Sample records for sustainable solar-powered biotechnological

  1. Biotechnology essay competition: biotechnology and sustainable food practices. (United States)

    Peng, Judy; Schoeb, Helena; Lee, Gina


    Biotechnology Journal announces our second biotechnology essay competition with the theme "biotechnology and sustainable food practices", open to all undergraduate students. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Solar Power Generation for ICT and Sustainable Development in Emerging Economies (United States)

    Paul, Damasen I.; Uhomoibhi, James


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to systematically examine and draw attention to the potential benefits of solar power generation for access to and use of information and communication technologies (ICT) aimed at sustainable development in emerging economies. Design/methodology/approach: Electricity plays a crucial role in the development and…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ramona PECINGINĂ


    Full Text Available Biotechnology is the integral application of biological and engineering sciences for the technological use of living organisms, biologically active acellular structures and molecular analogues for the production of goods and services.The role of biotechnology is very important in the food industry; this is a biotechnology because agro-food raw materials are biological products and therefore their conservation until consumption, fresh or industrialization involves the control of the enzymatic activity of the vegetal and animal tissues or of the microflora contamination.

  4. Sustainable Solution for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Separation using Concentrated Solar Power Technology (United States)

    Choudhary, Piyush; Srivastava, Rakesh K.; Nath Mahendra, Som; Motahhir, Saad


    In today’s scenario to combat with climate change effects, there are a lot of reasons why we all should use renewable energy sources instead of fossil fuels. Solar energy is one of the best options based on features like good for the environment, independent of electricity prices, underutilized land, grid security, sustainable growth, etc. This concept paper is oriented primarily focused on the use of Solar Energy for the crude oil heating purpose besides other many prospective industrial applications to reduce cost, carbon footprint and moving towards a sustainable and ecologically friendly Oil & Gas Industry. Concentrated Solar Power technology based prototype system is proposed to substitute the presently used system based on natural gas burning method. The hybrid system which utilizes the solar energy in the oil and gas industry would strengthen the overall field working conditions, safety measures and environmental ecology. 40% reduction on natural gas with this hybrid system is estimated. A positive implication for an environment, working conditions and safety precautions is the additive advantage. There could also decrease air venting of CO2, CH4 and N2O by an average of 30-35%.

  5. Biotechnologizing Jatropha for local sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puente, D.


    This article explores whether and how the biotechnologization process that the fuel-plant Jatropha curcas is undergoing might strengthen local sustainable development. It focuses on the ongoing efforts of the multi-stakeholder network Gota Verde to harness Jatropha within local small-scale

  6. Techno-Economic Investigation of Solar Powered Electric Auto-Rickshaw for a Sustainable Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Reddy


    Full Text Available Technologies influencing alternative means of transportation have been expanding in recent years due to increasing urbanization and motorization. In this paper, a solar powered electric auto-rickshaw (SPEA is designed and developed for Indian conditions. The vehicle developed is comprehensively analyzed techno-economically for its viability in the Indian market. The performance analysis of SPEA results in an optimal charging rate of 2 kWh per day with an average solar irradiance of 325 W/m2 on a typical sunny day. The discharging characteristics are studied based on different loading conditions. The vehicle achieved a maximum speed of 21.69 km/h with battery discharge rate of 296 W at 90 kg load and also reached a maximum discharge rate of 540 W at 390 kg loading with a maximum speed of 12.11 km/h. Environmental analysis of SPEA indicated that the yearly CO2 emissions of 1777 kg, 1987 kg and 1938 kg from using Compressed Natural Gas, Liquefied Petroleum Gas and gasoline engines respectively can be mitigated using SPEA. The financial analysis of SPEA concluded that the investor’s payback duration is 24.44% less compared to a gasoline-run vehicle. Socio-Economic analysis of SPEA discussed its significant advantages and showed 15.74% and 0.85% increase in yearly income over gasoline driven and battery driven vehicles.

  7. Concentrating solar power. Its potential contribution to a sustainable energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report summarises the findings and recommendations of a study of concentrating solar power (CSP). The study has examined the potential contribution of CSP in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa (the MENA region) over the period to 2050, and the scientific and technical developments that will be required to realise that potential. This study critically reviews existing work and describes the scientific consensus on the status and prospects of this technology. It also identifies key outstanding issues and where knowledge gaps need to be filled for CSP to fulfil its potential contribution in Europe and the MENA region. Based on these findings, the study makes recommendations on how to improve national and European support programmes for CSP development and deployment. Specific aims of the study have been the following: (1) to review the current status of CSP technologies and identify the technological developments and research and development (R and D) needed to achieve reliable operation and cost competitiveness with fossil fuelled electricity generation; (2) to consider how issues associated with the intermittent nature of CSP for electricity generation due to the daily pattern of insolation and the potential for cloudy days can best be addressed; (3) to identify the environmental impacts and infrastructure requirements of CSP, and comment on the significance of these in relation to other options for electricity supply; and, consequently, (4) to develop a view of the potential contribution that CSP located in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa could make to the energy mix in those regions by 2020 and 2050. This report focuses primarily on the generation of electricity from CSP, but it is recognised that there are other potentially significant 'products' from CSP such as process steam for industry, water desalination, alternative energy carriers such as hydrogen and syngas, and decontamination of water supplies. Although not discussed in

  8. Sustainable Use of Biotechnology for Bioenergy Feedstocks (United States)

    Moon, Hong S.; Abercrombie, Jason M.; Kausch, Albert P.; Stewart, C. Neal


    Done correctly, cellulosic bioenergy should be both environmentally and economically beneficial. Carbon sequestration and decreased fossil fuel use are both worthy goals in developing next-generation biofuels. We believe that biotechnology will be needed to significantly improve yield and digestibility of dedicated perennial herbaceous biomass feedstocks, such as switchgrass and Miscanthus, which are native to the US and China, respectively. This Forum discusses the sustainability of herbaceous feedstocks relative to the regulation of biotechnology with regards to likely genetically engineered traits. The Forum focuses on two prominent countries wishing to develop their bioeconomies: the US and China. These two countries also share a political desire and regulatory frameworks to enable the commercialization and wide release of transgenic feedstocks with appropriate and safe new genetics. In recent years, regulators in both countries perform regular inspections of transgenic field releases and seriously consider compliance issues, even though the US framework is considered to be more mature and stringent. Transgene flow continues to be a pertinent environmental and regulatory issue with regards to transgenic plants. This concern is largely driven by consumer issues and ecological uncertainties. Regulators are concerned about large-scale releases of transgenic crops that have sexually compatible crops or wild relatives that can stably harbor transgenes via hybridization and introgression. Therefore, prior to the commercialization or extensive field testing of transgenic bioenergy feedstocks, we recommend that mechanisms that ensure biocontainment of transgenes be instituted, especially for perennial grasses. A cautionary case study will be presented in which a plant’s biology and ecology conspired against regulatory constraints in a non-biomass crop perennial grass (creeping bentgrass, Agrostis stolonifera), in which biocontainment was not attained. Appropriate

  9. Role of biotechnology in sustainable development of cotton (United States)

    The prospect of biotechnology to provide cost-efficient sustainable cotton production under a safe environment for the 21st century is enormous. The role of plant biotechnology in the improvement of cotton is a rapidly evolving area and very broad. The specific objective of this paper is to provide...

  10. High-Efficiency Solar-Powered 3-D Printers for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jephias Gwamuri


    Full Text Available The release of the open source 3-D printer known as the RepRap (a self-Replicating Rapid prototyper resulted in the potential for distributed manufacturing of products for significantly lower costs than conventional manufacturing. This development, coupled with open source-appropriate technology (OSAT, has enabled the opportunity for 3-D printers to be used for sustainable development. In this context, OSAT provides the opportunity to modify and improve the physical designs of their printers and desired digitally-shared objects. However, these 3-D printers require electricity while more than a billion people still lack electricity. To enable the utilization of RepRaps in off-grid communities, solar photovoltaic (PV-powered mobile systems have been developed, but recent improvements in novel delta-style 3-D printer designs allows for reduced costs and improved performance. This study builds on these innovations to develop and experimentally validate a mobile solar-PV-powered delta 3-D printer system. It is designed to run the RepRap 3-D printer regardless of solar flux. The electrical system design is tested outdoors for operating conditions: (1 PV charging battery and running 3-D printer; (2 printing under low insolation; (3 battery powering the 3-D printer alone; (4 PV charging the battery only; and (5 battery fully charged with PV-powered 3-D printing. The results show the system performed as required under all conditions providing feasibility for adoption in off-grid rural communities. 3-D printers powered by affordable mobile PV solar systems have a great potential to reduce poverty through employment creation, as well as ensuring a constant supply of scarce products for isolated communities.

  11. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security. (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena


    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops.

  12. How to access and exploit natural resources sustainably: petroleum biotechnology. (United States)

    Sherry, Angela; Andrade, Luiza; Velenturf, Anne; Christgen, Beate; Gray, Neil D; Head, Ian M


    As we transition from fossil fuel reliance to a new energy future, innovative microbial biotechnologies may offer new routes to maximize recovery from conventional and unconventional energy assets; as well as contributing to reduced emission pathways and new technologies for carbon capture and utilization. Here we discuss the role of microbiology in petroleum biotechnologies in relation to addressing UN Sustainable Development Goal 12 (ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns), with a focus on microbially-mediated energy recovery from unconventionals (heavy oil to methane), shale gas and fracking, bioelectrochemical systems for the production of electricity from fossil fuel resources, and innovations in synthetic biology. Furthermore, using wastes to support a more sustainable approach to fossil fuel extraction processes is considered as we undertake the move towards a more circular global economy. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.



    Palomino, Alfredo; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Departamento de Análisis y Diseño de Procesos, Av. Venezuela sin. Lima, Perú.


    Throughout history, man has exploited nature to meet his needs. In the last tew decades it has become evident that uncontrolled exploitation is unsustainable - anthropogenic pollution and the depletion of non-renewable resources cannot continue it we are to avoid catastrophic events in the coming century. The scope of such environmental problems is broad and their nature complex. This paper discusses the extent to which biotechnology can contribute to the solutions of our environmental proble...

  14. The role of biotechnology in ensuring food security and sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 21, 2010 ... offer a bright prospect of meeting the growing demand for food by improving both yield and nutritional quality of crops and reducing the impact on the environment. Key words: Biotechnology, food security, sustainable agriculture, developing countries, technology integration, population growth.

  15. Biotechnology, genetic conservation and sustainable use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The loss of Africa's forests and bioresources is occurring at an alarming rate, a consequence of increasing population pressure, agricultural land degradation, urbanization and neglect. There is a growing recognition worldwide that conservation and sustainable management of bioresources are pressing priorities in the ...

  16. Recent Major Advances of Biotechnology and Sustainable Aquaculture in China. (United States)

    Xiang, Jianhai


    Global aquaculture production has increased continuously over the last five decades, and particularly in China. Its aquaculture has become the fastest growing and most efficient agri-sector, with production accounting for more than 70% of the world's aquaculture output. In the new century, with serious challenges regarding population, resources and the environment, China has been working to develop high-quality, effective, healthy, and sustainable blue agriculture through the application of modern biotechnology. Sound knowledge related to the biology and ecology of aquatic organisms has laid a solid foundation and provided the innovation and technology for rapid development of the aquaculture industry. Marine biotechnology, which is enabling solutions for ocean productivity and sustainability, has been promoted since the last decades of the 20th Century in China. In this article, priority areas of research, mainly genetic breeding, omics studies, novel production systems, biosecurity, bioprocesses and biorefinery, as well as the major progress of marine biotechnology R&D in China are reviewed. Current innovative achievements in China are not enough and the level and frequency of academic advancements must be improved. International cooperation and assistance remain crucial for the success of marine biotechnology.

  17. Can solar power deliver? (United States)

    Nelson, Jenny; Emmott, Christopher J M


    Solar power represents a vast resource which could, in principle, meet the world's needs for clean power generation. Recent growth in the use of photovoltaic (PV) technology has demonstrated the potential of solar power to deliver on a large scale. Whilst the dominant PV technology is based on crystalline silicon, a wide variety of alternative PV materials and device concepts have been explored in an attempt to decrease the cost of the photovoltaic electricity. This article explores the potential for such emerging technologies to deliver cost reductions, scalability of manufacture, rapid carbon mitigation and new science in order to accelerate the uptake of solar power technologies.

  18. Initiatives on a sustainable development strategy for Finnish biotechnology


    Hermans, Raine; Kulvik, Martti


    The need for the strategic initiatives for biotechnology strategy emerged in interviews with 90 Finnish biotechnology leaders in the ETLA Biotechnology Survey, conducted at the end of 2004. This paper discusses on the policy implications for the project on “The biotechnology industry as a part of the Finnish National Innovation System” financed by Tekes, the National Technology Agency of Finland. Tekes has strongly encouraged the formation of policy implications and strategic initiatives for ...

  19. Biotechnology: Advances and Prospects for Sustainability, in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology is a multi-disciplinary branch of science whose applications are diverse and because science is dynamic, there is tremendous development in the use of biotechnology in the world. Advances of biotechnology are prominent in Nigeria, where government initiative, the private sector as well as that of NGOs are ...

  20. Environmental Biotechnology: Emergence and Acceptance for Sustainable Development


    Kavita Shah


    In a medium-science, low-technology society where technology transfer, adoption, and innovations are few so as to meet a priori assigned socio-economic goals, biotechnology has come to rescue and holds promise to offer solutions to questions raised by our common developmental and environmental concerns. Where biotechnology offers the possibility of producing, from widely available renewable resources, goods and services essential to life the environmental biotechnology (EB) involves its speci...

  1. Solar Power on Mars (United States)


    This chart illustrates the variation in available solar power for each of NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers over the course of approximately two Mars years. Two factors affect the amount of available power: the tilt of Mars' axis and the eccentricity of the Mars' orbit about the sun. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after the Jan. 4, 2004, (Universal Time) landing of Spirit at Mars' Gusev Crater. The vertical scale on the right indicates the amount of available solar power as a ratio of the amount available at the equator when Mars is closest to the sun (perihelion). The red line indicates power availability at Spirit's landing site (Gusev). The blue line indicates power availability at Opportunity's landing site (Meridiani). The vertical scale on the right applies to the dotted line, indicating the latitude north or south of Mars' equator where the noon sun is overhead at different times of the Martian year.

  2. Towards sustainable biotechnology innovation in Africa : The roles of stakeholders in local contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Caspar


    Aim To contribute to sustainable crop-biotechnology innovation in African contexts by operationalizing guiding concepts from Science, Technology and Society (STS) studies. Objectives To explore the roles of different stakeholders in crop-biotechnology innovation processes in Africa; To explore how

  3. Solar Powered Refrigeration System (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)


    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  4. Recognizing biotechnology as a tool for sustainable development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of space science, information technology and biotechnology in particular are been explored to narrow the divide between 'have' and 'have not' in these communities. The application of biotechnology is not new, it has been employed for centuries in the production of fermented foods such as gari, bread, beer, ...

  5. College Students' View of Biotechnology Products and Practices in Sustainable Agriculture Systems (United States)

    Anderson, William A.


    Sustainable agriculture implies the use of products and practices that sustain production, protect the environment, ensure economic viability, and maintain rural community viability. Disagreement exists as to whether or not the products and practices of modern biotechnological support agricultural sustainability. The purpose of this study was to…

  6. A review on sustainable yeast biotechnological processes and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandy, Subir Kumar; Srivastava, R. K.


    Yeast is very well known eukaryotic organism for its remarkable biodiversity and extensive industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most widely used microorganisms in biotechnology with successful applications in the biochemical production. Biological conversion with the fo......Yeast is very well known eukaryotic organism for its remarkable biodiversity and extensive industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most widely used microorganisms in biotechnology with successful applications in the biochemical production. Biological conversion...

  7. Concentrating Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Lee A.; Loomis, James; Bhatia, Bikram; Bierman, David M.; Wang, Evelyn N.; Chen, Gang


    Solar energy is a bountiful renewable energy resource: the energy in the sunlight that reaches Earth in an hour exceeds the energy consumed by all of humanity in a year.(1) While the phrase “solar energy conversion” probably brings photovoltaic (PV) cells to mind first, PV is not the only option for generating electricity from sunlight. Another promising technology for solar energy conversion is solar–thermal conversion, commonly referred to as concentrating solar power (CSP).(2) The first utility-scale CSP plants were constructed in the 1980s, but in the two decades that followed, CSP saw little expansion.(3, 4) More recent years, however, have seen a CSP renaissance due to unprecedented growth in the adoption of CSP.(3, 5) Photographs of two operating CSP plants, a parabolic trough collector plant and a central receiver (or “power tower”), are shown here.

  8. Concentrating Solar Power (United States)

    Mehos, Mark


    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) has the potential to contribute significantly to the generation of electricity by renewable energy resources in the U.S.. Thermal storage can extend the duty cycle of CSP beyond daytime hours to early evening where the value of electricity is often the highest. The potential solar resource for the southwest U.S. is identified, along with the need to add power lines to bring the power to consumers. CSP plants in the U.S. and abroad are described. The CSP cost of electricity at the busbar is discussed. With current incentives, CSP is approaching competiveness with conventional gas-fired systems during peak-demand hours when the price of electricity is the highest. It is projected that a mature CSP industry of over 4 GWe will be able to reduce the energy cost by about 50%, and that U.S. capacity could be 120 GW by 2050.

  9. Solar-powered pump (United States)

    Kirsten, C. C. (Inventor)


    A solar powered pump particularly suited for intermittently delivering a stream of water is reported. The pump is characterized by a housing adapted to be seated in a source of water having a water discharge port disposed above the water line of the source, a sump including a valved inlet port through which water is introduced to the sump, disposed beneath the water line, a displacer supported for vertical reciprocation in said housing, an air passageway extended between the vertically spaced faces of the displacer, and a tipple disposed adjacent to the water discharge port adapted to be filled in response to a discharge of water from the housing. Air above a displacer is expanded in response to solar energy impinging on the housing and transferred into pressurizing relation with the sump for forcing water from the sump.

  10. The solar power satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combes, P.F.


    The construction, launch, components, and operations of satellite solar power systems (SSPS) for direct beaming of solar energy converted to electricity to earth stations are outlined. The reference designs of either Si or concentrator GaAs solar cell assemblies large enough to project 5 GW of power are described. The beam will be furnished by klystrons or amplitrons for reception by rectennas on earth. Conforming to the law of amplitude and the equiphase law will permit high efficiencies, pointing accuracy, and low power deposition/sq cm, thus avoiding environmental problems, although some telecommunications systems may suffer interference. The construction of the dipole rectenna grid is sketched, noting that one receiver would be an ellipse sized at 10 x 13 km. Various forms of pollution which could result from the construction of an SSPS are examined.

  11. Mars Solar Power (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Scheiman, David A.


    NASA missions to Mars, both robotic and human, rely on solar arrays for the primary power system. Mars presents a number of challenges for solar power system operation, including a dusty atmosphere which modifies the spectrum and intensity of the incident solar illumination as a function of time of day, degradation of the array performance by dust deposition, and low temperature operation. The environmental challenges to Mars solar array operation will be discussed and test results of solar cell technology operating under Mars conditions will be presented, along with modeling of solar cell performance under Mars conditions. The design implications for advanced solar arrays for future Mars missions is discussed, and an example case, a Martian polar rover, are analyzed.

  12. Solar Power Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Flournoy, Don M


    Communication satellites are a $144 billion industry. Is there any space-based industry that could possibly beat that market? 'Solar Power Satellites' shows why and how the space satellite industry will soon begin expanding its market from relaying signals to Earth to generating energy in space and delivering it to the ground as electricity. In all industrialized nations, energy demand is growing exponentially. In the developing world, the need for energy is as basic as food and water. The Sun's energy is available everywhere, and it is non-polluting. As business plans demonstrate its technical feasibility, commercial potential, and environmental acceptability, every country on Earth will look to space for the power it needs.

  13. Solar Power Sources: PV, Concentrated PV, and Concentrated Solar Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Katherine A.; Mentesidi, Konstantina; Yang, Yongheng


    Solar power is highly abundant, relatively reliable, and not limited to a geographic region, making it one of the most important renewable energy sources. Catering for a clean and green energy system, solar energy will be an active player in the future mixed power grid that is also undergoing...... a significant change. Beyond this energy transition, the still declining cost of the solar technology has become an important driving force for more solar-powered systems. However, high penetration of solar-powered systems also brings technical challenges to the entire energy systems. In order to fully address...... those issues, the technological properties of solar power should be investigated. Thus, the basics of solar power technology will be introduced and discussed in this chapter....

  14. Biotechnology (United States)


    the cloned child .32 The key question is…are we willing to chance failing on a human being? …In the Agricultural Arena There are many...feeding the world’s hungry. However, supplying GMOs is not the sole answer. Curing malnutrition , sickness and plain starvation will require more...real Research, Chronicle of Higher Education, 12/15/2000, Vo. 47 Issue 16, PA21, 2-5. National Science and Technology Council, Biotechnology for

  15. Biotechnology (United States)


    again at their meeting in Malaysia in May 2005.96 Although the WTO dispute has not been settled, the EU has recently taken steps to open up trade...Trade (GATT, Article III) and the Uruguay Round Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (WTO TRIPS Agreement).” 34 Nestle , Marion...Urgent: How to Handle an Overheated Economy,” Foreign Policy (November/December 2004): 64-68. Nestle , Marion, Safe Food, Bacteria, Biotechnology, and

  16. [Sustainable production of bulk chemicals by application of "white biotechnology"]. (United States)

    Patel, M K; Dornburg, V; Hermann, B G; Shen, Li; van Overbeek, Leo


    Practically all organic chemicals and plastics are nowadays produced from crude oil and natural gas. However, it is possible to produce a wide range of bulk chemicals from renewable resources by application of biotechnology. This paper focuses on White Biotechnology, which makes use of bacteria (or yeasts) or enzymes for the conversion of the fermentable sugar to the target product. It is shown that White Biotechnology offers substantial savings of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for nearly all of the products studied. Under favorable boundary conditions up to two thirds (67%) of the current non-renewable energy use for the production of the selected chemicals can be saved by 2050 if substantial technological progress is made and if the use of lignocellulosic feedstocks is successfully developed. The analysis for Europe (E.U. 25 countries) shows that land requirements related to White Biotechnology chemicals are not likely to become a critical issue in the next few decades, especially considering the large unused and underutilized resources in Eastern Europe. Substantial macroeconomic savings can be achieved under favourable boundary conditions. In principle, natural bacteria and enzymes can be used for White Biotechnology but, according to many experts in the fields, Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) will be necessary in order to achieve the high yields, concentrations and productivities that are required to reach economic viability. Safe containment and inactivation of GMOs after release is very important because not all possible implications caused by the interaction of recombinant genes with other populations can be foreseen. If adequate precautionary measures are taken, the risks related to the use of genetically modified organisms in White Biotechnology are manageable. We conclude that the core requirements to be fulfilled in order to make clear steps towards a bio-based chemical industry are substantial technological progress in the

  17. Solar powered model vehicle races (United States)

    Yılmaz, Nazmi; Serpengüzel, Ali


    Koç University SPIE student chapter has been organizing the solar powered model vehicle race and outreaching K-12 students. The solar powered model vehicle race for car, boat, blimp, all solar panel boat, submarine, underwater rower, amphibian, and glider have been successfully organized.

  18. Biotechnology and the bioeconomy-Towards inclusive and sustainable industrial development. (United States)

    Lokko, Yvonne; Heijde, Marc; Schebesta, Karl; Scholtès, Philippe; Van Montagu, Marc; Giacca, Mauro


    To transform developing and least developing countries into industrialised ones, biotechnology could be deployed along the value chain, to provide support to the development of the bio-based industries in such a way to ensure sustainability of the sector and to reduce negative environmental impacts that might otherwise occur. In agribusiness development, for instance, interventions could start from inputs and agricultural mechanization, modern processing technologies, packaging of perishable products, the promotion of food safety in the processing and regulatory environment; and interventions to improve competitiveness and productivity. Worth over USD 300 billion in revenue, the role of the biotechnology goes beyond industrial growth, since it provides opportunities for progress towards many of the UN sustainable development goals (SDGs). This paper reviews the status of industrial biotechnology as it relates to inclusive and sustainable industrial development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A sustainable biotechnological process for the efficient synthesis of kojibiose


    Díez-Municio, M.; Montilla, Antonia; Moreno, F. Javier; Herrero, Miguel


    This work reports the optimization of a cost-effective and scalable process for the enzymatic synthesis of kojibiose (2-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-α- d-glucose) from readily available and low-cost substrates such as sucrose and lactose. This biotechnological process is based on the dextransucrase-catalysed initial synthesis of a galactosyl-derivative of kojibiose (4-O-β-d- galactopyranosyl-kojibiose) followed by the removal of residual monosaccharides using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast treatmen...

  20. Lunar solar-power system: Commerical power (United States)

    Criswell, David R.


    The proposed Lunar Solar-Power (LSP) System collects solar power on the moon. The power is converted to beams of microwaves and transmitted to fields of microwave receivers (rectennas) on Earth that provide electric power to local and regional power grids. LSP can provide abundant and low cost energy to Earth to sustain several centuries of economic development on Earth and in space. The LSP power is independent of the biosphere (global warming, weather, and climate changes), independent of reserves of terrestrial non-renewable and renewable power, and is low in total costs compared to other large scale power systems. Efficient utilization of the moon as a platform for solar collectors/power transmitters and as a source of building materials is key to the development and emplacement of the LSP System. LSP development costs can be significantly reduced by the establishment of a manned lunar base.

  1. ASPEC: Solar power satellite (United States)


    The solar power satellite (SPS) will provide a clean, reliable source of energy for large-scale consumption. The system will use satellites in geostationary orbits around the Earth to capture the Sun's energy. The intercepted sunlight will be converted to laser beam energy that can be transmitted to the Earth's surface. Ground systems on the Earth will convert the transmissions from space into electric power. The preliminary design for the SPS consists of one satellite in orbit around the Earth transmitting energy to a single ground station. The SPS design uses multilayer solar cell technology arranged on a 20 km squared planar array to intercept sunlight and convert it to an electric voltage. Power conditioning devices then send the electricity to a laser, which transmits the power to the surface of the Earth. A ground station will convert the beam into electricity. Typically, a single SPS will supply 5 GW of power to the ground station. Due to the large mass of the SPS, about 41 million kg, construction in space is needed in order to keep the structural mass low. The orbit configuration for this design is to operate a single satellite in geosynchronous orbit (GEO). The GEO allows the system to be positioned above a single receiving station and remain in sunlight 99 percent of the time. Construction will take place in low Earth orbit (LEO); array sections, 20 in total, will be sailed on solar wind out to the GEO location in 150 days. These individual transportation sections are referred to as solar sailing array panels (SSAP's). The primary truss elements used to support the array are composed of composite tubular members in a pentahedral arrangement. Smart segments consisting of passive and active damping devices will increase the control of dynamic SPS modes.

  2. Current state and perspectives of truffle genetics and sustainable biotechnology. (United States)

    Poma, Anna; Limongi, Tania; Pacioni, Giovanni


    Mycorrhizal fungi belonging to the genus Tuber produce, after the establishment of a productive interaction with a plant host, hypogeous fruitbodies of great economic value known as ''truffles''. This review summarizes the state of art on life cycle, genetic, and biotechnological investigations of Tuber spp. The ascocarp formation in truffles is a consequence of the activation of the sexual phase of the biological cycle. The formation of a dikaryotic secondary mycelium and the karyogamy in the ascal cell (followed by meiosis with ascospores formation) have been hypothesized by several authors but some doubts yet arise from the Tuber cycle by considering that a series of abnormalities have been pointed out in respect to other Ascomycetes. It is unclear if binucleated hyphal cells are derived from the fusion of mononucleated cells belonging to mycelia from different mating types or from one only. According to the karyotypes of Tuber melanosporum, Tuber magnatum, and Tuber borchii, the numbers of hyphal chromosomes suggest a chromosome number of eight (2n); these values are in the range of those of several Ascomycetes and observed for Tuber aestivum (2n=10). The importance and growth in interest during the last years in the fungi protoplasts isolation and transformation techniques can be related to current developments in Tuber genetics and biotechnology. T. borchii could be transformed through liposome-mediated delivery of genetic material as mycelial protoplasts isolation and fusion with liposomes has already been established. On the other hand, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been successfully established for T. borchii.

  3. Reinventing the Solar Power Satellite (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.


    The selling price of electrical power varies with time. The economic viability of space solar power is maximum if the power can be sold at peak power rates, instead of baseline rate. Price and demand of electricity was examined from spot-market data from four example markets: New England, New York City, suburban New York, and California. The data was averaged to show the average price and demand for power as a function of time of day and time of year. Demand varies roughly by a factor of two between the early-morning minimum demand, and the afternoon maximum; both the amount of peak power, and the location of the peak, depends significantly on the location and the weather. The demand curves were compared to the availability curves for solar energy and for tracking and non-tracking satellite solar power systems in order to compare the market value of terrestrial and solar electrical power. In part 2, new designs for a space solar power (SSP) system were analyzed to provide electrical power to Earth for economically competitive rates. The approach was to look at innovative power architectures to more practical approaches to space solar power. A significant barrier is the initial investment required before the first power is returned. Three new concepts for solar power satellites were invented and analyzed: a solar power satellite in the Earth-Sun L2 point, a geosynchronous no-moving parts solar power satellite, and a nontracking geosynchronous solar power satellite with integral phased array. The integral-array satellite had several advantages, including an initial investment cost approximately eight times lower than the conventional design.

  4. Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming at developing and manufacturing products of pharmaceutical interest. This Program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. Up to now they have worked mostly with human growth hormone (hGH), human prolactin (hPRL), human thyrotropin (hTSH), human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH) and human luteotropin (hLH), with a particular emphasis on glycoprotein carbohydrate structures. An important research line is devoted to Growth Hormone Gene Therapy, working mostly on animal models: immunocompetent and immunodeficient-dwarf mice. For several years this development has been based on ex vivo grafting of transduced keratinocytes, while more recently very promising results have been obtained with the injections and electroporation of naked plasmid DNA. Besides research, they have also activities in the Biotechnological Production and Downstream Processing of the same recombinant hormones, which are produced in both E. coli and mammalian cells and in the development of joint-ventures with the National Industry. The biological effects of radiation on cells are also studied, specially concerning the administration of {sup 131}I together with thyroid-stimulating hormone in thyroid cancer. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological systems of macromolecules. These macromolecules are peptides or proteins, either native or recombinant with medical or pharmaceutical interest. During this period new proteins related to serine protease activity, breast cancer development and angiogenesis were described. The effects of ionizing radiation on macromolecules have also been investigated to detoxify animal venoms in order to improve antigens

  5. Revisiting microbial keratinases: next generation proteases for sustainable biotechnology. (United States)

    Gupta, Rani; Sharma, Richa; Beg, Qasim K


    Keratinases are special proteases which attack the highly recalcitrant keratin substrates. They stand apart from the conventional proteases due to their broad substrate specificity towards a variety of insoluble keratin rich substrates like feather, wool, nail, hair. Owing to this ability, keratinases find immense applications in various environmental and biotechnological sectors. The current boost in keratinase research has come up with the discovery of the ability of keratinases to address the challenging issue of prion decontamination. Here we present a comprehensive review on microbial keratinases giving an account of chronological progress of research along with the major milestones. Major focus has been on the key characteristics of keratinases, such as substrate specificity, keratin degradation mechanisms, molecular properties, and their role in prion decontamination along with other pharmaceutical applications. We conclude by critically evaluating the present state of the keratinases discussing their commercial status along with future research directions.

  6. Biotechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rival Alain


    Full Text Available Today, a range of biotechnological approaches, from somatic embryogenesis to biomolecular research, play an increasingly important role in breeding strategies for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.. Clonal micropropagation. Methods of cloning by in vitro culture led to the development of a micropropagation technique for oil palm based on somatic embryogenesis which was tested at the pilot stage on elite genotypes, thus enabling the production of high oil yielding clones. This phase allowed the identification of limiting factors associated with scaling-up, with respect in particular to the scale of mass production required to meet the needs of planters and to the problem of ensuring genetic fidelity in the regenerated plant material. These two concerns led researchers to look further into the underlying physiological and/or molecular mechanisms involved in somatic embryogenesis and the somaclonal variation events induced by the in vitro cloning procedure. Structural and functional genomics. Marker-assisted breeding in oil palm is a long-term multi-stage project including: molecular analysis of genetic diversity in both E. guineensis and E. oleifera germplasms; large scale development of PCR-based microsatellite markers; and parallel development of three genome mapping and QTL detection projects studying key agronomic characters. Post-genomics. In order to tackle the problem of the mantled flowering abnormality, which is induced during the micropropagation process, studies of gene expression have been carried out in tissue cultures as a means of establishing an early clonal conformity testing procedure. It is important to assess what kind of methodology is the most appropriate for clonal conformity testing by comparing RNA, protein and DNA (PCR based approaches. Parallel studies on genomic DNA methylation changes induced by tissue culture suggest that the latter may play an important role in the determination of the mantled abnormality.

  7. Recent Major Advances of Biotechnology and Sustainable Aquaculture in China


    Xiang, Jianhai


    Background: Global aquaculture production has increased continuously over the last five decades, and particularly in China. Its aquaculture has become the fastest growing and most efficient agri-sector, with production accounting for more than 70% of the world?s aquaculture output. In the new century, with serious challenges regarding population, resources and the environment, China has been working to develop high-quality, effective, healthy, and sustainable blue agriculture through the appl...

  8. Solar-powered cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C


    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system uses nanostructural materials made of high specific surface area adsorption aerogel as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material. A circulation system circulates refrigerant from the nanostructural material to a cooling unit.

  9. The Role of Biotechnology in Sustainable Agriculture: Views and Perceptions among Key Actors in the Swedish Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Edvardsson Björnberg


    Full Text Available Researchers have put forward agricultural biotechnology as one possible tool for increasing food production and making agriculture more sustainable. In this paper, it is investigated how key actors in the Swedish food supply chain perceive the concept of agricultural sustainability and the role of biotechnology in creating more sustainable agricultural production systems. Based on policy documents and semi-structured interviews with representatives of five organizations active in producing, processing and retailing food in Sweden, an attempt is made to answer the following three questions: How do key actors in the Swedish food supply chain define and operationalize the concept of agricultural sustainability? Who/what influences these organizations’ sustainability policies and their respective positions on agricultural biotechnology? What are the organizations’ views and perceptions of biotechnology and its possible role in creating agricultural sustainability? Based on collected data, it is concluded that, although there is a shared view of the core constituents of agricultural sustainability among the organizations, there is less explicit consensus on how the concept should be put into practice or what role biotechnology can play in furthering agricultural sustainability.

