefly luciferase (PVLA) for the quantitative measurement of NtAb. We first evaluated and validated the sensitivity and specificity of the PVLA method. A total of 326 serum samples from an epidemiological survey and 144 serum sp...

  10. Generation and characterization of ixekizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that neutralizes interleukin-17A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Lu, Jirong; Allan, Barrett W; Tang, Ying; Tetreault, Jonathan; Chow, Chi-Kin; Barmettler, Barbra; Nelson, James; Bina, Holly; Huang, Lihua; Wroblewski, Victor J; Kikly, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-17A exists as a homodimer (A/A) or as a heterodimer (A/F) with IL-17F. IL-17A is expressed by a subset of T-cells, called Th17 cells, at inflammatory sites. Most cell types can respond to the local production of IL-17A because of the near ubiquitous expression of IL-17A receptors, IL-17RA and IL-17RC. IL-17A stimulates the release of cytokines and chemokines designed to recruit and activate both neutrophils and memory T-cells to the site of injury or inflammation and maintain a proinflammatory state. IL-17A-producing pathogenic T-cells contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. This study describes the generation and characterization of ixekizumab, a humanized IgG4 variant IL-17A-neutralizing antibody. Ixekizumab binds human and cynomolgus monkey IL-17A with high affinity and binds rabbit IL-17A weakly but does not bind to rodent IL-17A or other IL-17 family members. Ixekizumab effectively inhibits the interaction between IL-17A and its receptor in binding assays and potently blocks IL-17A-induced GRO or KC secretion in cell-based assays. In an in vivo mouse pharmcodynamic model, ixekizumab blocks human IL-17A-induced mouse KC secretion. These data provide a comprehensive preclinical characterization of ixekizumab, for which the efficacy and safety have been demonstrated in human clinical trials in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.

  11. Human Ig knockin mice to study the development and regulation of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkoczy, Laurent; Alt, Frederick W; Tian, Ming

    2017-01-01

    A major challenge for HIV-1 vaccine research is developing a successful immunization approach for inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). A key shortcoming in meeting this challenge has been the lack of animal models capable of identifying impediments limiting bnAb induction and ranking vaccine strategies for their ability to promote bnAb development. Since 2010, immunoglobulin knockin (KI) technology, involving inserting functional rearranged human variable exons into the mouse IgH and IgL loci has been used to express bnAbs in mice. This approach has allowed immune tolerance mechanisms limiting bnAb production to be elucidated and strategies to overcome such limitations to be evaluated. From these studies, along with the wealth of knowledge afforded by analyses of recombinant Ig-based bnAb structures, it became apparent that key functional features of bnAbs often are problematic for their elicitation in mice by classic vaccine paradigms, necessitating more iterative testing of new vaccine concepts. In this regard, bnAb KI models expressing deduced precursor V(D)J rearrangements of mature bnAbs or unrearranged germline V, D, J segments (that can be assembled into variable region exons that encode bnAb precursors), have been engineered to evaluate novel immunogens/regimens for effectiveness in driving bnAb responses. One promising approach emerging from such studies is the ability of sequentially administered, modified immunogens (designed to bind progressively more mature bnAb precursors) to initiate affinity maturation. Here, we review insights gained from bnAb KI studies regarding the regulation and induction of bnAbs, and discuss new Ig KI methodologies to manipulate the production and/or expression of bnAbs in vivo, to further facilitate vaccine-guided bnAb induction studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Precisely Molded Nanoparticle Displaying DENV-E Proteins Induces Robust Serotype-Specific Neutralizing Antibody Responses.

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    Stefan W Metz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is the causative agent of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. The virus is endemic in over 120 countries, causing over 350 million infections per year. Dengue vaccine development is challenging because of the need to induce simultaneous protection against four antigenically distinct DENV serotypes and evidence that, under some conditions, vaccination can enhance disease due to specific immunity to the virus. While several live-attenuated tetravalent dengue virus vaccines display partial efficacy, it has been challenging to induce balanced protective immunity to all 4 serotypes. Instead of using whole-virus formulations, we are exploring the potentials for a particulate subunit vaccine, based on DENV E-protein displayed on nanoparticles that have been precisely molded using Particle Replication in Non-wetting Template (PRINT technology. Here we describe immunization studies with a DENV2-nanoparticle vaccine candidate. The ectodomain of DENV2-E protein was expressed as a secreted recombinant protein (sRecE, purified and adsorbed to poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles of different sizes and shape. We show that PRINT nanoparticle adsorbed sRecE without any adjuvant induces higher IgG titers and a more potent DENV2-specific neutralizing antibody response compared to the soluble sRecE protein alone. Antigen trafficking indicate that PRINT nanoparticle display of sRecE prolongs the bio-availability of the antigen in the draining lymph nodes by creating an antigen depot. Our results demonstrate that PRINT nanoparticles are a promising platform for delivering subunit vaccines against flaviviruses such as dengue and Zika.

  13. Intramuscular administration of AAV overcomes pre-existing neutralizing antibodies in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Jenny A; Calcedo, Roberto; Grant, Rebecca L; Peng, Hui; Medina-Jaszek, C Angelica; Ahonkhai, Omua; Qin, Qiuyue; Roy, Soumitra; Tretiakova, Anna P; Wilson, James M

    2016-12-07

    The seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) to adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector capsids may preclude a percentage of the population from receiving gene therapy, particularly following systemic vector administration. We hypothesized that the use of intramuscular (IM) administration of AAV vectors might circumvent this issue. IM injections were used to administer AAV8 vectors expressing either secreted or non-secreted transgenes into mice and the influence of NAbs supplied by pre-administration of pooled human IgG on transgene expression was evaluated. We then studied the impact of naturally occurring pre-existing AAV8 NAbs on expression of a secreted transgene following IM vector delivery in rhesus macaques. Finally, we evaluated the ability to readminister AAV vectors via IM injections in rhesus macaques. In mice, the presence of AAV8 NAbs had no effect on gene expression in the injected skeletal muscle. However, liver transgene expression following hepatic distribution of the vector was ablated. In rhesus macaques, naturally occurring pre-existing AAV8 NAb titers of ⩽1:160 had no effect on expression levels of a secreted transgene after IM delivery of the vector. Additionally, readministration of AAV vectors was possible by IM injection into the previously injected muscle groups, with no effect on transgene expression by the original vector. Therefore, the presence of pre-existing NAbs in the human population should not preclude subjects from receiving gene therapy by IM administration of the vector so long as sufficient levels of secreted transgene expression can be produced without the involvement of liver. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A neutralizing human monoclonal antibody protects African Green monkeys from Hendra virus challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossart, Katharine N.; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Feldmann, Heinz; Zhu, Zhongyu; Feldmann, Friederike; Geisbert, Joan B.; Yan, Lianying; Feng, Yan-Ru; Brining, Doug; Scott, Dana; Wang, Yanping; Dimitrov, Antony S.; Callison, Julie; Chan, Yee-Peng; Hickey, Andrew C.; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.; Broder, Christopher C.; Rockx, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is a recently emerged zoonotic paramyxovirus that can cause a severe and often fatal disease in horses and humans. HeV is categorized as a biosafety level 4 agent, which has made the development of animal models and testing of potential therapeutics and vaccines challenging. Infection of African Green monkeys (AGMs) with HeV was recently demonstrated and disease mirrored fatal HeV infection in humans, manifesting as a multisystemic vasculitis with widespread virus replication in vascular tissues and severe pathologic manifestations in the lung, spleen and brain. Here, we demonstrate that m102.4, a potent HeV neutralizing human monoclonal antibody (hmAb), can protect AGMs from disease post infection (p.i.) with HeV. Fourteen AGMs were challenged intratracheally with a lethal dose of HeV and twelve subjects were infused twice with a 100 mg dose of m102.4 beginning at either 10 hr, 24 hr or 72 hr p.i. and again approximately 48 hrs later. The presence of viral RNA, infectious virus and HeV-specific immune responses demonstrated that all subjects were infected following challenge. All twelve AGMs that received m102.4 survived infection; whereas the untreated control subjects succumbed to disease on day 8 p.i.. Animals in the 72 hr treatment group exhibited neurological signs of disease but all animals started to recover by day 16 p.i.. These results represent successful post-exposure in vivo efficacy by an investigational drug against HeV and highlight the potential impact a hmAb can have on human disease. PMID:22013123

  15. The clinical importance of neutralizing antibodies in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namaka, Mike; Pollitt-Smith, Merinda; Gupta, Aneri; Klowak, Meghann; Vasconcelos, Marcus; Turcotte, Dana; Gong, Yuewen; Melanson, Maria

    2006-02-01

    Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) develop in patients receiving interferon beta (IFN-beta) for multiple sclerosis (MS). Debate continues concerning the relevance of NAb development on treatment efficacy. To determine the incidence and clinical importance of NAbs in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). A comprehensive literature review was conducted using PubMed (accessed from 1983 to June 2005), Cochrane MS Group trials register (accessed June 2005), MEDLINE (accessed 1983 to June 2005), and Toxnet (accessed June 2005) databases. NAb-induced changes in clinical efficacy and disease progression were evaluated according to the clinical guidelines established by the American Academy of Neurology. Currently, there is no standardized assay to comparatively assess NAbs among different treatments. NAbs develop independent of age, sex, disease duration and progression index at the onset of treatment. The occurrence of NAbs varies from 2-45% depending on the treatment initiated. NAb+ patients demonstrate accelerated disease progression as confirmed by an approximate 1-point increase in the Expanded Disability Status Scale score. The odds of relapse during a NAb+ period are between 1.51 and 1.58 (p < 0.03) with the time to first relapse being shortened by an average of 244 days after 12 months of IFN-beta therapy. NAb+ patients experience an approximately four-fold increase (p = 0.009) in the median number of active T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions compared to NAb-negative patients (1.4 vs. 0.3 respectively, p < 0.01). The induction of NAbs in IFN-beta treated patients reduce clinical effect and accelerate disease progression.

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF NEUTRALIZING ANTIBODIES TO INTERFERON-BETA ON PROGRESSION OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

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    V. Yu. Lizhdvoy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs affect the effectiveness of interferon therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis; however, this influence cannot be considered as unequivocal. NAbs formation is determined by several factors, such as frequency and duration of administration, interferon-β (IFN-β formulation and the patient's genotype. It has been found that NAb titers vary over time. Aim: To assess the levels of NAbs to IFN-β in patients with multiple sclerosis and to investigate their relationship to disease progression. Materials and methods: We analyzed serum samples from 83  multiple sclerosis patients after a  long-term IFN-β-1b treatment; NAbs detection reaction was performed by assessment of their cytopathic effect. Results: NAbs were found in 63.9%  (53  of 83 of patients with duration of IFN-β-1b treatment of 33.3±17.6 months. All NAb-positive patients were treated with highdose IFN-β. Patients with titers>800  LU (n=28 demonstrated a  trend towards more advanced neurologic deficit on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS, compared to the patients with normal NAbs titers (0  to 20  LU, n=30 and intermediate titers (20 to 800 LU, n=25 (p>0.05. The exacerbation rate in the group with NAbs titers from 20  to 800  LU was insignificantly lower than that in the group with NAbs>800 and in the NAb-negative patients (p>0.05. Conclusion: Testing for NAbs may be a promising method for monitoring of IFN-β therapy in multiple sclerosis. There was a trend towards more pronounced neurological deficit in patients with high NAbs titers, but paradoxical data on a high rate of exacerbations in NAb-negative patients requires further study. 

  17. LabKey Server NAb: A tool for analyzing, visualizing and sharing results from neutralizing antibody assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Multiple types of assays allow sensitive detection of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies. For example, the extent of antibody neutralization of HIV-1, SIV and SHIV can be measured in the TZM-bl cell line through the degree of luciferase reporter gene expression after infection. In the past, neutralization curves and titers for this standard assay have been calculated using an Excel macro. Updating all instances of such a macro with new techniques can be unwieldy and introduce non-uniformity across multi-lab teams. Using Excel also poses challenges in centrally storing, sharing and associating raw data files and results. Results We present LabKey Server's NAb tool for organizing, analyzing and securely sharing data, files and results for neutralizing antibody (NAb) assays, including the luciferase-based TZM-bl NAb assay. The customizable tool supports high-throughput experiments and includes a graphical plate template designer, allowing researchers to quickly adapt calculations to new plate layouts. The tool calculates the percent neutralization for each serum dilution based on luminescence measurements, fits a range of neutralization curves to titration results and uses these curves to estimate the neutralizing antibody titers for benchmark dilutions. Results, curve visualizations and raw data files are stored in a database and shared through a secure, web-based interface. NAb results can be integrated with other data sources based on sample identifiers. It is simple to make results public after publication by updating folder security settings. Conclusions Standardized tools for analyzing, archiving and sharing assay results can improve the reproducibility, comparability and reliability of results obtained across many labs. LabKey Server and its NAb tool are freely available as open source software at http://www.labkey.com under the Apache 2.0 license. Many members of the HIV research community can also access the LabKey Server NAb tool without

  18. LabKey Server NAb: a tool for analyzing, visualizing and sharing results from neutralizing antibody assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehler, Britt; Nelson, Elizabeth K; Eckels, Josh; Ramsay, Sarah; Lum, Karl; Wood, Blake; Greene, Kelli M; Gao, Hongmei; Seaman, Michael S; Montefiori, David C; Igra, Mark

    2011-05-27

    Multiple types of assays allow sensitive detection of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies. For example, the extent of antibody neutralization of HIV-1, SIV and SHIV can be measured in the TZM-bl cell line through the degree of luciferase reporter gene expression after infection. In the past, neutralization curves and titers for this standard assay have been calculated using an Excel macro. Updating all instances of such a macro with new techniques can be unwieldy and introduce non-uniformity across multi-lab teams. Using Excel also poses challenges in centrally storing, sharing and associating raw data files and results. We present LabKey Server's NAb tool for organizing, analyzing and securely sharing data, files and results for neutralizing antibody (NAb) assays, including the luciferase-based TZM-bl NAb assay. The customizable tool supports high-throughput experiments and includes a graphical plate template designer, allowing researchers to quickly adapt calculations to new plate layouts. The tool calculates the percent neutralization for each serum dilution based on luminescence measurements, fits a range of neutralization curves to titration results and uses these curves to estimate the neutralizing antibody titers for benchmark dilutions. Results, curve visualizations and raw data files are stored in a database and shared through a secure, web-based interface. NAb results can be integrated with other data sources based on sample identifiers. It is simple to make results public after publication by updating folder security settings. Standardized tools for analyzing, archiving and sharing assay results can improve the reproducibility, comparability and reliability of results obtained across many labs. LabKey Server and its NAb tool are freely available as open source software at http://www.labkey.com under the Apache 2.0 license. Many members of the HIV research community can also access the LabKey Server NAb tool without installing the software by using the

  19. LabKey Server NAb: A tool for analyzing, visualizing and sharing results from neutralizing antibody assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Hongmei

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple types of assays allow sensitive detection of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies. For example, the extent of antibody neutralization of HIV-1, SIV and SHIV can be measured in the TZM-bl cell line through the degree of luciferase reporter gene expression after infection. In the past, neutralization curves and titers for this standard assay have been calculated using an Excel macro. Updating all instances of such a macro with new techniques can be unwieldy and introduce non-uniformity across multi-lab teams. Using Excel also poses challenges in centrally storing, sharing and associating raw data files and results. Results We present LabKey Server's NAb tool for organizing, analyzing and securely sharing data, files and results for neutralizing antibody (NAb assays, including the luciferase-based TZM-bl NAb assay. The customizable tool supports high-throughput experiments and includes a graphical plate template designer, allowing researchers to quickly adapt calculations to new plate layouts. The tool calculates the percent neutralization for each serum dilution based on luminescence measurements, fits a range of neutralization curves to titration results and uses these curves to estimate the neutralizing antibody titers for benchmark dilutions. Results, curve visualizations and raw data files are stored in a database and shared through a secure, web-based interface. NAb results can be integrated with other data sources based on sample identifiers. It is simple to make results public after publication by updating folder security settings. Conclusions Standardized tools for analyzing, archiving and sharing assay results can improve the reproducibility, comparability and reliability of results obtained across many labs. LabKey Server and its NAb tool are freely available as open source software at http://www.labkey.com under the Apache 2.0 license. Many members of the HIV research community can also access the Lab

  20. Antibodies against outer-capsid proteins of grass carp reovirus expressed in E. coli are capable of neutralizing viral infectivity

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    Sun Xiaoyun

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass carp reovirus (GCRV, which causes severe infectious outbreaks of hemorrhagic disease in aquatic animals, is a highly pathogenic agent in the Aquareovirus genus of family Reoviridae. The outer capsid shell of GCRV, composed of the VP5-VP7 protein complex, is believed to be involved in cell entry. The objective of this study was to produce a major neutralization antibody for mitigating GCRV infection. Results Recombinant plasmids of GCRV outer capsid proteins VP5 and VP7 were constructed and expressed in prokaryotic cells in our previous work. In this study, we prepared GCRV Antibody (Ab, VP5Ab and VP7Ab generated from purified native GCRV, recombinant VP5 and VP7 respectively. Immunoblotting analysis showed that the prepared antibodies were specific to its antigens. In addition, combined plaque and cytopathic effect (CPE-based TCID50 (50% tissue culture infective dose assays showed that both VP5Ab and VP7Ab were capable of neutralizing viral infectivity. Particularly, the neutralizing activity of VP7Ab was 3 times higher than that of VP5Ab, suggesting that VP7 might be a dominating epitope. Moreover, the combination of VP5Ab and VP7Ab appeared to enhance GCRV neutralizing capacity. Conclusions The results presented in this study indicated that VP7 protein was the major epitope of GCRV. Furthermore, VP5Ab and VP7Ab in combination presented an enhanced capacity to neutralize the GCRV particle, suggesting that the VP5 and VP7 proteins may cooperate with each other during virus cell entry. The data can be used not only to further define the surface epitope domain of GCRV but may also be applicable in the designing of vaccines.

  1. Mining the human autoantibody repertoire: isolation of potent IL17A-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies from a patient with thymoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerli, Roger R; Bauer, Monika; Fritzer, Andrea; Rosen, Lindsey B; Buser, Regula B; Hanner, Markus; Maudrich, Melanie; Nebenfuehr, Mario; Toepfer, Jorge Alejandro Sepulveda; Mangold, Susanne; Bauer, Anton; Holland, Steven M; Browne, Sarah K; Meinke, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Anti-cytokine autoantibodies have been widely reported to be present in human plasma, both in healthy subjects and in patients with underlying autoimmune conditions, such as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) or thymic epithelial neoplasms. While often asymptomatic, they can cause or facilitate a wide range of diseases including opportunistic infections. The potential therapeutic value of specific neutralizing anti-cytokine autoantibodies has not been thoroughly investigated. Here we used mammalian cell display to isolate IL17A-specific antibodies from a thymoma patient with proven high-titer autoantibodies against the same. We identified 3 distinct clonotypes that efficiently neutralized IL17A in a cell-based in vitro assay. Their potencies were comparable to those of known neutralizing antibodies, including 2, AIN457 (secukinumab) and ixekizumab that are currently in clinical development for the treatment of various inflammatory disorders. These data clearly demonstrate that the human autoantibody repertoire can be mined for antibodies with high therapeutic potential for clinical development.

  2. Hepatitis C Virus E1 and E2 Proteins Used as Separate Immunogens Induce Neutralizing Antibodies with Additive Properties.

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    Elodie Beaumont

    Full Text Available Various strategies involving the use of hepatitis C virus (HCV E1 and E2 envelope glycoproteins as immunogens have been developed for prophylactic vaccination against HCV. However, the ideal mode of processing and presenting these immunogens for effective vaccination has yet to be determined. We used our recently described vaccine candidate based on full-length HCV E1 or E2 glycoproteins fused to the heterologous hepatitis B virus S envelope protein to compare the use of the E1 and E2 proteins as separate immunogens with their use as the E1E2 heterodimer, in terms of immunogenetic potential and the capacity to induce neutralizing antibodies. The specific anti-E1 and anti-E2 antibody responses induced in animals immunized with vaccine particles harboring the heterodimer were profoundly impaired with respect to those in animals immunized with particles harboring E1 and E2 separately. Moreover, the anti-E1 and anti-E2 antibodies had additive neutralizing properties that increase the cross-neutralization of heterologous strains of various HCV genotypes, highlighting the importance of including both E1 and E2 in the vaccine for an effective vaccination strategy. Our study has important implications for the optimization of HCV vaccination strategies based on HCV envelope proteins, regardless of the platform used to present these proteins to the immune system.

  3. Detection of antibodies against H5 and H7 strains in birds: evaluation of influenza pseudovirus particle neutralization tests

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    Sofie Wallerström

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Avian influenza viruses circulate in bird populations, and it is important to maintain and uphold our knowledge of the viral strains that are currently of interest in this context. Here, we describe the use of hemagglutinin-pseudotype retroviruses based on highly pathogenic influenza viruses for the screening of avian sera for influenza A antibodies. Our aim was also to determine whether the pseudovirus neutralization tests that we assessed were sensitive and simple to use compared to the traditional methods, including hemagglutination inhibition assays and microneutralization tests. Material and methods: H5 and H7 pseudovirus neutralization tests were evaluated by using serum from infected rabbits. Subsequently, the assays were further investigated using a panel of serum samples from avian species. The panel contained samples that were seropositive for five different hemagglutinin subtypes as well as influenza A seronegative samples. Results and discussion: The results suggest that the pseudovirus neutralization test is an alternative to hemagglutination inhibition assays, as we observed comparable titers to those of both standard microneutralizations assays as well as hemagglutinin inhibition assays. When evaluated by a panel of avian sera, the method also showed its capability to recognize antibodies directed toward low-pathogenic H5 and H7. Hence, we conclude that it is possible to use pseudoviruses based on highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses to screen avian sera for antibodies directed against influenza A subtypes H5 and H7.

