WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustainably produced timber

  1. Global sustainable timber supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince

    2010-01-01

    Industrial timber use has provided timber revenue that has helped make timber supply and demand more sustainable in the leading timber producing regions of the world. Sustainable development implies not consuming more resources today than we can replace tomorrow, but sustainable forest management implies more than merely a non-declining supply of timber. Forests as a...

  2. Expanding site productivity research to sustain non-timber forest functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; James A. Burger; Barbara Crane

    2006-01-01

    Southern forests produce multiple products and services including timber, wildlife habitat, species bio- and genetic divenity, water quality and control, waste remediation, recreation, and carbon sequestration. All of these benefits must be produced in a sustainable manner to meet today's societal needs without compromising future needs. A forest site is...

  3. What Is a Sustainable Level of Timber Consumption in the EU: Toward Global and EU Benchmarks for Sustainable Forest Use

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meghan O’Brien; Stefan Bringezu

    2017-01-01

    .... The question is, how much timber is available for the EU to sustainably harvest and import, in particular considering sustainable forest management practices, a safe operating space for land-system...

  4. Recommendations for sustainable development of non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gina H. Mohammed

    2001-01-01

    Non-timber forest products--or NTFPs--are considered here to be botanical products harvested or originating from forest-based species, but excluding primary timber products, industrial boards and composites, and paper products. A recent study of non-timber forest products in Ontario, Canada, identified at least 50 types of NTFPs and hundreds of specific products used...

  5. Non-timber forest products in sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; A.L. Hammett; Philip A. Araman

    2001-01-01

    The forests of Southern United States are the source of many non-timber forest products (NTFPs). The collection, trade and use of these products have been important to rural economies since Europeans settled in this country. At the same time the plants from which these products originate are crucial to healthy ecosystems. Over the last decade, the market demand and the...

  6. Sustainable harvesting of non-timber forest products based on ecological and economic criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Barrios, J.C.; Anten, N.P.R.; Martinez-Ramos, M.

    2014-01-01

    Harvesting of highly valuable non-timber forest products (NTFPs) has been considered a win-win strategy where local people profit while conserving forest biodiversity and ecosystem services. Nevertheless the sustainability of NTFP harvesting has been debated as the nature of NTFPs, harvesting

  7. Sustainable harvesting of non-timber forest products based on ecological and economic criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Barrios, J.C.; Anten, N.P.R.; Martinez-Ramos, M.

    2015-01-01

    1. Harvesting of highly valuable non-timber forest products (NTFPs) has been considered a win-win strategy where local people profit while conserving forest biodiversity ecosystem services. Nevertheless the sustainability of NTFP harvesting has been debated as the nature of NTFPs harvesting regimes

  8. Assessing the Sustainability of EU Timber Consumption Trends: Comparing Consumption Scenarios with a Safe Operating Space Scenario for Global and EU Timber Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan O’Brien

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for wood to meet EU renewable energy targets has increasingly come under scrutiny for potentially increasing EU import dependence and inducing land use change abroad, with associated impacts on the climate and biodiversity. This article builds on research accounting for levels of primary timber consumption—e.g., toward forest footprints—and developing reference values for benchmarking sustainability—e.g., toward land use targets—in order to improve systemic monitoring of timber and forest use. Specifically, it looks at future trends to assess how current EU policy may impact forests at an EU and global scale. Future demand scenarios are based on projections derived and adapted from the literature to depict developments under different scenario assumptions. Results reveal that by 2030, EU consumption levels on a per capita basis are estimated to be increasingly disproportionate compared to the rest of the world. EU consumption scenarios based on meeting around a 40% share of the EU renewable energy targets with timber would overshoot both the EU and global reference value range for sustainable supply capacities in 2030. Overall, findings support literature pointing to an increased risk of problem shifting relating to both how much and where timber needed for meeting renewable energy targets is sourced. It is argued that a sustainable level of timber consumption should be characterized by balance between supply (what the forest can provide on a sustainable basis and demand (how much is used on a per capita basis, considering the concept of fair shares. To this end, future research should close data gaps, increase methodological robustness and address the socio-political legitimacy of the safe operating space concept towards targets in the future. A re-use of timber within the economy should be supported to increase supply options.

  9. Balancing Conservation and Economic Sustainability: The Future of the Amazon Timber Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Frank; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Nepstad, Daniel; Amacher, Gregory; Rodrigues, Hermann

    2009-09-01

    Logging has been a much maligned feature of frontier development in the Amazon. Most discussions ignore the fact that logging can be part of a renewable, environmentally benign, and broadly equitable economic activity in these remote places. We estimate there to be some 4.5 ± 1.35 billion m3 of commercial timber volume in the Brazilian Amazon today, of which 1.2 billion m3 is currently profitable to harvest, with a total potential stumpage value of 15.4 billion. A successful forest sector in the Brazilian Amazon will integrate timber harvesting on private lands and on unprotected and unsettled government lands with timber concessions on public lands. If a legal, productive, timber industry can be established outside of protected areas, it will deliver environmental benefits in synergy with those provided by the region’s network of protected areas, the latter of which we estimate to have an opportunity cost from lost timber revenues of 2.3 billion over 30 years. Indeed, on all land accessible to harvesting, the timber industry could produce an average of more than 16 million m3 per year over a 30-year harvest cycle—entirely outside of current protected areas—providing 4.8 billion in returns to landowners and generating 1.8 billion in sawnwood sales tax revenue. This level of harvest could be profitably complemented with an additional 10% from logging concessions on National Forests. This advance, however, should be realized only through widespread adoption of reduced impact logging techniques.

  10. Understanding producers' motives for adopting sustainable practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo-Barrera, Andres; Pennings, Joost M.E.; Hofenk, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the motives and risk attitudes of producers to engage in sustainable practices is important for policy-makers who wish to increase the likelihood of adoption and improve the design of incentives. This article examines the underlying motives of producers to adopt sustainable

  11. Environmental life cycle assessment to enhance the sustainability of the timber sector in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshun, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    The timber sector, i.e. forestry and timber industry, is an important industry in Ghana. It provides a significant contribution to Ghana’s foreign exchange earnings through wood products export, provides jobs and incomes for numerous local economies and communities. The timber production in

  12. Structural Response of Fire-Exposed Cross-Laminated Timber Beams under Sustained Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Lineham, Sean A.; Thomson, Daniel; Bartlett, Alastair I.; Bisby, Luke A.; Hadden, Rory M.

    2016-01-01

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a popular construction material for low and medium-rise construction. However an architectural aspiration exists for tall mass timber buildings, and this is currently hindered by knowledge gaps and perceptions regarding the fire behaviour of mass timber buildings. To begin to address some of the important questions regarding the structural response of fire-exposed CLT structures in real fires, this paper presents a series of novel fire tests on CLT beams subjec...

  13. Non-timber forest products enterprises in the south: perceived distribution and implications for sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Chamberlain; M. Predny

    2003-01-01

    Forests of the southern United States are the source of a great diversity of flora, much of which is gathered to produce non-timber forest products (NTFPs). These products are made from resources that grow under the forest canopy as trees, herbs, shrubs, vines, moss and even lichen. They occur naturally in forests or may be cultivated under the forest canopy or in...

  14. Whole tree transportation system for timber processing depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Lancaster; Tom Gallagher; Tim  McDonald; Dana Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand for alternative energy has led those who are interested in producing sustainable energy from renewable timber to devise new concepts to satisfy those demands. The concept of timber processing depots, where whole stem trees will be delivered for future processing into wood products and high quality energy fuel, has led to the re-evaluation of our...

  15. Sustainable forest management of tropical forests can reduce carbon emissions and stabilize timber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Sasaki; G.P. Asner; Yude Pan; W. Knorr; P.B. Durst; H.O. Ma; I. Abe; A.J. Lowe; L.P. Koh

    2016-01-01

    The REDD+ scheme of the United Nations Framework Conventionon Climate Change has provided opportunities to manage tropical forests for timber production and carbon emission reductions. To determine the appropriate loggingtechniques, we analyzed potential timber production and carbon emission reductions under two logging techniques over a 40-year period of selective...

  16. Sustainable bioreactor systems for producing hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaborsky, O.R.; Radway, J.C.; Yoza, B.A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Molecular Biology; Tredici, M.R. [Univ. of Florence (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze e Tecnologie Alimentari e Microbiogiche

    1998-08-01

    The overall goal of Hawaii`s BioHydrogen Program is to generate hydrogen from water using solar energy and microalgae under sustainable conditions. Specific bioprocess engineering objectives include the design, construction, testing and validation of a sustainable photobioreactor system. Specific objectives relating to biology include investigating and optimizing key physiological parameters of cyanobacteria of the genus Arthrospira (Spirulina), the organism selected for initial process development. Another objective is to disseminate the Mitsui-Miami cyanobacteria cultures, now part of the Hawaii Culture Collection (HCC), to other research groups. The approach is to use a single organisms for producing hydrogen gas from water. Key stages are the growth of the biomass, the dark induction of hydrogenase, and the subsequent generation of hydrogen in the light. The biomass production stage involves producing dense cultures of filamentous, non-heterocystous cyanobacteria and optimizing biomass productivity in innovative tubular photobioreactors. The hydrogen generation stages entail inducing the enzymes and metabolic pathways that enable both dark and light-driven hydrogen production. The focus of Year 1 has been on the construction and operation of the outdoor photobioreactor for the production of high-density mass cultures of Arthrospira. The strains in the Mitsui-Miami collection have been organized and distributed to other researchers who are beginning to report interesting results. The project is part of the International Energy Agency`s biohydrogen program.

  17. Non-timber forest products: alternative multiple-uses for sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; Mary Predny

    2003-01-01

    Forests of the southern United States are the source of a great diversity of flora, much of which is gathered for non-timber forest products (NTFPs). These products are made from resources that grow under the forest canopy as trees, herbs, shrubs, vines, moss and even lichen. They occur naturally in forests or may be cultivated under the forest canopy or in...

  18. Forest growth and timber quality: crown models and simulation methods for sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis P. Dykstra; Robert A. Monserud

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the international conference from which these proceedings are drawn was to explore relationships between forest management activities and timber quality. Sessions were organized to explore models and simulation methodologies that contribute to an understanding of tree development over time and the ways that management and harvesting activities can...

  19. Sustaining the Joint Production of Timber and Lactarius Mushroom: A Case Study of a Forest Management Planning Unit in Northwestern Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Mumcu Küçüker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest management planning focusing on sustainable supply of forest-based services such as wood and Non-Wood Forest Products (NWFPs is important for the sustainability of forest ecosystems over time. This study explores the development of a mushroom integrated decision support system (ETÇAPOptimization for multiple use forest management planning and for the analysis of long-term effects of different forest management scenarios on the joint production of timber and mushroom. The Decision Support System (DSS integrates both mushroom and timber production derived from the same forest ecosystem using empirical models for mushroom occurrence and yield as well as for tree growth. The DSS takes further into account the spatial distribution and productivity models of Lactarius deliciosus and Lactarius salmonicolor generated for the Kızılcasu Planning unit in Northwest Turkey. Six different forest management scenarios were considered, each with a different set of objectives, e.g., maximization of both the amount and the income from timber or mushroom production. Some scenarios include further timber even flow constraints (10% fluctuation. The Net Present Value (NPV and the amount of timber and of mushroom production were used as performance indicators to discuss and elaborate on forest dynamics under different management scenarios. The results indicated that forest management planning strategies to address the maximization of NPV from mushroom production scenarios are characterized by substantial decreases in total income from the forest due mainly to the conservation of forest areas to favor mushroom production. On the other hand, the integration of regulatory constraints into forest management plans lead to a substantial decrease of both the economic profit and the amount of forest ecosystem services, e.g., timber and mushroom. The results showed that the NPV from mushroom production can be two to three times higher than the NPV from timber

  20. Predicted Effects of Prescribed Burning and Timber Management on Forest Recovery and Sustainability at Fort Benning, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, C.T.,JR.

    2004-04-13

    The objective of this work was to use a simple compartment model of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics to predict forest recovery on degraded soils and forest sustainability, following recovery, under different regimes of prescribed fire and timber management. This report describes the model and a model-based analysis of the effect of prescribed burning and forest thinning or clearcutting on stand recovery and sustainability at Fort Benning, GA. I developed the model using Stella{reg_sign} Research Software (High Performance Systems, Inc., Hanover, NH) and parameterized the model using data from field studies at Fort Benning, literature sources, and parameter fitting. The model included (1) a tree biomass submodel that predicted aboveground and belowground tree biomass, (2) a litter production submodel that predicted the dynamics of herbaceous aboveground and belowground biomass, (3) a soil C and N submodel that predicted soil C and N stocks (to a 30 cm soil depth) and net soil N mineralization, and (4) an excess N submodel that calculated the difference between predicted plant N demands and soil N supplies. There was a modeled feedback from potential excess N (PEN) to tree growth such that forest growth was limited under conditions of N deficiency. Two experiments were performed for the model-based analysis. In the first experiment, forest recovery from barren soils was predicted for 100 years with or without prescribed burning and with or without timber management by thinning or clearcutting. In the second experiment, simulations began with 100 years of predicted forest growth in the absence of fire or harvesting, and sustainability was predicted for a further 100 years either with or without prescribed burning and with or without forest management. Four performance variables (aboveground tree biomass, soil C stocks, soil N stocks, and PEN) were used to evaluate the predicted effects of timber harvesting and prescribed burning on forest recovery and

  1. "Keeping it Living": applications and relevance of traditional plant management in British Columbia to sustainable harvesting of non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy J. Turner

    2001-01-01

    There has been increasing concern about sustainability in harvesting and marketing of non-timber forest products in North America. This paper examines traditional approaches and practices for use of plant resources by Aboriginal peoples and discusses their applications in a contemporary context. Philosophies and attitudes of caring and respect are embodied in many...

  2. Enhancing anti-microbial properties of wood-plastic composites produced from timber and plastic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Season S; Tsang, Daniel C W; Poon, Chi Sun; Ok, Yong Sik

    2017-05-01

    Considering the resource waste and environmental burden for timber and plastic materials ending up at landfills, this study proposed upcycling wood and plastic waste into value-added wood-plastic composites (WPCs), complying with the standard requirements of flexural strength, thickness swelling, water absorption and thermal insulation. Biological deterioration is a major concern of WPCs. Bacterial survival, fungal attack and algal growth of bactericide-treated WPCs were holistically analysed. Melamine resin was adopted for impregnating anti-microbial agents on the surface. All the agents showed excellent bactericidal rate (Escherichia coli), yet poly-diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride (PolyDADMAC) and silver had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations. In terms of weight loss and strength reduction due to fungal decay (Coriolus versicolor), PolyDADMAC, silver and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) imparted the highest resistance on the WPCs. Moreover, PolyDADMAC and copper provided the most protection against algal growth (Chlorella vulgaris), and the former presented durable inhibitory effect. This study presents a value-added solution to wood/plastic waste recycling.

  3. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...

  4. Small Mushrooms for Big Business? Gaps in the Sustainable Management of Non-Timber Forest Products in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of managing forests for the production of commercial non-timber forest products (NTFPs lies in promoting economic development by maintaining and even increasing production while simultaneously maintaining or improving ecological conditions. The discussion of forest management therefore encompasses a wide range of social, economic, political, and ecological questions. Empirically, it is clear that both market and government failure can lead to unsustainable management in commercial NTFP use. How can we manage the market and at the same time formulate good policies? Taking cases from Southwest China, this paper critically examines the current development of NTFP commercialization in the mountainous region of Southwest China. It focuses particularly on three pieces of research on mushroom collection and marketing. By examining empirical data, the paper analyzes current gaps in the policy and the market in mountainous areas in the context of promoting sustainable use of NTFP. It examines the market structure from the perspective of market failure and explores the government’s failure to promote commercial NTFPs. We recommend economic and political decentralization, capacity building, and government investment as means to improve sustainable management.

  5. Are forest incomes sustainable? Firewood and timber extraction and productivity in community managed forests in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilby, Henrik; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Byg, Anja

    2014-01-01

    community managed forests in Nepal, using data from 240 permanent sample plots and a structured household survey conducted in 2006 and 2009 (n = 507 and 558, respectively). We find that analyses of sustainability need to recognize the complexity of forest stand utilization, and that there is considerable...... scope, by altering how existing local forest management rules are implemented, for increasing rural household forest incomes while keeping harvesting levels sustainable....

  6. Forest communities in the third millennium: linking research, business, and policy toward a sustainable non-timber forest product sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iain Davidson-Hunt; Luc C. Duchesne; John C., eds. Zasada

    2001-01-01

    Contains a wide variety of papers given at the first international conference on non-timber forest products (NTFP) in cold temperate and boreal forests. Focuses on many facets of NTFPs: economics, society, biology, resource management, business development, and others.

  7. Improving the livelihoods of wool producers in a sustainable manner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving the livelihoods of wool producers in a sustainable manner by optimizing the woolled sheep production systems within the communal farming area of the Eastern Cape. “A vision that is future directed”. L De Beer, SE Terblanché ...

  8. Emergy sustainability index of a milk producing unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Eduardo Bassan Mendes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although small, the impacts caused by agriculture and livestock productive activities change the environment, which in turn reflects the stress conditions it is under. Some authors these environmental changes occur for countless reasons, many so-called natural while others are due to anthropogenic interventions. This study aims to assess milk production sustainability using the emergy analysis of indicators, considering the annual cycles of production to help decision making. A conceptual model of the milk production system using the Emergy flow chart was built at the Livestock and Agricultural Production Unit (UPA of the Alto da Arauna Farm, located in Guzolândia, SP. After data processing, the emergy calculation table was elaborated. Several emergy sustainability indices were calculated and analyzed (indicators Renewability of Emergy Used Total, Index of Environmental Load Ratio of Investment Ratio Emergia beyond the calculations Tranformidades among others including the Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI. The results showed that the UPA has a high impact per unit of energy source used to produce milk for the general public. The agricultural production systems with ESI value less than one (1 can be considered unsustainable in the long term. The studied UPA has good working conditions and soil conservation, but has a highly disproportionate use of economy inputs in relation to natural resources, which results in low ESI value. The analysis of this ratio indicated low system efficiency. Several management practices and interventions were proposed aiming at improving sustainability indicators of the production system.  Furthermore, strategies were formulated for more sustainable management of this UPA, thus reducing the impacts of the production system in use. The adoption of methods similar to organic production, agroecological systems, integration between farming and livestock, and/or adoption of silvopastoral system are recommended to improve

  9. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF CAMEROON FORESTS RESOURCES: PROVIDING TIMBER WASTE TO THE POOR POPULATIONS AS ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Benjamin Noumo Foko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cameroon is covered by about 20 million hectares of forests. Timber exploitation is the second source of external income after petroleum. Besides, Cameroon’s forest has several other functions. Yet the threat to the very existence and survival of this forest is rapidly increasing due to overexploitation by logging companies and for firewood. Despite its usefulness, a substantial volume of the wood felled by timber exploiters is abandoned as waste to rot. This waste can be used as firewood by households even for building and making of furniture by small-scale users like carpenters if they had access to it. This paper encourages the use of timber waste as an alternative to kerosene, which has become very expensive and unaffordable due to the general rise in the price of petroleum products in recent years. The overexploitation of forests can therefore be limited by putting the waste timber into use. It will go along to reduce freshly cut wood which is usually cut illegally and uncontrollably and which is a major source of depletion of forest resources. This project, once achieved will forever last because it will always generate revenue to the groups involve in the collection and the distribution of forest waste which will make money from sales even if they were to sell cheaper since the major cost is transportation and the waste wood is also cheap to obtain from the logging companies or even costless since they have less interest in it.

  10. Probabilistic Modeling of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, J.D.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2005-01-01

    The present paper contains a proposal for the probabilistic modeling of timber material properties. It is produced in the context of the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) and of the COST action E24 'Reliability of Timber Structures'. The present pro...

  11. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...... is reduced. To investigate the possibilities, full-size wall elements with wooden cladding and different cavity design, type of cladding and type of wind barrier were exposed to natural climate on the outside and to a humid indoor climate on the inside. During the exposure period parts of the vapour barrier...

  12. Timber tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Düdder, Boris; Ross, Omry

    2017-01-01

    Managing and verifying forest products in a value chain is often reliant on easily manipulated document or digital tracking methods - Chain of Custody Systems. We aim to create a new means of tracking timber by developing a tamper proof digital system based on Blockchain technology. Blockchain...

  13. Reliability and Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cizmar, Dean; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    In the last few decades there have been intensely research concerning reliability of timber structures. This is primarily because there is an increased focus on society on sustainability and environmental aspects. Modern timber as a building material is also being competitive compared to concrete...

  14. Economic value of non-timber forest products among Paser Indigenous People of East Kalimantan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saragih, Bernaulus

    2011-01-01

    Tropical forestry in Indonesia is facing challenges in terms of sustainability and the survival of its inhabitant, indigenous people, not least because the perception of policymakers is that, since the 1970s, forests have provided a major solution to economic development by producing timber,

  15. PRODUCTION AND MARKETABILITY OF CONVENTIONAL, SUSTAINABLE AND ORGANIC PRODUCED TOMATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean BAN

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional agricultural production is denoted by high levels of chemisation, strait specialised production, high yields and low costs per production unit, however this production causes risky interventions, which could affect negatively on environment and human health Research results indicate possibilities for growing vegetables in alternative systems, less risky for environment with satisfying economic success. The aim of this research was to determine economic success of organic, sustainable and conventional production of tomato in the Mediterranean area of Republic Croatia. Bianual research was conducted during 2002/2003. During vegetation we examined parameters of growth, marketable yields and costs for materials, work and machinery which are used in economic analysis. Economical analysis of tomatoes production indicate worst results in organic production system. Loses in tomatoes organic production were consequences of two main factors: lower marketed yield and equal product price for all three production types. Lower yields in organic production were expected, therefore bad financial results were caused by mainly low market prices, which do not validate quality and food safety. Therefore financial success is preconditioned by higher market validation, which can be obtained through market analysis and product development. Consumer awareness about organic agriculture is still very weak and this point requires further attention. The link between organic agriculture and the environment/nature protection is missing too. The purchase of organic food is influenced by the level of information and knowledge of consumers with reference to these products. Doubts about the truthfulness and significance of some data were raised by main places where organic food is purchased, since an excessive greatest limitations are high prices and a low level of information to consumers. Current standard of life of most Croatian consumers does not permit them to

  16. A cut above: building the market for fair trade timber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2008-02-15

    Unlike coffee and cotton, timber has yet to become a fair trade commodity. But now its time has come. Rights over forest resources are increasingly ceded to small-scale community forest enterprises (CFEs), as large-scale industrial logging is now largely discredited in the sustainable development context. The fair trade emphasis on just pricing for poorer producers is exactly what CFEs need as incentive to invest in sustainable forest management — and secure environmental and poverty reduction benefits at one stroke. With fair trade timber, CFEs could boost their entrepreneurial capacity using democratic business models with in-built social and environmental responsibility. The Fair Trade Labelling Organizations International and Forest Stewardship Council are exploring the ways and means through a new partnership, but more is needed. Consumers must be made aware of why paying higher prices is key to creating CFE incentives for sustainable forest management and poverty reduction. Time and money are needed for consumer education and installing fair trade timber in producer country forest policies, market segregation and procurement policies at all levels.

  17. Perceptions of Sustainable Agriculture: A Longitudinal Study of Young and Potential Producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamon, Julia A.; Scofield, Gaylan G.

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of an older group of agricultural producers (n=45), young producers (n=102) , and potential producers (n=77) showed the following: potential producers were more positive about sustainable agriculture, younger and potential groups were more likely than older to use dealers as information sources, and potentials were more likely to be…

  18. The contribution of microbially produced nanoparticles to sustainable development goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Miguel E; Horsfall, Louise E

    2017-09-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs), particles having one or more dimensions below 100 nm, are currently being synthesized through chemical and physical methods on an industrial scale. However, these methods for the synthesis of NPs do not fit with sustainable development goals. NP synthesis, through chemical and physical methods, requires high temperatures and/or pressures resulting in high energy consumption and the generation of large amounts of waste. In recent years, research into the synthesis of NPs has shifted to more green and biological methods, often using microorganisms. A biological approach has many advantages over chemical and physical methods. Reactions are catalysed in aqueous solutions at standard temperature and pressure (cost effective and low energy syntheses). This method does not require solvents or harmful chemicals, making NP biosynthesis a greener and more eco-friendly method. Furthermore, NP synthesis by microbes does not require the use of pure starting materials; thus it can simultaneously be used for the bioremediation of contaminated water, land and waste, and the biosynthesis of NPs. Therefore the biosynthesis of NPs contributes to the sustainable development goals, while the alternative physical and chemical methods exclusively utilize scarce and expensive resources for NP synthesis. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Timber RAM. . .a long-range planning method for commercial timber lands under multiple-use management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel I. Navon

    1971-01-01

    Timber RAM (Resource Allocation Method) is a long-range planning method for commercial timber lands under multiple-use management. Timber RAM can produce cutting and reforestation schedules and related harvest and economic reports. Each schedule optimizes an index of performance, subject to periodic constraints on revenues, costs, and, harvest levels. Periodic...

  20. Biopolymers produced from gelatin and other sustainable resources using polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several researchers have recently demonstrated the feasibility of producing biopolymers from the reaction of polyphenolics with gelatin in combination with other proteins (e.g. whey) or with carbohydrates (e.g. chitosan and pectin). These combinations would take advantage of the unique properties o...

  1. Evaluation of sustainable concrete produced with desalinated reject brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi P. Fattah

    2017-06-01

    With the intent of reducing the carbon footprint of concrete production, a study was carried out to determine the effect of using reject brine as the source of water and the use of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS as a replacement for cement. Concrete samples having three different cement contents were prepared with normal tap water and reject brine. Results showed that the use of GGBS and reject brine improved the strength of concrete produced by 16.5%. Replacing 50% of the cement with GGBS and using reject brine as the source of water has a potential for reducing 176 kg CO2 and 1.7–3.4 kg of CO2 equivalents per one cubic meter of concrete, respectively. The use of the waste reject brine can potentially save USD 170–340 per cubic meter of concrete produced.

  2. External Sustainability of Oil-Producing Sub-Saharan African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C York; Misa Takebe

    2011-01-01

    In the extensive empirical work carried out across the IMF on oil-producing sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, the notion of "sustainability" is often directed toward fiscal policies, and, in particular, views on the "optimal" non-oil primary fiscal deficit. The bulk of this work does not, however, address external sustainability, which is a concern especially for those SSA oil producers operating under a fixed exchange rate regime. A couple of recent papers have extended the existing metho...

  3. Rubberwood timber decreasing, wither the wooden furniture industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Fauzi Puasa; Rohana Abd Rahman; Ismariah Ahmad; Lim Hin Fui; Roda Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    Will the Malaysian furniture industry wither amidst the decreasing local supply of rubberwood timber? Despite declining supply of local rubberwood timber, the wooden furniture industry has been able to sustain its production and trade. This means that the wooden furniture industry does not wither even though there is local shortage of rubberwood timber supply. The wooden furniture industry has adapted to the situation of declining rubberwood supply in various ways. First, lesser rubberwood ti...

  4. Timber in Missouri, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer; Burton L. Essex

    1976-01-01

    The third inventory of Missouri's timber resource shows a small gain in growing-stock volume and a somewhat larger gain in sawtimber volume since 1959. Area of commercial forest declined sharply between surveys. Presented are text and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, stocking, future timber supply, and forest management...

  5. Win-wins in forest product value chains? : how governance impacts the sustainability of livelihoods based on non-timber forest products from Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.

    2014-01-01

    Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) such as nuts, leaves, resins, barks and honey from Cameroon have medicinal, food, energy and cultural uses. This study examines the arrangements governing eight such NTFP value chains, worth over 32 million US$ annually with around 34,000 people active,

  6. Win-wins in forest product value chains? How governance impacts the sustainability of livelihoods based on non-timber forest products from Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.

    2014-01-01

    Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) such as nuts, leaves, resins, barks and honey have medicinal, food, energy and cultural uses. This study examines eight such NTFP value chains from Cameroon, sold in markets locally and exported worldwide. It finds that these products are more valuable than

  7. Effects on Environmental and Socioeconomic Sustainability of Producing Ethanol from Perennial Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, V. H.; Parish, E. S.

    2016-12-01

    Using perennial grasses to produce ethanol can enhance progress toward sustainability. A suite of 35 environmental and socioeconomic sustainability indicators was considered in a holistic sustainability assessment of a five-year switchgrass-to-ethanol production experiment centered on a demonstration-scale biorefinery in Vonore, Tennessee. By combining field measurements, literature review and expert opinion, the team was able to rate 28 of the 35 recommended sustainability indicators. The team combined these ratings within a multi-attribute decision support system tool and used this information to compare the sustainability of producing 2118 hectares of no-till switchgrass relative to two alternative business-as-usual scenarios of unmanaged pasture and tilled corn production. The results suggest that East Tennessee switchgrass production improves environmental quality overall and can be beneficial to the counties surrounding the biorefinery in terms of dollars earned and jobs created. The timing of switchgrass production also provides an opportunity to use inactive equipment and laborers. By incorporating a landscape design approach, the opportunities, constraints and most reasonable paths forward for growing bioenergy feedstock in specific context can be assessed in a way that adapts and improves local practices. Lessons learned from this case study are being incorporated into sustainability assessments of corn stover in Iowa and a variety of bioenergy feedstocks in diverse settings. The overall goal is to develop sound management practices that can address the multiple and sometimes competing demands of stakeholders.

  8. Strategies and Socioeconomic and Environmental Sustainability: Study of the Producer Segment of Meat Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristiane Gruba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the emerging needs of society and the environment for the economic sectors act with sustainability, agrifood cooperatives of meat industry (CASC face management and strategy challenges to achieve better performance. Approaching different links of the production chain, some studies were conducted in a CASC, including this article, in order to verify if there were strategic economic, social or environmental sustainable actions from COOPERALIANÇA’s meat producers, its consequent organizational results and influence from the environment. The methodology was characterized by case study and the interviews with business leaders of the link chain producer were semi-structured. A content analysis was done. Among the most important results, influences from other links in the supply chain were found in strategic pro-sustainability action, which are not voluntarily made by producers and are influenced by interorganizational macroenvironment. Social activities were stimulated by public policies. It was also found a lack of long-term sustainability programs and strategic actions but cooperation and accountability occurred between the links, mostly because of interests of win-win that increased commitment and facilitated their interorganizational functions. However it was not found information in the interest of reconciliation between organizational outcomes and socioeconomic and environmental sustainability. With these results it was found adherence to the organizational ecology approach.

  9. Actions Environmental Sustainability Measures for Producers and Local Communities in a Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Zequeira-Álvarez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the area of study is defined as the producers and communities of the northern coastal zone, up to the 5-meter level curve of the province of Camagüey, Cuba. It is composed of four municipalities and is very rich in natural values but also identifies itself as a very fragile ecosystem. The methodological procedure consists of three stages that respond to their respective objectives: General characteristics of the study area, environmental problems in the area of study and general measures of sustainability for producers and coastal communities, The general objective of the work is to propose general measures of Environmental sustainability for producers and local communities in the northern coastal zone of Camagüey, Cuba in order to contribute to the use and conservation of the ecosystem. These are aimed at the producers and settlers of the study area but may be interesting for other ecosystems.

  10. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. In these studies we investigated use of food waste to produce butanol by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initia...

  11. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Haibo; Singh, Vijay; Qureshi, Nasib

    2015-01-01

    Background Waste is currently a major problem in the world, both in the developing and the developed countries. Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. This study investigated using food waste to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. Results In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initial glucose 56.7 g/L) was used to produce 14.2 g/L of ABE wit...

  12. Non-timber forest products and forest stewardship plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becky Barlow; Tanner Filyaw; Sarah W. Workman

    2015-01-01

    To many woodland owners “harvesting” typically means the removal of timber from forests. In recent years many landowners have become aware of the role non-timber forest products (NTFPs) can play in supplemental management strategies to produce income while preserving other forest qualities. NTFPs are a diverse group of craft, culinary, and medicinal products that have...

  13. Product diversification in South Africa's commercial timber plantations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our results indicate that producing a product mix rather than a single product improves aggregated financial returns and lowers investment risk over multiple rotation periods. The optimum mixture depended on past timber price correlations for pulpwood and sawn timber in South Africa between 1980 and 2011. This ideal ...

  14. Timber resource statistics for the Upper Yukon inventory unit, Alaska, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    1987-01-01

    The 1980 inventory of the forest resources of the Upper Yukon unit was designed to produce inventory estimates of timberland area, volume of timber, and volumes of timber growth and mortality. Timberland area is estimated at 742,000 acres. Cubic-foot volume on all timberland is estimated at 475 million cubic feet. Timber growth and mortality are estimated at -615,000...

  15. Agrifood systems and the microbial safety of fresh produce: Trade-offs in the wake of increased sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen-the, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.nguyen-the@avignon.inra.fr [UMR408 SQPOV «Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d' Origine Végétale», INRA, Avignon Université, 84000 Avignon (France); Bardin, Marc, E-mail: marc.bardin@avignon.inra.fr [INRA, UR0407 Plant Pathology, F-84143 Montfavet (France); Berard, Annette, E-mail: annette.berard@avignon.inra.fr [EMMAH, INRA, Avignon Université, 84000 Avignon (France); Berge, Odile, E-mail: odile.berge@avignon.inra.fr [INRA, UR0407 Plant Pathology, F-84143 Montfavet (France); Brillard, Julien, E-mail: julien.brillard@univ-montp2.fr [UMR408 SQPOV «Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d' Origine Végétale», INRA, Avignon Université, 84000 Avignon (France); Broussolle, Véronique, E-mail: veronique.broussolle@avignon.inra.fr [UMR408 SQPOV «Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d' Origine Végétale», INRA, Avignon Université, 84000 Avignon (France); and others

    2016-08-15

    Fresh produce has been a growing cause of food borne outbreaks world-wide prompting the need for safer production practices. Yet fresh produce agrifood systems are diverse and under constraints for more sustainability. We analyze how measures taken to guarantee safety interact with other objectives for sustainability, in light of the diversity of fresh produce agrifood systems. The review is based on the publications at the interface between fresh produce safety and sustainability, with sustainability defined by low environmental impacts, food and nutrition security and healthy life. The paths for more sustainable fresh produce are diverse. They include an increased use of ecosystem services to e.g. favor predators of pests, or to reduce impact of floods, to reduce soil erosion, or to purify run-off waters. In contrast, they also include production systems isolated from the environment. From a socio-economical view, sustainability may imply maintaining small tenures with a higher risk of pathogen contamination. We analyzed the consequences for produce safety by focusing on risks of contamination by water, soil, environment and live stocks. Climate change may increase the constraints and recent knowledge on interactions between produce and human pathogens may bring new solutions. Existing technologies may suffice to resolve some conflicts between ensuring safety of fresh produce and moving towards more sustainability. However, socio-economic constraints of some agri-food systems may prevent their implementation. In addition, current strategies to preserve produce safety are not adapted to systems relying on ecological principles and knowledge is lacking to develop the new risk management approaches that would be needed. - Highlights: • Measures taken to improve safety were assessed for their impact on sustainability. • Fresh produce safety improvements may come at the expense of sustainability. • Environment, food security and human health constituted the

  16. Alternative silvicultural practices in Appalachian forest ecosystems: implications for species diversity, ecosystem resilience, and commercial timber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Fox; Carola A. Haas; David W. Smith; David L. Loftis; Shepard M. Zedaker; Robert H. Jones; A.L. Hammett

    2007-01-01

    Increasing demands for timber and non-timber forest products often conflict with demands to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem processes. To examine tradeoffs between these goals, we implemented six alternative management systems using a stand-level, replicated experiment. The treatments included four silvicultural regeneration methods designed to sustain timber...

  17. METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY OF MILK-PRODUCING FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Rempel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a methodology for assessing the environmental sustainability of milk-producing farms, which consists of a set of spreadsheets (MS-Excel platform comprising nine parameters (waste disposal, water sources, environmentally protected area, legal reserve, use of pesticides and fertilizers, property slope gradient, erosion, forest fires and land uses sub-divided into 13 sub-parameters. From these indicators, weighing matrices were constructed with sub-parameters, in which quantitative data obtained in field and laboratory were transformed into impact indices, numerically expressed. This proposal was developed and applied as a pilot project on four dairy farms in the municipality of Arroio do Meio/RS/BRAZIL, where field diagnosis, map use and land cover designs and the construction of an environmental sustainability index were carried out. The environmental assessment allows the producer/administrator to determine which attributes of the activity may be inconsistent with sustainability and the decision-maker to have an indication of measures to promote or control the activities according to local development plans; moreover, it provides an objective unit to measure the impact so as to assist in the qualification and certification of agricultural activities.

  18. Mobile mine timbering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodous, J.; Kubac, J.; Novak, Z.; Skrobalek, J.; Zajic, K.

    1982-04-15

    A mobile timbering of enclosure-support type designed for reinforcing a cleaning space in deep coal mines is patented. The assembly consists of one frame to which a shield is hinged with the upper section, from one hydraulic stand attached to the frame and upper section or shield, and from the mobile device. The essence of the invention is that the extension lower part of each hydraulic stand is placed and hinged in the support, which on one side enters the profile guide, formed in the frame, and from the other side is attached to the adjustment (stopping) cylinder whose opposite part is hinged to the frame. Between the shield and the upper part there is a built-in resting device. The high effect of operation of the proposed element of the mobile timbering is that with comparatively small difference in height of the support places, there is a large range of element of the timbering even with the use of hydraulic stands with one telescope. The shaped guide and the support places are made so that there is optimal use of the bearing capacity of the stands, and as a result there is high support reaction and advantageous loading of individual parts of the timbering. The universal assembly design of the upper part makes it possible to use the timbering even with technology of working with timbering that is moved backwards.