  10. Solar-Powered Refrigeration System (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)


    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure. and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  11. Solar-Powered Refrigeration System (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)


    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  12. Advances in Solar Power Forecasting (United States)

    Haupt, S. E.; Kosovic, B.; Drobot, S.


    The National Center for Atmospheric Research and partners are building a blended SunCast Solar Power Forecasting system. This system includes several short-range nowcasting models and improves upon longer range numerical weather prediction (NWP) models as part of the "Public-Private-Academic Partnership to Advance Solar Power Forecasting." The nowcasting models being built include statistical learning models that include cloud regime prediction, multiple sky imager-based advection models, satellite image-based advection models, and rapid update NWP models with cloud assimilation. The team has also integrated new modules into the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) to better predict clouds, aerosols, and irradiance. The modules include a new shallow convection scheme; upgraded physics parameterizations of clouds; new radiative transfer modules that specify GHI, DNI, and DIF prediction; better satellite assimilation methods; and new aerosol estimation methods. These new physical models are incorporated into WRF-Solar, which is then integrated with publically available NWP models via the Dynamic Integrated Forecast (DICast) system as well as the Nowcast Blender to provide seamless forecasts at partner utility and balancing authority commercial solar farms. The improvements will be described and results to date discussed.

  13. Sustainable Buildings. Using Active Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, M. Keith [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States); Barnett, Russell [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)


    The objective of this project is to promote awareness and knowledge of active solar energy technologies by installing and monitoring the following demonstration systems in Kentucky: 1) Pool heating system, Churchill Park School, 2) Water heating and daylighting systems, Middletown and Aiken Road Elementary Schools, 3) Photovoltaic street light comparison, Louisville Metro, 4) up to 25 domestic water heating systems across Kentucky. These tasks will be supported by outreach activities, including a solar energy installer training workshop and a Kentucky Solar Energy Conference.

  14. Strategies to enable the adoption of animal biotechnology to sustainably improve global food safety and security. (United States)

    Tizard, Mark; Hallerman, Eric; Fahrenkrug, Scott; Newell-McGloughlin, Martina; Gibson, John; de Loos, Frans; Wagner, Stefan; Laible, Götz; Han, Jae Yong; D'Occhio, Michael; Kelly, Lisa; Lowenthal, John; Gobius, Kari; Silva, Primal; Cooper, Caitlin; Doran, Tim


    The ability to generate transgenic animals has existed for over 30 years, and from those early days many predicted that the technology would have beneficial applications in agriculture. Numerous transgenic agricultural animals now exist, however to date only one product from a transgenic animal has been approved for the food chain, due in part to cumbersome regulations. Recently, new techniques such as precision breeding have emerged, which enables the introduction of desired traits without the use of transgenes. The rapidly growing human population, environmental degradation, and concerns related to zoonotic and pandemic diseases have increased pressure on the animal agriculture sector to provide a safe, secure and sustainable food supply. There is a clear need to adopt transgenic technologies as well as new methods such as gene editing and precision breeding to meet these challenges and the rising demand for animal products. To achieve this goal, cooperation, education, and communication between multiple stakeholders-including scientists, industry, farmers, governments, trade organizations, NGOs and the public-is necessary. This report is the culmination of concepts first discussed at an OECD sponsored conference and aims to identify the main barriers to the adoption of animal biotechnology, tactics for navigating those barriers, strategies to improve public perception and trust, as well as industry engagement, and actions for governments and trade organizations including the OECD to harmonize regulations and trade agreements. Specifically, the report focuses on animal biotechnologies that are intended to improve breeding and genetics and currently are not routinely used in commercial animal agriculture. We put forward recommendations on how scientists, regulators, and trade organizations can work together to ensure that the potential benefits of animal biotechnology can be realized to meet the future needs of agriculture to feed the world.

  15. Concentrating Solar Power Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This fact sheet is an overview of the Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. CSP is a dispatchable, renewable energy option that uses mirrors to focus and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver, from which a heat transfer fluid carries the intense thermal energy to a power block to generate electricity. CSP systems can store solar energy to be used when the sun is not shining. It will help meet the nation’s goal of making solar energy fully cost-competitive with other energy sources by the end of the decade. Worldwide, CSP activity is rapidly scaling, with approximately 10 gigawatts (GW) in various stages of operation or development. In the United States alone, nearly 2 GW of CSP are in operation.

  16. Solar-powered cooling system (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.


    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system that uses nanostructural materials such as aerogels, zeolites, and sol gels as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material while the material is at a relatively low temperature, perhaps at night. During daylight hours, when the nanostructural materials is heated by the sun, the refrigerant are thermally desorbed from the surface of the aerogel, thereby creating a pressurized gas phase in the vessel that contains the aerogel. This solar-driven pressurization forces the heated gaseous refrigerant through a condenser, followed by an expansion valve. In the condenser, heat is removed from the refrigerant, first by circulating air or water. Eventually, the cooled gaseous refrigerant expands isenthalpically through a throttle valve into an evaporator, in a fashion similar to that in more conventional vapor recompression systems.

  17. Women in sustainable agriculture and food biotechnology key advances and perspectives on emerging topics

    CERN Document Server


    This volume describes the contributions made by women scientists to the field of agricultural biotechnology, the most quickly adopted agricultural practice ever adopted. It features the perspectives of women educators, researchers and key stakeholders towards the development, implementation and acceptance of this modern technology. It describes the multiplying contemporary challenges in the field, how women are overcoming technological barriers, and their thoughts on what the future may hold. As sustainable agricultural practices increasingly represent a key option in the drive towards building a greener global community, the scientific, technological and implementation issues covered in this book are vital information for anyone working in environmental engineering. Provides a broad analysis of the science of agriculture, focusing on the contributions of women to the field, from basic research to applied technology Offers insights into hot topics in the field across the life cycle, from genetic engineering t...

  18. Pv-Thermal Solar Power Assembly (United States)

    Ansley, Jeffrey H.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Dinwoodie, Thomas L.


    A flexible solar power assembly includes a flexible photovoltaic device attached to a flexible thermal solar collector. The solar power assembly can be rolled up for transport and then unrolled for installation on a surface, such as the roof or side wall of a building or other structure, by use of adhesive and/or other types of fasteners.

  19. Dispatchable Solar Power Plant Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Henry [Solar Dynamics LLC, Broomfield, CO (United States)


    As penetration of intermittent renewable power increases, grid operators must manage greater variability in the supply and demand on the grid. One result is that utilities are planning to build many new natural gas peaking power plants that provide added flexibility needed for grid management. This report discusses the development of a dispatchable solar power (DSP) plant that can be used in place of natural gas peakers. Specifically, a new molten-salt tower (MST) plant has been developed that is designed to allow much more flexible operation than typically considered in concentrating solar power plants. As a result, this plant can provide most of the capacity and ancillary benefits of a conventional natural gas peaker plant but without the carbon emissions. The DSP system presented was designed to meet the specific needs of the Arizona Public Service (APS) utility 2017 peaking capacity request for proposals (RFP). The goal of the effort was to design a MST peaker plant that had the operational capabilities required to meet the peaking requirements of the utility and be cost competitive with the natural gas alternative. The effort also addresses many perceived barriers facing the commercial deployment of MST technology in the US today. These include MST project development issues such as permitting, avian impacts, visual impacts of tower CSP projects, project schedule, and water consumption. The DSP plant design is based on considerable analyses using sophisticated solar system design tools and in-depth preliminary engineering design. The resulting DSP plant design uses a 250 MW steam power cycle, with solar field designed to fit on a square mile plot of land that has a design point thermal rating of 400 MWt. The DSP plant has an annual capacity factor of about 16% tailored to deliver greater than 90% capacity during the critical Arizona summer afternoon peak. The table below compares the All-In energy cost and capacity payment of conventional combustion turbines

  20. Technology Roadmaps: Concentrating Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The emerging technology known as concentrating solar power, or CSP, holds much promise for countries with plenty of sunshine and clear skies. Its electrical output matches well the shifting daily demand for electricity in places where airconditioning systems are spreading. When backed up by thermal storage facilities and combustible fuel, it offers utilities electricity that can be dispatched when required, enabling it to be used for base, shoulder and peak loads. Within about one to two decades, it will be able to compete with coal plants that emit high levels of CO2. The sunniest regions, such as North Africa, may be able to export surplus solar electricity to neighbouring regions, such as Europe, where demand for electricity from renewable sources is strong. In the medium-to-longer term, concentrating solar facilities can also produce hydrogen, which can be blended with natural gas, and provide low-carbon liquid fuels for transport and other end-use sectors. For CSP to claim its share of the coming energy revolution, concerted action is required over the next ten years by scientists, industry, governments, financing institutions and the public. This roadmap is intended to help drive these indispensable developments.

  1. Concentrating Solar Power. Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Concentrating solar power can contribute significantly to the world's energy supply. As shown in this roadmap, this decade is a critical window of opportunity during which CSP could become a competitive source of electrical power to meet peak and intermediate loads in the sunniest parts of the world. This roadmap identifies technology, economy and policy goals and milestones needed to support the development and deployment of CSP, as well as ongoing advanced research in CSF. It also sets out the need for governments to implement strong, balanced policies that favour rapid technological progress, cost reductions and expanded industrial manufacturing of CSP equipment to enable mass deployment. Importantly, this roadmap also establishes a foundation for greater international collaboration. The overall aim of this roadmap is to identify actions required - on the part of all stakeholders - to accelerate CSP deployment globally. Many countries, particularly in emerging regions, are only just beginning to develop CSP. Accordingly, milestone dates should be considered as indicative of urgency, rather than as absolutes. This roadmap is a work in progress. As global CSP efforts advance and an increasing number of CSP applications are developed, new data will provide the basis for updated analysis. The IEA will continue to track the evolution of CSP technology and its impacts on markets, the power sector and regulatory environments, and will update its analysis and set additional tasks and milestones as new learning comes to light.

  2. Biotechnological route for sustainable succinate production utilizing oil palm frond and kenaf as potential carbon sources. (United States)

    Luthfi, Abdullah Amru Indera; Manaf, Shareena Fairuz Abdul; Illias, Rosli Md; Harun, Shuhaida; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Jahim, Jamaliah Md


    Due to the world's dwindling energy supplies, greater thrust has been placed on the utilization of renewable resources for global succinate production. Exploration of such biotechnological route could be seen as an act of counterbalance to the continued fossil fuel dominance. Malaysia being a tropical country stands out among many other nations for its plenty of resources in the form of lignocellulosic biomass. To date, oil palm frond (OPF) contributes to the largest fraction of agricultural residues in Malaysia, while kenaf, a newly introduced fiber crop with relatively high growth rate, holds great potential for developing sustainable succinate production, apart from OPF. Utilization of non-food, inexhaustible, and low-cost derived biomass in the form of OPF and kenaf for bio-based succinate production remains largely untapped. Owing to the richness of carbohydrates in OPF and kenaf, bio-succinate commercialization using these sources appears as an attractive proposition for future sustainable developments. The aim of this paper was to review some research efforts in developing a biorefinery system based on OPF and kenaf as processing inputs. It presents the importance of the current progress in bio-succinate commercialization, in addition to describing the potential use of different succinate production hosts and various pretreatments-saccharifications under development for OPF and kenaf. Evaluations on the feasibility of OPF and kenaf as fermentation substrates are also discussed.

  3. Solar Powered Reverse Trash Vendo Machine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexis John M. Rubio; Joan P. Lazaro


    –The study was conducted with the purpose of developing a Solar Powered Reverse Trash Vendo Machine that aims to encourage people to engage in recycling and to diminish the practice of improper waste...

  4. Liquid metals for solar power systems (United States)

    Flesch, J.; Niedermeier, K.; Fritsch, A.; Musaeva, D.; Marocco, L.; Uhlig, R.; Baake, E.; Buck, R.; Wetzel, T.


    The use of liquid metals in solar power systems is not new. The receiver tests with liquid sodium in the 1980s at the Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) already proved the feasibility of liquid metals as heat transfer fluid. Despite the high efficiency achieved with that receiver, further investigation of liquid metals in solar power systems was stopped due to a sodium spray fire. Recently, the topic has become interesting again and the gained experience during the last 30 years of liquid metals handling is applied to the concentrated solar power community. In this paper, recent activities of the Helmholtz Alliance LIMTECH concerning liquid metals for solar power systems are presented. In addition to the components and system simulations also the experimental setup and results are included.

  5. Space Solar Power Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arif, Humayun; Barbosa, Hugo; Bardet, Christophe; Baroud, Michel; Behar, Alberto; Berrier, Keith; Berthe, Phillipe; Bertrand, Reinhold; Bibyk, Irene; Bisson, Joel; Bloch, Lawrence; Bobadilla, Gabriel; Bourque, Denis; Bush, Lawrence; Carandang, Romeo; Chiku, Takemi; Crosby, Norma; De Seixas, Manuel; De Vries, Joha; Doll, Susan; Dufour, Francois; Eckart, Peter; Fahey, Michael; Fenot, Frederic; Foeckersperger, Stefan; Fontaine, Jean-Emmanuel; Fowler, Robert; Frey, Harald; Fujio, Hironobu; Gasa, Jaume Munich; Gleave, Janet; Godoe, Jostein; Green, Iain; Haeberli, Roman; Hanada, Toshiya; Harris, Peter; Hucteau, Mario; Jacobs, Didier Fernand; Johnson, Richard; Kanno, Yoshitsugu; Koenig, Eva Maria; Kojima, Kazuo; Kondepudi, Phani; Kottbauer, Christian; Kulper, Doede; Kulagin, Konstantin; Kumara, Pekka; Kurz, Rainer; Laaksonen, Jyrki; Lang, Andrew Neill; Lathan, Corinna; Le Fur, Thierry; Lewis, David; Louis, Alain; Mori, Takeshi; Morlanes, Juan; Murbach, Marcus; Nagatomo, Hideo; O' brien, Ivan; Paines, Justin; Palaszewski, Bryan; Palmnaes, Ulf; Paraschivolu, Marius; Pathare, Asmin; Perov, Egor; Persson, Jan; Pessoa-Lopes, Isabel; Pinto, Michel; Porro, Irene; Reichert, Michael; Ritt-Fischer, Monika; Roberts, Margaret; Robertson II, Lawrence; Rogers, Keith; Sasaki, Tetsuo; Scire, Francesca; Shibatou, Katsuya; Shirai, Tatsuya; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Soucaille, Jean-Francois; Spivack, Nova; St. Pierre, Dany; Suleman, Afzal; Sullivan, Thomas; Theelen, Bas Johan; Thonstad, Hallvard; Tsuji, Masatoshi; Uchiumi, Masaharu; Vidqvist, Jouni; Warrell, David; Watanabe, Takafumi; Willis, Richard; Wolf, Frank; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Zhao, Hong


    Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

  6. Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help advance innovation in concentrating solar power (CSP). This fact sheet summarizes how NREL is advancing CSP research.

  7. PV/thermal solar power assembly (United States)

    Ansley, Jeffrey H.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Dinwoodie, Thomas L.


    A flexible solar power assembly (2) includes a flexible photovoltaic device (16) attached to a flexible thermal solar collector (4). The solar power assembly can be rolled up for transport and then unrolled for installation on a surface, such as the roof (20, 25) or side wall of a building or other structure, by use of adhesive and/or other types of fasteners (23).

  8. Shuttle Engine Designs Revolutionize Solar Power (United States)


    The Space Shuttle Main Engine was built under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center by Rocketdyne, now part of Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR). PWR applied its NASA experience to solar power technology and licensed the technology to Santa Monica, California-based SolarReserve. The company now develops concentrating solar power projects, including a plant in Nevada that has created 4,300 jobs during construction.

  9. Solar power pumping system for domestic appliences


    Lukhwareni, T.; Gouws, R.; Dobzhanskyi, O.


    With the world encountering huge pollution problems, use of renewable energy is being encouraged in place of fossils fuels for electricity generation. On such renewable energies is solar power. Solar powered systems are able to generate electricity using photovoltaic (PV) panels, or thermal collectors directly from sunlight. Pool pump electricity consumption has also risen in South Africa. This paper presents the results of the design, and construction of a PV solar system to effect water pum...

  10. Concentrators Enhance Solar Power Systems (United States)


    "Right now, solar electric propulsion is being looked at very seriously," says Michael Piszczor, chief of the photovoltaic and power technologies branch at Glen Research Center. The reason, he explains, originates with a unique NASA mission from the late 1990s. In 1998, the Deep Space 1 spacecraft launched from Kennedy Space Center to test a dozen different space technologies, including SCARLET, or the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology. As a solar array that focused sunlight on a smaller solar cell to generate electric power, SCARLET not only powered Deep Space 1 s instruments but also powered its ion engine, which propelled the spacecraft throughout its journey. Deep Space 1 was the first spacecraft powered by a refractive concentrator design like SCARLET, and also utilized multi-junction solar cells, or cells made of multiple layers of different materials. For the duration of its 38-month mission, SCARLET performed flawlessly, even as Deep Space 1 flew by Comet Borrelly and Asteroid Braille. "Everyone remembers the ion engine on Deep Space 1, but they tend to forget that the SCARLET array powered it," says Piszczor. "Not only did both technologies work as designed, but the synergy between the two, solar power and propulsion together, is really the important aspect of this technology demonstration mission. It was the first successful use of solar electric propulsion for primary propulsion." More than a decade later, NASA is keenly interested in using solar electric propulsion (SEP) for future space missions. A key issue is cost, and SEP has the potential to substantially reduce cost compared to conventional chemical propulsion technology. "SEP allows you to use spacecraft that are smaller, lighter, and less costly," says Piszczor. "Even though it might take longer to get somewhere using SEP, if you are willing to trade time for cost and smaller vehicles, it s a good trade." Potentially, SEP could be used on future science missions

  11. Production and Management of Energy: The Interdisciplinary Approach of ENEA to Concentrated Solar Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico De Martinis


    Full Text Available Abstract - Clean and efficient energy generation by environmental friendly methods and technologies is now one of the major challenges worldwide. New and heterogeneous methods to produce energy pose the challenge of how to guarantee energy security, storage of exceeding production and distribution. In addition to that, the exploitation of next generation energy sources must consider the impact it may have on other productive systems and on rural areas (e.g. solar vs agriculture, biomass vs food production. ENEA has got and follows an interdisciplinary approach to “challenge the challenge” of a sustainable energy production, merging together materials science, agronomy and biotechnology, solar energy studies, energy efficiency management and more, in collaboration with industries and often in collaboration with the other stakeholders in the Mediterranean area. This paper describes the state of the art technology and how concentrating solar power (CSP technology could be modulated to meet different energy needs, both spatial needs (e.g. off grid use vs dispatchability and temporal needs (day vs night and energy on demand.

  12. Online short-term solar power forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg


    . Then forecasts of the normalized solar power are calculated using adaptive linear time series models. Both autoregressive (AR) and AR with exogenous input (ARX) models are evaluated, where the latter takes numerical weather predictions (NWPs) as input. The results indicate that for forecasts up to two hours......This paper describes a new approach to online forecasting of power production from PV systems. The method is suited to online forecasting in many applications and in this paper it is used to predict hourly values of solar power for horizons of up to 36 hours. The data used is fifteen...

  13. Liquid metals for solar power systems


    Flesch, J.; Niedermeier, K; Fritsch, Andreas; Musaeva, D.; Marocco, L.; Uhlig, Ralf; Baake, E.; Buck, Reiner; Wetzel, Th.


    The use of liquid metals in solar power systems is not new. The receiver tests with liquid sodium in the 1980s at the Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) already proved the feasibility of liquid metals as heat transfer fluid. Despite the high efficiency achieved with that receiver, further investigation of liquid metals in solar power systems was stopped due to a sodium spray fire. Recently, the topic has become interesting again and the gained experience during the last 30 years of liqui...

  14. Online Short-term Solar Power Forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    This poster presents two approaches to online forecasting of power production from PV systems. The methods are suited for online forecasting in many applications and here they are used to predict hourly values of solar power for horizons up to 32 hours.......This poster presents two approaches to online forecasting of power production from PV systems. The methods are suited for online forecasting in many applications and here they are used to predict hourly values of solar power for horizons up to 32 hours....

  15. Solar-powered hot-water system (United States)

    Collins, E. R.


    Hot-water system requires no external power except solar energy. System is completely self-controlling. It includes solar-powered pump, solar-thermally and hydrothermally operated valves, and storage tank filled with open-celled foam, to maintain thermal stratification in stored water.

  16. Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report has been prepared in response to section 603(b) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, (Pub. L. No. 110-140), which states that “…the Secretary of Energy shall transmit to Congress a report on the results of a study on methods to reduce the amount of water consumed by concentrating solar power systems.”

  17. Solar-powered air-conditioning (United States)

    Clark, D. C.; Rousseau, J.


    Report focuses on recent study on development of solar-powered residential air conditioners and is based on selected literature through 1975. Its purposes are to characterize thermal and mechanical systems that might be useful in development of Rankine-cycle approach to solar cooling and assessment of a Lithium Bromide/Water absorption cycle system.

  18. Biotechnology financing, not acquisitions, for filling the pharma pipeline - a sustaining strategy. (United States)

    Fernandes, Prabhavathi


    The traditional model of start-up biotechnology companies was to invent, invest, build, partner and make a public offering. This model failed, following an era of investments in far reaching technologies, such as genomics and combinatorial chemistry, that did not yield near term products. In recent times, products that are at or near the clinical stage have again attracted investors to start-up biotechnology companies. After a short period of development, these biotechnology companies are bought by large pharma companies for high prices. If the product fails, the investment is simply written off and there is no backup compound developed, as the biotechnology company with the expertise and the accumulated knowledge of the program and products has been shut down. Most large pharma companies have also downsized exploratory programs. It remains the purview of government and a handful of 'angel' investors to fund new ideas. The pharma and biotechnology industry must re-examine this model and build an investment model that retains creativity and the entrepreneurial spirit that allows the time to yield multiple products.

  19. A Comparison Of A Solar Power Satellite Concept To A Concentrating Solar Power System (United States)

    Smitherman, David V.


    A comparison is made of a Solar Power Satellite concept in geostationary Earth orbit to a Concentrating Solar Power system on the ground to analyze overall efficiencies of each infrastructure from solar radiance at 1 AU to conversion and transmission of electrical energy into the power grid on the Earth's surface. Each system is sized for a 1-gigawatt output to the power grid and then further analyzed to determine primary collector infrastructure areas. Findings indicate that even though the Solar Power Satellite concept has a higher end-to-end efficiency, that the combined space and ground collector infrastructure is still about the same size as a comparable Concentrating Solar Power system on the ground.

  20. Concentrating Solar Power Program Review 2013 (Book) (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Concentrating Solar Power Program Review Meeting booklet will be provided to attendees at the Concentrating Solar Power Review Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona on April 23-25, 2013.

  1. Research gap analysis for application of biotechnology to sustaining US forests (United States)

    R.W. Whetten; R. Kellison


    The expanding human population of the world is placing greater demand on forest resources, both natural forests and plantations. Both types of forests are being adversely affected in North America as well as in other parts of the world, due to the globalization of trade and to climate change and associated changes in pest and disease incidence. Biotechnology may help...

  2. Biogas from Agricultural Residues as Energy Source in Hybrid Concentrated Solar Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corré, W.J.; Conijn, J.G.


    This paper explores the possibilities of sustainable biogas use for hybridisation of Concentrated Solar Power (HCSP) in Europe. The optimal system for the use of biogas from agricultural residues (manure and crop residues) in HCSP involves anaerobic digestion with upgrading of biogas to

  3. Solar Power Generation in Extreme Space Environments (United States)

    Elliott, Frederick W.; Piszczor, Michael F.


    The exploration of space requires power for guidance, navigation, and control; instrumentation; thermal control; communications and data handling; and many subsystems and activities. Generating sufficient and reliable power in deep space through the use of solar arrays becomes even more challenging as solar intensity decreases and high radiation levels begin to degrade the performance of photovoltaic devices. The Extreme Environments Solar Power (EESP) project goal is to develop advanced photovoltaic technology to address these challenges.

  4. Concentrated solar power generation using solar receivers (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce N.; Treece, William Dean; Brown, Dan; Bennhold, Florian; Hilgert, Christoph


    Inventive concentrated solar power systems using solar receivers, and related devices and methods, are generally described. Low pressure solar receivers are provided that function to convert solar radiation energy to thermal energy of a working fluid, e.g., a working fluid of a power generation or thermal storage system. In some embodiments, low pressure solar receivers are provided herein that are useful in conjunction with gas turbine based power generation systems.

  5. Space solar power - An available energy source (United States)

    Ferdman, S.; Kline, R. L.


    The development of satellite solar power stations is described with attention given to station design and assembly in space. Problems associated with conversion of solar energy into microwaves and with getting the station into orbit are considered. The use of a solar propulsion system for pushing the station to high orbit is discussed along with questions of station lifetime (estimated to be about thirty years). The paper is copiously illustrated with drawings projecting various aspects of station design and utilization.

  6. Solar Powered Automatic Shrimp Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dindo T. Ani


    Full Text Available - Automatic system has brought many revolutions in the existing technologies. One among the technologies, which has greater developments, is the solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. For instance, the solar power which is a renewable energy can be an alternative solution to energy crisis and basically reducing man power by using it in an automatic manner. The researchers believe an automatic shrimp feeding system may help solve problems on manual feeding operations. The project study aimed to design and develop a solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. It specifically sought to prepare the design specifications of the project, to determine the methods of fabrication and assembly, and to test the response time of the automatic shrimp feeding system. The researchers designed and developed an automatic system which utilizes a 10 hour timer to be set in intervals preferred by the user and will undergo a continuous process. The magnetic contactor acts as a switch connected to the 10 hour timer which controls the activation or termination of electrical loads and powered by means of a solar panel outputting electrical power, and a rechargeable battery in electrical communication with the solar panel for storing the power. By undergoing through series of testing, the components of the modified system were proven functional and were operating within the desired output. It was recommended that the timer to be used should be tested to avoid malfunction and achieve the fully automatic system and that the system may be improved to handle changes in scope of the project.

  7. Simulation of hybrid solar power plants (United States)

    Dieckmann, Simon; Dersch, Jürgen


    Hybrid solar power plants have the potential to combine advantages of two different technologies at the cost of increased complexity. The present paper shows the potential of the software greenius for the techno-economic evaluation of hybrid solar power plants and discusses two exemplary scenarios. Depreciated Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants based on trough technology can be retrofitted with solar towers in order to reach higher steam cycle temperatures and hence efficiencies. Compared to a newly built tower plant the hybridization of a depreciated trough plant causes about 30% lower LCOE reaching 104 /MWh. The second hybrid scenario combines cost-efficient photovoltaics with dispatchable CSP technology. This hybrid plant offers very high capacity factors up to 69% based on 100% load from 8am to 11pm. The LCOE of the hybrid plant are only slightly lower (174 vs. 186 /MWh) compared to the pure CSP plant because the capital expenditure for thermal storage and power block remains the same while the electricity output is much lower.

  8. A Low Cost Shading Analyzer and Site Evaluator Design to Determine Solar Power System Installation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Kesler


    Full Text Available Shading analyzer systems are necessary for selecting the most suitable installation site to sustain enough solar power. Afterwards, changes in solar data throughout the year must be evaluated along with the identification of obstructions surrounding the installation site in order to analyze shading effects on productivity of the solar power system. In this study, the shading analysis tools are introduced briefly, and a new and different device is developed and explained to analyze shading effect of the environmental obstruction on the site on which the solar power system will be established. Thus, exposure duration of the PV panels to the sunlight can be measured effectively. The device is explained with an application on the installation area selected as a pilot site, Denizli, in Turkey.

  9. A Comparison of a Solar Power Satellite Concept to a Concentrating Solar Power System (United States)

    Smitherman, David V.


    A comparison is made of a solar power satellite (SPS) concept in geostationary Earth orbit to a concentrating solar power (CSP) system on the ground to analyze overall efficiencies of each infrastructure from solar radiance at 1 AU to conversion and transmission of electrical energy into the power grid on the Earth's surface. Each system is sized for a 1-gigawatt output to the power grid and then further analyzed to determine primary collector infrastructure areas. Findings indicate that even though the SPS concept has a higher end-to-end efficiency, the combined space and ground collector infrastructure is still about the same size as a comparable CSP system on the ground.

  10. Sizing and preliminary hardware testing of solar powered UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jashnani


    Full Text Available Integrating solar energy into modern aircraft technology has been a topic of interest and has received a lot of attention from researchers over the last two decades. A few among the many potential applications of this technology are the possibility of continuous self sustained flight for purposes such as information relay, surveillance and monitoring. This paper discusses the altitude and payload mass, as independent parameters, and their influence on the size and design of the aircraft. To estimate available solar power, two different models have been presented; one for low altitudes and the other for high altitudes. An engineering ground model was built to simulate the power and propulsion system over 24 h of continuous operation. The paper presents data from tests performed till date and lessons learnt while dealing with the construction of the engineering ground model as well as changes that can be made to improve the design.

  11. Laccases and their natural mediators: biotechnological tools for sustainable eco-friendly processes. (United States)

    Cañas, Ana I; Camarero, Susana


    Laccases are oxidoreductases which oxidize a variety of aromatic compounds using oxygen as the electron acceptor and producing water as by-product. The interest for these old enzymes (first described in 19th century) has progressively increased due to their outstanding biotechnological applicability. The presence of redox mediators is required for a number of biotechnological applications, providing the oxidation of complex substrates not oxidized by the enzyme alone. The efficiency of laccase-mediator systems to degrade recalcitrant compounds has been demonstrated, but still the high cost and possible toxicity of artificial mediators hamper their application at the industrial scale. Here, we present a general outlook of how alternative mediators can change this tendency. We focus on phenolic compounds related to lignin polymer that promotes the in vitro transformation of recalcitrant non-phenolic structures by laccase and are seemingly the natural mediators of laccases. The use of eco-friendly mediators easily available from lignocellulose, could contribute to the industrial implementation of laccases and the development of the 21th century biorefineries. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Space solar power - An energy alternative (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.


    The space solar power concept is concerned with the use of a Space Power Satellite (SPS) which orbits the earth at geostationary altitude. Two large symmetrical solar collectors convert solar energy directly to electricity using photovoltaic cells woven into blankets. The dc electricity is directed to microwave generators incorporated in a transmitting antenna located between the solar collectors. The antenna directs the microwave beam to a receiving antenna on earth where the microwave energy is efficiently converted back to dc electricity. The SPS design promises 30-year and beyond lifetimes. The SPS is relatively pollution free as it promises earth-equivalence of 80-85% efficient ground-based thermal power plant.

  13. Solar Powered Reverse Trash Vendo Machine


    Alexis John M. Rubio; Joan P. Lazaro


    –The study was conducted with the purpose of developing a Solar Powered Reverse Trash Vendo Machine that aims to encourage people to engage in recycling and to diminish the practice of improper waste disposal in thePhilippines. The device used a Gizduino X ATMega 1281 as its main processing module along with a Gizduino 644 microcontroller board, anda GSM Shield module for communication. Arduino1.6 IDE is used to program the Gizduinoboards. The device is powered by a 15V rechargeab...

  14. Solar powered desalination system using Fresnel lens (United States)

    Sales, M. T. B. F.


    The Philippines is surrounded by coastal areas and these areas can be a potential source for potable water. This study aims to design and construct a solar powered desalination system using Fresnel lens. The experimental study was conducted using polluted salt water for the sample and desalination was carried out using the designed system. The desalination system was composed of the solar concentrator, solar still and the condenser system. The Fresnel lens was made of acrylic plastic and was an effective solar concentrator. Solar stills made of dark colored glass bottles were effective in absorbing the solar energy. The condenser system made of polybutylene and polystyrene were effective in condensing the vapor at ambient temperature. The shortest time of vaporization of the salt water was at 293 sec and the optimum angle of position of the lens was 36.42°. The amount of condensate collected was directly proportional to the amount of salt water in the solar still. The highest mean efficiency of the designed set-up was 34.82%. The water produced by the solar powered desalination system using Fresnel lens passed the standards set by WHO (World Health Organization) for drinking water.

  15. Feature Selection and ANN Solar Power Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel O’Leary


    Full Text Available A novel method of solar power forecasting for individuals and small businesses is developed in this paper based on machine learning, image processing, and acoustic classification techniques. Increases in the production of solar power at the consumer level require automated forecasting systems to minimize loss, cost, and environmental impact for homes and businesses that produce and consume power (prosumers. These new participants in the energy market, prosumers, require new artificial neural network (ANN performance tuning techniques to create accurate ANN forecasts. Input masking, an ANN tuning technique developed for acoustic signal classification and image edge detection, is applied to prosumer solar data to improve prosumer forecast accuracy over traditional macrogrid ANN performance tuning techniques. ANN inputs tailor time-of-day masking based on error clustering in the time domain. Results show an improvement in prediction to target correlation, the R2 value, lowering inaccuracy of sample predictions by 14.4%, with corresponding drops in mean average error of 5.37% and root mean squared error of 6.83%.

  16. Crystal with solar power. One of the most sustainable building of the world is in London; Kristall mit Sonnenpower. Eines der wohl nachhaltigsten Gebaeude der Welt steht in London

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korn, Stefan


    Within a period of eighteen months, a spectacular building came into being in East London (United Kingdom) fulfilling the highest standards of sustainability. 'The Crystal' shall be centre for conferences and exhibitions simultaneously and portray what is dealt inside: The city of tomorrow. Siemens AG as the builder not only wanted to create a sensation by means of an extraordinary shape, but also illustrate the actual state of the art.

  17. A framework for investigating the interactions between climate, dust, solar power generation and water desalination processes in Desert Climate (United States)

    Siam, M. S.; Alqatari, S.; Ibrahim, H. D.; AlAloula, R. A.; Alrished, M.; AlSaati, A.; Eltahir, E. A. B.


    Increasing water demand in Saudi Arabia due to rapid population growth has forced the rapid expansion of seawater desalination plants in order to meet both current and future freshwater needs. Saudi Arabia has a huge potential for solar energy, hence, solar-powered desalination plants provide an opportunity to sustainably address the freshwater demand in the kingdom without relying on fossil fuels energy. However, the desert climate of Saudi Arabia and limited access to the open ocean imposes several challenges to the expansion and sustainability of solar-powered desalination plants. For example, the frequent and intense dust storms that occur in the region can degrade solar panels and significantly reduce their efficiency. Moreover, the high salinity Arabian Gulf is both the source of feedwater and sink of hypersaline discharge (brine) for many plants in the east of the Kingdom, and the brine may alter the salinity, temperature and movement of the water thereby reducing the quality of the feedwater to the desalination plants. Here, we propose a framework to investigate the different interactions between climate, dust, solar power generation and seawater desalination in order to identify optimal parameters such as locations of solar panels and seawater intake for sustainable implementation of solar-powered desalination plants. This framework integrates several numerical models including regional climate, hydrodynamics, Photovoltaics (PV) and Photovoltaic-Reverse Osmosis (PV-RO) models that are used to investigate these interactions for a solar-powered desalination plant at AlKhafji on the Northeastern coast of Saudi Arabia.