  4. Broad and potent HIV-1 neutralization by a human antibody that binds the gp41-gp120 interface

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    Huang, Jinghe; Kang, Byong H.; Pancera, Marie; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Tong, Tommy; Feng, Yu; Imamichi, Hiromi; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Druz, Aliaksandr; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Laub, Leo; Sliepen, Kwinten; van Gils, Marit J.; de la Peña, Alba Torrents; Derking, Ronald; Klasse, Per-Johan; Migueles, Stephen A.; Bailer, Robert T.; Alam, Munir; Pugach, Pavel; Haynes, Barton F.; Wyatt, Richard T.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Binley, James M.; Ward, Andrew B.; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.; Connors, Mark [NIH

    2015-10-15

    The isolation of human monoclonal antibodies is providing important insights into the specificities that underlie broad neutralization of HIV-1 (reviewed in ref. 1). Here we report a broad and extremely potent HIV-specific monoclonal antibody, termed 35O22, which binds a novel HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) epitope. 35O22 neutralized 62% of 181 pseudoviruses with a half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) <50 μg ml-1. The median IC50 of neutralized viruses was 0.033 μg ml-1, among the most potent thus far described. 35O22 did not bind monomeric forms of Env tested, but did bind the trimeric BG505 SOSIP.664. Mutagenesis and a reconstruction by negative-stain electron microscopy of the Fab in complex with trimer revealed that it bound to a conserved epitope, which stretched across gp120 and gp41. The specificity of 35O22 represents a novel site of vulnerability on HIV Env, which serum analysis indicates to be commonly elicited by natural infection. Binding to this new site of vulnerability may thus be an important complement to current monoclonal-antibody-based approaches to immunotherapies, prophylaxis and vaccine design.

  5. Rice endosperm produces an underglycosylated and potent form of the HIV-neutralizing monoclonal antibody 2G12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvaka, Evangelia; Twyman, Richard M; Murad, Andre Melro; Melnik, Stanislav; Teh, Audrey Yi-Hui; Arcalis, Elsa; Altmann, Friedrich; Stoger, Eva; Rech, Elibio; Ma, Julian K C; Christou, Paul; Capell, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Protein microbicides against HIV can help to prevent infection but they are required in large, repetitive doses. This makes current fermenter-based production systems prohibitively expensive. Plants are advantageous as production platforms because they offer a safe, economical and scalable alternative, and cereals such as rice are particularly attractive because they could allow pharmaceutical proteins to be produced economically and on a large scale in developing countries. Pharmaceutical proteins can also be stored as unprocessed seed, circumventing the need for a cold chain. Here, we report the development of transgenic rice plants expressing the HIV-neutralizing antibody 2G12 in the endosperm. Surprisingly for an antibody expressed in plants, the heavy chain was predominantly aglycosylated. Nevertheless, the heavy and light chains assembled into functional antibodies with more potent HIV-neutralizing activity than other plant-derived forms of 2G12 bearing typical high-mannose or plant complex-type glycans. Immunolocalization experiments showed that the assembled antibody accumulated predominantly in protein storage vacuoles but also induced the formation of novel, spherical storage compartments surrounded by ribosomes indicating that they originated from the endoplasmic reticulum. The comparison of wild-type and transgenic plants at the transcriptomic and proteomic levels indicated that endogenous genes related to starch biosynthesis were down-regulated in the endosperm of the transgenic plants, whereas genes encoding prolamin and glutaredoxin-C8 were up-regulated. Our data provide insight into factors that affect the functional efficacy of neutralizing antibodies in plants and the impact of recombinant proteins on endogenous gene expression. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Enterovirus 71 Neutralizing Antibodies Seroepidemiological Research among Children in Guangzhou, China between 2014 and 2015: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Dingmei Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A hand-foot-mouth disease outbreak occurred in 2014 around Guangdong. The purpose of this study was investigating the status and susceptibility of infectious neutralizing antibodies to enterovirus 71 among children so as to provide scientific evidence for the population immunity level of hand-foot-mouth disease and prepare for enterovirus 71 vaccination implementation. Serum specimens were collected from children in communities from January 2014 to March 2015 in Guangzhou. A total of 197 serum samples from children 1–5 years old were collected for this cross-sectional study via non-probabilistic sampling from the database of Chinese National Science and Technique Major Project. Neutralization activity was measured via micro neutralization test in vitro. The positive rate of enterovirus 71 neutralizing antibodies was 59.4%, whereas the geometric mean titre was 1:12.7. A statistically significant difference in true positive rates was found between different age groups but not between different genders. Being the most susceptible population of hand–foot–mouth disease, children under 3 years of age are more likely to be infected with enterovirus 71, and the immunity of children increases with increasing age. Further cohort studies should be conducted, and measures for prevention and vaccination should be taken.

  7. Formation and sustainment of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas by spheromak merging and neutral beam injection

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    Yamada, Masaaki [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey USA (United States)

    2016-03-25

    This paper briefly reviews a compact toroid reactor concept that addresses critical issues for forming, stabilizing and sustaining a field reversed configuration (FRC) with the use of plasma merging, plasma shaping, conducting shells, neutral beam injection (NBI). In this concept, an FRC plasma is generated by the merging of counter-helicity spheromaks produced by inductive discharges and sustained by the use of neutral beam injection (NBI). Plasma shaping, conducting shells, and the NBI would provide stabilization to global MHD modes. Although a specific FRC reactor design is outside the scope of the present paper, an example of a promising FRC reactor program is summarized based on the previously developed SPIRIT (Self-organized Plasmas by Induction, Reconnection and Injection Techniques) concept in order to connect this concept to the recently achieved the High Performance FRC plasmas obtained by Tri Alpha Energy [Binderbauer et al, Phys. Plasmas 22,056110, (2015)]. This paper includes a brief summary of the previous concept paper by M. Yamada et al, Plasma Fusion Res. 2, 004 (2007) and the recent experimental results from MRX.

  8. Potent autologous and heterologous neutralizing antibody responses occur in HIV-2 infection across a broad range of infection outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Thushan I; Aasa-Chapman, Marlén; Cotten, Matthew; Hué, Stéphane; Robinson, James; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Sarge-Njie, Ramu; Berry, Neil; Jaye, Assan; Aaby, Peter; Whittle, Hilton; Rowland-Jones, Sarah; Weiss, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have explored the role of neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses in controlling HIV-2 viremia and disease progression. Using a TZM-bl neutralization assay, we assessed heterologous and autologous NAb responses from a community cohort of HIV-2-infected individuals with a broad range of disease outcomes in rural Guinea-Bissau. All subjects (n = 40) displayed exceptionally high heterologous NAb titers (50% inhibitory plasma dilution or 50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)], 1:7,000 to 1:1,000,000) against 5 novel primary HIV-2 envelopes and HIV-2 7312A, whereas ROD A and 3 primary envelopes were relatively resistant to neutralization. Most individuals also showed high autologous NAb against contemporaneous envelopes (78% of plasma-envelope combinations in 69 envelopes from 21 subjects), with IC(50)s above 1:10,000. No association between heterologous or autologous NAb titer and greater control of HIV-2 was found. A subset of envelopes was found to be more resistant to neutralization (by plasma and HIV-2 monoclonal antibodies). These envelopes were isolated from individuals with greater intrapatient sequence diversity and were associated with changes in potential N-linked glycosylation sites but not CD4 independence or CXCR4 use. Plasma collected from up to 15 years previously was able to potently neutralize recent autologous envelopes, suggesting a lack of escape from NAb and the persistence of neutralization-sensitive variants over time, despite significant NAb pressure. We conclude that despite the presence of broad and potent NAb responses in HIV-2-infected individuals, these are not the primary forces behind the dichotomous outcomes observed but reveal a limited capacity for adaptive selection and escape from host immunity in HIV-2 infection.

  9. Identification of autoantigens recognized by the 2F5 and 4E10 broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Holl, T. Matt; Liu, Yang; Li, Yi; Lu, Xiaozhi; Nicely, Nathan I.; Kepler, Thomas B.; Alam, S. Munir; Liao, Hua-Xin; Cain, Derek W.; Spicer, Leonard; VandeBerg, John L.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2013-01-01

    Many human monoclonal antibodies that neutralize multiple clades of HIV-1 are polyreactive and bind avidly to mammalian autoantigens. Indeed, the generation of neutralizing antibodies to the 2F5 and 4E10 epitopes of HIV-1 gp41 in man may be proscribed by immune tolerance because mice expressing the VH and VL regions of 2F5 have a block in B cell development that is characteristic of central tolerance. This developmental blockade implies the presence of tolerizing autoantigens that are mimicked by the membrane-proximal external region of HIV-1 gp41. We identify human kynureninase (KYNU) and splicing factor 3b subunit 3 (SF3B3) as the primary conserved, vertebrate self-antigens recognized by the 2F5 and 4E10 antibodies, respectively. 2F5 binds the H4 domain of KYNU which contains the complete 2F5 linear epitope (ELDKWA). 4E10 recognizes an epitope of SF3B3 that is strongly dependent on hydrophobic interactions. Opossums carry a rare KYNU H4 domain that abolishes 2F5 binding, but they retain the SF3B3 4E10 epitope. Immunization of opossums with HIV-1 gp140 induced extraordinary titers of serum antibody to the 2F5 ELDKWA epitope but little or nothing to the 4E10 determinant. Identification of structural motifs shared by vertebrates and HIV-1 provides direct evidence that immunological tolerance can impair humoral responses to HIV-1. PMID:23359068

  10. Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies Block Chikungunya Virus Entry and Release by Targeting an Epitope Critical to Viral Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Liss, Nathan M; Chen, Dong-Hua; Liao, Maofu; Fox, Julie M; Shimak, Raeann M; Fong, Rachel H; Chafets, Daniel; Bakkour, Sonia; Keating, Sheila; Fomin, Marina E; Muench, Marcus O; Sherman, Michael B; Doranz, Benjamin J; Diamond, Michael S; Simmons, Graham

    2015-12-22

    We evaluated the mechanism by which neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies inhibit chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Potently neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) blocked infection at multiple steps of the virus life cycle, including entry and release. Cryo-electron microscopy structures of Fab fragments of two human NAbs and chikungunya virus-like particles showed a binding footprint that spanned independent domains on neighboring E2 subunits within one viral spike, suggesting a mechanism for inhibiting low-pH-dependent membrane fusion. Detailed epitope mapping identified amino acid E2-W64 as a critical interaction residue. An escape mutation (E2-W64G) at this residue rendered CHIKV attenuated in mice. Consistent with these data, CHIKV-E2-W64G failed to emerge in vivo under the selection pressure of one of the NAbs, IM-CKV063. As our study suggests that antibodies engaging the residue E2-W64 can potently inhibit CHIKV at multiple stages of infection, antibody-based therapies or immunogens that target this region might have protective value. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure of HIV-1 gp120 V1/V2 domain with broadly neutralizing antibody PG9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLellan, Jason S.; Pancera, Marie; Carrico, Chris; Gorman, Jason; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Khayat, Reza; Louder, Robert; Pejchal, Robert; Sastry, Mallika; Dai, Kaifan; O’Dell, Sijy; Patel, Nikita; Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Zhou, Tongqing; Zhu, Jiang; Boyington, Jeffrey C.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Diwanji, Devan; Georgiev, Ivelin; Kwon, Young Do; Lee, Doyung; Louder, Mark K.; Moquin, Stephanie; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Bonsignori, Mattia; Crump, John A.; Kapiga, Saidi H.; Sam, Noel E.; Haynes, Barton F.; Burton, Dennis R.; Koff, Wayne C.; Walker, Laura M.; Phogat, Sanjay; Wyatt, Richard; Orwenyo, Jared; Wang, Lai-Xi; Arthos, James; Bewley, Carole A.; Mascola, John R.; Nabel, Gary J.; Schief, William R.; Ward, Andrew B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Kwong, Peter D. (UWASH); (NIH); (Scripps); (Duke); (IAVI); (Maryland-MED)

    2012-12-13

    Variable regions 1 and 2 (V1/V2) of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) gp120 envelope glycoprotein are critical for viral evasion of antibody neutralization, and are themselves protected by extraordinary sequence diversity and N-linked glycosylation. Human antibodies such as PG9 nonetheless engage V1/V2 and neutralize 80% of HIV-1 isolates. Here we report the structure of V1/V2 in complex with PG9. V1/V2 forms a four-stranded {beta}-sheet domain, in which sequence diversity and glycosylation are largely segregated to strand-connecting loops. PG9 recognition involves electrostatic, sequence-independent and glycan interactions: the latter account for over half the interactive surface but are of sufficiently weak affinity to avoid autoreactivity. The structures of V1/V2-directed antibodies CH04 and PGT145 indicate that they share a common mode of glycan penetration by extended anionic loops. In addition to structurally defining V1/V2, the results thus identify a paradigm of antibody recognition for highly glycosylated antigens, which - with PG9 - involves a site of vulnerability comprising just two glycans and a strand.

  12. Comparative in vitro and in vivo assessment of toxin neutralization by anti-tetanus toxin monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mehdi; Khosravi-Eghbal, Roya; Reza Mahmoudi, Ahmad; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Rabbani, Hodjatallah; Shokri, Fazel

    2014-01-01

    Tetanus is caused by the tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT), a 150 kDa single polypeptide molecule which is cleaved into an active two-chain molecule composed of a 50 kDa N-terminal light (L) and a 100 kDa C-terminal heavy (H) chains. Recently, extensive effort has focused on characterization of TeNT binding receptors and toxin neutralization by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Toxin binding inhibition and neutralization is routinely assessed either in vitro by the ganglioside GT1b binding inhibition assay or in vivo using an animal model. These two assay systems have never been compared. In the present study, we report characterization of eleven mAbs against different parts of TeNT. The toxin inhibitory and neutralization activity of the mAbs was assessed in vitro and in vivo respectively. Our data demonstrated that seven mAbs bind to fragment C of the heavy chain, two mAbs react with the light chain, one mAb recognizes both chains and one mAb reacts with neither light chain nor fragment C. Six fragment C specific mAbs were able to inhibit TeNT binding to GT1b ganglioside in vitro but three failed to neutralize the toxin in vivo. One in vitro inhibitory mAb (1F3E3) was found to synergize with the in vivo neutralizing mAbs to reduce toxin lethal activity in vivo. Sequencing of the immunoglobulin heavy and light chain variable region genes revealed that the three in vivo neutralizing mAbs were derived from a common origin. Altogether, our data suggests that fragment C specific mAbs contribute to toxin neutralization in both systems, though some of the GT1b binding inhibitory mAbs may not be able to neutralize TeNT in vivo. PMID:24126015

  13. Cross-protection of newly emerging HPAI H5 viruses by neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies: A viable alternative to oseltamivir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huanhuan; Wang, Guiqin; Wang, Shuangshuang; Chen, Honglin; Chen, Zhiwei; Hu, Hongxing; Cheng, Genhong; Zhou, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Newly emerging highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2, H5N3, H5N5, H5N6, H5N8 and H5N9 viruses have been spreading in poultry and wild birds. The H5N6 viruses have also caused 10 human infections with 4 fatal cases in China. Here, we assessed the cross-neutralization and cross-protection of human and mouse monoclonal antibodies against 2 viruses: a HPAI H5N8 virus, A/chicken/Netherlands/14015526/2014 (NE14) and a HPAI H5N6 virus, A/Sichuan/26221/2014 (SC14). The former was isolated from an infected chicken in Netherlands in 2014 and the latter was isolated from an infected human patient in Sichuan, China. We show that antibodies FLA5.10, FLD21.140, 100F4 and 65C6, but not AVFluIgG01, AVFluIgG03, S139/1 and the VRC01 control, potently cross-neutralize the H5N8 NE14 and H5N6 SC14 viruses. Furthermore, we show that a single injection of >1 mg/kg of antibody 100F4 at 4 hours before, or 20 mg/kg antibody 100F4 at 72 hours after, a lethal dose of H5N8 NE14 enables mice to withstand the infection. Finally, we show that a single injection of 0.5 or 1 mg/kg antibody 100F4 prophylactically or 10 mg/kg 100F4 therapeutically outperforms a 5-day course of 10 mg/kg/day oseltamivir treatment against lethal H5N8 NE14 or H5N6 SC14 infection in mice. Our results suggest that further preclinical evaluation of human monoclonal antibodies against newly emerging H5 viruses is warranted.

  14. A New Glycan-Dependent CD4-Binding Site Neutralizing Antibody Exerts Pressure on HIV-1 In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia T Freund

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The CD4 binding site (CD4bs on the envelope glycoprotein is a major site of vulnerability that is conserved among different HIV-1 isolates. Many broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs to the CD4bs belong to the VRC01 class, sharing highly restricted origins, recognition mechanisms and viral escape pathways. We sought to isolate new anti-CD4bs bNAbs with different origins and mechanisms of action. Using a gp120 2CC core as bait, we isolated antibodies encoded by IGVH3-21 and IGVL3-1 genes with long CDRH3s that depend on the presence of the N-linked glycan at position-276 for activity. This binding mode is similar to the previously identified antibody HJ16, however the new antibodies identified herein are more potent and broad. The most potent variant, 179NC75, had a geometric mean IC80 value of 0.42 μg/ml against 120 Tier-2 HIV-1 pseudoviruses in the TZM.bl assay. Although this group of CD4bs glycan-dependent antibodies can be broadly and potently neutralizing in vitro, their in vivo activity has not been tested to date. Here, we report that 179NC75 is highly active when administered to HIV-1-infected humanized mice, where it selects for escape variants that lack a glycan site at position-276. The same glycan was absent from the virus isolated from the 179NC75 donor, implying that the antibody also exerts selection pressure in humans.

  15. A New Glycan-Dependent CD4-Binding Site Neutralizing Antibody Exerts Pressure on HIV-1 In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Natalia T; Horwitz, Joshua A; Nogueira, Lilian; Sievers, Stuart A; Scharf, Louise; Scheid, Johannes F; Gazumyan, Anna; Liu, Cassie; Velinzon, Klara; Goldenthal, Ariel; Sanders, Rogier W; Moore, John P; Bjorkman, Pamela J; Seaman, Michael S; Walker, Bruce D; Klein, Florian; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2015-10-01

    The CD4 binding site (CD4bs) on the envelope glycoprotein is a major site of vulnerability that is conserved among different HIV-1 isolates. Many broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to the CD4bs belong to the VRC01 class, sharing highly restricted origins, recognition mechanisms and viral escape pathways. We sought to isolate new anti-CD4bs bNAbs with different origins and mechanisms of action. Using a gp120 2CC core as bait, we isolated antibodies encoded by IGVH3-21 and IGVL3-1 genes with long CDRH3s that depend on the presence of the N-linked glycan at position-276 for activity. This binding mode is similar to the previously identified antibody HJ16, however the new antibodies identified herein are more potent and broad. The most potent variant, 179NC75, had a geometric mean IC80 value of 0.42 μg/ml against 120 Tier-2 HIV-1 pseudoviruses in the TZM.bl assay. Although this group of CD4bs glycan-dependent antibodies can be broadly and potently neutralizing in vitro, their in vivo activity has not been tested to date. Here, we report that 179NC75 is highly active when administered to HIV-1-infected humanized mice, where it selects for escape variants that lack a glycan site at position-276. The same glycan was absent from the virus isolated from the 179NC75 donor, implying that the antibody also exerts selection pressure in humans.

  16. Production in yeast of pseudotype virus-like particles harboring functionally active antibody fragments neutralizing the cytolytic activity of vaginolysin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleckaityte Milda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant antibodies can be produced in different formats and different expression systems. Single chain variable fragments (scFvs represent an attractive alternative to full-length antibodies and they can be easily produced in bacteria or yeast. However, the scFvs exhibit monovalent antigen-binding properties and short serum half-lives. The stability and avidity of the scFvs can be improved by their multimerization or fusion with IgG Fc domain. The aim of the current study was to investigate the possibilities to produce in yeast high-affinity scFv-Fc proteins neutralizing the cytolytic activity of vaginolysin (VLY, the main virulence factor of Gardnerella vaginalis. Results The scFv protein derived from hybridoma cell line producing high-affinity neutralizing antibodies against VLY was fused with human IgG1 Fc domain. Four different variants of anti-VLY scFv-Fc fusion proteins were constructed and produced in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The non-tagged scFv-Fc and hexahistidine-tagged scFv-Fc proteins were found predominantly as insoluble aggregates and therefore were not suitable for further purification and activity testing. The addition of yeast α-factor signal sequence did not support secretion of anti-VLY scFv-Fc but increased the amount of its intracellular soluble form. However, the purified protein showed a weak VLY-neutralizing capability. In contrast, the fusion of anti-VLY scFv-Fc molecules with hamster polyomavirus-derived VP2 protein and its co-expression with VP1 protein resulted in an effective production of pseudotype virus-like particles (VLPs that exhibited strong VLY-binding activity. Recombinant scFv-Fc molecules displayed on the surface of VLPs neutralized VLY-mediated lysis of human erythrocytes and HeLa cells with high potency comparable to that of full-length antibody. Conclusions Recombinant scFv-Fc proteins were expressed in yeast with low efficiency. New approach to display the sc

  17. The prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against AAV serotype 1 in healthy subjects in China: implications for gene therapy and vaccines using AAV1 vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Huang, Weijin; Zhao, Chenyan; Zhang, Li; Meng, Shufang; Gao, Dongying; Wang, Youchun

    2013-09-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (AAV1) has attracted tremendous interest as a promising vector for gene therapy and vaccine applications. However, the presence of AAV1 neutralizing antibodies as a consequence of exposure to wild type AAV1 can limit significantly effective gene transfer for biologics based AAV1 vector. Prior studies have reported that a prevalence of AAV1 neutralizing antibodies ranged from 10% to 50% in different countries around the world, and up to 79% in Dutch subjects. However, few studies have reported on the AAV1 neutralizing antibody prevalence in Chinese subjects. In this study, a high-throughput luciferase-based virus neutralization assay was established and standardized for critical parameters, including the appropriate cell line, and the optimal viral infection dose, and the infection time with homologous AAV1 vaccinated mice and guinea pig sera. Then, a total of 500 healthy individual serum samples from two separate regions of China were screened for the AAV1 neutralizing antibodies by conducting a non-randomized, cross-sectional analysis. Interestingly, a high prevalence of AAV1 neutralizing antibody (69.8%) was found in all individuals. There was significant difference observed for prevalence by gender (P = 0.042), age range (P = 0.011) and geographic origin (P AAV1 neutralizing antibodies (NT50  > 10) in teenagers (year AAV1-based vaccination and gene therapy strategies in Beijing and Anhui provinces of China. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Antibodies Elicited by Multiple Envelope Glycoprotein Immunogens in Primates Neutralize Primary Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIV-1) Sensitized by CD4-Mimetic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Navid; Princiotto, Amy M; Easterhoff, David; Bradley, Todd; Luo, Kan; Williams, Wilton B; Liao, Hua-Xin; Moody, M Anthony; Phad, Ganesh E; Vázquez Bernat, Néstor; Melillo, Bruno; Santra, Sampa; Smith, Amos B; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B; Haynes, Barton; Sodroski, Joseph

    2016-05-15

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins (Env) mediate virus entry through a series of complex conformational changes triggered by binding to the receptors CD4 and CCR5/CXCR4. Broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize conserved Env epitopes are thought to be an important component of a protective immune response. However, to date, HIV-1 Env immunogens that elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies have not been identified, creating hurdles for vaccine development. Small-molecule CD4-mimetic compounds engage the CD4-binding pocket on the gp120 exterior Env and induce Env conformations that are highly sensitive to neutralization by antibodies, including antibodies directed against the conserved Env region that interacts with CCR5/CXCR4. Here, we show that CD4-mimetic compounds sensitize primary HIV-1 to neutralization by antibodies that can be elicited in monkeys and humans within 6 months by several Env vaccine candidates, including gp120 monomers. Monoclonal antibodies directed against the gp120 V2 and V3 variable regions were isolated from the immunized monkeys and humans; these monoclonal antibodies neutralized a primary HIV-1 only when the virus was sensitized by a CD4-mimetic compound. Thus, in addition to their direct antiviral effect, CD4-mimetic compounds dramatically enhance the HIV-1-neutralizing activity of antibodies that can be elicited with currently available immunogens. Used as components of microbicides, the CD4-mimetic compounds might increase the protective efficacy of HIV-1 vaccines. Preventing HIV-1 transmission is a high priority for global health. Eliciting antibodies that can neutralize transmitted strains of HIV-1 is difficult, creating problems for the development of an effective vaccine. We found that small-molecule CD4-mimetic compounds sensitize HIV-1 to antibodies that can be elicited in vaccinated humans and monkeys. These results suggest an approach to prevent HIV-1 sexual transmission in which a virus

  19. The role of neutralizing antibodies for mouse mammary tumor virus transmission and mammary cancer development

    OpenAIRE

    Finke, Daniela; Luther, Sanjiv A.; Acha-Orbea, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) infection establishes chronic germinal centers and a lifelong neutralizing Ab response. We show that removal of the draining lymph node after establishment of the germinal center reaction led to complete loss of neutralizing Abs despite comparable infection levels in peripheral lymphocytes. Importantly, in the absence of neutralization, only the exocrine organs mammary gland, salivary gland, pancreas, and skin showed strikingly increased infection, resulting i...