  19. Sustainability pays. A reward system for sustainable producer and consumer behaviour; Duurzaam loont. Een beloningssysteem voor duurzaam consumentengedrag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hilten, R. [QOIN, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    In Sustainability Rewarded citizens are rewarded for good behaviour: saving energy, reducing waste, cycling to work more often and so on. They are also enticed to opt more often for environmentally-friendly, regional and sustainable purchases. This is achieved by giving them points as a reward for making the right choice. The prospect of earning points makes consumers more receptive to new information, which they can use to change their choice so that they do not miss out on the reward. These points are saved and can be spent later on other regional and/or sustainable products (gifts). Regional entrepreneurs can thus strengthen their businesses by fostering the loyalty of customers and securing their purchasing power. The government or retailer always settles the paid-out points in euros, so that all points in circulation are always covered by the equivalent value in euros. The government pays for these costs from its policy budget, and retailers from their marketing budget. Several parties from the chain (e.g. the retailer and brand producer) can also form partnerships to share the costs of the points. Points can always be earned and cashed in by the citizen for clean and efficient products, insulation materials, climate-neutral products, regional products, waste prevention and waste separation, sustainable products and services, the use of public transport, voluntary work within the cultural sector, tickets for the cinema, theatre or museum, music classes, healthy food, admission to swimming pools, sports club memberships and so forth. Businesses that accept the points can then convert these into euros at the organization operating the scheme. Consumers can also donate these points to affiliated organizations. Households receive an incentive from the reward to change their behaviour and life style in favour of sustainability. They make more use of the cultural sector, sports, and other amenities. It also helps households to save costs. Tourists opt more often for

  20. Outgrower timber schemes in KwaZulu-Natal – Do they build sustainable rural livelihoods and what interventions should be made?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cairns, RI

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Zulu-Natal at the micro-level, their operation in the context of the empowerment and redistribution process, and their potential as a model for socially and environmentally sustainable private sector forestry...

  1. Sustained maximal voluntary contraction produces independent changes in human motor axons and the muscle they innervate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Milder

    Full Text Available The repetitive discharges required to produce a sustained muscle contraction results in activity-dependent hyperpolarization of the motor axons and a reduction in the force-generating capacity of the muscle. We investigated the relationship between these changes in the adductor pollicis muscle and the motor axons of its ulnar nerve supply, and the reproducibility of these changes. Ten subjects performed a 1-min maximal voluntary contraction. Activity-dependent changes in axonal excitability were measured using threshold tracking with electrical stimulation at the wrist; changes in the muscle were assessed as evoked and voluntary electromyography (EMG and isometric force. Separate components of axonal excitability and muscle properties were tested at 5 min intervals after the sustained contraction in 5 separate sessions. The current threshold required to produce the target muscle action potential increased immediately after the contraction by 14.8% (p<0.05, reflecting decreased axonal excitability secondary to hyperpolarization. This was not correlated with the decline in amplitude of muscle force or evoked EMG. A late reversal in threshold current after the initial recovery from hyperpolarization peaked at -5.9% at ∼35 min (p<0.05. This pattern was mirrored by other indices of axonal excitability revealing a previously unreported depolarization of motor axons in the late recovery period. Measures of axonal excitability were relatively stable at rest but less so after sustained activity. The coefficient of variation (CoV for threshold current increase was higher after activity (CoV 0.54, p<0.05 whereas changes in voluntary (CoV 0.12 and evoked twitch (CoV 0.15 force were relatively stable. These results demonstrate that activity-dependent changes in motor axon excitability are unlikely to contribute to concomitant changes in the muscle after sustained activity in healthy people. The variability in axonal excitability after sustained activity

  2. Microparticles Produced by the Hydrogel Template Method for Sustained Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Sturek, Michael; Park, Kinam

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric microparticles have been used widely for sustained drug delivery. Current methods of microparticle production can be improved by making homogeneous particles in size and shape, increasing the drug loading, and controlling the initial burst release. In the current study, the hydrogel template method was used to produce homogeneous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles and to examine formulation and process-related parameters. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was used to make hydrogel templates. The parameters examined include PVA molecular weight, type of PLGA (as characterized by lactide content, inherent viscosity), polymer concentration, drug concentration and composition of solvent system. Three model compounds studied were risperidone, methylprednisolone acetate and paclitaxel. The ability of the hydrogel template method to produce microparticles with good conformity to template was dependent on molecular weight of PVA and viscosity of the PLGA solution. Drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were found to be influenced by PLGA lactide content, polymer concentration and composition of the solvent system. The drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were 28.7% and 82% for risperidone, 31.5% and 90% for methylprednisolone acetate, and 32.2 % and 92 % for paclitaxel, respectively. For all three drugs, release was sustained for weeks, and the in vitro release profile of risperidone was comparable to that of microparticles prepared using the conventional emulsion method. The hydrogel template method provides a new approach of manipulating microparticles. PMID:24333903

  3. Wildlife Conservation in Bornean Timber Concessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Meijaard

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on an extensive review of the literature, and broad consultation with experts, we have assessed the sensitivity of Bornean vertebrates to the direct and indirect effects of timber harvest. Well-implemented selective logging has a relatively limited direct impact on wildlife populations: few species appear quite sensitive, some benefit, some decline. However, current management practices in Indonesian Borneo generally cause a decline in wildlife populations. Guidelines for sustainable forest management are primarily focused on trees, with few specific recommendations on how to sustainably manage wildlife populations in timber concessions. Based on our findings, we provide extensive wildlife management guidelines, pointing out the importance of maintaining understory vegetation and large trees for fruit, seed, dead wood, and tree hollow production, limiting canopy gaps, and reducing hunting and wildlife trade in concessions. In addition, we provide specific management advice on high priority species of Bornean vertebrates.

  4. Methoxetamine produces rapid and sustained antidepressant effects probably via glutamatergic and serotonergic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botanas, Chrislean Jun; Bryan de la Peña, June; Custodio, Raly James; Joy Dela Peña, Irene; Kim, Mikyung; Woo, Taeseon; Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Hye In; Chang Cho, Min; Lee, Yong Sup; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2017-11-01

    Depression afflicts around 16% of the world's population, making it one of the leading causes of disease burden worldwide. Despite a number of antidepressants available today, the delayed onset time and low remission rate of these treatments are still a major challenge. The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine has shown to produce rapid and sustained antidepressant effects and has paved the way for a new generation of glutamate-based antidepressants. Methoxetamine (MXE) is a ketamine analogue that acts as an NMDA receptor antagonist and a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. However, no studies have evaluated the antidepressant effects of MXE. Here, we assessed whether MXE produces antidepressant effects and explored possible mechanisms underlying its effects. Mice were treated with MXE (2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg) and their behavior was evaluated 30 min and 24 h later in an array of behavioral experiments used for screening antidepressant drugs. A separate group of mice were treated with NBQX, an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist, or ketanserin, a 5HT2 receptor antagonist, before MXE (5 mg/kg) administration in the forced swimming test (FST). We also investigated the effect of MXE on glutamatergic- and serotonergic-related genes in the mouse hippocampus using quantitative real-time PCR. MXE produced antidepressant effects 30 min after treatment that persisted for 24 h. Both NBQX and ketanserin blocked the antidepressant effects of MXE in the FST. MXE also altered hippocampal glutamatergic- and serotonergic gene expressions. These results suggest that MXE has rapid and sustained antidepressant effects, possibly mediated by the glutamatergic and serotonergic system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Agrifood systems and the microbial safety of fresh produce: Trade-offs in the wake of increased sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-The, Christophe; Bardin, Marc; Berard, Annette; Berge, Odile; Brillard, Julien; Broussolle, Véronique; Carlin, Frédéric; Renault, Pierre; Tchamitchian, Marc; Morris, Cindy E

    2016-08-15

    Fresh produce has been a growing cause of food borne outbreaks world-wide prompting the need for safer production practices. Yet fresh produce agrifood systems are diverse and under constraints for more sustainability. We analyze how measures taken to guarantee safety interact with other objectives for sustainability, in light of the diversity of fresh produce agrifood systems. The review is based on the publications at the interface between fresh produce safety and sustainability, with sustainability defined by low environmental impacts, food and nutrition security and healthy life. The paths for more sustainable fresh produce are diverse. They include an increased use of ecosystem services to e.g. favor predators of pests, or to reduce impact of floods, to reduce soil erosion, or to purify run-off waters. In contrast, they also include production systems isolated from the environment. From a socio-economical view, sustainability may imply maintaining small tenures with a higher risk of pathogen contamination. We analyzed the consequences for produce safety by focusing on risks of contamination by water, soil, environment and live stocks. Climate change may increase the constraints and recent knowledge on interactions between produce and human pathogens may bring new solutions. Existing technologies may suffice to resolve some conflicts between ensuring safety of fresh produce and moving towards more sustainability. However, socio-economic constraints of some agri-food systems may prevent their implementation. In addition, current strategies to preserve produce safety are not adapted to systems relying on ecological principles and knowledge is lacking to develop the new risk management approaches that would be needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Timber resources of southwest Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett

    1979-01-01

    This report presents statistics from a 1973 inventory of timber resources of Douglas County and from a 1974 inventory of timber resources of Coos, Curry, Jackson, and Josephine Counties, Oregon. Tables presented are of forest area and of timber volume, growth, and mortality.

  7. A More Sustainable Way for Producing RC Sandwich Panels On-Site and in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Graziani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to assess if traditionally used welded connectors for joining the two skins of reinforced concrete (RC sandwich panels, used as structural walls and horizontal structural elements, can be substituted with bent ones. In this way, the scope of the effort is to reduce drastically the energy required during manufacturing, thus having a much more sustainable building product. Wire mesh on site production, in fact, requires a large amount of energy for the welding process, as stated by several Environmental Product Declaration (EPD. In addition, the production of sandwich panels with bent connectors requires a low level of automation and no qualified labor allowing the diffusion in developing countries. The procedures used to execute the work were both experimental and numerical. Structural performances were examined by testing full-scale sandwich panels under (axial and eccentric compression and flexural loads. Additionally, a Finite Element (FE study was developed to investigate and to optimize the dimension of welded mesh and the number of connectors. The major findings show that it is possible to substitute welded connectors with bent ones without compromising the structural performance of the tested RC sandwich panels, thus having a more sustainable way for producing these last ones.

  8. Round timbers and ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Wolfe

    1999-01-01

    Round timbers and ties represent some of the most efficient uses of our forest resources. They require a minimum of processing between harvesting the tree and marketing the structural commodity. Poles and piles are debarked or peeled, seasoned, and often treated with preservative prior to use as structural members. Construction logs are usually shaped to facilitate...

  9. Timber Production and Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Brian C. Murray

    2003-01-01

    Timber production has been the foundation of active forest management for over a century. The science and economics of forest management were developed 1.50 years ago, but for years, the focus was on activity at the stand level, with very little attention to market phenomena such as price behavior, demand factors, substitution, and market structure. That has changed as...

  10. Growing Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Evers, Henrik Leander; Stasiuk, David

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary design of timber structures has to answer questions concerning structural stability, production impact and energy implications in ever earlier stages. The interrelation of these levels creates a complexity that is difficult to resolve through contemporary linear parametric...... to integrate the behaviour of networked systems into structures made from wooden material....

  11. 1975 Washington timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1977-01-01

    In 1975, the Washington timber harvest declined for the 2d year to 6.2 billion board feet, 10 percent below 1974, and the lowest level in 8 years. The decrease, which occurred on almost all ownerships, amounted to 561 million board feet in western Washington and 130 million board feet in eastern Washington.

  12. 1974 Washington timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1976-01-01

    The 1974 timber harvest of 6.88 billion board feet declined 933 million board feet (11.9 percent) below the record 1973 harvest. Decreases occurred in almost all owner groups. In western Washington the decline was 856 million board feet (13.0 percent). In eastern Washington the decline was 76 million board feet (6.3 percent).

  13. Service life assessment of timber highway bridges in USA climate zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Brian K. Brashaw; Thomas G. Williamson; P. David Jones; Matthew S. Smith; Travis K. Hosteng; David L. Strahl; Lola E. Coombe; V.J. Gopu

    2014-01-01

    As engineers begin to estimate life-cycle costs and sustainable design approaches for timber bridges, there is a need for more reliable data about their durability and expected service life. This paper summarizes a comprehensive effort to assess the current condition of more than one hundred timber highway bridge superstructures throughout the United States. This...

  14. Psychosocial and demographic variables associated with consumer intention to purchase sustainably produced foods as defined by the Midwest Food Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ramona; Smith, Chery

    2002-01-01

    To examine psychosocial and demographic variables associated with consumer intention to purchase sustainably produced foods using an expanded Theory of Planned Behavior. Consumers were approached at the store entrance and asked to complete a self-administered survey. Three metropolitan Minnesota grocery stores. Participants (n = 550) were adults who shopped at the store: the majority were white, female, and highly educated and earned >or= 50,000 dollars/year. Participation rates averaged 62%. The major domain investigated was consumer support for sustainably produced foods. Demographics, beliefs, attitudes, subjective norm, and self-identity and perceived behavioral control were evaluated as predictors of intention to purchase them. Descriptive statistics, independent t tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson product moment correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression analyses (P Consumers were supportive of sustainably produced foods but not highly confident in their ability to purchase them. Independent predictors of intention to purchase them included attitudes, beliefs, perceived behavioral control, subjective norm, past buying behavior, and marital status. Beliefs, attitudes, and confidence level may influence intention to purchase sustainably produced foods. Nutrition educators could increase consumers' awareness of sustainably produced foods by understanding their beliefs, attitudes, and confidence levels.

  15. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibo; Singh, Vijay; Qureshi, Nasib

    2015-01-01

    Waste is currently a major problem in the world, both in the developing and the developed countries. Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. This study investigated using food waste to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initial glucose 56.7 g/L) was used to produce 14.2 g/L of ABE with a fermentation productivity and a yield of 0.22 g/L/h and 0.35 g/g, respectively. In a similar fermentation 81 g/L of food waste (containing equivalent glucose of 60.1 g/L) was used as substrate, and the culture produced 18.9 g/L ABE with a high ABE productivity of 0.46 g/L/h and a yield of 0.38 g/g. Fermentation of food waste at higher concentrations (129, 181 and 228 g/L) did not remarkably increase ABE production but resulted in high residual glucose due to the culture butanol inhibition. An integrated vacuum stripping system was designed and applied to recover butanol from the fermentation broth simultaneously to relieve the culture butanol inhibition, thereby allowing the fermentation of food waste at high concentrations. ABE fermentation integrated with vacuum stripping successfully recovered the ABE from the fermentation broth and controlled the ABE concentrations below 10 g/L during fermentation when 129 g/L food waste was used. The ABE productivity with vacuum fermentation was 0.49 g/L/h, which was 109 % higher than the control fermentation (glucose based). More importantly, ABE vacuum recovery and fermentation allowed near-complete utilization of the sugars (~98 %) in the broth. In these studies it was demonstrated that food waste is a superior feedstock for producing butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii. Compared to costly glucose, ABE fermentation of food waste has several advantages including lower feedstock cost, higher productivity, and less residual sugars.

  16. The Value of Timber Inventory Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.E. Borders; W.M. Harrison; M.L. Clutter; B.D. Shiver; R.A. Souter

    2008-01-01

    Timber inventory data is the basis for many monetary transactions related to timber and timberland sale and (or) purchase as well as for development of timber management plans. The value of such data is well known and much appreciated for sale and (or) purchase of standing merchantable timber.  Unfortunatley, the value of timber inventory data for planning...

  17. Environmental sustainability of bioethanol produced from sweet sorghum stem on saline-alkali land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingxin; Pan, Xinxing; Xia, Xunfeng; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental impacts of a bioethanol production system that uses sweet sorghum stem on saline-alkali land as feedstock. The system comprises a plant cultivation unit, a feedstock transport unit, and a bioethanol conversion unit, with 1000L of bioethanol as a functional unit. The net energy ratio is 3.84, and the net energy gain is 17.21MJ/L. Agrochemical production consumes 76.58% of the life cycle fossil energy. The category with the most significant impact on the environment is eutrophication, followed by acidification, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, human toxicity, and global warming. Allocation method, waste recycling approach, and soil salinity significantly influence the results. Using vinasse to produce pellet fuel for steam generation significantly improves energy efficiency and decreases negative environmental impacts. Promoting reasonable management practices to alleviate saline stress and increasing agrochemical utilization efficiency can further improve environmental sustainability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Simulating Harvest Schedule for Timber Management and Multipurpose Management in Teak Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatang Tiryana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable management of teak plantations in Java requires an improvement of the existing yield regulation method to optimize multiple benefits of the plantations at risk of stand destruction. This study was therefore aimed to formulate an alternative harvest scheduling model that integrates risk of stand destruction for supporting multipurpose management of teak plantations. The proposed model used a state-space planning model to simulate the dynamic of plantations due to timber harvesting and stand destruction, and then sought optimal solutions for 2 management scenarios, i.e. timber management that optimized total harvest volume and multipurpose management that optimized net present value (NPV while increasing carbon stocks. Using a case study on a typical teak plantation, this study confirmed that increasing destruction rates reduced harvest volumes, NPV, carbon stocks, and resulted in imbalanced ending age-class structures. Reducing cutting-age limit increased harvest volumes and NPV, but it also reduced carbon stocks of the plantations. Although the multipurpose management generated lower financial benefit, it maintained carbon stocks and produced better ending age-class structures compared to timber management. The proposed harvest scheduling model provides a useful planning tool for managing teak plantations.

  19. The production and consumption of minor timber products in Oregon and Washington, 1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman M. Johnson

    1932-01-01

    A thorough canvass of the producers of minor timber products in Oregon and Washington has brought together or the first time authoritative statistics as to quantities of each currently produced. This information is valuable in gauging the importance of those industries, the trend in production and consumption, their relation to the major timber industries, and their...

  20. WELFARE IMPLICATIONS OF TIMBERLAND OWNERSHIP CHANGES IN THE U.S. TIMBER MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahfuzur Rahman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, many forest product firms in the U.S. either divested their timberlands to timber investment management organizations (TIMOs and conservation organizations or converted their corporate structures from C corporations to real estate investment trusts (REITs. All landowners sold smaller timberland tracts for nonforestry uses. Reduced timber supplies from conservation organizations and timberland loss to other nonforestry uses have consequences on producer and consumer surpluses in the U.S. timber markets. Equilibrium displacement model has been employed to evaluate the welfare changes in U.S. timber markets attributed to timberland ownership changes. Net reduction of timber supply contributed to the reduction of social surplus by $43 million in 2006. Compared to the $33 billion plus U.S. timber markets, this welfare reduction was small. Overall, this article explains the shifts of economic surpluses among producers and net surplus reduction for the society attributed to timberland ownership changes in the United States.

  1. Energetic Constraints Produce Self-sustained Oscillatory Dynamics in Neuronal Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroni, Javier; Taylor, P; Corey, Cassian; Vachnadze, Tengiz; Siegelmann, Hava T

    2017-01-01

    Overview: We model energy constraints in a network of spiking neurons, while exploring general questions of resource limitation on network function abstractly. Background: Metabolic states like dietary ketosis or hypoglycemia have a large impact on brain function and disease outcomes. Glia provide metabolic support for neurons, among other functions. Yet, in computational models of glia-neuron cooperation, there have been no previous attempts to explore the effects of direct realistic energy costs on network activity in spiking neurons. Currently, biologically realistic spiking neural networks assume that membrane potential is the main driving factor for neural spiking, and do not take into consideration energetic costs. Methods: We define local energy pools to constrain a neuron model, termed Spiking Neuron Energy Pool (SNEP), which explicitly incorporates energy limitations. Each neuron requires energy to spike, and resources in the pool regenerate over time. Our simulation displays an easy-to-use GUI, which can be run locally in a web browser, and is freely available. Results: Energy dependence drastically changes behavior of these neural networks, causing emergent oscillations similar to those in networks of biological neurons. We analyze the system via Lotka-Volterra equations, producing several observations: (1) energy can drive self-sustained oscillations, (2) the energetic cost of spiking modulates the degree and type of oscillations, (3) harmonics emerge with frequencies determined by energy parameters, and (4) varying energetic costs have non-linear effects on energy consumption and firing rates. Conclusions: Models of neuron function which attempt biological realism may benefit from including energy constraints. Further, we assert that observed oscillatory effects of energy limitations exist in networks of many kinds, and that these findings generalize to abstract graphs and technological applications.

  2. economic assessment of two selected non-timber forest products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aladex

    restaurants, bakeries, curing tobacco, brick burning and barbecue, to name few. Key Words: Non-timber forest products, ... industrial sector, a large number of prepared-food vendors such as restaurants, vendors of barbecue, bakeries, makers of agidi ... the debate on sustainable development. Fuelwood no doubt provides a ...

  3. Community Based Ecological Monitoring of Non Timber Forest ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community Based Ecological Monitoring of Non Timber Forest Products in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (India). Securing the livelihoods of forest-dependent peoples necessitates good governance and sustainable management of common-pool resources. The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve in the Western Ghats of South India ...

  4. From wood hygromechanical interactions to timber structure longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, Cédric; Gril, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Architects face nowadays the challenge of raising buildings edifices matching functionality of structural design,sustainable raw materials, thrifty energy consumption and aesthetic integration within surrounding environmentinfluenced by human culture and civil engineering heritage considerations. They often specify wood for variousreasons: cost, ecological issues, design versatility, construction facilities, etc. To improve timber structures,material engineers develop ...

  5. Maine timber industries - a periodic assessment of timber output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L., Jr. Nevel; Peter R. Lammert; Richard H. Widmann

    1985-01-01

    This periodic evaluation of statewide industrial timber output is based on a survey of the primary wood manufacturing plants located in Maine in 1981. It contains statistics on industrial timber harvest and plant wood reciepts and on the production and disposition of the manufacturing residues for the year. The 438.7 million ft? (12.4 million m?) of industrial...

  6. GHG sustainability compliance of rapeseed-based biofuels produced in a Danish multi-output biorefinery system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Biofuels are likely to play an increasingly important role in the transportation sector in the coming decades. To ensure the sustainability of the biofuel chain, regulatory criteria and reduction targets for greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions have been defined in different legislative frameworks (e.......g. the European Renewable Energy Directive, RED). The provided calculation methods, however, leave room for interpretation regarding methodological choices, which could significantly affect the resulting emission factors. In this study, GHG reduction factors for a range of biofuels produced in a Danish...... shown to have the same magnitude as the direct emissions, thus indicating that the overall system should be included when assessing biofuel sustainability criteria....

  7. Timber growth, mortality, and change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger C. Conner; Michael T. Thompson

    2009-01-01

    The previous section discussed trends in timber volume. Changes in volume often result from land-use change; that is, land entering or removed from the timber base. On those acres remaining forested, tree growth and mortality are the primary factors for volume change. Annual rates of growth and mortality often differ by species group, ownership, and geographic region....

  8. Probabilistic modeling of timber structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Jochen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2007-01-01

    Publication: www.jcss.ethz.ch; 2001] and of the COST action E24 ‘Reliability of Timber Structures' [COST Action E 24, Reliability of timber structures. Several meetings and Publications, Internet Publication: http://www.km.fgg.uni-lj.si/coste24/coste24.htm; 2005]. The present proposal is based on discussions...

  9. Timber floors strengthened with concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blass, H.J.; Linden, M.L.R. van der; Schlager, M.

    1998-01-01

    Timber-concrete composite (tcc) beams may be used for the renovation of old timber floors. Although these systems are not new (Pokulka, 1997) and form a simple and practical solution, they are not widely adopted. One of the reasons for this is the Jack of uniform design rules. In this research

  10. Timber designers' manual

    CERN Document Server

    Ozelton, E C

    2008-01-01

    This major reference manual covers both overall and detail design of structural timber, including aspects such as shear deflection, creep, dynamic and lateral stability considerations for flexural members.Available for the first time in paperback, the Third Edition was substantially revised to take account of the many changes since the previous edition was published in 1984. It is based on British Standard BS 5268-2: 2002, which brought design concepts closer to European practice and Eurocode 5.Features of the Third Edition include:* information on bolt values including

  11. Computer Vision for Timber Harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate computer vision methods for timber harvesting operations. The background for developing computer vision for timber harvesting is to document origin of timber and to collect qualitative and quantitative parameters concerning the timber for efficient harvest...... segments. The purpose of image segmentation is to make the basis for more advanced computer vision methods like object recognition and classification. Our second method concerns image classification and we present a method where we classify small timber samples to tree species based on Active Appearance...... to the development of the logTracker system the described methods have a general applicability making them useful for many other computer vision problems....

  12. Hydrothermal Conversion in Near-Critical Water – A Sustainable Way of Producing Renewable Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Liquid fuels from biomass will form an essential part of meeting the grand challenges within energy. The need for renewable and sustainable energy sources is triggered by a number of factors; like increase in global energy demand, depletion of conventional resources, climate issues and the desire...

  13. The producer society and the transition towards a biobased society : Institutional innovation for a sustainable future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesch, U.; Sleenhoff, S.; Van der Veen, M.

    2010-01-01

    The biobased economy is a concept proposed by policymakers to accommodate the transition towards a sustainable society. This concept however is not familiar outside of policymaking and some academic circles, while a socio-technical transition supposes the shared commitment of the whole society. The

  14. Wood-based panel plant locations and timber availability in selected U.S. states

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. McKeever; H. N. Spelter

    1998-01-01

    This report lists wood-based panel industry plant locations, production capacities, timber inventories, and wood costs for 24 U.S. states. Industry sectors covered include medium-density fiberboard, particleboard, softwood plywood, and oriented strandboard. Maps of major forest producing states show plant locations and the underlying density of timber stocking by...

  15. Managing national forests of the eastern United States for non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; Robert J. Bush; A.L. Hammett; Philip A. Araman

    2000-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in the economic and ecological potential of non-timber forest products. In the United States, much of this increased interest stems from drastic changes in forest practices and policies in the Pacific Northwest region, a region that produces many non-timber forest products. The forests of the eastern United States...

  16. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Cizmar, D.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper outlines results from working group 3 (WG3) in the EU COST Action E55 – ‘Modelling of the performance of timber structures’. The objectives of the project are related to the three main research activities: the identification and modelling of relevant load and environmental...... exposure scenarios, the improvement of knowledge concerning the behaviour of timber structural elements and the development of a generic framework for the assessment of the life-cycle vulnerability and robustness of timber structures....

  17. Developing management guidelines that balance cattle and timber production with ecological interests in the Black Hills of South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowanski, Kurt M.

    Forested lands contribute to the United States (US) economy by providing livestock and timber production. Livestock grazing of forested lands has been widespread throughout the western US since the settlement era, and currently occurs on 51.4 million hectares (ha) representing 16% of all US grazing land and 22% of all US forested land (Nickerson et al. 2011). While livestock grazing and timber harvest are occurring on a substantial amount of forested land, relationships between management practices, tree stocking, timber production, forage production, livestock grazing, wildlife, aesthetics, and ecological integrity are not well documented. Whether considering timber or cattle, finding a balance between production and resource conservation is a fundamental challenge to agricultural producers, and is often a tradeoff between short term gains and long term sustainability. This dissertation aims to identify livestock and timber management practices that optimize production and are ecologically conservative. Specifically, I focused on three objectives. First, I reviewed the published literature and summarized what is known about best-practices for concurrent management of livestock and timber production in pine forests in the US. I found most studies came from the southeastern and western US where timber and livestock production on the same land unit are common. The relationship between pine cover and forage seemed fairly consistent across the US, and production was optimized when cattle grazed open canopy forests with basal areas between 5 and 14 m2 ha-1 (15-35% tree canopy cover). Second, I developed forest cover maps to estimate forage production in the Black Hills, South Dakota (SD) for the period from 1999 to 2015. I developed a regression model based on Landsat and Ikonos satellite imagery and was able to detect large changes in forest cover over time. I then used these maps in combination with maps of soil type and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) to update

  18. Compatability Determination for Timber Harvesting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a compliance document which pertains to allowing commercial and non-commercial timber harvesting to conserve, restore and rehabilitate forest ecosystems at...

  19. Carbon storage, timber production, and biodiversity: comparing ecosystem services with multi-criteria decision analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, W. Scott; Donovan, Therese; Keeton, William S.; Nunery, Jared S.

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, land managers seek ways to manage forests for multiple ecosystem services and functions, yet considerable challenges exist in comparing disparate services and balancing trade-offs among them. We applied multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and forest simulation models to simultaneously consider three objectives: (1) storing carbon, (2) producing timber and wood products, and (3) sustaining biodiversity. We used the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) applied to 42 northern hardwood sites to simulate forest development over 100 years and to estimate carbon storage and timber production. We estimated biodiversity implications with occupancy models for 51 terrestrial bird species that were linked to FVS outputs. We simulated four alternative management prescriptions that spanned a range of harvesting intensities and forest structure retention. We found that silvicultural approaches emphasizing less frequent harvesting and greater structural retention could be expected to achieve the greatest net carbon storage but also produce less timber. More intensive prescriptions would enhance biodiversity because positive responses of early successional species exceeded negative responses of late successional species within the heavily forested study area. The combinations of weights assigned to objectives had a large influence on which prescriptions were scored as optimal. Overall, we found that a diversity of silvicultural approaches is likely to be preferable to any single approach, emphasizing the need for landscape-scale management to provide a full range of ecosystem goods and services. Our analytical framework that combined MCDA with forest simulation modeling was a powerful tool in understanding trade-offs among management objectives and how they can be simultaneously accommodated.

  20. Carbon storage, timber production, and biodiversity: comparing ecosystem services with multi-criteria decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, W Scott; Donovan, Therese M; Keeton, William S; Nunery, Jared S

    2012-07-01

    Increasingly, land managers seek ways to manage forests for multiple ecosystem services and functions, yet considerable challenges exist in comparing disparate services and balancing trade-offs among them. We applied multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and forest simulation models to simultaneously consider three objectives: (1) storing carbon, (2) producing timber and wood products, and (3) sustaining biodiversity. We used the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) applied to 42 northern hardwood sites to simulate forest development over 100 years and to estimate carbon storage and timber production. We estimated biodiversity implications with occupancy models for 51 terrestrial bird species that were linked to FVS outputs. We simulated four alternative management prescriptions that spanned a range of harvesting intensities and forest structure retention. We found that silvicultural approaches emphasizing less frequent harvesting and greater structural retention could be expected to achieve the greatest net carbon storage but also produce less timber. More intensive prescriptions would enhance biodiversity because positive responses of early successional species exceeded negative responses of late successional species within the heavily forested study area. The combinations of weights assigned to objectives had a large influence on which prescriptions were scored as optimal. Overall, we found that a diversity of silvicultural approaches is likely to be preferable to any single approach, emphasizing the need for landscape-scale management to provide a full range of ecosystem goods and services. Our analytical framework that combined MCDA with forest simulation modeling was a powerful tool in understanding trade-offs among management objectives and how they can be simultaneously accommodated.

  1. Benthic primary producers are key to sustain the Wadden Sea food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christianen, M.J.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Holthuijsen, S.J.; Jouta, J.; Compton, T.J.; Heide, van der T.; Piersma, T.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Veer, van der H.W.; Schouten, S.; Olff, H.

    2017-01-01

    Coastal food webs can be supported by local benthic or pelagic primary producers and by the import of organic matter. Distinguishing between these energy sources is essential for our understanding of ecosystem functioning. However, the relative contribution of these components to the food web at the

  2. Producing energy from cardboard factory waste, Finding sustainable solutions for handling non-recyclable waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Thijs

    2008-01-01

    Eska Graphic Board is a cardboard factory which requires large amounts of energy in the form of heat for the production of graphical cardboard. Currently, Eska has on-site gas powered boilers to produce heat and a combined-heat-and-power (CHP) system to p

  3. Producing bulbs and perennials : sustainable control of diseases, pests and weeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de M.

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands every year flower bulbs and perennials are produced representing a value of € 500 m (flower bulbs) and of € 65 m (perennials, 2004). The growers are faced with several threatening pests and diseases during the production. They usually deal with these problems by using pesticides.

  4. Technology transfer to US oil producers: A policy tool to sustain or increase oil production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, W. T.

    1990-03-01

    The Department of Energy provided the Interstate Oil Compact Commission with a grant to identify and evaluate existing technology transfer channels to operators, to devise and test improvements or new technology transfer channels and to make recommendations as to how the Department of Energy's oil and gas technology transfer methods could be improved. The IOCC conducted this effort in a series of four tasks: a structural analysis to characterize the oil producing industry according to operator production size class, geographic location, awareness and use of reservoir management technologies, and strategies for adding reserves and replacing produced reserves; targeted interviews conducted with some 300 oil and gas industry participants to identify current technology transfer channels and their relative usefulness for various classes of industry participants; a design and testing phase, in which the IOCC critiqued the current technology transfer structure, based on results of the structural analysis and targeted interviews, and identified several strategies for improvement; and an evaluation of existing state outreach programs to determine whether they might provide a model for development of additional outreach programs in other producing states.

  5. An Ethnobotanical Survey on Fuel Wood and Timber plant Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to explore the fuel wood species and timber producing species of Kaghan valleys, Pakistan. Consumption pattern and impact on the forest resources were also taken into consideration. A questionnaire was used as a survey instrument to obtain desired data. For this study, 10 villages were randomly ...

  6. Projecting southern timber supply for multiple products by subregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Abt; Frederick W. Cubbage; Karen L. Abt

    2009-01-01

    While timber supply modeling has been of importance in the wood-producing regions of the United States for decades, it is only more recently that the technology and data have allowed disaggregation of supply and demand to substate regions, including product specific breakdowns and endogenous land use and plantation changes. Using southwide data and an economic supply...

  7. Designing and establishing a fine hardwood timber plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. McKenna; Lenny D. Farlee

    2013-01-01

    Today, new tools and lessons learned from established plantations of black walnut and other fine hardwoods can provide landowners with guidelines to design and establish successful plantations to produce quality timber for the future. From earlier plantations now maturing, we can recognize design features critical during establishment. Current production practices...

  8. Factors That Determine The Uses Of Some Timber Species In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This indicates that sawmills are the major sources of producing various timber species needed for wood works in the study area. The result revealed ... Afzelia africana etc. .This paper recommended that research activities should be embarked upon to increase the quality of wood products so as to increase future utilization.

  9. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Canter, Christina E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartley, Damon S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO also performs a supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA). This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. The 2017 design case for feedstock logistics demonstrated a delivered feedstock cost of $80 per dry U.S. short ton by the year 2017 (INL, 2014). The 2022 design case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015), uses the feedstock 2017 design case blend of biomass feedstocks consisting of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and construction and demolition waste (C&D) with performance properties consistent with a sole woody feedstock type (e.g., pine or poplar). The HOG SCSA case considers the 2017 feedstock design case (the blend) as well as individual feedstock cases separately as alternative scenarios when the feedstock blend ratio varies as a result of a change in feedstock availability. These scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results because of distinctive requirements for energy and chemical inputs for the production and logistics of different components of the blend feedstocks.

  10. Intermediate pyrolysis of biomass energy pellets for producing sustainable liquid, gaseous and solid fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Brammer, J G; Mahmood, A S N; Hornung, A

    2014-10-01

    This work describes the use of intermediate pyrolysis system to produce liquid, gaseous and solid fuels from pelletised wood and barley straw feedstock. Experiments were conducted in a pilot-scale system and all products were collected and analysed. The liquid products were separated into an aqueous phase and an organic phase (pyrolysis oil) under gravity. The oil yields were 34.1 wt.% and 12.0 wt.% for wood and barley straw, respectively. Analysis found that both oils were rich in heterocyclic and phenolic compounds and have heating values over 24 MJ/kg. The yields of char for both feedstocks were found to be about 30 wt.%, with heating values similar to that of typical sub-bituminous class coal. Gas yields were calculated to be approximately 20 wt.%. Studies showed that both gases had heating values similar to that of downdraft gasification producer gas. Analysis on product energy yields indicated the process efficiency was about 75%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adom, Felix K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hartley, Damon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Searcy, Erin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jones, Sue [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technology Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO and its national laboratory teams conduct in-depth techno-economic assessments (TEA) of technologies to produce biofuels. These assessments evaluate feedstock production, logistics of transporting the feedstock, and conversion of the feedstock to biofuel. There are two general types of TEAs. A design case is a TEA that outlines a target case for a particular biofuel pathway. It enables identification of data gaps and research and development needs, and provides goals and targets against which technology progress is assessed. On the other hand, a state of technology (SOT) analysis assesses progress within and across relevant technology areas based on actual experimental results relative to technical targets and cost goals from design cases, and includes technical, economic, and environmental criteria as available.

  12. Timber resource statistics for eastern Washington, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil McKay; Patricia M. Bassett; Colin D. MacLean

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1990-91 timber resource inventory of Washington east of the crest of the Cascade Range. The inventory was conducted on all private and public lands except National Forests. Timber resource statistics from National Forest inventories also are presented. Detailed tables provide estimates of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and...