  18. Keeping Cool With Solar-Powered Refrigeration (United States)


    In the midst of developing battery-free, solar-powered refrigeration and air conditioning systems for habitats in space, David Bergeron, the team leader for NASA's Advanced Refrigerator Technology Team at Johnson Space Center, acknowledged the need for a comparable solar refrigerator that could operate in conjunction with the simple lighting systems already in place on Earth. Bergeron, a 20-year veteran in the aerospace industry, founded the company Solus Refrigeration, Inc., in 1999 to take the patented advanced refrigeration technology he co-developed with his teammate, Johnson engineer Michael Ewert, to commercial markets. Now known as SunDanzer Refrigeration, Inc., Bergeron's company is producing battery-free, photovoltaic (PV) refrigeration systems under license to NASA, and selling them globally.

  19. Solar Power Beaming: From Space to Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenchik, A M; Parker, J M; Beach, R J; Yamamoto, R M


    Harvesting solar energy in space and power beaming the collected energy to a receiver station on Earth is a very attractive way to help solve mankind's current energy and environmental problems. However, the colossal and expensive 'first step' required in achieving this goal has to-date stifled its initiation. In this paper, we will demonstrate that recent advance advances in laser and optical technology now make it possible to deploy a space-based system capable of delivering 1 MW of energy to a terrestrial receiver station, via a single unmanned commercial launch into Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Figure 1 depicts the overall concept of our solar power beaming system, showing a large solar collector in space, beaming a coherent laser beam to a receiving station on Earth. We will describe all major subsystems and provide technical and economic discussion to support our conclusions.

  20. Orbital Space Solar Power Option for a Lunar Village (United States)

    Johnson, Les


    One of the most significant challenges to the implementation of a continuously manned lunar base is power. During the lunar day (14 Earth days), it is conceptually simple to deploy solar arrays to generate the estimated 35 kilowatts of continuous power required. However, generating this level of power during the lunar night (also 14 Earth days) has been an extremely difficult problem to solve. Conventional solutions range from the requirement that the base be located at the lunar south pole so as to take advantage of the continuous sunshine available there to developing a space-qualified nuclear reactor and power plant to generate the needed energy. There is a third option: Use the soon-to-be-available Space Launch System to place a space based solar power station in lunar orbit that would beam the needed energy to the lunar base. Several detailed studies have been performed by NASA, universities and others looking at the lunar south pole for locating the base. The results are encouraging: by taking advantage of the moon's orbital tilt, large solar arrays can be deployed there to track the sun continuously and generate the power needed to sustain the base. The problem with this approach is inherent to its design: it will only work at the lunar south pole. There is no other site on the Moon with geometry favorable to generating continuous solar power. NASA has also considered the development of a compact fission reactor and power plant to generate the needed power, allowing the base to be sited anywhere on the Moon. The problem with this approach is that there are no space fission reactors available, none are being planned and the cost of developing one is prohibitively expensive. Using an orbiting space based solar power station to generate electrical power and beam it to a base sited anywhere on the moon should therefore be considered. The technology to collect sunlight, generate greater than the estimated 35 kilowatts of power, and beam it to the surface using

  1. The research and development of the automatic solar power tracker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yan Ping


    Full Text Available The article describes a kind of automatic tracker using solar power. It depends on two important parts which are servo system and adjusting mechanism system to keep the tracker operating normally. The article focuses on describing the characteristics and functions of two systems and the operating details of the automatic solar power tracker.

  2. Experimental Investigation Of An ORC System For A Micro-Solar Power Plant


    Dickes, Rémi; Dumont, Olivier; Declaye, Sébastien; Quoilin, Sylvain; Bell, Ian; Lemort, Vincent


    Because of the depletion of fossil fuels and global warming issues, the world energy sector is undergoing various changes towards increased sustainability. Among the different technologies being developed, solar energy, and more specifically CSP (Concentrated Solar Power) systems are expected to play a key role to supply centralized loads and off-grid areas in the medium-term. Major performance improvements can be achieved by implementing advanced control strategies accounting for the transie...

  3. RISK MANAGEMENT AND EXPERTISE: Biotechnology Risk Regulation in Europe: Linking Precaution with Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levidow Les


    Full Text Available In the risk debate over genetically modified (GM crops, their status as ‘‘environmentally-friendly products’’ has been controversial. The 1990 precautionary legislation of the European Union was designed to anticipate potential harm from GMOs in advance. Yet the acceptability of harm - or even its definition - has been contentious in evaluating commercial products. The legislation has been interpreted in ways which implicitly link concepts of precaution and ‘‘sustainable development’’. In the mid-1990s risk regulation, the European Union framed ‘‘risk’’ within a commitment to intensive agriculture. Its familiar hazards were accepted as a normal baseline for evaluating the effects of GM crops. The regulatory procedure regarded choices of crop protection measures as irrelevant or interchangeable, and therefore regarded some future options as dispensible, regardless of whether they would be environmentally preferable. At least implicitly, safety claims presupposed environmental advantages of GM crops in reducing agrochemical usage. That risk-framing came under challenge from widespread protest and expert disagreements. In response, some governments applied more precautionary measures. They broadened the definition of the ‘‘adverse effects’’ which must be avoided, devised market-stage precautions for such effects, and increased the burden of evidence for demonstrating safety. Soon the EU-wide procedure began to formalize such approaches. In the contested definitions of relevant harm, there are deeper issues about the sort of environment which should be protected, sustained or created. Thus GM crops have become a test case for environmental norms, within a broader debate about how to construct a sustainable agriculture.

  4. Arctic BiotechnologySustainable Products and Processes from Arctic Biological Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Mariane Schmidt; Hennessy, Rosanna Catherine; Stougaard, Peter

    Biological resources from the Arctic hold the potential for development of sustainable products and/or processes within areas such as pharma, agriculture, and biotech. Here, we present the identification of cold-active enzymes and biocontrol agents isolated from cold-adapted bacteria. Truly cold-......-ribosomal peptides (NRPs), which furthermore recently have been shown to have anticancer activity (Michelsen et al. 2015).......Biological resources from the Arctic hold the potential for development of sustainable products and/or processes within areas such as pharma, agriculture, and biotech. Here, we present the identification of cold-active enzymes and biocontrol agents isolated from cold-adapted bacteria. Truly cold-active...... enzymes are not yet on the market. It is possible, though, to find truly cold-active enzymes with industrial potential. We have characterized a β-galactosidase which has a temperature optimum at 20 °C, but still maintains 60% of its activity at 0 °C (Schmidt et al. 2010). The β-galactosidase is able...

  5. Plant biotechnology for sustainable production of energy and co-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffran, Juergen [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Geography; Widholm, Jack M. (eds.) [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Crop Sciences; Mascia, Peter N.


    The successful use of plant biomass for the sustainable production of energy and co-products such as chemicals is critically important for the future of humanity. Large scale exploitation of biomass is needed to decrease the production of greenhouse gases and help mitigate global warming, to provide energy security in the face of declining petroleum reserves, to improve balance of payment imbalances, and to spur local economic development. This volume discusses such uses of plant biomass as well as ways to improve the productivity and composition of plant species, including trees, perennial and annual grasses, oil-producing plants and algae, that have the potential to produce substrates such as sugar, starch, oil and cell walls, as well as energy and co-product substrates. The problems of invasiveness and gene dispersal are discussed, as are ways to mitigate these. Among the topics covered are models for integrated biorefineries to produce many co-product chemicals, the use of corn stover to power ethanol plants, life cycle analysis of biofuels, and criteria for biomass sustainability and certification. This is indeed an exciting and fast-moving time for advocates of plant biomass-based technology. (orig.)

  6. Process oriented thinking as a key for integration of ecohydrology, biotechnology and engineering for sustainable water resources management and ecosystems (United States)

    Zalewski, M.


    The recent high rate of environmental degradation due to unsustainable use of water and other natural resources and mismanagement, is, in many cases, the result of a dominant sectoral approach, limited communication between different users and agencies, and lack of knowledge transfer between different disciplines, and especially lack of dialogue between environmental scientists and engineers. There is no doubt that the genuine improvement of human well-being has to be based on understanding the complexity of interactions between abiotic, biotic and socio-economic systems. The major drivers of biogeosphere evolution and function have been the cycles of water and nutrients in a complex array of differing climates and catchment geomorphologies. In the face of global climate change and unequally distributed human populations, the recent sectoral mechanistic approach in natural resources management has to be replaced by an evolutionary systems approach based on well-integrated problem-solving and policy-oriented environmental science. Thus the principles of ecohydrology should be the basis for further integration of ecology, hydrology, engineering, biotechnology and other environmental sciences. Examples from UNESCO IHP VII show how the integration of these will not only increase the efficiency of measures to harmonize ecosystem potentials with societal needs, but also significantly reduce the costs of sustainable environmental management.

  7. Biotechnology for renewable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg


    The majority of the industrial organic chemicals are derived from fossil sources. With the oil and gas resources becoming limiting, biotechnology offers a sustainable alternative for production ofchemicals from renewable feedstocks. Yeast is an attractive cell factory forsustainable production...

  8. Development of Solar Powered Irrigation System (United States)

    Abdelkerim, A. I.; Sami Eusuf, M. M. R.; Salami, M. J. E.; Aibinu, A.; Eusuf, M. A.


    Development of a solar powered irrigation system has been discussed in this paper. This system would be SCADA-based and quite useful in areas where there is plenty of sunshine but insufficient water to carry out farming activities, such as rubber plantation, strawberry plantation, or any plantation, that requires frequent watering. The system is powered by solar system as a renewable energy which uses solar panel module to convert Sunlight into electricity. The development and implementation of an automated SCADA controlled system that uses PLC as a controller is significant to agricultural, oil and gas monitoring and control purpose purposes. In addition, the system is powered by an intelligent solar system in which solar panel targets the radiation from the Sun. Other than that, the solar system has reduced energy cost as well as pollution. The system is equipped with four input sensors; two soil moisture sensors, two level detection sensors. Soil moisture sensor measures the humidity of the soil, whereas the level detection sensors detect the level of water in the tank. The output sides consist of two solenoid valves, which are controlled respectively by two moistures sensors.

  9. Solar Powered Reverse Trash Vendo Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis John M. Rubio


    Full Text Available –The study was conducted with the purpose of developing a Solar Powered Reverse Trash Vendo Machine that aims to encourage people to engage in recycling and to diminish the practice of improper waste disposal in thePhilippines. The device used a Gizduino X ATMega 1281 as its main processing module along with a Gizduino 644 microcontroller board, anda GSM Shield module for communication. Arduino1.6 IDE is used to program the Gizduinoboards. The device is powered by a 15V rechargeable battery, which is charged by a solar panel retrofitted at the roof of the device, this is to promote energy conservation, and green engineering principles in the development of the study.The device can process empty plastic bottles (500ml. max with a base diameter of 3.5 inches, and aluminium cans. These recyclable materials are placed inside the machine and is scanned, then crushed and placed in a bin. An inductive sensor is used to detect either the material is a plastic bottle or an aluminium can. To compensate the user for recycling, an equivalent monetary value will be dispensed. The owner of the device can check the status of the coin dispenser and bins through an Android messaging application developed using the Eclipse IDE and the Java programming language, and when a certain limit is reached by the coin dispenser or the trash bins, an automatic text message notification will be sent to the owner.

  10. Launch Vehicle Assessment for Space Solar Power (United States)

    Olds, John R.


    A recently completed study at Georgia Tech examined various launch vehicle options for deploying a future constellation of Space Solar Power satellites of the Suntower configuration. One of the motivations of the study was to determine whether the aggressive $400/kg launch price goal established for SSP package delivery would result in an attractive economic scenario for a future RLV developer. That is, would the potential revenue and traffic to be derived from a large scale SSP project be enough of an economic "carrot" to attract an RLV company into developing a new, low cost launch vehicle to address this market. Preliminary results presented in the attached charts show that there is enough economic reward for RLV developers, specifically in the case of the latest large GEO-based Suntower constellations (over 15,500 MT per year delivery for 30 years). For that SSP model, internal rates of return for the 30 year economic scenario exceed 22%. However, up-front government assistance to the RLV developer in terms of ground facilities, operations technologies, guaranteed low-interest rate loans, and partial offsets of some vehicle development expenses is necessary to achieve these positive results. This white paper is meant to serve as a companion to the data supplied in the accompanying charts. It's purpose is to provide more detail on the vehicles and design processes used, to highlight key decisions and issues, and to emphasize key results from each phase of the Georgia Tech study.

  11. Solar powered vehicles: From dream to reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The initiatives of the 'Schweizer Vereinigung fuer Sonnenenergie' (Swiss Association for Solar Energy) has added new impetus worldwide for the utilisation of solar energy. The Association organised the 'Tour de Sol', a race for vehicles propelled with the aid of solar energy. Solar vehicles with and without supplementary power, both standard production models and prototypes were eligible for the race. Before the start of the race, the solar-powered vehicles were 'filled up' with solar energy at a 'solar filling station'. The winner in the 'standard' section (a 2-seater small car for short distances) weighed in at 240 kg and attained a top speed of 100 km/h and a range of 150 km. The rear-wheel drive of this battery-powered vehicle was provided by 2 permanent magnet motors. A newly-developed nickel-zinc battery from the USA was available to power the twin engines. The energy requirement was the equivalent of less than 1 liter of petrol per 100 km.

  12. Solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, K.C.; Lamp, T.R.; Geis, J.W. [Wright Lab., Wright Patterson AFB, OH (United States). Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate; Colozza, A.J. [NYMA Corp., Brookpark, OH (United States). Aerospace Technology Development


    An analysis was performed to determine the impact of various power system components and mission requirements on the size of solar-powered high altitude long endurance (HALE)-type aircraft. The HALE unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has good potential for use in many military and civil applications. The primary power system components considered in this study were photovoltaic (PV) modules for power generation and regenerative fuel cells for energy storage. The impact of relevant component performance on UAV size and capability were considered; including PV module efficiency and mass, power electronics efficiency, and fuel cell specific energy. Mission parameters such as time of year, flight altitude, flight latitude, and payload mass and power were also varied to determine impact on UAV size. The aircraft analysis method used determines the required aircraft wing aspect ratio, wing area, and total mass based on maximum endurance or minimum required power calculations. The results indicate that the capacity of the energy storage system employed, fuel cells in this analysis, greatly impacts aircraft size, whereas the impact of PV module efficiency and mass is much less important. It was concluded that an energy storage specific energy (total system) of 250--500 Whr/kg is required to enable most useful missions, and that PV cells with efficiencies greater than {approximately} 12% are suitable for use.

  13. Application of Biotechnology to Construct a Sustainable Biodiesel Production System on Wastewater (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodan; Liu, Yuhuan; Xu, Erni; Liu, Jianqiang; Ruan, Roger; Fu, Guiming


    The potential of microalgae biodiesel is unlimited. The ingenious combination of microalgae biomass exploitation, decontamination of municipal wastewater, and CO2 fixation may gestate the ultimate hope for solving the problem of liquid alternative fuel. However, the municipal wastewater has some characteristics, such as high content of nitrogen and phosphorus, low C/N ratio, fluctuation of loading rate, toxicity of heavy metal, etc. To overcome these problems, studies are currently underway in our laboratory. In this paper, an idea of constructing a sustainable biodiesel production system from microalgae on wastewater is assumed. The system could realize CO2 fixation, decontamination of municipal wastewater, and production of high value-added biodiesel by microalgae. Firstly, municipal wastewater is used as the cultivation media and CO2 as gaseous fertilizer for mass culture of Shuihua microalgae. So with the harvest of large quantities of low-price Shuihua microalgae, the nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals can be removed from the wastewater, and the emission of greenhouse gas can be reduced. Secondly, try to breed a high-oil content engineering microalgae by heterotrophic cultivation which could realize high-density growth through the conjunction of the advanced methods of fermentation engineering with the microalgae breeding technology. Finally, make the high-oil content engineering microalgae cultivated on the decomposed Shuihua microalgae cells, and try to make the high-oil content engineering microalgae grow rapidly in the initial stage and start oil accumulation when nitrogen is exhausted by controlling the conditions of fermentation.

  14. Solar power developer feels its technology is cost competitive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smock, R.W.


    This paper reports on a solar power developer which believes that it has a cost-competitive solar power technology. Right now, more than 90% of the world's operating solar-powered electric generating capacity is located in the Los-Angeles-based company's privately financed solar-thermal plants currently operating on the Southern California Edison system. It has 274 MW of qualifying-facility, small-power solar capacity in operation in eight plants. They are expected to produce 700 million kWh this year, equal to an annual capacity factor of about 29%. The solar technology uses supplemental firing of natural gas.

  15. Siting guidelines for concentrating solar power plants in the Sahel: Case study of Burkina Faso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoumah, Y.; Tapsoba, G.; Thiam, S. [Laboratoire Energie Solaire et Economie d' Energie (LESEE), Fondation 2iE (International Institute of Water an Environmental Engineering), 01 BP 594, Ouagadougou 01 (Burkina Faso); Ramde, E.W. [Solar Energy Application Laboratory (SEAL), KNUST, Kumasi (Ghana)


    Selecting a site that meets the technical requirements for a concentrating solar power plant (CSP) is a very critical exercise. This paper points out crucial factors and provides guidelines regarding the selection of suitable sites. It especially focuses on Sahelian countries which have their own climatic peculiarities. These countries, characterized by low access to electricity, are well endowed in solar resources. They are potentially good locations for concentrating solar power plants since their mean daily solar radiation exceeds 5.5 kWh/m{sup 2}. CSP presents therefore, a good opportunity for them to increase in a sustainable manner, their energy supply. The guidelines developed in this paper are applied to Burkina Faso as a case study. (author)

  16. Concentrating Solar Power Gen3 Demonstration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehos, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vidal, Judith [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wagner, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ho, Clifford [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kolb, William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Andraka, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kruizenga, Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Today's power-tower concentrating solar power (CSP) technology exists in large part as a result of Department of Energy (DOE) and utility industry funding of demonstration systems in the 1980s and 1990s. Today's most advanced towers are integrated with molten-salt thermal energy storage, delivering thermal energy at 565 degrees C for integration with conventional steam-Rankine cycles. The supercritical carbon dioxide power cycle has been identified as a likely successor to the steam-Rankine power cycle due to its potential for high efficiency when operating at elevated temperatures of 700 degrees C or greater. Over the course of the SunShot Initiative, DOE has supported a number of technology pathways that can operate efficiently at these temperatures and that hold promise to be reliable and cost effective. Three pathways - molten salt, particle, and gaseous - were selected for further investigation based on a two-day workshop held in August of 2016. The information contained in this roadmap identifies research and development challenges and lays out recommended research activities for each of the three pathways. DOE foresees that by successfully addressing the challenges identified in this roadmap, one or more technology pathways will be positioned for demonstration and subsequent commercialization within the next ten years. Based on current knowledge of the three power tower technologies, all three have the potential to achieve the SunShot goal of 6 cents/kilowatt-hour. Further development, modeling, and testing are now required to bring one or more of the technologies to a stage where integrated system tests and pilot demonstrations are feasible.

  17. Concentrating Solar Power. Report April 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihl, Erik (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Enery and Environment, Goeteborg (Sweden))


    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies offer ways to utilise solar radiation by concentrating the light. In a concentrated form, the light can be utilised more cost efficiently. It is focused with mirrors or lenses and used either as a heat source in thermal power cycles (thermal CSP) or as a light source for high efficiency photovoltaic cells (concentrating photovoltaics, CPV). All concentrating systems use tracking to follow the movement of the sun, in two or three dimensions, and require direct sunlight (no diffusing clouds). CSP plants are often more complex, component wise than those based on flat PV. The extra cost of complexity is generally more than offset by the larger scales, the less need for expensive materials such as purified silicon and a better fit with the current energy infrastructure. Some thermal CSP plants offer great possibilities to deal with the intermittency of solar energy, as the heat generated can be stored in the form of a heated liquid in large tanks for many hours with little additional cost, and drive the thermal power generation also during cloudy periods or at night. CSP is growing rapidly and can be an important portion of future low-carbon energy systems. A prerequisite is that expected cost reductions are, at least largely, realised. In regions with good solar conditions (Mediterranean countries, US Southwest, Middle East, Australia etc), CSP systems already in the short-term future can satisfy significant shares of the power demand, to decrease CO{sub 2} emissions. Less solar-intensive regions (Northern Europe, much of North America etc) can be supplied with CSP power from solar-rich regions by using long distance power grids, for instance the high voltage DC cables being deployed and developed today

  18. Solar Power Satellite Thermal Control Approach (United States)

    Sacchi, E.; Cassisa, G.; Gottero, M.


    The concept of generating solar power in space and transmitting it to earth or any other desired destination such as a planet, moon, or to charge a space vehicle via microwaves, stems from a wide variety of human needs and necessities. It is now a well-known fact that world population increases at a very rapid rate, nearly 80 millions or more per year, and the world-wide energy demand seems to double in the course of the present century. If technology has to advance at the present rate, in phase with high living standards, energy growth must not lag behind. These estimates are based on the population growth rate in the developing countries and the simultaneous increase in per capita energy consumption in these countries, coupled with economical boost. In most of the underdeveloped countries energy needs are of small scales, faraway from the power distribution line and can be very easily satisfied by harnessing solar energy. Furthermore, the Earth temperature has increased by 0.5° to 1° F during the past century. This rise in temperature is believed to have been caused by the use of oil, coal, and natural gas (fossil fuels) for transportation and energy production. Actually, fossil fuel combustion-based power plants are the dominant sources for energy demands. Therefore, increased power production will accelerate the production of greenhouse gases (predominantly CO2). To cope with their energy needs, countries could be engaged in the use of nuclear energy, which could accelerate the diffusion of nuclear arms as a bye- product.

  19. The Influence of Solar Power Plants on Microclimatic Conditions and the Biotic Community in Chilean Desert Environments (United States)

    Suuronen, Anna; Muñoz-Escobar, Christian; Lensu, Anssi; Kuitunen, Markku; Guajardo Celis, Natalia; Espinoza Astudillo, Pablo; Ferrú, Marcos; Taucare-Ríos, Andrés; Miranda, Marcelo; Kukkonen, Jussi V. K.


    The renewable energy sector is growing at a rapid pace in northern Chile and the solar energy potential is one of the best worldwide. Therefore, many types of solar power plant facilities are being built to take advantage of this renewable energy resource. Solar energy is considered a clean source of energy, but there are potential environmental effects of solar technology, such as landscape fragmentation, extinction of local biota, microclimate changes, among others. To be able to minimize environmental impacts of solar power plants, it is important to know what kind of environmental conditions solar power plants create. This study provides information about abiotic and biotic conditions in the vicinity of photovoltaic solar power plants. Herein, the influence of these power plants as drivers of new microclimate conditions and arthropods diversity composition in the Atacama Desert was evaluated. Microclimatic conditions between panel mounts was found to be more extreme than in the surrounding desert yet beneath the panels temperature is lower and relative humidity higher than outside the panel area. Arthropod species composition was altered in fixed-mount panel installations. In contrast, solar tracking technology showed less influence on microclimate and species composition between Sun and Shade in the power plant. Shady conditions provided a refuge for arthropod species in both installation types. For example, Dipterans were more abundant in the shade whereas Solifugaes were seldom present in the shade. The presented findings have relevance for the sustainable planning and construction of solar power plants.

  20. The Influence of Solar Power Plants on Microclimatic Conditions and the Biotic Community in Chilean Desert Environments. (United States)

    Suuronen, Anna; Muñoz-Escobar, Christian; Lensu, Anssi; Kuitunen, Markku; Guajardo Celis, Natalia; Espinoza Astudillo, Pablo; Ferrú, Marcos; Taucare-Ríos, Andrés; Miranda, Marcelo; Kukkonen, Jussi V K


    The renewable energy sector is growing at a rapid pace in northern Chile and the solar energy potential is one of the best worldwide. Therefore, many types of solar power plant facilities are being built to take advantage of this renewable energy resource. Solar energy is considered a clean source of energy, but there are potential environmental effects of solar technology, such as landscape fragmentation, extinction of local biota, microclimate changes, among others. To be able to minimize environmental impacts of solar power plants, it is important to know what kind of environmental conditions solar power plants create. This study provides information about abiotic and biotic conditions in the vicinity of photovoltaic solar power plants. Herein, the influence of these power plants as drivers of new microclimate conditions and arthropods diversity composition in the Atacama Desert was evaluated. Microclimatic conditions between panel mounts was found to be more extreme than in the surrounding desert yet beneath the panels temperature is lower and relative humidity higher than outside the panel area. Arthropod species composition was altered in fixed-mount panel installations. In contrast, solar tracking technology showed less influence on microclimate and species composition between Sun and Shade in the power plant. Shady conditions provided a refuge for arthropod species in both installation types. For example, Dipterans were more abundant in the shade whereas Solifugaes were seldom present in the shade. The presented findings have relevance for the sustainable planning and construction of solar power plants.

  1. Design and installation package for a solar powered pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Information is presented to evaluate the design and installation procedures of a solar powered pump developed by Calmac Manufacturing Company. Included is information about subsystem installation, operation and maintenance requirements, subsystem performance specifications, and detailed design drawings.

  2. Energy parameter estimation in solar powered wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa


    The operation of solar powered wireless sensor networks is associated with numerous challenges. One of the main challenges is the high variability of solar power input and battery capacity, due to factors such as weather, humidity, dust and temperature. In this article, we propose a set of tools that can be implemented onboard high power wireless sensor networks to estimate the battery condition and capacity as well as solar power availability. These parameters are very important to optimize sensing and communications operations and maximize the reliability of the complete system. Experimental results show that the performance of typical Lithium Ion batteries severely degrades outdoors in a matter of weeks or months, and that the availability of solar energy in an urban solar powered wireless sensor network is highly variable, which underlines the need for such power and energy estimation algorithms.

  3. The Effectiveness of Feature Selection Method in Solar Power Prediction


    Md Rahat Hossain; Amanullah Maung Than Oo; A. B. M. Shawkat Ali


    This paper empirically shows that the effect of applying selected feature subsets on machine learning techniques significantly improves the accuracy for solar power prediction. Experiments are performed using five well-known wrapper feature selection methods to obtain the solar power prediction accuracy of machine learning techniques with selected feature subsets. For all the experiments, the machine learning techniques, namely, least median square (LMS), multilayer perceptron (MLP), and supp...

  4. Geoengineering Vision-Application for Space Solar Power (United States)

    Eastlund, B. J.; Jenkins, L. M.


    The continued extreme use of fossil fuels to meet world energy needs is putting the Earth at risk for significant climate change. In an uncontrolled experiment, the buildup of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is apparently affecting the Earth's climate. The global climate is warming and severe storms such as hurricanes and tornadoes are getting worse. Alternatives to fossil fuels may reduce the addition of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Space Solar Power, from orbiting satellites, provides an option for clean, renewable energy that will reduce the pressure on the Earth's environmental system. Uncertainty in the cost of commercial power from space has been the principal issue inhibiting investment support by the power companies. Geoengineering is defined as the use of technology to interact with the global environment. A Solar Power Satellite represents a capability for considering geoengineering concepts. The Thunderstorm Solar Power Satellite (TSPS) is a concept for interacting with thunderstorms to prevent formation of tornadoes. Before weather modification can be safely attempted, the fine structure of thunderstorms must be computer simulated and related to tornadogenesis. TSPS benefits are saving lives and reducing property. These benefits are not as sensitive to the system economics as the commercial solar power satellite and can be used to justify government investment in space solar power. The TSPS can develop and demonstrate the technology and operations critical to understanding the cost of space solar power. Consequently, there is no direct competition with fossil fuel based power supplies until SSP technology and operations have been demonstrated.

  5. Shuttle Topography Data Inform Solar Power Analysis (United States)


    The next time you flip on a light switch, there s a chance that you could be benefitting from data originally acquired during the Space Shuttle Program. An effort spearheaded by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) in 2000 put together the first near-global elevation map of the Earth ever assembled, which has found use in everything from 3D terrain maps to models that inform solar power production. For the project, called the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), engineers at JPL designed a 60-meter mast that was fitted onto Shuttle Endeavour. Once deployed in space, an antenna attached to the end of the mast worked in combination with another antenna on the shuttle to simultaneously collect data from two perspectives. Just as having two eyes makes depth perception possible, the SRTM data sets could be combined to form an accurate picture of the Earth s surface elevations, the first hight-detail, near-global elevation map ever assembled. What made SRTM unique was not just its surface mapping capabilities but the completeness of the data it acquired. Over the course of 11 days, the shuttle orbited the Earth nearly 180 times, covering everything between the 60deg north and 54deg south latitudes, or roughly 80 percent of the world s total landmass. Of that targeted land area, 95 percent was mapped at least twice, and 24 percent was mapped at least four times. Following several years of processing, NASA released the data to the public in partnership with NGA. Robert Crippen, a member of the SRTM science team, says that the data have proven useful in a variety of fields. "Satellites have produced vast amounts of remote sensing data, which over the years have been mostly two-dimensional. But the Earth s surface is three-dimensional. Detailed topographic data give us the means to visualize and analyze remote sensing data in their natural three-dimensional structure, facilitating a greater understanding of the features

  6. Microalgae as Solar-Powered Protein Factories. (United States)

    Hempel, Franziska; Maier, Uwe G


    Microalgae have an enormous ecological relevance as they contribute significantly to global carbon fixation. But also for biotechnology microalgae became increasingly interesting during the last decades as many algae provide valuable natural products. Especially the high lipid content of some species currently attracts much attention in the biodiesel industry. A further application that emerged some years ago is the use of microalgae as expression platform for recombinant proteins. Several projects on the production of therapeutics, vaccines and feed supplements demonstrated the great potential of using microalgae as novel low-cost expression platform. This review provides an overview on the prospects and advantages of microalgal protein expression systems and gives an outlook on potential future applications.

  7. The place of solar power: an economic analysis of concentrated and distributed solar power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banoni Vanessa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper examines the cost and benefits, both financial and environmental, of two leading forms of solar power generation, grid-tied photovoltaic cells and Dish Stirling Systems, using conventional carbon-based fuel as a benchmark. Methods First we define how these solar technologies will be implemented and why. Then we delineate a model city and its characteristics, which will be used to test the two methods of solar-powered electric distribution. Then we set the constraining assumptions for each technology, which serve as parameters for our calculations. Finally, we calculate the present value of the total cost of conventional energy needed to power our model city and use this as a benchmark when analyzing both solar models’ benefits and costs. Results The preeminent form of distributed electricity generation, grid-tied photovoltaic cells under net-metering, allow individual homeowners a degree of electric self-sufficiency while often turning a profit. However, substantial subsidies are required to make the investment sensible. Meanwhile, large dish Stirling engine installations have a significantly higher potential rate of return, but face a number of pragmatic limitations. Conclusions This paper concludes that both technologies are a sensible investment for consumers, but given that the dish Stirling consumer receives 6.37 dollars per watt while the home photovoltaic system consumer receives between 0.9 and 1.70 dollars per watt, the former appears to be a superior option. Despite the large investment, this paper deduces that it is far more feasible to get few strong investors to develop a solar farm of this magnitude, than to get 150,000 households to install photovoltaic arrays in their roofs. Potential implications of the solar farm construction include an environmental impact given the size of land require for this endeavour. However, the positive aspects, which include a large CO2 emission reduction aggregated

  8. The place of solar power: an economic analysis of concentrated and distributed solar power. (United States)

    Banoni, Vanessa Arellano; Arnone, Aldo; Fondeur, Maria; Hodge, Annabel; Offner, J Patrick; Phillips, Jordan K


    This paper examines the cost and benefits, both financial and environmental, of two leading forms of solar power generation, grid-tied photovoltaic cells and Dish Stirling Systems, using conventional carbon-based fuel as a benchmark. First we define how these solar technologies will be implemented and why. Then we delineate a model city and its characteristics, which will be used to test the two methods of solar-powered electric distribution. Then we set the constraining assumptions for each technology, which serve as parameters for our calculations. Finally, we calculate the present value of the total cost of conventional energy needed to power our model city and use this as a benchmark when analyzing both solar models' benefits and costs. The preeminent form of distributed electricity generation, grid-tied photovoltaic cells under net-metering, allow individual homeowners a degree of electric self-sufficiency while often turning a profit. However, substantial subsidies are required to make the investment sensible. Meanwhile, large dish Stirling engine installations have a significantly higher potential rate of return, but face a number of pragmatic limitations. This paper concludes that both technologies are a sensible investment for consumers, but given that the dish Stirling consumer receives 6.37 dollars per watt while the home photovoltaic system consumer receives between 0.9 and 1.70 dollars per watt, the former appears to be a superior option. Despite the large investment, this paper deduces that it is far more feasible to get few strong investors to develop a solar farm of this magnitude, than to get 150,000 households to install photovoltaic arrays in their roofs. Potential implications of the solar farm construction include an environmental impact given the size of land require for this endeavour. However, the positive aspects, which include a large CO2 emission reduction aggregated over the lifespan of the farm, outweigh any minor concerns or potential

  9. The place of solar power: an economic analysis of concentrated and distributed solar power (United States)


    Background This paper examines the cost and benefits, both financial and environmental, of two leading forms of solar power generation, grid-tied photovoltaic cells and Dish Stirling Systems, using conventional carbon-based fuel as a benchmark. Methods First we define how these solar technologies will be implemented and why. Then we delineate a model city and its characteristics, which will be used to test the two methods of solar-powered electric distribution. Then we set the constraining assumptions for each technology, which serve as parameters for our calculations. Finally, we calculate the present value of the total cost of conventional energy needed to power our model city and use this as a benchmark when analyzing both solar models’ benefits and costs. Results The preeminent form of distributed electricity generation, grid-tied photovoltaic cells under net-metering, allow individual homeowners a degree of electric self-sufficiency while often turning a profit. However, substantial subsidies are required to make the investment sensible. Meanwhile, large dish Stirling engine installations have a significantly higher potential rate of return, but face a number of pragmatic limitations. Conclusions This paper concludes that both technologies are a sensible investment for consumers, but given that the dish Stirling consumer receives 6.37 dollars per watt while the home photovoltaic system consumer receives between 0.9 and 1.70 dollars per watt, the former appears to be a superior option. Despite the large investment, this paper deduces that it is far more feasible to get few strong investors to develop a solar farm of this magnitude, than to get 150,000 households to install photovoltaic arrays in their roofs. Potential implications of the solar farm construction include an environmental impact given the size of land require for this endeavour. However, the positive aspects, which include a large CO2 emission reduction aggregated over the lifespan of the farm

  10. NASA advanced aeronautics design solar powered remotely piloted vehicle (United States)

    Elario, David S.; Guillmette, Neal H.; Lind, Gregory S.; Webster, Jonathan D.; Ferreira, Michael J.; Konstantakis, George C.; Marshall, David L.; Windt, Cari L.


    Environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and air pollution demand a change in traditional means of propulsion that is sensitive to the ecology. Solar powered propulsion is a favorable alternative that is both ecologically harmless as well as cost effective. Integration of solar energy into designs ranging from futuristic vehicles to heating is beneficial to society. The design and construction of a Multi-Purpose Remotely Piloted Vehicle (MPRPV) seeks to verify the feasibility of utilizing solar propulsion as a primary fuel source. This task has been a year long effort by a group of ten students, divided into five teams, each dealing with different aspects of the design. The aircraft was designed to take-off, climb to the design altitude, fly in a sustained figure-eight flight path, and cruise for approximately one hour. This mission requires flight at Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 200,000 and demands special considerations in the aerodynamic design in order to achieve flight in this regime. Optimal performance requires a light weight configuration with both structural integrity and maximum power availability. The structure design and choice of solar cells for the propulsion was governed by the weight, efficiency, and cost considerations. The final design is a MPRPV weighting 35 N which cruises 7 m/s at the design altitude of 50 m. The configuration includes a wing composed of balsa and foam NACA 6409 airfoil sections and carbon fiber spars, a tail of similar construction, and a truss structure fuselage. The propulsion system consists of 98 10 percent efficient solar cells donated by Mobil Solar, a NiCad battery for energy storage, and a folding propeller regulated by a lightweight and efficient control system. The airfoils and propeller chosen for the design were research and tested during the design process.

  11. Is Solar Power The Best Energy Option To Meet Our Future Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samyak Shami


    of the grid to take their electricity as the solar and wind generators produced 28.9 GW of power taking the peak availability of power well beyond the grid could sustain. The grid-priority meant that the conventional nuclearcoalgas power plants had to go out of synchronization to save the grid which they could not as they are not designed to get plugged off on short notice. The consequences of promoting renewable energy to the present extent have been disastrous for the existing conventional power plants which are built keeping in mind 20-30 years perspective. The wholesale electricity prices though are going down as SPV cell production has been coming down at a fast pace but the burden of subsidies has also been spiraling.However the relatively low end of technology abundant fallow land relatively few skilled engineers and persons required to run a solar power plant and short period required to install them provide a huge leveling of playing field as worlds poor mostly live in the regions inundated with solar incidence who are bound to benefit most. For automobiles fuel cells or nitrogen engines may provide the alternative to oil where hydrogen and nitrogen gas is produced from the power generated through the solar cells.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Thermal energy storage (TES) is an integral part of a concentrated solar power (CSP) system. It enables plant operators to generate electricity beyond on sun hours and supply power to the grid to meet peak demand. Current CSP sensible heat storage systems employ molten salts as both the heat transfer fluid and the heat storage media. These systems have an upper operating temperature limit of around 400 C. Future TES systems are expected to operate at temperatures between 600 C to 1000 C for higher thermal efficiencies which should result in lower electricity cost. To meet future operating temperature and electricity cost requirements, a TES concept utilizing thermochemical cycles (TCs) based on multivalent solid oxides was proposed. The system employs a pair of reduction and oxidation (REDOX) reactions to store and release heat. In the storage step, hot air from the solar receiver is used to reduce the oxidation state of an oxide cation, e.g. Fe3+ to Fe2+. Heat energy is thus stored as chemical bonds and the oxide is charged. To discharge the stored energy, the reduced oxide is re-oxidized in air and heat is released. Air is used as both the heat transfer fluid and reactant and no storage of fluid is needed. This project investigated the engineering and economic feasibility of this proposed TES concept. The DOE storage cost and LCOE targets are $15/kWh and $0.09/kWh respectively. Sixteen pure oxide cycles were identified through thermodynamic calculations and literature information. Data showed the kinetics of re-oxidation of the various oxides to be a key barrier to implementing the proposed concept. A down selection was carried out based on operating temperature, materials costs and preliminary laboratory measurements. Cobalt oxide, manganese oxide and barium oxide were selected for developmental studies to improve their REDOX reaction kinetics. A novel approach utilizing mixed oxides to improve the REDOX kinetics of the selected oxides was proposed. It partially

  13. Fuel from the Sky: Solar Power's Potential for Western Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, A.


    A reliable and affordable supply of electricity is essential to protect public health and safety and to sustain a vigorous economy in the West. Renewable energy in the form of wind or solar provides one of the means of meeting the demand for power while minimizing adverse impacts on the environment, increasing fuel diversity, and hedging against fuel price volatility. Concentrating solar power (CSP) is the most efficient and cost-effective way to generate electricity from the sun. Hundreds of megawatts of CSP solar-generating capacity could be brought on-line within a few years and make a meaningful contribution to the energy needs of the West.

  14. Modern prospects of development of branch of solar power (United States)

    Luchkina, Veronika


    Advantages of solar energy for modern companies are evident already. Article describes mechanism of the solar electricity generation. Process of production of solar modules with appliance of the modern technologies of sun energy production. The branch of solar energy “green energy” become advanced in Russia and has a stable demand. Classification of investments on the different stages of construction projects of solar power plants and calculation of their economic efficiency. Studying of introduction of these technologies allows to estimate the modern prospects of development of branch of solar power.

  15. Solar powered actuator with continuously variable auxiliary power control (United States)

    Nola, F. J.


    A solar powered system is disclosed in which a load such as a compressor is driven by a main induction motor powered by a solar array. An auxiliary motor shares the load with the solar powered motor in proportion to the amount of sunlight available, is provided with a power factor controller for controlling voltage applied to the auxiliary motor in accordance with the loading on that motor. In one embodiment, when sufficient power is available from the solar cell, the auxiliary motor is driven as a generator by excess power from the main motor so as to return electrical energy to the power company utility lines.

  16. Space-based solar power generation: staged scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, P.E. [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Davidson, F.P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Macro-Engineering Research Group, Cambridge, MA (United States); Csigi, K.I. [ERIC International, Cambridge, MA (United States)


    Despite forecasts of increased global energy demand and warnings of environmental degradation associated with fossil fuel use, the idea of solar power satellites (SPS) generating power for microwave transmission to the Earth`s surface, has met widespread opposition or simply apathy. The authors urge a staged approach to the ultimate goal of developing SPS technology and infrastructure to meet global energy forecasts. The ``terracing`` idea means that technologies applicable to SPS will be developed to meet existing or planned projects to known scientific and economic value. A forty year growth plan for the ``terraced`` evolution of the solar power satellite is set out to illustrate this idea. (UK)

  17. Solar Power Satellite Development: Advances in Modularity and Mechanical Systems (United States)

    Belvin, W. Keith; Dorsey, John T.; Watson, Judith J.


    Space solar power satellites require innovative concepts in order to achieve economically and technically feasible designs. The mass and volume constraints of current and planned launch vehicles necessitate highly efficient structural systems be developed. In addition, modularity and in-space deployment will be enabling design attributes. This paper reviews the current challenges of launching and building very large space systems. A building block approach is proposed in order to achieve near-term solar power satellite risk reduction while promoting the necessary long-term technology advances. Promising mechanical systems technologies anticipated in the coming decades including modularity, material systems, structural concepts, and in-space operations are described

  18. Radioisotope Reduction Using Solar Power for Outer Planetary Missions (United States)

    Fincannon, James


    Radioisotope power systems have historically been (and still are) the power system of choice from a mass and size perspective for outer planetary missions. High demand for and limited availability of radioisotope fuel has made it necessary to investigate alternatives to this option. Low mass, high efficiency solar power systems have the potential for use at low outer planetary temperatures and illumination levels. This paper documents the impacts of using solar power systems instead of radioisotope power for all or part of the power needs of outer planetary spacecraft and illustrates the potential fuel savings of such an approach.

  19. Designing High Efficient Solar Powered OLED Lighting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Rasmus Overgaard; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Thorsteinsson, Sune


    for the 10 Wp version. Furthermore, we present measurements of state-of-the-art commercial available OLED with regards to the luminous flux, luminous efficacy, luminance homogeneity, temperature dependency and IV characteristic of the OLED panels. In addition, solar powered OLED product concepts are proposed.......OLEDs used in solar powered lighting applications is a market of the future. This paper reports the development of electronic Three-Port-Converters for PV OLED product integration in the low-power area respectively for 1-10 Wp and 10-50 Wp with a peak efficiency of 97% at 1.8 W of PV power...

  20. Thermal energy storage for CSP (Concentrating Solar Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Py Xavier


    Full Text Available The major advantage of concentrating solar power before photovoltaic is the possibility to store thermal energy at large scale allowing dispatchability. Then, only CSP solar power plants including thermal storage can be operated 24 h/day using exclusively the solar resource. Nevertheless, due to a too low availability in mined nitrate salts, the actual mature technology of the two tanks molten salts cannot be applied to achieve the expected international share in the power production for 2050. Then alternative storage materials are under studies such as natural rocks and recycled ceramics made from industrial wastes. The present paper is a review of those alternative approaches.

  1. In-Space Transportation for GEO Space Solar Power Satellites (United States)

    Martin, James A.; Donnahue, Benjamin B.; Henley, Mark W.


    This report summarizes results of study tasks to evaluate design options for in-space transportation of geostationary Space Solar Power Satellites. Referring to the end-to-end architecture studies performed in 1988, this current activity focuses on transportation of Sun Tower satellite segments from an initial low Earth orbit altitude to a final position in geostationary orbit (GEO; i.e., 35,786 km altitude, circular, equatorial orbit). This report encompasses study activity for In-Space Transportation of GEO Space Solar Power (SSP) Satellites including: 1) assessment of requirements, 2) design of system concepts, 3) comparison of alternative system options, and 4) assessment of potential derivatives.

  2. Design investigation of solar powered lasers for space applications (United States)

    Taussig, R.; Bruzzone, C.; Quimby, D.; Nelson, L.; Christiansen, W.; Neice, S.; Cassady, P.; Pindroh, A.


    The feasibility of solar powered lasers for continuous operation in space power transmission was investigated. Laser power transmission in space over distances of 10 to 100 thousand kilometers appears possible. A variety of lasers was considered, including solar-powered GDLs and EDLs, and solar-pumped lasers. An indirect solar-pumped laser was investigated which uses a solar-heated black body cavity to pump the lasant. Efficiencies in the range of 10 to 20 percent are projected for these indirect optically pumped lasers.

  3. Thermal energy storage for CSP (Concentrating Solar Power) (United States)

    Py, Xavier; Sadiki, Najim; Olives, Régis; Goetz, Vincent; Falcoz, Quentin


    The major advantage of concentrating solar power before photovoltaic is the possibility to store thermal energy at large scale allowing dispatchability. Then, only CSP solar power plants including thermal storage can be operated 24 h/day using exclusively the solar resource. Nevertheless, due to a too low availability in mined nitrate salts, the actual mature technology of the two tanks molten salts cannot be applied to achieve the expected international share in the power production for 2050. Then alternative storage materials are under studies such as natural rocks and recycled ceramics made from industrial wastes. The present paper is a review of those alternative approaches.

  4. Development and Commercialization of the Lunar Solar Power System (United States)

    Criswell, D. R.


    The proposed Lunar Solar Power (LSP) System consists of pairs of power bases located on opposite limbs of the Moon as seen from Earth. The power bases collect the solar energy and convert it to beams of microwaves. The microwaves are delivered directly to moonward-facing receivers on Earth or indirectly through relay satellites in orbit about Earth (1, 2, 3, 4). The LSP System may be the only reasonable method for establishing sustainable global energy prosperity within two generations. Commercial power prosperity requires at least 2 kWe/person. For ten billion people this implies 20 TWe and 2,000 TWe-y of electric energy or ~6,000 TWt-y of thermal energy per century (5, 6, 7, 8). A brief overview is presented of a reference LSP System that supplies 20 TWe by 2050. The engineering scales and the cost and benefits of this system are described. In order to provide low cost commercial electric energy, the power bases are made primarily of local lunar materials by machines, facilities, and people deployed from Earth (1, 2, 3). In addition, lunar production machinery can be made primarily from lunar materials. Advantages of this approach, versus the reference LSP System, are discussed. Full-scale production of a LSP System will certainly be proceeded by terrestrial and lunar operation of the production machinery and a small-scale demonstration of the operational system (1). Using government funds to establishing a permanent lunar base and the associated transportation system would significantly reduce the upfront cost for the demonstration of a commercial LSP System (2). The government program would provide a legal framework for commercial development of the LSP System (3, 9). The LSP System offers the opportunity to establish a materials industry on the Moon that can produce a growing mass and variety of goods and enable new services of benefit on the Earth and the Moon (10). New priorities are suggested for civilian space programs that can accelerate the establishment

  5. Research notes : solar powered navigational lighting system demonstration project. (United States)


    ODOT will be installing a solar powered navigational lighting system on the AstoriaMegler Bridge as part of a pilot project approved by the Federal Highways Administration (FHWA). The coastal bridge is the connection across the Columbia River on U.S....

  6. Concentrating solar power: Still small but learning fast (United States)

    Pitz-Paal, Robert


    Concentrating solar power had a difficult market start compared to other renewable technologies, leading to a total global capacity of only 5 GW today after more than a decade of deployment. A comprehensive global empirical study identifies distinct deployment phases, with high learning rates exceeding 25% over the past 5 years.

  7. Development of an uninterrupted solar powered traffic light from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design made use of an Atmel series of 89S51 Microcontroller Unit (MCU), a Vero board, resistors, transistors, diodes, capacitors, Light Emitting Diodes (LED) and battery charged with a solar powered photovoltaic module. The testing of the traffic light was carried out at the pre-implementation and post-implementation ...

  8. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner (United States)


    An extensive review of the literature was conducted which was concerned with the characterization of systems and equipment that could be applicable to the development of solar-powered air conditioners based on the Rankine cycle approach, and the establishment of baseline data defining the performance, physical characteristics, and cost of systems using the LiBr/H2O absorption cycle.

  9. A Practical Theory of Micro-Solar Power Sensor Networks (United States)


    Pavan Sikka, Tim Wark, and Les Overs. Long-duration solar-powered wireless sensor networks. The Fourth IEEE workshop on Embedded Networked Sensors (EmNets...node. International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design (ISLPED ‘06), October 2006. [SCV+06] Pavan Sikka, Peter Corke, Philip Valencia

  10. The Future of Solar Power in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Reid


    Full Text Available We used detailed industry data to analyse the impacts of expected further cost reductions on the competitiveness of solar power in Britain, and assess whether the solar market can survive without support in the near future. We investigated three solar power markets: large-scale, ground-mounted “solar farms” (defined in our analysis as larger than a 5000 kilowatt system; commercial roof-top (250 kW; and residential rooftop (3 kW. We found that all three would be economic without support in the next decade. Such an outcome assumes progressively falling support under a stable policy regime. We found that unsubsidised residential solar power may be cheaper with battery storage within the next five to 10 years. Unsupported domestic solar battery packs achieve payback periods of less than 10 years by 2025. That could create an inflexion point driving adoption of domestic solar systems. The variability of solar power will involve some grid integration costs at higher penetration levels, such as more frequent power market scheduling; more interconnector capacity; storage; and backup power. These costs and responses could be weighed against non-market benefits including the potential for grid balancing; lower carbon and particulate emissions; and energy security.

  11. Experimental investigation of solar powered diaphragm and helical pumps (United States)

    For several years, many types of solar powered water pumping systems were evaluated, and in this paper, diaphragm and helical solar photovoltaic (PV) powered water pumping systems are discussed. Data were collected on diaphragm and helical pumps which were powered by different solar PV arrays at mul...

  12. Flight of the loon : solar-powered boating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Details of the first solar-powered, zero-emission boat to venture across the Trent-Severn waterway were presented. Called the 'Loon', the boat is now being manufactured for environmentally-conscious boaters around the world. The seating arrangement, pontoon design, and propulsion system were all designed to minimize impacts on the ecosystem. A prototype boat was built and tested in the summer of 2005 to determine the viability of the solar-powered boat, and a family trip down the waterway was completed in August. Results of the trip encouraged the inventor to raise capital and a suitable production facility. After several months of development, the first production boat was completed with many improvements to the original prototype. An entrepreneur from Belize was the first person to place an order after he discovered that most commercially-available solar-powered boats were higher-priced and less capable than the Loon. High gas prices and the detrimental effects of fuel exhaust in lakes have caused many people to become sensitive to the issues surrounding fuel use and pleasure boats. It was concluded that a storefront has recently been opened north of Orillia in order to sell the solar-powered craft. 3 figs.

  13. Solar-Powered Groundwater Pumping Systems for Nigerian Water Sheds


    SODIKI, John; Sodiki, J. I.


    The paper presents an overview of the occurrence of different groundwater sheds, water quality, and availability in Nigeria. it also discussed the viability of solar-powered groundwater pumping systems in Nigeria. Applicable methods for system design and economic analysis are further outlined.

  14. Development of nonmetallic solar collector and solar-powered pump (United States)

    Parker, J. C.


    Design and building of two unique components for solar heating (1. flatplate solar collector using no metal components, and 2. solar powered pump for heating and cooling systems are outlined in report. Report also discusses hardware, deliverable end items, problems encountered during fabrication and testing, and performance certification.

  15. The Effectiveness of Feature Selection Method in Solar Power Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rahat Hossain


    Full Text Available This paper empirically shows that the effect of applying selected feature subsets on machine learning techniques significantly improves the accuracy for solar power prediction. Experiments are performed using five well-known wrapper feature selection methods to obtain the solar power prediction accuracy of machine learning techniques with selected feature subsets. For all the experiments, the machine learning techniques, namely, least median square (LMS, multilayer perceptron (MLP, and support vector machine (SVM, are used. Afterwards, these results are compared with the solar power prediction accuracy of those same machine leaning techniques (i.e., LMS, MLP, and SVM but without applying feature selection methods (WAFS. Experiments are carried out using reliable and real life historical meteorological data. The comparison between the results clearly shows that LMS, MLP, and SVM provide better prediction accuracy (i.e., reduced MAE and MASE with selected feature subsets than without selected feature subsets. Experimental results of this paper facilitate to make a concrete verdict that providing more attention and effort towards the feature subset selection aspect (e.g., selected feature subsets on prediction accuracy which is investigated in this paper can significantly contribute to improve the accuracy of solar power prediction.

  16. Emerging US Space Launch, Trends and Space Solar Power (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar


    Reviews the state of the art of emerging US space launch and spacecraft. Reviews the NASA budget ascontext, while providing example scenarios. Connects what has been learned in space systems commercial partnershipsto a potential path for consideration by the space solar power community.

  17. Wireless power transmission: The key to solar power satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nansen, R.H. [Solar Space Industries, Ocean Shores, WA (United States)


    In the years following the OPEC oil embargo of 1973--74, the US aggressively researched alternative energy options. Among those studied was the concept of Solar Power Satellites -- generating electricity in space from solar energy on giant satellites and sending the energy to the earth with wireless power transmission. Much has happened in the fifteen years since the studies were terminated. Maturing of the enabling technologies has provided much of the infrastructure to support the development of a commercial Solar Power Satellite program. All of this will reduce the cost by one to two orders of magnitude so development can now be undertaken by industry instead of relying on a massive government program. Solar Space Industries was formed to accomplish this goal. The basis of their development plan for Solar Power Satellites is to build a Ground Test Installation that will duplicate, in small scale on the earth, all aspects of the power generating and power transmission systems for the Solar Power Satellite concept except for the space environment and the range and size of the energy beam. Space operations issues will be separated from the power generation function and verified by testing using the NASA Space Station and Space Shuttle. Solar Space Industries` concept is to built a Ground Test Installation that couples an existing 100 kW terrestrial solar cell array, furnished by an interested utility, to a phased-array wireless power transmitter based on the subarray developed by William Brown and The Center for Space Power. Power will be transmitted over a 1 1/4 mile range to a receiving antenna (rectenna) and then fed into a commercial utility power grid. The objective is to demonstrate the complete function of the Solar Power Satellites, with the primary issue being the validation of practical wireless power transmission. The key features to demonstrate are; beam control, stability, steering, efficiency, reliability, cost, and safety.

  18. Solar-Powered Desalination: A Modelling and Experimental Study (United States)

    Leblanc, Jimmy; Andrews, John


    Water shortage is becoming one of the major problems worldwide. As such, desalination technologies have been implemented to meet growing demands for fresh water. Among the desalination technologies, thermal desalination, including multi stage flash (MSF) and multi effect evaporation (MEE), is the current leading desalination process. Reverse osmosis (RO) is also being increasingly used. Despite technological improvements, thermal desalination and reverse osmosis continue to be intensive fossil-fuel consumers and contribute to increased levels of greenhouse gases. As energy costs rise, thermal desalination by solar energy and/or low cost waste heat is likely to become increasingly attractive. As part of a project investigating the productive use of saline land and the development of sustainable desalination systems, the feasibility of producing potable water from seawater or brackish water using desalination systems powered by renewable energy in the form of low-temperature solar-thermal sources has been studied. A salinity-gradient solar pond and an evacuated tube solar collector system have been used as heat sources. Solar ponds combine solar energy collection with long-term storage and can provide reliable thermal energy at temperature ranges from 50 to 90 °C. A visual basic computer model of the different multi-stage flash desalination processes coupled with a salinity-gradient solar pond was developed to determine which process is preferable in regards to performance and greenhouse impact. The governing mathematical equations are derived from mass balances, heat energy balances, and heat transfer characteristics. Using the results from the modelling, a small-scale solar-powered desalination system, capable of producing up to 500 litres of fresh water per day, was designed and manufactured. This single-stage flash system consists of two main units: the heat supply and storage system and the flash desalination unit. Two different condenser heat exchanger

  19. Construction Biotechnology: a new area of biotechnological research and applications. (United States)

    Stabnikov, Viktor; Ivanov, Volodymyr; Chu, Jian


    A new scientific and engineering discipline, Construction Biotechnology, is developing exponentially during the last decade. The major directions of this discipline are selection of microorganisms and development of the microbially-mediated construction processes and biotechnologies for the production of construction biomaterials. The products of construction biotechnologies are low cost, sustainable, and environmentally friendly microbial biocements and biogrouts for the construction ground improvement. The microbial polysaccharides are used as admixtures for cement. Microbially produced biodegradable bioplastics can be used for the temporarily constructions. The bioagents that are used in construction biotechnologies are either pure or enrichment cultures of microorganisms or activated indigenous microorganisms of soil. The applications of microorganisms in the construction processes are bioaggregation, biocementation, bioclogging, and biodesaturation of soil. The biotechnologically produced construction materials and the microbially-mediated construction technologies have a lot of advantages in comparison with the conventional construction materials and processes. Proper practical implementations of construction biotechnologies could give significant economic and environmental benefits.

  20. 77 FR 39736 - Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of Termination of the... (United States)


    ... Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of Termination of the Investigation Based on... States after importation of certain integrated solar power systems and components thereof by reason of...

  1. GPP Webinar: Market Outlook and Innovations in Wind and Solar Power (United States)

    Green Power Partnership webinar reviewing the state of the renewable energy industry as a whole, with a focus on wind and solar power and exploring recent marketplace innovations in wind and solar power and renewable energy purchases.

  2. SPS-ALPHA: The First Practical Solar Power Satellite via Arbitrarily Large PHased Array Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SPS-ALPHA (Solar Power Satellite via Arbitrarily Large Phased Array) is a novel, bio-mimetic approach to the challenge of space solar power. If successful, this...

  3. Systems architecture: a new model for sustainability and the built environment using nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science with living technology. (United States)

    Armstrong, Rachel


    This report details a workshop held at the Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London, to initiate interdisciplinary collaborations for the practice of systems architecture, which is a new model for the generation of sustainable architecture that combines the discipline of the study of the built environment with the scientific study of complexity, or systems science, and adopts the perspective of systems theory. Systems architecture offers new perspectives on the organization of the built environment that enable architects to consider architecture as a series of interconnected networks with embedded links into natural systems. The public workshop brought together architects and scientists working with the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science and with living technology to investigate the possibility of a new generation of smart materials that are implied by this approach.

  4. 76 FR 69284 - Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof: Notice of Institution of... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof: Notice of Institution of... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated solar power systems... importation of certain integrated solar power systems and components thereof that infringe one or more of...

  5. A new concept of space solar power satellite (United States)

    Li, Xun; Duan, Baoyan; Song, Liwei; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yiqun; Wang, Dongxu


    Space solar power satellite (SSPS) is a tremendous energy system that collects and converts solar power to electric power in space, and then transmits the electric power to earth wirelessly. In this paper, a novel SSPS concept based on ε-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterial is proposed. A spherical condenser made of ENZ metamaterial is developed, by using the refractive property of the ENZ metamaterial sunlight can be captured and redirected to its center. To make the geometric concentration ratio of the PV array reasonable, a hemispherical one located at the center is used to collect and convert the normal-incidence sunlight to DC power, then through a phased array transmitting antenna the DC power is beamed down to the rectenna on the ground. Detailed design of the proposed concept is presented.

  6. Biotechnological reduction of sulfide in an industrial primary wastewater treatment system: A sustainable and successful case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajamani, S. [Central Leather Research Institute, Madras (India)


    The leather industry is an important export-oriented industry in India, with more than 3,000 tanneries located in different clusters. Sodium sulfide, a toxic chemical, is used in large quantities to remove hair and excess flesh from hides and skins. Most of the sodium sulfide used in the process is discharged as waste in the effluent, which causes serious environmental problems. Reduction of sulfide in the effluent is generally achieved by means of chemicals in the pretreatment system, which involves aerobic mixing using large amounts of chemicals and high energy, and generating large volumes of sludge. A simple biotechnological system that uses the residual biosludge from the secondary settling tank was developed, and the commercial-scale application established that more than 90% of the sulfide could be reduced in the primary treatment system. In addition to the reduction of sulfide, foul smells, BOD and COD are reduced to a considerable level. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Rectenna System Design. [energy conversion solar power satellites (United States)

    Woodcock, G. R.; Andryczyk, R. W.


    The fundamental processes involved in the operation of the rectenna system designed for the solar power satellite system are described. The basic design choices are presented based on the desired microwave rf field concentration prior to rectification and based on the ground clearance requirements for the rectenna structure. A nonconcentrating inclined planar panel with a 2 meter minimum clearance configuration is selected as a representative of the typical rectenna.

  8. Concentrated Solar Power Gas Turbine Hybrid with Thermal Storage


    Wallentinsen, Bård Sve


    Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technology and shows promise for large-scale renewable electric power generation. CSP is suitable for development in conjunction with other technologies, and this thesis examines the combination of CSP technology with natural gas turbines in order to boost operating temperatures and efficiencies in a resulting solar hybrid gas turbine (SHGT) power plant. Thermal energy storage and a bottoming cycle are included in the design to increase both performance and rene...

  9. Concentrated solar power plants: Review and design methodology


    Zhang, Huili; Degrève, Jan; Caceres, Gustavo; Baeyens, Jan


    Concentrated solar power plants (CSPs) are gaining increasing interest, mostly as parabolic trough collectors (PTC) or solar tower collectors (STC). Notwithstanding CSP benefits, the daily and monthly variation of the solar irradiation flux is a main drawback. Despite the approximate match between hours of the day where solar radiation and energy demand peak, CSPs experience short term variations on cloudy days and cannot provide energy during night hours unless incorporating thermal energy s...

  10. Grid Integration of Solar Power into Distribution Systems


    Nguyen, Dung


    As solar energy penetration in the power grid increases, challenges arise from the variable nature of solar power. Like any distributed generation source or load, photovoltaic (PV) generation can impact the voltage profile of a distribution feeder, potentially driving the service voltage outside of acceptable ranges. However, distributed energy resources can also bring great opportunities to improve power quality and cost effectiveness of the current power grid. In this dissertation, we will ...

  11. Solar power plant performance evaluation: simulation and experimental validation (United States)

    Natsheh, E. M.; Albarbar, A.


    In this work the performance of solar power plant is evaluated based on a developed model comprise photovoltaic array, battery storage, controller and converters. The model is implemented using MATLAB/SIMULINK software package. Perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm is used for maximizing the generated power based on maximum power point tracker (MPPT) implementation. The outcome of the developed model are validated and supported by a case study carried out using operational 28.8kW grid-connected solar power plant located in central Manchester. Measurements were taken over 21 month's period; using hourly average irradiance and cell temperature. It was found that system degradation could be clearly monitored by determining the residual (the difference) between the output power predicted by the model and the actual measured power parameters. It was found that the residual exceeded the healthy threshold, 1.7kW, due to heavy snow in Manchester last winter. More important, the developed performance evaluation technique could be adopted to detect any other reasons that may degrade the performance of the P V panels such as shading and dirt. Repeatability and reliability of the developed system performance were validated during this period. Good agreement was achieved between the theoretical simulation and the real time measurement taken the online grid connected solar power plant.

  12. The solar power satellite: Looking back to look ahead (United States)

    Williamson, Ray A.


    In 1981 the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) published an assessment of the solar power satellite (SPS) concept. SPS proponents claimed that the development and deployment of SPS systems could revolutionize electrical production and sharply reduce global dependence on fossil and atomic fuels. Opponents argued that SPS would be too expensive and environmentally damaging. The OTA assessment examined a broad variety of satellite technologies that might be employed in SPS and compared projected electrical production with terrestrial solar power, advanced coal technologies, breeder reactors, and nuclear fusion. It also explored public attitudes toward the SPS concept and compared its potential environmental impacts with those of other future electrical power sources. Technology, world politics, the U.S. economy, and the state of the U.S. space program have changed dramatically since the OTA report was published. This paper examines several of the economic, environmental, and international factors that must be taken into account when assessing the advisability of investing in future solar power satellite concepts.

  13. Solar power satellite life-cycle energy recovery consideration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingartner, S.; Blumenberg, J. [Deutsche Aerospace AG, Munich (Germany)]|[Technical Univ. of Munich, Munich (Germany)


    The construction, in-orbit installation and maintenance of a solar power satellite (SPS) will demand large amounts of energy. As a minimum requirement for an energy effective power satellite it is asked that this amount of energy be recovered. The energy effectiveness in this sense resulting in a positive net energy balance is a prerequisite for cost-effective power satellite. This paper concentrates on life-cycle energy recovery instead on monetary aspects. The trade-offs between various power generation systems (different types of solar cells, solar dynamic), various construction and installation strategies (using terrestrial or extra-terrestrial resources) and the expected/required lifetime of the SPS are reviewed. The presented work is based on a 2-year study performed at the Technical University of Munich. The study showed that the main energy which is needed to make a solar power satellite a reality is required for the production of the solar power components (up to 65%), especially for the solar cell production. Whereas transport into orbit accounts in the order of 20% and the receiving station on earth (rectenna) requires about 15% of the total energy investment. The energetic amortization time, i.e. the time the SPS has to be operational to give back the amount of energy which was needed for its production installation and operation, is about two years.

  14. Solar Power Tower Design Basis Document, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report contains the design basis for a generic molten-salt solar power tower. A solar power tower uses a field of tracking mirrors (heliostats) that redirect sunlight on to a centrally located receiver mounted on top a tower, which absorbs the concentrated sunlight. Molten nitrate salt, pumped from a tank at ground level, absorbs the sunlight, heating it up to 565 C. The heated salt flows back to ground level into another tank where it is stored, then pumped through a steam generator to produce steam and make electricity. This report establishes a set of criteria upon which the next generation of solar power towers will be designed. The report contains detailed criteria for each of the major systems: Collector System, Receiver System, Thermal Storage System, Steam Generator System, Master Control System, and Electric Heat Tracing System. The Electric Power Generation System and Balance of Plant discussions are limited to interface requirements. This design basis builds on the extensive experience gained from the Solar Two project and includes potential design innovations that will improve reliability and lower technical risk. This design basis document is a living document and contains several areas that require trade-studies and design analysis to fully complete the design basis. Project- and site-specific conditions and requirements will also resolve open To Be Determined issues.

  15. Solar-powered oxygen delivery: proof of concept. (United States)

    Turnbull, H; Conroy, A; Opoka, R O; Namasopo, S; Kain, K C; Hawkes, M


    A resource-limited paediatric hospital in Uganda. Pneumonia is a leading cause of child mortality worldwide. Access to life-saving oxygen therapy is limited in many areas. We designed and implemented a solar-powered oxygen delivery system for the treatment of paediatric pneumonia. Proof-of-concept pilot study. A solar-powered oxygen delivery system was designed and piloted in a cohort of children with hypoxaemic illness. The system consisted of 25 × 80 W photovoltaic solar panels (daily output 7.5 kWh [range 3.8-9.7kWh]), 8 × 220 Ah batteries and a 300 W oxygen concentrator (output up to 5 l/min oxygen at 88% [±2%] purity). A series of 28 patients with hypoxaemia were treated with solar-powered oxygen. Immediate improvement in peripheral blood oxygen saturation was documented (median change +12% [range 5-15%], P respiratory distress and hypoxaemia in a resource-limited setting.

  16. Concentrating on Solar Power in a Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Co-Operation (United States)

    Trieb, F.; Kronshage, S.; Knies, G.


    Combining the large demand of clean electricity in Europe (EU) with the large potential of solar electricity generation from concentrating solar power stations (CSP) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) can provide both climate protection and development for both regions and lead to environmental, economical and social sustainability. The presentation will address the concept of solar cogeneration of electricity and desalted water and the scope of generating clean power for MENA and Europe while providing large quantities of freshwater for the MENA countries. Costs and benefits of the concept will be quantified, and the first steps to realisation within the Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Co-Operation TREC are presented. After running through the technology learning curve within about 10-15 years, concentrated solar electricity will be generated at a cost of roughly 4 ct/kWh. Importing solar power from North Africa to Europe, will add 1 ct/kWh, thus being competitive with new fuel fired plants. The total initial support of about 1 billion € needed to trigger CSP market introduction and to achieve forever low electricity costs in the EU and MENA, equals 25 % of the German annual coal subsidies, 1 month of EU agronomic-subsidies or 1 day of US military expenses and could be provided in form of public investment, soft loans or feed-in guaranties like the German Renewable Energy Act.