  20. Broader HIV-1 neutralizing antibody responses induced by envelope glycoprotein mutants based on the EIAV attenuated vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Lianxing

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to induce a potent and cross-reactive neutralizing antibody (nAb, an effective envelope immunogen is crucial for many viral vaccines, including the vaccine for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The Chinese equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV attenuated vaccine has controlled the epidemic of this virus after its vaccination in over 70 million equine animals during the last 3 decades in China. Data from our past studies demonstrate that the Env protein of this vaccine plays a pivotal role in protecting horses from both homologous and heterogeneous EIAV challenges. Therefore, the amino acid sequence information from the Chinese EIAV attenuated vaccine, in comparison with the parental wild-type EIAV strains, was applied to modify the corresponding region of the envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 CN54. The direction of the mutations was made towards the amino acids conserved in the two EIAV vaccine strains, distinguishing them from the two wild-type strains. The purpose of the modification was to enhance the immunogenicity of the HIV Env. Results The induced nAb by the modified HIV Env neutralized HIV-1 B and B'/C viruses at the highest titer of 1:270. Further studies showed that a single amino acid change in the C1 region accounts for the substantial enhancement in induction of anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies. Conclusions This study shows that an HIV envelope modified by the information of another lentivirus vaccine induces effective broadly neutralizing antibodies. A single amino acid mutation was found to increase the immunogenicity of the HIV Env.

  1. Antigenic differences between vaccine and circulating wild-type mumps viruses decreases neutralization capacity of vaccine-induced antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šantak, M; Lang-Balija, M; Ivancic-Jelecki, J; Košutić-Gulija, T; Ljubin-Sternak, S; Forcic, D

    2013-06-01

    A recent resurgence of mumps in doubly vaccinated cohorts has been observed, identifying genotype G as the current predominant genotype. In this study, the neutralization efficacy of guinea pig sera immunized with three vaccine viruses: L-Zagreb, Urabe AM9 and JL5, was tested against seven mumps viruses: three vaccine strains and four wild-type strains (two of genotype G, one of genotype C, one of genotype D) isolated during 1998-2011. All sera neutralized all viruses although at different levels. The neutralization efficiency of sera decreases several fold by temporal order of virus isolation. Therefore, we concluded that gradual evolution of mumps viruses, rather than belonging to a certain genotype, results in an antigenic divergence from the vaccine strains that decrease the neutralization capacity of vaccine-induced antibodies. Moreover, the amino-acid sequence alignment revealed three new potentially relevant regions for escape from neutralization, i.e. 113-130, 375-403 and 440-443.

  2. Evolution of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid under neutralizing antibody pressure in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Laxmi K; Mohapatra, Jajati K; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Sanyal, Aniket; Pande, Veena; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2014-03-06

    In this study, the Indian foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccine strain (A IND 40/2000) was passaged under homologous bovine convalescent serum (BCS) pressure to gain insight into the evolutionary dynamics of the antigenic sites. A considerable drop in the neutralization titres of the BCS for the isolated variants as compared to the parental population in either virus neutralization or plaque reduction neutralization test was observed. T143K substitution preceding the integrin binding 'RGD'-motif in the βG-βH loop of VP1 was found to be selected consistently and exclusively under immune pressure. By virtue of its location within an immunodominant site, sequence heterogeneity observed in the field viruses and residues already mapped in the neutralizing monoclonal antibody resistant mutants, position 143 in VP1 was predicted to be a critical residue of an important neutralizing epitope in serotype A FMDV. Using next-generation sequencing approach, the gradual overtaking of the originally dominating major variant by a minor one under a selective environment could be demonstrated. In the control passage regimen, VP2 E131K substitution was fixed within the heparan sulfate binding pocket probably as a result of adaptation to use alternative cellular receptors. But at the same time, these substitutions arising under selection forces other than immune pressure changed the antigenic behaviour of the virus inadvertently. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Induction of HIV neutralizing antibodies against the MPER of the HIV envelope protein by HA/gp41 chimeric protein-based DNA and VLP vaccines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ye, Ling; Wen, Zhiyuan; Dong, Ke; Wang, Xi; Bu, Zhigao; Zhang, Huizhong; Compans, Richard W; Yang, Chinglai

    2011-01-01

    .... We investigated the ability of HA/gp41 chimeric protein-based vaccines, which were designed to enhance the exposure of the MPER in its native conformation, to induce MPER-specific HIV neutralizing antibodies...

  4. Detection of serum neutralizing antibodies to Simbu sero-group viruses in cattle in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Coletha; Klevar, S; Elbers, A R W; van der Poel, W H M; Kirkland, P D; Godfroid, J; Mdegela, R H; Mwamengele, G; Stokstad, M

    2015-08-15

    Orthobunyaviruses belonging to the Simbu sero-group occur worldwide, including the newly recognized Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in Europe. These viruses cause congenital malformations and reproductive losses in ruminants. Information on the presence of these viruses in Africa is scarce and the origin of SBV is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of antibodies against SBV and closely related viruses in cattle in Tanzania, and their possible association with reproductive disorders. In a cross-sectional study, serum from 659 cattle from 202 herds collected in 2012/2013 were analyzed using a commercial kit for SBV ELISA, and 61 % were positive. Univariable logistic regression revealed significant association between ELISA seropositivity and reproductive disorders (OR = 1.9). Sera from the same area collected in 2008/2009, before the SBV epidemic in Europe, were also tested and 71 (54.6 %) of 130 were positive. To interpret the ELISA results, SBV virus neutralization test (VNT) was performed on 110 sera collected in 2012/2013, of which 51 % were positive. Of 71 sera from 2008/2009, 21 % were positive. To investigate potential cross reactivity with related viruses, 45 sera from 2012/2013 that were positive in SBV ELISA were analyzed in VNTs for Aino, Akabane, Douglas, Peaton, Sabo, SBV, Sathuperi, Shamonda, Simbu and Tinaroo viruses. All 45 sera were positive for one or more of these viruses. Twenty-nine sera (64.4 %) were positive for SBV, and one had the highest titer for this virus. This is the first indication that Aino, Akabane, Douglas, Peaton, Sabo, SBV, Sathuperi, Shamonda and Tinaroo viruses circulate and cause negative effect on reproductive performance in cattle in Tanzania. SBV or a closely related virus was present before the European epidemic. However, potential cross reactivity complicates the interpretation of serological studies in areas where several related viruses may circulate. Virus isolation and molecular characterization

  5. Neutralizing antibody escape during HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission involves conformational masking of distal epitopes in envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Leslie; Milligan, Caitlin; Simonich, Cassandra A; Nduati, Ruth; Overbaugh, Julie

    2012-09-01

    HIV-1 variants transmitted to infants are often resistant to maternal neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), suggesting that they have escaped maternal NAb pressure. To define the molecular basis of NAb escape that contributes to selection of transmitted variants, we analyzed 5 viruses from 2 mother-to-child transmission pairs, in which the infant virus, but not the maternal virus, was resistant to neutralization by maternal plasma near transmission. We generated chimeric viruses between maternal and infant envelope clones obtained near transmission and examined neutralization by maternal plasma. The molecular determinants of NAb escape were distinct, even when comparing two maternal variants to the transmitted infant virus within one pair, in which insertions in V4 of gp120 and substitutions in HR2 of gp41 conferred neutralization resistance. In another pair, deletions and substitutions in V1 to V3 conferred resistance, but neither V1/V2 nor V3 alone was sufficient. Although the sequence determinants of escape were distinct, all of them involved modifications of potential N-linked glycosylation sites. None of the regions that mediated escape were major linear targets of maternal NAbs because corresponding peptides failed to compete for neutralization. Instead, these regions disrupted multiple distal epitopes targeted by HIV-1-specific monoclonal antibodies, suggesting that escape from maternal NAbs occurred through conformational masking of distal epitopes. This strategy likely allows HIV-1 to utilize relatively limited changes in the envelope to preserve the ability to infect a new host while simultaneously evading multiple NAb specificities present in maternal plasma.

  6. The role of neutralizing antibodies for mouse mammary tumor virus transmission and mammary cancer development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Daniela; Luther, Sanjiv A.; Acha-Orbea, Hans

    2003-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) infection establishes chronic germinal centers and a lifelong neutralizing Ab response. We show that removal of the draining lymph node after establishment of the germinal center reaction led to complete loss of neutralizing Abs despite comparable infection levels in peripheral lymphocytes. Importantly, in the absence of neutralization, only the exocrine organs mammary gland, salivary gland, pancreas, and skin showed strikingly increased infection, resulting in accelerated mammary tumor development. Induction of stronger neutralization did not influence chronic infection levels of peripheral lymphoid organs but strongly inhibited mammary gland infection and virus transmission to the next generation. Taken together, we provide evidence that a tight equilibrium in virus neutralization allows limited infection of exocrine organs and controls cancer development in susceptible mouse strains. These experiments show that a strong neutralizing Ab response induced after infection is not able to control lymphoid MMTV infection. Strong neutralization, however, is capable of blocking amplification of mammary gland infection, tumor development, and virus transmission to the next generation. The results also indicate a role of neutralization in natural resistance to MMTV infection.

  7. Analysis of a Clonal Lineage of HIV-1 Envelope V2/V3 Conformational Epitope-Specific Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies and Their Inferred Unmutated Common Ancestors ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignori, Mattia; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Chen, Xi; Tsao, Chun-Yen; Morris, Lynn; Gray, Elin; Marshall, Dawn J.; Crump, John A.; Kapiga, Saidi H.; Sam, Noel E.; Sinangil, Faruk; Pancera, Marie; Yongping, Yang; Zhang, Baoshan; Zhu, Jiang; Kwong, Peter D.; O'Dell, Sijy; Mascola, John R.; Wu, Lan; Nabel, Gary J.; Phogat, Sanjay; Seaman, Michael S.; Whitesides, John F.; Moody, M. Anthony; Kelsoe, Garnett; Yang, Xinzhen; Sodroski, Joseph; Shaw, George M.; Montefiori, David C.; Kepler, Thomas B.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Alam, S. Munir; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F.

    2011-01-01

    V2/V3 conformational epitope antibodies that broadly neutralize HIV-1 (PG9 and PG16) have been recently described. Since an elicitation of previously known broadly neutralizing antibodies has proven elusive, the induction of antibodies with such specificity is an important goal for HIV-1 vaccine development. A critical question is which immunogens and vaccine formulations might be used to trigger and drive the development of memory B cell precursors with V2/V3 conformational epitope specificity. In this paper we identified a clonal lineage of four V2/V3 conformational epitope broadly neutralizing antibodies (CH01 to CH04) from an African HIV-1-infected broad neutralizer and inferred their common reverted unmutated ancestor (RUA) antibodies. While conformational epitope antibodies rarely bind recombinant Env monomers, a screen of 32 recombinant envelopes for binding to the CH01 to CH04 antibodies showed monoclonal antibody (MAb) binding to the E.A244 gp120 Env and to chronic Env AE.CM243; MAbs CH01 and CH02 also bound to transmitted/founder Env B.9021. CH01 to CH04 neutralized 38% to 49% of a panel of 91 HIV-1 tier 2 pseudoviruses, while the RUAs neutralized only 16% of HIV-1 isolates. Although the reverted unmutated ancestors showed restricted neutralizing activity, they retained the ability to bind to the E.A244 gp120 HIV-1 envelope with an affinity predicted to trigger B cell development. Thus, E.A244, B.9021, and AE.CM243 Envs are three potential immunogen candidates for studies aimed at defining strategies to induce V2/V3 conformational epitope-specific antibodies. PMID:21795340

  8. Cellular impedance measurement as a new tool for poxvirus titration, antibody neutralization testing and evaluation of antiviral substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Peter T; Schuenadel, Livia; Wiethaus, Julia; Bourquain, Daniel R; Kurth, Andreas; Nitsche, Andreas

    2010-10-08

    Impedance-based biosensing known as real-time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES) belongs to an emerging technology for analyzing the status of cells in vitro. In the present study protocols were developed for an RT-CES-based system (xCELLigence™, Roche Applied Science, ACEA Biosciences Inc.) to supplement conventional techniques in pox virology. First, proliferation of cells susceptible to orthopoxviruses was monitored. For virus titration cells were infected with vaccinia virus and cell status, represented by the dimensionless impedance-based cell index (CI), was monitored. A virus-dose dependent decrease in electrical impedance could be shown. Calculation of calibration curves at a suitable CI covering a dynamic range of 4 log enabled the quantification of virus titers in unknown samples. Similarly, antiviral effects could be determined as shown for anti-poxviral agents ST-246 and Cidofovir. Published values for the in vitro concentration that inhibited virus replication by 50% (IC₅₀) could be confirmed while cytotoxicity in effective concentrations was excluded in long-term incubation experiments. Finally, an RT-CES-based virus neutralization test was established. Various poxvirus-specific antibodies were examined for their neutralizing activity and a calculation mode for the neutralizing antibody titer was introduced. In summary, the presented RT-CES-based methods outmatch end-point assays by observing the cell population throughout the entire experiment while workload and time to result are reduced. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A broadly flavivirus cross-neutralizing monoclonal antibody that recognizes a novel epitope within the fusion loop of E protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Qiang Deng

    Full Text Available Flaviviruses are a group of human pathogenic, enveloped RNA viruses that includes dengue (DENV, yellow fever (YFV, West Nile (WNV, and Japanese encephalitis (JEV viruses. Cross-reactive antibodies against Flavivirus have been described, but most of them are generally weakly neutralizing. In this study, a novel monoclonal antibody, designated mAb 2A10G6, was determined to have broad cross-reactivity with DENV 1-4, YFV, WNV, JEV, and TBEV. Phage-display biopanning and structure modeling mapped 2A10G6 to a new epitope within the highly conserved flavivirus fusion loop peptide, the (98DRXW(101 motif. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that 2A10G6 potently neutralizes DENV 1-4, YFV, and WNV and confers protection from lethal challenge with DENV 1-4 and WNV in murine model. Furthermore, functional studies revealed that 2A10G6 blocks infection at a step after viral attachment. These results define a novel broadly flavivirus cross-reactive mAb with highly neutralizing activity that can be further developed as a therapeutic agent against severe flavivirus infections in humans.

  10. Conformational Masking and Receptor-Dependent Unmasking of Highly Conserved Env Epitopes Recognized by Non-Neutralizing Antibodies That Mediate Potent ADCC against HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K. Lewis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of antibody-mediated protection is a major focus of HIV-1 vaccine development and a significant issue in the control of viremia. Virus neutralization, Fc-mediated effector function, or both, are major mechanisms of antibody-mediated protection against HIV-1, although other mechanisms, such as virus aggregation, are known. The interplay between virus neutralization and Fc-mediated effector function in protection against HIV-1 is complex and only partially understood. Passive immunization studies using potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs show that both neutralization and Fc-mediated effector function provides the widest dynamic range of protection; however, a vaccine to elicit these responses remains elusive. By contrast, active immunization studies in both humans and non-human primates using HIV-1 vaccine candidates suggest that weakly neutralizing or non-neutralizing antibodies can protect by Fc-mediated effector function, albeit with a much lower dynamic range seen for passive immunization with bnAbs. HIV-1 has evolved mechanisms to evade each type of antibody-mediated protection that must be countered by a successful AIDS vaccine. Overcoming the hurdles required to elicit bnAbs has become a major focus of HIV-1 vaccine development. Here, we discuss a less studied problem, the structural basis of protection (and its evasion by antibodies that protect only by potent Fc-mediated effector function.

  11. Specifically modified Env immunogens activate B-cell precursors of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies in transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Andrew T.; Gray, Matthew D.; Dosenovic, Pia; Gitlin, Alexander D.; Freund, Natalia T.; Petersen, John; Correnti, Colin; Johnsen, William; Kegel, Robert; Stuart, Andrew B.; Glenn, Jolene; Seaman, Michael S.; Schief, William R.; Strong, Roland K.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Stamatatos, Leonidas

    2016-01-01

    VRC01-class broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies protect animals from experimental infection and could contribute to an effective vaccine response. Their predicted germline forms (gl) bind Env inefficiently, which may explain why they are not elicited by HIV-1 Env-immunization. Here we show that an optimized Env immunogen can engage multiple glVRC01-class antibodies. Furthermore, this immunogen activates naive B cells expressing the human germline heavy chain of 3BNC60, paired with endogenous mouse light chains in vivo. To address whether it activates B cells expressing the fully humanized gl3BNC60 B-cell receptor (BCR), we immunized mice carrying both the heavy and light chains of gl3BNC60. B cells expressing this BCR display an autoreactive phenotype and fail to respond efficiently to soluble forms of the optimized immunogen, unless it is highly multimerized. Thus, specifically designed Env immunogens can activate naive B cells expressing human BCRs corresponding to precursors of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies even when the B cells display an autoreactive phenotype. PMID:26907590

  12. International technology transfer of a GCLP-compliant HIV-1 neutralizing antibody assay for human clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Ozaki

    Full Text Available The Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery/Comprehensive Antibody-Vaccine Immune Monitoring Consortium (CAVD/CA-VIMC assisted an international network of laboratories in transferring a validated assay used to judge HIV-1 vaccine immunogenicity in compliance with Good Clinical Laboratory Practice (GCLP with the goal of adding quality to the conduct of endpoint assays for Human Immunodeficiency Virus I (HIV-1 vaccine human clinical trials. Eight Regional Laboratories in the international setting (Regional Laboratories, many located in regions where the HIV-1 epidemic is most prominent, were selected to implement the standardized, GCLP-compliant Neutralizing Antibody Assay for HIV-1 in TZM-bl Cells (TZM-bl NAb Assay. Each laboratory was required to undergo initial training and implementation of the immunologic assay on-site and then perform partial assay re-validation, competency testing, and undergo formal external audits for GCLP compliance. Furthermore, using a newly established external proficiency testing program for the TZM-bl NAb Assay has allowed the Regional Laboratories to assess the comparability of assay results at their site with the results of neutralizing antibody assays performed around the world. As a result, several of the CAVD/CA-VIMC Regional Laboratories are now in the process of conducting or planning to conduct the GCLP-compliant TZM-bl NAb Assay as an indicator of vaccine immunogenicity for ongoing human clinical trials.

  13. Structural Basis of Neutralization by a Human Anti-severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Spike Protein Antibody,80R.

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    Hwang,W.; Lin, Y.; Santelli, E.; Sui, J.; Jaroszewski, L.; Stec, B.; Farzan, M.; Marasco, W.; Liddington, R.

    2006-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a newly emerged infectious disease that caused pandemic spread in 2003. The etiological agent of SARS is a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The coronaviral surface spike protein S is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein that mediates initial host binding via the cell surface receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), as well as the subsequent membrane fusion events required for cell entry. Here we report the crystal structure of the S1 receptor binding domain (RBD) in complex with a neutralizing antibody, 80R, at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution, as well as the structure of the uncomplexed S1 RBD at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution. We show that the 80R-binding epitope on the S1 RBD overlaps very closely with the ACE2-binding site, providing a rationale for the strong binding and broad neutralizing ability of the antibody. We provide a structural basis for the differential effects of certain mutations in the spike protein on 80R versus ACE2 binding, including escape mutants, which should facilitate the design of immunotherapeutics to treat a future SARS outbreak. We further show that the RBD of S1 forms dimers via an extensive interface that is disrupted in receptor- and antibody-bound crystal structures, and we propose a role for the dimer in virus stability and infectivity.

  14. Neutralizing Antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum Associated with Successful Cure after Drug Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yun Shan; Peng, Kaitian; Chia, Wan Ni; Siau, Anthony; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Gruner, Anne-Charlotte; Preiser, Peter; Mayxay, Mayfong; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Nosten, Francois; White, Nicholas J; Renia, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    An effective antibody response can assist drug treatment to contribute to better parasite clearance in malaria patients. To examine this, sera were obtained from two groups of adult patients with acute falciparum malaria, prior to drug treatment: patients who (1) have subsequent recrudescent infection, or (2) were cured by Day 28 following treatment. Using a Plasmodium falciparum antigen library, we examined the antibody specificities in these sera. While the antibody repertoire of both sera groups was extremely broad and varied, there was a differential antibody profile between the two groups of sera. The proportion of cured patients with antibodies against EXP1, MSP3, GLURP, RAMA, SEA and EBA181 was higher than the proportion of patients with recrudescent infection. The presence of these antibodies was associated with higher odds of treatment cure. Sera containing all six antibodies impaired the invasion of P. falciparum clinical isolates into erythrocytes. These results suggest that antibodies specific against EXP1, MSP3, GLURP, RAMA, SEA and EBA181 in P. falciparum infections could assist anti-malarial drug treatment and contribute to the resolution of the malarial infection.