  13. Biodiversity Conservation in Southeast Asian Timber Concessions: a Critical Evaluation of Policy Mechanisms and Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rona A. Dennis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Tropical deforestation is leading to a loss of economically productive timber concessions, as well as areas with important environmental or socio-cultural values. To counteract this threat in Southeast Asia, sustainable forest management (SFM practices are becoming increasingly important. We assess the tools and guidelines that have been developed to promote SFM and the progress that has been made in Southeast Asia toward better logging practices. We specifically focus on practices relevant to biodiversity issues. Various regional or national mechanisms now inform governments and the timber industry about methods to reduce the impact of production forestry on wildlife and the forest environment. However, so many guidelines have been produced that it has become difficult to judge which ones are most relevant. In addition, most guidelines are phrased in general terms and lack specific recommendations targeted to local conditions. These might be reasons for the generally slow adoption of SFM practices in the region, with only a few countries having incorporated the guidelines into national legislation. Malaysia, Indonesia, and Laos are among the frontrunners in this process. Overall there is progress, especially in the application of certification programs, the planning and management of high conservation value forests, the regulation and control of hunting, and silvicultural management. To reduce further forest loss, there is a need to accelerate the implementation of good forest management practices. We recommend specific roles for governments, the forestry industry, and nongovernmental organizations in further promoting the implementation of SFM practices for biodiversity conservation.

  14. Chronic depression of hypothalamic paraventricular neuronal activity produces sustained hypotension in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldes, Vera; Gonçalves-Rosa, Nataniel; Liu, Beihui; Paton, Julian F R; Rocha, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the sympathetic nervous system are responsible for the initiation, development and maintenance of hypertension. An important central sympathoexcitatory region is the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, which may become more active in hypertensive conditions, as shown in acute studies previously. Our objective was to depress PVN neuronal activity chronically by the overexpression of an inwardly rectifying potassium channel (hKir2.1), while evaluating the consequences on blood pressure (BP) and its reflex regulation. In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar rats (WKY) lentiviral vectors (LVV-hKir2.1; LV-TREtight-Kir-cIRES-GFP5 4 × 10(9) IU and LV-Syn-Eff-G4BS-Syn-Tetoff 6.2 × 10(9) IU in a ratio 1:4) were stereotaxically microinjected bilaterally into the PVN. Sham-treated SHRs and WKY received bilateral PVN microinjections of LVV-eGFP (LV-Syn-Eff-G4BS-Syn-Tetoff 6.2 × 10(9) IU and LV-TREtight-GFP 5.7 × 10(9) IU in a ratio 1:4). Blood pressure was monitored continuously by radio-telemetry and evaluated over 75 days. Baroreflex gain was evaluated using phenylephrine (25 μg ml(-1), i.v.), whereas lobeline (25 μg ml(-1), i.v.) was used to stimulate peripheral chemoreceptors. In SHRs but not normotensive WKY rats, LVV-hKir2.1 expression in the PVN produced time-dependent and significant decreases in systolic (from 158 ± 3 to 132 ± 6 mmHg; P peripheral chemoreflex depressed after PVN microinjection of LVV-hKir2.1. We conclude that the PVN plays a major role in long-term control of BP and sympathetic nervous system activity in SHRs. This is associated with reductions in both peripheral chemosensitivity and respiratory-induced sympathetic modulation and an improvement in baroreflex sensitivity. Our results support the PVN as a powerful site to control BP in neurogenic hypertension.

  15. Timber resources and the timber economy of Okanogan County, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles L. Bolsinger

    1975-01-01

    In 1972, forest industries in Okanogan County, Washington, accounted for 23 percent of total employment and 29 percent of wages paid. Total forest industrial employment has increased since 1953 but represents a smaller proportion of total employment in the county due to the increase in other industries, mainly construction and trade. Timber harvest has nearly doubled...

  16. Is voluntary certification of tropical agricultural commodities achieving sustainability goals for small-scale producers? A review of the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFries, Ruth S.; Fanzo, Jessica; Mondal, Pinki; Remans, Roseline; Wood, Stephen A.

    2017-03-01

    Over the last several decades, voluntary certification programs have become a key approach to promote sustainable supply chains for agricultural commodities. These programs provide premiums and other benefits to producers for adhering to environmental and labor practices established by the certifying entities. Following the principles of Cochrane Reviews used in health sciences, we assess evidence to evaluate whether voluntary certification of tropical agricultural commodities (bananas, cocoa, coffee, oil palm, and tea) has achieved environmental benefits and improved economic and social outcomes for small-scale producers at the level of the farm household. We reviewed over 2600 papers in the peer-review literature and identified 24 cases of unique combinations of study area, certification program, and commodity in 16 papers that rigorously analyzed differences between treatment (certified households) and control groups (uncertified households) for a wide range of response variables. Based on analysis of 347 response variables reported in these papers, we conclude that certification is associated on average with positive outcomes for 34% of response variables, no significant difference for 58% of variables, and negative outcomes for 8% of variables. No significant differences were observed for different categories of responses (environmental, economic and social) or for different commodities (banana, coffee and tea), except negative outcomes were significantly less for environmental than other outcome categories (p = 0.01). Most cases (20 out of 24) investigated coffee certification and response variables were inconsistent across cases, indicating the paucity of studies to conduct a conclusive meta-analysis. The somewhat positive results indicate that voluntary certification programs can sometimes play a role in meeting sustainable development goals and do not support the view that such programs are merely greenwashing. However, results also indicate that

  17. Understanding Loss Deductions for Timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Greene; Michael Jacobson

    1998-01-01

    Forestland owners whose timber has been destroyed may be eligible to take a deduction for the loss on their federal income tax. The loss must be physical in nature and caused by an identifiable event or combination of events that has run its course. There are two types of losses from natural events. Casualty losses are sudden, unexpected, and unusual - as from a fire...

  18. Timber-concrete composite beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Linden, M.L.R.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper an easy-to-use design model for timber-concrete composite beams is discussed. The model is applicable for computer simulations as well as for hand calculations. A research programme was started in 1992 in co-operation with the University of Karlsruhe, to study the loadbearing

  19. probabilistic evaluation of eur robabilistic evaluation of eur a timber

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    melted in fire, timber can still take a large load [10]. Timber has a high and predictable performance in because timber chars at a slow and known rate [5 one important aspect of performance, namely. 802-358-3817. IC EVALUATION OF EUROCODE 5 FIRE DESIGN CRITER. A TIMBER PORTAL FRAME. A TIMBER PORTAL ...

  20. To sustainability in forestry: the Ukraine's case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijnik, M.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: forestry; sustainable development; economy-in-transition; the Ukraine; institutions; multi-functional forest use; timber rotation; afforestation programme; soil erosion; climate change; carbon sequestration; cost-benefit analysis;

  1. The "let-it-grow" treatment for timber -- Is it economically worthwhile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Worley; David P. Worley

    1970-01-01

    One way to treay a timber stand is to ignore it--simply let it grow. This treatment will in time produce usable timber. And this is how many small woodlands in the Northeast are treated today. The question is: How well does this treatment work in returning a profit to the owner? As a guide for forest managers, the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station has made an...

  2. Timber value—a matter of choice: a study of how end use assumptions affect timber values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Beuter

    1971-01-01

    The relationship between estimated timber values and actual timber prices is discussed. Timber values are related to how, where, and when the timber is used. An analysis demonstrates the relative values of a typical Douglas-fir stand under assumptions about timber use.

  3. System Reliability of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2010-01-01

    For reduction of the risk of collapse in the event of loss of structural element(s), a structural engineer may take necessary steps to design a collapse-resistant structure that is insensitive to accidental circumstances e.g. by incorporating characteristics like redundancy, ties, ductility, key...... elements, alternate load path(s) etc. in the structural design. In general these characteristics can have a positive influence on system reliability of a structure however, in Eurocodes ductility is only awarded for concrete and steel structures but not for timber structures. It is well......-know that structural systems can redistribute internal forces due to ductility of a connection, i.e. some additional loads can be carried by the structure. The same effect is also possible for reinforced concrete structures and structures of steel. However, for timber structures codes do not award that ductility...

  4. Forests, timber and rural livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Pilegaard; Pouliot, Mariève; Marfo, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Based on detailed income data of 478 rural households, the nexus between forest, trees and rural livelihoods in Ghana is investigated and applied to assess implications of the Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) between the EU and Ghana on illegal logging. It is found that, after crops...... to its illegal nature. Yet, when the likely incomes from illegal timber harvesting as estimated by other studies are compared with this study’s comprehensive livelihood data, it is obvious that an imagined full implementation of the VPA would have limited impact on the majority of rural households...... and benefits to trees on farm and fallow land to those occupying and cultivating the land. Such efforts would provide incentive for timber production and thus enhance rural livelihoods, while combatting illegal logging, deforestation and forest degradation....

  5. Forest biomass sustainability and availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.E. Skog; John Stanturf

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides a synthesis of information on potential supply of forest biomass given needs for sustainable development of forestry. Sustainability includes maintenance of water supply, biodiversity, and carbon storage as well as timber products, community development, and recreation. Biomass removals can reduce fire hazard and insect and disease attack, restore...

  6. Innovative Use and Characterization of Polymers for Timber-Related Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Antony; Ibell, Tim; Evernden, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Timber gridshells have become a very popular, efficient, sustainable and beautiful structural application of timber. However, given the slender laths involved in this form of construction, there is concern over the durability of timber for this purpose, and Glass FRP (GFRP) laths have been proposed as a possible substitution. This paper considers this possibility. It goes on to look at the possible use of Basalt FRP (BFRP) for the same purpose, from the perspective of its creep characteristics. It is shown that the use of GFRP gridshells is a viable form of construction, and that enhanced durability characteristics of BFRP could lead to their adoption for gridshells, given that the creep characteristics of basalt fibres presented here are comparable to those of glass fibres. An altogether different form of timber construction is that of joist-and-floorboard. In the UK, there are thousands of historic buildings which use this floor construction, and a sizeable proportion of this building stock now requires upgrade, strengthening and/or stiffening to allow these buildings to be fit for purpose into the future. This paper goes on to consider the possible use of Carbon FRP (CFRP) to strengthen and stiffen such timber floors. It is shown that such strengthening and stiffening is entirely feasible, offering the potential for greatly enhanced stiffness, in particular. Further, it is shown that mechanical shear connection between CFRP and timber is best conducted using perpendicular-positioned screws, rather than raked screws.

  7. Joint production of timber, carbon, and wildlife habitat in the Canadian boreal plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarney, G.R.; Adamowicz, W.L. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Rural Economy; Armstrong, G.W. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources

    2008-06-15

    The relationships between forest carbon management, sustained timber yield, and the maintenance of wildlife habitats in the Canadian Boreal plain region were investigated. The aim of the study was to provide an estimation of the costs and challenges faced by forest managers in Canada's Boreal mixedwood region. The study used a model that previously analyzed the joint production of timber supplies and wildlife habitats using a natural disturbance model. A carbon budget model was used to separate biomass and dead organic matter carbon pools for individual forest cover types. An extensive marginal cost analysis of the production trade-offs between timber, carbon, and wildlife habitat was conducted. Results were used to demonstrate the potential for cost thresholds in timber supply and carbon sequestration. Thresholds were linked to switch-points in multiple use and specialized land management practices. Results showed that the optimal allocation of sequestered carbon across forest cover type differed with habitat constraints versus timber and carbon management alone. Results indicated that national policy discussions concerning carbon market regulations may wish to consider the potential for thresholds in production cost. Benefits of the management approach were influenced by ecological parameters, harvest flow regulations, and financial incentives for timber supply. 54 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  8. Innovative Use and Characterization of Polymers for Timber-Related Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Evernden

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Timber gridshells have become a very popular, efficient, sustainable and beautiful structural application of timber. However, given the slender laths involved in this form of construction, there is concern over the durability of timber for this purpose, and Glass FRP (GFRP laths have been proposed as a possible substitution. This paper considers this possibility. It goes on to look at the possible use of Basalt FRP (BFRP for the same purpose, from the perspective of its creep characteristics. It is shown that the use of GFRP gridshells is a viable form of construction, and that enhanced durability characteristics of BFRP could lead to their adoption for gridshells, given that the creep characteristics of basalt fibres presented here are comparable to those of glass fibres. An altogether different form of timber construction is that of joist-and-floorboard. In the UK, there are thousands of historic buildings which use this floor construction, and a sizeable proportion of this building stock now requires upgrade, strengthening and/or stiffening to allow these buildings to be fit for purpose into the future. This paper goes on to consider the possible use of Carbon FRP (CFRP to strengthen and stiffen such timber floors. It is shown that such strengthening and stiffening is entirely feasible, offering the potential for greatly enhanced stiffness, in particular. Further, it is shown that mechanical shear connection between CFRP and timber is best conducted using perpendicular-positioned screws, rather than raked screws.

  9. Effective lateral resistance of timber-plywood-timber joints connected with nails

    OpenAIRE

    Wanyama, Okumu Gordon; Sawata, Kei; Hirai, Takuro; Koizumi, Akio; Sasaki, Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    In this study, an experimental study was conducted on the nailed timber-plywood-timber joints extended from the standard wall-floor joints of wooden light frame constructions, where the bottom plates of shear walls are nailed to the floors consisting of joists and floor sheathings nailed to them. The principal conclusions are as follows: The allowable lateral resistance of the nailed timber-plywood-timber joints can roundly be estimated by neglecting the plywood panels if their densities are ...

  10. The timber resources of Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal P. Kingsley; Joseph E. Barnard

    1968-01-01

    Under the authority of the McSweeney-McNary Forest Research Act of May 22, 1928, and subsequent amendments, the Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, conducts a series of continuing forest surveys of all states to provide up-to-date information about the forest resources of the Nation. A resurvey of the timber resources in Vermont was made in 1965 and 1966...

  11. Beyond reaping the first harvest: management objectives for timber production in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarin, Daniel J; Schulze, Mark D; Vidal, Edson; Lentini, Marco

    2007-08-01

    Millions of hectares of future timber concessions are slated to be implemented within large public forests under the forest law passed in 2006 by the Brazilian Congress. Additional millions of hectares of large, privately owned forests and smaller areas of community forests are certified as well managed by the Forest Stewardship Council, based on certification standards that will be reviewed in 2007. Forest size and ownership are two key factors that influence management objectives and the capacity of forest managers to achieve them. Current best ecological practices for timber production from Brazil's native Amazon forests are limited to reduced-impact logging (RIL) systems that minimize the environmental impacts of harvest operations and that obey legal restrictions regarding minimum diameters, rare species, retention of seed trees, maximum logging intensity, preservation of riparian buffers, fire protection, and wildlife conservation. Compared with conventional, predatory harvesting that constitutes >90% of the region's timber production, RIL dramatically reduces logging damage and helps maintain forest cover and the presence of rare tree species, but current RIL guidelines do not assure that the volume of timber removed can be sustained in future harvests. We believe it is counterproductive to expect smallholders to subscribe to additional harvest limitations beyond RIL, that larger private forested landholdings managed for timber production should be sustainable with respect to the total volume of timber harvested per unit area per cutting cycle, and that large public forests should sustain volume production of individual harvested species. These additional requirements would improve the ecological sustainability of forest management and help create a stable forest-based sector of the region's economy, but would involve costs associated with lengthened cutting cycles, reduced harvest intensities, and/or postharvest silviculture to promote adequate growth and

  12. Measuring the sustain ability of the timber industry in Europe. A multi criteria approach based on the aggregation of indicators; La medicion de la sostenibilidad de la madera en Europa. Un enfoque multicriterio basado en la agregacion de indicadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voces, R.; Diaz, L.; Romero, C.

    2009-07-01

    Sustain ability is a multidimensional concept in continuous evolution. However, it is widely accepted the suitability of using several indicators of different nature to characterise and to quantify this concept. Within this orientation, in this paper the sustain ability of the wood industry in a significant number of European countries is analysed. To achieve this purpose, a set of economic, environmental and social indicators are defined for the years 2003 and 2004. With the help of a binary goal programming model, this indicators are aggregated into a synthetic index that measures the overall sustain ability. In this way, it is obtained a ranking in terms of sustain ability of the wood products industry in the European countries studied. (Author) 19 refs.

  13. The Timber Resource Inventory Model (TRIM): a projection model for timber supply and policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.L. Tedder; R.N. La Mont; J.C. Kincaid

    1987-01-01

    TRIM (Timber Resource Inventory Model) is a yield table projection system developed for timber supply projections and policy analysis. TRIM simulates timber growth, inventories, management and area changes, and removals over the projection period. Programs in the TRIM system, card-by-card descriptions of required inputs, table formats, and sample results are presented...

  14. Selection of Nepalese Timber for Small Wind Turbine Blade Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, R.; Acharya, Parash; Freere, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the selection of Nepalese timber for development of small wind turbine blades on the basis of locally based low cost timbers, along with the selection of coatings to protect the timber from weathering. The selection criterion of timber includes timber mechanical properties......, weathering effect on coatings, price, growth and availability of the timber. Mechanical properties such as Young's modulus of elasticity, breaking strength, breaking strain and Brinell's hardness of selected Nepalese timbers are presented. The effects of weathering on timbers without coating...

  15. Valorization of non-timber forest products in Mayo- Rey (North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-12-31

    Dec 31, 2016 ... This study was undertaken with a view to contribute to the knowledge gap in the role plants play on environmental sustainability and the contribution of. NTFPs as food and drinks as well as alleviating rural poverty. The inventory of non-timber forest products in. Mayo-Rey will develop appropriate strategies ...

  16. Can we store carbon and have our timber and habitat too?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea Watts; Thomas Spies; Jeffrey Kline; Warren Cohen

    2017-01-01

    With the passage of the Multiple Use Sustained Yield Act of 1960, the U.S. Forest Service has managed its 193 million acres of forest and grassland for multiple uses, including timber, watersheds, and wildlife. Using today’s terminology, some of these purposes are considered ecosystem services, which encompass a breadth of benefits provided by forests, including their...

  17. Assessing the utility of ALOS PALSAR and SPOT 4 to predict timber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In commercial forestry, regular terrestrial enumerations of the growing stock are required for the valuation, sustainable management and planning of current and future timber supplies. In this study we examined whether the combination of synthetic aperture radar (ALOS PALSAR) and optical satellite (SPOT 4) image data ...

  18. Envisioning Agricultural Sustainability from Field to Plate: Comparing Producer and Consumer Attitudes and Practices toward "Environmentally Friendly" Food and Farming in Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfa, Theresa; Jussaume, Raymond A., Jr.; Winter, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A substantial body of sociological research has examined the relationship between farmers' environmental attitudes and their conservation behaviors, but little research has compared the attitudes of producers and consumers toward the environment with their behaviors or practices in support of sustainable agri-food systems. This paper addresses…

  19. Merging Areas In Timber Mart South Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; John M. Pye

    1999-01-01

    For over twenty years, Timber Mart-South (TMS) has been distributing prices of various wood products from Southern forests. These long-term price series have been a critical resource for research into timber price and supply trends in the southern United States. Such analyses rely on consistent temporal and spatial reporting units, but these units have not always been...

  20. Load capacity of hollowed timber piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a reliable load-rating methodology for timber piles based on the level of documented damage. Louisiana currently has over 4,000 timber bridges in its inventory of over 13,800 bridges. A quarter of these 4,000 tim...

  1. Timber resource statistics for western Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin D. MacLean; Patricia M. Bassett; Glenn. Yeary

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1988-90 timber resource inventory of 19 counties in western Washington: Clallam, Clark, Cowlitz, Grays Harbor, Island, Jefferson, King, Kitsap, Lewis, Mason, Pacific, Pierce, San Juan, Skagit, Skamania, Snohomish, Thurston, Wahkiakum, and Whatcom. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  2. Timber resources of Douglas County, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin D. MacLean

    1976-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1973 timber resource inventory of Douglas County, Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and cut are presented. A discussion of the present resource situation highlights the condition of cutover lands and the opportunities for silvicultural treatment.

  3. Timber resource of Missouri's Southwestern Ozarks, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold J. Ostrom; Jerold T. Hahn

    1974-01-01

    The third timber inventory of Missouri's Southwestern Ozarks Forest Survey Unit shows a substantial decline in the volumes of both growing stock and sawtimber between 1959 and 1972. Commercial forest area also declined substantially during the same period. Presented are highlights and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, and...

  4. Timber resource of Missouri's Prairie, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn; Alexander Vasilevsky

    1975-01-01

    The third timber inventory of Missouri's Prairie Forest Survey Unit shows substantial declines in both growing-stock and sawtimber volumes between 1959 and 1972. Commercial forest area declined by one-fifth. Presents highlights and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, and use in 1972.

  5. Operability and location of Michigan's timber resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark H. Hansen; Jerold T. Hahn

    1987-01-01

    Operability is the ease or difficulty of managing or harvesting timber because of physical conditions in the stand or on the site. Data collected during the 1980 Michigan statewide forest inventory were used to examine operability of the timber resource based on seven operability components.

  6. Operability and location of Wisconsin's timber resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn; Mark H. Hansen

    1989-01-01

    Data collected during the 1983 Wisconsin Statewide forest inventory were used to examine operability of the timber resource based on seven operability components. Operability is the ease or difficulty of managing or harvesting timber because of physical conditions in the stand or on the site.

  7. Optimal control of raw timber production processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan Kolenka

    1978-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the possibility of optimal planning and control of timber harvesting activ-ities with mathematical optimization models. The separate phases of timber harvesting are represented by coordinated models which can be used to select the optimal decision for the execution of any given phase. The models form a system whose components are connected and...

  8. Simplified analysis of timber rivet connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas C. Stahl; Marshall. Begel; Ronald W. Wolfe

    2000-01-01

    Timber rivets, fasteners for glulam and heavy timber construction, have been used in Canada for about thirty years and recently were adopted by the U.S. National Design Specification for Wood Construction (NDS). Rivet connections can exhibit two failure modes, one of which is fundamentally different from those of other dowel fasteners. Failure can occur when a volume...

  9. Species independent strength grading of structural timber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravenshorst, G.J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Timber as a construction material has been used for millennia, but the research field covering the prediction of the strength of structural timber is still in development. Currently, the common conception is that the determination of strength properties has to be determined for every wood species

  10. Timber-concrete composite floor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M.L.R. van der; Blass, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    Timber-concrete composite (tcc) beams may be used for the renovation of old timber floors. Although these systems are a simple and practical solution, they are not widely adopted. One of the reasons for this is the lack of uniform design mies. In this research programme shear tests on four different

  11. Timber rivets in structural composite lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Wolfe; Marshall Begel; Bruce Craig

    2004-01-01

    Timber rivet connections, originally developed for use with glulam construction, may be a viable option for use with structural composite lumber (SCL) products. Tests were conducted on small samples to assess the performance and predictability of timber rivet connections in parallel strand lumber (PSL) and laminated strand lumber (LSL). The test joint configurations...

  12. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    The present paper considers robustness evaluation of a Norwegian sports arena with a structural system of glulam frames. The robustness evaluation is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety of Structures and a probabilistic modelling...... of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). The results show that the requirements for robustness of the structure are highly related to the modelling of the snow load used on the structures when ‘removal of a limited part...... of the structure' is considered....

  13. Collapse Analysis of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    A probabilistic based collapse analysis has been performed for a glulam frame structure supporting the roof over the main court in a Norwegian sports centre. The robustness analysis is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety of Struc......A probabilistic based collapse analysis has been performed for a glulam frame structure supporting the roof over the main court in a Norwegian sports centre. The robustness analysis is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety...... of Structures and a probabilistic modelling of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). Due to the framework in the Danish Code the timber structure has to be evaluated with respect to the following criteria where at least one shall...... be fulfilled: a) demonstrating that those parts of the structure essential for the safety only have little sensitivity with respect to unintentional loads and defects, or b) demonstrating a load case with „removal of a limited part of the structure‟ in order to document that an extensive failure...

  14. Temporal Decay in Timber Species Composition and Value in Amazonian Logging Concessions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa A Richardson

    Full Text Available Throughout human history, slow-renewal biological resource populations have been predictably overexploited, often to the point of economic extinction. We assess whether and how this has occurred with timber resources in the Brazilian Amazon. The asynchronous advance of industrial-scale logging frontiers has left regional-scale forest landscapes with varying histories of logging. Initial harvests in unlogged forests can be highly selective, targeting slow-growing, high-grade, shade-tolerant hardwood species, while later harvests tend to focus on fast-growing, light-wooded, long-lived pioneer trees. Brazil accounts for 85% of all native neotropical forest roundlog production, and the State of Pará for almost half of all timber production in Brazilian Amazonia, the largest old-growth tropical timber reserve controlled by any country. Yet the degree to which timber harvests beyond the first-cut can be financially profitable or demographically sustainable remains poorly understood. Here, we use data on legally planned logging of ~17.3 million cubic meters of timber across 314 species extracted from 824 authorized harvest areas in private and community-owned forests, 446 of which reported volumetric composition data by timber species. We document patterns of timber extraction by volume, species composition, and monetary value along aging eastern Amazonian logging frontiers, which are then explained on the basis of historical and environmental variables. Generalized linear models indicate that relatively recent logging operations farthest from heavy-traffic roads are the most selective, concentrating gross revenues on few high-value species. We find no evidence that the post-logging timber species composition and total value of forest stands recovers beyond the first-cut, suggesting that the commercially most valuable timber species become predictably rare or economically extinct in old logging frontiers. In avoiding even more destructive land

  15. Temporal Decay in Timber Species Composition and Value in Amazonian Logging Concessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Vanessa A; Peres, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Throughout human history, slow-renewal biological resource populations have been predictably overexploited, often to the point of economic extinction. We assess whether and how this has occurred with timber resources in the Brazilian Amazon. The asynchronous advance of industrial-scale logging frontiers has left regional-scale forest landscapes with varying histories of logging. Initial harvests in unlogged forests can be highly selective, targeting slow-growing, high-grade, shade-tolerant hardwood species, while later harvests tend to focus on fast-growing, light-wooded, long-lived pioneer trees. Brazil accounts for 85% of all native neotropical forest roundlog production, and the State of Pará for almost half of all timber production in Brazilian Amazonia, the largest old-growth tropical timber reserve controlled by any country. Yet the degree to which timber harvests beyond the first-cut can be financially profitable or demographically sustainable remains poorly understood. Here, we use data on legally planned logging of ~17.3 million cubic meters of timber across 314 species extracted from 824 authorized harvest areas in private and community-owned forests, 446 of which reported volumetric composition data by timber species. We document patterns of timber extraction by volume, species composition, and monetary value along aging eastern Amazonian logging frontiers, which are then explained on the basis of historical and environmental variables. Generalized linear models indicate that relatively recent logging operations farthest from heavy-traffic roads are the most selective, concentrating gross revenues on few high-value species. We find no evidence that the post-logging timber species composition and total value of forest stands recovers beyond the first-cut, suggesting that the commercially most valuable timber species become predictably rare or economically extinct in old logging frontiers. In avoiding even more destructive land-use patterns, managing

  16. Forest Productivity and Timber Supply Modeling in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick Cubbage; Jacek Siry; Robert Abt; David N. Wear; Steverson Moffat

    1998-01-01

    The South can increase forest productivity on industrial and nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) lands. As timber markets have improved and timber prices have increased, returns from intensive management are more profitable. The interaction of timber markets, inventory, and prices are analyzed in new southern timber supply models sponsored by the Southern Forest...

  17. Inventory analysis of the timber industry in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshun, J.F.; Potting, J.; Leemans, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope The timber sector, i.e., forestry and timber industry, plays an important role in the socioeconomic development of Ghana through timber products export. Timber production in this sector is associated with increasing environmental burdens in terms of use of materials and

  18. Structural Reliability of the Nigerian Grown Abura Timber Bridge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structural reliability analysis was carried out on the Nigerian grown Abura timber, to ascertain its structural performance as timber bridge beams. Samples of the Nigerian grown Abura timber were bought from timber market, seasoned naturally and their structural/strength properties were determined at a moisture content of ...

  19. Wood biomass potentials in Brandenburg - growing competition between industry timber and energy wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasse, D. (CEBra - Centre for Energy Technology Brandenburg GmbH, Cottbus (Germany)); Laufer, S. (University of Applied Sciences Eberswalde (Germany))

    2007-07-01

    The paper presents a survey of dramatic timber market developments in recent years. It shows the significant increase of wood processing capacities in Brandenburg and neighbouring regions and the expansion of the wood energy branch at the same time which fostered a growing competition between the industrial and energetic use of wood. The comparison between the annual timber consumption and the annual timber yield potential in Brandenburg forests reflects a widening gap which cannot be covered by conventional means of forestry management. This gap amounted to 1 million m3 in 2006 and will probably double in 2007. Rapidly growing is the importance of wood from short rotation coppices on agricultural set-aside fields and former open cast mining areas. The development of alternative land use systems for the sustainable production of energy wood is a main focus of several R and D projects in Brandenburg. (orig.)

  20. Lignocellulose: A sustainable material to produce value-added products with a zero waste approach-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo-Gallegos, Alejandra; Ahmad, Zanib; Asgher, Muhammad; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2017-06-01

    A novel facility from the green technologies to integrate biomass-based carbohydrates, lignin, oils and other materials extraction and transformation into a wider spectrum of marketable and value-added products with a zero waste approach is reviewed. With ever-increasing scientific knowledge, worldwide economic and environmental consciousness, demands of legislative authorities and the manufacture, use, and removal of petrochemical-based by-products, from the last decade, there has been increasing research interests in the value or revalue of lignocellulose-based materials. The potential characteristics like natural abundance, renewability, recyclability, and ease of accessibility all around the year, around the globe, all makes residual biomass as an eco-attractive and petro-alternative candidate. In this context, many significant research efforts have been taken into account to change/replace petroleum-based economy into a bio-based economy, with an aim to develop a comprehensively sustainable, socially acceptable, and eco-friendly society. The present review work mainly focuses on various aspects of bio-refinery as a sustainable technology to process lignocellulose 'materials' into value-added products. Innovations in the bio-refinery world are providing, a portfolio of sustainable and eco-efficient products to compete in the market presently dominated by the petroleum-based products, and therefore, it is currently a subject of intensive research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Identifying regional opportunities for accelerated timber managemnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Gansner; Joseph E. Barnard; Samuel F. Gingrich; Samuel F. Gingrich

    1973-01-01

    Describes a procedure for identifying regional opportunities for accelerated timber management and demonstrates its application. Results provide a basis for rational choices among alternative management strategies and permit meaningful micro- and macro-evaluations of treatment response.

  2. Benthic primary producers are key to sustain the Wadden Sea food web: stable carbon isotope analysis at landscape scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christianen, M.J.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Holthuijsen, S.J.; Jouta, J.; Compton, T.J.; van der Heide, T.; Piersma, T.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; van der Veer, H.W.; Schouten, S.; Olff, H.

    2017-01-01

    Coastal food webs can be supported by local benthic or pelagic primary produc-ers and by the import of organic matter. Distinguishing between these energy sources is essen-tial for our understanding of ecosystem functioning. However, the relative contribution ofthese components to the food web at

  3. Framework for Robustness Assessment of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for the design and analysis of robustness of timber structures. This is actualized by a more4 frequent use of advanced types of timber structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in the case of failure. Combined with increased requirements...... are not specified in detail, which makes the practical use difficult. This paper describes a theoretical and risk based framework to form the basis for quantification of robustness and for pre-normative guidelines....

  4. Timber production assessment of a plantation forest: An integrated framework with field-based inventory, multi-source remote sensing data and forest management history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tian; Zhu, Jiaojun; Deng, Songqiu; Zheng, Xiao; Zhang, Jinxin; Shang, Guiduo; Huang, Liyan

    2016-10-01

    Timber production is the purpose for managing plantation forests, and its spatial and quantitative information is critical for advising management strategies. Previous studies have focused on growing stock volume (GSV), which represents the current potential of timber production, yet few studies have investigated historical process-harvested timber. This resulted in a gap in a synthetical ecosystem service assessment of timber production. In this paper, we established a Management Process-based Timber production (MPT) framework to integrate the current GSV and the harvested timber derived from historical logging regimes, trying to synthetically assess timber production for a historical period. In the MPT framework, age-class and current GSV determine the times of historical thinning and the corresponding harvested timber, by using a ;space-for-time; substitution. The total timber production can be estimated by the historical harvested timber in each thinning and the current GSV. To test this MPT framework, an empirical study on a larch plantation (LP) with area of 43,946 ha was conducted in North China for a period from 1962 to 2010. Field-based inventory data was integrated with ALOS PALSAR (Advanced Land-Observing Satellite Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar) and Landsat-8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) data for estimating the age-class and current GSV of LP. The random forest model with PALSAR backscatter intensity channels and OLI bands as input predictive variables yielded an accuracy of 67.9% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.59 for age-class classification. The regression model using PALSAR data produced a root mean square error (RMSE) of 36.5 m3 ha-1. The total timber production of LP was estimated to be 7.27 × 106 m3, with 4.87 × 106 m3 in current GSV and 2.40 × 106 m3 in harvested timber through historical thinning. The historical process-harvested timber accounts to 33.0% of the total timber production, which component has been neglected in the

  5. The timber industries of New Hampshire and Vermont: a periodic assessment of timber output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L., Jr. Nevel; Nicolas Engalichev; William C. Gove

    1986-01-01

    This periodic evaluation of statewide industrial timber output is based on canvasses of the primary wood manufacturing plants in New Hampshire and Vermont. The report contains statistics on industrial timber products and plant wood receipts in 1982, and the production and disposition of the manufacturing plant residues that resulted. The 129.4 million cubic feet (3.7...

  6. Michigan timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Anthony K. Weatherspoon

    2010-01-01

    Reports forest-industry trends, production and receipts of industrial roundwood, and production of saw logs, veneer logs, excelsior/shavings, and other products for Michigan's timber industry in 2004. Also reports logging residue generated from timber harvest operations in Michigan as well as the generation and disposition of wood and bark residue generated by...

  7. Timber products output and timber harvests in Alaska: projections for 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Brooks; Richard W. Haynes

    1997-01-01

    Projections of Alaska timber products output, the derived demand for raw material, and timber harvest by owner are developed from a trend-based analysis. These projections are revisions of projections made in 1990 and again in 1994, and reflect the consequences of recent changes in the Alaska forest sector and long-term trends in markets for Alaska products. With the...

  8. Rent-seeking and timber rights allocation in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kirsten; Hansen, Christian Pilegaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes types, processes and importance of rent-seeking in the allocation of timber rights in Ghana. It is based on an analysis of 30 interviews with large-, medium- and small-scale timber firms, as well as government officials and timber industry organizations in Ghana. The paper...... involving exchange of timber rights for political support and/or material, personal benefits. Second, timber rights are allocated to persons or firms outside the timber sector allegedly as payment for political support. The paper concludes that the Voluntary Partnership Agreement between Ghana and the EU...