  17. A Blended SPS-ESPS Control DAB-IBDC Converter for a Standalone Solar Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sathishkumar


    Full Text Available In sustainable energy applications, standalone solar power systems are mostly preferred for self-powered energy zones. In all standalone renewable power systems, batteries are still preferred as the common energy storage device. On the other hand, batteries are not applicable for high peak power demand applications because of their low power density. A supercapacitor is a preferable high-power density energy storage device for high peak power applications. A 2 kW, 50 kHz digital control dual active bridge isolated bi-directional dc-dc converter (DAB-IBDC was developed for interfacing the supercapacitor bank in standalone solar power system. This paper proposes a blended SPS-ESPS digital control algorithm for a DAB-IBDC converter instead of using a traditional single-phase shift (SPS control algorithm, which is commonly used for large input to output voltage varying applications. This proposed blended SPS-ESPS control algorithm achieved high power conversion efficiency during a large input to output voltage variation, over a traditional phase shift control algorithm by reducing the back-power flow and current stress in a circuit. This system also achieved maximum power point for solar modules and enhanced rapid charging-discharging for a supercapacitor bank. Both SPS and the blended SPS-ESPS control algorithms were verified experimentally using 2 kW DAB-IBDC topology implemented with standalone power system that combination of 2000 W input solar module and 158 Wh supercapacitor bank.

  18. Agave biotechnology: an overview. (United States)

    Nava-Cruz, Naivy Y; Medina-Morales, Miguel A; Martinez, José L; Rodriguez, R; Aguilar, Cristóbal N


    Agaves are plants of importance both in Mexican culture and economy and in other Latin-American countries. Mexico is reported to be the place of Agave origin, where today, scientists are looking for different industrial applications without compromising its sustainability and preserving the environment. To make it possible, a deep knowledge of all aspects involved in production process, agro-ecological management and plant biochemistry and physiology is required. Agave biotechnology research has been focusing on bio-fuels, beverages, foods, fibers, saponins among others. In this review, we present the advances and challenges of Agave biotechnology.

  19. Challenges of climate change: omics-based biology of saffron plants and organic agricultural biotechnology for sustainable saffron production. (United States)

    Husaini, Amjad M


    Kashmir Valley is a major saffron (Crocus sativus Kashmirianus) growing area of the world, second only to Iran in terms of production. In Kashmir, saffron is grown on uplands (termed in the local language as "Karewas"), which are lacustrine deposits located at an altitude of 1585 to 1677 m above mean sea level (amsl), under temperate climatic conditions. Kashmir, despite being one of the oldest historical saffron-producing areas, faces a rapid decline of saffron industry. Among many other factors responsible for decline of saffron industry the preponderance of erratic rainfalls and drought-like situation have become major challenges imposed by climate change. Saffron has a limited coverage area as it is grown as a 'niche crop' and is a recognized "geographical indication," growing under a narrow microclimatic condition. As such it has become a victim of climate change effects, which has the potential of jeopardizing the livelihood of thousands of farmers and traders associated with it. The paper discusses the potential and actual impact of climate change process on saffron cultivation in Kashmir; and the biotechnological measures to address these issues.

  20. Agricultural biology in the 3rd millennium: nutritional food security & specialty crops through sustainable agriculture and biotechnology (United States)

    Food security and agricultural sustainability are of prime concern in the world today in light of the increasing trends in population growth in most parts of the globe excepting Europe. The need to develop capacity to produce more to feed more people is complicated since the arable land is decreasin...

  1. On the exergetic capacity factor of a wind – Solar power generation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George


    In the recent years, exergy analysis has become a very important tool in the evaluation of systems’ efficiency. It aims on minimizing the energy related-system losses and therefore maximizing energy savings and helps society substantially to move towards sustainable development and cleaner...... irradiation losses play a crucial role in identifying the real and net wind and solar power output while planning new renewable energy projects and in fact do play a significant role on the wind – solar plant’s overall exergetic efficiency. In specific, it was found that air density varies from site to site......, are continually increasing, and new areas are required, the basic idea behind this research, was not only to introduce ExCF, as a new evaluation index for RES, but also to investigate the combined use of wind and solar energy under the same area and the benefits coming out of this combination....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea SAVEANU


    Full Text Available We establish that the European Union is facing severe ecological problems, by analysing the ecological footprint of selected member states. Many of these problems are related to carbon and carbon equivalent emissions, some of which are generated by fossil fuel power plants. It is then shown that the European Union has potential in the solar power renewable energy sector. Finally, we calculate roughly how much land would be necessary in order to replace fossil fuel power plants, as well as nuclear plants, which are largely seen as environmentally dangerous. It is concluded that developing this alternative energy sector would help improve the ecological sustainability of the Union, by diminishing a significant part of its carbon footprint.

  3. Empirically observed learning rates for concentrating solar power and their responses to regime change (United States)

    Lilliestam, Johan; Labordena, Mercè; Patt, Anthony; Pfenninger, Stefan


    Concentrating solar power (CSP) capacity has expanded slower than other renewable technologies and its costs are still high. Until now, there have been too few CSP projects to derive robust conclusions about its cost development. Here we present an empirical study of the cost development of all operating CSP stations and those under construction, examining the roles of capacity growth, industry continuity, and policy support design. We identify distinct CSP expansion phases, each characterized by different cost pressure in the policy regime and different industry continuity. In 2008-2011, with low cost pressure and following industry discontinuity, costs increased. In the current phase, with high cost pressure and continuous industry development, costs decreased rapidly, with learning rates exceeding 20%. Data for projects under construction suggest that this trend is continuing and accelerating. If support policies and industrial structure are sustained, we see no near-term factors that would hinder further cost decreases.

  4. Social Life Cycle Assessment of a Concentrated Solar Power Plant in Spain: A Methodological Proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corona, Blanca; Bozhilova-Kisheva, Kossara Petrova; Olsen, Stig Irving


    -LCA by suggesting a new classification and characterization model that builds upon previous methodological developments. The structure of the social analysis has been adapted to maintain coherence with that of standard LCA. The application of this methodology is demonstrated using a case study—the analysis of power...... a social performance indicator that builds on performance reference points, an activity variable, and a numeric scale with positive and negative values. The social performance indicator obtained (+0.42 over a range of –2 to +2) shows that the deployment of the solar power plant increases the social welfare...... of Spain, especially in the impact categories of socioeconomic sustainability and fairness of relationships, whose results were 1.38 and 0.29, respectively....

  5. Feasibility Investigation for a Solar Power Generation Facility (United States)

    Nathan, Lakshmi


    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 states that by fiscal year 2013, at least 7.5% of the energy consumed by the government must be renewable energy. In an effort to help meet this goal, Johnson Space Center (JSC) is considering installing a solar power generation facility. The purpose of this project is to conduct a feasibility investigation for such a facility. Because Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has a solar power generation facility, the first step in this investigation is to learn about KSC's facility and obtain information on how it was constructed. After collecting this information, the following must be determined: the amount of power desired, the size of the facility, potential locations for it, and estimated construction and maintenance costs. Contacts with JSC's energy provider must also be established to determine if a partnership would be agreeable to both parties. Lastly, all of this data must be analyzed to decide whether or not JSC should construct the facility. The results from analyzing the data collected indicate that a 200 kW facility would provide enough energy to meet 1% of JSC's energy demand. This facility would require less than 1 acre of land. In the map below, potential locations are shown in green. The solar power facility is projected to cost $2 M. So far, the information collected indicates that such a facility could be constructed. The next steps in this investigation include contacting JSC's energy provider, CenterPoint Energy, to discuss entering a partnership; developing a life cycle cost analysis to determine payback time; developing more detailed plans; and securing funding.

  6. Modular High-Energy Systems for Solar Power Satellites (United States)

    Howell, Joe T.; Carrington, Connie K.; Marzwell, Neville I.; Mankins, John C.


    Modular High-Energy Systems are Stepping Stones to provide capabilities for energy-rich infrastructure located in space to support a variety of exploration scenarios as well as provide a supplemental source of energy during peak demands to ground grid systems. Abundant renewable energy at lunar or other locations could support propellant production and storage in refueling scenarios that enable affordable exploration. Renewable energy platforms in geosynchronous Earth orbits can collect and transmit power to satellites, or to Earth-surface locations. Energy-rich space technologies also enable the use of electric-powered propulsion systems that could efficiently deliver cargo and exploration facilities to remote locations. A first step to an energy-rich space infrastructure is a 100-kWe class solar-powered platform in Earth orbit. The platform would utilize advanced technologies in solar power collection and generation, power management and distribution, thermal management, electric propulsion, wireless avionics, autonomous in space rendezvous and docking, servicing, and robotic assembly. It would also provide an energy-rich free-flying platform to demonstrate in space a portfolio of technology flight experiments. This paper summary a preliminary design concept for a 100-kWe solar-powered satellite system to demonstrate in-flight a variety of advanced technologies, each as a separate payload. These technologies include, but are not limited to state-of-the-art solar concentrators, highly efficient multi-junction solar cells, integrated thermal management on the arrays, and innovative deployable structure design and packaging to enable the 100-kW satellite feasible to launch on one existing launch vehicle. Higher voltage arrays and power distribution systems (PDS) reduce or eliminate the need for massive power converters, and could enable direct-drive of high-voltage solar electric thrusters.

  7. Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    DOE designed this guide—Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments—to assist local government officials and stakeholders in designing and implementing strategic local solar plans. The 2011 edition contains the most recent lessons and successes from the 25 Solar America Cities and other communities promoting solar energy. Because DOE recognizes that there is no one path to solar market development, this guide introduces a range of policy and program options that can help a community build a local solar infrastructure.

  8. Solar-powered railway signals in Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Few places in the world record more days of sunlight than the Pilbara Region of Western Australia, where temperatures range from 15{sup o}C to more than 40{sup o}C nearly all year with only intermittent interruption from winter rains and summer hurricanes. Now one of Australia`s largest companies has replaced diesel generation with solar power in a railway signalling and communications system on a 426km railway in the region. The single-track railway in the iron ore rich Pilbara belongs to BHP Iron Ore. (Author)

  9. Photovoltaic and thermal energy conversion for solar powered satellites (United States)

    Von Tiesenhausen, G. F.


    A summary is provided concerning the most important aspects of present investigations related to a use of solar power satellites (SPS) as a future source of terrestrial energy. General SPS characteristics are briefly considered, early work is reviewed, and a description of current investigations is presented. System options presently under study include a photovoltaic array, a thermionic system, and a closed Brayton cycle. Attention is given to system reference options, basic building blocks, questions of system analysis and engineering, photovoltaic conversion, and the utility interface. It is concluded that an SPS may be cost effective compared to terrestrial systems by 1995.

  10. Lightweight Phase-Change Material For Solar Power (United States)

    Stark, Philip


    Lightweight panels containing phase-change materials developed for use as heat-storage elements of compact, lightweight, advanced solar dynamic power system. During high insolation, heat stored in panels via latent heat of fusion of phase-change material; during low insolation, heat withdrawn from panels. Storage elements consist mainly of porous carbon-fiber structures imbued with germanium. Developed for use aboard space station in orbit around Earth, also adapted to lightweight, compact, portable solar-power systems for use on Earth.

  11. Assessment of solar-powered cooling of buildings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curran, H.M.


    Three solar-powered cooling concepts are analyzed and evaluated. These are: (1) the solar Rankine concept in which a Rankine cycle driven by solar energy is used to drive a vapor compression refrigeration machine, (2) the solar-assisted Rankine concept in which a Rankine cycle driven by both solar energy and fuel combustion is used to drive a vapor compression refrigeration machine, and (3) the solar absorption concept in which solar energy is used to drive an absorption refrigeration machine. These concepts are compared on the bases of coefficient of performance, requirements for primary fuel input, and economic considerations. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. (WHK)

  12. Thermodynamic limit for coherence-limited solar power conversion (United States)

    Mashaal, Heylal; Gordon, Jeffrey M.


    The spatial coherence of solar beam radiation is a key constraint in solar rectenna conversion. Here, we present a derivation of the thermodynamic limit for coherence-limited solar power conversion - an expansion of Landsberg's elegant basic bound, originally limited to incoherent converters at maximum flux concentration. First, we generalize Landsberg's work to arbitrary concentration and angular confinement. Then we derive how the values are further lowered for coherence-limited converters. The results do not depend on a particular conversion strategy. As such, they pertain to systems that span geometric to physical optics, as well as classical to quantum physics. Our findings indicate promising potential for solar rectenna conversion.

  13. Concentrated solar power - Testing of process heat collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzzi, A.


    This set of presentation slides was presented by the Swiss Solar Testing Institute SPF at the University of Applied Sciences in Rapperswil, Switzerland at a conference on concentrating solar power systems held at the Swiss Centre for Electronics and Microtechnology in Neuchatel in 2008. The slides illustrate the activities of the SPF and the challenges placed by the lack in part of dedicated standards. Performance testing and warranty issues are discussed, as are funding and the capacity of testing facilities. Also, the development of modelling skills and associated tools is examined.

  14. Radiation Testing of PICA at the Solar Power Tower (United States)

    White, Susan


    Sandia National Laboratory's Solar Power Tower was used to irradiate specimens of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA), in order to evaluate whether this thermal protection system material responded differently to potential shock layer radiative heating than to convective heating. Tests were run at 50, 100 and 150 Watts per square centimeter levels of concentrated solar radiation. Experimental results are presented both from spectral measurements on 1- 10 mm thick specimens of PICA, as well as from in-depth temperature measurements on instrumented thicker test specimens. Both spectral measurements and measured in-depth temperature profiles showed that, although it is a porous, low-density material, PICA does not exhibit problematic transparency to the tested high levels of NIR radiation, for all pragmatic cm-to-inch scale thicknesses. PICA acted as a surface absorber to efficiently absorb the incident visible and near infrared incident radiation in the top 2 millimeter layer in the Solar Power Tower tests up to 150 Watts per square centimeter.

  15. Solar-Powered Plasmon-Enhanced Heterogeneous Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naldoni Alberto


    Full Text Available Photocatalysis uses semiconductors to convert sunlight into chemical energy. Recent reports have shown that plasmonic nanostructures can be used to extend semiconductor light absorption or to drive direct photocatalysis with visible light at their surface. In this review, we discuss the fundamental decay pathway of localized surface plasmons in the context of driving solar-powered chemical reactions. We also review different nanophotonic approaches demonstrated for increasing solar-to-hydrogen conversion in photoelectrochemical water splitting, including experimental observations of enhanced reaction selectivity for reactions occurring at the metalsemiconductor interface. The enhanced reaction selectivity is highly dependent on the morphology, electronic properties, and spatial arrangement of composite nanostructures and their elements. In addition, we report on the particular features of photocatalytic reactions evolving at plasmonic metal surfaces and discuss the possibility of manipulating the reaction selectivity through the activation of targeted molecular bonds. Finally, using solar-to-hydrogen conversion techniques as an example, we quantify the efficacy metrics achievable in plasmon-driven photoelectrochemical systems and highlight some of the new directions that could lead to the practical implementation of solar-powered plasmon-based catalytic devices.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Levitskiy


    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of control law for network multilevel invertor of solar power station and design device for control law realization. Methodology. At synthesis of control law theory of automatic control, power network engineering and circuit technique are considered. The control law for distributive control over the direct-axis and quadrature-axis currents of invertor after abc-dq transform of three phase current’s momentary value is used. Results. The improved model of regulator of direct-axis invertor’s current is developed and provides the voltage optimization of invertor’s operating both from solar module and from network by means of calculation the reactive power consumption from network, voltage on network and voltage on solar module. The improved model of regulator of quadrature-axis invertor’s current is developed and provides the power and frequency optimization of invertor’s operating by means of calculation ratio of active power consumption and power from solar module. Originality. The offered control law and device, which realize it, is working out on secondary loop from power network smart grid with active and reactive power consumption monitoring. That provides the optimal operation of solar station both from solar module and from power network. Practical value. The proposed control law and structure of the network multilevel invertor for solar power station provide the operate mode of solar module in maximum power point and increasing the solar module’s productivity.

  17. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power (United States)

    Potter, Seth; Davis, Dean; Born, Martin; Bayer, Martin; Howell, Joe; Mankins, John


    Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In the long term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even further distances in space. In the near term, we can beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today s technology. In recent studies, a 100 kWe-class "Power Plug" Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost have been considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. Our current assessments include consideration of orbits, wavelengths, and structural designs to meet commercial, civilian government, and military needs. Notional transmitter and receiver sizes are considered for use in supplying 5 to 40 MW of power. In the longer term, lunar or asteroidal material can be used. By using SSP and WPT technology for near-term missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from space to Earth.

  18. Assessment of distributed solar power systems: Issues and impacts (United States)

    Moyle, R. A.; Chernoff, H.; Schweizer, T. C.; Patton, J. B.


    The installation of distributed solar-power systems presents electric utilities with a host of questions. Some of the technical and economic impacts of these systems are discussed. Among the technical interconnect issues are isolated operation, power quality, line safety, and metering options. Economic issues include user purchase criteria, structures and installation costs, marketing and product distribution costs, and interconnect costs. An interactive computer program that allows easy calculation of allowable system prices and allowable generation-equipment prices was developed as part of this project. It is concluded that the technical problems raised by distributed solar systems are surmountable, but their resolution may be costly. The stringent purchase criteria likely to be imposed by many potential system users and the economies of large-scale systems make small systems (less than 10 to 20 kW) less attractive than larger systems. Utilities that consider life-cycle costs in making investment decisions and third-party investors who have tax and financial advantages are likely to place the highest value on solar-power systems.

  19. Centurion solar-powered high-altitude aircraft in flight (United States)


    Since 1980 AeroVironment, Inc. (founded in 1971 by the ultra-light airplane innovator--Dr. Paul MacCready) has been experimenting with solar-powered aircraft, often in conjunction with the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Thus far, AeroVironment, now headquartered in Monrovia, California, has achieved several altitude records with its Solar Challenger, Pathfinder, and Pathfinder-Plus aircraft. It expects to exceed these records with the newer and larger solar-powered Centurion and its successors the Centelios and Helios vehicles, in the NASA Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. The Centurion is a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft that is demonstrating the technology of applying solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. It is considered to be a prototype technology demonstrator for a future fleet of solar-powered aircraft that could stay airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions or while serving as telecommunications relay platforms. Although it shares many of the design concepts of the Pathfinder, the Centurion has a wingspan of 206 feet, more than twice the 98-foot span of the original Pathfinder and 70-percent longer than the Pathfinder-Plus' 121-foot span. At the same time, Centurion maintains the 8-foot chord (front to rear distance) of the Pathfinder wing, giving the wing an aspect ratio (length-to-chord) of 26 to 1. Other visible changes from its predecessor include a modified wing airfoil designed for flight at extreme altitude and four underwing pods to support its landing gear and electronic systems (compared with two such pods on the Pathfinder). The flexible wing is primarily fabricated from carbon fiber, graphite epoxy composites, and kevlar. It is built in five sections, a 44-foot-long center section and middle and outer sections just over 40 feet long. All five sections have an identical thickness--12 percent of the chord

  20. Hybrid PV/diesel solar power system design using multi-level factor analysis optimization (United States)

    Drake, Joshua P.

    Solar power systems represent a large area of interest across a spectrum of organizations at a global level. It was determined that a clear understanding of current state of the art software and design methods, as well as optimization methods, could be used to improve the design methodology. Solar power design literature was researched for an in depth understanding of solar power system design methods and algorithms. Multiple software packages for the design and optimization of solar power systems were analyzed for a critical understanding of their design workflow. In addition, several methods of optimization were studied, including brute force, Pareto analysis, Monte Carlo, linear and nonlinear programming, and multi-way factor analysis. Factor analysis was selected as the most efficient optimization method for engineering design as it applied to solar power system design. The solar power design algorithms, software work flow analysis, and factor analysis optimization were combined to develop a solar power system design optimization software package called FireDrake. This software was used for the design of multiple solar power systems in conjunction with an energy audit case study performed in seven Tibetan refugee camps located in Mainpat, India. A report of solar system designs for the camps, as well as a proposed schedule for future installations was generated. It was determined that there were several improvements that could be made to the state of the art in modern solar power system design, though the complexity of current applications is significant.

  1. Applied biotechnology in nematology. (United States)

    Caswell-Chen, E P; Williamson, V M; Westerdahl, B B


    During the past two decades, rapid advances in biotechnology and molecular biology have affected the understanding and treatment of human and plant diseases. The human and Caenorhabditis elegans genome-sequencing projects promise further techniques and results useful to applied nematology. Of course, biotechnology is not a panacea for nematological problems, but it provides many powerful tools that have potential use in applied biology and nematode management. The tools will facilitate research on a range of previously intractable problems in nematology, from identification of species and pathotypes to the development of resistant cultivars that have been inaccessible because of technical limitations. However, to those unfamiliar or not directly involved with the new technologies and their extensive terminology, the benefits of the advances in biotechnology may not be readily discerned. The sustainable agriculture of the future will require ecology-based management, and successful integrated nematode management will depend on combinations of control tactics to reduce nematode numbers. In this review we discuss how biotechnology may influence nematode management, define terminology relative to potential applications, and present current and future avenues of research in applied nematology, including species identification, race and pathotype identification, development of resistant cultivars, definition of nematode-host interactions, nematode population dynamics, establishment of optimal rotations, the ecology of biological control and development of useful biological control agents, and the design of novel nematicides.

  2. Biotechnological Innovations in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh M. Bhosale


    Full Text Available Aquaculture is gaining commendable importance to meet the required protein source for ever increasing human population. The aquaculture industry is currently facing problems on developing economically viable production systems by reducing the impact on environment. Sustainable and enhanced fish production from aquaculture may be better achieved through application of recent biotechnological innovations. Utilisation of transgenic technology has led to production of fishes with faster growth rate with disease resistance. The full advantage of this technology could not be achieved due to concern of acceptance for Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs. The biotechnological intervention in developing plant based feed ingredient in place of fish meal which contain high phosphorus is of prime area of attention for fish feed industry. The replacement of fish meal will also reduce fish feed cost to a greater extent. Year round fish seed production of carps through various biotechnological interventions is also need of the hour. This paper discusses technical, environmental and managerial considerations regarding the use of these biotechnological tools in aquaculture along with the advantages of research application and its commercialization.

  3. Data-driven modeling of solar-powered urban microgrids. (United States)

    Halu, Arda; Scala, Antonio; Khiyami, Abdulaziz; González, Marta C


    Distributed generation takes center stage in today's rapidly changing energy landscape. Particularly, locally matching demand and generation in the form of microgrids is becoming a promising alternative to the central distribution paradigm. Infrastructure networks have long been a major focus of complex networks research with their spatial considerations. We present a systemic study of solar-powered microgrids in the urban context, obeying real hourly consumption patterns and spatial constraints of the city. We propose a microgrid model and study its citywide implementation, identifying the self-sufficiency and temporal properties of microgrids. Using a simple optimization scheme, we find microgrid configurations that result in increased resilience under cost constraints. We characterize load-related failures solving power flows in the networks, and we show the robustness behavior of urban microgrids with respect to optimization using percolation methods. Our findings hint at the existence of an optimal balance between cost and robustness in urban microgrids.

  4. Short term fluctuations of wind and solar power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Anvari, M; Wächter, M; Milan, P; Lorenz, E; Heinemann, D; Tabar, M Reza Rahimi; Peinke, Joachim


    Wind and solar power are known to be highly influenced by weather events and may ramp up or down abruptly. Such events in the power production influence not only the availability of energy, but also the stability of the entire power grid. By analysing significant amounts of data from several regions around the world with resolutions of seconds to minutes, we provide strong evidence that renewable wind and solar sources exhibit multiple types of variability and nonlinearity in the time scale of {\\it seconds} and characterise their stochastic properties. In contrast to previous findings, we show that only the jumpy characteristic of renewable sources decreases when increasing the spatial size over which the renewable energies are harvested. Otherwise, the strong non-Gaussian, intermittent behaviour in the cumulative power of the total field survives even for a country-wide distribution of the systems. The strong fluctuating behaviour of renewable wind and solar sources can be well characterised by Kolmogorov-li...

  5. Solar power satellites - Heat engine or solar cells (United States)

    Oman, H.; Gregory, D. L.


    A solar power satellite is the energy-converting element of a system that can deliver some 10 GW of power to utilities on the earth's surface. We evaluated heat engines and solar cells for converting sunshine to electric power at the satellite. A potassium Rankine cycle was the best of the heat engines, and 50 microns thick single-crystal silicon cells were the best of the photovoltaic converters. Neither solar cells nor heat engines had a clear advantage when all factors were considered. The potassium-turbine power plant, however, was more difficult to assemble and required a more expensive orbital assembly base. We therefore based our cost analyses on solar-cell energy conversion, concluding that satellite-generated power could be delivered to utilities for around 4 to 5 cents a kWh.

  6. Solar powered rotorcraft: a multidisciplinary engineering challenge for undergraduate students (United States)

    Danner, Aaron J.; Henz, Martin; Teo, Brian Shohei


    Controlled, fully solar-powered flight in a rotorcraft is a difficult engineering challenge. Over the past five years, multidiciplinary teams of undergraduate engineering students at the National University of Singapore have built and test-flown a succession of increasingly impressive and larger, more efficient aircraft. While many other multidisciplinary or purely photonics projects are available to students in our programme, this particular project attracts an unusual level of excitement and devotion among students working on it. Why is that the case, and what, in general, makes a good final year undergraduate design project? These questions will be explored. Additionally, videos of solar helicopter test flights and spectacular crashes will be shown in the presentation for which the proceedings below have been prepared.

  7. Solar power satellites - Technical, social and political implications (United States)

    Knelman, F. H.

    Solar power satellite systems (SPS) are examined, together with their environmental and social impacts and the energy policies necessary for their construction. The energy source, the sun, is acceptable to advocates of decentralized technologies, while the conversion system is fitted to large institutions. However, large-scale power plants are subject to persistent malfunctions, and the approximately 50 sq km SPS solar array is projected to suffer from at least recurring cell contact failures. The power could also be generated by heat engines for transmission by either laser or microwaves. Numerous feasibility and cost-benefit studies are still required, including defining the transmission beam's effects on the atmosphere, ionosphere, and human health. Furthermore, the resource allocations, capital costs, insurance, and institutional problems still need clarification, as do the design, logistics, and development of an entire new, much larger launch system based on Shuttle technology. Finally, the military defensibility of the SPS power station is questioned.

  8. Technical assessment of an aeroelectric solar power concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, E C; Zukoski, E; Wormeck, J


    The aeroelectric solar power concept has been evaluated. The evaluation is based on a one-dimensional flow analysis which invokes the conservation of mass, momentum and energy of the fluid mixture (air, water vapor and water droplets) flowing through the powerplant. A performance evaluation computer code is developed which can be used to assess the concept under diverse conditions and in preliminary design. For purposes of this evaluation, the geometry of the powerplant has been specified. Aerodynamic flow losses have been estimated using a compendium of pipe flow data for each component of the power plant. These losses are utilized in the flow analysis. Flow losses have been estimated to be approximately one-third of the stream's dynamic pressure (1/2 pu/sup 2/) in the tower's cylinder section. Geometric or configuration changes can be made to reduce aerodynamic loss.

  9. Dish layouts analysis method for concentrative solar power plant. (United States)

    Xu, Jinshan; Gan, Shaocong; Li, Song; Ruan, Zhongyuan; Chen, Shengyong; Wang, Yong; Gui, Changgui; Wan, Bin


    Designs leading to maximize the use of sun radiation of a given reflective area without increasing the expense on investment are important to solar power plants construction. We here provide a method that allows one to compute shade area at any given time as well as the total shading effect of a day. By establishing a local coordinate system with the origin at the apex of a parabolic dish and z-axis pointing to the sun, neighboring dishes only with [Formula: see text] would shade onto the dish when in tracking mode. This procedure reduces the required computational resources, simplifies the calculation and allows a quick search for the optimum layout by considering all aspects leading to optimized arrangement: aspect ratio, shifting and rotation. Computer simulations done with information on dish Stirling system as well as DNI data released from NREL, show that regular-spacing is not an optimal layout, shifting and rotating column by certain amount can bring more benefits.

  10. Design and development of a solar powered mobile laboratory (United States)

    Jiao, L.; Simon, A.; Barrera, H.; Acharya, V.; Repke, W.


    This paper describes the design and development of a solar powered mobile laboratory (SPML) system. The SPML provides a mobile platform that schools, universities, and communities can use to give students and staff access to laboratory environments where dedicated laboratories are not available. The lab includes equipment like 3D printers, computers, and soldering stations. The primary power source of the system is solar PV which allows the laboratory to be operated in places where the grid power is not readily available or not sufficient to power all the equipment. The main system components include PV panels, junction box, battery, charge controller, and inverter. Not only is it used to teach students and staff how to use the lab equipment, but it is also a great tool to educate the public about solar PV technologies.

  11. The solar power satellite - Past, present and future (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.


    The potential and the problems of solar energy are discussed, covering all aspects of the necessary technology and its economic and political consequences. The concept of the solar power satellite (SPS) is introduced, noting its feasibility through the space technology of the 1990's. Proposed objectives, including consideration of finite resources, environmentally benign operations and global benefits are covered, as are technical details on power transmission (microwave beams of the 2.50 GHz frequency or the laser beams at 10 MW), and on assembly in orbit through the space transportation system. From the point of view of economic possibilities, costs are estimated at between $1500 to $4000 per kW and finally, ecological and international topics are touched upon.

  12. The Design of Concentrated Solar Power Plants for Dubrovnik (Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili Zhang


    Full Text Available The Croatian electricity demand exceeds domestic production and about 30 % of additional power is covered from imports. The Croatian government is planning to add domestic production capacity, using natural gas and coal as the main fuel. Due to the attractive solar irradiation in Croatia, these new projects offer the possibility to build these thermal power plants as hybrid plants by adding solar energy within the production. The present paper will investigate the potential of solar energy in the Southern Croatian region, and its possible contribution in a hybrid set-up. The paper assesses the required input data and presents a hybrid Concentrated Solar Power (CSP& design. The results demonstrate the potential of adding a CSP in a hybrid power plant in Southern Croatia.

  13. The Solar Power Satellite concept - Towards the future (United States)

    Kraft, C. C., Jr.


    An evolutionary program phasing with respect to the development of a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) is considered, taking into account concept identification, concept evaluation, exploratory research, space technology projects, system development, and commercial operations. At the present time the concept evaluation phase of the program is underway. This phase is scheduled for completion in 1980. It will result in a recommendation as to whether the concept should be explored further and if so, in what manner. The recommendation will be based on technical feasibility, economic and environmental considerations, and comparisons with other potential systems of the future. It is premature to speculate on the conclusions and recommendations from the evaluation program as to whether the program should proceed to the next phase.

  14. The rise (and decline?) of biotechnology. (United States)

    Kinch, Michael S


    Since the 1970s, biotechnology has been a key innovator in drug development. An analysis of FDA-approved therapeutics demonstrates pharmaceutical companies outpace biotechs in terms of new approvals but biotechnology companies are now responsible for earlier-stage activities (patents, INDs or clinical development). The number of biotechnology organizations that contributed to an FDA approval began declining in the 2000s and is at a level not seen since the 1980s. Whereas early biotechnology companies had a decade from first approval until acquisition, the average acquisition of a biotechnology company now occurs months before their first FDA approval. The number of hybrid organizations that arise when pharmaceutical companies acquire biotechnology is likewise declining, raising questions about the sustainability of biotechnology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficient Cells Cut the Cost of Solar Power (United States)


    If you visit Glenn Research Center, you might encounter a photovoltaic (PV) array that looks unlike anything you've ever seen. In fact, what one would normally identify as the panel is actually a series of curved mirrors called solar concentrators, engineered to reflect sunlight rather than absorb it. These concentrators gather, intensify, and focus sun beams upward, aiming at a fixture containing specialized silicon concentrated PV chips the actual solar cells. If you stay by the array for a while, you'll notice that the solar concentrators follow the path of the sun throughout the day, changing position to best capture and utilize the sunlight. The specialized chips that make the technology possible are the brainchild of Bernard Sater, an engineer who had worked at Glenn since the early 1960s before retiring to pursue his unique ideas for harnessing solar power. Sater contributed to multiple PV projects in the latter part of his career at the Center, including research and development on the International Space Station s solar arrays. In his spare time, he enjoyed tinkering with new approaches to solar power, experiments that resulted in the system installed at Glenn today. Sater s basic idea had two components. First, he wanted to create a silicon cell that was smaller, more efficient, and much lower cost than those available at the time. To ensure that the potential of such a chip could be realized, he also planned on pairing it with a system that could concentrate sunlight and focus it directly on the cell. When he retired from Glenn in 1994 to focus on researching and developing the technology full time, Sater found that NASA was interested in the concept and ready to provide funding, facilities, and expertise in order to assist in its development.

  16. System and method for aligning heliostats of a solar power tower (United States)

    Convery, Mark R.


    Disclosed is a solar power tower heliostat alignment system and method that includes a solar power tower with a focal area, a plurality of heliostats that each reflect sunlight towards the focal area of the solar power tower, an off-focal area location substantially close to the focal area of the solar power tower, a communication link between the off-focal area location and a misaligned heliostat, and a processor that interprets the communication between the off-focal area location and the misaligned heliostat to identify the misaligned heliostat from the plurality of heliostats and that determines a correction for the identified misaligned heliostat to realign the misaligned heliostat to reflect sunlight towards the focal area of the solar power tower.

  17. Evaluating the enablers in solar power developments in the current scenario using fuzzy DEMATEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luthra, Sunil; Govindan, Kannan; Kharb, Ravinder K.


    Determining solar power initiatives and developments for a country as large as India is difficult due to the involvement of different enablers. The decisions of these enablers will influence the formulation of strategies to encourage solar power development in India. The present research work...... critically analyzes Indian solar power developments to recognize and to evaluate key enablers that will encourage greater usage in Indias current scenario. A literature review that explores the Indian solar power sector is included, with a focus on need potential, and an examination of the key enablers...... is useful in dealing with the inherent ambiguity involved in studying interrelationships among the evaluated enablers. Research findings suggest that Initiatives taken at the state level (E7) and Power sector reforms (E12) have significant influence in adopting and encouraging Indias solar power development...

  18. Biotechnology of humified materials obtained from vermicomposts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on these properties, it might be possible to develop biotechnology processes that use agro-materials for environmentally sustainable agriculture. The present article describes the application of a biotechnological working protocol that uses cattle manure vermicompost (CVC) as a raw material for HS. The suggested ...