  15. Protective Monotherapy Against Lethal Ebola Virus Infection by a Potently Neutralizing Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-11

    dilution. 61   62   Antibody purification, labeling, genetic analysis, and reversion to germline. The 63   usage of VH and VL gene segments was...antibodies. 159   160   Production of purified GP. Expi (Invitrogen) cells were transfected with GP 161   ΔMucΔTM-GCN4 HisSA and pCMV- Sport

  16. Monoclonal Antibodies Follow Distinct Aggregation Pathways During Production-Relevant Acidic Incubation and Neutralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Skamris; Tian, Xinsheng; Thorolfsson, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Aggregation aspects of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are of common concern to the pharmaceutical industry. Low pH treatment is applied during affinity purification and to inactivate endogenous retroviruses, directing interest to the mechanisms of acid-induced antibody aggregat...

  17. Emergence of viruses resistant to neutralization by V3-specific antibodies in experimental human immunodeficiency virus type 1 IIIB infection of chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nara, P. L.; Smit, L.; Dunlop, N.; Hatch, W.; Merges, M.; Waters, D.; Kelliher, J.; Gallo, R. C.; Fischinger, P. J.; Goudsmit, J.

    1990-01-01

    Emergence in two chimpanzees of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) IIIB variants resistant to neutralization by the preexisting antibody is described. Viruses isolated from the HIV-1 IIIB gp120-vaccinated and -challenged animal were more resistant to neutralization by the chimpanzee's own

  18. Comparison of neutralizing and hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody responses to influenza A virus vaccination of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benne, CA; Harmsen, M; Tavares, L; Kraaijeveld, CA; De Jong, JC

    A neutralization enzyme immunoassay (N-EIA) was used to determine the neutralizing serum antibody titers to influenza A/Taiwan/1/86 (H1N1) and Beijing/353/89 (H3N2) viruses after vaccination of 51 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected individuals and 10 healthy noninfected controls

  19. Complement C3d conjugation to anthrax protective antigen promotes a rapid, sustained, and protective antibody response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi V Kolla

    Full Text Available B. anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. Pathogenesis is primarily mediated through the exotoxins lethal factor and edema factor, which bind protective antigen (PA to gain entry into the host cell. The current anthrax vaccine (AVA, Biothrax consists of aluminum-adsorbed cell-free filtrates of unencapsulated B. anthracis, wherein PA is thought to be the principle target of neutralization. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the natural adjuvant, C3d, versus alum in eliciting an anti-PA humoral response and found that C3d conjugation to PA and emulsion in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA imparted superior protection from anthrax challenge relative to PA in IFA or PA adsorbed to alum. Relative to alum-PA, immunization of mice with C3d-PA/IFA augmented both the onset and sustained production of PA-specific antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies to the receptor-binding portion (domain 4 of PA. C3d-PA/IFA was efficacious when administered either i.p. or s.c., and in adolescent mice lacking a fully mature B cell compartment. Induction of PA-specific antibodies by C3d-PA/IFA correlated with increased efficiency of germinal center formation and plasma cell generation. Importantly, C3d-PA immunization effectively protected mice from intranasal challenge with B. anthracis spores, and was approximately 10-fold more effective than alum-PA immunization or PA/IFA based on dose challenge. These data suggest that incorporation of C3d as an adjuvant may overcome shortcomings of the currently licensed aluminum-based vaccine, and may confer protection in the early days following acute anthrax exposure.

  20. Induction of HIV neutralizing antibodies against the MPER of the HIV envelope protein by HA/gp41 chimeric protein-based DNA and VLP vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ling; Wen, Zhiyuan; Dong, Ke; Wang, Xi; Bu, Zhigao; Zhang, Huizhong; Compans, Richard W; Yang, Chinglai

    2011-01-01

    Several conserved neutralizing epitopes have been identified in the HIV Env protein and among these, the MPER of gp41 has received great attention and is widely recognized as a promising target. However, little success has been achieved in eliciting MPER-specific HIV neutralizing antibodies by a number of different vaccine strategies. We investigated the ability of HA/gp41 chimeric protein-based vaccines, which were designed to enhance the exposure of the MPER in its native conformation, to induce MPER-specific HIV neutralizing antibodies. In characterization of the HA/gp41 chimeric protein, we found that by mutating an unpaired Cys residue (Cys-14) in its HA1 subunit to a Ser residue, the modified chimeric protein HA-C14S/gp41 showed increased reactivity to a conformation-sensitive monoclonal antibody against HA and formed more stable trimers in VLPs. On the other hand, HA-C14S/gp41 and HA/gp41 chimeric proteins expressed on the cell surfaces exhibited similar reactivity to monoclonal antibodies 2F5 and 4E10. Immunization of guinea pigs using the HA-C14S/gp41 DNA or VLP vaccines induced antibodies against the HIV gp41 as well as to a peptide corresponding to a segment of MPER at higher levels than immunization by standard HIV VLPs. Further, sera from vaccinated guinea pigs were found to exhibit HIV neutralizing activities. Moreover, sera from guinea pigs vaccinated by HA-C14S/gp41 DNA and VLP vaccines but not the standard HIV VLPs, were found to neutralize HIV pseudovirions containing a SIV-4E10 chimeric Env protein. The virus neutralization could be blocked by a MPER-specific peptide, thus demonstrating induction of MPER-specific HIV neutralizing antibodies by this novel vaccine strategy. These results show that induction of MPER-specific HIV neutralizing antibodies can be achieved through a rationally designed vaccine strategy.

  1. Formalin-Inactivated EV71 Vaccine Candidate Induced Cross-Neutralizing Antibody against Subgenotypes B1, B4, B5 and C4A in Adult Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jui-Yuan; Jiang, Renee; Hsieh, Yi-Chin; Tsao, Amanda; Wu, Chien-Long; Huang, Ju-Lan; Fung, Chang-Phone; Hsieh, Szu-Min; Wang, Ya-Fang; Wang, Jen-Ren; Hu, Mei-Hua; Chiang, Jen-Ron; Su, Ih-Jen; Chong, Pele Choi-Sing

    2013-01-01

    Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) in Asia. No effective EV71 vaccine is available. A randomized and open-label phase I clinical study registered with ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01268787, aims to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate (EV71vac) at 5- and 10-µg doses. In this study we report the cross-neutralizing antibody responses from each volunteer against different subgenotypes of EV71 and CVA16. Methods Sixty eligible healthy adults were recruited and vaccinated. Blood samples were obtained on day 0, 21 and 42 and tested against B1, B4, B5, C2, C4A, C4B and CVA16 for cross-neutralizing antibody responses. Results The immunogenicity of both 5- and 10- µg doses were found to be very similar. Approximately 45% of the participants had 4-fold increase in Nt, but there was no further increase in Nt after the second dose. EV71vac induced very strong cross-neutralizing antibody responses in >85% of volunteers without pre-existing Nt against subgenotype B1, B5 and C4A. EV71vac elicited weak cross-neutralizing antibody responses (∼20% of participants) against a C4B and Coxsackie virus A16. Over 90% of vaccinated volunteers did not develop cross-neutralizing antibody responses (Nt<8) against a C2 strain. EV71vac can boost and significantly enhance the neutralizing antibody responses in volunteers who already had pre-vaccination antibodies against EV71 and/or CVA16. Conclusion EV71vac is efficient in eliciting cross-neutralizing antibody responses against EV71 subgenotypes B1, B4, B5, and C4A, and provides the rationale for its evaluation in phase II clinical trials. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov __NCT01268787 PMID:24278177

  2. Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate induced cross-neutralizing antibody against subgenotypes B1, B4, B5 and C4A in adult volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Hsiang Chou

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD in Asia. No effective EV71 vaccine is available. A randomized and open-label phase I clinical study registered with ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01268787, aims to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate (EV71vac at 5- and 10-µg doses. In this study we report the cross-neutralizing antibody responses from each volunteer against different subgenotypes of EV71 and CVA16.Sixty eligible healthy adults were recruited and vaccinated. Blood samples were obtained on day 0, 21 and 42 and tested against B1, B4, B5, C2, C4A, C4B and CVA16 for cross-neutralizing antibody responses.The immunogenicity of both 5- and 10- µg doses were found to be very similar. Approximately 45% of the participants had 4-fold increase in Nt, but there was no further increase in Nt after the second dose. EV71vac induced very strong cross-neutralizing antibody responses in >85% of volunteers without pre-existing Nt against subgenotype B1, B5 and C4A. EV71vac elicited weak cross-neutralizing antibody responses (∼20% of participants against a C4B and Coxsackie virus A16. Over 90% of vaccinated volunteers did not develop cross-neutralizing antibody responses (Nt<8 against a C2 strain. EV71vac can boost and significantly enhance the neutralizing antibody responses in volunteers who already had pre-vaccination antibodies against EV71 and/or CVA16.EV71vac is efficient in eliciting cross-neutralizing antibody responses against EV71 subgenotypes B1, B4, B5, and C4A, and provides the rationale for its evaluation in phase II clinical trials.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01268787.

  3. Methylprednisolone does not restore biological response in multiple sclerosis patients with neutralizing antibodies against interferon-beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, D; Frederiksen, J L; Koch-Henriksen, N

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) appearing during treatment with Interferon-beta (IFN-beta) reduce or abolish bioactivity and therapeutic efficacy. Initial combination therapy with methylprednisolone (MP) may reduce the frequency of NAb positive patients. We hypothesized...... that MP treatment might also reduce NAb levels and re-establish IFN-beta bioactivity in patients already NAb+, who discontinue IFN-beta therapy. Methods: In a 6-month open-label trial, we compared monthly high-dose pulsed MP treatment in 38 Nab positive patients with 35 NAb+, MP-untreated control patients...... discontinuing any therapy or switching to glatiramer acetate. All patients were NAb+ with an absent in vivo response to IFN-beta. NAbs were measured using a cytopathic effect assay and expressed as neutralizing capacity (NC) in percentage of added IFN-beta. Bioactivity was expressed as in vivo Myxovirus...

  4. HIV transmitted/founder vaccines elicit autologous tier 2 neutralizing antibodies for the CD4 binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurley, Nathanael P; Domi, Arban; Basu, Rahul; Saunders, Kevin O; LaBranche, Celia C; Montefiori, David C; Haynes, Barton F; Robinson, Harriet L

    2017-01-01

    Here we report the construction, antigenicity and initial immunogenicity testing of DNA and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vaccines expressing virus-like particles (VLPs) displaying sequential clade C Envelopes (Envs) that co-evolved with the elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) to the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) in HIV-infected individual CH0505. The VLP-displayed Envs showed reactivity for conformational epitopes displayed on the receptor-binding form of Env. Two inoculations of the DNA-T/F vaccine, followed by 3 inoculations of the MVA-T/F vaccine and a final inoculation of the MVA-T/F plus a gp120-T/F protein vaccine elicited nAb to the T/F virus in 2 of 4 rhesus macaques (ID50 of ~175 and ~30). Neutralizing Ab plateaued at 100% neutralization and mapped to the CD4bs like the bnAbs elicited in CH0505. The nAb did not have breadth for other tier 2 viruses. Immunizations with T/F followed by directed-lineage vaccines, both with and without co-delivery of directed-lineage gp120 boosts, failed to elicit tier 2 neutralizing Ab for the CD4bs. Thus, pulsed exposures to DNA and MVA-expressed VLPs plus gp120 protein of a T/F Env can induce autologous tier 2 nAbs to the CD4bs.

  5. Thermostability of Well-Ordered HIV Spikes Correlates with the Elicitation of Autologous Tier 2 Neutralizing Antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the context of HIV vaccine design and development, HIV-1 spike mimetics displaying a range of stabilities were evaluated to determine whether more stable, well-ordered trimers would more efficiently elicit neutralizing antibodies. To begin, in vitro analysis of trimers derived from the cysteine-stabilized SOSIP platform or the uncleaved, covalently linked NFL platform were evaluated. These native-like trimers, derived from HIV subtypes A, B, and C, displayed a range of thermostabilities, and were "stress-tested" at varying temperatures as a prelude to in vivo immunogenicity. Analysis was performed both in the absence and in the presence of two different adjuvants. Since partial trimer degradation was detected at 37°C before or after formulation with adjuvant, we sought to remedy such an undesirable outcome. Cross-linking (fixing of the well-ordered trimers with glutaraldehyde increased overall thermostability, maintenance of well-ordered trimer integrity without or with adjuvant, and increased resistance to solid phase-associated trimer unfolding. Immunization of unfixed and fixed well-ordered trimers into animals revealed that the elicited tier 2 autologous neutralizing activity correlated with overall trimer thermostability, or melting temperature (Tm. Glutaraldehyde fixation also led to higher tier 2 autologous neutralization titers. These results link retention of trimer quaternary packing with elicitation of tier 2 autologous neutralizing activity, providing important insights for HIV-1 vaccine design.

  6. Induction of neutralizing antibodies to Hendra and Nipah glycoproteins using a Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in vivo expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defang, Gabriel N; Khetawat, Dimple; Broder, Christopher C; Quinnan, Gerald V

    2010-12-16

    The emergence of Hendra Virus (HeV) and Nipah Virus (NiV) which can cause fatal infections in both animals and humans has triggered a search for an effective vaccine. Here, we have explored the potential for generating an effective humoral immune response to these zoonotic pathogens using an alphavirus-based vaccine platform. Groups of mice were immunized with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles (VRPs) encoding the attachment or fusion glycoproteins of either HeV or NiV. We demonstrate the induction of highly potent cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies to both viruses using this approach. Preliminary study suggested early enhancement in the antibody response with use of a modified version of VRP. Overall, these data suggest that the use of an alphavirus-derived vaccine platform might serve as a viable approach for the development of an effective vaccine against the henipaviruses. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Prevention of hepatitis C virus infection using a broad cross-neutralizing monoclonal antibody (AR4A) and epigallocatechin gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Daire; Law, John; Egli, Adrian; Douglas, Donna; Lund, Gary; Forester, Sarah; Lambert, Joshua; Law, Mansun; Burton, Dennis R; Tyrrell, D L J; Houghton, Michael; Humar, Atul; Kneteman, Norman

    2016-03-01

    The anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) activity of a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb; AR4A) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) were studied in vitro using a HCV cell culture system and in vivo using a humanized liver mouse model capable of supporting HCV replication. Alone, both exhibit reliable cross-genotype HCV inhibition in vitro, and combination therapy completely prevented HCV infection. In vitro AR4A mAb (alone and combined with EGCG) robustly protects against the establishment of HCV genotype 1a infection. EGCG alone fails to reliably protect against an HCV challenge. In conclusion, AR4A mAb represents a safe and efficacious broadly neutralizing antibody against HCV applicable to strategies to safely prevent HCV reinfection following liver transplantation, and it lends further support to the concept of HCV vaccine development. The poor bioavailability of EGCG limits HCV antiviral activity in vitro. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  8. Characteristics of HPV-specific antibody responses induced by infection and vaccination: cross-reactivity, neutralizing activity, avidity and IgG subclasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherpenisse, Mirte; Schepp, Rutger M; Mollers, Madelief; Meijer, Chris J L M; Berbers, Guy A M; van der Klis, Fiona R M

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess HPV-specific IgG characteristics, we evaluated multiple aspects of the humoral antibody response that will provide insight in the HPV humoral immune response induced by HPV infection and vaccination. Cross-reactivity of HPV-specific antibodies induced by infection or vaccination was assessed with VLP16 or 18 inhibition using a VLP-based multiplex immunoassay (MIA) for HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. HPV16/18 specific IgG1-4 subclasses and avidity were determined with the VLP-MIA in sera after HPV infection and after vaccination. Neutralizing antibodies were determined in a small subset of single-seropositive and multi-seropositive naturally derived antibodies. Naturally derived antibodies from single-positive sera were highly genotype-specific as homologue VLP-inhibition percentages varied between 78-94%. In multi-positive sera, cross-reactive antibodies were observed both within and between α7 and α9 species. After vaccination, cross-reactive antibodies were mainly species-specific. Avidity of vaccine-derived HPV-specific antibodies was 3 times higher than that of antibodies induced by HPV infection (pHPV infection and vaccination. In the small subset tested, the number of single-positive sera with neutralizing capacity was higher than of multi-positive sera. Naturally derived HPV-specific antibodies from single-positive samples showed different characteristics in terms of cross-reactivity and neutralizing capacity compared with antibodies from multi-positive sera. Post-vaccination, HPV antibody avidity was approximately 3 times higher than antibody avidity induced by HPV infection. Therefore, antibody avidity might be a potential surrogate of protection.

  9. Characteristics of HPV-specific antibody responses induced by infection and vaccination: cross-reactivity, neutralizing activity, avidity and IgG subclasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirte Scherpenisse

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In order to assess HPV-specific IgG characteristics, we evaluated multiple aspects of the humoral antibody response that will provide insight in the HPV humoral immune response induced by HPV infection and vaccination. METHODS: Cross-reactivity of HPV-specific antibodies induced by infection or vaccination was assessed with VLP16 or 18 inhibition using a VLP-based multiplex immunoassay (MIA for HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. HPV16/18 specific IgG1-4 subclasses and avidity were determined with the VLP-MIA in sera after HPV infection and after vaccination. Neutralizing antibodies were determined in a small subset of single-seropositive and multi-seropositive naturally derived antibodies. RESULTS: Naturally derived antibodies from single-positive sera were highly genotype-specific as homologue VLP-inhibition percentages varied between 78-94%. In multi-positive sera, cross-reactive antibodies were observed both within and between α7 and α9 species. After vaccination, cross-reactive antibodies were mainly species-specific. Avidity of vaccine-derived HPV-specific antibodies was 3 times higher than that of antibodies induced by HPV infection (p<0.0001. IgG1 and IgG3 were found to be the predominant subclasses observed after HPV infection and vaccination. In the small subset tested, the number of single-positive sera with neutralizing capacity was higher than of multi-positive sera. CONCLUSION: Naturally derived HPV-specific antibodies from single-positive samples showed different characteristics in terms of cross-reactivity and neutralizing capacity compared with antibodies from multi-positive sera. Post-vaccination, HPV antibody avidity was approximately 3 times higher than antibody avidity induced by HPV infection. Therefore, antibody avidity might be a potential surrogate of protection.

  10. High-throughput pseudovirion-based neutralization assay for analysis of natural and vaccine-induced antibodies against human papillomaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sehr

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive, automated, purely add-on, high-throughput pseudovirion-based neutralization assay (HT-PBNA with excellent repeatability and run-to-run reproducibility was developed for human papillomavirus types (HPV 16, 18, 31, 45, 52, 58 and bovine papillomavirus type 1. Preparation of 384 well assay plates with serially diluted sera and the actual cell-based assay are separated in time, therefore batches of up to one hundred assay plates can be processed sequentially. A mean coefficient of variation (CV of 13% was obtained for anti-HPV 16 and HPV 18 titers for a standard serum tested in a total of 58 repeats on individual plates in seven independent runs. Natural antibody response was analyzed in 35 sera from patients with HPV 16 DNA positive cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ lesions. The new HT-PBNA is based on Gaussia luciferase with increased sensitivity compared to the previously described manual PBNA (manPBNA based on secreted alkaline phosphatase as reporter. Titers obtained with HT-PBNA were generally higher than titers obtained with the manPBNA. A good linear correlation (R(2 = 0.7 was found between HT-PBNA titers and anti-HPV 16 L1 antibody-levels determined by a Luminex bead-based GST-capture assay for these 35 sera and a Kappa-value of 0.72, with only 3 discordant sera in the low titer range. In addition to natural low titer antibody responses the high sensitivity of the HT-PBNA also allows detection of cross-neutralizing antibodies induced by commercial HPV L1-vaccines and experimental L2-vaccines. When analyzing the WHO international standards for HPV 16 and 18 we determined an analytical sensitivity of 0.864 and 1.105 mIU, respectively.