  9. Benthic primary producers are key to sustain the Wadden Sea food web: stable carbon isotope analysis at landscape scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianen, M J A; Middelburg, J J; Holthuijsen, S J; Jouta, J; Compton, T J; van der Heide, T; Piersma, T; Sinninghe Damsté, J S; van der Veer, H W; Schouten, S; Olff, H

    2017-06-01

    Coastal food webs can be supported by local benthic or pelagic primary producers and by the import of organic matter. Distinguishing between these energy sources is essential for our understanding of ecosystem functioning. However, the relative contribution of these components to the food web at the landscape scale is often unclear, as many studies lack good taxonomic and spatial resolution across large areas. Here, using stable carbon isotopes, we report on the primary carbon sources for consumers and their spatial variability across one of the world's largest intertidal ecosystems (Dutch Wadden Sea; 1460 km2 intertidal surface area), at an exceptionally high taxonomic (178 species) and spatial resolution (9,165 samples from 839 locations). The absence of overlap in δ13 C values between consumers and terrestrial organic matter suggests that benthic and pelagic producers dominate carbon input into this food web. In combination with the consistent enrichment of benthic primary producers (δ13 C -16.3‰) relative to pelagic primary producers (δ13 C -18.8) across the landscape, this allowed the use of a two-food-source isotope-mixing model. This spatially resolved modelling revealed that benthic primary producers (microphytobenthos) are the most important energy source for the majority of consumers at higher trophic levels (worms, molluscs, crustaceans, fish, and birds), and thus to the whole food web. In addition, we found large spatial heterogeneity in the δ13 C values of benthic primary producers (δ13 C -19.2 to -11.5‰) and primary consumers (δ13 C -25.5 to -9.9‰), emphasizing the need for spatially explicit sampling of benthic and pelagic primary producers in coastal ecosystems. Our findings have important implications for our understanding of the functioning of ecological networks and for the management of coastal ecosystems. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. β-lactam antibiotic produces a sustained reduction in extracellular glutamate in the nucleus accumbens of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Bruce A.; Baron, David A.; Kim, Jae K.; Unterwald, Ellen M.; Rawls, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary We investigated the short- and long-term effects of ceftriaxone on GLT-1 transporter activity and extracellular glutamate in the rat nucleus accumbens. Repeated ceftriaxone administration (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a dose-dependent reduction in glutamate levels that persisted for 20 days following discontinuation of drug exposure. The ceftriaxone effect was prevented bythe GLT-1 transporter inhibitor dihydrokainate (DHK) (1 μM, intra-accumbal). These results suggest β-lactam antibiotics produce an enduring reduction in glutamatergic transmission in the brain reward center. PMID:20383795

  11. Modeling the Complex Impacts of Timber Harvests to Find Optimal Management Regimes for Amazon Tidal Floodplain Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Lucas B; Cropper, Wendell P; Zarin, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    At the Amazon estuary, the oldest logging frontier in the Amazon, no studies have comprehensively explored the potential long-term population and yield consequences of multiple timber harvests over time. Matrix population modeling is one way to simulate long-term impacts of tree harvests, but this approach has often ignored common impacts of tree harvests including incidental damage, changes in post-harvest demography, shifts in the distribution of merchantable trees, and shifts in stand composition. We designed a matrix-based forest management model that incorporates these harvest-related impacts so resulting simulations reflect forest stand dynamics under repeated timber harvests as well as the realities of local smallholder timber management systems. Using a wide range of values for management criteria (e.g., length of cutting cycle, minimum cut diameter), we projected the long-term population dynamics and yields of hundreds of timber management regimes in the Amazon estuary, where small-scale, unmechanized logging is an important economic activity. These results were then compared to find optimal stand-level and species-specific sustainable timber management (STM) regimes using a set of timber yield and population growth indicators. Prospects for STM in Amazonian tidal floodplain forests are better than for many other tropical forests. However, generally high stock recovery rates between harvests are due to the comparatively high projected mean annualized yields from fast-growing species that effectively counterbalance the projected yield declines from other species. For Amazonian tidal floodplain forests, national management guidelines provide neither the highest yields nor the highest sustained population growth for species under management. Our research shows that management guidelines specific to a region's ecological settings can be further refined to consider differences in species demographic responses to repeated harvests. In principle, such fine

  12. Modeling the complex impacts of timber harvests to find optimal management regimes for Amazon tidal floodplain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Lucas B.; Cropper, Wendell P.; Zarin, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    At the Amazon estuary, the oldest logging frontier in the Amazon, no studies have comprehensively explored the potential long-term population and yield consequences of multiple timber harvests over time. Matrix population modeling is one way to simulate long-term impacts of tree harvests, but this approach has often ignored common impacts of tree harvests including incidental damage, changes in post-harvest demography, shifts in the distribution of merchantable trees, and shifts in stand composition. We designed a matrix-based forest management model that incorporates these harvest-related impacts so resulting simulations reflect forest stand dynamics under repeated timber harvests as well as the realities of local smallholder timber management systems. Using a wide range of values for management criteria (e.g., length of cutting cycle, minimum cut diameter), we projected the long-term population dynamics and yields of hundreds of timber management regimes in the Amazon estuary, where small-scale, unmechanized logging is an important economic activity. These results were then compared to find optimal stand-level and species-specific sustainable timber management (STM) regimes using a set of timber yield and population growth indicators. Prospects for STM in Amazonian tidal floodplain forests are better than for many other tropical forests. However, generally high stock recovery rates between harvests are due to the comparatively high projected mean annualized yields from fast-growing species that effectively counterbalance the projected yield declines from other species. For Amazonian tidal floodplain forests, national management guidelines provide neither the highest yields nor the highest sustained population growth for species under management. Our research shows that management guidelines specific to a region’s ecological settings can be further refined to consider differences in species demographic responses to repeated harvests. In principle, such fine

  13. Modeling the Complex Impacts of Timber Harvests to Find Optimal Management Regimes for Amazon Tidal Floodplain Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Lucas B.; Cropper, Wendell P.; Zarin, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    At the Amazon estuary, the oldest logging frontier in the Amazon, no studies have comprehensively explored the potential long-term population and yield consequences of multiple timber harvests over time. Matrix population modeling is one way to simulate long-term impacts of tree harvests, but this approach has often ignored common impacts of tree harvests including incidental damage, changes in post-harvest demography, shifts in the distribution of merchantable trees, and shifts in stand composition. We designed a matrix-based forest management model that incorporates these harvest-related impacts so resulting simulations reflect forest stand dynamics under repeated timber harvests as well as the realities of local smallholder timber management systems. Using a wide range of values for management criteria (e.g., length of cutting cycle, minimum cut diameter), we projected the long-term population dynamics and yields of hundreds of timber management regimes in the Amazon estuary, where small-scale, unmechanized logging is an important economic activity. These results were then compared to find optimal stand-level and species-specific sustainable timber management (STM) regimes using a set of timber yield and population growth indicators. Prospects for STM in Amazonian tidal floodplain forests are better than for many other tropical forests. However, generally high stock recovery rates between harvests are due to the comparatively high projected mean annualized yields from fast-growing species that effectively counterbalance the projected yield declines from other species. For Amazonian tidal floodplain forests, national management guidelines provide neither the highest yields nor the highest sustained population growth for species under management. Our research shows that management guidelines specific to a region’s ecological settings can be further refined to consider differences in species demographic responses to repeated harvests. In principle, such fine

  14. Benthic primary producers are key to sustain the Wadden Sea food web : Stable carbon isotope analysis at landscape scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christianen, M J A; Middelburg, J J; Holthuijsen, S J; Jouta, J; Compton, T J; van der Heide, T; Piersma, T.; Sinninghe Damsté, J S; van der Veer, H W; Schouten, S; Olff, H

    Coastal food webs can be supported by local benthic or pelagic primary producers and by the import of organic matter. Distinguishing between these energy sources is essential for our understanding of ecosystem functioning. However, the relative contribution of these components to the food web at the

  15. Benthic primary producers are key to sustain the Wadden Sea food web : stable carbon isotope analysis at landscape scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christianen, M.J.A.; Middelburg, Jack J.; Holthuijsen, S.J.; Jouta, J.; Compton, T.J.; van der Heide, T.; Piersma, T.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; van der Veer, H.W.; Schouten, Stefan; Olff, H.

    Coastal food webs can be supported by local benthic or pelagic primary producers and by the import of organic matter. Distinguishing between these energy sources is essential for our understanding of ecosystem functioning. However, the relative contribution of these components to the food web at the

  16. Cytokine-induced proapoptotic gene expression in insulin-producing cells is related to rapid, sustained, and nonoscillatory nuclear factor-kappaB activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortis, Fernanda; Cardozo, Alessandra K; Crispim, Daisy

    2006-01-01

    Cytokines, such as IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, contribute to pancreatic beta-cell death in type 1 diabetes mellitus. The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) mediates cytokine-induced beta-cell apoptosis. Paradoxically, NF-kappaB has mostly antiapoptotic effects in other cell types......-kappaB activation in insulin-producing cells is more rapid, marked, and sustained than in fibroblasts, which correlates with a more pronounced activation of downstream genes and a proapoptotic outcome....

  17. Managing Commercial Tree Species for Timber Production and Carbon Sequestration: Management Guidelines and Financial Returns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Kronrad

    2006-09-19

    A carbon credit market is developing in the United States. Information is needed by buyers and sellers of carbon credits so that the market functions equitably and efficiently. Analyses have been conducted to determine the optimal forest management regime to employ for each of the major commercial tree species so that profitability of timber production only or the combination of timber production and carbon sequestration is maximized. Because the potential of a forest ecosystem to sequester carbon depends on the tree species, site quality and management regimes utilized, analyses have determined how to optimize carbon sequestration by determining how to optimally manage each species, given a range of site qualities, discount rates, prices of carbon credits and other economic variables. The effects of a carbon credit market on the method and profitability of forest management, the cost of sequestering carbon, the amount of carbon that can be sequestered, and the amount of timber products produced has been determined.

  18. Trends in economic scarcity of U. S. timber commodities. Forest Service Resource Bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skog, K.; Risbrudt, C.

    1982-04-01

    Scarcity of natural resources has been of concern to industrial societies since Malthus developed his theory of population growth and resource use in the late 18th century. Barnett and Morse, in 1963, tested the widely held premise that natural resource commodities are becoming more economically scarce. They concluded that of all major natural resource commodities-agricultural, mineral, and timber-only timber commodities were increasing in economic scarcity. In particular, sawlogs have shown consistent increases in economic scarcity since the late 1800's. Data were prepared for the Barnett and Morse study by Potter and Christy and subsequently updated by Potter and Christy and subsequently updated by Manthy to 1973. This paper extends and expands these data series on timber commodities. Specifically, information will be presented on one indicator of economic scarcity-trends in real prices (prices deflated by the general producer price index).

  19. Lam I-joists : a new structural building product from small-diameter, fire-prone timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Hunt; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2003-01-01

    The goal of our research is to promote healthy and sustainable forests by developing value-added uses for curved and small-diameter trees. In typical North American logging or thinning operations, much of this low- value timber is felled and left on the ground, chipped, or burned because most mills are not equipped to handle it. By understanding the fundamental...

  20. Development of Timber Property Classification Based on the End-Use with Reference to Twenty Sri Lankan Timber Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ND Ruwanpathirana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out on selected 20 timber species of Sri Lanka to study different wood properties, i.e., wood density, modulus of rapture, modulus of elasticity, compression parallel to grain, shrinkage/movement, workability (sawing, nailing, sanding and finishing, treatability of preservative, timber durability, timber texture by vessel diameter and some gross properties, timber colour and present timber uses. Based on the results, an attempt was made to classify the studied timber species into property levels. The final objective of this study was to develop relationships between the end-uses of timber and their property requirements and levels with reference to 20 Sri Lankan timber species.   Timber selection for the use in Sri Lanka is species-oriented and sometimes it is based on the traditional use. Based on wood properties of 20 Sri Lankan timber species selected, an attempt was made to recognise the most important wood properties and their levels to develop a four end-use property classification. In general, the proposed end-use property classification in this study could be differentiated as (i. for building construction, (ii. for furniture and joinery (iii. for light construction, and (iv. for miscellaneous uses. Among the selected timber species, Dipterocarpus zeylanicus is eminently suitable for under-water work. Eucalyptus microcorys is regarded as one of the best timbers for dancing floors. These specialty and causative factors of timber, however, must be explored and documented in order to prepare end-use property classification for miscellaneous use.

  1. Reinforcement and recovery of timber structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alves Dias

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of timber structures is a reason for constant concern because their deterioration often involves compromising the historical patrimony, besides endangering the safety of the structure, and consequently, of their users. Many are the examples of churches, residences or other constructions where this manifestation is a fact. The technique of reinforcing structurally endangered pieces with the addition of natural or synthetic fibers, is an alternative that has been researched. In the group of synthetic fibers, fiberglass, carbon and aramid ones are included. On the other hand, it has been frequent in the restoration of old buildings, especially in Europe, the employment of materials that were not available in the past, aiming to achieve structural, acoustic and aesthetic benefits. On an existing timber structure floor, a concrete slab has been carried out, with an appropriate connection system among the parts, constituting the composite timber-concrete structures. This alternative has been considered as extraordinarily viable, because it gathers a series of convenience related with the durability and it presents better mechanic performance than conventional timber structures. In this work, the state-of-the-art of the use of fibers as structural reinforcement and of the timber-concrete composite structures, is presented.

  2. Timber resource statistics for the Olympic Peninsula, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald

    1961-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1978-79 timber resource inventory of five counties in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington: Clallam, Grays Harbor, Jefferson, Mason, and Thurston. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  3. structural reliability of the nigerian grown abura timber bridge beam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ENGR. J. I. AGUWA

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... Structural analysis and deterministic design of a timber bridge ... developed and used for reliability analysis of the Nigerian grown Abura timber bridge beam so designed, to ..... Nigerian Standard Organization, Federal.

  4. The Influence of Flame Retardant Treated Timber Density on Combustibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbignev Karpovič

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Timber is widely used as a construction material in the majority of countries. In most cases, timber is the main structural material. Timber and timber fabrics used in building structure elements have to fulfill the requirements of fire safety. This article presents factors affecting the combustibility of timber, mainly the influence of flame retardants on the combustion phase, timber density and moisture. The influence of flame retardant treated timber density on combustibility is analyzed in this paper. Research was performed according to the requirements of the standard LST ISO 5657:1999 “Reaction to fire tests – ignitibility of building products using a radiant heat source”. The influence of flame retardant treated timber density on combustibility is assessed according to duration up to the combustion of the specimen. Article in Lithuanian

  5. Carbon Nanotubes Produced from Ambient Carbon Dioxide for Environmentally Sustainable Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Stuart; Douglas, Anna; Ren, Jiawen; Carter, Rachel; Lefler, Matthew; Pint, Cary L

    2016-03-23

    The cost and practicality of greenhouse gas removal processes, which are critical for environmental sustainability, pivot on high-value secondary applications derived from carbon capture and conversion techniques. Using the solar thermal electrochemical process (STEP), ambient CO2 captured in molten lithiated carbonates leads to the production of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at high yield through electrolysis using inexpensive steel electrodes. These low-cost CO2-derived CNTs and CNFs are demonstrated as high performance energy storage materials in both lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries. Owing to synthetic control of sp(3) content in the synthesized nanostructures, optimized storage capacities are measured over 370 mAh g(-1) (lithium) and 130 mAh g(-1) (sodium) with no capacity fade under durability tests up to 200 and 600 cycles, respectively. This work demonstrates that ambient CO2, considered as an environmental pollutant, can be attributed economic value in grid-scale and portable energy storage systems with STEP scale-up practicality in the context of combined cycle natural gas electric power generation.

  6. Mixed crop-livestock farming systems: a sustainable way to produce beef? Commercial farms results, questions and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veysset, P; Lherm, M; Bébin, D; Roulenc, M

    2014-08-01

    Mixed crop-livestock (MC-L) farming has gained broad consensus as an economically and environmentally sustainable farming system. Working on a Charolais-area suckler cattle farms network, we subdivided the 66 farms of a constant sample, for 2 years (2010 and 2011), into four groups: (i) 'specialized conventional livestock farms' (100% grassland-based farms (GF), n=7); (ii) 'integrated conventional crop-livestock farms' (specialized farms that only market animal products but that grow cereal crops on-farm for animal feed, n=31); (iii) 'mixed conventional crop-livestock farms' (farms that sell beef and cereal crops to market, n=21); and (iv) organic farms (n=7). We analyse the differences in structure and in drivers of technical, economic and environmental performances. The figures for all the farms over 2 years (2010 and 2011) were pooled into a single sample for each group. The farms that sell crops alongside beef miss out on potential economies of scale. These farms are bigger than specialized beef farms (with or without on-farm feed crops) and all types of farms show comparable economic performances. The big MC-L farms make heavier and consequently less efficient use of inputs. This use of less efficient inputs also weakens their environmental performances. This subpopulation of suckler cattle farms appears unable to translate a MC-L strategy into economies of scope. Organic farms most efficiently exploit the diversity of herd feed resources, thus positioning organic agriculture as a prototype MC-L system meeting the core principles of agroecology.

  7. Deriving simple and adjusted financial rates of return on Mississippi timber lands by combining forest inventory and analysis and Timber Mart-South data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Hartsell

    2007-01-01

    This study compares returns on investments in Mississippi timber lands with returns on alternative investments. The real annual rates of return from mature, undisturbed timber lands in Mississippi over a 17-year period (1977-94) were computed. Southern Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) timber volume data and Timber Mart-South (TMS) data on timber...

  8. The impact of the life cycle analysis methodology on whether biodiesel produced from residues can meet the EU sustainability criteria for biofuel facilities constructed after 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thamsiriroj, T.; Murphy, J.D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork (Ireland); Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork (Ireland)

    2011-01-15

    This paper considers biodiesel production from residues; tallow and used cooking oil (UCO). The tallow system is more complex involving two processes. The first process is rendering in which tallow (animal fat) and Meat and Bone Meal (MBM) are produced from the slaughter of cattle. MBM is assumed as a thermal energy source for cement manufacture and thus is not used for biodiesel production. The second process is biodiesel production from tallow. Three methodologies are employed to examine sustainability of the biodiesel. The no allocation approach assigns all the parasitic demands to the tallow; thus all energies required to make both MBM and tallow are associated with the tallow biodiesel. The resulting energy balance is negative. The substitution approach allocates the energy in MBM (used to produce cement) to tallow biodiesel. This results in the net energy being greater than the gross energy. The allocation by energy content method divides the parasitic demands of the rendering process between tallow and MBM by energy content. The parasitic demands of the biodiesel process are divided by energy content of the biodiesel, glycerol and K-fertiliser. For tallow biodiesel this yielded a net energy value of 38.6% of gross energy. The same method generated a net energy value of 67% for UCO biodiesel. More importantly the recommended method (allocation by energy content) generated a value of 54% greenhouse gas (GHG) emission savings for tallow and a value of 69% for UCO. Plants commencing after 2017, need to have a 60% GHG emission savings, to be considered sustainable. Thus a facility treating both feedstocks would need to treat a maximum of 60% tallow to be considered sustainable after 2017. (author)

  9. Systematic feature analysis on timber defect images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummi Rabaah Hashim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction is unquestionably an important process in a pattern recognition system. A defined set of features makes the identification task more efficiently. This paper addresses the extraction and analysis of features based on statistical texture to characterize images of timber defects. A series of procedures including feature extraction and feature analysis was executed to construct an appropriate feature set that could significantly separate amongst defects and clear wood classes. The feature set aimed for later use in a timber defect detection system. For Accessing the discrimination capability of the features extracted, visual exploratory analysis and confirmatory statistical analysis were performed on defect and clear wood images of Meranti (Shorea spp. timber species. Results from the analysis demonstrated that there was a significant distinction between defect classes and clear wood utilizing the proposed set of texture features.

  10. Tropical Timber Identification using Backpropagation Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, B.; Andayani, U.; Fatihah, N.; Hakim, L.; Fahmi, F.

    2017-01-01

    Each and every type of wood has different characteristics. Identifying the type of wood properly is important, especially for industries that need to know the type of timber specifically. However, it requires expertise in identifying the type of wood and only limited experts available. In addition, the manual identification even by experts is rather inefficient because it requires a lot of time and possibility of human errors. To overcome these problems, a digital image based method to identify the type of timber automatically is needed. In this study, backpropagation neural network is used as artificial intelligence component. Several stages were developed: a microscope image acquisition, pre-processing, feature extraction using gray level co-occurrence matrix and normalization of data extraction using decimal scaling features. The results showed that the proposed method was able to identify the timber with an accuracy of 94%.

  11. Robustness Analysis of Timber Truss Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajčić, Vlatka; Čizmar, Dean; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    The present paper discusses robustness of structures in general and the robustness requirements given in the codes. Robustness of timber structures is also an issues as this is closely related to Working group 3 (Robustness of systems) of the COST E55 project. Finally, an example of a robustness ...... evaluation of a widespan timber truss structure is presented. This structure was built few years ago near Zagreb and has a span of 45m. Reliability analysis of the main members and the system is conducted and based on this a robustness analysis is preformed.......The present paper discusses robustness of structures in general and the robustness requirements given in the codes. Robustness of timber structures is also an issues as this is closely related to Working group 3 (Robustness of systems) of the COST E55 project. Finally, an example of a robustness...

  12. characterisation and grading of two selected timber species grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Timber is a complex building material owing to its heterogeneity and species diversity. Timber does not .... forming dense cluster, twisted bean-like pods, dark brown, cylindrical, 1.5-6 cm long and 4-7 mm thick; the ... (ii) Machine grading: This assigns stress grade to timber according to its stiffness. The grade is assigned by ...

  13. 26 CFR 1.611-3 - Rules applicable to timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the timber as determined by species, age, size, condition, etc.; (ii) The quantity of timber per acre... basis of general averages for regions; however, the value placed upon it, taking into consideration such... margin between the cost of production and the price realized for timber products, market value of stock...

  14. Fiber stress values for design of glulam timber utility structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Hernandez; R. C. Moody; R. H. Falk

    In this study, we developed a simple equation to calculate average fiber stress values for design of glued-laminated (glulam) timber utility structures as a function of design bending stress. We took design stress in bending values specified by the American Institute of Timber Construction (AITC) for various combinations of glulam timber, applied appropriate end-use...

  15. Assessment of rural households' objectives for gathering non-timber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed rural households' objectives for gathering non-timber forest products in Kogi State, Nigeria, with specific focus on identifying some species of non-timber forest products present in the area, identifying reasons why they engaged in the gathering of the non-timber forest products (NTFPs) as well as ...

  16. California’s forest products industry and timber harvest, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd A. Morgan; Jason P. Brandt; Kathleen E. Songster; Charles E. Keegan; Glenn A. Christensen

    2012-01-01

    This report traces the flow of California’s 2006 timber harvest through the primary wood products industry (i.e., firms that process timber into manufactured products such as lumber, as well as facilities such as pulp mills and particleboard plants, which use the wood fiber or mill residue directly from timber processors) and provides a description of the structure,...

  17. 77 FR 64096 - Information Collection; Advertised Timber for Sale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Advertised Timber for Sale AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... of the currently approved information collection 0596-0066 Advertised Timber for Sale. DATES... INFORMATION: Title: Advertised Timber for Sale. OMB Number: 0596-0066. Expiration Date of Approval: April 30...

  18. Simulation-Based Multiobjective Optimization of Timber-Glass Residential Buildings in Severe Cold Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsong Han

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current context of increasing energy demand, timber-glass buildings will become a necessary trend in sustainable architecture in the future. Especially in severe cold zones of China, energy consumption and the visual comfort of residential buildings have attracted wide attention, and there are always trade-offs between multiple objectives. This paper aims to propose a simulation-based multiobjective optimization method to improve the daylighting, energy efficiency, and economic performance of timber-glass buildings in severe cold regions. Timber-glass building form variables have been selected as the decision variables, including building width, roof height, south and north window-to-wall ratio (WWR, window height, and orientation. A simulation-based multiobjective optimization model has been developed to optimize these performance objectives simultaneously. The results show that Daylighting Autonomy (DA presents negative correlations with Energy Use Intensity (EUI and total cost. Additionally, with an increase in DA, Useful Daylighting Illuminance (UDI demonstrates a tendency of primary increase and then decrease. Using this optimization model, four building performances have been improved from the initial generation to the final generation, which proves that simulation-based multiobjective optimization is a promising approach to improve the daylighting, energy efficiency, and economic performances of timber-glass buildings in severe cold regions.

  19. Noise, Worker Perception, and Worker Concentration in Timber Harvesting Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Yuliati Yovi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Timber harvesting activities are unquestionably related with high risk of work accidents and health disorders.Such activities were not only burdened the workers with heavy physical workloads due to uneasy workingenvironment, and massive work materials and tools, but also physiopsychologically burdened workers as theywere imposed with both mechanical and acoustic vibrations (noise produced by the chainsaw. However,  it is acommon practice that most of the workers still ignored the importance of the use of noise reduction devices suchas earmuff or ear plug.  This study was aimed to reveal the factual effects of noise on work concentration of theworkers to provide a scientific basis in supporting efforts in improving workers’ attitude.  The results confirmedthat chainsaw might produce noise during operation.  Noise intensities received by both right and left ears werenot significantly different, indicating that left-handed and normal workers received similar degree of noise inboth side of ears. Further, results also showed that there was a significant difference on the perception and workconcentration of chainsaw operators versus sedentary people to the noise.  These findings proved that hearingability of chainsaw operators had declined due to frequent noise exposure.Keywords: timber harvesting, physio-psychological disorder, noise, chainsaw

  20. Sertifikat Lestari PT. Diamond Raya Timber: Aset atau Beban?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Maryudi

    2007-01-01

    Several environmental non-government organizations and green parties pursue various strategies to promote sustainable management of forest resource. Due to the increasing environment awareness of some segments of timber users, they have established a certification body and developed a set of criteria and indicators, against which the performance of participating forest companies will be assessed. Early experiences in Indonesia showed that certification received warm welcome from several forest companies, as there is no question that they saw the attraction of being certified. However, it appears that their enthusiasm was dampened by the experience of a certified company. Certification might have been seen as more of a liability than an asset as the economic benefits from market access became less clear, while the costs became more apparent. The use of rigid standards might result in “negative” responses from forest companies. More proactive approaches might encourage the companies to join certification.

  1. Timber Elements: Traditional and Modern Strengthening Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Hohan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this paper is to analyse the means for the rehabilitation of our cultural heritage timber structures. Several methods together with their application techniques are described, and also, the reasons for what these strengthening operations become imminent at a point. First of all, the necessity of the timber structural elements strengthening is explained through a short presentation of the factors which are degrading the material. Then, certain precautions and strengthening procedures are presented, all involving the usage of traditional materials like wood, metal, or concrete, and of modern materials like fiber reinforced polymeric composite.

  2. Projected US timber and primary forest product market impacts of climate change mitigation through timber set-asides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Nepal; Peter J. Ince; Kenneth E. Skog; Sun J. Chang

    2013-01-01

    Whereas climate change mitigation involving payments to forest landowners for accumulating carbon on their land may increase carbon stored in forests, it will also affect timber supply and prices. This study estimated the effect on US timber and primary forest product markets of hypothetical timber set-aside scenarios where US forest landowners would be paid to forego...

  3. Characterization of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) fractions produced by Microcystis aeruginosa under the stress of linoleic acid sustained-release microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Lixiao; Li, Danye; Rong, Shiyi; Su, Lili; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao; Li, Shiyin; Acharya, Kumud

    2017-07-20

    This paper focuses on the characterization of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which are composed of soluble EPS (SL-EPS), loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS), and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) produced by Microcystis aeruginosa under the stress of linoleic acid (LA) and LA sustained-release microspheres. Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3D-EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry were used to characterize three forms of EPS while the content of polysaccharide and protein was tested, respectively. The results showed that the highest inhibitor rate (IR) occurred when M. aeruginosa were exposed to LA sustained-release microspheres of 0.3 g L(-1). The 3D-EEM contour demonstrated that tryptophan and protein-like substances were detected in all three EPS fractions, whereas humic acid-like substance was only distributed in SL-EPS, and aromatic proteins merely existed in LB-EPS and TB-EPS. The infrared spectrum showed that functional groups in three EPS fractions had no obvious change in all experimental groups. Polysaccharide (1120-1270 cm(-1), C-O-C and C-O stretching vibration) and protein (1384-1670 cm(-1), C-N and N-H stretching) were detected in three forms of EPS. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  4. Timber resource of Missouri's Northwestern Ozarks, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Vasilevsky; Burton L. Essex

    1974-01-01

    The third timber inventory of Missouri's Northwestern Ozarks Forest Survey Unit shows substantial gains in both growing-stock and sawtimber volumes between 1959 and 1972. The area of commercial forests declined during the same period. Presented are highlights and statistics on forest area and timer volume, growth, mortality, ownership and use in 1972.

  5. Timber resource of Minnesota's Prairie unit, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn; W. Brad Smith

    1980-01-01

    The fourth inventory of Minnesota's Prairie Unit shows that although commercial forest area decreased 31.7% between 1962 and 1977, growing-stock volume increased 22%. This report gives statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area as well as timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, and use.

  6. Grading timber and glued structural members

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Kretschmann; Roland Hernandez

    2006-01-01

    Because of its biological nature, which is influenced by many factors as discussed in Chapter 6, the quality of timber is enormously variable. Therefore, some sort of arrangement or classification must be undertaken prior to its use, in order to get the most out of this valuable resource. It is obvious that not all lumber can be used for the same purposes because not...

  7. (Eds.) Proceedings: Mass Timber Research Workshop 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Williamson; Robert J. Ross

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings, including key points and identified research needs, that evolved from the Mass Timber Research Workshop, which was held at the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), November 3–4, 2015. The purpose of the workshop was to bring design professionals, researchers, and industry leaders together to examine the state-of-the-art in mass...

  8. Space-time modeling of timber prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo Zhou; Joseph Buongriorno

    2006-01-01

    A space-time econometric model was developed for pine sawtimber timber prices of 21 geographically contiguous regions in the southern United States. The correlations between prices in neighboring regions helped predict future prices. The impulse response analysis showed that although southern pine sawtimber markets were not globally integrated, local supply and demand...

  9. Vibration measurements on timber frame floors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de; Oosterhout, G.P.C. van; Donkervoort, R.

    1998-01-01

    In the design of lightweight floors vibrational aspects become more and more important. With the foreseen introduction of Eurocode 5 the vibration of timber floors becomes a part of the design for serviceability. Design rules for the vibrational behaviour are given in Eurocode 5. The first rule is

  10. Non-timber forest products in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie Kamelamela; James B. Friday; Tamara Ticktin; Ashley. Lehman

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forests provide a wide array of non-timber forest products for both traditional and modern uses. Flowers, vines, and ferns are collected for creating garlands or lei for hula dances and parades. Lei made from materials gathered in the forest are made for personal use and sold, especially during graduation times. Bamboo is harvested for structures and for...

  11. Timber Curtain: Designing with material capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahmy, Maya; Larsen, Niels Martin

    2015-01-01

    Timber Curtain explores relations between digital precision and material indeterminacy. It is an installation engaging spatially through its presence as a 1:1 architectural component as well as it is exploring novel technologies in the architectural design process from the very beginning...

  12. Timber resource of Missouri's Eastern Ozarks, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton L. Essex; John S. Jr. Spencer

    1974-01-01

    The third timber inventory of Missouri's Eastern Ozarks Forest Survey Unit shows that there was a substantial gain in the volume of growing stock and smaller but sizable gain in the volume of sawtimber between 1959 and 1972; however, the area of commercial forest land declined slightly. This report gives statistical highlights and tables presenting detailed...

  13. Residual load carrying capacity of timber joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de

    1999-01-01

    Timber joints that have been preloaded for 2 to 8 years have been short term tested in accordance with EN 26891. The applied load levels varied between 30% and 50% of the average short term strength. The study comprised nailed, toothed-plate and split-ring joints. All joints were made of spruce and

  14. (Anogeissus Leiocarpus) Timber *BELLO, AA; JIMOH, AA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    and Phytochemistry, p. 107. Jimoh, AA (1990). Fan palm as a Reinforcement in. Concrete Elements. M.Eng. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ilorin, Ilorin,. Nigeria. Jimoh, AA (2005). Ultimate Strength Design of. Axially Loaded Ayin (Anogeissus leiocarpus). Timber Columns. Journal of Applied Science ...

  15. Projecting Timber Inventory at the Product Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence Teeter; Xiaoping Zhou

    1999-01-01

    Current timber inventory projections generally lack information on inventory by product classes. Most models available for inventory projection and linked to supply analyses are limited to projecting aggregate softwood and hardwood. The research presented describes a methodology for distributing the volume on each FIA (USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis...

  16. Evaluation of Nondestructive Underwater Timber Inspection Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    possible to codice their presnce. Figure 1. Characteristics of marine borers. 3 Table 1. Accuracy Requirements for Timber Piles [Nomenclature at end of...Athens GA NAVSEASYSCOM Code OOC-D. Washington. DC: Codk PMS 395 A 3. Washington. DC; Code PMS 395 A2. Wasi~ington. DC; Codic PMS 396.3311 (Rekas), Wash

  17. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mavis Dora

    2012-01-01

    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  18. Forest management scenarios in a changing climate: trade-offs between carbon, timber, and old forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzburg, Megan K; Scheller, Robert M; Lucash, Melissa S; LeDuc, Stephen D; Johnson, Mark G

    2017-03-01

    Balancing economic, ecological, and social values has long been a challenge in the forests of the Pacific Northwest, where conflict over timber harvest and old-growth habitat on public lands has been contentious for the past several decades. The Northwest Forest Plan, adopted two decades ago to guide management on federal lands, is currently being revised as the region searches for a balance between sustainable timber yields and habitat for sensitive species. In addition, climate change imposes a high degree of uncertainty on future forest productivity, sustainability of timber harvest, wildfire risk, and species habitat. We evaluated the long-term, landscape-scale trade-offs among carbon (C) storage, timber yield, and old forest habitat given projected climate change and shifts in forest management policy across 2.1 million hectares of forests in the Oregon Coast Range. Projections highlight the divergence between private and public lands under business-as-usual forest management, where private industrial forests are heavily harvested and many public (especially federal) lands increase C and old forest over time but provide little timber. Three alternative management scenarios altering the amount and type of timber harvest show widely varying levels of ecosystem C and old-forest habitat. On federal lands, ecological forestry practices also allowed a simultaneous increase in old forest and natural early-seral habitat. The ecosystem C implications of shifts away from current practices were large, with current practices retaining up to 105 Tg more C than the alternative scenarios by the end of the century. Our results suggest climate change is likely to increase forest productivity by 30-41% and total ecosystem C storage by 11-15% over the next century as warmer winter temperatures allow greater forest productivity in cooler months. These gains in C storage are unlikely to be offset by wildfire under climate change, due to the legacy of management and effective fire

  19. Information transfer during the timber transaction period in West Virginia. USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. McGill; Daniel J. Magill; James Kochenderfer; W. Mark Ford; Tom Schuler

    2006-01-01

    Timber harvesting has long-lasting impacts on the productivity and aesthetics of private forests. In many instances, landowners who possess high quality timber are at a competitive disadvantage during timber transactions--the time between a decision by the landowner to sell timber and the completion of the timber harvesting operation--as they may lack understanding of...

  20. Reliability Analysis of Structural Timber Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Hoffmeyer, P.

    2000-01-01

    types of redundancy and non-linearity are considered. The statistical characteristics of the load bearing capacity are determined by reliability analysis. Next, more complex systems are considered modelling the mechanical behaviour of timber roof elements I stressed skin panels made of timber. Using...... characteristics of the load-bearing capacity is estimated in the form of a characteristic value and a coefficient of variation. These two values are of primary importance for codes of practice based on the partial safety factor format since the partial safety factor is closely related to the coefficient...... the above stochastic models, statistical characteristics (distribution function, 5% quantile and coefficient of variation) are determined. Generally, the results show that taking the system effects into account the characteristic load bearing capacity can be increased and the partial safety factor decreased...

  1. Architectural and structural qualities in timber joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Thøger; Christensen, Mogens Fiil; Damkilde, Lars

    2016-01-01

    design phase. The result is joints that function structurally but do not add value to the design, and may even compromise the architectural ideas. With an approach, integrating both structural and architectural design from the beginning, one should not only gain better structures and architecture...... but also increase timbers competitiveness in the building industry. The paper is part of an ongoing research project aiming at providing tools for an integrated design process for timber structures. The focus of the paper is to identify how structure and its joints contributes to architecture and vice...... versa. Further, a method for how to design with structure and joints from the very early stage of design is proposed. The architectural/engineering model of the joints will later be incorporated in the digital design environment of the designer. In this way, the conceptual design phase will not only...

  2. Probabilistic Modeling of Graded Timber Material Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M. H.; Köhler, J.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2004-01-01

    The probabilistic modeling of timber material characteristics is considered with special emphasis to the modeling of the effect of different quality control and selection procedures used as means for quality grading in the production line. It is shown how statistical models may be established...... on the basis of the same type of information which is normally collected as a part of the quality control procedures and furthermore, how the efficiency of different control procedures may be quantified and compared. The tail behavior of the probability distributions of timber material characteristics plays...... such that they may readily be applied in structural reliability analysis and their format appears to be appropriate for codification purposes of quality control and selection for grading procedures....

  3. Visual Training for Sustainable Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aik, Chong-Tek; Tway, Duane C.

    2004-01-01

    It is increasingly important for timber companies to train managers in the principles and practices of sustainable forest management. One of the most effective ways to conduct such training is through use of visual training methods. This is partly because visual representations encode large amounts of information and help learners to grasp…

  4. Timber value growth rates in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A, Gansner; Stanford L. Arner; Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1990-01-01

    Rates of growth in the value of standing timber can vary greatly from stand to stand and from tree to tree. In Maine, the compound annual rate of change in stand value between the two most recent forest inventories ranged from -12 to +43 percent. Faced with this kind of variation, forest managers can use help in determining financial rates of return for their woodland...

  5. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...... integral nail-plates and nailed steel and plywood gussets. The report is intended for designers and researchers in timber engineering....

  6. Ranking independent timber investments by alternative investment criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Mills; Gary E. Dixon

    1982-01-01

    A sample of 231 independent timber investments were ranked by internal rate of return, present net worth per acre and the benefit cost ratio—the last two discounted by 3, 6.4. 7.5. and 10 percent—to determine if the different criteria had a practical influence on timber investment ranking. The samples in this study were drawn from a group of timber investments...

  7. Markets, Government Policy, and China’s Timber Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han Zhang; Joseph Buongiorno

    2012-01-01

    China’s domestic demand and exports of wood products are rising rapidly compared to domestic supply. The determinants of timber supply in China were investigated with panel data from 25 provinces from 1999 to 2009. The results indicated that China’s timber supply had responded to both market forces, reflected by timber prices largely determined by world demand and...

  8. Exploring Cu{sub 2}O/Cu cermet as a partially inert anode to produce aluminum in a sustainable way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Li-Chao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Huaihai Institute of Technology and Jiangsu Province R and D Institute of Marine Resources, Lianyungang 222005 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Xie, Ning, E-mail: xiening@hit.edu.cn [School of Transportation Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Shao, Wen-Zhu, E-mail: wzshao@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhen, Liang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Ivanov, V.V. [Physical Chemistry Department, Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}O/Cu cermet was used as a candidate partially inert anode material to produce aluminum alloys. • The thermal corrosion behavior of Cu{sub 2}O/Cu was investigated in molten salt at 960 °C. • The corrosion rate is largely governed by the geometrical structures of Cu in the prepared samples. • The corrosion rate increases with decreasing sizes and increasing filling contents of Cu phase. • The corrosion rate was 1.8–9 cm/y and the Cu contents is less than 6.2 wt.% in the produced aluminum. - Abstract: As an energy-intensive process, aluminum production by the Hall–Héroult method accounts for significant emissions of CO{sub 2} and some toxic greenhouse gases. The utilization of an inert anode in place of a carbon anode was considered as a revolutionary technique to solve most of the current environmental problems resulting from the Hall–Héroult process. However, the critical property requirements of the inert anode materials significantly limit the application of this technology. In light of the higher demand for aluminum alloys than for pure aluminum, a partially inert anode was designed to produce aluminum alloys in a more sustainable way. Here, Cu{sub 2}O/Cu cermet was chosen as the material of interest. The thermal corrosion behavior of Cu{sub 2}O/Cu was investigated in Na{sub 3}AlF{sub 6}–CaF{sub 2}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrolyte at 960 °C to elucidate the corrosion mechanisms of this type of partially inert anode for the production of aluminum or aluminum alloys. Furthermore, the effects of the geometrical structure of the Cu phase on the thermal corrosion behavior of Cu{sub 2}O/Cu cermet in the electrolyte were investigated as well. The thermal corrosion rate was evaluated by the weight loss method and the results show that the samples prepared with branch-like Cu have higher thermal corrosion rate than those prepared with spherical Cu, and the corrosion rate increases with decreasing size and increasing filling

  9. A combined loading system integrated with portable winch and polyethylene chutes for loading of timber products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hulusi Acar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Truck loading operation is an important task during timber production operations in forestry. In Turkey, approximately 50 million timbers/logs are being produced per year, and then they are loaded into the logging trucks. The timber/logs are transported over the forest roads with an average of one million roundtrips. However, the traditional loading methods using manpower are mostly performed while some part is done by using loading machines which can be very costly and risky. This study aims developing a combined loading system in which heavy logs are loaded into logging trucks by pulling them by a log-line powered by a portable crane within the chute system. The slope of the log-line from ground to logging truck varied between 1% and 25%. Within the each work cycle of loading operation, only one log was loaded by pulling with portable crane. The average loading time was found as 161.8 seconds per cycle, in which 67% of the time was spent on pulling the log into the logging truck. The results indicated that the average pulling speed with crane power was 840.4 m/hr and productivity was calculated as 4.94 m3/hr. The result on system speed and productivity indicated close relations with results from previous studies. The hydraulic grapple loader or cranes are widely used and common loading machines, but they cannot be efficiently used in forestry operations, especially ones having a low timber productivity rate or having low economic value timber. In these conditions, loading methods that are cost efficient and do not require higher production rate should be employed. Therefore, a combined loading system introduced in this study can be a feasible solution for loading operations in those cases. Furthermore, it is believed that this loading system integrated with a portable crane can be cost efficient and time saving solution, as well as ergonomic and safe method in the field.