  19. Potential for solar-powered base-load capacity (United States)

    Stoll, Brady; Deinert, Mark


    In 2010 nuclear power accounted for 27% of electricity production in Japan. The March 2011 disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi power station resulted in the closure of all of Japans nuclear power plants and it remains an open question as to how many will reopen. Even before the loss of nuclear capacity there were efforts in Japan to foster the use of renewable energy, including large-scale solar power. Nuclear power plants in Japan operated beyond base load with excess energy being stored in large scale pumped hydroelectric storage systems. Here we show how coupling these storage systems to rooftop solar systems in Tokyo could compensate for the loss of nuclear power. Data from a study of rooftop space, and a 34-year data set of average daily irradiance in the Tokyo metropolitan area were used. If current generation PV systems were placed on the available rooftop space in greater Tokyo, this coupled system could provide for 20% of Toyo's nuclear capacity with a capacity factor of 0.99. Using pumped hydroelectric storage with six times this rooftop area could completely provide for TEPCO's nuclear capacity with a capacity factor of 0.98.

  20. Concentrated solar power (CSP innovation analysis in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig, Toyosi Onalapo


    Full Text Available South Africa aims to generate 42 per cent of its electricity from renewable energy technology sources by 2030. Concentrating solar power (CSP is one of the major renewable energy technologies that have been prioritised by South Africa, given the abundant solar resources available in the region. Seven CSP plants have been, or are being, built; three of them are already connected to the national grid. However, the impacts of this technology on South African research, development, and innovation have not been investigated to date. This paper thus analyses the CSP technologies in South Africa in terms of the existing technology adoption models and diffusion strategies, used by government and its agencies, to improve the development and deployment of these technologies. It is found that CSP has been treated generally like other renewable energy technologies through the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (REIPPPP, although a tariff plan for CSP plants of the future has been made. No specific technology diffusion or adoption model for CSP was found; so this paper explores how it can be developed.

  1. Preliminary operational results from the Willard solar power system (United States)

    Fenton, D. L.; Abernathy, G. H.; Krivokapich, G.; Ellibee, D. E.; Chilton, V.


    The solar powered system located near Willard, New Mexico, generates mechanical or electrical power at a capacity of 19 kW (25 HP). The solar collection system incorporates east/west tracking parabolic trough collectors with a total aperture area of 1275 sq m (13,720 sq ft). The hot oil type thermal energy storage is sufficient for approximately 20 hours of power system operation. The system utilizes a reaction type turbine in conjunction with an organic Rankine cycle engine. Total collector field efficiency reaches a maximum of 20 percent near the winter solstice and about 50 percent during the summer. During the month of July, 1979, the system pumped 60 percent of the 35,300 cu m (28.6 acre-feet) of water delivered. Operating efficiencies for the turbine component, organic Rankine cycle engine and the complete power system are respectively 65 to 75 percent, 12 to 15 percent and 5 to 6 percent. Significant maintenance time was expended on both the collector and power systems throughout the operational period.

  2. Jülich solar power tower - system behavior during downtime (United States)

    Baumann, Torsten; Göhring, Felix; Stadler, Hannes; Doerbeck, Till


    At the Jülich Solar Power Tower, two new shut-off dampers have been installed in the hot air piping system in order to reduce thermal losses during downtime of the plant. The thermodynamic behavior of the thermal energy storage and the steam boiler has been investigated with respect to heat losses after shut-down of the plant. Also, the change of temperature and the pressure drop at both shut-off dampers during downtime has been analyzed. Results show that for the storage, a reduction of thermal losses can be achieved by closing the damper overnight. Regarding the steam boiler, no improvements on heat losses were observed. If only two of the four storage chambers have been charged during operation, heat transfer between the chambers is observed after shut-down. It is concluded that natural convection is not the main source of thermal overnight losses, however, it can be lowered thanks to the dampers. Heat conduction and convectional heat transfer at the surfaces also contribute to the decrease of thermal energy, which can be lowered by thicker insulation layers in the future.

  3. Solar power output correlation with utility demand in southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, J.A.; Chen, Y.T.; Boehm, R.F. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    Various solar electric system performance codes are used to predict the power generated by different solar power systems in the Southern Nevada area during 1990 by using the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) for the Las Vegas region. The system types evaluated along with the predicted codes (shown in parenthesis) are: a central receiver or a power tower system with various amounts of storage (SOLERGY), a Luz-type SEGS parabolic trough system without fossil fuel backup or storage (LUZERGY), a dish-Stirling system (DISH2, a conversion of direct beam radiation with constant collector/engine efficiency was used for this), and various arrangements of non-concentrating photovoltaic devices (PVFORM). Comparisons of these results are made with the daily variations of load requirements of an electrical utility operating in the same geographical area. It is shown that several of the power generation schemes have peak outputs that occur at times very near to, but not coincident with, the peak utility load requirements. The power with a relatively small amount of thermal storage was the only scheme able to provide full power output at the times of peak demands. Several comparisons are made that illuminate the load serving capability of solar generation. Included in this comparison is the determination of the difference in time between the peak power output and the peak demand, as well as the normalized fraction of the peak power generated at the peak demand times.

  4. Electrostatic protection of the Solar Power Satellite and rectenna (United States)

    Freeman, J. W.; Few, A. A., Jr.; Reiff, P. H.; Cooke, D.; Bohannon, J.; Haymes, B.


    Several features of the interactions of the solar power satellite (SPS) with its space environment were examined theoretically. The voltages produced at various surfaces due to space plasmas and the plasma leakage currents through the kapton and sapphire solar cell blankets were calculated. At geosynchronous orbit, this parasitic power loss is only 0.7%, and is easily compensated by oversizing. At low-Earth orbit, the power loss is potentially much larger (3%), and anomalous arcing is expected for the EOTV high voltage negative surfaces. Preliminary results of a three dimensional self-consistent plasma and electric field computer program are presented, confirming the validity of the predictions made from the one dimensional models. Magnetic shielding of the satellite, to reduce the power drain and to protect the solar cells from energetic electron and plasma ion bombardment is considered. It is concluded that minor modifications can allow the SPS to operate safely and efficiently in its space environment. The SPS design employed in this study is the 1978 MSFC baseline design utilizing GaAs solar cells at CR-2 and an aluminum structure.

  5. Air emissions due to wind and solar power. (United States)

    Katzenstein, Warren; Apt, Jay


    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) encourage large-scale deployment of wind and solar electric power. Their power output varies rapidly, even when several sites are added together. In many locations, natural gas generators are the lowest cost resource available to compensate for this variability, and must ramp up and down quickly to keep the grid stable, affecting their emissions of NOx and CO2. We model a wind or solar photovoltaic plus gas system using measured 1-min time-resolved emissions and heat rate data from two types of natural gas generators, and power data from four wind plants and one solar plant. Over a wide range of renewable penetration, we find CO2 emissions achieve approximately 80% of the emissions reductions expected if the power fluctuations caused no additional emissions. Using steam injection, gas generators achieve only 30-50% of expected NOx emissions reductions, and with dry control NOx emissions increase substantially. We quantify the interaction between state RPSs and NOx constraints, finding that states with substantial RPSs could see significant upward pressure on NOx permit prices, if the gas turbines we modeled are representative of the plants used to mitigate wind and solar power variability.

  6. Simulation of solar-powered absorption cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atmaca, I.; Yigit, A. [Uludag Univ., Bursa (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    With developing technology and the rapid increase in world population, the demand for energy is ever increasing. Conventional energy will not be enough to meet the continuously increasing need for energy in the future. In this case, renewable energy sources will become important. Solar energy is a very important energy source because of its advantages. Instead of a compressor system, which uses electricity, an absorption cooling system, using renewable energy and kinds of waste heat energy, may be used for cooling. In this study, a solar-powered, single stage, absorption cooling system, using a water-lithium bromide solution, is simulated. A modular computer program has been developed for the absorption system to simulate various cycle configurations and solar energy parameters for Antalya, Turkey. So, the effects of hot water inlet temperatures on the coefficient of performance (COP) and the surface area of the absorption cooling components are studied. In addition, reference temperatures which are the minimum allowable hot water inlet temperatures are determined and their effect on the fraction of the total load met by non-purchased energy (FNP) and the coefficient of performance are researched. Also, the effects of the collector type and storage tank mass are investigated in detail. (author)

  7. Optimisation of Storage for Concentrated Solar Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Cirocco


    Full Text Available The proliferation of non-scheduled generation from renewable electrical energy sources such concentrated solar power (CSP presents a need for enabling scheduled generation by incorporating energy storage; either via directly coupled Thermal Energy Storage (TES or Electrical Storage Systems (ESS distributed within the electrical network or grid. The challenges for 100% renewable energy generation are: to minimise capitalisation cost and to maximise energy dispatch capacity. The aims of this review article are twofold: to review storage technologies and to survey the most appropriate optimisation techniques to determine optimal operation and size of storage of a system to operate in the Australian National Energy Market (NEM. Storage technologies are reviewed to establish indicative characterisations of energy density, conversion efficiency, charge/discharge rates and costings. A partitioning of optimisation techniques based on methods most appropriate for various time scales is performed: from “whole of year”, seasonal, monthly, weekly and daily averaging to those best suited matching the NEM bid timing of five minute dispatch bidding, averaged on the half hour as the trading settlement spot price. Finally, a selection of the most promising research directions and methods to determine the optimal operation and sizing of storage for renewables in the grid is presented.

  8. Univariate Time Series Prediction of Solar Power Using a Hybrid Wavelet-ARMA-NARX Prediction Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazaripouya, Hamidreza; Wang, Yubo; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Pota, Hemanshu; Gadh, Rajit


    This paper proposes a new hybrid method for super short-term solar power prediction. Solar output power usually has a complex, nonstationary, and nonlinear characteristic due to intermittent and time varying behavior of solar radiance. In addition, solar power dynamics is fast and is inertia less. An accurate super short-time prediction is required to compensate for the fluctuations and reduce the impact of solar power penetration on the power system. The objective is to predict one step-ahead solar power generation based only on historical solar power time series data. The proposed method incorporates discrete wavelet transform (DWT), Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) models, and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN), while the RNN architecture is based on Nonlinear Auto-Regressive models with eXogenous inputs (NARX). The wavelet transform is utilized to decompose the solar power time series into a set of richer-behaved forming series for prediction. ARMA model is employed as a linear predictor while NARX is used as a nonlinear pattern recognition tool to estimate and compensate the error of wavelet-ARMA prediction. The proposed method is applied to the data captured from UCLA solar PV panels and the results are compared with some of the common and most recent solar power prediction methods. The results validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach and show a considerable improvement in the prediction precision.

  9. Solar Power Ramp Events Detection Using an Optimized Swinging Door Algorithm: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Florita, Anthony; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ke, Deping; Sun, Yuanzhang


    Solar power ramp events (SPREs) are those that significantly influence the integration of solar power on non-clear days and threaten the reliable and economic operation of power systems. Accurately extracting solar power ramps becomes more important with increasing levels of solar power penetrations in power systems. In this paper, we develop an optimized swinging door algorithm (OpSDA) to detection. First, the swinging door algorithm (SDA) is utilized to segregate measured solar power generation into consecutive segments in a piecewise linear fashion. Then we use a dynamic programming approach to combine adjacent segments into significant ramps when the decision thresholds are met. In addition, the expected SPREs occurring in clear-sky solar power conditions are removed. Measured solar power data from Tucson Electric Power is used to assess the performance of the proposed methodology. OpSDA is compared to two other ramp detection methods: the SDA and the L1-Ramp Detect with Sliding Window (L1-SW) method. The statistical results show the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method. OpSDA can significantly improve the performance of the SDA, and it can perform as well as or better than L1-SW with substantially less computation time.

  10. 75 FR 59291 - In the Matter of: Certain Wind and Solar-Powered Light Posts and Street Lamps; Notice of... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Wind and Solar-Powered Light Posts and Street Lamps; Notice of... after importation of certain wind and solar- ] powered light posts and street lamps that infringe the... the sale within the United States after importation of certain wind and solar-powered light posts and...

  11. Downscaling Solar Power Output to 4-Seconds for Use in Integration Studies (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummon, M.; Weekley, A.; Searight, K.; Clark, K.


    High penetration renewable integration studies require solar power data with high spatial and temporal accuracy to quantify the impact of high frequency solar power ramps on the operation of the system. Our previous work concentrated on downscaling solar power from one hour to one minute by simulation. This method used clearness classifications to categorize temporal and spatial variability, and iterative methods to simulate intra-hour clearness variability. We determined that solar power ramp correlations between sites decrease with distance and the duration of the ramp, starting at around 0.6 for 30-minute ramps between sites that are less than 20 km apart. The sub-hour irradiance algorithm we developed has a noise floor that causes the correlations to approach ~0.005. Below one minute, the majority of the correlations of solar power ramps between sites less than 20 km apart are zero, and thus a new method to simulate intra-minute variability is needed. These intra-minute solar power ramps can be simulated using several methods, three of which we evaluate: a cubic spline fit to the one-minute solar power data; projection of the power spectral density toward the higher frequency domain; and average high frequency power spectral density from measured data. Each of these methods either under- or over-estimates the variability of intra-minute solar power ramps. We show that an optimized weighted linear sum of methods, dependent on the classification of temporal variability of the segment of one-minute solar power data, yields time series and ramp distributions similar to measured high-resolution solar irradiance data.

  12. The Development Status and Key Technologies of Solar Powered Unmanned Air Vehicle (United States)

    Sai, Li; Wei, Zhou; Xueren, Wang


    By analyzing the development status of several typical solar powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) at home and abroad, the key technologies involved in the design and manufacture of solar powered UAV and the technical difficulties need to be solved at present are obtained. It is pointed out that with the improvement of energy system efficiency, advanced aerodynamic configuration design, realization of high applicability flight stability and control system, breakthrough of efficient propulsion system, the application prospect of solar powered UAV will be more extensive.

  13. Electrostatic protection of the solar power satellite and rectenna. Part 1: Protection of the solar power satellite (United States)


    Several features of the interactions of the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) with its space environment are examined theoretically. The voltages produced at various surfaces due to space plasmas and the plasma leakage currents through the kapton and sapphire solar cell blankets are calculated. At geosynchronous orbit, this parasitic power loss is only 0.7%, and is easily compensated by oversizing. At low Earth orbit, the power loss is potentially much larger (3%), and anomalous arcing is expected for the EOTV high voltage negative surfaces. Preliminary results of a three dimensional self consistent plasma and electric field computer program are presented, confirming the validity of the predictions made from the one dimensional models. Lastly, magnetic shielding of the satellite is considered to reduce the power drain and to protect the solar cells from energetic electron and plasma ion bombardment. It is concluded that minor modifications can allow the SPS to operate safely and efficiently in its space environment. Subsequent design changes will substantially alter the basic conclusions.

  14. The Promise and the Challenge of Space Solar Power in the 21st Century: Picking up the Gauntlet (United States)

    Mankins, John C.


    The history of human civilization is a history of great infrastructure. Chief among these developments have been advances in power, transport, and communications. Without dramatic and steady advances in these critical systems during the past two hundred years-- especially in the available sources of power--the world would be a drastically poorer and harsher home for humanity. At the same time, through the global use of existing energy technologies humanity is rapidly consuming irreplaceable fossil resources as well as changing the environment and the climate for the world itself. Both must raise concerns about the long-term sustainability of the infrastructures that have enabled our world. The importance of abundant and affordable energy in space exploration and development is equally clear. Current missions of exploration and scientific discovery are narrowly constrained by a lack of energy. Future, even more ambitious missions will never be realized without new, reliable and less expensive sources of energy. Even more, the potential emergence of new space industries such as space tourism, manufacturing in space, solar power satellites (SPS) and others, will depend on advances in space power systems just as much as they will on progress in space transportation. Recent studies and technological advances suggest that large-scale space solar power (SSP) systems may enable progress in both arenas during the next several decades. Of course, there are tremendous engineering and technological barriers that must be surmounted to someday make large SSP systems possible. Diverse areas of technology must be advanced. Some of these include space transportation, solar power generation, wireless power transmission, robotics, structural concepts and materials, and others. Nevertheless, there are potential benefits in the offing that seem to many to make challenging even these daunting technical barriers worthwhile--and perhaps essential. Unfortunately, the political and

  15. Exergetic analysis and optimization of a solar-powered reformed methanol fuel cell micro-powerplant (United States)

    Hotz, Nico; Zimmerman, Raúl; Weinmueller, Christian; Lee, Ming-Tsang; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Rosengarten, Gary; Poulikakos, Dimos

    The present study proposes a combination of solar-powered components (two heaters, an evaporator, and a steam reformer) with a proton exchange membrane fuel cell to form a powerplant that converts methanol to electricity. The solar radiation heats up the mass flows of methanol-water mixture and air and sustains the endothermic methanol steam reformer at a sufficient reaction temperature (typically between 220 and 300 °C). In order to compare the different types of energy (thermal, chemical, and electrical), an exergetic analysis is applied to the entire system, considering only the useful part of energy that can be converted to work. The effect of the solar radiation intensity and of different operational and geometrical parameters like the total inlet flow rate of methanol-water mixture, the size of the fuel cell, and the cell voltage on the performance of the entire system is investigated. The total exergetic efficiency comparing the electrical power output with the exergy input in form of chemical and solar exergy reaches values of up to 35%, while the exergetic efficiency only accounting for the conversion of chemical fuel to electricity (and neglecting the 'cost-free' solar input) is increased up to 59%. At the same time, an electrical power density per irradiated area of more than 920 W m -2 is obtained for a solar heat flux of 1000 W m -2.

  16. Power Management Strategy by Enhancing the Mission Profile Configuration of Solar-Powered Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathy Rajendran


    Full Text Available Solar energy offers solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV the possibility of unlimited endurance. Some researchers have developed techniques to achieve perpetual flight by maximizing the power from the sun and by flying in accordance with its azimuth angles. However, flying in a path that follows the sun consumes more energy to sustain level flight. This study optimizes the overall power ratio by adopting the mission profile configuration of optimal solar energy exploitation. Extensive simulation is conducted to optimize and restructure the mission profile phases of UAV and to determine the optimal phase definition of the start, ascent, and descent periods, thereby maximizing the energy from the sun. In addition, a vertical cylindrical flight trajectory instead of maximizing the solar inclination angle has been adopted. This approach improves the net power ratio by 30.84% compared with other techniques. As a result, the battery weight may be massively reduced by 75.23%. In conclusion, the proposed mission profile configuration with the optimal power ratio of the trajectory of the path planning effectively prolongs UAV operation.

  17. Mortality monitoring design for utility-scale solar power facilities (United States)

    Huso, Manuela; Dietsch, Thomas; Nicolai, Chris


    IntroductionSolar power represents an important and rapidly expanding component of the renewable energy portfolio of the United States (Lovich and Ennen, 2011; Hernandez and others, 2014). Understanding the impacts of renewable energy development on wildlife is a priority for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in compliance with Department of Interior Order No. 3285 (U.S. Department of the Interior, 2009) to “develop best management practices for renewable energy and transmission projects on the public lands to ensure the most environmentally responsible development and delivery of renewable energy.” Recent studies examining effects of renewable energy development on mortality of migratory birds have primarily focused on wind energy (California Energy Commission and California Department of Fish and Game, 2007), and in 2012 the FWS published guidance for addressing wildlife conservation concerns at all stages of land-based wind energy development (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012). As yet, no similar guidelines exist for solar development, and no published studies have directly addressed the methodology needed to accurately estimate mortality of birds and bats at solar facilities. In the absence of such guidelines, ad hoc methodologies applied to solar energy projects may lead to estimates of wildlife mortality rates that are insufficiently accurate and precise to meaningfully inform conversations regarding unintended consequences of this energy source and management decisions to mitigate impacts. Although significant advances in monitoring protocols for wind facilities have been made in recent years, there remains a need to provide consistent guidance and study design to quantify mortality of bats, and resident and migrating birds at solar power facilities (Walston and others, 2015).In this document, we suggest methods for mortality monitoring at solar facilities that are based on current methods used at wind power facilities but adapted for the

  18. Roles of Solar Power from Space for Europe - Space Exploration and Combinations with Terrestrial Solar Plant Concepts (United States)

    Summerer, L.; Pipoli, T.; Galvez, A.; Ongaro, F.; Vasile, M.

    The paper presents the prospective roles of SPS concepts for Europe, shows the outcome of recent studies undertaken by ESA's Advanced Concepts Team (ACT) together with European industry and research centres and gives insight into planned activities. The main focus is on the assessment of the principal validity and economic viability of solar power from space concepts in the light of advances in alternative sustainable, clean and potentially abundant solar-based terrestrial concepts. The paper takes into account expected changes in the European energy system (e.g. gradual introduction of hydrogen as energy vector). Special emphasis is given to the possibilities of integrating space and terrestrial solar plants. The relative geographic proximity of areas in North Africa with high average solar irradiation to the European energy consumer market puts Europe in a special position regarding the integration of space and terrestrial solar power concepts. The paper presents a method to optimise such an integration, taking into account different possible orbital constellations, terrestrial locations, plant number and sizes as well as consumer profiles and extends the scope from the European-only to a multi continental approach including the fast growing Chinese electricity market. The work intends to contribute to the discussion on long-term options for the European commitment to worldwide CO2 emission reduction. Cleaner electricity generation and environmentally neutral transport fuels (e.g. solar generated hydrogen) might be two major tools in reaching this goal.

  19. Solar power output correlation with utility demand in southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, J.A.; Chen, Y.T.; Boehm, R.F. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)


    Various solar electric system performance codes are used to predict the power generated by different solar power systems in the Southern Nevada area during 1990 by using the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) for Las Vegas. The system types evaluated along with the prediction codes (shown in parenthesis) are as follows: a central receiver or a power tower system with various amounts of storage (SOLERGY), a Luz type SEGS parabolic trough system without fossil fuel backup or storage (LUZERGY), a dish-Stirling system (DISH2, a conversion of direct beam radiation with constant collector/engine efficiency was used for this), and various arrangements of nonconcentrating photovoltaic devices (PVFORM). Comparisons of these results are made with the daily variations of load requirements of an electrical utility operating in the same geographical area. These comparisons are made for summer and winter periods. It is shown that several of the power generation schemes have summer peak outputs that occur at times very near to, but not coincident with, the peak utility load requirements. The power tower with a relatively small amount of thermal storage was the only scheme able to provide full power output at the times of summer peak demands. Winter peaks in this region occur during the night. Two comparisons are made that illuminate the summer load serving capability of solar generation in addition to simply showing time-variations of outputs. Included in these comparisons are the determination of the difference in time between the peak power output and the peak demand, as well as the normalized fraction of the peak power generated at the peak demand times.

  20. Fully solar powered Raja Bhoj International Airport: A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenath Sukumaran


    Full Text Available The atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2 has been increasing and it remained above 400 ppm throughout the year 2016 for the first time. The aviation industry is a main contributor towards green house gas emission. In this regard, aviation industry as a whole and airports in particular are trying to limit their carbon foot print. A feasible solution is to substitute the conventional electricity energy consumption of airport with clean energy sources. Solar PV route is considered as non polluting source of electricity but MW scale plant requires more land area. Since vast areas are mandatory in airport as buffer zones, this land can be effectively used for utility scale solar PV plant. A 2 MWp onsite solar PV power plant is proposed for Raj Bhoj International Airport (RBIA, India. An online PV simulation tool SISIFO, developed by Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM, has been used to analyse the performance of the proposed plant. The PV module rating, inverter and transformer specifications etc. are provided as per manufacturer's datasheet. The plant is capable of generating 2733.122 MWh of electrical energy annually. The monthly averaged energy yield and performance ratio (PR are 113.88 kWh/kWp and 85.54% respectively, which are best when compared to similar utility scale PV power plants. The economic and environmental benefits of the proposed plant are also discussed. The PV plant generation capacity can surpass the daily electrical energy consumption of airport. This paves way for RBIA to become second airport in the world to be energy self sufficient through solar power.

  1. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal brings more than biotechnology. (United States)

    Jungbauer, Alois; Lee, Sang Yup


    Biotechnology Journal always brings the state-of-the-art biotechnologies to our readers. Different from other topical issues, this issue of Biotechnology Journal is complied with a series of exiting reviews and research articles from spontaneous submissions, again, addressing society's actual problems and needs. The progress is a real testimony how biotechnology contributes to achievements in healthcare, better utilization of resources, and a bio-based economy. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Biotechnology Towards Energy Crops. (United States)

    Margaritopoulou, Theoni; Roka, Loukia; Alexopoulou, Efi; Christou, Myrsini; Rigas, Stamatis; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Milioni, Dimitra


    New crops are gradually establishing along with cultivation systems to reduce reliance on depleting fossil fuel reserves and sustain better adaptation to climate change. These biological assets could be efficiently exploited as bioenergy feedstocks. Bioenergy crops are versatile renewable sources with the potential to alternatively contribute on a daily basis towards the coverage of modern society's energy demands. Biotechnology may facilitate the breeding of elite energy crop genotypes, better suited for bio-processing and subsequent use that will improve efficiency, further reduce costs, and enhance the environmental benefits of biofuels. Innovative molecular techniques may improve a broad range of important features including biomass yield, product quality and resistance to biotic factors like pests or microbial diseases or environmental cues such as drought, salinity, freezing injury or heat shock. The current review intends to assess the capacity of biotechnological applications to develop a beneficial bioenergy pipeline extending from feedstock development to sustainable biofuel production and provide examples of the current state of the art on future energy crops.

  3. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal's diverse coverage of biotechnology. (United States)

    Wink, Michael


    This issue of Biotechnology Journal is a regular issue edited by Prof. Michael Wink. The issue covers all the major focus areas of the journal, including medical biotechnology, synthetic biology, and novel biotechnological methods. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Potential Role of Concentrating Solar Power in Enabling High Renewables Scenarios in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Hand, M.; Mai, T.; Margolis, R.; Brinkman, G.; Drury, E.; Mowers, M.; Turchi, C.


    This work describes the analysis of concentrating solar power (CSP) in two studies -- The SunShot Vision Study and the Renewable Electricity Futures Study -- and the potential role of CSP in a future energy mix.

  5. Large Scale Use of Solar Power May be Visible Across Interstellar Distances (United States)

    Scheffer, L. K.


    Large scale solar power must intercept a large amount of the sun's radiation. Optimized panel orientations will then concentrate their reflections into a small subtended angle. These effects make the reflections visible across interstellar distances.

  6. Solar powered absorption cycle heat pump using phase change materials for energy storage (United States)

    Middleton, R. L.


    Solar powered heating and cooling system with possible application to residential homes is described. Operating principles of system are defined and illustration of typical energy storage and exchange system is provided.

  7. The History of the Development of the Rectenna. [solar power satellites (United States)

    Brown, W. C.


    The history of the development of the rectenna is reviewed through its early conceptual developmental phases. Some selective aspects of the current solar power satellite rectenna development are examined.

  8. Nations first federal combined solar power purchase launched by EPA, Forest Service, Energy Department and GSA (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Forest Service, Department of Energy and General Services Administration announced the first ever federal partnership to purchase solar power. This action follows President Obama's order

  9. Prospects for investment in large-scale, grid-connected solar power in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Nygaard, Ivan; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    Solar power in Africa is on its way to becoming a market-based commodity, thus escaping the niche for individual electricity supply that is mainly supported by international donor organisations. Significant reductions in the cost of photovoltaic (PV) panels and a 400 percent increase in oil prices......-scale investments in grid-connected solar power plants and local assembly facilities for PV panels, have exceeded even optimistic scenarios. Finally, therefore, there seem to be bright prospects for investment in large-scale grid-connected solar power in Africa....... since the 1990s have changed the competiveness of solar PV in all markets, ranging from individual households via institutions to mini-grids and grid-connected installations. In volume and investment, the market for large-scale grid-connected solar power plants is by far the most important...

  10. Seasonal optimal mix of wind and solar power in a future, highly renewable Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Bremen, Lueder von; Greiner, Martin


    behaviors are able to counterbalance each other to a certain extent to follow the seasonal load curve. The best point of counterbalancing represents the seasonal optimal mix between wind and solar power generation. It leads to a pronounced minimum in required stored energy. For a 100% renewable Europe......The renewable power generation aggregated across Europe exhibits strong seasonal behaviors. Wind power generation is much stronger in winter than in summer. The opposite is true for solar power generation. In a future Europe with a very high share of renewable power generation those two opposite...... the seasonal optimal mix becomes 55% wind and 45% solar power generation. For less than 100% renewable scenarios the fraction of wind power generation increases and that of solar power generation decreases....

  11. Solar Powered Propulsion for Space. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database) (United States)


    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and performance of solar propulsion systems. Solar electric propulsion and solar thermal propulsion are reviewed. Topics include solar power satellites, nuclear electric propulsion, solar-powered orbit transfer vehicles, and solar dynamic and bimodal power systems. References also discuss atmospheric pollution control, telephone services, space commercialization, interplanetary missions, and lunar and Mars exploration. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Solar power in Quebec: a unique potential soon to be fulfilled


    Pagliaro, Mario


    Quebecs large solar power potential markedly contrasts with its poor achievements in using solar energy in this large and wealthy region of the world. Reviewing recent developments and putting discussion in the socioeconomic context, we provide arguments that justify our viewpoint that solar energy will soon be a relevant source of power in this Province of Canada. The rapid fall in price of both main solar power technologies, photovoltaics, and solar thermal, along with significant levels of...

  13. Transmission media appropriate laser-microwave solar power satellite system (United States)

    Schäfer, C. A.; Gray, D.


    As a solution to the most critical problems with Solar power Satellite (SPS) development, a system is proposed which uses laser power transmission in space to a receiver high in the atmosphere that relays the power to Earth by either cable or microwave power transmission. It has been shown in the past that such hybrid systems have the advantages of a reduction in the mass of equipment required in geostationary orbit and avoidance of radio frequency interference with other satellites and terrestrial communications systems. The advantage over a purely laser power beam SPS is that atmospheric absorption is avoided and outages due to clouds and precipitation will not occur, allowing for deployment in the equatorial zone and guaranteeing year round operation. This proposal is supported by brief literature surveys and theoretical calculations to estimate crucial parameters in this paper. In relation to this concept, we build on a recently proposed method to collect solar energy by a tethered balloon at high altitude because it enables a low-cost start for bringing the first Watt of power to Earth giving some quick return on investment, which is desperately missing in the traditional SPS concept. To tackle the significant problem of GW-class SPSs of high launch cost per kg mass brought to space, this paper introduces a concept which aims to achieve a superior power over mass ratio compared to traditional satellite designs by the use of thin-film solar cells combined with optical fibres for power delivery. To minimise the aperture sizes and cost of the transmitting and receiving components of the satellite and high altitude receiver, closed-loop laser beam pointing and target tracking is crucial for pointing a laser beam onto a target area that is of similar size to the beam's diameter. A recently developed technique based on optical phase conjugation is introduced and its applicability for maintaining power transmission between the satellite and high altitude receiver is

  14. European sail tower SPS [Solar Power Satellite] concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seboldt, W.; Leipold, M.; Hanowski, N. [Institute of Space Sensor Technology and Planetary Exploration, Cologne (Germany). German Aerospace Center; Klimke, M. [HOPE Worldwide Deutschland, Berlin (Germany)


    Based on a DLR-study in 1998/99 on behalf of ESA/ESTEC called ''System Concepts, Architectures and Technologies for Space Exploration and Utilization (SE and U)'' a new design for an Earth-orbiting Solar Power Satellite (SPS) has been developed. The design is called ''European Sail Tower SPS'' and consists mainly of deplorable sail-like structures derived from the ongoing DLR/ESA solar sail technology development activity. Such an SPS satellite features an extremely light-weight and large tower-like orbital system and could supply Europe with significant amounts of electrical power generated by photovoltaic cells and subsequently transmitted to earth via microwaves. In order to build up the sail tower, 60 units - each consisting of a pair of square-shaped sails - are moved from LEO to GEO with electric propulsion and successively assembled in GEO robotically on a central strut. Each single sail has dimensions of 150 m x 150 m and is automatically deployed, using four diagonal lightweight carbon fiber (CFRP) booms which are initially rolled up on a central hub. The electric thrusters for the transport to GEO could also be used for orbit and attitude control of the assembled tower which has a total length of about 15 km and would be mainly gravity gradient stabilized. Employing thin film solar cell technology, each sail is used as a solar array and produces an electric power in orbit of about 3.7 MW{sub e}. A microwave antenna with a diameter of 1 km transmits the power to a 10 km rectenna on the ground. The total mass of this 450 MW SPS is about 2100 tons. First estimates indicate that the costs for one kWh delivered in this way could compete with present day energy costs, if launch costs would decrease by two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, mass production and large numbers of installed SPS systems must be assumed in order to lower significantly the production costs and to reduce the influence of the expensive technology

  15. The use of natural infochemicals for sustainable and efficient harvesting of the microalgae Scenedesmus spp. for biotechnology: insights from a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Roccuzzo, Sebastiana; Beckerman, Andrew P; Pandhal, Jagroop


    Open raceway ponds are regarded as the most economically viable option for large-scale cultivation of microalgae for low to mid-value bio-products, such as biodiesel. However, improvements are required including reducing the costs associated with harvesting biomass. There is now a growing interest in exploiting natural ecological processes within biotechnology. We review how chemical cues produced by algal grazers induce colony formation in algal cells, which subsequently leads to their sedimentation. A statistical meta-analysis of more than 80 studies reveals that Daphnia grazers can induce high levels of colony formation and sedimentation in Scenedesmus obliquus and that these natural, infochemical induced sedimentation rates are comparable to using commercial chemical equivalents. These data suggest that natural ecological interactions can be co-opted in biotechnology as part of a promising, low energy and clean harvesting method for use in large raceway systems.

  16. Potential of Concentrating Solar Power Plants for the Combined Production of Water and Electricity in MENA Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Moser


    Full Text Available The widening gap between consumption and availability of water poses a serious threat to a sustainable socioeconomic development of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA countries and calls for an even larger augmentation of water supply using seawater desalination. However, these plants are affected by high specific energy consumption, while the uncertainty about fossil fuel prices in the future represents a severe problem. Within this study long-term scenarios for water and electricity demand based on potential assessment of renewable energies have been developed. The results provide baseline information for decision makers for the establishment of a favourable framework for the deployment of concentrated solar power and desalination plants. Finally, this paper points out the importance to start a paradigm change in water and electricity supply as soon as possible, in order to meet the requirements for low cost water and electricity and to avoid conflicts related to water scarcity.