  11. Recombinant outer membrane vesicles carrying Chlamydia muridarum HtrA induce antibodies that neutralize chlamydial infection in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, Erika; Ianni, Elvira; Frigimelica, Elisabetta; Petracca, Roberto; Galli, Giuliano; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Norais, Nathalie; Laera, Donatello; Giusti, Fabiola; Pierleoni, Andrea; Donati, Manuela; Cevenini, Roberto; Finco, Oretta; Grandi, Guido; Grifantini, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Background Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are spheroid particles released by all Gram-negative bacteria as a result of the budding out of the outer membrane. Since they carry many of the bacterial surface-associated proteins and feature a potent built-in adjuvanticity, OMVs are being utilized as vaccines, some of which commercially available. Recently, methods for manipulating the protein content of OMVs have been proposed, thus making OMVs a promising platform for recombinant, multivalent vaccines development. Methods Chlamydia muridarum DO serine protease HtrA, an antigen which stimulates strong humoral and cellular responses in mice and humans, was expressed in Escherichia coli fused to the OmpA leader sequence to deliver it to the OMV compartment. Purified OMVs carrying HtrA (CM rHtrA-OMV) were analyzed for their capacity to induce antibodies capable of neutralizing Chlamydia infection of LLC-MK2 cells in vitro. Results CM rHtrA-OMV immunization in mice induced antibodies that neutralize Chlamydial invasion as judged by an in vitro infectivity assay. This was remarkably different from what observed with an enzymatically functional recombinant HtrA expressed in, and purified from the E. coli cytoplasm (CM rHtrA). The difference in functionality between anti-CM rHtrA and anti-CM rHtrA-OMV antibodies was associated to a different pattern of protein epitopes recognition. The epitope recognition profile of anti-CM HtrA-OMV antibodies was similar to that induced in mice during Chlamydial infection. Conclusions When expressed in OMVs HtrA appears to assume a conformation similar to the native one and this results in the elicitation of functional immune responses. These data further support the potentiality of OMVs as vaccine platform. PMID:24009891

  12. An epitope conserved in orthopoxvirus A13 envelope protein is the target of neutralizing and protective antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chungui; Meng, Xiangzhi; Yan, Bo; Crotty, Shane; Deng, Junpeng; Xiang, Yan

    2011-09-15

    Primary immunization of humans with smallpox vaccine (live vaccinia virus (VACV)) consistently elicits antibody responses to six VACV virion membrane proteins, including A13. However, whether anti-A13 antibody contributes to immune protection against orthopoxviruses was unknown. Here, we isolated a murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) against A13 from a mouse that had been infected with VACV. The anti-A13 mAb bound to recombinant A13 protein with an affinity of 3.4nM and neutralized VACV mature virions. Passive immunization of mice with the anti-A13 mAb protected against intranasal VACV infection. The epitope of the anti-A13 mAb was mapped to a 10-amino acid sequence conserved in all orthopoxviruses, including viriola virus and monkeypox virus, suggesting that anti-A13 antibodies elicited by smallpox vaccine might contribute to immune protection against orthopoxviruses. In addition, our data demonstrates that anti-A13 mAbs are effective for treating orthopoxvirus infection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Darwinian Selection and Mutability on Rate of Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Evolution during HIV-1 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Zizhang; Schramm, Chaim A.; Connors, Mark; Morris, Lynn; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.; Shapiro, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of somatic mutations in antibody variable regions is critical for antibody affinity maturation, with HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) generally requiring years to develop. We recently found that the rate at which mutations accumulate decreases over time, but the mechanism governing this slowing is unclear. In this study, we investigated whether natural selection and/or mutability of the antibody variable region contributed significantly to observed decrease in rate. We used longitudinally sampled sequences of immunoglobulin transcripts of single lineages from each of 3 donors, as determined by next generation sequencing. We estimated the evolutionary rates of the complementarity determining regions (CDRs), which are most significant for functional selection, and found they evolved about 1.5- to 2- fold faster than the framework regions. We also analyzed the presence of AID hotspots and coldspots at different points in lineage development and observed an average decrease in mutability of less than 10 percent over time. Altogether, the correlation between Darwinian selection strength and evolutionary rate trended toward significance, especially for CDRs, but cannot fully explain the observed changes in evolutionary rate. The mutability modulated by AID hotspots and coldspots changes correlated only weakly with evolutionary rates. The combined effects of Darwinian selection and mutability contribute substantially to, but do not fully explain, evolutionary rate change for HIV-1-targeting bnAb lineages. PMID:27191167

  14. Development of IgY antibodies against anti-snake toxins endowed with highly lethal neutralizing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, David Gitirana; Fernandez, Jorge Hernandez; de Almeida, Cláudia Maria Costa; da Silva, Cláudia Letícia; Magnoli, Fábio Carlos; da Silva, Osmair Élder; da Silva, Wilmar Dias

    2017-08-30

    Snakebite envenoming is a major neglected disease related to poverty in developing countries. Treatment involves the administration of a specific antivenom serum and auxiliary therapies, if necessary. The improvement of antibodies is of great importance for the technological advancement of antivenom therapy and to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with this medical burden. In the present study, adult hens were immunized nine times with 20μg of B. arietans or C. d. terrificus venoms at three-week intervals between immunizations. Developing antibodies presented increasing avidity and affinity to antigenic toxin epitopes along immunization, attaining a plateau after the seventh immunization. Pooled egg yolk-purified IgY antivenom antibodies, subjected to in vitro-in vivo lethality assay using Swiss adult mice, exhibited potent venom lethal neutralizing activity. Taken together, chickens under the described immunization schedule were considered alternative candidates for antivenom production. Lower maintenance costs, a simple antibody manufacturing process and immunization suffering restrictions are additional advantages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sero-prevalence of virus neutralizing antibodies for rabies in different groups of dogs following vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimburage, R M S; Gunatilake, M; Wimalaratne, O; Balasuriya, A; Perera, K A D N

    2017-05-18

    Mass vaccination of dogs is considered fundamental for national rabies control programmes in Sri Lanka, as dog is the main reservoir and transmitter of the disease. Dogs were followed to determine the sero-prevalence of antibodies to the rabies virus. Altogether 510 previously vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs with owners (domestic dogs) and dogs without owners (stray dogs) of the local guard dog breed in different age groups recruited from Kalutara District, Sri Lanka. The dogs were vaccinated with a monovalent inactivated vaccine intramuscularly and serum antibody titres on days 0, 30, 180 and 360 were determined by the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (RFFIT). The results indicated, a single dose of anti-rabies vaccination fails to generate a protective level of immunity (0.5 IU/ml) which lasts until 1 year in 40.42% of dogs without owners and 57.14% of previously unvaccinated juvenile (age: 3 months to 1 year) dogs with owners. More than one vaccination would help to maintain antibody titres above the protective level in the majority of dogs. The pattern of antibody titre development in annually vaccinated and irregularly vaccinated (not annual) adult dogs with owners is closely similar irrespective of regularity in vaccination. Previously vaccinated animals have higher (2 IU/ml) antibody titres to begin with and have a higher antibody titre on day 360 too. They show a very good antibody titre by day 180. Unvaccinated animals start with low antibody titre and return to low titres by day 360, but have a satisfactory antibody titre by day 180. A single dose of anti-rabies vaccination is not sufficient for the maintenance of antibody titres for a period of 1 year in puppies, juvenile dogs with owners and in dogs without owners. Maternal antibodies do not provide adequate protection to puppies of previously vaccinated dams and puppies of previously unvaccinated dams. Immunity development after vaccination seems to be closely similar in both the groups

  16. Learning the Relationship between the Primary Structure of HIV Envelope Glycoproteins and Neutralization Activity of Particular Antibodies by Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buiu, Cătălin; Putz, Mihai V.; Avram, Speranta

    2016-01-01

    The dependency between the primary structure of HIV envelope glycoproteins (ENV) and the neutralization data for given antibodies is very complicated and depends on a large number of factors, such as the binding affinity of a given antibody for a given ENV protein, and the intrinsic infection kinetics of the viral strain. This paper presents a first approach to learning these dependencies using an artificial feedforward neural network which is trained to learn from experimental data. The results presented here demonstrate that the trained neural network is able to generalize on new viral strains and to predict reliable values of neutralizing activities of given antibodies against HIV-1. PMID:27727189

  17. Development and evaluation of an anti-rabies virus phosphoprotein-specific monoclonal antibody for detection of rabies neutralizing antibodies using RFFIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Jihye; Chun, Byung Chul; Lee, Yeong Seon; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Yang, Dong-Kun; Park, Jun-Sun; Kim, Su Yeon

    2017-12-01

    Rabies is a major public health problem with a fatality rate close to 100%; however, complete prevention can be achieved through pre- or post-exposure prophylaxis. The rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) is one of the recommended testing methods to determine the production of neutralizing antibodies after vaccination. Here, we report the development of a new monoclonal antibody (mAb) designed to react specifically with Rabies virus (RABV) phosphoprotein (P protein), and the evaluation of its applicability to the RFFIT and its effectiveness as a diagnostic reagent for human rabies. The mAb KGH P 16B8 was produced to target the P protein of the Korean KGH RABV strain. An indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was conducted to detect various strains of RABV in various cell lines. Alexa-conjugated KGH P 16B8 (16B8-Alexa) was developed for the RFFIT. The IFA test could detect RABV up to a 1:2,500 dilution, with a detection limit comparable to that of a commercial diagnostic reagent. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the RFFIT using 16B8-Alexa in 414 clinical specimens were 98.67%, 99.47%, 99.55%, and 98.42%, respectively. The results of the RFFIT with 16B8-Alexa were strongly correlated with those obtained using an existing commercial diagnostic reagent (r = 0.995, prabies neutralizing antibody titer and establish a diagnosis in human. Thus, 16B8-Alexa is expected to serve as an alternative diagnostic reagent that is widely accessible, with potentially broad applications beyond those of the RFFIT in Korea. Further studies with 16B8-Alexa should provide insight into the immunological mechanism of the P protein of Korean RABV.

  18. Isolation of a human anti-HIV gp41 membrane proximal region neutralizing antibody by antigen-specific single B cell sorting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Morris

    Full Text Available Broadly neutralizing antibodies are not commonly produced in HIV-1 infected individuals nor by experimental HIV-1 vaccines. When these antibodies do occur, it is important to be able to isolate and characterize them to provide clues for vaccine design. CAP206 is a South African subtype C HIV-1-infected individual previously shown to have broadly neutralizing plasma antibodies targeting the envelope gp41 distal membrane proximal external region (MPER. We have now used a fluoresceinated peptide tetramer antigen with specific cell sorting to isolate a human neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb against the HIV-1 envelope gp41 MPER. The isolated recombinant mAb, CAP206-CH12, utilized a portion of the distal MPER (HXB2 amino acid residues, 673-680 and neutralized a subset of HIV-1 pseudoviruses sensitive to CAP206 plasma antibodies. Interestingly, this mAb was polyreactive and used the same germ-line variable heavy (V(H1-69 and variable kappa light chain (V(K3-20 gene families as the prototype broadly neutralizing anti-MPER mAb, 4E10 (residues 672-680. These data indicate that there are multiple immunogenic targets in the C-terminus of the MPER of HIV-1 gp41 envelope and suggests that gp41 neutralizing epitopes may interact with a restricted set of naive B cells during HIV-1 infection.

  19. Isolation of a Human Anti-HIV gp41 Membrane Proximal Region Neutralizing Antibody by Antigen-Specific Single B Cell Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lynn; Chen, Xi; Alam, Munir; Tomaras, Georgia; Zhang, Ruijun; Marshall, Dawn J.; Chen, Bing; Parks, Robert; Foulger, Andrew; Jaeger, Frederick; Donathan, Michele; Bilska, Mira; Gray, Elin S.; Abdool Karim, Salim S.; Kepler, Thomas B.; Whitesides, John; Montefiori, David; Moody, M. Anthony; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F.

    2011-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies are not commonly produced in HIV-1 infected individuals nor by experimental HIV-1 vaccines. When these antibodies do occur, it is important to be able to isolate and characterize them to provide clues for vaccine design. CAP206 is a South African subtype C HIV-1-infected individual previously shown to have broadly neutralizing plasma antibodies targeting the envelope gp41 distal membrane proximal external region (MPER). We have now used a fluoresceinated peptide tetramer antigen with specific cell sorting to isolate a human neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the HIV-1 envelope gp41 MPER. The isolated recombinant mAb, CAP206-CH12, utilized a portion of the distal MPER (HXB2 amino acid residues, 673–680) and neutralized a subset of HIV-1 pseudoviruses sensitive to CAP206 plasma antibodies. Interestingly, this mAb was polyreactive and used the same germ-line variable heavy (VH1-69) and variable kappa light chain (VK3-20) gene families as the prototype broadly neutralizing anti-MPER mAb, 4E10 (residues 672–680). These data indicate that there are multiple immunogenic targets in the C-terminus of the MPER of HIV-1 gp41 envelope and suggests that gp41 neutralizing epitopes may interact with a restricted set of naive B cells during HIV-1 infection. PMID:21980336

  20. Comparison of neutralizing antibody responses elicited from highly diverse polyvalent heterotrimeric HIV-1 gp140 cocktail immunogens versus a monovalent counterpart in rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Bowles

    Full Text Available Eliciting neutralizing antibodies capable of inactivating a broad spectrum of HIV-1 strains is a major goal of HIV-1 vaccine design. The challenge is that envelopes (Envs of circulating viruses are almost certainly different from any Env used in a vaccine. A novel immunogen composed of a highly diverse set of gp140 Envs including subtypes A, B, C, D and F was developed to stimulate a more cross-neutralizing antibody response. Env heterotrimers composed of up to 54 different gp140s were produced with the aim of focusing the response to the conserved regions of Env while reducing the dominance of any individual hypervariable region. Heterotrimeric gp140 Envs of inter- and intra-subtype combinations were shown to bind CD4 and a panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies with similar affinity to monovalent UG37 gp140. Macaques immunized with six groups of heterotrimer mixtures showed slightly more potent neutralizing antibody responses in TZM-BL tier 1 and A3R5 tier 2 pseudovirus assays than macaques immunized with monovalent Env gp140, and exhibited a marginally greater focus on the CD4-binding site. Carbopol enhanced neutralization when used as an adjuvant instead of RIBI in combination with UG37 gp140. These data indicate that cross-subtype heterotrimeric gp140 Envs may elicit some improvement of the neutralizing antibody response in macaques compared to monovalent gp140 Env.

  1. Cross-neutralizing antibodies elicited by the Cervarix® human papillomavirus vaccine display a range of Alpha-9 inter-type specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissett, Sara L; Draper, Eve; Myers, Richard E; Godi, Anna; Beddows, Simon

    2014-02-26

    The highly efficacious human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines contain virus-like particles (VLP) representing genotypes HPV16 and HPV18, which together account for approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases. Vaccine-type protection is thought to be mediated by high titer, type-specific neutralizing antibodies. The vaccines also confer a degree of cross-protection against some genetically-related types from the Alpha-9 (HPV16-like: HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV52, HPV58) and Alpha-7 (HPV18-like: HPV39, HPV45, HPV59, HPV68) species groups. Cross-protection is coincident with the detection of low titer serum responses against non-vaccine types by vaccinees. Such antibodies may be the effectors of cross-protection or their detection may be useful as a correlate or surrogate. This study evaluated whether cross-neutralization of HPV types from the Alpha-9 species group is mediated by antibodies with a predominantly type-restricted specificity for HPV16 that nevertheless exhibit low affinity interactions with non-vaccine types, or by antibody specificities that demonstrate similar recognition of vaccine and non-vaccine types but are present at very low levels. Antibodies generated following Cervarix® vaccination of 13-14 year old girls were evaluated by pseudovirus neutralization, VLP ELISA and by enrichment of target antigen specificity using VLP-immobilized beads. Two-dimensional hierarchical clustering of serology data demonstrated that the antibody specificity profile generated by VLP ELISA was both quantitatively and qualitatively different from the neutralizing antibody specificity profile. Target-specific antibody enrichment demonstrated that cross-neutralization of non-vaccine types was due to a minority of antibodies rather than by the weak interactions of a predominantly type-restricted HPV16 antibody specificity. Furthermore, cross-neutralization of non-vaccine types appeared to be mediated by multiple antibody specificities, recognizing single and multiple non

  2. Applying antibody-sensitive hypervariable region 1-deleted hepatitis C virus to the study of escape pathways of neutralizing human monoclonal antibody AR5A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Moctezuma, Rodrigo; Bukh, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of end-stage liver diseases. With 3–4 million new HCV infections yearly, a vaccine is urgently needed. A better understanding of virus escape from neutralizing antibodies and their corresponding epitopes are important for this effort. However, for viral isolates with high antibody resistance, or antibodies with moderate potency, it remains challenging to induce escape mutations in vitro. Here, as proof-of-concept, we used antibody-sensitive HVR1-deleted (ΔHVR1) viruses to generate escape mutants for a human monoclonal antibody, AR5A, targeting a rare cross-genotype conserved epitope. By analyzing the genotype 1a envelope proteins (E1/E2) of recovered Core-NS2 recombinant H77/JFH1ΔHVR1 and performing reverse genetic studies we found that resistance to AR5A was caused by substitution L665W, also conferring resistance to the parental H77/JFH1. The mutation did not induce viral fitness loss, but abrogated AR5A binding to HCV particles and intracellular E1/E2 complexes. Culturing J6/JFH1ΔHVR1 (genotype 2a), for which fitness was decreased by L665W, with AR5A generated AR5A-resistant viruses with the substitutions I345V, L665S, and S680T, which we introduced into J6/JFH1 and J6/JFH1ΔHVR1. I345V increased fitness but had no effect on AR5A resistance. L665S impaired fitness and decreased AR5A sensitivity, while S680T combined with L665S compensated for fitness loss and decreased AR5A sensitivity even further. Interestingly, S680T alone had no fitness effect but sensitized the virus to AR5A. Of note, H77/JFH1L665S was non-viable. The resistance mutations did not affect cell-to-cell spread or E1/E2 interactions. Finally, introducing L665W, identified in genotype 1, into genotypes 2–6 parental and HVR1-deleted variants (not available for genotype 4a) we observed diverse effects on viral fitness and a universally pronounced reduction in AR5A sensitivity. Thus, we were able to take advantage of the neutralization-sensitive HVR1

  3. Generation and characterization of cross neutralizing human monoclonal antibody against 4 serotypes of dengue virus without enhancing activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subenya Injampa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Dengue disease is a leading cause of illness and death in the tropics and subtropics. Most severe cases occur among patients secondarily infected with a different dengue virus (DENV serotype compared with that from the first infection, resulting in antibody-dependent enhancement activity (ADE. Our previous study generated the neutralizing human monoclonal antibody, D23-1B3B9 (B3B9, targeting the first domain II of E protein, which showed strong neutralizing activity (NT against all four DENV serotypes. However, at sub-neutralizing concentrations, it showed ADE activity in vitro. Methods In this study, we constructed a new expression plasmid using the existing IgG heavy chain plasmid as a template for Fc modification at position N297Q by site-directed mutagenesis. The resulting plasmid was then co-transfected with a light chain plasmid to produce full recombinant IgG (rIgG in mammalian cells (N297Q-B3B9. This rIgG was characterized for neutralizing and enhancing activity by using different FcγR bearing cells. To produce sufficient quantities of B3B9 rIgG for further characterization, CHO-K1 cells stably secreting N297Q-B3B9 rIgG were then established. Results The generated N297Q-B3B9 rIgG which targets the conserved N-terminal fusion loop of DENV envelope protein showed the same cross-neutralizing activity to all four DENV serotypes as those of wild type rIgG. In both FcγRI- and RII-bearing THP-1 cells and FcγRII-bearing K562 cells, N297Q-B3B9 rIgG lacked ADE activity against all DENV serotypes at sub-neutralizing concentrations. Fortunately, the N297Q-B3B9 rIgG secreted from stable cells showed the same patterns of NT and ADE activities as those of the N297Q-B3B9 rIgG obtained from transient expression against DENV2. Thus, the CHO-K1 stably expressing N297Q-B3B9 HuMAb can be developed as high producer stable cells and used to produce sufficient amounts of antibody for further characterization as a promising dengue therapeutic

  4. Large-scale analysis of B-cell epitopes on influenza virus hemagglutinin - implications for cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Jing; Kudahl, Ulrich J.; Simon, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Influenza viruses continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Fast gene mutation on surface proteins of influenza virus result in increasing resistance to current vaccines and available antiviral drugs. Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) represent targets for prophylactic...... and therapeutic treatments of influenza. We performed a systematic bioinformatics study of cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against influenza virus surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA). This study utilized the available crystal structures of HA complexed with the antibodies for the analysis...... of tens of thousands of HA sequences. The detailed description of B-cell epitopes, measurement of epitope area similarity among different strains, and estimation of antibody neutralizing coverage provide insights into cross-reactivity status of existing nAbs against influenza virus. We have developed...

  5. Measurement of neutralizing serum antibodies of patients vaccinated with human papillomavirus L1 or L2-based immunogens using furin-cleaved HPV Pseudovirions.

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    Joshua W Wang

    Full Text Available Antibodies specific for neutralizing epitopes in either Human papillomavirus (HPV capsid protein L1 or L2 can mediate protection from viral challenge and thus their accurate and sensitive measurement at high throughput is likely informative for monitoring response to prophylactic vaccination. Here we compare measurement of L1 and L2-specific neutralizing antibodies in human sera using the standard Pseudovirion-Based Neutralization Assay (L1-PBNA with the newer Furin-Cleaved Pseudovirion-Based Neutralization Assay (FC-PBNA, a modification of the L1-PBNA intended to improve sensitivity towards L2-specific neutralizing antibodies without compromising assay of L1-specific responses. For detection of L1-specific neutralizing antibodies in human sera, the FC- PBNA and L1-PBNA assays showed similar sensitivity and a high level of correlation using WHO standard sera (n = 2, and sera from patients vaccinated with Gardasil (n = 30 or an experimental human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 L1 VLP vaccine (n = 70. The detection of L1-specific cross-neutralizing antibodies in these sera using pseudovirions of types phylogenetically-related to those targeted by the L1 virus-like particle (VLP vaccines was also consistent between the two assays. However, for sera from patients (n = 17 vaccinated with an L2-based immunogen (TA-CIN, the FC-PBNA was more sensitive than the L1-PBNA in detecting L2-specific neutralizing antibodies. Further, the neutralizing antibody titers measured with the FC-PBNA correlated with those determined with the L2-PBNA, another modification of the L1-PBNA that spacio-temporally separates primary and secondary receptor engagement, as well as the protective titers measured using passive transfer studies in the murine genital-challenge model. In sum, the FC-PBNA provided sensitive measurement for both L1 VLP and L2-specific neutralizing antibody in human sera. Vaccination with TA-CIN elicits weak cross-protective antibody in a

  6. Measurement of neutralizing serum antibodies of patients vaccinated with human papillomavirus L1 or L2-based immunogens using furin-cleaved HPV Pseudovirions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joshua W; Jagu, Subhashini; Wang, Chenguang; Kitchener, Henry C; Daayana, Sai; Stern, Peter L; Pang, Susana; Day, Patricia M; Huh, Warner K; Roden, Richard B S

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies specific for neutralizing epitopes in either Human papillomavirus (HPV) capsid protein L1 or L2 can mediate protection from viral challenge and thus their accurate and sensitive measurement at high throughput is likely informative for monitoring response to prophylactic vaccination. Here we compare measurement of L1 and L2-specific neutralizing antibodies in human sera using the standard Pseudovirion-Based Neutralization Assay (L1-PBNA) with the newer Furin-Cleaved Pseudovirion-Based Neutralization Assay (FC-PBNA), a modification of the L1-PBNA intended to improve sensitivity towards L2-specific neutralizing antibodies without compromising assay of L1-specific responses. For detection of L1-specific neutralizing antibodies in human sera, the FC- PBNA and L1-PBNA assays showed similar sensitivity and a high level of correlation using WHO standard sera (n = 2), and sera from patients vaccinated with Gardasil (n = 30) or an experimental human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) L1 VLP vaccine (n = 70). The detection of L1-specific cross-neutralizing antibodies in these sera using pseudovirions of types phylogenetically-related to those targeted by the L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines was also consistent between the two assays. However, for sera from patients (n = 17) vaccinated with an L2-based immunogen (TA-CIN), the FC-PBNA was more sensitive than the L1-PBNA in detecting L2-specific neutralizing antibodies. Further, the neutralizing antibody titers measured with the FC-PBNA correlated with those determined with the L2-PBNA, another modification of the L1-PBNA that spacio-temporally separates primary and secondary receptor engagement, as well as the protective titers measured using passive transfer studies in the murine genital-challenge model. In sum, the FC-PBNA provided sensitive measurement for both L1 VLP and L2-specific neutralizing antibody in human sera. Vaccination with TA-CIN elicits weak cross-protective antibody in a subset of

  7. A human papillomavirus (HPV) in vitro neutralization assay that recapitulates the in vitro process of infection provides a sensitive measure of HPV L2 infection-inhibiting antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Patricia M; Pang, Yuk-Ying S; Kines, Rhonda C; Thompson, Cynthia D; Lowy, Douglas R; Schiller, John T

    2012-07-01

    Papillomavirus L2-based vaccines have generally induced low-level or undetectable neutralizing antibodies in standard in vitro assays yet typically protect well against in vivo experimental challenge in animal models. Herein we document that mice vaccinated with an L2 vaccine comprising a fusion protein of the L2 amino acids 11 to 88 of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16), HPV18, HPV1, HPV5, and HPV6 were uniformly protected from cervicovaginal challenge with HPV16 pseudovirus, but neutralizing antibodies against HPV16, -31, -33, -45, or -58 were rarely detected in their sera using a standard in vitro neutralization assay. To address this discrepancy, we developed a neutralization assay based on an in vitro infectivity mechanism that more closely mimics the in vivo infectious process, specifically by spaciotemporally separating primary and secondary receptor engagement and correspondingly by altering the timing of exposure of the dominant L2 cross-neutralizing epitopes to the antibodies. With the new assay, titers in the 100 to 10,000 range were measured for most sera, whereas undetectable neutralizing activities were observed with the standard assay. In vitro neutralizing titers measured in the serum of mice after passive transfer of rabbit L2 immune serum correlated with protection from cervicovaginal challenge of the mice. This "L2-based" in vitro neutralization assay should prove useful in critically evaluating the immunogenicity of L2 vaccine candidates in preclinical studies and future clinical trials.