  10. Psilocybin produces substantial and sustained decreases in depression and anxiety in patients with life-threatening cancer: A randomized double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Roland R; Johnson, Matthew W; Carducci, Michael A; Umbricht, Annie; Richards, William A; Richards, Brian D; Cosimano, Mary P; Klinedinst, Margaret A

    2016-12-01

    Cancer patients often develop chronic, clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety. Previous studies suggest that psilocybin may decrease depression and anxiety in cancer patients. The effects of psilocybin were studied in 51 cancer patients with life-threatening diagnoses and symptoms of depression and/or anxiety. This randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial investigated the effects of a very low (placebo-like) dose (1 or 3 mg/70 kg) vs. a high dose (22 or 30 mg/70 kg) of psilocybin administered in counterbalanced sequence with 5 weeks between sessions and a 6-month follow-up. Instructions to participants and staff minimized expectancy effects. Participants, staff, and community observers rated participant moods, attitudes, and behaviors throughout the study. High-dose psilocybin produced large decreases in clinician- and self-rated measures of depressed mood and anxiety, along with increases in quality of life, life meaning, and optimism, and decreases in death anxiety. At 6-month follow-up, these changes were sustained, with about 80% of participants continuing to show clinically significant decreases in depressed mood and anxiety. Participants attributed improvements in attitudes about life/self, mood, relationships, and spirituality to the high-dose experience, with >80% endorsing moderately or greater increased well-being/life satisfaction. Community observer ratings showed corresponding changes. Mystical-type psilocybin experience on session day mediated the effect of psilocybin dose on therapeutic outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00465595. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Utilization of Oregon’s timber harvest and associated direct economic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krista M. Gebert; Charles E. Keegan; Sue Willits; Al. Chase

    2002-01-01

    With more than 16 million acres of commercial timberland, Oregon’s forest products industry is an important part of Oregon’s economy and a major player in the Nation’s wood products market. Despite declining production over the last decade, in 1998 Oregon was still the leading producer of softwood lumber and plywood in the United States, and the timber harvested in...

  12. Seismic retrofitting of timber framed walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After the 1755 earthquake that destroyed Lisbon, an innovative anti-seismic structural system was developed consisting of a timber skeleton, that included timber framed masonry walls. After more than 250 years these structures need rehabilitation to face the present demands. The research presented in this paper aimed at experimentally characterizing the cyclic behaviour of timber framed walls reinforced with three different methods, namely: (i elastic-plastic dampers on diagonal braces, (ii reinforcement of timber connections with steel plates, (iii application of a reinforced rendering. The elastic-plastic damper showed an unsymmetrical behaviour and some difficulties to implement in practice. The strengthening with reinforced render led to an initial stiffness increase but showed a limited deformation capacity. The walls with reinforcing steel plates at the timber connections showed the best behaviour in terms of strength, stiffness and energy dissipation.Después del terremoto de 1755 que destruyó Lisboa, un sistema estructural antisísmico muy innovador fue desarrollado. El sistema consistió en un esqueleto de madera, que incluyó la construcción de muros de mampostería con un entramado de madera. Transcurridos más de 250 años, estas estructuras necesitan rehabilitación para poder hacer frente a los requisitos estructurales actuales. La investigación presentada en este trabajo tiene como objetivo caracterizar experimentalmente el comportamiento cíclico de los muros con entramado de madera reforzados con tres métodos diferentes: (i amortiguadores elasto-plásticos, (ii refuerzo de las conexiones de madera con placas de acero, (iii aplicación de un mortero reforzado. El amortiguador elasto-plástico mostró un comportamiento asimétrico y algunas dificultades para aplicarlo en la práctica. El refuerzo con mortero reforzado condujo a un aumento de la rigidez inicial, pero reveló una capacidad de deformación limitada. Los muros con

  13. Michigan's fourth forest inventory: timber volumes and projections of timber supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer; Jerold T. Hahn

    1984-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan shows growing-stock volume increased 27% between 1966 and 1980, from 15.1 to 19.1 billion cubic feet. Presented are highlights and statistics on volume, growth, mortality, removals, biomass, and projections.

  14. Wisconsin timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith; James W. Whipple

    1990-01-01

    Discusses recent Wisconsin forest industry trends; production and receipts of pulpwood, saw logs, and veneer logs; and production of other timber products in 1988. Reports on logging residue, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of this mill residue.

  15. Appropriateness of Probit-9 in development of quarantine treatments for timber and timber commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus Schortemeyer; Ken Thomas; Robert A. Haack; Adnan Uzunovic; Kelli Hoover; Jack A. Simpson; Cheryl A. Grgurinovic

    2011-01-01

    Following the increasing international phasing out of methyl bromide for quarantine purposes, the development of alternative treatments for timber pests becomes imperative. The international accreditation of new quarantine treatments requires verification standards that give confidence in the effectiveness of a treatment. Probit-9 mortality is a standard for treatment...

  16. South Dakota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Gregory J. Josten

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent South Dakota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  17. Maryland timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters; Daniel R. Rider; Ronald J. Piva

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Maryland forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  18. Wisconsin timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent Wisconsin forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  19. North Dakota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Robert A. Harsel

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent North Dakota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  20. Minnesota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Keith. Jacobson

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Minnesota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2007. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  1. Missouri timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Thomas B. Treiman

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Missouri forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  2. Indiana timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters; Jeff Settle; Ronald J. Piva

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Indiana forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  3. Michigan timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Anthony K. Weatherspoon

    2010-01-01

    Presents recent Michigan forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2006. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  4. Kansas timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent Kansas forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  5. RYGB Produces more Sustained Body Weight Loss and Improvement of Glycemic Control Compared with VSG in the Diet-Induced Obese Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zheng; Townsend, R Leigh; Mumphrey, Michael B; Morrison, Christopher D; Münzberg, Heike; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2017-09-01

    Weight regain and type-2 diabetes relapse has been reported in a significant proportion of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) patients in some studies, but definitive conclusions regarding the long-term comparative effectiveness of VSG and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery are lacking both in humans and rodent models. This study's objective was to compare the effects of murine models of VSG and RYGB surgery on body weight, body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, and glycemic control. VSG, RYGB, and sham surgery was performed in high-fat diet-induced obese mice, and the effects on body weight and glycemic control were observed for a period of 12 weeks. After the initial weight loss, VSG mice regained significant amounts of body weight and fat mass that were only marginally lower than in sham-operated mice. In contrast, RYGB produced sustained loss of body weight and fat mass up to 12 weeks and drastically improved fasting insulin and HOMA-IR compared with sham-operated mice. Using weight-matched control groups, we also found that the adaptive hypometabolic response to weight loss was blunted by both VSG and RYGB, and that despite large weight/fat regain, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were markedly improved, but not reversed, in VSG mice. VSG is less effective to lastingly suppress body weight and improve glycemic control compared with RYGB in mice. Given similar observations in many human studies, the run towards replacing RYGB with VSG is premature and should await carefully controlled randomized long-term trials with VSG and RYGB.

  6. Timber seasoning and density characterstics of Cordia alliodora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shrinkage values of the timber at oven dry (0%) MC compared at 12% MC increased by about 1.7 times. Slight seasoning defects such as cup, bow, twist, end split and checks were observed. In general, the species revealed good timber properties and qualities. Therefore, the species has to be grown and well managed, ...

  7. Reliability based Robustness of Timber Structures through NDT Data Updating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, Hélder S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a framework for reliability-based assessment of timber structures / members using data gathered from non-destructive test results. These results are used for modeling an update of the mechanical characteristics of timber, using Bayesian methods. Results gathered from ultrasound...

  8. Timber resources of western Oregon—highlights and statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes and interprets the results of a timber resource inventory of western Oregon made between 1973 and 1976. Detailed tables give land and forest area, timber volume, growth, and mortality for western Oregon and for southwest Oregon, west-central Oregon, and northwest Oregon.

  9. Powder-driven-nail connections for round timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Wolfe; KugBo Shim; Marshall Begel

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to encourage the development of value-added engineered applications for small diameter round timber, research is being conducted at the US Forest Products Laboratory to develop and verify design guidelines for connections with specific application to round timbers. The objective of this work is to provide potential users with a number of viable connection...

  10. The Timber Wolf: Hands-On Activities for Elementary Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Donald G.; Oh, Bobbie S.

    The focus of this manual is the timber wolf and its experience in the United States. The activities are designed to enable students to gain a factual understanding of the timber wolf, question any misinformation they have learned regarding wolves, and learn to appreciate the wolf as a creature of nature rather than fear it as a creature of fairy…

  11. Economic feasibility of including game habitats in timber management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell K. Halls

    1975-01-01

    Profits largely determine management decisions on commercial forest lands. Past decisions have therefore favored timber production over wildlife, and practices advantageous to wildlife were usually incidental. This paper explains how effective timber management on public and private lands can be coordinated with wildlife needs to obtain revenues from hunting as well...

  12. Public Timber Supply under Multiple-Use Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear

    2003-01-01

    In many parts of the world, substantial shares of timber inventories are managed by government agencies. The objective of this chapter is to examine the potential influence of public timber production on market structure as well as on prices, harvest quantities, and economic welfare. National forest management in the United States is used as a tractable case study, but...

  13. Comparative durability of timber bridges in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Brian K. Brashaw

    2017-01-01

    As engineers begin to utilize life-cycle-cost design approaches for timber bridges, there is a necessity for more reliable data about their durability and expected service life. This paper summarizes a comprehensive effort to assess the current condition of more than one hundred timber highway bridge superstructures throughout the United States. This national study was...

  14. Lateral testing of glued laminated timber tudor arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer; Philip Line

    2016-01-01

    Glued laminated timber Tudor arches have been in wide use in the United States since the 1930s, but detailed knowledge related to seismic design in modern U.S. building codes is lacking. FEMA P-695 (P-695) is a methodology to determine seismic performance factors for a seismic force resisting system. A limited P-695 study for glued laminated timber arch structures...

  15. structural reliability of the nigerian grown abura timber bridge beam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ENGR. J. I. AGUWA

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... developed and used for reliability analysis of the Nigerian grown Abura timber bridge beam so designed, to ascertain its ... for timber bridge beams at depth of 400mm, breadth of 150mm and span of 5000mm under the ultimate limit state ..... of a Glue-Jointed Roof Truss" J.Eng.& Appl Sci,. Vol 17, Number 1, ...

  16. Cattle and elk responses to intensive timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Wisdom; Bruce K. Johnson; Martin Vavra; Jennifer M. Boyd; Priscilla K. Coe; John G. Kie; Alan A. Ager; Norman J. Cimon

    2004-01-01

    Forested habitats for cattle and elk (Cervus elaphus) in the western United States have changed substantially in response to intensive timber management during the latter half of the 20th century. Consequently, the subject of how elk and other ungulates respond to timber management is a high-profile, long-standing issue that continues to be studied...

  17. PROBABILISTIC FAILURE ANALYSIS OF A SOLID TIMBER COLUMN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... In this paper, a reliability evaluation of a solid timber column of square cross section subjected to axial and lateral loading in ... reliability evaluation, solid timber column, Eurocode, axial loading, slenderness ratio. 1. Introduction. The quality of an .... joint probability function. Fx(x) = P (nn i=1 {Xi ≤ xi}).

  18. Chapter 2: Manufacturing Cross-laminated timber manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjen Yeh; Dave Kretschmann; Brad (Jianhe) Wang

    2013-01-01

    Cross-laminated timber ( CLT) is defined as a prefabricated solid engineered wood product made of at least three orthogonally bonded layers of solid-sawn lumber or structural composite lumber (SCL) that are laminated by gluing oflongitudinal and transverse layers with structural adhesives to form a solid rectangular-shaped, straight, and plane timber intended for roof...

  19. Timber Management Opportunities for Nebraska 1983-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith; Tom D. Wardle

    1984-01-01

    Reviews opportunities for treatment of timber stands in Nebraska for the decade 1983 - 1992. Under the assumptions and management guides specified, 52 percent of Nebraska''s commercial forest land would benefit from timber harvest or some other form of treatment during the decade.

  20. Field investigations of historic covered timber bridges in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wacker; Travis Hosteng; Brent. Phares

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Highway Administration is sponsoring a comprehensive research program on Historic Covered Timber Bridges in the USA. This national program's main purpose is to develop improved methods to preserve, rehabililate, and restore the timber bridge trusses that were developed during the early 1800s, and in many cases are still in service today. The overall...

  1. Live Load Testing of Historic Covered Timber Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis Hosteng; James Wacker; Brent Phares

    2013-01-01

    The National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation Program (NHCBP), sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), is intended to preserve covered timber bridge structures nationwide. Today, less than 700 covered timber bridges still exist in the United States and of those many are closed to vehicular traffic. Furthermore, a large percentage of the remaining...

  2. Improving timber floors by adding a concrete slab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M.L.R. van der

    1998-01-01

    Timber-concrete composite floors are much stronger and show a higher bending stiffness than most traditional timber floors. The geometry and behaviour of these floors, as determined through bending tests, will be discussed. A FEM simulation program was developed to carry out sensitivity analyses and

  3. Alaska’s timber harvest and forest products industry, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik C. Berg; Charles B. Gale; Todd A. Morgan; Allen M. Brackley; Charles E. Keegan; Susan J. Alexander; Glenn A. Christensen; Chelsea P. McIver; Micah G. Scudder

    2014-01-01

    This report traces the flow of timber harvested in Alaska during calendar year 2011, describes the composition and operations of the state’s primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as trends in timber harvest, production, export, sales of primary wood products,...

  4. Epidemiology of Eye Diseases among Timber Workers in Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anepidemiological studyof the Timber Industry in Owerri, Nigeria was carriedout. It assessed the burden of eye diseases among Timber workers in terms of magnitude, causes and time. Certain eye diseases, notably, conjunctivitis, foreign bodies/injuries/traumas, pterygia, pinguecula and uveitis, each, accounting for ...

  5. Timber resource statistics for the Juneau inventory unit, Alaska, 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon J. LaBau; Willem W.S. Van Hees

    1983-01-01

    Statistics on forest area, total gross and net timber volumes, and annual net growth and mortality are presented for the 1970 timber inventory of the Juneau unit, Alaska. Estimates for commercial forest land area total 1.3 million acres (535 000 ha) with a net growing stock volume of 8.3 billion cubic feet (234 million m3), and annual net growth...

  6. Timber resource statistics for the Ketchikan inventory unit, Alaska, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    1984-01-01

    Statistics on forest area, total gross and net timber volumes, and annual net growth and mortality are presented from the 1974 timber inventory of the Ketchikan. unit, Alaska. Timberland area is estimated at 1.16 million acres (470 040 ha), net growing stock volume at 6.39 billion cubic feet (181.04 million m3), and annual net growth and...

  7. 36 CFR 219.29 - Limitation on timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation on timber harvest. 219.29 Section 219.29 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... responsible official may sell timber from areas that are substantially affected by fire, wind, or other events...

  8. Stand for testing sections of mechanized timbering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebennikov, Yu.N.; Aksenov, Yu.G.; Khazanov, Kh.I.; Khazin, V.A.; Radulov, V.Ye.; Vavilov, V.V.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to bring the testing conditions closer to the operating with multiple loading. This goal is achieved because in the stand for testing sections of mechanized timbering which includes a power frame, loading device with support and hydraulic equipment, the loading device is made in the form of enclosure sprockets and infinite mobile gears surrounding them on which with variable spacing with the help of transverse planks there are supports attached. In this case the length of the enclosure of each gear is the aliquant to the spacing of its advance.

  9. Urinary arsenic levels in timber treatment operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollop, B R; Glass, W I

    1979-01-10

    An investigation was carried out into arsenic levels in urine of timber treatment operators at six treatment plants in the Waikato-Rotorua area. The mean arsenic level for treatment operators was 222 migrograms/l compared with the normal range of 5-40 micrograms/l. In order to reduce the present significant exposure to treatment chemicals such as arsenic and chromium, it is recommended that the wood preservation industry take engineering measures to reduce the present air emissions and adopt strict work practices in hygiene and protective clothing in similar manner to those handling mercury and lead.

  10. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures with Ductile Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Cizmar, D.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper considers robustness evaluation of timber structures where the ductile behavior of joints of timber material is taken into account. The robustness analysis is based on the structural reliability framework used on a simplified mechanical system modelling a structural timber system...... as a parallel system. A measure of ductile behaviour is introduced. For different values of this measure the system reliability is estimated based on Monte Carlo simulation where correlation between the strength of structural elements and load models for permanent and live load are introduced. The results...... indicate the reliability of a structural timber ystem can be increased apprximately 20 % awarding the ductile behaviour. At last the paper discusses possible structural timber systems which have potential for providing ductility and redundancy....

  11. RILEM International Symposium on Materials and Joints in Timber Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, H-W; Garrecht, Harald

    2014-01-01

    This book contains the contributions from the RILEM International Symposium on Materials and Joints in Timber Structures that was held in Stuttgart, Germany from October 8 to 10, 2013. It covers recent developments in the materials and the joints used in modern timber structures. Regarding basic wooden materials, the contributions highlight the widened spectrum of products comprising cross-laminated timber, glulam and LVL from hardwoods and block glued elements. Timber concrete compounds, cement bonded wood composites and innovative light-weight constructions represent increasingly employed alternatives for floors, bridges and facades. With regard to jointing technologies, considerable advances in both mechanical connections and glued joints are presented. Self-tapping screws have created unprecedented options for reliable, strong as well as ductile joints and reinforcement technologies. Regarding adhesives, which constitute the basis of the jointing/laminating technology of modern timber products, extended o...

  12. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubbage, Frederick; Koesbandana, Sadharga; Gonzalez, Ronalds; Carrero, Omar; MacIntyre, Charles; Abt, Robert; Phillips, Richard [Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Mac Donagh, Patricio [Universidad Nacional de Misiones (UNAM), Lisandro de la Torre s/n, CP 3380, Eldorado, Misiones (Argentina); Rubilar, Rafael [Universidad de Concepcion, Victoria 631, Casilla 160-C - Correo 3, Concepcion (Chile); Balmelli, Gustavo [Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuria, INIA Tacuarembo, Ruta 5, Km 386, Tacuarembo (Uruguay); Olmos, Virginia Morales [Weyerhaeuser Company, La Rosa 765, Melo (Uruguay); De La Torre, Rafael [CellFor, 247 Davis Street, Athens, GA (United States); Murara, Mauro [Universidade do Contestado, R. Joaquim Nabuco, 314 Bairro Cidade Nova, Porto Uniao, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Hoeflich, Vitor Afonso [Universidade Federal do Parana, Av. Pref. Lothario Meissner, 900, 80210-170, Jardim Botanico, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Kotze, Heynz [Komatiland Forests (Pty) Ltd, P.O. Box 14228, Nelspruit (South Africa); Frey, Gregory [World Bank, 1818 H. Street NW, Washington, DC (United States); Adams, Thomas; Turner, James [New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd., Scion, 49 Sala St., Rotorua (New Zealand); Lord, Roger [Mason, Bruce, and Girard, Inc., 707 SW Washington St., Portland, Oregon (United States); Huang, Jin [Abt Associates, 4550 Montgomery Avenue, Bethesda, MD (United States); McGinley, Kathleen [International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, c/o 920 Main Campus Dr. Suite 300, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. (author)

  13. Compatibility of timber and non-timber forest product management in natural tropical forests: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guariguata, M.R.; García-Fernández, C.; Shiel, D.; Nasi, R.; Herrero-Jáuregui, C.; Cronkleton, P.; Ingram, V.

    2010-01-01

    Tropical forests could satisfy multiple demands for goods and services both for present and future generations. Yet integrated approaches to natural forest management remain elusive across the tropics. In this paper we examine one combination of uses: selective harvesting of timber and non-timber

  14. Review of the sustainability of the forest sector to produce charcoal from planted forests; Analise da sustentabilidade do setor florestal para producao de carvao vegetal a partir de florestas plantadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Thiago Oliveira [Fundacao de Tecnologia Florestal e Geoprocessamento (NUPA/FUNTEC), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Nucleo de Projetos Ambientais

    2008-07-01

    Brazil is the world's greater producer of charcoal and most of this production takes care of to the siderurgical sector. Thus, one understands that the Brazilian steel is produced of sustainable form. However, such sustainability is not based only on a renewable energy source. The origin of the wood for the carbonization, if proceeding from planted forests or native bushes, is crucial factor in this analysis. Beyond the ambient dimension, the sustainability of the charcoal segment also is influenced by its social, economic and technological aspects. In this context, the present article searches, through the construction and the analysis of the diagnosis of the charcoal in Brazil, to evaluate the sustainability of the sector and to consider alternatives to reach it. The current model of production of charcoal in the country is unsustainable. The main adopted systems of carbonization in Brazil are low level technological with consequent decrease production. The activity is unhealthy, beyond having many cases of enslaved and infantile work. The coal of native forests is much cheaper and the fiscalization is poor, fact that discourages its production from planted forests. But if the vegetal coal will be understood as an energy solution for the siderurgical sector measures can be taken to search a model of sustainable production. (author)

  15. The performance of regional timber industry complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Aleksandrovich Shishelov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the results of the economic evaluation of the performance of regional timber industry complex of the NorthWestern Federal District based on the calculation of the structural indicator. The position and the role of forestry in the economy are shown. A comparative assessment of the characteristics of the regional forestry: volume of shipped products, industrial structure, product diversification, deep processing of wood is carried out. Structural economic performance timber for each subject Northwestern Federal District is designed the following factors that determine the high effectiveness of the system: the scale pulp and paper, wood diversification, export products are identified. The important methodological significance is the fact that the use of structural indicators will determine not only the effectiveness of forestry regions North-West in general, but their industries: forestry, woodworking, pulp and paper production, and the level of labor productivity and capital productivity. The presented results are of high practical and methodological value to determine the current state of forestry.

  16. The forest ecosystem of southeast Alaska: 7. Forest ecology and timber management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arland S. Harris; Wilbur A. Farr

    1974-01-01

    Large-scale use of the timber resource of southeast Alaska began in 1953 after long efforts to establish a timber industry. Development and present status of the industry and present management of the timber resource are summarized, stressing the biological basis for timber management activities in southeast Alaska today. Ecological and silvicultural considerations...

  17. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. (a) Management plans for national forest timber resources shall be prepared...

  18. Cutting drying costs by pre-grading green timber according to strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gard, W.F.

    1996-01-01

    Pre-grading of green timber can be used to reduce the costs of timber drying for applications where strong dry timber is required. An example is chosen (wood for glue lamination) where the potential drying cost saving from pre-sorting green timber is 35% of the total drying costs (or as much as 9%

  19. Round timber bolted joints reinforced with modified washers and self-drilling screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonín Lokaj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Timber constructions made of round timber components are becoming more and more popular. Given that in the current European standards for the design of timber structures, timber-to-timber joint type is solved only for squared timber. This paper presents results of static tests in tension at an angle of 0°, 90°, 60° to the grain of round timber bolted joints. This research looks into reinforcement with modified washers or self-drilling screws, as these are the least labour-intensive (while economically advantageous. The joints samples were experimentally tested in the laboratory of the Faculty of Civil Engineering VŠB TU Ostrava.

  20. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  1. Small Sawmills Persevere While the Majors Close: Evaluating Resilience and Desirable Timber Allocation in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn W. Pinkerton

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We compared the resilience to economic shocks - such as the downturn of the U.S. housing market - of commodity sawmills, which tend to be large, and value-added specialty sawmills, which tend to be small or medium in size, that are located in one region of the province of British Columbia, Canada, as measured by their average days in operation over the last decade and during the 2007-2009 recession. Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative measures, we then examined three behavioral characteristics contributing to their different degrees of resilience: flexibility, diversity, and orientation to place. We found that the specialty mills had greater resilience over the decade because they (a contributed more jobs per volume of wood consumed and produced, (b had greater flexibility to operate further below their capacity, (c produced more diverse primary and secondary (value-added wood products, (d targeted more diverse markets, and (e did more log sorting and trading in logs of different species with other specialty mills and with local commodity mills, with whom they acted as a resilient cluster. Although all these activities resulted in more logs flowing toward their highest value use, we found that the specialty mills lacked a secure and adequate timber supply, while the major timber tenures held by the commodity mills went largely unused during the downturn. This finding suggests that, in addition to contributing to resilience within the forest products sector, more access to timber tenure by the specialty mills, or having a greater portion of timber on the open market, would result in more value being produced from publicly owned timber.

  2. Conflicts of interests on the issue of Timber Exploitation within the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Celso Fantini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the problematic situation of commercial timber exploitation as a land use option in the community of Rio Branco, located in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil, and examines the controversial implementation of the Community Forest Management Project (CFMP. Interviews with extractivists and representatives from nine government and non-government organizations resulted in a list of eight desired land use practices. Each of the interviewees was asked to rank the land uses according to his/her individual priorities. Through the use of the Indicator of Sustainability in Systems of Interests (ISSI, the degree of convergence was calculated between the interest (rank of priorities of each extractivist and the collective interest, as well as between the interests of the extractivists and other institutions. Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs management and shifting cultivation are the preferred land uses noted by extractivists who are ‘non-participants’ in the CFMP, who attribute minimum priority to timber exploitation. Those who participate in CFMP rank timber exploitation as their top priority. Members of government institutions and NGOs indicated a preference for land uses that cause less impact on the forest, choices that are closer to the group of ‘non-participant’ extractivists than to the ‘participant’ group. In a second round of ranking, CFMP ‘participants’ significantly changed their previous choices, this time electing management of NTFPs and shifting cultivation as their top priorities. The results revealed that the issue of timber exploitation in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve constitutes a complex system of interests and that some extractivists do not feel confident in relation to the consequences of the implementation of the project, i.e., the project was not sufficiently mature to be implemented.

  3. Greek timber industries and wood product markets over the last century: development constraints and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis P. Koulelis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the Greek forestry sector after 1930. According to the past literature, the sector was entirely degraded and reliable data are not available. The study analyses critical historical data about timber sector and timber companies; the main objective is the specification of the factors that kept the Greek forest sector underdevelopment. The factors and the development constraints, including the indigenous characteristics of the Greek forests, the inhibitory policy for timber production investments, especially in the state industries, lack of market research, unorthodox procedures for sale of the wood, bad quality and high cost of production and periods of general economic recession are analyzed farther. Conclusively, the need for producing official forest maps, forest data recording, rapid adaptation to EU specifications, investments, deep changes in to the managership of the state industries, permanent and specialized personnel and promotion of national programs for the development of the small-scale wood elaboration and wood selling industrial units are some of the solutions for the above problems that could be suggested.

  4. Greek timber industries and wood product markets over the last century: development constraints and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis P. Koulelis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the Greek forestry sector after 1930. According to the past literature, the sector was entirely degraded and reliable data are not available. The study analyses critical historical data about timber sector and timber companies; the main objective is the specification of the factors that kept the Greek forest sector underdevelopment. The factors and the development constraints, including the indigenous characteristics of the Greek forests, the inhibitory policy for timber production investments, especially in the state industries, lack of market research, unorthodox procedures for sale of the wood, bad quality and high cost of production and periods of general economic recession are analyzed farther. Conclusively, the need for producing official forest maps, forest data recording, rapid adaptation to EU specifications, investments, deep changes in to the managership of the state industries, permanent and specialized personnel and promotion of national programs for the development of the small-scale wood elaboration and wood selling industrial units are some of the solutions for the above problems that could be suggested.

  5. Tensile properties of machine strength graded timber for glued laminated timber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boström, Lars; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Solli, Kjell-Helge

    1999-01-01

    Special setting values based on tensile properties of Norway spruce are established for four different strength grading machines. The machines included are Computermatic, Cook-Bolinder, Ersson and Dynagrade.The study shows that the yield of timber to be used in tension, such as laminations...... for glulam, may be increased by basing the setting values on test results of the tensile properties rather than using the strength classes definen in EN338....

  6. Reliability Analysis of Timber Structures through NDT Data Upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, Hélder; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    The first part of this document presents, in chapter 2, a description of timber characteristics and common used NDT and MDT for timber elements. Stochastic models for timber properties and damage accumulation models are also referred. According to timber’s properties a framework is proposed...... for robustness are dealt in chapter 5. The second part of this document begins in chapter 6, where a practical application of the premise definitions and methodologies is given through the implementation of upgraded models with NDT and MDT data. Structural life-cycle is, therefore, assessed and reliability...

  7. Robustness Issues for Design of Innovative Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2013-01-01

    Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious conse-quences in case of failure. The present paper summaries issues with respect to robustness of timber structures. Two different...... large span timber structures are analyzed and based on these analyses the paper presents guidelines for the future development of innovative timber struc-tures which are robust with respect to design and execution errors, unforeseen degradation and other potential hazards....

  8. Probabilistic representation of duration of load effects in timber structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    to be considered. These two cases are maximum load level exceeding load-carrying capacity and damage accumulation (caused by the load and its duration) leading to failure. The effect of both load intensity and load duration on the capacity of timber has been an area of large interest over the last decades......-based design of timber structures in terms of a modification factor View the MathML source which is multiplied on the short-term resistance of the timber material. The scenario of a beam subject to office space life loads is analyzed and the modification factor View the MathML source is calibrated by using...

  9. System Reliability of Timber Structures with Ductile Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Čizmar, Dean

    2011-01-01

    The present paper considers the evaluation of timber structures with the focus on robustness due to connection ductility. The robustness analysis is based on the structural reliability framework applied to a simplified mechanical system. The structural timber system is depicted as a parallel system....... An evaluation method of the ductile behaviour is introduced. For different ductile behaviours, the system reliability is estimated based on Monte Carlo simulation. A correlation between the strength of the structural elements is introduced. The results indicate that the reliability of a structural timber system...

  10. Increasing production, the sustained yield method, and reserve structure of agrisilvicultural ecosystems in the moist tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruenig, E.F.

    1980-09-01

    While substantial improvements first of all require a profound change of political attitudes and the replacement of irrational ideological creeds, improvements of the food situation in addition needs the application of ecologically adapted and economically sound land use techniques. This in turn requires scientific knowledge of the interrelationships between site factors and the structure and functions of crop types. The principles of the structural design of tropical virgin forest ecosystems can be usefully adapted for the development of agroforestry crop types. Such crop types should be capable of producing a sustained yield of food, timber, fuel, medicinal substances, spices and other useful products and, in addition, produce favourable, stabilizing effects on the local, regional and finally global biosphere.

  11. Statistical Analysis of Data for Timber Strengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Hoffmeyer, P.

    Statistical analyses are performed for material strength parameters from approximately 6700 specimens of structural timber. Non-parametric statistical analyses and fits to the following distributions types have been investigated: Normal, Lognormal, 2 parameter Weibull and 3-parameter Weibull. The......-parameter Weibull (and Normal) distributions give the best fits to the data available, especially if tail fits are used whereas the LogNormal distribution generally gives poor fit and larger coefficients of variation, especially if tail fits are used........ The statistical fits have generally been made using all data (100%) and the lower tail (30%) of the data. The Maximum Likelihood Method and the Least Square Technique have been used to estimate the statistical parameters in the selected distributions. 8 different databases are analysed. The results show that 2...

  12. Co-Producing Sustainability: Involving Parents and Civil Society in the Governance of School Meal Services. A Case Study from Pisa, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Galli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a rising awareness of the power of the public sector in enhancing sustainable consumption and production practices, in particular related to food procurement and its social, ethical, economical and environmental implications. School meal services have a high resonance in the debate on collective catering services because of the implications on the education to sustainable dietary habits and the orientation of the production system. This contribution focuses on the reciprocal relationship between professionals and users of school meal services as a driver to mobilize new resources—according to the theory of co-production—that steer service innovation and a shift towards more sustainable practices. We illustrate this through a case study on the school meal system in Pisa (Italy, where the Canteen Committee represents an institutional arena for participation and empowerment of actors that has gradually gained a central role in shaping this school meal service. Despite the challenges and obstacles, the institutionalized co-production of services allows consolidation of trust among key players and the introduction of innovations in the service, in the form of several projects oriented to sustainability which would not take place without the joint effort of actors involved, parents in the first place.

  13. A Comparative Study on Timber Productivity by Timber Firms in Ghana as Influenced by Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Martin Amoah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Some of the major problems that confront the timber industry in Ghana are: The industries inability to diversify value-added products for export as well as decline in export volumes, prices, and number of sawmills which are actively engaged in the production and exportation of wood products especially the locally-owned. Furthermore, the capacity of forest sector has also reduced. These developments present a challenge to the local entrepreneurs in the face of globalization; and for that matter, the need to conduct an empirical comparative study into the issues to find solutions to mitigate them is now.The average number of products exported ware 3 and 4 by the locally- and foreign-owned firms respectively. In general, both categories of firms showed declines in eight low export prices of wood products from 2000 to 2008. Air-dried and kiln-dried lumber were the dominant products exported by both categories of firms. The foreign-owned timber firms exported ten high-priced timber products and eight by their counterparts; this makes the foreign-owned firms more diversified than the locally-owned firms. It is also worthy of note that, more than half (59% of the foreign-owned firms exported between 4 and 6 products while less than one-fourth (23% of the locally-owned firms exported the same number of products. Only one foreign owned firm exported products of 10 and above. Again the foreign owned - firms concentrated more on value added products while the locally-owned - firms specialized on primary products. This suggests that the foreign-owned firms are more efficient than their local counterparts.Statistical analysis conducted on all the products using (Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test indicated that the differences were not statistically significant. Finally, the timber firms in Ghana should take innovative measures to diversify and maximize the recovery rate of volume and value of timber products especially the locally owned–firms so that they can

  14. Minimizing corrosive action in timber bridges treated with waterborne preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Douglas R. Rammer; James P. Wacker

    2007-01-01

    This work will briefly review published literature and current research activities on the corrosion of metals in contact with wood treated with waterborne alternatives to CCA. In addition, recommendations to minimize these corrosive effects in timber bridges will be discussed.

  15. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.... Forest Service in its sales and forestry practices. U.S. Forest Service personnel may be available for...

  16. Profitability of Clerodendrum volubile (eweta) , a non-timber forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timber Forest product, in Okitipupa, Ondo State Nigeria. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used in the selection of markets and respondents. The sample size was 60 and instrument of data collection was structured and ...

  17. Creosote treated timber in the Alaskan marine environment : Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ADOT&PF is responsible for many structures that incorporate wood pilings and other timber in Alaska waters. Most are treated with preservative to inhibit marine borers : that will quickly destroy unprotected wood. Creosote is generally the most econo...

  18. Creosote treated timber in the Alaskan marine environment : volume ii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ADOT&PF is responsible for many structures that incorporate wood pilings and other timber in Alaska waters. Most are treated with preservative to inhibit marine borers : that will quickly destroy unprotected wood. Creosote is generally the most econo...

  19. Managing for timber and biodiversity in the Congo Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasi, Robert; Billand, Alain; van Vliet, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Multiple-use forest management is considered by many as a preferable alternative to single-use, generally timber-dominant, management models. In the Congo Basin rainforests, integration of timber and non-timber forest resources plays a key role in the subsistence and market economies of rural...... communities. This is however mainly occurring in ‘‘ordinary’’ forest lands and not in formally gazetted forest lands. In this paper we briefly explore the major land-uses in the Congo Basin and their actual or potential for multiple-use. We then focus on the most extant production system (industrial logging...... concessions) and analyze the existing issues and options for managing actively both timber and biodiversity with a special emphasis on wildlife and the role of certification. A few promising but yet ‘unfinished’ examples do exist in the region and we review these cases to draw lessons and recommendations. We...

  20. St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge : Timber Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Timber Management Plan for St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge describes how forest management techniques will be used to fulfill refuge objectives. Two types...

  1. Compression strength perpendicular to grain of structural timber and glulam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Pedersen, Torben N.

    1998-01-01

    . Nonetheless test results show that the levels of characteristic compression strength perpendicular to grain are of the same order for structural timber and glulam. The values are slightly lower than those appearing in EN 1194 and less than half of those appearing in EN 338. The paper presents a numerical......The characteristic strength values for compression perpendicular to grain as they appear in EN 338 (structural timber) and EN 1194 (glulam) are currently up for discussion. The present paper provides experimental results based on EN 1193 that may assist in the correct assignment of such strength...... values. The dominant failure mode of glulam specimens is shown to be fundamentally different from that of structural timber specimens. Glulam specimens often show tension perpendicular to grain failure before the compression strength value is reached. Such failure mode is not seen for structural timber...