  17. The current biotechnology outlook in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairiah Salwa MOKHTAR


    Full Text Available Blessed with extremely rich biodiversity, Malaysia is all geared up to explore new high technology to utilize the advantage it possesses whilst to protect its environment. Biotechnology has been identified as an appropriate driver that can deliver economic gains through research and development, improvement of food security, creation of entrepreneurial opportunities for industrial growth, health and environmental sustainability. This paper attempts to address the evolution of biotechnology institutions and the stumbling blocks in developing the Malaysian biotechnology industry. This paper identifies three main impediments in the current Malaysian biotechnology, namely lack of skilled human capital; weak industrial base; and lack of commercialization effort. Besides, a set of strategies are discussed with aim to further improve and strengthen the Malaysian biotechnology industry. In general, the arguments are presented by mapping out the symbiotic relationship between data from elite interviews, archival data and observations.

  18. Europa Spacecraft Configuration Optimization for the Solar Powered Vehicle (United States)

    Horner, Matthew D.; Eremenko, Alexander


    A mission to Europa has been on the minds of NASA and JPL for many years. After the Galileo mission to Jupiter in the 1990s there have been various proposals for missions to the Jovian moon. The most recent proposal, previously named the Europa Clipper, has gone through numerous iterations of spacecraft configurations on its road to becoming an official NASA project in June of 2015. Most of these configurations included options for either multi mission radioisotope thermoelectric generators (MMRTGs) or solar power. In 2014, the decision was made to focus on solar arrays as the source for spacecraft power. The decision to move forward with a baseline design that utilized only solar arrays as its power system meant that some configuration choices had to be re- evaluated. Initially, a configuration was adapted to keep as much of the previous spacecraft design the same while replacing MMRTGs with solar panels. This proved to be difficult as the arrays presented a slew of new challenges that the nuclear vehicle was not optimized for. The solar arrays needed to be large due to Jupiter's substantial distance from the Sun. This meant that many of the instrument and radiator FOVs would now be obstructed, or would receive reflected light and heat from the large panel s. Also, the mass of the panels meant that mounting near the bottom of the spacecraft would be sub-optimal as the wings would cause major disturbance to the vehicle as they oscillated in their deployed state. Another major, and possibly the largest, concern was the fact that as the high gain antenna pointed to Earth for communication, the Ice Penetrating Radar (IPR) would cast a large shadow on the cell -side of the array. This resulted in an estimated 10% power loss to the vehicle. On top of all this, NASA announced the selection of the instruments that would fly on the Europa mission and replace the notional instrument suite that had been used to develop and submit the project proposal. The selected

  19. Design and characterization of molecular tools for a Synthetic Biology approach towards developing cyanobacterial biotechnology. (United States)

    Huang, Hsin-Ho; Camsund, Daniel; Lindblad, Peter; Heidorn, Thorsten


    Cyanobacteria are suitable for sustainable, solar-powered biotechnological applications. Synthetic biology connects biology with computational design and an engineering perspective, but requires efficient tools and information about the function of biological parts and systems. To enable the development of cyanobacterial Synthetic Biology, several molecular tools were developed and characterized: (i) a broad-host-range BioBrick shuttle vector, pPMQAK1, was constructed and confirmed to replicate in Escherichia coli and three different cyanobacterial strains. (ii) The fluorescent proteins Cerulean, GFPmut3B and EYFP have been demonstrated to work as reporter proteins in cyanobacteria, in spite of the strong background of photosynthetic pigments. (iii) Several promoters, like P(rnpB) and variants of P(rbcL), and a version of the promoter P(trc) with two operators for enhanced repression, were developed and characterized in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803. (iv) It was shown that a system for targeted protein degradation, which is needed to enable dynamic expression studies, is working in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803. The pPMQAK1 shuttle vector allows the use of the growing numbers of BioBrick parts in many prokaryotes, and the other tools herein implemented facilitate the development of new parts and systems in cyanobacteria.

  20. Limits to solar power conversion efficiency with applications to quantum and thermal systems (United States)

    Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Smith, B. T.


    An analytical framework is presented that permits examination of the limit to the efficiency of various solar power conversion devices. Thermodynamic limits to solar power efficiency are determined for both quantum and thermal systems, and the results are applied to a variety of devices currently considered for use in space systems. The power conversion efficiency for single-threshold energy quantum systems receiving unconcentrated air mass zero solar radiation is limited to 31 percent. This limit applies to photovoltaic cells directly converting solar radiation, or indirectly, as in the case of a thermophotovoltaic system. Photoelectrochemical cells rely on an additional chemical reaction at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which introduces additional second-law demands and a reduction of the solar conversion efficiency. Photochemical systems exhibit even lower possible efficiencies because of their relatively narrow absorption bands. Solar-powered thermal engines in contact with an ambient reservoir at 300 K and operating at maximum power have a peak conversion efficiency of 64 percent, and this occurs for a thermal reservoir at a temperature of 2900 K. The power conversion efficiency of a solar-powered liquid metal magnetohydrodydnamic generator, a solar-powered steam turbine electric generator, and an alkali metal thermoelectric converter is discussed.

  1. The Contribution of Solar Power Funding for Online Content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, blended learning remains of little significance to rural areas in Tanzania due to lack of reliable and sustainable electricity which prevents learners from maximizing the potentials of using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to enhance their learning. With the current problems facing the grid-power ...

  2. Electric vehicles and solar power; Enhancing the advantages of electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeager, K.E. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))


    At first glance, this is an odd-couple combination of topics. On reflection, they represent, in their own way and collectively, the power of electricity to harness innovation to the crowning issue of the coming decades sustainability. This paper reports that electricity has unique advantage for transforming the world's energy resources into an array of goods and services that fundamentally improve the quality and sustainability of life. My remarks will focus on how these two emerging technologies (electric vehicles and solar photovoltaics) reflect these advantages. Both of these technologies are now becoming competitive in important niche markets, and I expect their impact on utility power systems to grow substantially. In particular, I want to show, using these two symbolic examples, how innovative technologies on both the supply side and the demand side can complement each other to enhance the advantages of electricity over the next decade.

  3. A Novel Extension Decision-Making Method for Selecting Solar Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hui Wang


    Full Text Available Due to the complex parameters of a solar power system, the designer not only must think about the load demand but also needs to consider the price, weight, and annual power generating capacity (APGC and maximum power of the solar system. It is an important task to find the optimal solar power system with many parameters. Therefore, this paper presents a novel decision-making method based on the extension theory; we call it extension decision-making method (EDMM. Using the EDMM can make it quick to select the optimal solar power system. The paper proposed this method not only to provide a useful estimated tool for the solar system engineers but also to supply the important reference with the installation of solar systems to the consumer.

  4. Numerical evaluation of the Kalina cycle for concentrating solar power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish

    of using a Kalina cycle is evaluated with a thermoeconomic optimization with a turbine inlet temperature of 500 C for a central receiver solar power plant with direct vapour generation, and 370 C for a parabolic trough solar power plant with Therminol VP-1 as the solar field heat transfer fluid. No thermal...... a higher specific capital investment cost and a higher levelized cost of electricity than the state-of-the-art steam Rankine cycle for both the central receiver and the parabolic trough plants. This is mainly because of worse power cycle design point efficiency than the corresponding steam Rankine cycle......Concentrating solar power plants use a number of reflecting mirrors to focus and convert the incident solar energy to heat, and a power cycle to convert this heat into electricity. One of the key challenges currently faced by the solar industry is the high cost of electricity production...

  5. Solar Power Satellites: Reconsideration as Renewable Energy Source Based on Novel Approaches (United States)

    Ellery, Alex


    Solar power satellites (SPS) are a solar energy generation mechanism that captures solar energy in space and converts this energy into microwave for transmission to Earth-based rectenna arrays. They offer a constant, high integrated energy density of 200 W/m2 compared to <10 W/m2 for other renewable energy sources. Despite this promise as a clean energy source, SPS have been relegated out of consideration due to their enormous cost and technological challenge. It has been suggested that for solar power satellites to become economically feasible, launch costs must decrease from their current 20,000/kg to <200/kg. Even with the advent of single-stage-to-orbit launchers which propose launch costs dropping to 2,000/kg, this will not be realized. Yet, the advantages of solar power satellites are many including the provision of stable baseload power. Here, I present a novel approach to reduce the specific cost of solar power satellites to 1/kg by leveraging two enabling technologies - in-situ resource utilization of lunar material and 3D printing of this material. Specifically, we demonstrate that electric motors may be constructed from lunar material through 3D printing representing a major step towards the development of self-replicating machines. Such machines have the capacity to build solar power satellites on the Moon, thereby bypassing the launch cost problem. The productive capacity of self-replicating machines favours the adoption of large constellations of small solar power satellites. This opens up additional clean energy options for combating climate change by meeting the demands for future global energy.

  6. Biotechnology organizations in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    This volume analyzes the dynamics and interactive processes among the players (individuals, institutions, and organizations/firms) that have constituted and legitimized the development of the biotechnology industries. The unit of analysis is small entrepreneurial firms developing biotechnological...

  7. Solar Power and Solar Fuels Synthesis Report. Technology, market and research activities 2006-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridell, Bengt; Nilsson, Ronny; Rehnlund, Bjoern [Grontmij, Stockholm (Sweden); Kasemo, Bengt [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)


    The objectives of the synthesis is to survey the situation and give an accumulated and concentrated knowledge about status, needs and opportunities for Swedish research and Swedish industry within the area of solar power and solar fuels, to be used for prioritisation of further efforts. The synthesis shall identify strengths and weaknesses in areas fundamental for development of solar power and solar fuels, focused on the development in Sweden, but in an international context. The synthesis shall also cover proposals for future Swedish research efforts and organisation of future Swedish research programs.

  8. Solar-Powered Compaction Garbage Bins in Public Areas: A Preliminary Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Duc Nghiem


    Full Text Available An excel-based model was developed to evaluate economic and environmental benefits of the solar-powered compaction garbage bins in public areas in Australia. Input data were collected from Brisbane and Wollongong City councils, and Sydney Olympic Park. The results demonstrate that solar-powered compaction garbage bins would provide environmental benefits in all scenarios. However, results of the economic analysis of the three studied areas varied significantly. The unique situation of Sydney Olympic Park made implementation in that facility particularly appealing. A lower monthly rental cost is needed for the implementation of this novel waste management practice.

  9. Research and Development for Novel Thermal Energy Storage Systems (TES) for Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghri, Amir; Bergman, Theodore L; Pitchumani, Ranga


    The overall objective was to develop innovative heat transfer devices and methodologies for novel thermal energy storage systems for concentrating solar power generation involving phase change materials (PCMs). Specific objectives included embedding thermosyphons and/or heat pipes (TS/HPs) within appropriate phase change materials to significantly reduce thermal resistances within the thermal energy storage system of a large-scale concentrating solar power plant and, in turn, improve performance of the plant. Experimental, system level and detailed comprehensive modeling approaches were taken to investigate the effect of adding TS/HPs on the performance of latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems.

  10. Designing with solar power a source book for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV)

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Deo


    Designing with Solar Power is the result of international collaborative research and development work carried out within the framework of the International Energy Agency's Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) and performed within its Task 7 on 'Photovoltaic power systems in the built environment'.Each chapter of this precisely detailed and informative book has been prepared by an international expert in a specific area related to the development, use and application of building-integrated photovoltaics (BiPV). Chapters not only cover the basics of solar power and electrical concepts, bu

  11. Efficacy of a solar-powered TiO2 semiconductor electric toothbrush on P. gingivalis biofilm. (United States)

    Sato, Takenori; Hirai, Naoki; Oishi, Yasuhiro; Uswak, Gerry; Komiyama, Kunio; Hamada, Nobushiro


    To determine the efficacy of a solar-powered TiO2 semiconductor electric toothbrush on Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilm. P. gingivalis cells were cultivated on sterilized coverslips under anaerobic conditions and were used as a biofilm. To evaluate the efficacy of the solar-powered TiO2 electric toothbrush on the P. gingivalis biofilm, the bacterial cell biofilm coverslips were placed into sterilized phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and brushed for 1 minute. Following mechanical brushing, the coverslips were stained with 1% crystal violet (CV) for 10 seconds at room temperature. The efficacy of P. gingivalis biofilm removal by the solar-powered TiO2 electric toothbrush was measured through the absorbance of the CV-stained solution containing the removed biofilm at 595 nm. The antimicrobial effect of the solar-powered TiO2 semiconductor was evaluated by the P. gingivalis bacterial count in PBS by blacklight irradiation for 0 to 60 minutes at a distance of 7 cm. The electrical current though the solar-powered TiO2 semiconductor was measured by a digital multimeter. The biofilm removal by the solar-powered TiO2 semiconductor was also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The biofilm removal rate of the solar-powered TiO2 electric toothbrush was 90.1 ± 1.4%, which was 1.3-fold greater than that of non-solar-powered electric toothbrushes. The solar-powered TiO2 semiconductor significantly decreased P. gingivalis cells and biofilm microbial activity in a time-dependent manner (Psolar-powered TiO2 semiconductor was 70.5 ± 0.1 µA, which was a 27-fold higher intensity than the non-solar-powered brush. SEM analysis revealed that the solar-powered TiO2 semiconductor caused a biofilm disruption and that cytoplasmic contents were released from the microbial cells.

  12. Environmental Durability Issues for Solar Power Systems in Low Earth Orbit (United States)

    Degroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Smith, Daniela C.


    Space solar power systems for use in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment experience a variety of harsh environmental conditions. Materials used for solar power generation in LEO need to be durable to environmental threats such as atomic oxygen, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, thermal cycling, and micrometeoroid and debris impact. Another threat to LEO solar power performance is due to contamination from other spacecraft components. This paper gives an overview of these LEO environmental issues as they relate to space solar power system materials. Issues addressed include atomic oxygen erosion of organic materials, atomic oxygen undercutting of protective coatings, UV darkening of ceramics, UV embrittlement of Teflon, effects of thermal cycling on organic composites, and contamination due to silicone and organic materials. Specific examples of samples from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and materials returned from the first servicing mission of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are presented. Issues concerning ground laboratory facilities which simulate the LEO environment are discussed along with ground-to-space correlation issues.

  13. Reduced heat stress in offices in the tropics using solar powered drying of the supply air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars; Santos, A M B


    air may facilitate personal cooling by increased evaporation of sweat. Heat acclimatized people with efficient sweating may in particular benefit from this cooling. A prototype solar powered supply system for dried-only air was made. Air from the system was mixed with room air, heated to six different...

  14. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner. Program review (United States)


    Progress in the effort to develop a residential solar-powered air conditioning system is reported. The topics covered include the objectives, scope and status of the program. The results of state-of-art, design, and economic studies and component and system data are also presented.

  15. Life cycle assessment of a HYSOL concentrated solar power plant: Analyzing the effect of geographic location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corona, B.; Ruiz, Diego; San Miguel, Guillermo


    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technology is developing in order to achieve higher energy efficiency, reduced economic costs, and improved firmness and dispatchability in the generation of power on demand. To this purpose, a research project titled HYSOL has developed a new power plant, consisting

  16. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 7, phase 1: SPS and rectenna systems analyses (United States)


    A systems definition study of the solar power satellite systems is presented. The design and power distribution of the rectenna system is discussed. The communication subsystem and thermal control characteristics are described and a failure analysis performed on the systems is reported.

  17. The effect of pole's height on the output performance of solar power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solar energy is a renewable (non-conventional) source of energy supply that has been used as a reliable energy source in view of its economic importance and its wide range of applications. In this study the effect of pole's height on the output performance of solar power system has been investigated. A solar panel of 45 ...

  18. Racing with the Sun: Students Learn Physics while Designing a Solar-Powered Vehicle (United States)

    Marshall, Jeff


    In this article, the author describes his experience conducting an inquiry investigation in his classroom in which high school physics students design, create, and race a solar-powered vehicle. Students learn invaluable science, technology, mathematics, communication, and critical thinking skills. Fueled by their knowledge, creativity, and the…

  19. Development of Local Supply Chain : The Missing Link for Concentrated Solar Power Projects in India


    World Bank


    Amid the success of Solar Photovoltaic (PV) projects in India, Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technology also provides a compelling case for support by the government as among solar technologies; CSP is the only techno-economically viable option at present that provides a storage option for dispatchable and dependable solar energy. Furthermore, the conversion of solar to steam is a relativ...

  20. Development of Local Supply Chain : A Critical Link for Concentrated Solar Power in India


    World Bank


    Amid the success of Solar Photovoltaic (PV) projects in India, Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technology also provides a compelling case for support by the government as among solar technologies; CSP is the only techno-economically viable option at present that provides a storage option for dispatchable and dependable solar energy. Furthermore, the conversion of solar to steam is a relativ...

  1. Early commercial demonstration of space solar power using ultra-lightweight arrays (United States)

    Reed, Kevin; Willenberg, Harvey J.


    Space solar power shows great promise for future energy sources worldwide. Most central power stations operate with power capacity of 1000 MW or greater. Due to launch size limitations and specific power of current, rigid solar arrays, the largest solar arrays that have flown in space are around 50 kW. Thin-film arrays offer the promise of much higher specific power and deployment of array sizes up to several MW with current launch vehicles. An approach to early commercial applications for space solar power to distribute power to charge hand-held, mobile battery systems by wireless power transmission (WPT) from thin-film solar arrays in quasi-stationary orbits will be presented. Four key elements to this prototype will be discussed: (1) Space and near-space testing of prototype wireless power transmission by laser and microwave components including WPT space to space and WPT space to near-space HAA transmission demonstrations; (2) distributed power source for recharging hand-held batteries by wireless power transmission from MW space solar power systems; (3) use of quasi-geostationary satellites to generate electricity and distribute it to targeted areas; and (4) architecture and technology for ultra-lightweight thin-film solar arrays with specific energy exceeding 1 kW/kg. This approach would yield flight demonstration of space solar power and wireless power transmission of 1.2 MW. This prototype system will be described, and a roadmap will be presented that will lead to still higher power levels.

  2. 75 FR 66389 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Blythe Solar Power Project and... (United States)


    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Blythe Solar Power... right-of-way (ROW) application CACA-048811 for the proposed Blythe Solar Power Project (BSPP). Chevron... solar generation facilities on public lands, requires that all sites associated with power generation or...

  3. 77 FR 20381 - Silver State Solar Power North, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Silver State Solar Power North, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Silver State Solar Power North, LLC's application for market...

  4. 76 FR 64341 - Silver State Solar Power North LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Silver State Solar Power North LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Silver State Solar Power North, LLC's application for market... Online links at . To facilitate electronic service, persons with Internet access who...

  5. 76 FR 53489 - Certain Wind and Solar-Powered Light Posts and Street Lamps; Notice of Commission Determination... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Certain Wind and Solar-Powered Light Posts and Street Lamps; Notice of Commission Determination... United States after importation of certain wind and solar-powered light posts and street lamps by reason... CONTACT: Jia Chen, Office of the General Counsel, U.S. International Trade Commission, 500 E Street, SW...

  6. Socio-economic and environmental effects of concentrated solar power in spain: A multiregional input output analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corona, B.; de la Rúa, C.; San Miguel, G.


    Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) is receiving increasing attention as a technology with the potential to provide clean electricity in a cost effective and dispatchable manner. Despite its renewable nature, solar power generation generates impacts that need to be adequately evaluated and managed. The

  7. New challenges in microalgae biotechnology. (United States)

    Valverde, Federico; Romero-Campero, Francisco J; León, Rosa; Guerrero, Miguel G; Serrano, Aurelio


    Photosynthetic protists, also called microalgae, have been systematically studied for more than a century. However, only recently broad biotechnological applications have fostered a novel wave of research on their potentialities as sustainable resources of renewable energy as well as valuable industrial and agro-food products. At the recent VII European Congress of Protistology held in Seville, three outstanding examples of different research strategies on microalgae with biotechnological implications were presented, which suggested that integrative approaches will produce very significant advances in this field in the next future. In any case, intense research and the application of systems biology and genetic engineering techniques are absolutely essential to reach the full potential of microalgae as cell-factories of bio-based products and, therefore, could contribute significantly to solve the problems of biosustainability and energy shortage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Feasibility of solar powered traffic signs in Houston : a step toward sustainable control devices. (United States)


    "With the economy fluctuating all the time, the federal and some city governments at times spend more : money than they take in from taxes. It is important for these governments to find ways to reduce : spending while still providing sufficient opera...

  9. Two energy storage alternatives for a solar-powered sustainable single floor desert home

    KAUST Repository

    Serag-Eldin, M. A.


    This paper is concerned with the thermodynamic analysis of a totally solarpowered desert home. The home is air-conditioned and provides all modern comforts and facilities. It features closely spaced, roof mounted photovoltaic modules, which collect the solar energy driving the whole energy system. During the day time, the modules form an elevated horizontal surface above the roof, shielding it from direct solar radiation. After sunset, the photovoltaic modules are flipped vertically upwards to expose the roof to the sky, thus enhancing night-time cooling. Two methods of energy storage are proposed and compared, one using solely battery storage of electrical output, and the other employing a combination of cold water storage and battery storage. The analysis is based on detailed dynamic heat transfer calculations for the entire building envelope, coupled with a solar radiation model, and followed by energy balances. The results reveal that indeed it is feasible to employ solar energy as the only source of energy to power the home, and that each storage system has its own merits and shortcomings. © 2010 WIT Press.

  10. Ultra-Portable Solar-Powered 3D Printers for Onsite Manufacturing of Medical Resources. (United States)

    Wong, Julielynn Y


    The first space-based fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printer is powered by solar photovoltaics. This study seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of using solar energy to power a FDM 3D printer to manufacture medical resources at the Mars Desert Research Station and to design an ultra-portable solar-powered 3D printer for off-grid environments. Six solar panels in a 3×2 configuration, a voltage regulator/capacitor improvised from a power adapter, and two 12V batteries in series were connected to power a FDM 3D printer. Three designs were printed onsite and evaluated by experts post analogue mission. A solar-powered 3D printer composed of off-the-shelf components was designed to be transported in airline carry-on luggage. During the analogue mission, the solar-powered printer could only be operated for solar-powered 3D printer was designed that could print an estimated 16 dental tools or 8 mallet finger splints or 7 scalpel handles on one fully charged 12V 150Wh battery with a 110V AC converter. It is feasible to use solar energy to power a 3D printer to manufacture functional and personalized medical resources at a Mars analogue research station. Based on these findings, a solar-powered suitcase 3D printing system containing solar panels, 12V battery with charge controller and AC inverter, and back-up solar charge controller and inverter was designed for transport to and use in off-grid communities.

  11. Multidimensional Analysis of High-School Students' Perceptions about Biotechnology (United States)

    Fonseca, Maria Joao; Costa, Patricio; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando


    Concerns about public understanding of biotechnology have motivated educational initiatives to improve students' competency to make scientifically sustained decisions regarding controversial issues. Understanding students' perceptions about biotechnology is essential to determine the effectiveness of these programmes. To assess how students'…

  12. A systems engineering perspective on process integration in industrial biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, Anton A.; Grievink, Johan; Rito-Palomares, Marco


    Biotechnology has many applications in health care, agriculture, industry and the environment. By using renewable raw materials, biotechnology contributes to lowering greenhouse gas emissions and moving away from a petro-based towards a circular sustainable economy. However, major developments are


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Public and private means of transportation use fossil fuels. Wind and solar power plants are still not very significant. There is no planning for the creation of sustainable infrastructure in public and private works. Brazil lacks a consistent programme for energy conservation and efficiency. The government has no system to.

  14. Understanding water deficit stress-induced changes in the basic metabolism of higher plants - biotechnologically and sustainably improving agriculture and the ecoenvironment in arid regions of the globe. (United States)

    Shao, Hong-Bo; Chu, Li-Ye; Jaleel, C Abdul; Manivannan, P; Panneerselvam, R; Shao, Ming-An


    Water is vital for plant growth, development and productivity. Permanent or temporary water deficit stress limits the growth and distribution of natural and artificial vegetation and the performance of cultivated plants (crops) more than any other environmental factor. Productive and sustainable agriculture necessitates growing plants (crops) in arid and semiarid regions with less input of precious resources such as fresh water. For a better understanding and rapid improvement of soil-water stress tolerance in these regions, especially in the water-wind eroded crossing region, it is very important to link physiological and biochemical studies to molecular work in genetically tractable model plants and important native plants, and further extending them to practical ecological restoration and efficient crop production. Although basic studies and practices aimed at improving soil water stress resistance and plant water use efficiency have been carried out for many years, the mechanisms involved at different scales are still not clear. Further understanding and manipulating soil-plant water relationships and soil-water stress tolerance at the scales of ecology, physiology and molecular biology can significantly improve plant productivity and environmental quality. Currently, post-genomics and metabolomics are very important in exploring anti-drought gene resources in various life forms, but modern agriculturally sustainable development must be combined with plant physiological measures in the field, on the basis of which post-genomics and metabolomics have further practical prospects. In this review, we discuss physiological and molecular insights and effects in basic plant metabolism, drought tolerance strategies under drought conditions in higher plants for sustainable agriculture and ecoenvironments in arid and semiarid areas of the world. We conclude that biological measures are the bases for the solutions to the issues relating to the different types of

  15. Potential of industrial biotechnology with cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijffels, R.H.; Kruse, O.; Hellingwerf, K.J.


    Both cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae are promising organisms for sustainable production of bulk products such as food, feed, materials, chemicals and fuels. In this review we will summarize the potential and current biotechnological developments. Cyanobacteria are promising host organisms

  16. Problems in Biotechnology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Jamal and Hamzah M. Salleh


    Full Text Available To meet the challenges posed by the growing population of the world, biotechnology research is being pursued in all countries. In the area of medicine remarkable success has been achieved. It is believed that in future this trend will continue. In the area food also scientists and technocrats have shown considerable success, but in this area they have not received appreciation because of many objections. The paper discusses issues pertaining to biotechnology researches, because if these issues are not thoroughly discussed and problems are not hammered out, biotechnology researches will go on but will fail to serve the humanity.Key Words: biodiversity, biotechnology, cloning, germ cell, genetic materials, biosafety.

  17. Biotechnology for the Environment (United States)


    02/06/2005 Final Technical 01-Jan-2003 thru 31 Dec 2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Biotechnology for the Environment N00014-03-1-0316 5b...Dr.Josephl. SPAGES A UU19b. TELEPH"ONVUMBER’(/•c/udearea code 9 405 - 325 5761 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) 20050624 193 Biotechnology for the Environment ONR...environmental biotechnology. From the Task Force, a smaller Working Group on Biotechnology for the Environment (Appendix 1) was formed that has been co- chaired

  18. Policy to support marine biotechnology-based solutions to global challenges. (United States)

    Ritchie, Rachael J; Guy, Ken; Philp, Jim C


    Recent advances in science and technology are igniting new interest in marine biotechnology. Governments are recognizing the potential of marine biotechnology to provide solutions to grand global challenges of population health, food, and energy security and sustainable industry. This paper examines some of the challenges to and policy options for the development of marine biotechnology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Microbial biotechnology addressing the plastic waste disaster


    Narancic, Tanja; O'Connor, Kevin E.


    Oceans are a major source of biodiversity, they provide livelihood, and regulate the global ecosystem by absorbing heat and CO 2. However, they are highly polluted with plastic waste. We are discussing here microbial biotechnology advances with the view to improve the start and the end of life of biodegradable polymers, which could contribute to the sustainable use of marine and coastal ecosystems (UN Sustainability development goal 14).

  20. Lunar Solar Power System Driven Human Development of the Moon and Resource-Rich Exploration of the Inner Solar System (United States)

    Criswell, D. R.


    The people of Earth require, by the middle of the 21st century, a new source of commercial power that is sustainable, clean, reliable, low in cost ( 2 kWe/person or > 20 TWe) than now (1, 2). The Lunar Solar Power (LSP) System appears to be the only reasonable option (2, 3). The Moon dependably receives 13,000 TWs of solar power. The LSP System consists of pairs of power bases located on opposite limbs of the Moon as seen from Earth. The power bases collect the solar energy and convert it to beams of microwaves. The microwaves are delivered directly to moonward-facing receivers on Earth or indirectly through relay satellites in orbit about Earth. To achieve low cost, the power bases are made primarily of local lunar materials by machines, facilities, and people deployed from Earth. Hundreds to thousands of people will be required on the Moon, in cis-lunar space, and operating tele-robotically from Earth to construct the full scale LSP System. Models indicate that power sales on Earth can easily support the required people, their regular transport between the Earth and Moon, and provide the required return on investment to develop the LSP System (4, 5). Construction of the LSP System, even at an early stage, creates fundamentally new wealth and capabilities supportive of rapid growth of human activities within the inner solar system. A factor of ten increase in global Earth-to-orbit transport will be required in the demonstration phase. Launch cost of 5,000 /kg is acceptable. Lower cost transport decreases the upfront cost of the LSP System but is not critical to the cost of energy from the mature LSP. Logistic and assembly facilities in orbit about the Earth and Moon will be required that are at least a factor of ten large than planned for the full scale International Space Station. Transport must be provided between the Earth and the Moon of hundreds, possibly thousands, of workers. Production machinery will be available that can build fundamentally new

  1. Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications: Laser-Photovoltaic Wireless Power Transmission (United States)

    Henley, M. W.; Fikes, J. C.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)


    Space Solar Power technology offers unique benefits for near-term NASA space science missions, which can mature this technology for other future applications. "Laser-Photo-Voltaic Wireless Power Transmission" (Laser-PV WPT) is a technology that uses a laser to beam power to a photovoltaic receiver, which converts the laser's light into electricity. Future Laser-PV WPT systems may beam power from Earth to satellites or large Space Solar Power satellites may beam power to Earth, perhaps supplementing terrestrial solar photo-voltaic receivers. In a near-term scientific mission to the moon, Laser-PV WPT can enable robotic operations in permanently shadowed lunar polar craters, which may contain ice. Ground-based technology demonstrations are proceeding, to mature the technology for this initial application, in the moon's polar regions.

  2. Technical data for concentrated solar power plants in operation, under construction and in project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Pelay


    Full Text Available This article presents technical data for concentrated solar power (CSP plants in operation, under construction and in project all over the world in the form of tables. These tables provide information about plants (e.g., name of the CSP plant, country of construction, owner of the plant, aim of the plant and their technical characteristics (e.g., CSP technology, solar power, area of the plant, presence and type of hybridization system, electricity cost, presence and type of TES, power cycle fluid, heat transfer fluid, operating temperature, operating pressure, type of turbine, type and duration of storage, etc.. Further interpretation of the data and discussions on the current state-of-the-art and future trends of CSP can be found in the associated research article (Pelay et al., 2017 [1].

  3. Real time optimization of solar powered direct contact membrane distillation based on multivariable extremum seeking

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.


    This paper presents a real time optimization scheme for a solar powered direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) water desalination system. The sun and weather conditions vary and are inconsistent throughout the day. Therefore, the solar powered DCMD feed inlet temperature is never constant, which influences the distilled water flux. The problem of DCMD process optimization has not been studied enough. In this work, the response of the process under various feed inlet temperatures is investigated, which demonstrates the need for an optimal controller. To address this issue, we propose a multivariable Newton-based extremum seeking controller which optimizes the inlet feed and permeate mass flow rates as the feed inlet temperature varies. Results are presented and discussed for a realistic temperature profile.

  4. Design considerations for concentrating solar power tower systems employing molten salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Kolb, Gregory J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei


    The Solar Two Project was a United States Department of Energy sponsored project operated from 1996 to 1999 to demonstrate the coupling of a solar power tower with a molten nitrate salt as a heat transfer media and for thermal storage. Over all, the Solar Two Project was very successful; however many operational challenges were encountered. In this work, the major problems encountered in operation of the Solar Two facility were evaluated and alternative technologies identified for use in a future solar power tower operating with a steam Rankine power cycle. Many of the major problems encountered can be addressed with new technologies that were not available a decade ago. These new technologies include better thermal insulation, analytical equipment, pumps and values specifically designed for molten nitrate salts, and gaskets resistant to thermal cycling and advanced equipment designs.

  5. Technical data for concentrated solar power plants in operation, under construction and in project. (United States)

    Pelay, Ugo; Luo, Lingai; Fan, Yilin; Stitou, Driss; Rood, Mark


    This article presents technical data for concentrated solar power (CSP) plants in operation, under construction and in project all over the world in the form of tables. These tables provide information about plants (e.g., name of the CSP plant, country of construction, owner of the plant, aim of the plant) and their technical characteristics (e.g., CSP technology, solar power, area of the plant, presence and type of hybridization system, electricity cost, presence and type of TES, power cycle fluid, heat transfer fluid, operating temperature, operating pressure, type of turbine, type and duration of storage, etc.). Further interpretation of the data and discussions on the current state-of-the-art and future trends of CSP can be found in the associated research article (Pelay et al., 2017) [1].

  6. Recent advances in the PV-CSP hybrid solar power technology (United States)

    Ju, Xing; Xu, Chao; Han, Xue; Zhang, Hui; Wei, Gaosheng; Chen, Lin


    Photovoltaic - Concentrated Solar Power (PV-CSP) hybrid technology is considered to be an important future research trend in solar energy engineering. The development of the PV-CSP hybrid technology accelerates in recent years with the rapid maturation of photovoltaics (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP). This paper presents the recent advances on PV-CSP technology, including different technologies based on new dispatch strategies, Organic Rankine Cycles, spectral beam filters and so on. The research status and the hybrid system performance of the recent researches are summarized, aimed to provide an extended recognition on the PV-CSP hybrid technology. The advantages and limitations of the hybrid system are concluded according to the researches reviewed.

  7. Energy management and design in solar powered vehicles using computer aided engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Davila, T.R.; Torres, M.; Serrano, D. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez (Puerto Rico). Engineering Research Center


    Concerns with the environment have posed demands on high efficient and low contaminating vehicles. Solar powered vehicles are among the most promising alternatives. In order to develop the vehicle`s efficiency to its maximum, an energy management plant should be made. The objective of this work is the development of an interactive program which simulates the performance of solar powered vehicles under different mechanical, electrical and aerodynamic conditions. Global position, time, road and meteorological conditions such as temperature and ideal solar insolation have been taken in consideration for the simulation. From this data, the vehicle`s speed at which the net energy will be maximized subject to minimum total race time is determined. Different programs were developed in Quick Basic and Visual Basic to analyze hypothetical and real models. The user may vary parameters to graphically visualize their effects on the vehicle`s performance and improve design or efficiency.