  8. Antibody neutralization poses a barrier to intravitreal adeno-associated viral vector gene delivery to non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotterman, M A; Yin, L; Strazzeri, J M; Flannery, J G; Merigan, W H; Schaffer, D V

    2015-02-01

    Gene delivery vectors based on adeno-associated viruses (AAV) have exhibited promise in both preclinical disease models and human clinical trials for numerous disease targets, including the retinal degenerative disorders Leber's congenital amaurosis and choroideremia. One general challenge for AAV is that preexisting immunity, as well as subsequent development of immunity following vector administration, can severely inhibit systemic AAV vector gene delivery. However, the role of neutralizing antibodies (NABs) in AAV transduction of tissues considered to be immune privileged, such as the eye, is unclear in large animals. Intravitreal AAV administration allows for broad retinal delivery, but is more susceptible to interactions with the immune system than subretinal administration. To assess the effects of systemic anti-AAV antibody levels on intravitreal gene delivery, we quantified the anti-AAV antibodies present in sera from non-human primates before and after intravitreal injections with various AAV capsids. Analysis showed that intravitreal administration resulted in an increase in anti-AAV antibodies regardless of the capsid serotype, transgene or dosage of virus injected. For monkeys injected with wild-type AAV2 and/or an AAV2 mutant, the variable that most significantly affected the production of anti-AAV2 antibodies was the amount of virus delivered. In addition, post-injection antibody titers were highest against the serotype administered, but the antibodies were also cross-reactive against other AAV serotypes. Furthermore, NAB levels in serum correlated with those in vitreal fluid, demonstrating both that this route of administration exposes AAV capsid epitopes to the adaptive immune system and that serum measurements are predictive of vitreous fluid NAB titers. Moreover, the presence of preexisting NAB titers in the serum of monkeys correlated strongly (R=0.76) with weak, decaying or no transgene expression following intravitreal administration of AAV

  9. Mapping the complete glycoproteome of virion-derived HIV-1 gp120 provides insights into broadly neutralizing antibody binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, Maria; Bouché, Laura; Binet, Daniel; O'Connor, Michael-John; Rahman, Dinah; Pang, Poh-Choo; Canis, Kevin; North, Simon J; Desrosiers, Ronald C; Chertova, Elena; Keele, Brandon F; Bess, Julian W; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Haslam, Stuart M; Dell, Anne; Morris, Howard R

    2016-09-08

    The surface envelope glycoprotein (SU) of Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), gp120(SU) plays an essential role in virus binding to target CD4+ T-cells and is a major vaccine target. Gp120 has remarkably high levels of N-linked glycosylation and there is considerable evidence that this "glycan shield" can help protect the virus from antibody-mediated neutralization. In recent years, however, it has become clear that gp120 glycosylation can also be included in the targets of recognition by some of the most potent broadly neutralizing antibodies. Knowing the site-specific glycosylation of gp120 can facilitate the rational design of glycopeptide antigens for HIV vaccine development. While most prior studies have focused on glycan analysis of recombinant forms of gp120, here we report the first systematic glycosylation site analysis of gp120 derived from virions produced by infected T lymphoid cells and show that a single site is exclusively substituted with complex glycans. These results should help guide the design of vaccine immunogens.

  10. Crystal structure of the Hendra virus attachment G glycoprotein bound to a potent cross-reactive neutralizing human monoclonal antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xu

    Full Text Available The henipaviruses, represented by Hendra (HeV and Nipah (NiV viruses are highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxoviruses with uniquely broad host tropisms responsible for repeated outbreaks in Australia, Southeast Asia, India and Bangladesh. The high morbidity and mortality rates associated with infection and lack of licensed antiviral therapies make the henipaviruses a potential biological threat to humans and livestock. Henipavirus entry is initiated by the attachment of the G envelope glycoprotein to host cell membrane receptors. Previously, henipavirus-neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (hmAb have been isolated using the HeV-G glycoprotein and a human naïve antibody library. One cross-reactive and receptor-blocking hmAb (m102.4 was recently demonstrated to be an effective post-exposure therapy in two animal models of NiV and HeV infection, has been used in several people on a compassionate use basis, and is currently in development for use in humans. Here, we report the crystal structure of the complex of HeV-G with m102.3, an m102.4 derivative, and describe NiV and HeV escape mutants. This structure provides detailed insight into the mechanism of HeV and NiV neutralization by m102.4, and serves as a blueprint for further optimization of m102.4 as a therapeutic agent and for the development of entry inhibitors and vaccines.

  11. Crystal structure of the Hendra virus attachment G glycoprotein bound to a potent cross-reactive neutralizing human monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kai; Rockx, Barry; Xie, Yihu; DeBuysscher, Blair L; Fusco, Deborah L; Zhu, Zhongyu; Chan, Yee-Peng; Xu, Yan; Luu, Truong; Cer, Regina Z; Feldmann, Heinz; Mokashi, Vishwesh; Dimitrov, Dimiter S; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A; Broder, Christopher C; Nikolov, Dimitar B

    2013-01-01

    The henipaviruses, represented by Hendra (HeV) and Nipah (NiV) viruses are highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxoviruses with uniquely broad host tropisms responsible for repeated outbreaks in Australia, Southeast Asia, India and Bangladesh. The high morbidity and mortality rates associated with infection and lack of licensed antiviral therapies make the henipaviruses a potential biological threat to humans and livestock. Henipavirus entry is initiated by the attachment of the G envelope glycoprotein to host cell membrane receptors. Previously, henipavirus-neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (hmAb) have been isolated using the HeV-G glycoprotein and a human naïve antibody library. One cross-reactive and receptor-blocking hmAb (m102.4) was recently demonstrated to be an effective post-exposure therapy in two animal models of NiV and HeV infection, has been used in several people on a compassionate use basis, and is currently in development for use in humans. Here, we report the crystal structure of the complex of HeV-G with m102.3, an m102.4 derivative, and describe NiV and HeV escape mutants. This structure provides detailed insight into the mechanism of HeV and NiV neutralization by m102.4, and serves as a blueprint for further optimization of m102.4 as a therapeutic agent and for the development of entry inhibitors and vaccines.

  12. Enterovirus type 71 neutralizing antibodies in the serum of macaque monkeys immunized with EV71 virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Li; Yu, Chun-I; Hu, Yu-Chen; Tsai, Tze-Jiun; Kuo, Yin-Chieh; Chi, Wei-Kuang; Lin, Ae-Ning; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2012-02-08

    Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) is a virulent form of enteroviruses causing hospitalizations for children less than three years of age. Currently there are no anti-viral therapies or vaccines available for EV71. Due to the high risk of poliomyelitis-like paralysis and fatal encephalitis, an effective vaccine to EV71 could potentially prevent virus-induced morbidity and mortality. In this study, we first tested a potential EV71 vaccine candidate based on virus-like particles (VLP). We vaccinated macaque monkeys to validate the immunogenicity of the VLP vaccine to EV71. We detected the VLP or EV71-specific antibodies, neutralization titers, ELISPOT, and T cell response to find their immune responses to EV71. When the VLP vaccine adjuvanted with alum was given to macaque monkeys, these monkeys developed both specific humoral and cellular immune responses to EV71. Despite lower neutralizing antibodies to EV71 were found in sera of VLP-immunized monkeys than monkeys vaccinated with inactivated EV71, VLP-based vaccine generated a memory immune response to EV71. Hence, VLP-based EV71 vaccine is a potential vaccine against EV71 infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular basis of in vitro affinity maturation and functional evolution of a neutralizing anti-human GM-CSF antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eylenstein, Roy; Weinfurtner, Daniel; Härtle, Stefan; Strohner, Ralf; Böttcher, Jark; Augustin, Martin; Ostendorp, Ralf; Steidl, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    X-ray structure analysis of 4 antibody Fab fragments, each in complex with human granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), was performed to investigate the changes at the protein-protein binding interface during the course of in vitro affinity maturation by phage display selection. The parental antibody MOR03929 was compared to its derivatives MOR04252 (CDR-H2 optimized), MOR04302 (CDR-L3 optimized) and MOR04357 (CDR-H2 and CDR-L3 optimized). All antibodies bind to a conformational epitope that can be divided into 3 sub-epitopes. Specifically, MOR04357 binds to a region close to the GM-CSF N-terminus (residues 11-24), a short second sub-epitope (residues 83-89) and a third at the C-terminus (residues 112-123). Modifications introduced during affinity maturation in CDR-H2 and CDR-L3 led to the establishment of additional hydrogen bonds and van der Waals contacts, respectively, providing a rationale for the observed improvement in binding affinity and neutralization potency. Once GM-CSF is complexed to the antibodies, modeling predicts a sterical clash with GM-CSF binding to GM-CSF receptor α and β chain. This predicted mutually exclusive binding was confirmed by a GM-CSF receptor α chain ligand binding inhibition assay. Finally, high throughput sequencing of clones obtained after affinity maturation phage display pannings revealed highly selected consensus sequences for CDR-H2 as well for CDR-L3, which are in accordance with the sequence of the highest affinity antibody MOR04357. The resolved crystal structures highlight the criticality of these strongly selected residues for high affinity interaction with GM-CSF.

  14. Development and characterization of a pre-treatment procedure to eliminate human monoclonal antibody therapeutic drug and matrix interference in cell-based functional neutralizing antibody assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weifeng; Jiang, Hao; Titsch, Craig; Haulenbeek, Jonathan R; Pillutla, Renuka C; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; DeSilva, Binodh S; Arnold, Mark E; Zeng, Jianing; Dodge, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Biological therapeutics can induce an undesirable immune response resulting in the formation of anti-drug antibodies (ADA), including neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Functional (usually cell-based) NAb assays are preferred to determine NAb presence in patient serum, but are often subject to interferences from numerous serum factors, such as growth factors and disease-related cytokines. Many functional cell-based NAb assays are essentially drug concentration assays that imply the presence of NAbs by the detection of small changes in functional drug concentration. Any drug contained in the test sample will increase the total amount of drug in the assay, thus reducing the sensitivity of NAb detection. Biotin-drug Extraction with Acid Dissociation (BEAD) has been successfully applied to extract ADA, thereby removing drug and other interfering factors from human serum samples. However, to date there has been no report to estimate the residual drug level after BEAD treatment when the drug itself is a human monoclonal antibody; mainly due to the limitation of traditional ligand-binding assays. Here we describe a universal BEAD optimization procedure for human monoclonal antibody (mAb) drugs by using a LC-MS/MS method to simultaneously measure drug (a mutant human IgG4), NAb positive control (a mouse IgG), and endogenous human IgGs as an indicator of nonspecific carry-over in the BEAD eluate. This is the first report demonstrating that residual human mAb drug level in clinical sample can be measured after BEAD pre-treatment, which is critical for further BEAD procedure optimization and downstream immunogenicity testing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Neutralizing antibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-1alpha and interferon-alpha but not other cytokines in human immunoglobulin preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, M; Meager, A; Dilger, P; Bird, C; Dolman, C; Das, R G; Thorpe, R

    2000-01-01

    Human immunoglobulin preparations are used therapeutically for various disorders. Such therapy is generally safe but adverse effects occasionally occur in recipients. It has been suggested that antibodies to cytokines present in clinical immunoglobulin products may contribute to undesirable effects in recipients. Therefore, we investigated intravenous and intramuscular immunoglobulin products for the presence of cytokine-specific neutralizing antibodies. Using validated bioassays, we detected neutralizing activity against human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon-alpha2a (IFN-alpha2a) and interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha) in immunoglobulin products. We found no neutralization of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, stem cell factor, IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, oncostatin M (OSM) and IFN-gamma. Most batches which neutralized IFN-alpha2a activity also neutralized other IFN-alpha subtypes, IFN-omega and IFN-beta. Most products (94%) neutralized the biological activity of GM-CSF. No correlation between batches and their ability to neutralize bioactivities of GM-CSF, IFN-alpha2a and IL-1alpha was found. This neutralizing activity could be traced to plasma pools used for manufacture of immunoglobulins. The neutralization was mediated by specific cytokine antibodies contained within immunoglobulin products as it was present in specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) fractions eluted from cytokine affinity chromatography columns. Specific binding of such IgG fractions to cytokines in immunoblots and in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) was observed. This contrasts with the broad non-specific recognition of cytokine proteins observed using unfractionated immunoglobulins in ELISAs. This is the first comprehensive study showing the presence of neutralizing antibodies against GM-CSF, IL-1alpha, or IFN-alpha2a in immunoglobulin products.

  16. Human Papillomavirus neutralizing and cross-reactive antibodies induced in HIV-positive subjects after vaccination with quadrivalent and bivalent HPV vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faust, Helena; Nielsen, Lars Toft; Sehr, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Ninety-one HIV-infected individuals (61 men and 30 women) were randomized to vaccination either with quadrivalent (Gardasil™) or bivalent (Cervarix™) HPV vaccine. Neutralizing and specific HPV-binding serum antibodies were measured at baseline and 12 months after the first vaccine dose. Presence...... of neutralizing and binding antibodies had good agreement (average Kappa for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 was 0.65). At baseline, 88% of subjects had antibodies against at least one genital HPV. Following vaccination with Cervarix™, all subjects became seropositive for HPV16 and 18. After Gardasil......™ vaccination, 96% of subjects seroconverted for HPV16 and 73% for HPV18. Levels of HPV16-specific antibodies were vaccination but >10IU in 85% of study subjects after vaccination. Antibodies against non-vaccine HPV types appeared after Gardasil...

  17. Human Monoclonal Antibodies against West Nile Virus Induced by Natural Infection Neutralize at a Postattachment Step

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Matthew R.; Moesker, Bastiaan; Goudsmit, Jaap; Jongeneelen, Mandy; Austin, S. Kyle; Oliphant, Theodore; Nelson, Steevenson; Pierson, Theodore C.; Wilschut, Jan; Throsby, Mark; Diamond, Michael S.

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that is now a primary cause of epidemic encephalitis in North America. Studies of mice have demonstrated that the humoral immune response against WNV limits primary infection and protects against a secondary challenge. The most-potent neutralizing

  18. Mapping a region of hepatitis C virus E2 that is responsible for escape from neutralizing antibodies and a core CD81-binding region that does not tolerate neutralization escape mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Zhen-Yong; Saha, Anasuya; Xia, Jinming; Wang, Yong; Lau, Patrick; Krey, Thomas; Rey, Felix A; Foung, Steven K H

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the interaction between broadly neutralizing antibodies and their epitopes provides a basis for the rational design of a preventive hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine. CBH-2, HC-11, and HC-1 are representatives of antibodies to overlapping epitopes on E2 that mediate neutralization by blocking virus binding to CD81. To obtain insights into escape mechanisms, infectious cell culture virus, 2a HCVcc, was propagated under increasing concentrations of a neutralizing antibody to isolate escape mutants. Three escape patterns were observed with these antibodies. First, CBH-2 escape mutants that contained mutations at D431G or A439E, which did not compromise viral fitness, were isolated. Second, under the selective pressure of HC-11, escape mutations progressed from a single L438F substitution at a low antibody concentration to double substitutions, L438F and N434D or L438F and T435A, at higher antibody concentrations. Escape from HC-11 was associated with a loss of viral fitness. An HCV pseudoparticle (HCVpp) containing the L438F mutation bound to CD81 half as efficiently as did wild-type (wt) HCVpp. Third, for HC-1, the antibody at a critical concentration completely suppressed viral replication and generated no escape mutants. Epitope mapping revealed contact residues for CBH-2 and HC-11 in two regions of the E2 glycoprotein, amino acids (aa) 425 to 443 and aa 529 to 535. Interestingly, contact residues for HC-1 were identified only in the region encompassing aa 529 to 535 and not in aa 425 to 443. Taken together, these findings point to a region of variability, aa 425 to 443, that is responsible primarily for viral escape from neutralization, with or without compromising viral fitness. Moreover, the region aa 529 to 535 is a core CD81 binding region that does not tolerate neutralization escape mutations.

  19. Development and evaluation of a pseudovirus-luciferase assay for rapid and quantitative detection of neutralizing antibodies against enterovirus 71.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wu

    Full Text Available The level of neutralizing antibodies (NtAb induced by vaccine inoculation is an important endpoint to evaluate the efficacy of EV71 vaccine. In order to evaluate the efficacy of EV71 vaccine, here, we reported the development of a novel pseudovirus system expression firefly luciferase (PVLA for the quantitative measurement of NtAb. We first evaluated and validated the sensitivity and specificity of the PVLA method. A total of 326 serum samples from an epidemiological survey and 144 serum specimens from 3 clinical trials of EV71 vaccines were used, and the level of each specimen's neutralizing antibodies (NtAb was measured in parallel using both the conventional CPE-based and PVLA-based assay. Against the standard neutralization assay based on the inhibition of the cytopathic effect (CPE, the sensitivity and specificity of the PVLA method are 98% and 96%, respectively. Then, we tested the potential interference of NtAb against hepatitis A virus, Polio-I, Polio-II, and Polio-III standard antisera (WHO and goat anti-G10/CA16 serum, the PVLA based assay showed no cross-reactivity with NtAb against other specific sera. Importantly, unlike CPE based method, no live replication-competent EV71 is used during the measurement. Taken together, PVLA is a rapid and specific assay with higher sensitivity and accuracy. It could serve as a valuable tool in assessing the efficacy of EV71 vaccines in clinical trials and disease surveillance in epidemiology studies.

  20. Targeted Delivery of Neutralizing Anti-C5 Antibody to Renal Endothelium Prevents Complement-Dependent Tissue Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Durigutto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Complement activation is largely implicated in the pathogenesis of several clinical conditions and its therapeutic neutralization has proven effective in preventing tissue and organ damage. A problem that still needs to be solved in the therapeutic control of complement-mediated diseases is how to avoid side effects associated with chronic neutralization of the complement system, in particular, the increased risk of infections. We addressed this issue developing a strategy based on the preferential delivery of a C5 complement inhibitor to the organ involved in the pathologic process. To this end, we generated Ergidina, a neutralizing recombinant anti-C5 human antibody coupled with a cyclic-RGD peptide, with a distinctive homing property for ischemic endothelial cells and effective in controlling tissue damage in a rat model of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI. As a result of its preferential localization on renal endothelium, the molecule induced complete inhibition of complement activation at tissue level, and local protection from complement-mediated tissue damage without affecting circulating C5. The ex vivo binding of Ergidina to surgically removed kidney exposed to cold ischemia supports its therapeutic use to prevent posttransplant IRI leading to delay of graft function. Moreover, the finding that the ex vivo binding of Ergidina was not restricted to the kidney, but was also seen on ischemic heart, suggests that this RGD-targeted anti-C5 antibody may represent a useful tool to treat organs prior to transplantation. Based on this evidence, we propose preliminary data showing that Ergidina is a novel targeted drug to prevent complement activation on the endothelium of ischemic kidney.