  2. T-section glulam timber bridge modules : modeling and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul A. Morgan; Steven E. Taylor; Michael A. Ritter; John M. Franklin

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the design, modeling, and testing of two portable timber bridges, each consisting of two noninterconnected longitudinal glued-laminated timber (glulam) deck panels 1.8 m (6 ft) wide. One bridge is 12.2 m (40 ft) long while the other bridge is 10.7 m (35 ft) long. The deck panels are fabricated in a unique double-tee cross section. The bridges...

  3. Addressing uncertainties about timber housing by whole life costing

    OpenAIRE

    Levander, Erika; Stehn, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Increased cost and declining quality has resulted in a growing interest in industrialised construction. During the last twelve years around 20000 apartments have been built in Sweden using industrialized timber housing techniques. Still, potential clients and building owners are uncertain of long-term financial costs and functional performance of timber houses. The idea in this paper is to investigate if the use of whole life costing calculations might become a tool for addressing these uncer...

  4. Timber resource statistics for the Yakutat inventory unit, Alaska, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. Van Hees; Vernon J. LaBau

    1984-01-01

    Statistics on forest area, total gross and net,timber volumes, and annual net growth and mortality are presented from the 1975 timber inventory of the Yakutat unit, Alaska. Area of timberland is estimated at 236.3 thousand acres (95.6 thousand ha), net volume of growing stock at 1.1 billion cubic feet (29.9 million m3), and annual net growth and...

  5. Timber resource statistics for the Yakataga inventory unit, Alaska, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    1985-01-01

    Statistics on forest area, total gross and net timber volumes, and annual net growth and mortality are presented from the 1976 timber inventory of the Yakataga unit, Alaska. Timberland area is estimated at 209.3 thousand acres (84.7 thousand ha), net growing stock volume at 917.1 million cubic feet (26.0 million m3), and annual net growth and...

  6. Reinforcement of timber beams with carbon fibers reinforced plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugutsidze, G.; Draškovič, F.

    2010-06-01

    Wood is a polymeric material with many valuable features and which also lacks some negative features. In order to keep up with high construction rates and the minimization of negative effects, wood has become one of the most valuable materials in modern engineering. But the use of timber material economically is also an actual problem in order to protect the environment and improve natural surroundings. A panel of scientists is interested in solving these problems and in creating rational structures, where timber can be used efficiently. These constructions are as follows: glue-laminated (gluelam), composed and reinforced wooden constructions. Composed and reinforced wooden constructions are examined less, but according to researches already carried out, it is clear that significant work can be accomplished in creating rational, highly effective and economic timber constructions. The paper deals with research on the formation of composed fiber-reinforced beams (CFRP) made of timber and provide evidence of their effectiveness. The aim of the paper is to investigate cross-bending of CFRP-reinforced gluelaminated timber beams. According to the results we were able to determine the additional effectiveness of reinforcement with CFRP (which depends on the CFRP material's quality, quantity and module of elasticity) on the mechanical features of timber and a whole beam.

  7. The Importance of Seedlings Quality in Timber and Bio-energy Production on marginal lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkiskakis, Nikitas; Kiourtsis, Fotios; Keramitzis, Dimitrios; Papatheodorou, Ioannis; Georgiadou, Margarita; Repmann, Frank; Gerwin, Werner

    2017-04-01

    One of the main issues that the forest sector is facing is to achieve a balance between the demand for biomass &wood production and the need to preserve the sustainability and biodiversity of forest ecosystems. The purposes of the new approaches are to ensure more efficient management of ecosystems and implement intensive forestry that will increase biomass production & timber yields. To achieve this, we need to determine the macroeconomic potential of the various options available, including the use of biotechnology and genetics. The success of the forests plantations capacity may be solved through forest certification, based on: a) Stabilization of the forests and soils structure. b) Hierarchy of biomass production in the forest's management process. c) Οrganization and implementation of effective plantation on marginal lands. d) Maintenance or increase of forest productivity by introducing new items as and when they are required. It is important to evaluate of the influence of factors such as the quality of soils of plantation areas, the utilization of the genetic resources and the management of forest operations with the environmental economic criteria such as net present value of benefits (NPV) and the corresponding flow annuities (EACF).The existing evaluations studies showed that the quality of the plantation areas has the most influence and through validated quality seed production can generate an increase in the NPV up to 73%. The importance of seedlings quality in timber and bio-energy production on marginal lands based on the literature it is estimated according to the heredity of the characteristics of the wood structure (except shrinkage). This clearly indicate that seedlings with the appropriate morphological characteristics can significantly improve the growth performance and help to support the development of biomass plantations oriented in tailor-made timber and bio-energy production.

  8. Community Based Forest Management as a Tool for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community-Based Forest Management (CBFM) in Cross River State (CRS) was investigated with a view to understanding its efficiency and effectiveness as a tool for sustainable forest management in the State. Four sets of questionnaire were administered to forestry officials; forest edge communities; timber ...

  9. Towards efficient and sustainable wood utilization policy in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Policy guidelines are needed to drive wood market transformation through concerted efforts with timber exploiters and sellers to (a). Halt deforestation (b). Promote best practices in sustainable forest management (c). Promote economic and social impact of the forest communities (d). Encourage recyclability of waste wood ...

  10. The timber truss: The studying of the behaviour of the spatial framework joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Rumlová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using of timber in civil engineering is increasing at the moment. Main timber elements are used for main supporting structures, typically for buildings, roofs, footbridges or towers. This work studies unique timber trusses as a supporting roof structure of spatial timber building. Timber trusses are used as roof supporting construction for objects with open inside space, especially halls or office buildings. This paper resolved critical joint in roof construction which is created by four timber trusses. The FEM model monitored strain changes in critical places of resolved joint.

  11. Timbered masonry for earthquake resistance in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutu, A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Europe is a continent that is subject to significant seismic activity. Thus, the buildings’ seismic behaviour must be analysed, including not only the new structures, designed under more rigorous codes, but also older ones. This article examines a traditional type of building that uses timber frame/masonry, which is found in Portugal, Turkey, France, England, Greece, Romania, Italy, Spain, Germany and Scandinavia. Although the structures differ in terms of construction details, their structural system is basically the same: the wooden structural system bears mainly the horizontal loads while the masonry supports the gravity loads. The study includes a brief report on the seismicity of each country where this traditional type of building made of timbered framed masonry is found, together with the description of these buildings’ constructive systems.

    Europa es un continente que está sujeto a una significativa actividad sísmica. Por esta razón, se debe analizar el comportamiento sísmico, no sólo de las nuevas estructuras, diseñadas sobre la base de códigos más exigentes, sino también de los diversos tipos de estructuras antiguas. En este artículo se analizan las estructuras constituidas por mampostería y madera, que se pueden encontrar en Portugal, Turquía, Francia, Inglaterra, Grecia, Rumania, Italia, España, Alemania y Escandinavia. Aunque estas estructuras presentan diferencias en cuanto a detalles constructivos, su sistema estructural es idéntico: el sistema estructural de madera absorbe principalmente las cargas horizontales, mientras que la mampostería garantiza la resistencia a la acción de la gravedad. El estudio presentado incluye un breve informe acerca de la sismicidad de los países en que existe el tipo de construcción mencionado, conjuntamente con la descripción de los sistemas constructivos específicos de cada país.

  12. Effects on U.S. Timber Outlook of Recent Economic Recession, Collapse in Housing Construction, and Wood Energy Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Prakash Nepal

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews recent trends and structural changes in U.S. forest product markets and projects their effects on the long-range U.S. timber market outlook. The analysis derives from the same U.S. and global economic model that produced 50-year projections for the 2010 RPA nationwide forest assessment, but analysis is revised to more accurately include the economic...

  13. Dynamics of Timber Market Integration in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Chandr Jaunky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the performance of the timber markets (Scots pine, Pinus silvestris L. and Norway spruce, Picea abies (L. Karst. by evaluating the order of market integration in three Swedish regions (Central, Northern, and Southern. Quarterly data of delivery prices are employed over the period 1999Q1–2012Q4. Various unit root and cointegration tests have been computed. The results indicate that the variables are integrated of first order and co-integrated, especially after controlling for structural breaks. This supports the law-of-one-price hypothesis (LOP. However, the effects of structural shocks on forestry are arguably significant and these are controlled for while performing a vector error-correction mechanism (VECM-based Granger-causality test. Bi-directional causality between the Northern and central markets is uncovered in the short-run. In the long-run, a similar causal effect is detected between Northern and Southern markets while the central market emerges as the price leader. Further investigation is carried out using variance decompositions and impulse response functions and these approaches also tend to confirm the existence of a single market well, as price interdependence between markets.

  14. Appropriateness of probit-9 in the development of quarantine treatments for timber and timber commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schortemeyer, Marcus; Thomas, Ken; Haack, Robert A; Uzunovic, Adnan; Hoover, Kelli; Simpson, Jack A; Grgurinovic, Cheryl A

    2011-06-01

    Following the increasing international phasing out of methyl bromide for quarantine purposes, the development of alternative treatments for timber pests becomes imperative. The international accreditation of new quarantine treatments requires verification standards that give confidence in the effectiveness of a treatment. Probit-9 mortality is a standard for treatment effectiveness that has its origin in fruit fly research, and has been adopted by the United States Department of Agriculture for fruit flies and several other pests. Following this, the probit-9 standard has been adopted as a benchmark for many quarantine treatments worldwide. This article discusses aspects of the application of this concept for a range of timber pests. Problematic issues include the often small pest populations available for testing, the limits of modeling pest responses to a treatment in the absence of sufficient numbers for treatment verification, the species diversity of pests and host materials and the physical and chemical conditions of host material or treatment conditions. Where treatment verification by killing large numbers of individuals is impossible, data collected from small populations or under specific conditions must be interpreted with caution. We discuss possible alternative approaches to probit-9 as a treatment efficacy standard.

  15. Sustainability Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichnothe, Heinz

    2017-03-17

    The long-term substitution of fossil resources can only be achieved through a bio-based economy, with biorefineries and bio-based products playing a major role. However, it is important to assess the implications of the transition to a bio-based economy. Life cycle-based sustainability assessment is probably the most suitable approach to quantify impacts and to identify trade-offs at multiple levels. The extended utilisation of biomass can cause land use change and affect food security of the most vulnerable people throughout the world. Although this is mainly a political issue and governments should be responsible, the responsibility is shifted to companies producing biofuels and other bio-based products. Organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass are considered to be the preferred feedstock for the production of bio-based products. However, it is unlikely that a bio-based economy can rely only on organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass.It is crucial to identify potential problems related to socio-economic and environmental issues. Currently there are many approaches to the sustainability of bio-based products, both quantitative and qualitative. However, results of different calculation methods are not necessarily comparable and can cause confusion among decision-makers, stakeholders and the public.Hence, a harmonised, globally agreed approach would be the best solution to secure sustainable biomass/biofuels/bio-based chemicals production and trade, and to avoid indirect effects (e.g. indirect land use change). However, there is still a long way to go.Generally, the selection of suitable indicators that serve the purpose of sustainability assessment is very context-specific. Therefore, it is recommended to use a flexible and modular approach that can be adapted to various purposes. A conceptual model for the selection of sustainability indicators is provided that facilitates identifying suitable sustainability indicators based on relevance and significance in a

  16. Do school-based interventions focusing on physical activity, fitness, or fundamental movement skill competency produce a sustained impact in these outcomes in children and adolescents? A systematic review of follow-up studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Samuel K; Costigan, Sarah A; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R; Stodden, David F; Salmon, Jo; Barnett, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether typically developing children and adolescents (aged 3-18 years) who have participated in school-based interventions have sustained outcomes in PA, fitness, and/or FMS. A systematic search of six electronic databases (CINAHL® Plus with Full Text, Ovid MEDLINE®, SPORTDiscus™, Scopus, PsycINFO® and ERIC) was conducted from 1995 to 26 July 2012. Included studies were school-based studies (including randomized controlled trials, longitudinal cohort, quasi-experimental, and experimental) that had a positive effect at post intervention in at least one variable and had a follow-up PA, fitness, or FMS assessment at least 6 months after the post-intervention assessment. Risk of bias assessment was guided by the "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses" statement. The search identified 14 articles, and some studies addressed multiple outcomes: 13 articles assessed PA; three assessed fitness; and two assessed FMS. No study in this review met four key methodological criteria that have been shown to influence results, i.e., clarity on the randomization process, assessor blinding, analyzing participants in their original groups, and retaining sufficient participants through the entire study. Three-quarters (ten of 13) of the studies addressing PA, reported PA behavior change maintenance. The length of follow-up ranged from 6 months to 20 years, and the degree of PA difference reported was between 3 and 14 min per day. Only one of the three studies assessing fitness reported a sustained impact, whilst both studies that assessed FMS reported maintenance of effects. It is likely that PA is a sustainable outcome from interventions in children and adolescents, and there is reasonable evidence that interventions of longer than 1 year and interventions that utilize a theoretical model or framework are effective in producing this sustained impact. It would seem probable that FMS are a sustainable

  17. Study on Aseismic Characteristics of Tibetan Ancient Timber Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan ancient timber structure has great historical, cultural, artistic, and scientific values. The structural configuration of members such as wall, roof, slab, and timber skeleton with semirigid joints is studied in this paper based on field survey results. The aseismic characteristics of Tibetan ancient timber structure have been summarized and introduced. One of the unique features of the Tibetan ancient timber structure is its special beam-column joint which has a semirigid behavior. Numerical simulations of a typical 3-storey structural unit in the Potala Palace are studied. The acceleration responses of the structure under the action of El-Centro seismic waves are studied. Results show that the arrangement of the joints is helpful for seismic resistance of the structure. Most Tibetan ancient timber structures are suffering from different types of damage to certain extent which is vulnerable to seismic actions. Typical damage problems of the structural components are summarized and the main causes of this damage are analyzed. Different rehabilitation methods that can be implemented are discussed, providing references for maintenance of the structures.

  18. DTM models to enhance planning of timber harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuka Andreja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the applicability of DTM with the resolution of 4 × 4 m for the analysis of macro-topographic factors (terrain slope, aspect, terrain ruggedness index and one part of micro-topographic factors (occasional and constant streams as features important for vehicle mobility during timber skidding. The analysis of directions of timber extraction in relation to the spatial position of primary forest traffic infrastructure of the study area was conducted in order to determine from which forest areas timber will be extracted up or down the slope (moving of loaded vehicle. Determination of water bodies (streams and the surrounding sensitive areas was carried out using GIS tool TauDEM. Unevenness of the terrain was determined based on the Terrain Ruggedness Index (TRI which showed moderately to very rugged terrain on 60.1% of the research area where vehicle mobility could be difficult (if not impossible i.e. the necessity of a secondary forest road network is clear. DTM analysis of study area regarding vehicle (skidder mobility and possible planning of timber extraction indicated different availability and quality of data. Digital terrain models present a good basis for the analysis of key constraints for forestry vehicles mobility or terrain trafficability (slope and direction of timber extraction. Using DTM of higher resolution (e.g. LiDAR images, will increase the accuracy of the results and the quality of the analysis.

  19. Sustainable power generation and heat production. Modern technology produces green and cost efficient energy; Nachhaltige Strom- und Waermeerzeugung. Moderne Technologie erzeugt umweltfreundliche und kostenguenstige Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baelz, Uwe; Kilpper, Renate [W. Baelz und Sohn GmbH und Co., Heilbronn (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The district heating plant in Olang / South Tyrol produces clean, green heat from local wood. Connected with reliable, trouble-free and maintenance-friendly heating technology and advanced visualization, energy-efficient, long-lasting jet pumps directly supply the heat to the consumer considering the individual needs.

  20. Documenting biogeographical patterns of African timber species using herbarium records: a conservation perspective based on native trees from Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiras, Maria M; Figueira, Rui; Duarte, Maria Cristina; Beja, Pedro; Darbyshire, Iain

    2014-01-01

    In many tropical regions the development of informed conservation strategies is hindered by a dearth of biodiversity information. Biological collections can help to overcome this problem, by providing baseline information to guide research and conservation efforts. This study focuses on the timber trees of Angola, combining herbarium (2670 records) and bibliographic data to identify the main timber species, document biogeographic patterns and identify conservation priorities. The study recognized 18 key species, most of which are threatened or near-threatened globally, or lack formal conservation assessments. Biogeographical analysis reveals three groups of species associated with the enclave of Cabinda and northwest Angola, which occur primarily in Guineo-Congolian rainforests, and evergreen forests and woodlands. The fourth group is widespread across the country, and is mostly associated with dry forests. There is little correspondence between the spatial pattern of species groups and the ecoregions adopted by WWF, suggesting that these may not provide an adequate basis for conservation planning for Angolan timber trees. Eight of the species evaluated should be given high conservation priority since they are of global conservation concern, they have very restricted distributions in Angola, their historical collection localities are largely outside protected areas and they may be under increasing logging pressure. High conservation priority was also attributed to another three species that have a large proportion of their global range concentrated in Angola and that occur in dry forests where deforestation rates are high. Our results suggest that timber tree species in Angola may be under increasing risk, thus calling for efforts to promote their conservation and sustainable exploitation. The study also highlights the importance of studying historic herbarium collections in poorly explored regions of the tropics, though new field surveys remain a priority to

  1. Risks, Information and Short-Run Timber Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rinaldi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to increase wood mobilization have highlighted the need to appraise drivers of short-run timber supply. The current study aims to shed further light on harvesting decisions of private forest owners, by investigating optimal harvesting under uncertainty, when timber revenues are invested on financial markets and uncertainty is mitigated by news releases. By distinguishing between aggregate economic risk and sector specific risks, the model studies in great detail optimal harvesting-investment decisions, with particular emphasis on the non-trivial transmission of risk on optimal harvesting, and on the way private forest owners react to news and information. The analysis of the role played by information in harvesting decisions is a novelty in forest economic theory. The presented model is highly relevant from a policy—information is a commonly used forest policy instrument—as well as a practical perspective, since the mechanism of risk transmission is at the basis of timber pricing.

  2. Device for leveling the front of a section timbering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agapov, N.D.; Grebenkin, S.S.; Samoylov, A.V.

    1980-02-28

    The device for leveling the front section timbering contains winches for moving the sections, a cable arranged along the timbering and attached to the end sections, tension attachment arranged on one of the terminal sections, and hydraulic winches for moving the cable hinged by means of mobile bushings to the cable and by means of pins to the timbering sections. To compensate for the spacing errors of any sign during movement of the sections it has hydraulic distributors which are established in the hydraulic system of winches for moving the sections, and sensors for controlling the hydraulic distributors installed in the hydraulic winches for moving the cable and made in the form of sensors of terminal position.

  3. Experimental In-Plane Evaluation of Light Timber Walls Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Branco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In general, the satisfactory seismic performance of timber buildings can be partially attributed to the material characteristics of the wood itself and to the lightness of its own structure. The aim of this paper is to analyze the in-plane behavior of light timber walls panels through a series of monotonic and cyclic tests, and to evaluate how the sheathing material and the fixation to the base influence the overall response of the wall. Five tests are presented and discussed while the reliability of an analytical method to predict the response of the walls is studied. The sheathing material revealed to be important in the overall response of the wall. Moreover, the type of fixation to the base also revealed to be important in the in-plane response of timber walls. In-plane stiffnesses, static ductility, energy dissipation and damping ratio have been quantified.

  4. The 1993 timber assessment market model: structure, projections, and policy simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darius M. Adams; Richard W. Haynes

    1996-01-01

    The 1993 timber assessment market model (TAMM) is a spatial model of the solidwood and timber inventory elements of the U.S. forest products sector. The TAMM model provides annual projections of volumes and prices in the solidwood products and sawtimber stumpage markets and estimates of total timber harvest and inventory by geographic region for periods of up to 50...

  5. Timber resource statistics for timberland outside National Forests in eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil McKay; Gary J. Lettman; Mary A. Mei

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1992 timber resource inventory Of timberland outside National Forests in eastern Oregon. The report presents statistical tables of timberland area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. It also displays tables of revised 1986-87 timber resource statistics for timberland outside National Forests; the 1992 and 1986-87 tables may be...

  6. An economic analysis of mine-timber marketing in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry H. Webster

    1956-01-01

    Coal mines have long provided a major outlet for the timber products of West Virginia. Although the structure and operation of mine-timber markets is little understood, the efficiency of the marketing system undoubtedly affects the decisions of most of the 130,000 farm and other private timber-growing enterprises in the state.

  7. Robustness Analysis of a Timber Structure with Ductile Behaviour in Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Čizmar, Dean; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a probabilistic approach for structural robustness assessment for a timber structure built a few years ago. The robustness analysis is based on a structural reliability based framework for robustness assessment. The complex timber structure with a large number of failure modes...... material ductility of timber is taken into account. The robustness is expressed and evaluated by a robustness index....

  8. Life-form and Density of Valuable Non-timber Plants in Ukpom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Key words: Rainforest, Plants, Density, Non-Timber Products, Exploitation. Introduction. A forest is a natural resource of multiple values, but oftentimes, the value of a tract of forest is estimated from the population density or standing volume of timber tree species present, while much more valuable non-timber resources are ...

  9. SPATS: a model for projecting softwood timber inventories in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Brooks

    1987-01-01

    The yield-table projection method for modeling the development of regional timber inventories is outlined, and its application to softwood timber types in the Southern United States is described. Problems of simulating forest management practices and natural succession are discussed. A computer model that projects softwood timber inventories using yield-table...

  10. Field investigation of a 100-year-old timber crib foundation at a historic copper mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wacker; Xiping Wang; Douglas R. Rammer

    2010-01-01

    In June 2009, the authors conducted a comprehensive on-site evaluation of the timber crib foundation at Alaska’s Historic Kennecott Mine Concentration Mill Building. The primary goal of the 6-day inspection was to assess the physical conditions of the existing timber crib foundation and identify timber members and areas that have structural deficiencies. The inspection...

  11. Wood waste minimization in the timber sector of Ghana: a systems approach to reduce environmental impact.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshun, J.F.; Potting, J.; Leemans, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of minimizing wood waste to reduce the environmental impact in the timber sector i.e. forestry and timber industry subsystem of Ghana. This study is a follow up of 3 earlier studies on the timber sector. These studies consistently identified minimizing wood waste as

  12. Using TPO data to estimate timber demand in support of planning on the Tongass National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean M. Daniels; Michael D. Paruszkiewicz; Susan J. Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Projections of Alaska timber products output, the derived demand for logs, lumber, residues, and niche products, and timber harvest by owner are developed by using a trend-based analysis. This is the fifth such analysis performed since 1990 to assist planners in meeting statutory requirements for estimating planning cycle demand for timber from the Tongass National...

  13. Forensic timber identification: It's time to integrate disciplines to combat illegal logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleanor E. Dormontt; Markus Boner; Birgit Braun; Gerhard Breulmann; Bernd Degen; Edgard Espinoza; Shelley Gardner; Phil Guillery; John C. Hermanson; Gerald Koch; Soon Leong Lee; Milton Kanashiro; Anto Rimbawanto; Darren Thomas; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Yafang Yin; Johannes Zahnen; Andrew J. Lowe

    2015-01-01

    The prosecution of illegal logging crimes is hampered by a lack of available forensic timber identification tools, both for screening of suspectmaterial and definitive identification of illegally sourcedwood. Reputable timber traders are also struggling to police their own supply chains and comply with the growing requirement for due diligence with respect to timber...

  14. 36 CFR 294.24 - Timber cutting, sale, or removal in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber cutting, sale, or..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Idaho Roadless Area Management § 294.24 Timber cutting, sale, or removal in Idaho Roadless Areas. (a) Wild Land Recreation. The cutting, sale, or removal of timber is...

  15. How forest management affects ecosystem services, including timber production and economic return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duncker, Philipp S.; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Gundersen, Per

    2012-01-01

    processes. However, forests provide further services, including carbon sequestration, water quantity and quality, and preservation of biodiversity. In order to develop and implement strategies for sustainable forest management, it is important to anticipate the long-term effects of different forest......Forest ecosystems deliver multiple goods and services and, traditionally, forest owners tend to have a high interest in goods in the form of merchantable wood. As a consequence, forest management often aims to increase timber production and economic returns through intervention into natural...... management alternatives on the ability of the forest to provide ecosystem goods and services. Management objectives might emphasize economic interests at the expense of other services. Very few attempts have been made to illustrate and evaluate quantitatively the relationship between forest goods...

  16. Fire resistance in American heavy timber construction history and preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Heitz, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents a history of heavy timber construction (HTC) in the United States, chronicling nearly two centuries of building history, from inception to a detailed evaluation of one of the best surviving examples of the type, with an emphasis on fire resistance. The book does not limit itself in scope to serving only as a common history. Rather, it provides critical analysis of HTC in terms of construction methods, design, technical specifications, and historical performance under fire conditions. As such, this book provides readers with a truly comprehensive understanding and exploration of heavy timber construction in the United States and its performance under fire conditions.

  17. A Comparative Cradle-to-Gate Life Cycle Assessment of Mid-Rise Office Building Construction Alternatives: Laminated Timber or Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J. Cole

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project was to quantify and compare the environmental impacts associated with alternative designs for a typical North American mid-rise office building. Two scenarios were considered; a traditional cast-in-place, reinforced concrete frame and a laminated timber hybrid design, which utilized engineered wood products (cross-laminated timber (CLT and glulam. The boundary of the quantitative analysis was cradle-to-construction site gate and encompassed the structural support system and the building enclosure. Floor plans, elevations, material quantities, and structural loads associated with a five-storey concrete-framed building design were obtained from issued-for-construction drawings. A functionally equivalent, laminated timber hybrid design was conceived, based on Canadian Building Code requirements. Design values for locally produced CLT panels were established from in-house material testing. Primary data collected from a pilot-scale manufacturing facility was used to develop the life cycle inventory for CLT, whereas secondary sources were referenced for other construction materials. The TRACI characterization methodology was employed to translate inventory flows into impact indicators. The results indicated that the laminated timber building design offered a lower environmental impact in 10 of 11 assessment categories. The cradle-to-gate process energy was found to be nearly identical in both design scenarios (3.5 GJ/m2, whereas the cumulative embodied energy (feedstock plus process of construction materials was estimated to be 8.2 and 4.6 GJ/m2 for the timber and concrete designs, respectively; which indicated an increased availability of readily accessible potential energy stored within the building materials of the timber alternative.

  18. Red oak in southern New England and big-leaf mahogany in the Yucatan Peninsula: can mixed-species forests be sustainably managed for single-species production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Kelty; L. Camara-Cabrales; J. Grogan

    2011-01-01

    Complex mixed-species forests are the focus of conservation efforts that seek to maintain native biodiversity. However, much of this forestland is privately owned and is managed for timber income as well as for conservation. Management of these high-diversity forests is particularly difficult when only one tree species produces the majority of high-value timber. We...

  19. Consequences of field N2O emissions for the environmental sustainability of plant-based biofuels produced within an organic farming system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    One way of reducing the emissions of fossil fuel-derived carbon dioxide (CO2) is to replace fossil fuels with biofuels produced from agricultural biomasses or residuals. However, cultivation of soils results in emission of other greenhouse gases (GHGs), especially nitrous oxide (N2O). Previous...... when agricultural biomasses were used for biofuel production. The analysis included five organically managed feedstocks (viz. dried straw of sole cropped rye, sole cropped vetch and intercropped rye–vetch, as well as fresh grass–clover and whole crop maize) and three scenarios for conversion of biomass...... by biogas production or coproduction of bioethanol and biogas on either fresh grass–clover or whole crop maize. In contrast, biofuel production based on lignocellulosic crop residues (i.e. rye and vetch straw) provided considerably lower net GHG reductions (≤215 g CO2 m−2), and even negative numbers...

  20. Implementing timber legality assurance regime in Ghana: a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the scope of stakeholders concern and current institutional constraints for legal timber verification in Ghana. The aim is to provide background information as input for a new institutional framework under the VLTP. The review has shown that the current institutional set-up is not suitable for implementing ...

  1. Spatial Allocation of Timber Product Output Roundwood Receipts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Brown

    2015-01-01

    Data from Georgia timber product output studies were used to develop models that spatially allocate roundwood receipts data from primary wood-using mills. Mill receipts data were converted to a cumulative frequency based on a distance from the mill to a county center. Distances were calculated as either straight line or shortest road distance, and county centers were...

  2. Timber resource statistics for Oregon, January 1, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett; Grover A. Choate

    1974-01-01

    Timber resource statistics as of January 1, 1973, for the State of Oregon show total land area, commercial timberland area, and growing stock and sawtimber inventory volumes by county and owner group. Growth and removals are shown by Forest Survey inventory unit for 1972. Each National Forest is updated to January 1, 1973, as well as each Bureau of Land Management...

  3. Load rating and FRP retrofitting of bridge abutment timber piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report details Phase II of the study titled Strengthening of Bridge Wood Piling Retrofits for Moment Resistance. Phase I of the research (project : R27-082) was focused on developing a load rating method for timber piles under eccentric load and...

  4. Emissions from prescribed burning of timber slash piles in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash (Douglas fir) in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matte...

  5. The Effect of Urban Sprawls on Timber Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen A. Barlow; Ian A Munn; David A. Cleaves; David L. Evans

    1998-01-01

    In Mississippi and Alabama, urban population growth is pushing development into rural areas. To study the impact of urbanization on timber harvesting, census and forest inventory data were combined in a geographic information system, and a logistic regression model was used to estimate the relationship between several variables and harvest probabilities....

  6. Steam bending qualities of eight timber species of Ghana | Ayarkwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steam bending qualities of eight lesser used timber species of Ghana have been studied and compared with the quality of Mahogany (Khaya spp), a fast diminishing noble species, with the view to providing information for the furniture and glulam industries. Wood samples collected from three ecological forest zones of ...

  7. Forest ecosystem services: Provisioning of non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; Gregory E. Frey; C. Denise Ingram; Michael G. Jacobson; Cara Meghan Starbuck Downes

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe approaches to calculate a conservative and defensible estimate of the marginal value of forests for non-timber forest products (NTFPs). 'Provisioning" is one of four categories of benefits, or services that ecosystems provide to humans and was described by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment as 'products...

  8. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Wisconsin, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Blyth; Eugene F. Landt; James W. Whipple; Jerold T. Hahn

    1976-01-01

    Discusses recent Wisconsin forest industry trends; timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1973; production and receipts in 1973 of pulpwood, saw logs, veneer logs, and other industrial roundwood products. Shows trends in pulpwood and veneer log production and compares saw log production in 1967 and 1973. Discusses primary wood-using plant residue and its...

  9. Timber resource of Michigan's Southern Lower Peninsula Unit, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn

    1982-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan's Southern Lower Peninsula Survey Unit shows a 12% decline in commercial forest area and a 26% gain in growing-stock volume between 1966 and 1980. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  10. Timber resource of Wisconsin's Central Survey Unit, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn

    1985-01-01

    The timber resource of the Central Wisconsin Survey Unit increased 4.2% in commercial forest area and increased 75% in growing-stock volume between 1968 and 1983. Highlights and statistics from the fourth inventory of this unit are presented for area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  11. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Minnesota, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Blyth; Steven Wilhelm; Jerold T. Hahn

    1979-01-01

    Discusses recent Minnesota forest industry trends; timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1973; production and receipts in 1973 of pulpwood, saw logs, and other industrial roundwood products. Shows trends in pulpwood and veneer log production and compares saw log production in 1960 and 1973. Discusses primary wood-using mill residue and its disposition.

  12. epidemiology of eye diseases among timber workers in owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    The typical timber shade environment is damp, messy and untidy with odours oozing out from wood and other decomposing organic materials, thereby creating very good and favourable habitat for flies, bacteria, fungi, viruses, algae and other microoganisms. Worse still, the place lacked pipe-borne water and good toilet.

  13. Contributions of non-timber forest products to household food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the contributions of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) to household income and food security in the adjoining villages of Gambari forest reserve Nigeria. Stratified random sampling was used to select respondents among the community members. 141 copies of questionnaires were administered among ...

  14. Gender analysis of non-timber forest products utilization by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines gender roles in Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) utilization by adjoining communities to Cross River National Park (CRNP), Oban Division. Data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire administered on 110 respondents randomly selected from these communities. These were ...

  15. Contribution of timber exports to economic growth in Nigeria: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the contribution of timber exports to the economic growth in Nigeria, using an econometric approach. Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Johansen Co-integration techniques were respectively used to test for unit root and examine the relationship between the variables used. In addition, Granger ...

  16. Wood Removals and Timber Use in New York, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric H. Wharton; Thomas D. Martin; Richard H. Widmann; Richard H. Widmann

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates removals and timber output of New York. Results are based on survey of primary processing mills located in the state and of mills in other states that used wood from New York. Incorporates additional studies conducted during standard statewide forest inventories. Contains statistics of industrial roundwood production and the production and final end use of...

  17. Smart timber bridge on geosynthetic reinforced soil (GRS) abutments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam Senalik; James P. Wacker; Travis K. Hosteng; John Hermanson

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Buchanan County, Iowa, has cooperated with the U.S. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), and Iowa State University’s Bridge Engineering Center (ISU–BEC) to initiate a project involving the construction and monitoring of a glued-laminated (glulam) timber superstructure on geosynthetic reinforced soil (...

  18. Marketing of Non-Timber Forest Products in Kajola Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the marketing of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) in Kajola Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Data used were obtained from 90 sellers of these forest products through purposive sampling of markets in the area. Results showed that the average age of sellers was 42 years, while 63.2% ...

  19. Determining modulus of elasticity of ancient structural timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houjiang Zhang; Lei Zhu; Yanliang Sun; Xiping Wang; Haicheng Yan

    2011-01-01

    During maintenance of ancient timber architectures, it is important to determine mechanical properties of the wood component materials non-destructively and effectively, so that degraded members may be replaced or repaired to avoid structural failure. Experimental materials are four larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr.) components, which were taken down from the...

  20. Historical trends of timber product output in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; James W. Bentley; Michael Howell

    2008-01-01

    Historical data of periodic canvasses of primary wood-using plants are presented for the 13 Southern States. They are Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. Cubic-foot and standard volume tables are presented for production only. Production is the sum of timber...

  1. Gender analysis of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) collection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Millions of people, especially those living in rural areas in developing countries collect Non-Timber Forest products (NTFPs) daily. Women are known to play a prominent role in forestry and agricultural production in Nigeria despite not been captured as economically productive. This work looked into gender dimension ...

  2. Investigation of timber harvesting mechanization progress in Turkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timber harvesting machines amount was reduced to 20 tractors (4 x 4 and assembled shovel), 133 skidding winches, 5 tractors with equipment of snow cleaner, 38 forklifts, 18 loaders, 30 skylines, 61 agricultural tractors, 3 agricultural tractors with shovel, 67 trucks, 1 barking machines as at 2009. In spite of existence of ...

  3. Fusarium Damping-off of two Timber Species ( Terminalia Ivorensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of the damping–off disease of two timber species Terminalia ivorensis and Nauclea diderrichii sown in ground granite, sharp river sand, topsoil and sawdust was assessed at the nursery site of the Department of. Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Port Harcourt. The experiment was laid out in a ...

  4. Veneer, 1976 - a periodic assessment of regional timber output

    Science.gov (United States)

    James T. Bones; David R. Dickson

    1978-01-01

    The 1976 veneer industry survey in the Northeast showed that since the 1972 survey: Veneer log production rose 5 percent to 132 million board feet. Veneer log receipts at northeastern veneer plants dropped less than 1 percent. There were seven fewer veneer plants operating in the Northeast; new softwood plywood plant will be consuming northeastern timber. Exports of...

  5. Timber resource of Wisconsin's Northwest Survey Unit, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith

    1984-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of the Northwest Wisconsin Survey Unit shows a 1.8% decline in commercial forest area and a 36% gain in growing-stock volume between 1968 and 1983. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  6. Timber resources of Michigan's Eastern Upper Peninsula, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith

    1982-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan's Eastern Upper Peninsula Survey Unit shows a 9% decline in commercial forest area and a 19% gain in growing-stock volume between 1966 and 1980. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  7. Chapter 1: CLT Introduction to cross-laminated timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvan Gagnon; E.M.(Ted) Bilek; Lisa Podesto; Pablo Crespell

    2013-01-01

    Cross-laminated timber ( CLT), a new generation of engineered wood product developed initially in Europe, has been gaining increased popularity in residential and non-residential applications in several countries. Many impressive low- and mid-rise buildings built around the world using CLT showcase the many advantages this product has to offer to the construction...

  8. Assessment of demand and supply of timber products in Benue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The timber supply and demand balance for Benue State showed a deficit in the major products and the deficit portends dangers in sawn wood and veneers for industrial development of the state. Incidence of encroachment, lack of support from government and inadequate inventory of the resource base in Benue State are ...

  9. Timber resource statistics for the Sacramento resource area of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the Sacramento Resource Area of California, which includes Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Glenn, Lake, Napa, Nevada, Placer, Plumas, Sacramento, Sierra, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except...

  10. Effects of timber harvest following wildfire in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Peterson; James K. Agee; Gregory H. Aplet; Dennis P. Dykstra; Russell T. Graham; John F. Lehmkuhl; David S. Pilliod; Donald F. Potts; Robert F. Powers; John D. Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Timber harvest following wildfire leads to different outcomes depending on the biophysical setting of the forest, pattern of burn severity, operational aspects of tree removal, and other management activities. Fire effects range from relatively minor, in which fire burns through the understory and may kill a few trees, to severe, in which fire kills most trees and...

  11. Some Guidelines For Reduced Impact Timber Harvesting Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... raw materials for building and mining industries, energy and non wood products. Unfortunately, indiscriminate exploitation for timber, charcoal and other products, frequent destructive woodland fires and expansion of agricultural activities have of recent contributed to eroding the environmental importance and ecological ...

  12. Montana's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy P. Spoelma; Todd A. Morgan; Thale Dillon; Alfred L. Chase; Charles E. Keegan; Larry T. DeBlander

    2008-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Montana's 2004 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Montana's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production...

  13. Idaho's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Simmons; Steven W. Hayes; Todd A. Morgan; Charles E. Keegan; Chris Witt

    2014-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Idaho’s 2011 timber harvest through the primary industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Idaho’s industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry trends are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production, employment, and sales.

  14. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Missouri, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Blyth; Shelby Jones; W. Brad Smith

    1983-01-01

    Discusses recent Missouri forest industry trends; timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1980; and production and receipts of saw logs, pulpwood, cooperage logs, charcoal wood, and other industrial roundwood products. Reports on associated primary mill wood and bark residue and the disposition of mill residue.

  15. Wyoming's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelsea P. McIver; Colin B. Sorenson; Charles E. Keegan; Todd A. Morgan; Mike T. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Wyoming’s 2010 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Wyoming’s primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production,...

  16. Montana's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelsea P. McIver; Colin B. Sorenson; Charles E. Keegan; Todd A. Morgan; Jim Menlove

    2013-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Montana’s 2009 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Montana’s primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production,...

  17. Idaho's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason P. Brandt; Todd A. Morgan; Charles E. Keegan; Jon M. Songster; Timothy P. Spoelma; Larry T. DeBlander

    2012-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Idaho's 2006 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; describes the structure, capacity, and condition of Idaho's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Wood products industry historical trends and changes in harvest, production, employment, and sales are also examined...

  18. Wyoming's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd A. Morgan; Timothy P. Spoelma; Charles E. Keegan; Alfred L. Chase; Mike T. Thompson

    2005-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Wyoming's 2000 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Wyoming's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production...

  19. Deriving fair incentives for management of hardwood timber stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Gansner; W. Herrick Owen; David N. Larsen; David N. Larsen

    1973-01-01

    The authors present a practical method for deriving timber-management incentive payments and demonstrate its application in forest stands of upland hardwoods. The suggested incentive payment is based on the differences between discounted costs and returns of deliberate forest management and the "harvest and let grow" option.

  20. Forest soil biology-timber harvesting relationships: a perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. F. Jurgensen; M. J. Larsen; A. E. Harvey

    1979-01-01

    Timber harvesting has a pronounced effect on the soil microflora by wood removal and changing properties. This paper gives a perspective on soil biology-harvesting relationships with emphasis on the northern Rocky Mountain region. Of special significance to forest management operations are the effects of soil micro-organisms on: the availability of soil nutrients,...

  1. 125 Timber Dealers' Perception of their Knowledge of the Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    individuals' rights and privileges, while at the same time limiting those rights within the boundary of the common good ... unauthorized times and places or without adequate steps to prevent it from spreading, and unauthorized ... Timber dealers' perception of the forest law in the State is that it is ineffective and irrelevant, and ...

  2. Investigation of timber harvesting mechanization progress in Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... INTRODUCTION. The preparation and implementation of mechanization plans requires knowledge not only of economic, technical and management characteristics of ..... 2435-1, October.5th-10th.2004, Lviv, Ukraine. Ozturk T, Demir M, Hasdemir M (2007). Work organization of timber production in Turkey.

  3. The residual load carrying capacity of timber joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kuilen, J.W.G.

    1999-01-01

    Timber joints that have been preloaded for 2 to 8 years have been short term tested in accordance with EN 26891. The applied load levels varied between 30% and 50% of the average short term strength. The study comprised nailed, toothed-plate and split-ring joints. All joints were made of spruce and

  4. Influence of Compression Stresses on Timber Potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Compression Stresses on Timber Potentials of Plantation Grown. Eucalyptus camaldulensis Denhn in North-Western Nigeria. *1A.A. Malami and 2B. Olufemi. 1Department of Forestry and Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto. 2Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, ...

  5. California's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelsea P. McIver; Joshua P. Meek; Micah G. Scudder; Colin B. Sorenson; Todd A. Morgan; Glenn A. Christensen

    2015-01-01

    This report traces the flow of California's 2012 timber harvest through the primary wood products industry and provides a description of the structure, condition, and economic impacts of California's forest products sector. Historical forest products industry changes are discussed, as well as trends in harvest, production, mill residue, and sales. Also...

  6. 36 CFR 223.14 - Where timber may be cut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) The cutting of trees, portions of trees or other forest products may be authorized on any National... claimant has failed to file a verified statement or has failed to establish the validity and effectiveness...) Timber on an unpatented claim may be cut by the claimant only for the actual development of the claim or...

  7. Theory of timber connections with slender dowel type fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Staffan; Munch-Andersen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    A theory on the lateral load-carrying capacity of timber connections with slender fasteners is presented. The base of the theory is the coupled mechanical phenomena acting in the connection, while the wood and the slender fastener deform and yield prior to failure. The objective is to derive a su...

  8. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Cubbage; S. Koesbandana; P Mac Donagh; R. Rubilar; G Balmelli; V. Morales Olmos; R. De La Torre; M. Murara; V.A. Hoeflich; H. Kotze; R Gonzalez; O. Carrero; G. Frey; T. Adams; J. Turner; R. Lord; J. Huang; C. MacIntyre; Kathleen McGinley; R. Abt; R. Phillips

    2010-01-01

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America e Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay e were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each...

  9. ECOLOGICAL EFFECT OF TIMBER EXPRACTION IN OHIMINI LGA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shima

    According to Wilson. (2007) a major source of deforestation is the logging industry driven particularly by. China and Japan. Generally the removal or destruction of significant areas of forest cover has resulted in a degraded environment with reduced biodiversity (Wikipedia, 2007). In many countries massive timber extraction.

  10. Timber resource statistics of south-central Alaska, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    2005-01-01

    Estimates of timber resources for south-central Alaska are presented. Data collection began in 2000 and was completed in 2003. All forest lands over all ownerships were considered for sampling. The inventory unit was, roughly, the region between Icy Bay to the east and Kodiak Island to the west. Forest lands within national forest wilderness study areas and recommended...

  11. ECOLOGICAL EFFECT OF TIMBER EXPRACTION IN OHIMINI LGA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shima

    significant reduction in plant and animal population and lead to reduction in their diversity. ... national emergency. Haileselassie (2004) reported that the major cause of desertification in Ethiopia is deforestation which lowered the chances of rainfall and enhanced wind .... studies showed that having a small number of timber ...

  12. 36 CFR 292.46 - Timber harvesting activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber harvesting activities. 292.46 Section 292.46 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE..., high winds, and disease or insect infestation. (2) Where authorized, trees may be harvested by...

  13. Removing other Tree Species does not benefit the Timber Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The endemic canopy tree Cephalosphaera usambarensis is a valuable timber species in montane rainforest of Tanzania. Here we evaluate an experiment in which mature trees of species other than C. usambarensis were removed from an area in the East Usambara Mountains. We compared stage/size structure of the ...

  14. Timber market research, private forests, and policy rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2004-01-01

    The development of the profession and practice of forestry in the United States can be linked to urgent concerns regarding timber shortages in the late 19th century (Williams 1989). These were based largely on perceived failures of forest landowners to protect or invest enough in the productive capacity of their forests (Manthy 1977). The South, as the only major...

  15. Managing logging residue under the timber sale contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Adams

    1980-01-01

    Management of logging residue is becoming an important part of timber sale planning. This involves controlling the amount of residue remaining on the ground and its distribution by diameter size class. Some residue is beneficial.An interdisciplinary team specified a desired residue level for one clearcutting unit of this trial. For comparison another cutting...

  16. Estimation of U.S. Timber Harvest Using Roundwood Equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Howard

    2006-01-01

    This report details the procedure used to estimate the roundwood products portion of U.S. annual timber harvest levels by using roundwood equivalents. National-level U.S. forest products data published by trade associations and State and Federal Government organizations were used to estimate the roundwood equivalent of national roundwood products production. The...

  17. Harvest choice and timber supply models for forest forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksym Polyakov; David N Wear

    2010-01-01

    Timber supply has traditionally been modeled using aggregate data, whereas individual harvest choices have been shown to be sensitive to the vintage and condition of forest capital stocks. In this article, we build aggregate supply models for four roundwood products in a seven-state region of the US South directly from stand-level harvest choice models applied to...

  18. The timber resources of the Blue Mountain area, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles L. Bolsinger; John M. Berger

    1975-01-01

    The latest inventory of the timber resources of the Blue Mountain Area of Oregon indicates that there are about 47 billion board feet of sawtimber on 4.6 million acres of commercial forest land. Public agencies administer about 76 percent of the area and hold 89 percent of the sawtimber volume; farmer and miscellaneous private ownerships account for 16 percent of the...

  19. A Novel Closed-head Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Caused by Primary Overpressure Blast to the Cranium Produces Sustained Emotional Deficits in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Heldt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional disorders are a common outcome from mild traumatic brain injury (TBI in humans, but their pathophysiological basis is poorly understood. We have developed a mouse model of closed-head blast injury using an air pressure wave delivered to a small area on one side of the cranium, which we have used to create mild TBI. We found that 20-psi blasts in 3-month old C57BL/6 male mice yielded no obvious behavioral or histological evidence of brain injury, while 25-40 psi blasts produced transient anxiety in an open field arena but little histological evidence of brain damage. By contrast, 50-60 psi blasts resulted in anxiety-like behavior in an open field arena that became more evident with time after blast. In additional behavioral tests conducted 2-8 weeks after blast, 50-60 psi mice also demonstrated increased acoustic startle, perseverance of learned fear, and enhanced contextual fear, as well as depression-like behavior and diminished prepulse inhibition. We found no evident cerebral pathology, however, and only scattered axonal degeneration in brain sections from 50-60 psi mice 3-8 weeks after blast. Thus, the TBI caused by single 50-60 psi blasts in mice exhibits the minimal neuronal loss coupled to diffuse axonal injury characteristic of human mild TBI. A reduction in the abundance of a subpopulation of excitatory projection neurons in basolateral amygdala enriched in Thy1 was, however, observed. The reported link of this neuronal population to fear suppression suggests their damage by mild TBI may contribute to the heightened anxiety and fearfulness observed after blast in our mice. Our overpressure air blast model of concussion in mice will enable further studies of the mechanisms underlying the diverse emotional deficits seen after mild TBI.

  20. Governance Options to Enhance Ecosystem Services in Cocoa, Soy, Tropical Timber and Palm Oil Value Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Verina; van den Berg, Jolanda; van Oorschot, Mark; Arets, Eric; Judge, Lucas

    2018-02-06

    Dutch policies have advocated sustainable commodity value chains, which have implications for the landscapes from which these commodities originate. This study examines governance and policy options for sustainability in terms of how ecosystem services are addressed in cocoa, soy, tropical timber and palm oil value chains with Dutch links. A range of policies addressing ecosystem services were identified, from market governance (certification, payments for ecosystem services) to multi-actor platforms (roundtables) and public governance (policies and regulations). An analysis of policy narratives and interviews identified if and how ecosystem services are addressed within value chains and policies; how the concept has been incorporated into value chain governance; and which governance options are available. The Dutch government was found to take a steering but indirect role in all the cases, primarily through supporting, financing, facilitating and partnering policies. Interventions mainly from end-of-chain stakeholders located in processing and consumption countries resulted in new market governance, notably voluntary sustainability standards. These have been successful in creating awareness of some ecosystem services and bringing stakeholders together. However, they have not fully addressed all ecosystem services or stakeholders, thus failing to increase the sustainability of value chains or of the landscapes of origin. We argue that chains sourced in tropical landscapes may be governed more effectively for sustainability if voluntary, market policy tools and governance arrangements have more integrated goals that take account of sourcing landscapes and impacts along the entire value chain. Given the international nature of these commodities. These findings have significance for debates on public-private approaches to value chain and landscape governance.

  1. Beliefs about the Potential Impacts of Exploiting Non-Timber Forest Products Predict Voluntary Participation in Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas Brites, Alice; Morsello, Carla

    2017-06-01

    Harvesting and trading non-timber forest products is advocated as a win-win strategy for conservation and development, yet it can produce negative ecological and socioeconomic impacts. Hence, monitoring exploitation outcomes is essential, and participatory monitoring has been suggested to be the most suitable approach. Among possible approaches, participatory monitoring is preferred because it is likely to increase people's awareness and beliefs regarding impacts or potential impacts, thus inducing behavioral changes, although the evidence in this regard is contradictory. We therefore evaluated whether people's beliefs about the potential ecological and socioeconomic impacts of non-timber forest product exploitation increased their likelihood of volunteering to monitor. We studied a community of forest inhabitants in the Brazilian Amazon who harvested and traded a commercially important non-timber forest product. Two methods of data gathering were employed: (i) a survey of 166 adults (51 households) to evaluate people's beliefs and their stated intention to engage in four different monitoring tasks and (ii) four pilot monitoring tasks to evaluate who actually participated. Based on mixed-effects regressions, the results indicated that beliefs regarding both types of impacts could predict participation in certain tasks, although gender, age and schooling were occasionally stronger predictors. On average, people had stronger beliefs about potential socioeconomic impacts than about potential ecological impacts, with the former also predicting participation in ecological data gathering. This finding reinforces the importance of monitoring both types of impacts to help achieve the win-win outcomes originally proposed by non-timber forest product trade initiatives.

  2. Assessing the Suitability of Future Multi- and Hyperspectral Satellite Systems for Mapping the Spatial Distribution of Norway Spruce Timber Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Nink

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The availability of accurate and timely information on timber volume is important for supporting operational forest management. One option is to combine statistical concepts (e.g., small area estimates with specifically designed terrestrial sampling strategies to provide estimations also on the level of administrative units such as forest districts. This may suffice for economic assessments, but still fails to provide spatially explicit information on the distribution of timber volume within these management units. This type of information, however, is needed for decision-makers to design and implement appropriate management operations. The German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate is currently implementing an object-oriented database that will also allow the direct integration of Earth observation data products. This work analyzes the suitability of forthcoming multi- and hyperspectral satellite imaging systems for producing local distribution maps for timber volume of Norway spruce, one of the most economically important tree species. In combination with site-specific inventory data, fully processed hyperspectral data sets (HyMap were used to simulate datasets of the forthcoming EnMAP and Sentinel-2 systems to establish adequate models for estimating timber volume maps. The analysis included PLS regression and the k-NN method. Root Mean Square Errors between 21.6% and 26.5% were obtained, where k-NN performed slightly better than PLSR. It was concluded that the datasets of both simulated sensor systems fulfill accuracy requirements to support local forest management operations and could be used in synergy. Sentinel-2 can provide meaningful volume distribution maps in higher geometric resolution, while EnMAP, due to its hyperspectral coverage, can contribute complementary information, e.g., on biophysical conditions.

  3. Beliefs about the Potential Impacts of Exploiting Non-Timber Forest Products Predict Voluntary Participation in Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas Brites, Alice; Morsello, Carla

    2017-06-01

    Harvesting and trading non-timber forest products is advocated as a win-win strategy for conservation and development, yet it can produce negative ecological and socioeconomic impacts. Hence, monitoring exploitation outcomes is essential, and participatory monitoring has been suggested to be the most suitable approach. Among possible approaches, participatory monitoring is preferred because it is likely to increase people's awareness and beliefs regarding impacts or potential impacts, thus inducing behavioral changes, although the evidence in this regard is contradictory. We therefore evaluated whether people's beliefs about the potential ecological and socioeconomic impacts of non-timber forest product exploitation increased their likelihood of volunteering to monitor. We studied a community of forest inhabitants in the Brazilian Amazon who harvested and traded a commercially important non-timber forest product. Two methods of data gathering were employed: (i) a survey of 166 adults (51 households) to evaluate people's beliefs and their stated intention to engage in four different monitoring tasks and (ii) four pilot monitoring tasks to evaluate who actually participated. Based on mixed-effects regressions, the results indicated that beliefs regarding both types of impacts could predict participation in certain tasks, although gender, age and schooling were occasionally stronger predictors. On average, people had stronger beliefs about potential socioeconomic impacts than about potential ecological impacts, with the former also predicting participation in ecological data gathering. This finding reinforces the importance of monitoring both types of impacts to help achieve the win-win outcomes originally proposed by non-timber forest product trade initiatives.

  4. Use of timber in shipbuilding industry: Identification and analysis of timber from shipwrecks off Goa coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Sujatha, M.; Rao, R.V.; Rao, K.S.

    of artifice) composed by the king Bhoja of Dhar (11th century AD) gives a detailed account of boats, ships and the variety of wood used for their construction and classification of ships. Further, the text also mentions the quality of timber that is required...

  5. Effects of crude humin and compost produced from selected waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste from oil palm plantations, paddy fields, sawn timber and poultries are substantial. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes can cause environmental problems such as air and land pollutions. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of crude humin and compost produced from rice straw, rice husk, sawdust, ...

  6. Sustainability in the Qatar national dietary guidelines, among the first to incorporate sustainability principles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seed, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    ... sustainability principles within the Qatar Dietary Guidelines. Qatar. Population of Qatar. Qatar has produced one of the first national dietary guidelines to integrate principles of food sustainability...

  7. Legal harvesting, sustainable sourcing and cascaded use of wood for bioenergy : Their coverage through existing certification frameworks for sustainable forest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, Richard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110609913; Junginger, Martin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703; van Dam, Jinke; Stegeman, Gerben; Durrant, David; Faaij, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The first objective of this paper was to provide an inventory of developments of certification schemes for sustainable biomass production, following recent EU legislation (both formalized and under development). One main pillar is the EU Timber Regulation for legal harvesting; a second one is the

  8. Historic timber skeleton structures and the local seismic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    This presentation deals with the employment of timber skeleton structure and the local seismic culture. After the 1755 earthquake in the reconstruction of Lisbon a type of building with timber skeleton and masonry infill called "gaiola pombalina" was promoted, since this was designed to better resists earthquakes. "Gaiola" means cage, and it was also named after the Marques de Pombal who introduced it in the reconstruction following the earthquake. The „gaiola pombalina" presents a timber skeleton with Saint Andrew crosses in the interior walls with masonry infill and thick masonry load bearing walls loosing in thickness to the upper floors in the exterior walls. The masonry can fall out during earthquakes but the building remains staying given the interior timber skeleton. The type of buildings with timber structure and (masonry) infill behaved well in earthquakes in various parts of the earth, like Nepal (the dhaji dewary type), Pakistan, Turkey (the himiş type after the 1999 earthquake) [both latter types were researched by Langenbach, www.conservationtech.com and www.traditional-is-modern.net] and also in Germany after the 1356 earthquake (the Southern German subtype of Fachwerk). Also in Italy a subtype called "casa baraccata" was promoted in a construction code to a similar time (following the 1783 earthquake in Southern Italy, see Tobriner 1983) as that of the "gaiola pombalina", the time of the Baroque, when town planning acquired another status. Unlike at the "gaiola pombalina" the "casa baraccata" the timber skeleton is at the exterior walls. For this reason this type of buildings is considered to be an expression of the local seismic culture. However, this type of buildings is common also for areas where seismic risk is not an issue, like half-timbered in England and the northern subtype of Fachwerk in Northern Germany, and in some high seismic risk regions with mountains and timber resources like Romania is not spread. Given these premises the author

  9. Reconciling timber extraction with biodiversity conservation in tropical forests using reduced-impact logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicknell, Jake E; Struebig, Matthew J; Davies, Zoe G; Baraloto, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Over 20% of the world's tropical forests have been selectively logged, and large expanses are allocated for future timber extraction. Reduced-impact logging (RIL) is being promoted as best practice forestry that increases sustainability and lowers CO2 emissions from logging, by reducing collateral damage associated with timber extraction. RIL is also expected to minimize the impacts of selective logging on biodiversity, although this is yet to be thoroughly tested.We undertake the most comprehensive study to date to investigate the biodiversity impacts of RIL across multiple taxonomic groups. We quantified birds, bats and large mammal assemblage structures, using a before-after control-impact (BACI) design across 20 sample sites over a 5-year period. Faunal surveys utilized point counts, mist nets and line transects and yielded >250 species. We examined assemblage responses to logging, as well as partitions of feeding guild and strata (understorey vs. canopy), and then tested for relationships with logging intensity to assess the primary determinants of community composition.Community analysis revealed little effect of RIL on overall assemblages, as structure and composition were similar before and after logging, and between logging and control sites. Variation in bird assemblages was explained by natural rates of change over time, and not logging intensity. However, when partitioned by feeding guild and strata, the frugivorous and canopy bird ensembles changed as a result of RIL, although the latter was also associated with change over time. Bats exhibited variable changes post-logging that were not related to logging, whereas large mammals showed no change at all.Indicator species analysis and correlations with logging intensities revealed that some species exhibited idiosyncratic responses to RIL, whilst abundance change of most others was associated with time.Synthesis and applications. Our study demonstrates the relatively benign effect of reduced

  10. Case Studies on Timber Defects of Selected Traditional Houses in Malacca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Haniza Ishak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of adverse environmental conditions on building materials and the extent of damage caused depends on both the materials used and the environmental conditions. Although timber is a diminishing resource, it is still widely used in today's construction. In Malaysia, timber is one of the main components of many historic buildings. Appropriate maintenance of such buildings requires an understanding of timber defects and its related problems. Timber defects are classified into two major groups: non-biological and biological deteriorations. Non-biological deterioration consists of physical decay, excessive moisture content, dimensional instability and chemical deterioration. These defects are mainly caused by the timber in service being subjected to environmental exposure. The most common and destructive timber biological deteriorations are those due to dry rot, we t rot as well as insect attacks . A study based on seven selected houses was conducted to identify the most common building defects, specifically on timber components amongst traditional Malay houses in Malacca, Malaysia, A building condition survey was carried out to determine the effect of the environment towards timber buildings and their main components. Data collected were based on the investigation and visual observation of the selected case studies. Findings of this research will serve as an indicator towards maintaining the buildings' timber components in good condition in order that the buildings' life span could be extended and primarily to conserve the valuable traditional timber houses in a historical city.

  11. THE POSSIBILITY OF USING TIMBER FROM PLANTATION FOREST TREATED WITH PLASTIC AND CCB FOR MARINE CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muslich

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, timber  estate or plantation forest plays an important role on wooden based industries.  However, the  plantation timber  quality is relatively low.  Some treatments  have been developed to improve  its low quality, such as preservation with CCB (Chromate Copper Boron and impregnation with plastic compounds. This study is to compare the durability of timber treated with  plastic and CCB,  non-treated from plantation forest timber  as well  as from natural  forest. The plantation timber  studied were  jeungjing  (Paraserianthes falcataria, damar  (Agathis sp., pinus  (Pinus merkusii, and rubberwood (Hevea brasilliensis. Non-treated timbers that usually used for marine construction were ulin (Eusideroxylon zwageri, jati/teak  (Tectona grandis, laban (Vitex pubescens and merbau  (Instia bijuga. After  6 and 12 months,  the results showed that CCB  preserved  timber  were  more durable  than plastic  impregnated timber  and non- treated timber. Wood samples were mostly attacked by marine borer organisms from the family of  Pholadidae  and Teredinidae. The experiment results revealed the possibility of using those plantation forest timber species for marine construction purposes.

  12. Harvesting of Non-timber Forest Products by the Local Communities in Mount Halimun-Salak National Park, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelin Adalina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Local communities around the forest need to be involved in securing the sustainability of Mount Halimun Salak National Park (MHSNP, for example through the utilization of non-timber forest products (NTFPs such as flora in the utilization zone. This research was aimed to provide data and information about 3 kinds of vegetation producing resin (Pinus merkusii, Agathis dammara, and Hevea brasiliensis and the harvesting NTFPs by the community in the forest vicinity. The research was conducted in MHSNP, and data were analyzed through quantitative-descriptive. The survey method was employed in the study through interviews of respondents using structured questionnaires. This study revealed that the vegetations at the stage of tree comprised of the following: (1 Agathis dammara (damar with Importance Value Index (IVI of 276.15% and density of 452 trees ha-1, (2 Pinus merkusii (pine trees with IVI of 300.0% and density of 552 trees ha-1, and (3 Hevea brasiliensis (rubber trees with IVI of 217.42% and density of 85 trees ha-1. Pine, damar, and rubber sap tapping afforded contribution in 59.18, 4.41, and 60.71%, respectively of the total household incomes. Community involvement in the collection of NTFPs in national parks implicated to the increasing of the forest communities revenue and the forests will be maintained since public can get benefits from forest resources. Forest management should be directed as a producer of NTFPs that can increase the economic income of forest communities with attention to ecological factors.

  13. Harvesting of Non-timber Forest Products by the Local Communities in Mount Halimun-Salak National Park, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelin Adalina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Local communities around the forest need to be involved in securing the sustainability of Mount Halimun Salak National Park (MHSNP, for example through the utilization of non-timber forest products (NTFPs such as flora in the utilization zone. This research was aimed to provide data and information about 3 kinds of vegetation producing resin (Pinus merkusii, Agathis dammara, and Hevea brasiliensis and the harvesting NTFPs by the community in the forest vicinity. The research was conducted in MHSNP, and data were analyzed through quantitative-descriptive. The survey method was employed in the study through interviews of respondents using structured questionnaires.   This study revealed that the vegetations at the stage of tree comprised of the following: (1 Agathis dammara (damar with Importance Value Index (IVI of 276.15% and density of 452 trees ha-1, (2 Pinus merkusii (pine trees with IVI of 300.0% and density of 552 trees ha-1, and (3 Hevea brasiliensis (rubber trees with IVI of 217.42%  and density of 85 trees ha-1. Pine, damar, and rubber sap tapping afforded contribution in 59.18, 4.41, and 60.71%, respectively of the total household incomes. Community involvement in the collection of NTFPs in national parks implicated to the increasing of the forest communities revenue and the forests will be maintained since public can get benefits from forest resources. Forest management should be directed as a producer of NTFPs that can increase the economic income of forest communities with attention to ecological factors. Keywords: Harvesting, non-wood forest products, Mount Halimun-Salak National Park, community around the  forests

  14. The Interaction between FSC Certification and the Implementation of the EU Timber Regulation in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Gavrilut

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This explorative study aims to shed light on the ways in which Forest Stewardship Council (FSC certification interacts with the implementation of the EU Timber Regulation (EUTR in Romania. To this end, the EUTR implementation process is examined, and the relationship between this implementation and FSC certification is explored. There is a particular focus on the extent to which certification has helped companies to comply with EUTR requirements. The study uses the analytical framework of Transnational Business Governance Interactions (TBGI and a mixed research approach. It is found that FSC certification has to a large extent helped companies to prepare for and align with the EUTR’s requirements, in particular concerning risk assessment and risk mitigation procedures needed for a due diligence system (DDS, and in the context of a “policy vacuum” period related to EUTR implementation. Moreover, recent changes in the FSC standard make it theoretically in line with EUTR requirements. However, difficulties remain in relation to the lack of information, costs and bureaucracy associated with both EUTR implementation and FSC certification. Notably, in the absence of a monitoring organization, the establishment of a viable DDS is still problematic as many companies remain unprepared for developing their own systems. Finally, the EUTR and its risk management requirements may have partly fueled the increase in uptake of chain of custody (CoC certification in Romania. However, due to the risk of CoC certificates including illegally sourced timber, this recent uptake in certification does not necessarily indicate improved sustainable forest management (SFM or full compliance with EUTR.

  15. The effect of fissures on the strength of structural timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íñiguez, Guillermo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Detailed measurements of drying fissures were carried out on 28 pieces of gross cross-section structural Scots pine timber. Different parameters have been proposed to measure their magnitude: length, depth, thickness and slope of grain, as well as an index of area in the neutral axis plane (ratio of effective to total surface. The parameters of fissures have been related to bending strength, shear strength, modulus of elasticity and rupture energy obtained from mechanical tests, considering whether rupture is due to bending or shear. All of the fissures observed allows to classify the pieces as MEG according to the UNE 56544 standard. To quantify the magnitude of fissures the index of areas is proposed, while mechanical properties can be quantified by rupture energy. Analysis of the results does not show any relation between the fissures analyzed and the mode of failure, their magnitude and mechanical properties..

    Se han realizado mediciones detalladas de las fendas de secado en 28 piezas de madera de pino silvestre de gran escuadría. Se han propuesto diferentes parámetros para medir su magnitud en longitud, profundidad, grosor e inclinación, así como un índice de áreas en el plano medio de rasante (superficie eficaz respecto a superficie total. Se han relacionado los parámetros de fendas con resistencia a flexión, resistencia a cortante, módulo de elasticidad y energía de rotura obtenidos mediante ensayos mecánicos, teniendo en cuenta si la rotura se produce por flexión o por cortante. Todas las fendas observadas permiten clasificar las piezas como MEG según la norma UNE 56544. Se propone cuantificar las fendas mediante el índice de áreas y las propiedades mecánicas mediante la energía de rotura. El análisis realizado no muestra una relación significativa entre las fendas analizadas, los modos de rotura o las propiedades mecánicas.

  16. Sustainability assessment and complementarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Alrøe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessments bring together different perspectives that pertain to sustainability to produce overall assessments, and a wealth of approaches and tools have been developed in the past decades. However, two major problems remain. The problem of integration concerns the surplus of possibilities for integration; different tools produce different assessments. The problem of implementation concerns the barrier between assessment and transformation; assessments do not lead to the expected changes in practice. We aim to analyze issues of complementarity in sustainability assessment and transformation as a key to better handling the problems of integration and implementation. Based on a generalization of Niels Bohr's complementarity from quantum mechanics, we have identified two forms of complementarity in sustainability assessment, observer stance complementarity and value complementarity. Unlike many other problems of sustainability assessment, complementarity is of a fundamental character connected to the very conditions for observation. Therefore, complementarity cannot be overcome methodologically, only handled better or worse. Science is essential to the societal goal of sustainability, but these issues of complementarity impede the constructive role of science in the transition to more sustainable structures and practices in food systems. The agencies of sustainability assessment and transformation need to be acutely aware of the importance of different perspectives and values and the complementarities that may be connected to these differences. An improved understanding of complementarity can help to better recognize and handle issues of complementarity. These deliberations have relevance not only for sustainability assessment, but more generally for transdisciplinary research on wicked problems.

  17. Performance of Sprayed Fiber Reinforced Polymer Strengthened Timber Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talukdar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to investigate the use of Sprayed Fiber Reinforced Polymer (SFRP for retrofit of timber beams. A total of 10-full scale specimens were tested. Two different timber preservatives and two different bonding agents were investigated. Strengthening was characterized using load deflection diagrams. Results indicate that it is possible to enhance load-carrying capacity and energy absorption characteristics using the technique of SFRP. Of the two types of preservatives investigated, the technique appears to be more effective for the case of creosote-treated specimens, where up to a 51% improvement in load-carrying capacity and a 460% increase in the energy absorption capacity were noted. Effectiveness of the bonding agent used was dependent on the type of preservative the specimen had been treated with.

  18. Local timber firm looking forward to develop on medium term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUCS Lorant

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to outline the challenges faced by a local timber company in struggle to resist on medium-term on the market. There will be revealed the challenges the company is facing, and also the ways to adapt to the changing world of timber industry. There will be presented a short history of the founding and the evolution of the company on the local and international market, pointing out the relevant events which have marked the life of the company during the years. There will also be presented a short review of the competition on the market and the marketing strategy and policies which the company is using to be able to face the new challenges.

  19. Beam to Column Timber Joints with Pretensioned Bolts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashikawa T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pretension in bolts on hysteretic response of timber joints exposed to a bending had been reported by the authors, but the cyclic tests were carried out at small displacement level which might not be applicable for earthquake-resistance design. In this study, similar cyclic tests but at large displacement levels were conducted. Beam to column timber joints with steel side plates were fabricated and continuously loaded until failure. At connection, the bolts were pretension in four different magnitudes: 0 kN, 5 kN, 10 kN and 15 kN. The results showed that frictional action between the steel side plates and wood member as a result of bolt pretensioning significantly increased the (frictional hysteretic damping and the equivalent viscous damping ratio. It is obvious from the test results that the pretension force in bolts has no influence on the maximum joint resistance but decreases the joint rotational deformation.

  20. A Probabilistic Approach for Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    A probabilistic based robustness analysis has been performed for a glulam frame structure supporting the roof over the main court in a Norwegian sports centre. The robustness analysis is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety...... of Structures and a probabilistic modelling of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). Due to the framework in the Danish Code the timber structure has to be evaluated with respect to the following criteria where at least one shall...... be fulfilled: a) demonstrating that those parts of the structure essential for the safety only have little sensitivity with respect to unintentional loads and defects, or b) demonstrating a load case with ‘removal of a limited part of the structure’ in order to document that an extensive failure...

  1. The effects of the Euro adoption on the timber market in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Antonoaie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the potential effects of adopting the Euro currency in Romania on the timber prices. We begin from the current situation of Romanian wood auctions (starting price, selling price, timber type, volume auctioned, volume sold and compare it to the situation in Slovakia. In this case, an in depth analysis on the effects of the currency change will be presented, focusing on the changes that have occurred in the prices of general goods and materials, especially on the timber market, taking into account the changes that have taken place on the Slovakian timber market. We will apply the same trend to Romania and set up a forecasting model and study the potential effects, both immediate and long term of adopting the Euro currency for the timber market (variation in price and timber volume.

  2. Numerical simulation on behaviour of timber-concrete composite beams in fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hao; Hu, Xiamin; Zhang, Bing; Minli, Yao

    2017-08-01

    This paper established sequentially coupled thermal-mechanical models of timber--concrete composite (TCC) beams by finite element software ANSYS to investigate the fire resistance of TCC beam. Existing experimental results were used to verify the coupled thermal-mechanical model. The influencing parameters consisted of the width of timber beam, the thickness of the concrete slab and the timber board. Based on the numerical results, the effects of these parameters on fire resistance of TCC beams were investigated in detail. The results showed that modeling results agreed well with test results, and verified the reliability of the finite element model. The width of the timber beam had a significant influence on the fire resistance of TCC beams. The fire resistance of TCC beams would be enhanced by increasing the width of timber beam, the thickness of concrete slab and the timber board.

  3. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Crotalus horridus (timber rattlesnake).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jacob B; Cobb, Vincent A; Cahoon, A Bruce

    2013-04-01

    The complete mitogenome of the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) was completed using Sanger sequencing. It is 17,260 bp with 13 protein-coding genes, 21 tRNAs, two rRNAs and two control regions. Gene synteny is consistent with other snakes with the exception of a missing redundant tRNA (Ser) . This mitogenome should prove to be a useful addition of a well-known member of the Viperidae snake family.

  4. Chain of custody certification: an assessment of Ghanaian timber sector

    OpenAIRE

    Attah, A.; Ioras, F.; Ratnasingam, J.; Abrudan, I. V.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Although Europe represents a major market for Ghana, information on how local companies are addressing chain of custody certification is scarce. A survey of 103 timber firms, in particular, was conducted in order to determine the current status of chain of custody certification in Ghana. Results collated indicate that the readiness to adopt chain of custody certification among the sector was low. The lack of stakeholders? awareness and price premium was cited as the primar...

  5. Plastic timber with wheat straw and polymer matrix

    OpenAIRE

    García-Velázquez, Ángel; Amado-Moreno, María Guadalupe; Campbell-Ramírez, Héctor Enrique; Brito-Páez, Reyna Arcelia; Toscano-Palomar, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the research was to develop plastic timber with wheat straw and polymer matrix. In the Mexicali Valley in Baja California, Mexico, the agricultural activities and the maquiladora industry are the main source of income in the region.  However, agricultural activities generate wastes that contribute heavily to pollution of Mexicali and its valley. The burning of agricultural waste is a traditional practice in the Valley, and is done in order to prepare the soil for the next cro...

  6. Timber resource statistics for the Sitka inventory unit, Alaska, 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. Van Hees; Vernon J. LaBau

    1983-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1971 timber resource inventory of the Sitka unit in southeast Alaska. Estimates for timberland total 821,700 acres (332 500 ha) with 4.8 billion cubic feet (137.6 million m3) of net growing stock volume. Annual net growth is estimated at -36.8 million cubic feet and mortality at 59.7 million cubic feet (-1.0 and 1.7...

  7. Wooden Facade and Determination of Strength of Bonded Timber Joints

    OpenAIRE

    Nečasová, Barbora; LIŠKA, Pavel; Šlanhof, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    A research case focused on vented wooden façade system with bonded joints is presented in this paper. The potential of bonded joints is studied and described in more detail and verified through experimental measurements. For the purpose of tests spruce timber profiles were chosen for the load bearing substructure and Wooden plastic composite façade sheeting for the cladding. Three types of industrial adhesives intended for structural bonding were selected. The article is focused on the prepar...

  8. Structure And Efficiency Of Timber Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian C. Murray; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2003-01-01

    Perfect competition has long been the standard by which economists have judged the market's ability to achieve an efficient social outcome. The competitive process, unfettered by the imperfections discussed below, forges an outcome in which goods and services are produced at their lowest possible cost, and market equilibrium is achieved at the point at which the...

  9. Estimating sawmill processing capacity for Tongass timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth A. Kilborn; Daniel J. Parrent; Robert D. Housley

    2004-01-01

    In spring 2001 and 2003, sawmill capacity and utilization information was collected directly from 20 producers (usually the largest and most active) in southeast Alaska. The estimated mill capacity in southeast Alaska for calendar year (CY) 2000 was 501,850 thousand board feet (MBF) (log scale) and for CY 2002 was 453,850 MBF (log scale). The actual production by these...