  1. Epitope Mapping of Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies to Human Interferon-γ Using Human-Bovine Interferon-γ Chimeras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Bartek; Rudström, Karin; Ehrnfelt, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to identify conformational epitopes, recognized by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) made against human (h) interferon (IFN)-γ. Based on the mAbs' (n = 12) ability to simultaneously bind hIFN-γ in ELISA, 2 epitope clusters with 5 mAbs in each were defined; 2 mAbs recognized unique epitopes. Utilizing the mAbs' lack of reactivity with bovine (b) IFN-γ, epitopes were identified using 7 h/bIFN-γ chimeras where the helical regions (A-F) or the C terminus were substituted with bIFN-γ residues. Chimeras had a N-terminal peptide tag enabling the analysis of mAb recognition of chimeras in ELISA. The 2 mAb clusters mapped to region A and E, respectively; the epitopes of several mAbs also involved additional regions. MAbs in cluster A neutralized, to various degrees, IFN-γ-mediated activation of human cells, in line with the involvement of region A in the IFN-γ receptor interaction. MAbs mapping to region E displayed a stronger neutralizing capacity although this region has not been directly implicated in the receptor interaction. The results corroborate earlier studies and provide a detailed picture of the link between the epitope specificity and neutralizing capacity of mAbs. They further demonstrate the general use of peptide-tagged chimeric proteins as a powerful and straightforward method for efficient mapping of conformational epitopes. PMID:27336613

  2. A highly conserved epitope-vaccine candidate against varicella-zoster virus induces neutralizing antibodies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rui; Liu, Jian; Chen, Chunye; Ye, Xiangzhong; Xu, Longfa; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Qinjian; Zhu, Hua; Cheng, Tong; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-03-18

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a highly infectious agent of varicella and herpes zoster (HZ). Vaccination is by far the most effective way to prevent these diseases. More safe, stable and efficient vaccines, such as epitope-based vaccines, now have been increasingly investigated by many researchers. However, only a few VZV neutralizing epitopes have been identified to date. We have previously identified a linear epitope between amino acid residues 121 and 135 of gE. In this study, we validated that this epitope is highly conserved amongst different VZV strains that covered five existing phylogenetic clades with an identity of 100%. We evaluated the immunogenicity of the recombinant hepatitis B virus core (HBc) virus-like particles (VLPs) which included amino acids (121-135). VZV-gE-specific antibodies were detected in immunized mouse serum using ELISA. The anti-peptide antiserum positively detected VZV via Western blot and immunofluorescent staining assays. More importantly, these peptides could neutralize VZV, indicating that these peptides represented neutralizing epitopes. These findings have important implications for the development of epitope-based protective VZV vaccines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nasal Immunization Confers High Avidity Neutralizing Antibody Response and Immunity to Primary and Recurrent Genital Herpes in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Josefine; Zhang, Yuan; Olafsdottir, Thorunn A; Thörn, Karolina; Cairns, Tina M; Wegmann, Frank; Sattentau, Quentin J; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Cohen, Gary H; Harandi, Ali M

    2016-01-01

    Genital herpes is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in both the developing and developed world. Following infection, individuals experience life-long latency associated with sporadic ulcerative outbreaks. Despite many efforts, no vaccine has yet been licensed for human use. Herein, we demonstrated that nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 gD envelope protein mounts significant protection to primary infection as well as the establishment of latency and recurrent genital herpes in guinea pigs. Nasal immunization was shown to elicit specific T cell proliferative and IFN-γ responses as well as systemic and vaginal gD-specific IgG antibody (Ab) responses. Furthermore, systemic IgG Abs displayed potent HSV-2 neutralizing properties and high avidity. By employing a competitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis combined with a battery of known gD-specific neutralizing monoclonal Abs (MAbs), we showed that nasal immunization generated IgG Abs directed to two major discontinuous neutralizing epitopes of gD. These results highlight the potential of nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 envelope protein for induction of protective immunity to primary and recurrent genital herpes.

  4. Fine mapping of a linear epitope on EDIII of Japanese encephalitis virus using a novel neutralizing monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wen-Lei; Guan, Chi-Yu; Liu, Ke; Zhang, Xiao-Min; Feng, Xiu-Li; Zhou, Bin; Su, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Pu-Yan

    2014-01-22

    The domain III (EDIII) of the envelope protein of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is proposed to play an essential role in JEV replication and infection; it is involved in binding to host receptors and contains specific epitopes that elicit neutralizing antibodies. However, most previous studies have not provided detailed molecular information about the functional epitopes on JEV EDIII protein. In this study, we described a monoclonal antibody (mAb 2B4) we produced and characterized by IFA, PRNT, ELISA and Western blot analyses. The results showed that mAb 2B4 was specific to JEV EDIII protein and possessed high neutralization activity against JEV in vitro. Furthermore, we found that the motif, (394)HHWH(397), was the minimal unit of the linear epitope recognized by mAb 2B4 through screening a phage-displayed random 12-mer peptide library. Using sequence alignment analysis it was found that this motif was highly conserved among JEV strains and was present in West Nile Virus (WNV). Indeed, ELISA data showed that this epitope could be recognized by both JEV-positive swine serum and WNV-positive swine serum. Notably, this linear epitope was highly hydrophilic and was located within the terminal end of a β-pleated sheet of EDIII. An analysis of the spatial conformation supported the possibility of inducing specific antibodies to this epitope. Taken together, we identified (394)HHWH(397) as an EDIII-specific linear epitope recognized by mAb 2B4, which would be beneficial for studying the pathogenic mechanism of JEV; and mAb 2B4 was also a potential diagnostic and therapeutic reagent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Generation of dimeric single-chain antibodies neutralizing the cytolytic activity of vaginolysin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilvinas Dapkunas

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: The protein obtained by the genetic fusion of two anti-VLY scFvs into a dimeric molecule exhibited improved properties in comparison with monomeric scFv. This new recombinant antibody might implement new possibilities for the prophylaxis and treatment of the diseases caused by the bacteria G. vaginalis.

  6. Fully human broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against influenza A viruses generated from the memory B cells of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine recipient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Weibin [Molecular Virus Unit, Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025 (China); Chen, Aizhong [Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Miao, Yi [Shanghai Xuhui Central Hospital, Shanghai 200031 (China); Xia, Shengli [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450016 (China); Ling, Zhiyang; Xu, Ke; Wang, Tongyan [Molecular Virus Unit, Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025 (China); Xu, Ying; Cui, Jun; Wu, Hongqiang; Hu, Guiyu; Tian, Lin; Wang, Lingling [Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Shu, Yuelong [Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206 (China); Ma, Xiaowei [Hualan Biological Bacterin Company, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Xu, Bianli; Zhang, Jin [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450016 (China); Lin, Xiaojun, E-mail: linxiaojun@hualan.com [Hualan Biological Bacterin Company, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Bian, Chao, E-mail: cbian@sibs.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Sun, Bing, E-mail: bsun@sibs.ac.cn [Molecular Virus Unit, Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025 (China); Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China)

    2013-01-20

    Whether the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine can induce heterosubtypic cross-protective anti-hemagglutinin (HA) neutralizing antibodies is an important issue. We obtained a panel of fully human monoclonal antibodies from the memory B cells of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine recipient. Most of the monoclonal antibodies targeted the HA protein but not the HA1 fragment. Among the analyzed antibodies, seven mAbs exhibited neutralizing activity against several influenza A viruses of different subtypes. The conserved linear epitope targeted by the neutralizing mAbs (FIEGGWTGMVDGWYGYHH) is part of the fusion peptide on HA2. Our work suggests that a heterosubtypic neutralizing antibody response primarily targeting the HA stem region exists in recipients of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine. The HA stem region contains various conserved neutralizing epitopes with the fusion peptide as an important one. This work may aid in the design of a universal influenza A virus vaccine.

  7. Optimization of the Solubility of HIV-1-Neutralizing Antibody 10E8 through Somatic Variation and Structure-Based Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young D.; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Ofek, Gilad; Zhang, Baoshan; Asokan, Mangaiarkarasi; Bailer, Robert T.; Bao, Amy; Caruso, William; Chen, Xuejun; Choe, Misook; Druz, Aliaksandr; Ko, Sung-Youl; Louder, Mark K.; McKee, Krisha; O' Dell, Sijy; Pegu, Amarendra; Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Shi, Wei; Wang, Keyun; Yang, Yongping; Alger, Mandy; Bender, Michael F.; Carlton, Kevin; Cooper, Jonathan W.; Blinn, Julie; Eudailey, Joshua; Lloyd, Krissey; Parks, Robert; Alam, S. Munir; Haynes, Barton F.; Padte, Neal N.; Yu, Jian; Ho, David D.; Huang, Jinghe; Connors, Mark; Schwartz, Richard M.; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.; Sundquist, W. I.

    2016-04-06

    ABSTRACT

    Extraordinary antibodies capable of near pan-neutralization of HIV-1 have been identified. One of the broadest is antibody 10E8, which recognizes the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 envelope and neutralizes >95% of circulating HIV-1 strains. If delivered passively, 10E8 might serve to prevent or treat HIV-1 infection. Antibody 10E8, however, is markedly less soluble than other antibodies. Here, we describe the use of both structural biology and somatic variation to develop optimized versions of 10E8 with increased solubility. From the structure of 10E8, we identified a prominent hydrophobic patch; reversion of four hydrophobic residues in this patch to their hydrophilic germ line counterparts resulted in an ~10-fold decrease in turbidity. We also used somatic variants of 10E8, identified previously by next-generation sequencing, to optimize heavy and light chains; this process yielded several improved variants. Of these, variant 10E8v4 with 26 changes versus the parent 10E8 was the most soluble, with a paratope we showed crystallographically to be virtually identical to that of 10E8, a potency on a panel of 200 HIV-1 isolates also similar to that of 10E8, and a half-life in rhesus macaques of ~10 days. An anomaly in 10E8v4 size exclusion chromatography that appeared to be related to conformational isomerization was resolved by engineering an interchain disulfide. Thus, by combining a structure-based approach with natural variation in potency and solubility from the 10E8 lineage, we successfully created variants of 10E8 which retained the potency and extraordinary neutralization breadth of the parent 10E8 but with substantially increased solubility.

    IMPORTANCE Antibody 10E8 could be used to prevent HIV-1 infection, if manufactured and delivered economically. It suffers, however, from issues of solubility, which impede manufacturing. We hypothesized that the physical characteristic of 10E8 could be

  8. Optimization of the Solubility of HIV-1-Neutralizing Antibody 10E8 through Somatic Variation and Structure-Based Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young D; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Ofek, Gilad; Zhang, Baoshan; Asokan, Mangaiarkarasi; Bailer, Robert T; Bao, Amy; Caruso, William; Chen, Xuejun; Choe, Misook; Druz, Aliaksandr; Ko, Sung-Youl; Louder, Mark K; McKee, Krisha; O'Dell, Sijy; Pegu, Amarendra; Rudicell, Rebecca S; Shi, Wei; Wang, Keyun; Yang, Yongping; Alger, Mandy; Bender, Michael F; Carlton, Kevin; Cooper, Jonathan W; Blinn, Julie; Eudailey, Joshua; Lloyd, Krissey; Parks, Robert; Alam, S Munir; Haynes, Barton F; Padte, Neal N; Yu, Jian; Ho, David D; Huang, Jinghe; Connors, Mark; Schwartz, Richard M; Mascola, John R; Kwong, Peter D

    2016-07-01

    Extraordinary antibodies capable of near pan-neutralization of HIV-1 have been identified. One of the broadest is antibody 10E8, which recognizes the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 envelope and neutralizes >95% of circulating HIV-1 strains. If delivered passively, 10E8 might serve to prevent or treat HIV-1 infection. Antibody 10E8, however, is markedly less soluble than other antibodies. Here, we describe the use of both structural biology and somatic variation to develop optimized versions of 10E8 with increased solubility. From the structure of 10E8, we identified a prominent hydrophobic patch; reversion of four hydrophobic residues in this patch to their hydrophilic germ line counterparts resulted in an ∼10-fold decrease in turbidity. We also used somatic variants of 10E8, identified previously by next-generation sequencing, to optimize heavy and light chains; this process yielded several improved variants. Of these, variant 10E8v4 with 26 changes versus the parent 10E8 was the most soluble, with a paratope we showed crystallographically to be virtually identical to that of 10E8, a potency on a panel of 200 HIV-1 isolates also similar to that of 10E8, and a half-life in rhesus macaques of ∼10 days. An anomaly in 10E8v4 size exclusion chromatography that appeared to be related to conformational isomerization was resolved by engineering an interchain disulfide. Thus, by combining a structure-based approach with natural variation in potency and solubility from the 10E8 lineage, we successfully created variants of 10E8 which retained the potency and extraordinary neutralization breadth of the parent 10E8 but with substantially increased solubility. Antibody 10E8 could be used to prevent HIV-1 infection, if manufactured and delivered economically. It suffers, however, from issues of solubility, which impede manufacturing. We hypothesized that the physical characteristic of 10E8 could be improved through rational design, without compromising

  9. Identification of Non-HIV Immunogens That Bind to Germline b12 Predecessors and Prime for Elicitation of Cross-clade Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng; Li, Jingjing; Liu, Qingsheng; Yuan, Tingting; Zhang, Yanyu; Chen, Li-Qing; Lou, Qi; Sun, Zehua; Ying, Huazhong; Xu, Jianqing; Dimitrov, Dimiter S; Zhang, Mei-Yun

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental challenge for developing an effective and safe HIV-1 vaccine is to identify vaccine immunogens that can initiate and maintain immune responses leading to elicitation of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies (bnAbs) through complex maturation pathways. We have previously found that HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) lack measurable binding to putative germline predecessors of known bnAbs and proposed to search for non-HIV immunogens that could initiate their somatic maturation. Using bnAb b12 as a model bnAb and yeast display technology, we isolated five (poly)peptides from plant leaves, insects, E. coli strains, and sea water microbes that bind to b12 putative germline and intermediate antibodies. Rabbit immunization with the (poly)peptides alone induced high titers of cross-reactive antibodies that neutralized HIV-1 isolates SF162 and JRFL. Priming rabbits with the (poly)peptides followed by boosts with trimeric gp140SF162 and then resurfaced Env (RSC3) induced antibodies that competed with mature b12 and neutralized tier 1 and 2 viruses from clade B, C and E, while control rabbits without (poly)peptide priming induced antibodies that did not compete with mature b12 and neutralized fewer isolates. The degree of competition with mature b12 for binding to gp140SF162 correlated with the neutralizing activity of the rabbit IgG. Reversing the order of the two boosting immunogens significantly affected the binding profile and neutralization potency of the rabbit IgG. Our study is the first to provide evidence that appears to support the concept that non-HIV immunogens may initiate immune responses leading to elicitation of cross-clade neutralizing antibodies.

  10. Enhanced neutralizing antibody titers and Th1 polarization from a novel Escherichia coli derived pandemic influenza vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A G Skibinski

    Full Text Available Influenza pandemics can spread quickly and cost millions of lives; the 2009 H1N1 pandemic highlighted the shortfall in the current vaccine strategy and the need for an improved global response in terms of shortening the time required to manufacture the vaccine and increasing production capacity. Here we describe the pre-clinical assessment of a novel 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine based on the E. coli-produced HA globular head domain covalently linked to virus-like particles derived from the bacteriophage Qβ. When formulated with alum adjuvant and used to immunize mice, dose finding studies found that a 10 µg dose of this vaccine (3.7 µg globular HA content induced antibody titers comparable to a 1.5 µg dose (0.7 µg globular HA content of the licensed 2009 H1N1 pandemic vaccine Panvax, and significantly reduced viral titers in the lung following challenge with 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza A/California/07/2009 virus. While Panvax failed to induce marked T cell responses, the novel vaccine stimulated substantial antigen-specific interferon-γ production in splenocytes from immunized mice, alongside enhanced IgG2a antibody production. In ferrets the vaccine elicited neutralizing antibodies, and following challenge with influenza A/California/07/2009 virus reduced morbidity and lowered viral titers in nasal lavages.

  11. Rapid Transient Production of a Monoclonal Antibody Neutralizing the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) in Nicotiana benthamiana and Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanapisit, Kaewta; Srijangwad, Anchalee; Chuanasa, Taksina; Sukrong, Suchada; Tantituvanont, Angkana; Mason, Hugh S; Nilubol, Dachrit; Phoolcharoen, Waranyoo

    2017-12-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes acute diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, weight loss, and high mortality rate in neonatal piglets. Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) has been reported in Europe, America, and Asia including Thailand. The disease causes substantial losses to the swine industry in many countries. Presently, there is no effective PEDV vaccine available. In this study, we developed a plant-produced monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2C10 as a prophylactic candidate to prevent the PEDV infection. Recently, plant expression systems have gained interest as an alternative for the production of antibodies because of many advantages, such as low production cost, lack of human and animal pathogen, large scalability, etc. The 2C10 mAb was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana and lettuce using geminiviral vector. After purification by protein A affinity chromatography, the antibody was tested for the binding and neutralizing activity against PEDV. Our result showed that the plant produced 2C10 mAb can bind to the virus and also inhibit PEDV infection in vitro . These results show excellent potential for a plant-expressed 2C10 as a PEDV prophylaxis and a diagnostic for PEDV infection. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus neutralizing antibodies provide in vivo cross-protection to PRRSV1 and PRRSV2 viral challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sally R; Rahe, Michael C; Gray, Diem K; Martins, Kyra V; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2018-02-03

    Vaccine control and prevention of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), the most important disease of swine, is difficult to achieve. However, the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibody activity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) under typical field conditions opens the door to new immunologic approaches for robust protection. We show here that passive administration of purified immunoglobulins with neutralizing antibodies reduced PRRSV2 infection by up to 96%, and PRRSV1 infection by up to 87%, whereas immune immunoglobulins lacking neutralizing activity had no effect on viral infection. Hence, immune competence of passive immunoglobulin transfer was associated specifically with antibody neutralizing activity. Current models of PRRSV infection implicate a minor envelope glycoprotein (GP) complex including GP2, GP3, and GP4, as critical to permissive cell infection. However, conserved peptides comprising the putative cell attachment structure did not attenuate neutralization or viral infection. The results show that immunological approaches aimed at induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies may substantially enhance immune protection against PRRSV. The findings further show that naturally occurring viral isolates are able to induce protective humoral immunity against unrelated PRRSV challenge, thus removing a major conceptual barrier to vaccine development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Human Monoclonal Antibodies to a Novel Cluster of Conformational Epitopes on HCV E2 with Resistance to Neutralization Escape in a Genotype 2a Isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Zhen-yong; Xia, Jinming; Wang, Yong; Wang, Wenyan; Krey, Thomas; Prentoe, Jannick; Carlsen, Thomas; Li, Angela Ying-Jian; Patel, Arvind H.; Lemon, Stanley M.; Bukh, Jens; Rey, Felix A.; Foung, Steven K. H.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of broadly neutralizing antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) are against conformational epitopes on the E2 glycoprotein. Many of them recognize overlapping epitopes in a cluster, designated as antigenic domain B, that contains residues G530 and D535. To gain information on other regions that will be relevant for vaccine design, we employed yeast surface display of antibodies that bound to genotype 1a H77C E2 mutant proteins containing a substitution either at Y632A (to avoid selecting non-neutralizing antibodies) or D535A. A panel of nine human monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) was isolated and designated as HC-84-related antibodies. Each HMAb neutralized cell culture infectious HCV (HCVcc) with genotypes 1–6 envelope proteins with varying profiles, and each inhibited E2 binding to the viral receptor CD81. Five of these antibodies neutralized representative genotypes 1–6 HCVcc. Epitope mapping identified a cluster of overlapping epitopes that included nine contact residues in two E2 regions encompassing aa418–446 and aa611–616. Effect on virus entry was measured using H77C HCV retroviral pseudoparticles, HCVpp, bearing an alanine substitution at each of the contact residues. Seven of ten mutant HCVpp showed over 90% reduction compared to wild-type HCVpp and two others showed approximately 80% reduction. Interestingly, four of these antibodies bound to a linear E2 synthetic peptide encompassing aa434–446. This region on E2 has been proposed to elicit non-neutralizing antibodies in humans that interfere with neutralizing antibodies directed at an adjacent E2 region from aa410–425. The isolation of four HC-84 HMAbs binding to the peptide, aa434–446, proves that some antibodies to this region are to highly conserved epitopes mediating broad virus neutralization. Indeed, when HCVcc were passaged in the presence of each of these antibodies, virus escape was not observed. Thus, the cluster of HC-84 epitopes, designated as antigenic domain D, is

  14. Induction of neutralizing antibodies specific for the envelope proteins of the koala retrovirus by immunization with recombinant proteins or with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, Uwe; Dieckhoff, Britta; Wurzbacher, Christian; Möller, Annekathrin; Kurth, Reinhard; Denner, Joachim

    2015-04-30

    The koala retrovirus (KoRV) is the result of a transspecies transmission of a gammaretrovirus with fatal consequences for the new host. Like many retroviruses, KoRV induces lymphoma, leukemia and an immunodeficiency that is associated with opportunistic infections in the virus-infected animals. We recently reported the induction of neutralizing antibodies by immunization with the recombinant ectodomain of the transmembrane envelope protein p15E of KoRV. Since the neutralization titers of the p15E-specific sera were only moderate, we investigated the use of the surface envelope protein gp70 to induce neutralizing antibodies. We immunized rats and goats with the recombinant gp70 protein of the KoRV, an unglycosylated protein of 52kD (rgp70/p52) or with the corresponding DNA. In parallel we immunized with recombinant rp15E or with a combination of rp15E and rgp70/p52. In all cases binding and neutralizing antibodies were induced. The gp70-specific sera had titers of neutralizing antibodies that were 15-fold higher than the p15E-specific sera. Combining rp15E and rgp70/p52 did not significantly increase neutralizing titers compared to rgp70/p52 alone. High titers of neutralizing antibodies specific for gp70 were also induced by immunization with DNA. Since KoRV and PERV are closely related, we investigated cross-neutralization of the antisera. The antisera against p15E and gp70 of PERV and KoRV inhibited infection by both viruses. The envelope proteins of the KoRV may therefore form the basis of an effective preventive vaccine to protect uninfected koalas from infection and possibly an immunotherapeutic treatment for those already infected.