  10. Visual management system and timber management application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren R. Bacon; Asa D. (Bud) Twombly

    1979-01-01

    This paper includes an illustration of a planning process to guide vegetation management throughout a travel route seen area and over the time period of a total management rotation (100-300 years). The process will produce direction on visual characteristics to be created and maintained within the biological potential and coordinated with associated re-source...

  11. Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation and Timber Production in Mixed Uneven-Aged Mountain Forests: Identification of Ecological Intensification Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, Valentine; Cordonnier, Thomas; Courbaud, Benoît

    2015-11-01

    Mixed uneven-aged forests are considered favorable to the provision of multiple ecosystem services and to the conciliation of timber production and biodiversity conservation. However, some forest managers now plan to increase the intensity of thinning and harvesting operations in these forests. Retention measures or gap creation are considered to compensate potential negative impacts on biodiversity. Our objectives were to assess the effect of these management practices on timber production and biodiversity conservation and identify potential compensating effects between these practices, using the concept of ecological intensification as a framework. We performed a simulation study coupling Samsara2, a simulation model designed for spruce-fir uneven-aged mountain forests, an uneven-aged silviculture algorithm, and biodiversity models. We analyzed the effect of parameters related to uneven-aged management practices on timber production, biodiversity, and sustainability indicators. Our study confirmed that the indicators responded differently to management practices, leading to trade-offs situations. Increasing management intensity had negative impacts on several biodiversity indicators, which could be partly compensated by the positive effect of retention measures targeting large trees, non-dominant species, and deadwood. The impact of gap creation was more mitigated, with a positive effect on the diversity of tree sizes and deadwood but a negative impact on the spruce-fir mixing balance and on the diversity of the understory layer. Through the analysis of compensating effects, we finally revealed the existence of possible ecological intensification pathways, i.e., the possibility to increase management intensity while maintaining biodiversity through the promotion of nature-based management principles (gap creation and retention measures).

  12. Assessment of Carrying Capacity of Timber Element Using SBRA Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal

    2017-10-01

    Wood as a building material has a significant perspective in the context of nonrenewable energy sources and production of greenhouse gas emissions. The subject of this paper is to verify the carrying capacity of the timber element using the probabilistic method Simulation Based Reliability Assessment (SBRA). The simulation is performed for one million cycles. Key factors decreasing the strength of wooden material at the time include the duration of the loads, and combinations thereof. Inconsiderable factor affecting the strength of wood is also the humidity. Continuous beam with three fields (length 15 m, glued laminated timber, and strength class GL 36 according to the DIN EN 1194) is placed in an environment with a thermal-humidity regime of the 2nd class according to the EC 5. Average life of carrying timber structure is estimated to be 50 years. The simulation results show that there is no risk of failure of wood during the first year. The probability of failure is common in the 10 years of its life. Then, wooden element already meets only a reduced level of reliability.

  13. BOLTED TIMBER JOINTS WITH SELF-TAPPING SCREWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Echavarría

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of self-tapping screws with continuous threads in the joint area as a reinforcement to avoid splitting of timber members is studied. A theoretical model is developed to calculate the stress distribution around a pin-loaded hole in a timber joint, to predict brittle failure modes in bolted connections and to calculate the load in the reinforcing screws. Laboratory experiments on reinforced and non-reinforced timber joints with 15,9-mm bolts have shown good agreement with the model predictions.En este artículo se estudia el uso de tornillos autoperforantes como refuerzo para evitar rupturas frágiles en uniones de madera. Se presenta un modelo teórico para calcular la distribución de esfuerzos alrededor de un perno en una unión de madera, predecir las rupturas frágiles y evaluar el esfuerzo en los tornillos autoperforantes. Los experimentos de laboratorio con uniones de madera, con pernos de 15,9 mm de diámetro, reforzadas y no reforzadas mostraron la efectividad del modelo teórico propuesto.

  14. Robustness Analysis of a Wide-Span Timber Structure with Ductile Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Cizmar, D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers robustness evaluation of a wide span timber truss structure where the ductile behavior is taken into account. The robustness analysis is based on a structural reliability framework used on a simplified mechanical system modelling a timber truss system. A measure of ductile be...... behaviour is introduced and for different values of this measure the robustness indices are estimated. The results indicate that the robustness of a timber truss system can be increased by taking the ductile behavior into....

  15. Greek timber industries and wood product markets over the last century: development constraints and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiotis P. Koulelis

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the Greek forestry sector after 1930. According to the past literature, the sector was entirely degraded and reliable data are not available. The study analyses critical historical data about timber sector and timber companies; the main objective is the specification of the factors that kept the Greek forest sector underdevelopment. The factors and the development constraints, including the indigenous characteristics of the Greek forests, the inhibitory policy for timber p...

  16. Hardwood timber sales on state forests in Indiana: characteristics influencing costs and prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Michael Vasievich; W. L., Jr. Mills; Heidi R. Cherry

    1997-01-01

    Timber sales conducted on State-owned forests in INdiana from 1982 to 1994 were analyzed to determine changes in costs and prices and the effect of sale conditions on costs and prices. The data set included 445 sales that ranged in size from less than 1 acre to more than 500 acres. Sales were predominantly partial cuts in mature hardwood timber. Marked timber volume...

  17. The statistical variability and length effects in the tensile transverse behavior of clear timber

    OpenAIRE

    Moshtaghin, Alireza Farajzadeh; Franke, Steffen; Keller, Thomas; Vassilopoulos, Anastasios P.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, clear timber specimens of different lengths with a small cross-sectional area were cut in the transverse direction of timber boards and tested under tensile loading. Regularly positioned and randomly positioned specimens were cut from different timber boards. Local deformations in each specimen were measured during the tests and the mechanical behavior of specimens of different lengths was compared. Statistics and size effects concerning the elastic modulus and strength were stu...

  18. Simulating the cumulative effects of multiple forest management strategies on landscape measures of forest sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; David E. Lytle; Randy Swaty; Craig Loehle

    2007-01-01

    While the cumulative effects of the actions of multiple owners have long been recognized as critically relevant to efforts to maintain sustainable forests at the landscape scale, few studies have addressed these effects. We used the HARVEST timber harvest simulator to predict the cumulative effects of four owner groups (two paper companies, a state forest and non-...

  19. Stora Enso Timber rajab Imaverre uue tehase Jaapani turu tarvis / Väinu Rozental

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rozental, Väinu, 1957-

    2004-01-01

    Metsatööstuskontsern Stora Enso Timber ehitab Imaverre liimpuidutehase, mis hakkab tootma liimpuittalasid peamiselt Jaapani turu jaoks. Diagramm. Lisa: Pankurid peavad Stora Enso sammu Eestile kasulikuks

  20. Comparison of behaviour of laterally loaded round and squared timber bolted joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonín Lokaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current European standards for design of timber structures, the issue of timber-to-timber joint type is addressed only to squared timber, which makes the pinpointing of the round timber bolted joints load carrying capacity near-unfeasible due to the insufficient support in the current standards. There have been made series of tests of round timber joints in different inclinations of the loading force and also the reference tests of squared timber joints to compare the behaviour of this type of joints. Mechanical behaviour of the round and the squared timber bolted joints was tested in the laboratory of the Faculty of Civil Engineering in Ostrava. This paper presents results of static tests in tension at an angle of 0°, 90° and 60° to the grain of squared and round timber bolted joints. Load carrying capacity was determined according to the applicable standards and theories of fracture mechanics. The test results of laboratory tests were then compared with the results of theoretical calculations.

  1. Finite element study of growth stress formation in wood and related distortion of sawn timber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Dahlblom, O.; Johansson, M.

    2009-01-01

    Lack of straightness in timber is the most frequent complaint regarding solid (and laminated) timber products worldwide. Nowadays, customers demand higher quality in the shape stability of wood products than they did earlier. The final distortion of timber boards is caused mostly by moisture......-related stresses in wood (drying distortions) and growth-related stresses (distortions appearing when logs are split up to timber boards by sawing). To get more knowledge on how these distortions can be reduced in wooden products, there is a need for improved understanding of this material behaviour through good...

  2. Factors Affecting the Price of Beech Timber Sale by Auctions in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet DAŞDEMİR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors affecting the auction price of timber in the state forest enterprises in Turkey. This studywas handled to determine the factors affecting the price of third class normal sized beech timber sale by auctions.It was carried out in two rival state forest enterprises (Bartın and Yenice of Zonguldak Regional ForestDirectorate in the Western Blacksea Region of Turkey. The data obtained from the total 149 timber auctions inthe period 1998-2002 were used as material in this study. The effects of seasonal and other factors on the auctionprice of beech timber were investigated by variance analysis, season and month indexes, and correlation,regression and factors analyses respectively. At the end of statistical analyses, it was determined that the seasonsaffected the beech timber prices at the 90% significant level. The most positive effect in spring and the mostnegative effect in winter were determined. The month most affecting timber price was April. Also, the factorsthe most affecting the price of beech timber sale by auctions were determined as follows: (1 Timing of theauctions, (2 Quantity of supply and size of timber stack, (3 Demand level, (4 Quality and appropriateness tostandardization in timber production. Furthermore, based on these conclusions, some suggestions were made inorder to plan marketing activities optimally and to improve the marketing policies and to ensure economicallysustainability in state forest enterprises.

  3. Timber Harvesting and Site Preparation Effects on Soil Quality for Loblolly Pine Growing on the Lower Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Kelting, Daniel Ladd

    1999-01-01

    The Lower Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States is a major wood producing region. The region is characterized by a combination of nearly-level topography, poorly-drained soils, and high rainfall, which results in a perched water table in some soils that inundates the surface several times each year. Harvesting timber under wet site conditions often results in extensive soil compaction, rutting, soil displacement, and waterlogging. Forest managers are concerned that these visually...

  4. Sustainable nuclear energy dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afgan Naim H.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development implies the need for the emerging potential energy sources which are not producing adverse effect to the environment. In this respect nuclear energy has gained the complimentary favor to be considered as the potential energy source without degradation of the environment. The sustainability evaluation of the nuclear energy systems has required the special attention to the criteria for the assessment of nuclear energy system before we can make firm justification of the sustainability of nuclear energy systems. In order to demonstrate the sustainability assessment of nuclear energy system this exercise has been devoted to the potential options of nuclear energy development, namely: short term option, medium term option, long term option and classical thermal system option. Criteria with following indicators are introduced in this analysis: nuclear indicator, economic indicator, environment indicator, social indicator... The Sustainability Index is used as the merit for the priority assessment among options under consideration.

  5. Sustainable agriculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lichtfouse, Eric

    2009-01-01

    ... : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 Part I CLIMATE CHANGE Soils and Sustainable Agriculture: A Review : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Rattan Lal 15 Soils and Food Sufficiency...

  6. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  7. Oxalic acid as an assisting agent for the electrodialytic remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Mateus, Eduardo P.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    1999-01-01

    The electrodialytic process is proposed as a technique for the remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste, using oxalic acid as assisting agent. The method prowed succesfull 93% Cu, 95% Cr and 99% As was removed from the timber.......The electrodialytic process is proposed as a technique for the remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste, using oxalic acid as assisting agent. The method prowed succesfull 93% Cu, 95% Cr and 99% As was removed from the timber....

  8. Residual timber values within Piedmont streamside management zones of different widths and harvest levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Lakel; Wallace Aust; C. Andrew Dolloff; Patrick D. Keyser

    2015-01-01

    Forested streamside management zones (SMZs) provide numerous societal benefits including protection of water quality and enhancement of in-stream and riparian habitats. However, values of residual timber in SMZs are often ignored, yet maintenance of unnecessarily wide SMZs can potentially reduce merchantable timber. Therefore, forestland owners, managers, and logging...

  9. Compatibility of intensive timber culture with recreation, water and wildlife management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel P. Shaw

    1977-01-01

    Two principles of ecology can be applied to make management for recreation, water, and wildlife habitat compatible with timber management. They are diversity within plant communities (i.e. timber types) and interspersion of these diverse communities in place and time. Intensive cultural operations can be the tool to create the...

  10. Dowel-type fastener connections in timber structures subjected to short-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen Jensen, J.

    Design of dowel-type fastener connections in framed timber structures usually involves a two-step analysis: determination of the distribution of the sectional forces, and design of the eccentrically loaded connections. This report presents an integrated model for design of framed timber structures...

  11. Timber resource statistics for non-Federal forest land in southwest Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1985 timber resource inventory of the non-Federal forest land in the five counties (Coos, Curry, Douglas, Jackson, and Josephine) in southwest Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  12. Timber resource statistics for non-federal forest land in northwest Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1986 timber resource inventory of the non-Federal forest land in the 10 counties (Clackamas, Clatsop, Columbia, Hood River, Marion, Multnomah , Polk, Tillamook, Washington, and Yamhill) in northwest Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  13. Timber resource statistics for all forest land, except national forests, in eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1989-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1987 timber resource inventory of all forest land, except National Forests, in the 17 counties (Baker, Crook, Deschutes, Gilliam, Grant, Harney, Jefferson, Klamath, Lake, Malheur, Morrow, Sherman, Umatilla, Union, Wallowa, Wasco, and Wheeler Counties) in eastern Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and...

  14. Timber resource statistics for non-Federal forest land in west-central Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1985-86 timber resource inventory of the non-Federal forest land in the four counties (Benton, Lane, Lincoln, and Linn) in west-central Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  15. 77 FR 29537 - Standards and Specifications for Timber Products Acceptable for Use by Rural Utilities Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Standards and Specifications for Timber Products Acceptable for Use by Rural Utilities Service Electric and..., which amended its regulations on Electric and Telecommunications Standards and Specifications for..., wood crossarms (solid and laminated), transmission timbers and pole keys, and for quality control and...

  16. Harvesting choices and timber supply among landowners in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daowei Zhang; Xing Sun; Brett J. Butler; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2015-01-01

    The recent rise of institutional timberland ownership has led to a significant change in the structure and conduct of the timber industry in the United States. In this study,we apply a two-period harvest model to assess the timber harvesting behavior of various landowners at the stand level by utilizing USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis data for nine...

  17. Successful and unsuccessful attempts to resolve caribou management and timber harvesting issues in west central Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hervieux

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Research studies of woodland caribou in west central Alberta began in 1979 in response to proposed timber harvesting on their winter ranges. Using results from initial studies, timber harvest guidelines were developed. A recent review of these guidelines, and the assumptions on which they were based, has resulted in a renegotiation by government and industry of timber harvesting on caribou range in west central Alberta. Caribou range in west central Alberta overlaps many jurisdictional boundaries: federal and provincial lands, four Forest Management Agreement Areas, three Alberta Land and Forest Service Regions and two Alberta Fish and Wildlife Service Regions. This jurisdictional complexity in combination with other factors such as total allocation of the timber resources, high levels of petroleum, natural gas and coal extraction activities, a high level of concern by public groups for caribou conservation and recent understanding of woodland caribou needs for abundant space has made resolution of caribou/timber harvest conflicts exceedingly slow and often relatively unproductive. This paper reviews 10 years of trying to resolve conflicts between timber harvesting and caribou conservation through meetings, committees, integrated resource planning, policy papers and public consultation. We describe what might be learned by other jurisdictions that are trying to resolve similar caribou/timber harvesting issues. We conclude with an overview of recent timber harvest planning initiatives on caribou range in west central Alberta.

  18. The mangement of national forests of eastern United States for non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain

    2000-01-01

    Many products are harvested fiom the forests of the United States in addition to timber. These non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are plants, parts of plants, or fungi that are harvested from within and on the edges of natural, disturbed or managed forests. Often, NTFPs are harvested from public forests for the socio-economic benefit they provide to rural collectors....

  19. Fluctuations in national forest timber harvest and removals: the southern regional perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt; Tony G. Johnson; Mike Howell; James W. Bentley

    2009-01-01

    Here, we examine fluctuations in timber harvest and removals on National Forest System (NFS) lands of the Southern Region in light of changing societal values and administrative policies. We also present timber product utilization information based on multiple data sources, examine NFS removals in the context of standing volume, and compare NFS removals with removals...

  20. Computer software to estimate timber harvesting system production, cost, and revenue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. John E. Baumgras; Dr. Chris B. LeDoux

    1992-01-01

    Large variations in timber harvesting cost and revenue can result from the differences between harvesting systems, the variable attributes of harvesting sites and timber stands, or changing product markets. Consequently, system and site specific estimates of production rates and costs are required to improve estimates of harvesting revenue. This paper describes...

  1. Influences of upland timber harvest on aquatic invertebrate communities in seasonal ponds: efficacy of forested buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Hanson; Brian J. Palik; James O. Church; Anthony T. Miller

    2010-01-01

    We assessed community responses of aquatic invertebrates in 16 small, seasonal ponds in a forested region of north central Minnesota, USA, to evaluate potential influences of timber harvest and efficacy of uncut forested buffers in adjacent uplands. Invertebrate data gathered before (2000) and during the first 4 years following clearcut timber harvest (2001-2004)...

  2. NDE investigation of the timber foundation in the historic Kennecott Mine Concentration Mill Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Xiping Wang; Douglas R. Rammer; Bessie M. Woodward

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. National Park Service acquired the National Historic Copper Mine at Kennecott, Alaska, in 1998. There was uncertainty about the condition of the timber-cribbing foundation supporting the concentration mill, the largest building in the mine complex. A comprehensive on-site evaluation of the timber cribbing foundation was performed in summer 2009. The inspection...

  3. Timber bridge evaluation : a global nondestructive approach using impact generated FRFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus Morison; C.D. Van Karsen; H.A. Evensen; J.B. Ligon; J.R. Erickson; R.J. Ross; J.W. Forsman

    2002-01-01

    Bridges require periodic inspections to ensure the safety of those using the structure. A visual inspection has historically been the most common form of investigation for timber bridges. This poses many problems when inspecting bridge timbers since often the damage is internal, leaving no visible signs of decay on the surface. Localized nondestructive evaluation (NDE...

  4. Time-of-Flight Adjustment Procedure for Acoustic Measurements in Structural Timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danbiel F. Llana; Guillermo Iñiguez-Gonzalez; Francisco Arriaga; Xiping Wang

    2016-01-01

    The effect of timber length on time-of-flight acoustic longitudinal measurements was investigated on the structural timber of four Spanish species: radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), laricio pine (Pinus nigra Arn.), and maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Time-of-flight longitudinal measurements were conducted on 120 specimens of...

  5. 36 CFR 13.485 - Subsistence use of timber and plant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... materials for subsistence uses, and the noncommerical gathering of dead or downed timber for firewood, shall... plant material. 13.485 Section 13.485 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... timber and plant material. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, the non-commercial...

  6. Small wind turbines with timber blades for developing countries: Materials choice, development, installation and experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Freere, Peter; Sinha, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    The low cost wind turbines with timber blades represent a good solution for the decentralized energy production in off-grid regions of developing countries. This paper summarizes the results of investigations on the mechanical testing and choice of timber for wind blades, testing of different...

  7. Emergent lessons from a century of experience with Pacific Northwest timber markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Haynes

    2008-01-01

    Timber markets in the United States are areas where timber prices tend to be uniform because of the continuous interactions of buyers and sellers. These markets are highly competitive, volatile, and change relentlessly. This paper looks at how market interactions in the Pacific Northwest have responded to changes in underlying determinants of market behavior and...

  8. System Balance In Multi-Stage Timber Transportation: A Case Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timber transportation is known to be the most important and expensive single component in timber harvesting. It is a crucial part in harvesting planning especially where difficulty terrain and long distances are involved. This paper presents a study of a skyline logging system, Mkumbara, Northeast Tanzania, where difficult ...

  9. 77 FR 11532 - Algonquin Power Company; Abenaki Timber Corporation; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... been transferred to Abenaki Timber Corporation. The project is located on the South Milton River in Stafford County, New Hampshire. The transfer of an exemption does not require Commission approval. \\1\\ 15... Energy Regulatory Commission Algonquin Power Company; Abenaki Timber Corporation; Notice of Transfer of...

  10. Simplified Analytical Model for a Queen-Post Covered Timber Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    F Fanous; D. Rammer; T. Wipf

    2013-01-01

    During the 19th century, the economic material to build bridges was timber due to its abundant availability, cost, and ease of construction. Many of the well-known timber bridge types are the Burr arch, Town lattice, Howe, Queen and King type of trusses. This paper summarizes an investigation that was sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration and the USDA Forest...

  11. Field performance of timber bridges. 7, Connell Lake stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. E. Hislop; M. A. Ritter

    The Connell Lake bridge was constructed in early 1991 on the Tongass National Forest, Alaska, as a demonstration bridge under the Timber Bridge Initiative. The bridge is a stress-laminated deck structure with an approximate 36-ft length and 18-ft width and is the first known stress-laminated timber bridge constructed in Alaska. Performance of the bridge was monitored...

  12. Concurring Regulation in European Forest Law; Forest Certification and the New EU Timber Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistenkas, F.H.

    2013-01-01

    Newly made EU Timber Regulation (EUTR) may prima facie look like competing regulation and an overlap of the existing forest certification schemes of FSC and PEFC as also EUTR combats illegally harvested timber. The novel EUTR, however, is a public law scheme wheras FSC and PEFC are private law

  13. Post-Fire Analysis of Solid-Sawn Heavy Timber Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Frank E. Woeste

    2013-01-01

    After fire exposure, design professionals are sometimes called upon to determine if the charred heavy timbers (Figure 1) are safe for future use without additional support or repairs. In this article, the authors present a sequence of reasoned steps that will help design professionals analyze charred timbers and gain the type of information needed to...

  14. 75 FR 27507 - Safety Zone; Delaware River, Big Timber Creek, Westville, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA08 Safety Zone; Delaware River, Big Timber Creek, Westville... held annually on the last Saturday in June with a rain date of the first Saturday in July. This Safety... is intended to temporarily restrict vessel traffic in the regulated area within Big Timber Creek...

  15. trade on non-timber forest products (ntfps) between south west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    INTRODUCTION. Forest, apart from timber, forest contains many useful goods and services of subsistence and commercial value called Non-Timber Forest Products ... A. F. Nkwatoh, Department of Geology and Environmental Science, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63 Buea, South ... The study area has a humid tropical.

  16. Live-load performance evaluation of historic covered timber bridges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junwon Seo; Travis K. Hosteng; Brent M. Phares; James P. Wacker

    2015-01-01

    The National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation Program (NHCBP), sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), was established to preserve the covered timber bridge structures that were constructed in the early 1800s. Today, many of the approximately 880 covered timber bridges still in existence in the United States are closed to vehicular traffic;...

  17. A method for estimating operability and location of the timber resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer; Mark H. Hansen; Pamela J. Jakes

    1986-01-01

    Operability is the relative ease or difficulty of managing or harvesting timber because of physical conditions in the stand or on the site. Using data collected during standard statewide forest inventories, we developed a method for classifying timber by operability class based on seven operability components.

  18. Development of a smart timber bridge girder with fiber optic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wacker; Ursula Deza; Brent M. Phares; Terry J. Wipf

    2010-01-01

    Past timber bridge evaluation and maintenance efforts in the USA have principally focused on the internal integrity of timber components using various non-destructive evaluation tools to supplement visual inspection data. This project is part of a comprehensive effort to develop smart structure concepts for improving the long-term performance, maintenance, and...

  19. Simple models for estimating local removals of timber in the northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Larsen; David A. Gansner

    1975-01-01

    Provides a practical method of estimating subregional removals of timber and demonstrates its application to a typical problem. Stepwise multiple regression analysis is used to develop equations for estimating removals of softwood, hardwood, and all timber from selected characteristics of socioeconomic structure.

  20. Drivers of Housing Demolition Decision Making and the Impact on Timber Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry John Forsythe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates housing demolition and timber waste recovery – with the aim to identify ways of improving recovery. Using case studies the research focused on demolisher decision making, their onsite processes and the associated network of participants that influence timber recovery. From the data, a process model was developed that identifies and orders the drivers of demolition decision making. One aspect of the model identified the initiators of demolition and the waste created, including issues revolving around the demolition feedstock. Another aspect covers organisational business drivers and includes site safety, productivity, economies of scale, market value of waste and supply chain entrepreneurship. A third component deals with project specific drivers including the recurring cost versus income equation that impacts on the viability of project level decisions. The model includes a typology of the operational onsite response to the above drivers. Here, the deconstruction approach was found to provide high timber recovery mainly used where high-value timber waste was involved; the miscellaneous salvage approach provided some recovery of high and low-value timber; the crunch and dump approach provided low recovery or dumping at landfill and was used where low and no-value timber was involved. An expected increase in supply of these latter timber categories creates a significant need to increase the market value of currently low value timber groups. Designing for deconstruction is also posed as a long term strategy for this. 

  1. Drivers of Housing Demolition Decision Making and the Impact on Timber Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry John Forsythe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates housing demolition and timber waste recovery – with the aim to identify ways of improving recovery. Using case studies the research focused on demolisher decision making, their onsite processes and the associated network of participants that influence timber recovery. From the data, a process model was developed that identifies and orders the drivers of demolition decision making. One aspect of the model identified the initiators of demolition and the waste created, including issues revolving around the demolition feedstock. Another aspect covers organisational business drivers and includes site safety, productivity, economies of scale, market value of waste and supply chain entrepreneurship. A third component deals with project specific drivers including the recurring cost versus income equation that impacts on the viability of project level decisions. The model includes a typology of the operational onsite response to the above drivers. Here, the deconstruction approach was found to provide high timber recovery mainly used where high-value timber waste was involved; the miscellaneous salvage approach provided some recovery of high and low-value timber; the crunch and dump approach provided low recovery or dumping at landfill and was used where low and no-value timber was involved. An expected increase in supply of these latter timber categories creates a significant need to increase the market value of currently low value timber groups. Designing for deconstruction is also posed as a long term strategy for this.

  2. Field performance of stress-laminated highway bridges constructed with glued laminated timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.P. Wacker

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes the field performance of three stress-laminated deck timber bridges located in Wisconsin, New York, and Arizona. The deck superstructures of these single-span highway bridges is comprised of full-span glued laminated timber (glulam) beam laminations manufactured with southern pine, hem fir/red maple combination, and/or Douglas fir lumber species....

  3. The effects of population growth on timber management and inventories in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; Rei Liu; J. Michael Foreman; Raymond M. Sheffield

    1999-01-01

    Expanding human populations may have important effects on the availability of timber from private lands in the South. To examine the effects of development on timber supply, the authors compared the density of populations and various site variables with expert opinions on the future location of commercial timberland for a study site in Virginia. Population density is a...

  4. Timber harvesting, processing, and employment in the Northwest Economic Adjustment Initiative region: changes and economic assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry L. Raettig; Harriet H. Christensen

    1999-01-01

    The Northwest economic adjustment initiative (NWEAI) provides economic assistance to a region including western Washington, western Oregon, and northern California. Timber harvests have fallen markedly in this region since 1990. The forest products industry is the largest manufacturing sector in the region, and employment has followed the downward trend in timber...

  5. 36 CFR 223.6 - Cutting and removal of timber in free-use areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cutting and removal of timber... OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.6 Cutting... or designated by forest officers may be cut and removed for personal use for domestic purposes...

  6. Timber resource statistics for the Prince of Wales inventory unit, Alaska, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. Van Hees; Vernon J. LaBau

    1983-01-01

    Statistics on forest area, total gross and net timber volumes, and annual net growth and mortality are presented from the 1973 timber inventory of the Prince of Wales unit, Alaska. Timberland area is estimated at 1.38 million acres (557 593 ha), net growing stock volume at 7.56 billion cubic feet (214 million m3), and annual net growth and...

  7. Timber resource statistics for the Tanana inventory unit, Alaska, 1971-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. Van Hees

    1984-01-01

    Statistics on forest area, total gross and net timber volumes, and annual net growth and mortality are presented for the 1971-75 timber inventory of the Tanana unit, Alaska. This report summarizes statistics previously published for the four inventory blocks of the unit: Fairbanks, Kantishna, Upper Tanana, and Wood-Salcha. Timberland area is estimated at 2.19 million...

  8. 36 CFR 223.201 - Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska. 223.201 Section 223.201 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE...) Permit the salvage of timber damaged by wind, insects, fire or other catastrophe, (d) Bring into use a...

  9. Market of innovative timber products in Europe and Serbia and their contribution to climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sretenović Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows results of researching the market of glued laminated timber as the most frequent innovative timber product in constructing timber framed residential facilities in Europe and Serbia. The research included the development of production, consumption and trade flows for the most significant countries in the European Union and Serbia. Additionally, the paper gives characteristics of this innovative timber product regarding dimensions, allowed deviations of dimensions defined in adequate European standard, wood species it is made of and fire resistance. The last part of the paper shows results of econometric modeling of the impact of building timber-framed houses on the consumption of glued laminated timber in Austria as one of the countries belonging to the group of the largest consumers of this innovative timber product in Europe. Taking into consideration that the substitution of classic building materials, primarily concrete, steel and aluminum, with glued laminated timber in residential construction contributes to the reduction of carbon-dioxide emission and climate change mitigation, research results of the effects of such substitution are presented in the last chapter in this paper. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43007: Istraživanje klimatskih promena na životnu sredinu: praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje

  10. A Technique for Merging Areas in Timber Mart-South Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; John M. Pye

    2000-01-01

    For over 20 yr, TimberMart-South (TMS) has been distributing prices of various wood products from southern forests. In the beginning of 1988, the reporting frequency changed from monthly to quarterly, a change readily addressed through a variety established statistical techniques. A more significant statistical challenge is Timber Mart-South's change in 1992 from...

  11. Methods to Reduce Forest Residue Volume after Timber Harvesting and Produce Black Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest restoration often includes thinning to reduce tree density and improve ecosystem processes and function while also reducing the risk of wildfire or insect and disease outbreaks. However, one drawback of these restoration treatments is that slash is often burned in piles that may damage the soil and require further restoration activities. Pile burning is currently used on many forest sites as the preferred method for residue disposal because piles can be burned at various times of the year and are usually more controlled than broadcast burns. In many cases, fire can be beneficial to site conditions and soil properties, but slash piles, with a large concentration of wood, needles, forest floor, and sometimes mineral soil, can cause long-term damage. We describe several alternative methods for reducing nonmerchantable forest residues that will help remove excess woody biomass, minimize detrimental soil impacts, and create charcoal for improving soil organic matter and carbon sequestration.

  12. Effects of Timber Harvests and Silvicultural Edges on Terrestrial Salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Jami E.; Williams, Rod N.

    2014-01-01

    Balancing timber production and conservation in forest management requires an understanding of how timber harvests affect wildlife species. Terrestrial salamanders are useful indicators of mature forest ecosystem health due to their importance to ecosystem processes and sensitivity to environmental change. However, the effects of timber harvests on salamanders, though often researched, are still not well understood. To further this understanding, we used artificial cover objects to monitor the relative abundance of terrestrial salamanders for two seasons (fall and spring) pre-harvest and five seasons post-harvest in six forest management treatments, and for three seasons post-harvest across the edge gradients of six recent clearcuts. In total, we recorded 19,048 encounters representing nine species of salamanders. We observed declines in mean encounters of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and northern slimy salamanders (P. glutinosus) from pre- to post-harvest in group selection cuts and in clearcuts. However, we found no evidence of salamander declines at shelterwoods and forested sites adjacent to harvests. Edge effects induced by recent clearcuts influenced salamanders for approximately 20 m into the forest, but edge influence varied by slope orientation. Temperature, soil moisture, and canopy cover were all correlated with salamander counts. Our results suggest silvicultural techniques that remove the forest canopy negatively affect salamander relative abundance on the local scale during the years immediately following harvest, and that the depth of edge influence of clearcuts on terrestrial salamanders is relatively shallow (harvests (<4 ha) and techniques that leave the forest canopy intact may be compatible with maintaining terrestrial salamander populations across a forested landscape. Our results demonstrate the importance of examining species-specific responses and monitoring salamanders across multiple seasons and years. Long

  13. Designing of Timber Bolt Connection Subjected To Double Unequal Shears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musilek, Josef; Plachy, Jan

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with load-carrying capacity of bolted connections subjected to unequal double shear with thin plates as outer members and inner timber member. This type of connection is usually widespread and in building support structures made of wood is commonly used. This may occur for example in skeletal structures which contain structural elements based on wood, but also for smaller wooden buildings. Specifically, this type of connection can be found in ceiling structures in the joint joists and beams. If one joist greater margin than the second, bringing the load on the side of the joists of a larger span greater loads than on the side with a smaller span joist. Structure engineer, who is designing such a connection, must use for the design of the connection design procedures and formulas from which he or she calculates the design resistance in order to carry out further assessment of the reliability of the connection in the ultimate limit state. The load-carrying capacity of this connections type can be calculated at present according to Johansen’s equations, which are also contained in present European standard for the design timber structures -Eurocode 5. These Johansen’s equations assume that the loads which act on the outer plates are equal. For this reason, the structure engineer is often forced to use formulas intended for the timber bolt connection subjected to double equal shear and he or she must find ways how to use them although the formulas are not suitable. This paper deals with the case, when the loads acting on the outer plates are unequal.

  14. Does damage accumulate in timber joints loaded at load levels below 50% of the average short term strength?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de; Blass, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    Joints govern the design of many types of timber structures. Knowledge about the long term strength is limited. The long term behaviour of joints in is not necessarily the same as for timber, although many design codes give the same load duration factors for timber and joints. This study is focussed

  15. Effects of long-term prescribed burning on timber value in hardwood forests of the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin O. Knapp; Joseph M. Marschall; Michael C. Stambaugh

    2017-01-01

    Prescribed fire is commonly used for restoring and managing oak woodlands but raises concern over the risk of value loss to timber products. We used a long-term prescribed burning study to quantify standing timber volume and stumpage value, fire scar presence and size, and timber value loss in comparison to unburned stands. Three study treatments were initiated in 1949...

  16. Sustainability Science Needs Sustainable Data!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    infrastructures will reduce dependencies on changing priorities and sponsorship that may not continue. Implementing community-based appraisal criteria and selection procedures for data will ensure that limited resources for long-term data management are applied efficiently to data likely to have the most enduring value. Encouraging producers to provide rights for open access to data will support their replication, reuse, integration, and application in a range of SS research and applications in both the near and long term. Identifying modest changes to current data preparation activities to meet preservation goals should reduce expensive post-hoc data and documentation rescue efforts. The NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), an active archive in the NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), established the SEDAC Long-Term Archive (LTA) in collaboration with the Columbia University Libraries to preserve selected data and information resources for future access and use. A case study of the LTA shows how archives can be organized to foster sustainable data stewardship in a university environment. Lessons learned from the organization planning and the preparation, appraisal, and selection of data for the LTA are described along with enhancements that have been applied to data management by the active archive.

  17. Mechanical properties of timber from wind damaged Norway spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2003-01-01

    A storm may subject a tree to such bending stresses that extensive compression damage develops in the lee side. The tree may survive the wind load or it may be thrown. However, the damage is inherent and it may be of a magnitude to influence the mechanical properties of boards sawn from the stem....... The paper reports on a investigation of the relation between degree of damage and mechanical proper-ties of sawn timber from wind damaged Norway spruce. The project included about 250 bolts from wind damaged trees. The majority of bolts were cut to deliver a full-diameter plank containing the pith...

  18. Long-term behaviour of timber structures in torrent control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickli, Christian; Graf, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Timber is widely used for protection measures in torrent control. However, life span of woody constructions such as timber check dams is limited due to fungal decay. However, only sparse scientific information is available on the long-term behaviour of timber structures and the colonisation with decay fungi. Related to this, in practice a controversial discussion has been going on if either Norway Spruce (Picea abies) or Silver Fir (Abies alba) is more enduring and if bark removal increases resistance against fungal decay. In order to going into this matter a series of 15 timber check dams built in 1996 has been monitored. The constructions were alternatively realised with Norway Spruce and Silver Fir, half of them each with remaining and removed bark, respectively. The scientific investigations included the documentation of colonisation with rot fungi and the identification of decayed zones with a simple practical approach as well as based on drilling resistance. Colonisation by decay fungi started three years after construction (e.g. Gloeophyllum sepiarium), detecting two years later first parts with reduced wood resistance. Sixteen years after construction decay was found on all check dams but two. Wood quality was markedly better in watered sections compared to the occasionally dry lateral abutment sections. Taking the whole check dams into consideration, slightly more decay was detected in Norway Spruce compared to logs in Silver Fir and both the practical approach and the drilling resistance measurement yielded in more defects on logs without bark. However, due to limited number of replications and fungal data, it was not possible to statistically verify these results. Statistical analysis was restricted to the drilling resistance data and fruit-bodies of decay fungi of the uppermost log of each check dam. Based on this limited analysis significant differences in the effect on the drilling resistance were found for watered sections and lateral abutments

  19. Soil compaction in timber skidding in winter conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Šušnjar, Marijan; Horvat, Dubravko; Šešelj, Josip

    2006-01-01

    The research of soil compaction in timber skidding was carried out on two skid trails of uniform slope –15%and 30 %. The degree of soil compaction is shown by changes of water-air soil characteristics of the skid trail after a certain number of passes of a loaded skidder and by comparison between these values and the characteristics of untreaded soil during research. The research was carried out in winter conditions at low air and soil temperatures and with the research site covered with s...

  20. Modeling the Effects of Knots in Structural Timber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foley, Christina

    was established, which describes variations of radial growth direction and fiber orientation related to knots in timber. The adaptability of the paradigm allows practically any softwood knot and its effect on surrounding wood material to be modeled with an accuracy that is limited only by input data. The knot......-dimensional fiber paradigm, variations of knot and knot-bump geometry and related fiber disturbance of eleven knots from two trees of Nordic Spruce (Picea Abies) grown in Southern Sweden were analysed. Results showed that the paradigm could be calibrated to describe measured projected fiber orientations...