  15. Preclinical development of CAT-354, an IL-13 neutralizing antibody, for the treatment of severe uncontrolled asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, RD; Monk, PD; Cohen, ES; Manuel, D; Dempsey, F; Davis, NHE; Dodd, AJ; Corkill, DJ; Woods, J; Joberty-Candotti, C; Conroy, LA; Koentgen, F; Martin, EC; Wilson, R; Brennan, N; Powell, J; Anderson, IK

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE IL-13 is a pleiotropic Th2 cytokine considered likely to play a pivotal role in asthma. Here we describe the preclinical in vitro and in vivo characterization of CAT-354, an IL-13-neutralizing IgG4 monoclonal antibody (mAb), currently in clinical development. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH In vitro the potency, specificity and species selectivity of CAT-354 was assayed in TF-1 cells, human umbilical vein endothelial cells and HDLM-2 cells. The ability of CAT-354 to modulate disease-relevant mechanisms was tested in human cells measuring bronchial smooth muscle calcium flux induced by histamine, eotaxin generation by normal lung fibroblasts, CD23 upregulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and IgE production by B cells. In vivo CAT-354 was tested on human IL-13-induced air pouch inflammation in mice, ovalbumin-sensitization and challenge in IL-13 humanized mice and antigen challenge in cynomolgus monkeys. KEY RESULTS CAT-354 has a 165 pM affinity for human IL-13 and functionally neutralized human, human variant associated with asthma and atopy (R130Q) and cynomolgus monkey, but not mouse, IL-13. CAT-354 did not neutralize human IL-4. In vitro CAT-354 functionally inhibited IL-13-induced eotaxin production, an analogue of smooth muscle airways hyperresponsiveness, CD23 upregulation and IgE production. In vivo in humanized mouse and cynomolgus monkey antigen challenge models CAT-354 inhibited airways hyperresponsiveness and bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS CAT-354 is a potent and selective IL-13-neutralizing IgG4 mAb. The preclinical data presented here support the trialling of this mAb in patients with moderate to severe uncontrolled asthma. PMID:21895629

  16. Preclinical development of CAT-354, an IL-13 neutralizing antibody, for the treatment of severe uncontrolled asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, R D; Monk, P D; Cohen, E S; Manuel, D; Dempsey, F; Davis, N H E; Dodd, A J; Corkill, D J; Woods, J; Joberty-Candotti, C; Conroy, L A; Koentgen, F; Martin, E C; Wilson, R; Brennan, N; Powell, J; Anderson, I K

    2012-05-01

    IL-13 is a pleiotropic Th2 cytokine considered likely to play a pivotal role in asthma. Here we describe the preclinical in vitro and in vivo characterization of CAT-354, an IL-13-neutralizing IgG4 monoclonal antibody (mAb), currently in clinical development. In vitro the potency, specificity and species selectivity of CAT-354 was assayed in TF-1 cells, human umbilical vein endothelial cells and HDLM-2 cells. The ability of CAT-354 to modulate disease-relevant mechanisms was tested in human cells measuring bronchial smooth muscle calcium flux induced by histamine, eotaxin generation by normal lung fibroblasts, CD23 upregulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and IgE production by B cells. In vivo CAT-354 was tested on human IL-13-induced air pouch inflammation in mice, ovalbumin-sensitization and challenge in IL-13 humanized mice and antigen challenge in cynomolgus monkeys. CAT-354 has a 165 pM affinity for human IL-13 and functionally neutralized human, human variant associated with asthma and atopy (R130Q) and cynomolgus monkey, but not mouse, IL-13. CAT-354 did not neutralize human IL-4. In vitro CAT-354 functionally inhibited IL-13-induced eotaxin production, an analogue of smooth muscle airways hyperresponsiveness, CD23 upregulation and IgE production. In vivo in humanized mouse and cynomolgus monkey antigen challenge models CAT-354 inhibited airways hyperresponsiveness and bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia. CAT-354 is a potent and selective IL-13-neutralizing IgG4 mAb. The preclinical data presented here support the trialling of this mAb in patients with moderate to severe uncontrolled asthma. © 2011 MedImmune Ltd. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Drift of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 toward increased neutralization resistance over the course of the epidemic: a comprehensive study using the most potent and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvin-Pley, M; Morgand, M; Meyer, L; Goujard, C; Moreau, A; Mouquet, H; Nussenzweig, M; Pace, C; Ho, D; Bjorkman, P J; Baty, D; Chames, P; Pancera, M; Kwong, P D; Poignard, P; Barin, F; Braibant, M

    2014-12-01

    Extending our previous analyses to the most recently described monoclonal broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), we confirmed a drift of HIV-1 clade B variants over 2 decades toward higher resistance to bNAbs targeting almost all the identified gp120-neutralizing epitopes. In contrast, the sensitivity to bNAbs targeting the gp41 membrane-proximal external region remained stable, suggesting a selective pressure on gp120 preferentially. Despite this evolution, selected combinations of bNAbs remain capable of neutralizing efficiently most of the circulating variants. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Neutralization of Diverse Human Cytomegalovirus Strains Conferred by Antibodies Targeting Viral gH/gL/pUL128-131 Pentameric Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sha; Li, Fengsheng; Troutman, Matthew C; Freed, Daniel C; Tang, Aimin; Loughney, John W; Wang, Dai; Wang, I-Ming; Vlasak, Josef; Nickle, David C; Rustandi, Richard R; Hamm, Melissa; DePhillips, Pete A; Zhang, Ningyan; McLellan, Jason S; Zhu, Hua; Adler, Stuart P; McVoy, Michael A; An, Zhiqiang; Fu, Tong-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the leading cause of congenital viral infection, and developing a prophylactic vaccine is of high priority to public health. We recently reported a replication-defective human cytomegalovirus with restored pentameric complex glycoprotein H (gH)/gL/pUL128-131 for prevention of congenital HCMV infection. While the quantity of vaccine-induced antibody responses can be measured in a viral neutralization assay, assessing the quality of such responses, including the ability of vaccine-induced antibodies to cross-neutralize the field strains of HCMV, remains a challenge. In this study, with a panel of neutralizing antibodies from three healthy human donors with natural HCMV infection or a vaccinated animal, we mapped eight sites on the dominant virus-neutralizing antigen-the pentameric complex of glycoprotein H (gH), gL, and pUL128, pUL130, and pUL131. By evaluating the site-specific antibodies in vaccine immune sera, we demonstrated that vaccination elicited functional antiviral antibodies to multiple neutralizing sites in rhesus macaques, with quality attributes comparable to those of CMV hyperimmune globulin. Furthermore, these immune sera showed antiviral activities against a panel of genetically distinct HCMV clinical isolates. These results highlighted the importance of understanding the quality of vaccine-induced antibody responses, which includes not only the neutralizing potency in key cell types but also the ability to protect against the genetically diverse field strains.IMPORTANCE HCMV is the leading cause of congenital viral infection, and development of a preventive vaccine is a high public health priority. To understand the strain coverage of vaccine-induced immune responses in comparison with natural immunity, we used a panel of broadly neutralizing antibodies to identify the immunogenic sites of a dominant viral antigen-the pentameric complex. We further demonstrated that following vaccination of a replication

  19. Synthetic B-Cell Epitopes Eliciting Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies: Strategies for Future Dengue Vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Ramanathan

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is a major public health threat worldwide. A key element in protection from dengue fever is the neutralising antibody response. Anti-dengue IgG purified from DENV-2 infected human sera showed reactivity against several peptides when evaluated by ELISA and epitope extraction techniques. A multi-step computational approach predicted six antigenic regions within the E protein of DENV-2 that concur with the 6 epitopes identified by the combined ELISA and epitope extraction approach. The selected peptides representing B-cell epitopes were attached to a known dengue T-helper epitope and evaluated for their vaccine potency. Immunization of mice revealed two novel synthetic vaccine constructs that elicited good humoral immune responses and produced cross-reactive neutralising antibodies against DENV-1, 2 and 3. The findings indicate new directions for epitope mapping and contribute towards the future development of multi-epitope based synthetic peptide vaccine.

  20. A novel variable antibody fragment dimerized by leucine zippers with enhanced neutralizing potency against rabies virus G protein compared to its corresponding single-chain variable antibody fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuang; Cheng, Yue; Xi, Hualong; Gu, Tiejun; Yuan, Ruosen; Chen, Xiaoxu; Jiang, Chunlai; Kong, Wei; Wu, Yongge

    2015-12-01

    Fatal rabies can be prevented effectively by post-exposure prophylactic (PEP) with rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). Single-chain variable fragments (scFv), which are composed of a variable heavy chain (VH) and a variable light chain (VL) connected by a peptide linker, can potentially be used to replace RIG. However, in our previous study, a scFv (scFV57S) specific for the rabies virus (RV) G protein showed a lower neutralizing potency than that of its parent IgG due to lower stability and altered peptide assembly pattern. In monoclonal antibodies, the VH and VL interact non-covalently, while in scFvs the VH is connected covalently with the VL by the artificial linker. In this study, we constructed and expressed two peptides 57VL-JUN-HIS and 57VH-FOS-HA in Escherichia coli. The well-known Fos and Jun leucine zippers were utilized to dimerize VH and VL similarly to the IgG counterpart. The two peptides assembled to form zipFv57S in vitro. Due to the greater similarity in structure with IgG, the zipFv57S protein showed a higher binding ability and affinity resulting in notable improvement of in vitro neutralizing activity over its corresponding scFv. The zipFv57S protein was also found to be more stable and showed similar protective rate as RIG in mice challenged with a lethal dose of RV. Our results not only indicated zipFv57S as an ideal alternative for RIG in PEP but also offered a novel and efficient hetero-dimerization pattern of VH and VL leading to enhanced neutralizing potency. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Binding of HIV-1 gp41-directed neutralizing and non-neutralizing fragment antibody binding domain (Fab and single chain variable fragment (ScFv antibodies to the ectodomain of gp41 in the pre-hairpin and six-helix bundle conformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Louis

    Full Text Available We previously reported a series of antibodies, in fragment antigen binding domain (Fab formats, selected from a human non-immune phage library, directed against the internal trimeric coiled-coil of the N-heptad repeat (N-HR of HIV-1 gp41. Broadly neutralizing antibodies from that series bind to both the fully exposed N-HR trimer, representing the pre-hairpin intermediate state of gp41, and to partially-exposed N-HR helices within the context of the gp41 six-helix bundle. While the affinities of the Fabs for pre-hairpin intermediate mimetics vary by only 2 to 20-fold between neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, differences in inhibition of viral entry exceed three orders of magnitude. Here we compare the binding of neutralizing (8066 and non-neutralizing (8062 antibodies, differing in only four positions within the CDR-H2 binding loop, in Fab and single chain variable fragment (ScFv formats, to several pre-hairpin intermediate and six-helix bundle constructs of gp41. Residues 56 and 58 of the mini-antibodies are shown to be crucial for neutralization activity. There is a large differential (≥ 150-fold in binding affinity between neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies to the six-helix bundle of gp41 and binding to the six-helix bundle does not involve displacement of the outer C-terminal helices of the bundle. The binding stoichiometry is one six-helix bundle to one Fab or three ScFvs. We postulate that neutralization by the 8066 antibody is achieved by binding to a continuum of states along the fusion pathway from the pre-hairpin intermediate all the way to the formation of the six-helix bundle, but prior to irreversible fusion between viral and cellular membranes.

  2. V3 loop truncations in HIV-1 envelope impart resistance to coreceptor inhibitors and enhanced sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg M Laakso

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The V1/V2 region and the V3 loop of the human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1 envelope (Env protein are targets for neutralizing antibodies and also play an important functional role, with the V3 loop largely determining whether a virus uses CCR5 (R5, CXCR4 (X4, or either coreceptor (R5X4 to infect cells. While the sequence of V3 is variable, its length is highly conserved. Structural studies indicate that V3 length may be important for interactions with the extracellular loops of the coreceptor. Consistent with this view, genetic truncation of the V3 loop is typically associated with loss of Env function. We removed approximately one-half of the V3 loop from three different HIV-1 strains, and found that only the Env protein from the R5X4 strain R3A retained some fusion activity. Loss of V1/V2 (DeltaV1/V2 was well tolerated by this virus. Passaging of virus with the truncated V3 loop resulted in the derivation of a virus strain that replicated with wild-type kinetics. This virus, termed TA1, retained the V3 loop truncation and acquired several adaptive changes in gp120 and gp41. TA1 could use CCR5 but not CXCR4 to infect cells, and was extremely sensitive to neutralization by HIV-1 positive human sera, and by antibodies to the CD4 binding site and to CD4-induced epitopes in the bridging sheet region of gp120. In addition, TA1 was completely resistant to CCR5 inhibitors, and was more dependent upon the N-terminal domain of CCR5, a region of the receptor that is thought to contact the bridging sheet of gp120 and the base of the V3 loop, and whose conformation may not be greatly affected by CCR5 inhibitors. These studies suggest that the V3 loop protects HIV from neutralization by antibodies prevalent in infected humans, that CCR5 inhibitors likely act by disrupting interactions between the V3 loop and the coreceptor, and that altered use of CCR5 by HIV-1 associated with increased sensitivity to changes in the N-terminal domain can be linked

  3. Selection and characterization of a human neutralizing antibody to human fibroblast growth factor-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Jun [Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Science, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Xiang, Jun-Jian, E-mail: txjj@jnu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Antibody Engineering, College of Life Sciences and Technologies, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Science, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Li, Dan [Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Science, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Deng, Ning; Wang, Hong; Gong, Yi-Ping [Laboratory of Antibody Engineering, College of Life Sciences and Technologies, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2010-04-09

    Compelling evidences suggest that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) plays important roles in tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Molecules blocking the FGF-2 signaling have been proposed as anticancer agents. Through screening of a human scFv phage display library, we have isolated several human single-chain Fv fragments (scFvs) that bind to human FGF-2. After expression and purification in bacteria, one scFv, named 1A2, binds to FGF-2 with a high affinity and specificity, and completes with FGF-2 binding to its receptor. This 1A2 scFv was then cloned into the pIgG1 vector and expressed in 293T cells. The purified hIgG1-1A2 antibody showed a high binding affinity of 8 x 10{sup -9} M to rhFGF-2. In a set of vitro assays, it inhibited various biological activities of FGF-2 such as the proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. More importantly, hIgG1-1A2 antibody also efficiently blocked the growth while inducing apoptosis of glioma cells. For the first time, we generated a human anti-FGF-2 antibody with proven in vitro anti-tumor activity. It may therefore present a new therapeutic candidate for the treatment of cancers that are dependent on FGF-2 signaling for growth and survival.

  4. A multi-subunit Chlamydia vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and strong IFN-γ(+) CMI responses protects against a genital infection in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin

    2016-01-01

    animal model, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a multi-subunit vaccine formulated in the strong Th1-inducing adjuvant CAF01. We evaluated a mixture of two fusion proteins (Hirep1 and CTH93) designed to promote either neutralizing antibodies or cell-mediated immunity, respectively. Hirep1......Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig...... trachomatis SvD bacteria (UV-SvD/CAF01) or CAF01. The Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine induced a strong CMI response against the vaccine antigens and high titers of antibodies, particularly against the VD4 region of MOMP. Sera from Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 immunized pigs neutralized C. trachomatis SvD and SvF infectivity...

  5. High Epstein-Barr Virus Load and Genomic Diversity Are Associated with Generation of gp350-Specific Neutralizing Antibodies following Acute Infectious Mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Eric R; Alter, Galit; Ogembo, Javier Gordon; Henderson, Jennifer L; Tabak, Barbara; Bakiş, Yasin; Somasundaran, Mohan; Garber, Manuel; Selin, Liisa; Luzuriaga, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) gp350 glycoprotein interacts with the cellular receptor to mediate viral entry and is thought to be the major target for neutralizing antibodies. To better understand the role of EBV-specific antibodies in the control of viral replication and the evolution of sequence diversity, we measured EBV gp350-specific antibody responses and sequenced the gp350 gene in samples obtained from individuals experiencing primary EBV infection (acute infectious mononucleosis [AIM]) and again 6 months later (during convalescence [CONV]). EBV gp350-specific IgG was detected in the sera of 17 (71%) of 24 individuals at the time of AIM and all 24 (100%) individuals during CONV; binding antibody titers increased from AIM through CONV, reaching levels equivalent to those in age-matched, chronically infected individuals. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) was rarely detected during AIM (4 of 24 individuals; 17%) but was commonly detected during CONV (19 of 24 individuals; 79%). The majority (83%) of samples taken during AIM neutralized infection of primary B cells; all samples obtained at 6 months postdiagnosis neutralized EBV infection of cultured and primary target cells. Deep sequencing revealed interpatient gp350 sequence variation but conservation of the CR2-binding site. The levels of gp350-specific neutralizing activity directly correlated with higher peripheral blood EBV DNA levels during AIM and a greater evolution of diversity in gp350 nucleotide sequences from AIM to CONV. In summary, we conclude that the viral load and EBV gp350 diversity during early infection are associated with the development of neutralizing antibody responses following AIM. Antibodies against viral surface proteins can blunt the spread of viral infection by coating viral particles, mediating uptake by immune cells, or blocking interaction with host cell receptors, making them a desirable component of a sterilizing vaccine. The EBV surface protein gp350 is a

  6. Structure of an N276-Dependent HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibody Targeting a Rare V5 Glycan Hole Adjacent to the CD4 Binding Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibmer, Constantinos Kurt; Gorman, Jason; Anthony, Colin S.; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N.; Druz, Aliaksandr; York, Talita; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Labuschagne, Phillip; Louder, Mark K.; Bailer, Robert T.; Karim, Salim S. Abdool; Mascola, John R.; Williamson, Carolyn; Moore, Penny L.; Kwong, Peter D.; Morris, Lynn (NHLS-South Africa); (NIH); (Witwatersrand); (KwaZulu-Natal)

    2016-08-31

    ABSTRACT

    All HIV-1-infected individuals develop strain-specific neutralizing antibodies to their infecting virus, which in some cases mature into broadly neutralizing antibodies. Defining the epitopes of strain-specific antibodies that overlap conserved sites of vulnerability might provide mechanistic insights into how broadly neutralizing antibodies arise. We previously described an HIV-1 clade C-infected donor, CAP257, who developed broadly neutralizing plasma antibodies targeting an N276 glycan-dependent epitope in the CD4 binding site. The initial CD4 binding site response potently neutralized the heterologous tier 2 clade B viral strain RHPA, which was used to design resurfaced gp120 antigens for single-B-cell sorting. Here we report the isolation and structural characterization of CAP257-RH1, an N276 glycan-dependent CD4 binding site antibody representative of the early CD4 binding site plasma response in donor CAP257. The cocrystal structure of CAP257-RH1 bound to RHPA gp120 revealed critical interactions with the N276 glycan, loop D, and V5, but not with aspartic acid 368, similarly to HJ16 and 179NC75. The CAP257-RH1 monoclonal antibody was derived from the immunoglobulin-variable IGHV3-33 and IGLV3-10 genes and neutralized RHPA but not the transmitted/founder virus from donor CAP257. Its narrow neutralization breadth was attributed to a binding angle that was incompatible with glycosylated V5 loops present in almost all HIV-1 strains, including the CAP257 transmitted/founder virus. Deep sequencing of autologous CAP257 viruses, however, revealed minority variants early in infection that lacked V5 glycans. These glycan-free V5 loops are unusual holes in the glycan shield that may have been necessary for initiating this N276 glycan-dependent CD4 binding site B-cell lineage.

    IMPORTANCEThe conserved CD4 binding site on gp120 is a major target for HIV-1 vaccine design, but key events in the elicitation and maturation of

  7. VH3 Gene Usage in Neutralizing Human Antibodies Specific for the Entamoeba histolytica Gal/GalNAc Lectin Heavy Subunit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Katsuomi; Cheng, Xun-Jia; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Kaneda, Yoshimasa; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Ihara, Seiji; Petri, Jr., William A.

    2003-01-01

    A combinatorial human immunoglobulin gene library was constructed from peripheral lymphocytes of an asymptomatic Entamoeba histolytica cyst passer and screened for the production of Fab antibody to the parasite. One of the Fab clones, CP33, recognized the 260-kDa galactose- and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (Gal/GalNAc)-specific lectin of E. histolytica. By shuffling the heavy and light chains of CP33 with the heavy and light chains of two libraries derived from the cyst passer and a liver abscess patient, 18 additional clones were obtained. Sequence analysis of the heavy-chain genes, including CP33-H, revealed that all the nearest V-segment germ lines belonged to the VH3 family (VH3-21, VH3-30, VH3-48, and VH3-53), but the levels of homology were only 85 to 95%. The closest D-segment germ line was D2-2 or D6-6, and for the J-segment the closest germ line was JH4b or JH6b. On the other hand, all the light-chain genes, including CP33-L, belonged to the Vκ1 family, in which the closest Vκ germ line gene was 02/012 or L5, with the Jκ1, Jκ2, Jκ4, or Jκ5 segment. CP33 and three other Fabs obtained by light-chain shuffling were purified and analyzed further. All of these Fabs recognized the cysteine-rich domain of the 170-kDa heavy subunit of the Gal/GalNAc lectin. Preincubation of E. histolytica trophozoites with these Fabs significantly inhibited amebic adherence to Chinese hamster ovary cells and also inhibited erythrophagocytosis. The ability of the neutralizing antibodies to block erythrophagocytosis for the first time implicates the lectin in phagocytosis and VH3 antibodies in defense against parasitic infections. These results demonstrate the utility of a combinatorial human immunoglobulin gene library for identifying and characterizing neutralizing antibodies from humans with amebiasis. PMID:12874307

  8. The HIV-1 V3 domain on field isolates: participation in generation of escape virus in vivo and accessibility to neutralizing antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Akerblom, L; Heegaard, P M

    1995-01-01

    patterns against V3 peptides corresponding to sequential primary and escape field isolates, with the strongest reactivity against late isolated escape virus. These observations suggest that the neutralization epitope was influenced by the appearance of mutations. When used as immunogen in rabbits, V3......The V3 domain is highly variable and induces HIV neutralizing antibodies (NA). Here we addressed the issues of 1) the participation of mutations in V3 in generation of neutralization resistant escape virus in vivo and 2) the applicability of synthetic V3 peptides corresponding to field isolates...... to induce neutralizing immune sera. Seven peptides corresponding to the V3 region of primary and escape virus from 3 HIV-1 infected patients were synthesized and used for antibody (Abs) studies and immunizations. The anti-V3 Abs titre in patient serum was generally low against peptides corresponding...

  9. Partial Protection against Porcine Influenza A Virus by a Hemagglutinin-Expressing Virus Replicon Particle Vaccine in the Absence of Neutralizing Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklin, Meret E; Vielle, Nathalie J; Python, Sylvie; Brechbühl, Daniel; Zumkehr, Beatrice; Posthaus, Horst; Zimmer, Gert; Summerfield, Artur

    2016-01-01

    This work was initiated by previous reports demonstrating that mismatched influenza A virus (IAV) vaccines can induce enhanced disease, probably mediated by antibodies. Our aim was, therefore, to investigate if a vaccine inducing opsonizing but not neutralizing antibodies against the hemagglutinin (HA) of a selected heterologous challenge virus would enhance disease or induce protective immune responses in the pig model. To this end, we immunized pigs with either whole inactivated virus (WIV)-vaccine or HA-expressing virus replicon particles (VRP) vaccine based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Both types of vaccines induced virus neutralizing and opsonizing antibodies against homologous virus as shown by a highly sensitive plasmacytoid dendritic cell-based opsonization assay. Opsonizing antibodies showed a broader reactivity against heterologous IAV compared with neutralizing antibodies. Pigs immunized with HA-recombinant VRP vaccine were partially protected from infection with a mismatched IAV, which was not neutralized but opsonized by the immune sera. The VRP vaccine reduced lung lesions, lung inflammatory cytokine responses, serum IFN-α responses, and viral loads in the airways. Only the VRP vaccine was able to prime IAV-specific IFNγ/TNFα dual secreting CD4(+) T cells detectable in the peripheral blood. In summary, this work demonstrates that with the virus pair selected, a WIV vaccine inducing opsonizing antibodies against HA which lack neutralizing activity, is neither protective nor does it induce enhanced disease in pigs. In contrast, VRP-expressing HA is efficacious vaccines in swine as they induced both potent antibodies and T-cell immunity resulting in a broader protective value.