  8. Adaptive Data Aggregation and Compression to Improve Energy Utilization in Solar-Powered Wireless Sensor Networks. (United States)

    Yoon, Ikjune; Kim, Hyeok; Noh, Dong Kun


    A node in a solar-powered wireless sensor network (WSN) collects energy when the sun shines and stores it in a battery or capacitor for use when no solar power is available, in particular at night. In our scheme, each tiny node in a WSN periodically determines its energy budget, which takes into account its residual energy, and its likely acquisition and consumption. If it expects to acquire more energy than it can store, the data which has it has sensed is aggregated with data from other nodes, compressed, and transmitted. Otherwise, the node continues to sense data, but turns off its wireless communication to reduce energy consumption. We compared several schemes by simulation. Our scheme reduced the number of nodes forced to black out due to lack of energy so that more data arrives at the sink node.

  9. Economics of internal and external energy storage in solar power plant operation (United States)

    Manvi, R.; Fujita, T.


    A simple approach is formulated to investigate the effect of energy storage on the bus-bar electrical energy cost of solar thermal power plants. Economic analysis based on this approach does not require detailed definition of a specific storage system. A wide spectrum of storage system candidates ranging from hot water to superconducting magnets can be studied based on total investment and a rough knowledge of energy in and out efficiencies. Preliminary analysis indicates that internal energy storage (thermal) schemes offer better opportunities for energy cost reduction than external energy storage (nonthermal) schemes for solar applications. Based on data and assumptions used in JPL evaluation studies, differential energy costs due to storage are presented for a 100 MWe solar power plant by varying the energy capacity. The simple approach presented in this paper provides useful insight regarding the operation of energy storage in solar power plant applications, while also indicating a range of design parameters where storage can be cost effective.

  10. Thermoeconomic optimization of a Kalina cycle for a central receiver concentrating solar power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Andreasen, Jesper Graa


    with direct vapour generation and without storage. The use of the ammonia-water mixture as the power cycle working fluid with non-isothermal evaporation and condensation presents the potential to improve the overall performance of the plant. This however comes at a price of requiring larger heat exchangers......Concentrating solar power plants use a number of reflecting mirrors to focus and convert the incident solar energy to heat, and a power cycle to convert this heat into electricity. This paper evaluates the use of a high temperature Kalina cycle for a central receiver concentrating solar power plant...... because of lower thermal pinch and heat transfer degradation for mixtures as compared with using a pure fluid in a conventional steam Rankine cycle, and the necessity to use a complex cycle arrangement. Most of the previous studies on the Kalina cycle focused solely on the thermodynamic aspects...

  11. Long-Term Modeling of Solar Energy: Analysis of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) and PV Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yabei; Smith, Steven J.


    This report presents an overview of research conducted on solar energy technologies and their implementation in the ObjECTS framework. The topics covered include financing assumptions and selected issues related to the integration of concentrating thermal solar power (CSP) and photovoltaics PV technologies into the electric grid. A review of methodologies for calculating the levelized energy cost of capital-intensive technologies is presented, along with sensitivity tests illustrating how the cost of a solar plant would vary depending on financing assumptions. An analysis of the integration of a hybrid concentrating thermal solar power (CSP) system into the electric system is conducted. Finally a failure statistics analysis for PV plants illustrates the central role of solar irradiance uncertainty in determining PV grid integration characteristics.

  12. Solar-powered drip irrigation enhances food security in the Sudano–Sahel (United States)

    Burney, Jennifer; Woltering, Lennart; Burke, Marshall; Naylor, Rosamond; Pasternak, Dov


    Meeting the food needs of Africa’s growing population over the next half-century will require technologies that significantly improve rural livelihoods at minimal environmental cost. These technologies will likely be distinct from those of the Green Revolution, which had relatively little impact in sub-Saharan Africa; consequently, few such interventions have been rigorously evaluated. This paper analyzes solar-powered drip irrigation as a strategy for enhancing food security in the rural Sudano–Sahel region of West Africa. Using a matched-pair comparison of villages in northern Benin (two treatment villages, two comparison villages), and household survey and field-level data through the first year of harvest in those villages, we find that solar-powered drip irrigation significantly augments both household income and nutritional intake, particularly during the dry season, and is cost effective compared to alternative technologies. PMID:20080616

  13. A Distributed Routing Scheme for Energy Management in Solar Powered Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Ahmad H.


    Energy management is critical for solar-powered sensor networks. In this article, we consider data routing policies to optimize the energy in solar powered networks. Motivated by multipurpose sensor networks, the objective is to find the best network policy that maximizes the minimal energy among nodes in a sensor network, over a finite time horizon, given uncertain energy input forecasts. First, we derive the optimal policy in certain special cases using forward dynamic programming. We then introduce a greedy policy that is distributed and exhibits significantly lower complexity. When computationally feasible, we compare the performance of the optimal policy with the greedy policy. We also demonstrate the performance and computational complexity of the greedy policy over randomly simulated networks, and show that it yields results that are almost identical to the optimal policy, for greatly reduced worst-case computational costs and memory requirements. Finally, we demonstrate the implementation of the greedy policy on an experimental sensor network.

  14. A portable solar power supply device with high-efficiency inverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jianxiang; Zhang, Qiangsheng [SPET Photo-Electronics Technology Co., Ltd., Jiangsu (China); Cao, Huimin [Powsea New Energy Technology Co., Ltd., Hebei (China)


    A portable solar power supply device with high-efficiency inverter was developed. There are several design principles and effective approaches of the device were discussed in this paper. It is necessary to integrate the pure sine-wave inverter with a DC converter in a single compact enclosure for mobile applications. Adopting MPPT technique in DC converter can optimize the output of the solar modules. The patented circuit of pulse formation and distribution in SPWM help to simplify the inverter structure and reduce its made costs. Using the nano-crystalline-core transformer and SMD can compact the inverter size and reduce power self-consumption. Optimizing the EMC design is important to control the electro-magnetic interference of the inverter. The portable solar power supply device described above is high efficiency, less output waveform distortion, small size, light weight, and lower cost. (orig.)

  15. Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments; Second Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    DOE designed this guide "Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments" to assist local government officials and stakeholders in designing and implementing strategic local solar plans. The 2011 edition contains the most recent lessons and successes from the 25 Solar America Cities and other communities promoting solar energy. Because DOE recognizes that there is no one path to solar market development, this guide introduces a range of policy and program options that can help a community build a local solar infrastructure.

  16. Proton irradiation effects of amorphous silicon solar cell for solar power satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Yousuke; Oshima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Sasaki, Susumu; Kuroda, Hideo; Ushirokawa, Akio


    Flexible amorphous silicon(fa-Si) solar cell module, a thin film type, is regarded as a realistic power generator for solar power satellite. The radiation resistance of fa-Si cells was investigated by the irradiations of 3,4 and 10 MeV protons. The hydrogen gas treatment of the irradiated fa-Si cells was also studied. The fa-Si cell shows high radiation resistance for proton irradiations, compared with a crystalline silicon solar cell. (author)

  17. Space-Based Solar Power: A Technical, Economic, and Operational Assessment (United States)


    Solar Power System: A Business Plan to Make Space So- lar Power a Reality,” A Multicultural Team Project for Master of Business Administration in...supplied by alternative energy sources; and, d) Con- straints imposed by ionospheric and biological effects .7 As we will see, these specific areas of...determine if the NRL can offer a unique, cost- effective , and efficient approach to supplying sig- nificant power on demand for Navy, Marine Corps, or other

  18. Solar power satellite rectenna design study: Directional receiving elements and parallel-series combining analysis (United States)

    Gutmann, R. J.; Borrego, J. M.


    Rectenna conversion efficiencies (RF to dc) approximating 85 percent were demonstrated on a small scale, clearly indicating the feasibility and potential of efficiency of microwave power to dc. The overall cost estimates of the solar power satellite indicate that the baseline rectenna subsystem will be between 25 to 40 percent of the system cost. The directional receiving elements and element extensions were studied, along with power combining evaluation and evaluation extensions.

  19. Open-WiSe: A Solar Powered Wireless Sensor Network Platform


    Arthur Edwards; Alberto Ochoa; Pedro Saldaña; Walter Mata; Raúl Aquino; Apolinar González


    Because battery-powered nodes are required in wireless sensor networks and energy consumption represents an important design consideration, alternate energy sources are needed to provide more effective and optimal function. The main goal of this work is to present an energy harvesting wireless sensor network platform, the Open Wireless Sensor node (WiSe). The design and implementation of the solar powered wireless platform is described including the hardware architecture, firmware, and a POSI...

  20. Development and Experimental Studies of a Small-scaled Solar-powered Sago Plant Dehydrator


    A. Pendita; Lim, P.Y.; H. V. H. Junis


    Sago is an important agricultural commodity of the largest state in Malaysia, Sarawak. This paper presents a small-scaled solar-powered sago dehydrator with temperature sensing and monitoring unit. The main focus is to provide a feasible solution for sago farmers or producers who live in isolated remote areas. The dehydrator system is controlled by a microcontroller PIC16F877A. The electrical circuit of the dehydrator allows the user to programmed desired time setting and the controller will ...

  1. Solar powered high voltage energization for vehicular exhaust cleaning: A step towards possible retrofitting in vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajanikanth, B.S.; Mohapatro, Sankarsan [High Voltage Lab, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India); Umanand, L. [CEDT, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India)


    This paper proposes a novel way of generating high voltage for electric discharge plasma in controlling NO{sub x} emission in diesel engine exhaust. A solar powered high frequency electric discharge topology has been suggested that will improve the size and specific energy density required when compared to the traditional repetitive pulse or 50 Hz AC energization. This methodology has been designed, fabricated and experimentally verified by conducting studies on real diesel engine exhaust. (author)

  2. Assessment of wind and solar power in global low-carbon energy scenarios: An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luderer, Gunnar; Pietzcker, Robert C.; Carrara, Samuel; de Boer, Harmen Sytze; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Johnson, Nils; Mima, Silvana; Arent, Douglas


    This preface introduces the special section on the assessment of wind and solar in global low-carbon energy scenarios. The special section documents the results of a coordinated research effort to improve the representation of variable renewable energies (VRE), including wind and solar power, in Integrated Assessment Models (IAM) and presents an overview of the results obtained in the underlying coordinated model inter-comparison exercise.

  3. The potential economic impact of constructing and operating solar power generation facilities in Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwer, R. K. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Riddel, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)


    Nevada has a vast potential for electricity generation using solar power. An examination of the stock of renewable resources in Nevada proves that the state has the potential to be a leader in renewable-electric generation--one of the best in the world. This study provides estimates on the economic impact in terms of employment, personal income, and gross state product (GSP) of developing a portion of Nevada's solar energy generation resources.

  4. A Concentrated Solar Power Unit Collector’s Efficiency under varied wind speeds


    Ajay Vardhan,; A.C. Tiwari,; Arvind Kaushal,; Sunil Hotchandani,


    Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) harnesses the sun‟s solar energy to produce electricity. This report provides a technical analysis of the potential for CSP to provide low cost renewable electricity in Bhopal (M.P.) and outlines the impact of varied wind speeds on its collector‟s efficiency. Yields of CSP Plants depend strongly on site-specific meteorological conditions. Meteorological parameters that can influence the performance of CSP plant are Direct Normal I...

  5. Large lead/acid batteries for frequency regulation, load levelling and solar power applications (United States)

    Wagner, R.

    Lead/acid batteries are suitable for a multitude of utility applications. This paper presents some examples where large lead/acid batteries have been used for frequency regulation, load levelling and solar power applications. The operational experiences are given together with a discussion about the design and technical specialities of these batteries. In 1986, a 17 MW/14 MWh battery was installed at BEWAG in Berlin which, at that time, was the largest lead/acid battery in the world. Designed to strengthen Berlin's 'island' system, it was used since the beginning of 1987 for frequency regulation and spinning reserve. In December 1993, when Berlin was connected to the electricity grid, frequency regulation was no longer required but the battery was still used for spinning reserve. For many years, the industrial battery plant of Hagen in Soest has used a large lead/acid battery for load levelling. The experience gained during more than ten years shows that load levelling and peak shaving can be a marked benefit for customers and utilities with regard to reducing their peak demand. In the summer of 1992, a 216 V and 2200 Ah lead/acid battery with positive tubular plates and gelled electrolyte was installed at a solar power plant in Flanitzhutte, a small village in the south of Germany which is not connected to the electricity grid. A report is given of the first years of use and includes a discussion about the best charge strategy for such gel batteries when used for solar power applications.

  6. Approach to develop space solar power as a new energy system for developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatomo, Makoto [Inst. of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara (Japan)


    The idea of space solar power proposed by Glaser was explained as a set of a solar power station in geostationary earth orbit to transmit microwave power and a ground station to receive the microwave power. Most of the ideas and concepts since Glaser used the same context. On the other hand, Collins et al. introduced the concept of microwave `fuel` to assess the commercial relations of power from space, in which space solar power stations are considered to sell microwave power to any unspecified rectenna. This concept changed the theoretical context of `power from space` to an industrial and economic relation of producers and buyers of an industrial product. This new context has been applied to the SPS 2000 conceptual study. As a result, if 2.45 GHz microwave power transmission is used, each rectenna can be planned and engineered independently from the space sector by local users, especially in developing countries, who are familiar with such activities as introducing solar energy systems. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Baseline and Target Values for PV Forecasts: Toward Improved Solar Power Forecasting: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Lu, Siyuan; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Lehman, Brad; Simmons, Joseph; Campos, Edwin; Banunarayanan, Venkat


    Accurate solar power forecasting allows utilities to get the most out of the solar resources on their systems. To truly measure the improvements that any new solar forecasting methods can provide, it is important to first develop (or determine) baseline and target solar forecasting at different spatial and temporal scales. This paper aims to develop baseline and target values for solar forecasting metrics. These were informed by close collaboration with utility and independent system operator partners. The baseline values are established based on state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models and persistence models. The target values are determined based on the reduction in the amount of reserves that must be held to accommodate the uncertainty of solar power output. forecasting metrics. These were informed by close collaboration with utility and independent system operator partners. The baseline values are established based on state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models and persistence models. The target values are determined based on the reduction in the amount of reserves that must be held to accommodate the uncertainty of solar power output.

  8. Final Report on the Operation and Maintenance Improvement Program for Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen Gilbert E.; Kearney, David W.; Kolb, Gregory J.


    This report describes the results of a six-year, $6.3 million project to reduce operation and maintenance (O&M) costs at power plants employing concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. Sandia National Laboratories teamed with KJC Operating Company to implement the O&M Improvement Program. O&M technologies developed during the course of the program were demonstrated at the 150-MW Kramer Junction solar power park located in Boron, California. Improvements were made in the following areas: (a) efficiency of solar energy collection, (b) O&M information management, (c) reliability of solar field flow loop hardware, (d) plant operating strategy, and (e) cost reduction associated with environmental issues. A 37% reduction in annual O&M costs was achieved. Based on the lessons learned, an optimum solar- field O&M plan for future CSP plants is presented. Parabolic trough solar technology is employed at Kramer Junction. However, many of the O&M improvements described in the report are also applicable to CSP plants based on solar power tower or dish/engine concepts.

  9. UD-WCMA: An Energy Estimation and Forecast Scheme for Solar Powered Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Ahmad H.


    Energy estimation and forecast represents an important role for energy management in solar-powered wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In general, the energy in such networks is managed over a finite time horizon in the future based on input solar power forecasts to enable continuous operation of the WSNs and achieve the sensing objectives while ensuring that no node runs out of energy. In this article, we propose a dynamic version of the weather conditioned moving average technique (UD-WCMA) to estimate and predict the variations of the solar power in a wireless sensor network. The presented approach combines the information from the real-time measurement data and a set of stored profiles representing the energy patterns in the WSNs location to update the prediction model. The UD-WCMA scheme is based on adaptive weighting parameters depending on the weather changes which makes it flexible compared to the existing estimation schemes without any precalibration. A performance analysis has been performed considering real irradiance profiles to assess the UD-WCMA prediction accuracy. Comparative numerical tests to standard forecasting schemes (EWMA, WCMA, and Pro-Energy) shows the outperformance of the new algorithm. The experimental validation has proven the interesting features of the UD-WCMA in real time low power sensor nodes.

  10. A perspective on the economic valorization of gene manipulated biotechnology: Past and future. (United States)

    Knockaert, Mirjam; Manigart, Sophie; Cattoir, Sofie; Verstraete, Willy


    Three distinct fields of gene manipulated biotechnology have so far been economically exploited: medical biotechnology, plant biotechnology and industrial biotechnology. This article analyzes the economic evolution and its drivers in the three fields over the past decades, highlighting strong divergences. Product and market characteristics, affecting firms' financing options, are shown to be important enablers or inhibitors. Subsequently, the lack of commercialization in a fourth type of gene manipulated biotechnology, namely environmental biotechnology, is explained by the existence of strong barriers. Given the latter's great promises for environmental sustainability, we argue for a need to push the commercial valorization of environmental biotechnology. Our research has strong implications for (technology) management research in biotechnology, pointing to a need to control for and/or distinguish between different biotechnology fields.

  11. Medical biotechnology in India. (United States)

    Lohray, Braj B


    The potential of biotechnology has just began to emerge in the 20th century. After the full knowledge of human genomes is available, biotechnology is going to play a major role in shaping the concept of future drug discovery, drug delivery, diagnostic methodology, clinical trials, and to a great extent the major lifestyle of the human society. This article is a comprehensive review of the major impact of biotechnology in diagnostics, antibiotics, r-proteins, vaccines, and antibodies production. It also highlights the future aspects of gene therapy in the management of healthcare. A comprehensive list of biotech products in healthcare management has been given. Also, the growth of biotechnology throughout the world at large and in the Indian industries in particular has been highlighted. Constraints, concerns and difficulties in biotechnology in India have been addressed mainly related to human resources, training institutions in India, funding in biotechnology, patent-related issues and regulatory hurdles. Like in information technology, India has great potential in bioinformatics as well. Some of the recent information on bioinformatics centers in India has been summarized. Indian biotechnology industries have the potential to use the modern discoveries in life sciences to reach an enviable position in the world of biotechnology.

  12. Biotechnology and Agriculture. (United States)

    Kenney, Martin

    Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

  13. Egyptian Journal of Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Egyptian Journal of Biotechnology publishes primary research and review articles focused on all areas of biotechnology research. Vol 25 (2007). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of Contents. Articles. Biological control of necrotrophic plant pathogenic ...

  14. Design and Commissioning of a Community Scale Solar Powered Membrane-Based Water Purification System in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shavin Pinto


    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and commissioning of a solar powered water purification system at the Ryan Epps Home for Children (REHC in Michaud, Haiti. This systemsupplies clean drinking water to the 200 children who live and go to school at REHC and also tothe community in the form of a micro-business. This micro-business is the mechanism for incomegeneration for sustainable system operation. The purifier uses a three stage filtration system witha disc-type sediment filter, a 0.1 micron ultrafiltration membrane, and an ultraviolet light fordisinfection. The backwash cycle extends the life of the ultrafiltration membrane to 4 – 7 yearsbefore a new filter is required. Simplicity in operation was an important design considerationbecause it facilitates local operator training, and understanding. To further ensure completeunderstanding of operation, a pictorial quick-start manual was developed so that operators onlyneed to follow the diagrams laid out on the manual. The design folder with CAD drawings,schematics, datasheets, and troubleshooting guide are left with the local operators. Testingbefore shipping and after installation to ensure proper operation upon installation and on-sitewater quality testing ensures it will promote improved community health.

  15. Business interruption and loss of assets risk assessment in support of the design of an innovative concentrating solar power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, Andrea; Gallisto, Maurizio; Maccari, Augusto; Paganelli, Mauro [Techint-Compagnia Tecnica Internazionale SpA, Milan (Italy); Compare, Michele [Energy Department, Polytechnic of Milan, Milan (Italy); Zio, Enrico [Energy Department, Polytechnic of Milan, Milan (Italy); Ecole Centrale Paris, Supelec, Paris (France)


    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants are a promising technology of renewable energy production, as witnessed by the increasing public and private investments during the last decade. The assessment of the associated risks of business interruption (loss of production) and loss of assets due to the occurrence of undesired internal or external events, such as failures of components, unfavorable environmental conditions, etc., brings added values by informing design modifications and contributing to production assurance, for rational Company investments in these environmentally sustainable power plants. This work presents and applies a methodology for assessing the risks associated to a CSP of innovative design. The methodology is derived from traditional system risk analysis, specifically focused only on the economic consequences of the internal events of failure behavior of components. The innovation in the design considered is particularly aimed at augmenting the CSP intrinsic capability of being equipped with thermal storage systems by the introduction of a molten salt mixture as heat transfer fluid. This technology presents evident advantages in terms of system simplification and reduction of production costs but on the other hand introduces a risk factor with regards to the solidification of the salt mixture that occurs at about 240 C. (author)

  16. Life cycle assessment of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant and the impacts of key design alternatives. (United States)

    Burkhardt, John J; Heath, Garvin A; Turchi, Craig S


    Climate change and water scarcity are important issues for today's power sector. To inform capacity expansion decisions, hybrid life cycle assessment is used to evaluate a reference design of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) facility located in Daggett, CA, along four sustainability metrics: life cycle (LC) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). This wet-cooled, 103 MW plant utilizes mined nitrates salts in its two-tank, thermal energy storage (TES) system. Design alternatives of dry-cooling, a thermocline TES, and synthetically derived nitrate salt are evaluated. During its LC, the reference CSP plant is estimated to emit 26 g of CO(2eq) per kWh, consume 4.7 L/kWh of water, and demand 0.40 MJ(eq)/kWh of energy, resulting in an EPBT of approximately 1 year. The dry-cooled alternative is estimated to reduce LC water consumption by 77% but increase LC GHG emissions and CED by 8%. Synthetic nitrate salts may increase LC GHG emissions by 52% compared to mined. Switching from two-tank to thermocline TES configuration reduces LC GHG emissions, most significantly for plants using synthetically derived nitrate salts. CSP can significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to fossil-fueled generation; however, dry-cooling may be required in many locations to minimize water consumption.

  17. Techno-Economic Evaluation of a Stand-Alone Power System Based on Solar Power/Batteries for Global System for Mobile Communications Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Alsharif


    Full Text Available Energy consumption in cellular networks is receiving significant attention from academia and the industry due to its significant potential economic and ecological influence. Energy efficiency and renewable energy are the main pillars of sustainability and environmental compatibility. Technological advancements and cost reduction for photovoltaics are making cellular base stations (BSs; a key source of energy consumption in cellular networks powered by solar energy sources a long-term promising solution for the mobile cellular network industry. This paper addresses issues of deployment and operation of two solar-powered global system for mobile communications (GSM BSs that are being deployed at present (GSM BS 2/2/2 and GSM BS 4/4/4. The study is based on the characteristics of South Korean solar radiation exposure. The optimum criteria as well as economic and technical feasibility for various BSs are analyzed using a hybrid optimization model for electric renewables. In addition, initial capital, replacement, operations, maintenance, and total net present costs for various solar-powered BSs are discussed. Furthermore, the economic feasibility of the proposed solar system is compared with conventional energy sources in urban and remote areas.

  18. Reduced-Order Dynamic Modeling, Fouling Detection, and Optimal Control of Solar-Powered Direct Contact Membrane Distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.


    Membrane Distillation (MD) is an emerging sustainable desalination technique. While MD has many advantages and can be powered by solar thermal energy, its main drawback is the low water production rate. However, the MD process has not been fully optimized in terms of its manipulated and controlled variables. This is largely due to the lack of adequate dynamic models to study and simulate the process. In addition, MD is prone to membrane fouling, which is a fault that degrades the performance of the MD process. This work has three contributions to address these challenges. First, we derive a mathematical model of Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD), which is the building block for the next parts. Then, the proposed model is extended to account for membrane fouling and an observer-based fouling detection method is developed. Finally, various control strategies are implemented to optimize the performance of the DCMD solar-powered process. In part one, a reduced-order dynamic model of DCMD is developed based on lumped capacitance method and electrical analogy to thermal systems. The result is an electrical equivalent thermal network to the DCMD process, which is modeled by a system of nonlinear differential algebraic equations (DAEs). This model predicts the water-vapor flux and the temperature distribution along the module length. Experimental data is collected to validate the steady-state and dynamic responses of the proposed model, with great agreement demonstrated in both. The second part proposes an extension of the model to account for membrane fouling. An adaptive observer for DAE systems is developed and convergence proof is presented. A method for membrane fouling detection is then proposed based on adaptive observers. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the membrane fouling detection method. Finally, an optimization problem is formulated to maximize the process efficiency of a solar-powered DCMD. The adapted method is known as Extremum

  19. Solar drives in practice. Equipment, motors and vehicles successfully running on solar power. Solarantriebe in der Praxis. Geraete, Maschinen und Fahrzeuge erfolgreich mit Sonnenenergie betreiben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koethe, H.K.


    The book comprises the following chapters: 1. Solar power sources; 2. Solar power generation by means of solar cells; 3. Power supply for electric motors; 4. Electronic components; 5. Batteries; 6. Solar-powered equipment; 7. Electric motors; 8. A.c. and three-phase current motors; 9. D.c. motors; 10. Compact and miniature motors; 11. Design of solar drives; 12. Applications of compact solar motors; 13. Water pumps powered by compact motors; 14. Solar-powered electric road vehicles; 15. Solar-powered boats. (HW)

  20. Integrating Solar Power onto the Electric Grid - Bridging the Gap between Atmospheric Science, Engineering and Economics (United States)

    Ghonima, M. S.; Yang, H.; Zhong, X.; Ozge, B.; Sahu, D. K.; Kim, C. K.; Babacan, O.; Hanna, R.; Kurtz, B.; Mejia, F. A.; Nguyen, A.; Urquhart, B.; Chow, C. W.; Mathiesen, P.; Bosch, J.; Wang, G.


    One of the main obstacles to high penetrations of solar power is the variable nature of solar power generation. To mitigate variability, grid operators have to schedule additional reliability resources, at considerable expense, to ensure that load requirements are met by generation. Thus despite the cost of solar PV decreasing, the cost of integrating solar power will increase as penetration of solar resources onto the electric grid increases. There are three principal tools currently available to mitigate variability impacts: (i) flexible generation, (ii) storage, either virtual (demand response) or physical devices and (iii) solar forecasting. Storage devices are a powerful tool capable of ensuring smooth power output from renewable resources. However, the high cost of storage is prohibitive and markets are still being designed to leverage their full potential and mitigate their limitation (e.g. empty storage). Solar forecasting provides valuable information on the daily net load profile and upcoming ramps (increasing or decreasing solar power output) thereby providing the grid advance warning to schedule ancillary generation more accurately, or curtail solar power output. In order to develop solar forecasting as a tool that can be utilized by the grid operators we identified two focus areas: (i) develop solar forecast technology and improve solar forecast accuracy and (ii) develop forecasts that can be incorporated within existing grid planning and operation infrastructure. The first issue required atmospheric science and engineering research, while the second required detailed knowledge of energy markets, and power engineering. Motivated by this background we will emphasize area (i) in this talk and provide an overview of recent advancements in solar forecasting especially in two areas: (a) Numerical modeling tools for coastal stratocumulus to improve scheduling in the day-ahead California energy market. (b) Development of a sky imager to provide short term

  1. Solar Power (United States)

    Ford, Norman C.; Kane, Joseph W.


    Proposes a method of collecting solar energy by using available plastics for Fresnel lenses to focus heat onto a converter where thermal dissociation of water would produce hydrogen. The hydrogen would be used as an efficient non-polluting fuel. Cost estimates are included. (AL)

  2. Solar Power

    CERN Multimedia



    Le Prof. Broda, Prof. de Biochimie, Physique et Radiochimie à l'Université de Vienne, ville où il est né et où il a étudié, fait une brillante carrière accadémique et nous parle de l'énergie solaire.

  3. Antibody biotechnology | Benjouad | African Journal of Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (mAbs) have continuously stimulated the development of antibody engineering especially after the discovery hybridoma by Köhler and Milstein (1975). This review summarize the main antibody biotechnology approaches that have lead to the development of murine mAbs, chimeric mAbs, humanized mAbs , combinatorial ...

  4. Using the sun to decarbonize the power sector: The economic potential of photovoltaics and concentrating solar power


    Pietzcker, Robert Carl; Stetter, Daniel; Manger, Susanne; Luderer, Gunnar


    Photovoltaics (PV) has recently undergone impressive growth and substantial cost decreases, while deployment for concentrating solar power (CSP) has been much slower. As the share of PV rises, the challenge of system integration will increase. This favors CSP, which can be combined with thermal storage and co-firing to reduce variability. It is thus an open question how important solar power will be for achieving climate mitigation targets, and which solar technology will be dominant in the l...

  5. Proteomics: A Biotechnology Tool for Crop Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa eEldakak


    Full Text Available A sharp decline in the availability of arable land and sufficient supply of irrigation water along with a continuous steep increase in food demands have exerted a pressure on farmers to produce more with fewer resources. A viable solution to release this pressure is to speed up the plant breeding process by employing biotechnology in breeding programs. The majority of biotechnological applications rely on information generated from various -omic technologies. The latest outstanding improvements in proteomic platforms and many other but related advances in plant biotechnology techniques offer various new ways to encourage the usage of these technologies by plant scientists for crop improvement programs. A combinatorial approach of accelerated gene discovery through genomics, proteomics, and other associated -omic branches of biotechnology, as an applied approach, is proving to be an effective way to speed up the crop improvement programs worldwide. In the near future, swift improvements in -omic databases are becoming critical and demand immediate attention for the effective utilization of these techniques to produce next-generation crops for the progressive farmers. Here, we have reviewed the recent advances in proteomics, as tools of biotechnology, which are offering great promise and leading the path towards crop improvement for sustainable agriculture.

  6. Biotechnology of marine fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.; Singh, P.; Raghukumar, S.

    Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotes in industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Their biotechnological uses include the production of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, pigments, lipids and others. Marine fungi are a still...

  7. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  8. Biotechnology organizations in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    This volume analyzes the dynamics and interactive processes among the players (individuals, institutions, and organizations/firms) that have constituted and legitimized the development of the biotechnology industries. The unit of analysis is small entrepreneurial firms developing biotechnological...... products and processes. What types of strategies are small entrepreneurs pursuing in order to create markets for their new products and processes, and how have specific strategies emerged? The primary interest is the network process through which the technological field and the development of institutions...

  9. Development of a solar-powered electric bicycle in bike sharing transportation system (United States)

    Adhisuwignjo, S.; Siradjuddin, I.; Rifa'i, M.; Putri, R. I.


    The increasing mobility has directly led to deteriorating traffic conditions, extra fuel consumption, increasing automobile exhaust emissions, air pollution and lowering quality of life. Apart from being clean, cheap and equitable mode of transport for short-distance journeys, cycling can potentially offer solutions to the problem of urban mobility. Many cities have tried promoting cycling particularly through the implementation of bike-sharing. Apparently the fourth generation bikesharing system has been promoted utilizing electric bicycles which considered as a clean technology implementation. Utilization of solar power is probably the development keys in the fourth generation bikesharing system and will become the standard in bikesharing system in the future. Electric bikes use batteries as a source of energy, thus they require a battery charger system which powered from the solar cells energy. This research aims to design and implement electric bicycle battery charging system with solar energy sources using fuzzy logic algorithm. It is necessary to develop an electric bicycle battery charging system with solar energy sources using fuzzy logic algorithm. The study was conducted by means of experimental method which includes the design, manufacture and testing controller systems. The designed fuzzy algorithm have been planted in EEPROM microcontroller ATmega8535. The charging current was set at 1.2 Amperes and the full charged battery voltage was observed to be 40 Volts. The results showed a fuzzy logic controller was able to maintain the charging current of 1.2 Ampere with an error rate of less than 5% around the set point. The process of charging electric bike lead acid batteries from empty to fully charged was 5 hours. In conclusion, the development of solar-powered electric bicycle controlled using fuzzy logic controller can keep the battery charging current in solar-powered electric bicycle to remain stable. This shows that the fuzzy algorithm can be used as

  10. Feasibility Study of Space Based Solar Power to Tethered Aerostat Systems (United States)

    Blank, Stephen J.; Leete, Stephen J.; Jaffe, Paul


    The feasibility of two-stage Space-Based Solar Power to Tethered Aerostat to Earth (SSP-TA) system architectures that offer significant advantages over conventional single stage space-to-earth architectures is being studied. There have been many proposals for the transmission of solar power collected in space to the surface of the earth so that solar energy could provide a major part of the electric power requirements on earth. There are, however, serious difficulties in implementing the single stage space-based solar power systems that have been previously studied. These difficulties arise due to: i) the cost of transporting the components needed for the extremely large microwave transmit beaming aperture into space orbit, ii) the even larger collection apertures required on earth, iii) the potential radiation hazard to personnel and equipment on earth, and iv) a lack of flexibility in location of the collection station on the earth. Two candidate system architectures are described here to overcome these difficulties. In both cases a two-stage space to tethered aerostat to earth transmission system (SSP-TA) is proposed. The use of high altitude tethered aerostats (or powered airships) avoids the effects of attenuation of EM energy propagating through the earth s lower atmosphere. This allows the use of beaming frequencies to be chosen from the range of high millimeter (THz) to near-infra-red (NIR) to the visible. This has the potential for: i) greatly reduced transportation costs to space, ii) much smaller receiver collection apertures and ground stations, iii) elimination of the potential radiation hazard to personnel and equipment on earth, and iv) ease in transportation and flexibility in location of the collection station on the earth. A preliminary comparison of system performance and efficiencies is presented.

  11. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology. (United States)

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y


    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John I. Bruce


    Full Text Available Biotechnology as a science includes various aspects of the management and manipulation of biological systems. Recent advances in immunology, molecular biology, cell culture and other associated areas provide an opportunity for scientists to move biology out of the laboratory and into the realms of society. This has many implications which mankind on a whole may not be prepared to cope with at this time. This new capability has been referred to as "Biotechnology". Biotechnology has also been defined as "the integrated use of biochemistry, microbiology, and chemical engineering in order to achieve the capacities of microbes and culture cells". Genetic engineering which includes gene splicing and recombinant DNA-cloning is an example of a recent offshoot of biotechnology. Because of the advent of biotechnology, one can now think of the prospect of engineering tomorrows vaccines. In the past, vaccine development has been laborious and in many instances an unrewarding task. After years of effort only a handful of safe, effective vaccines have emerged. In the biotechnology arena, new methodologies and strategies for immunizing humans and domestic animals against infectious diseases are providing new hope for discovering successful vaccines. While most of the effort in the past has focused on viral vaccine development, attention is now being directed towards vaccines for protection against parasitic diseases. Currently, considerable effort is being made to develop vaccines for malaria, coccidiosis (in fowl, cholera, malaria, schistosomiasis and trypanosomiasis among others.

  13. Space Solar Power and Other Renewable Energy Sources: Understanding the Market (United States)

    MacAuley, Molly K.


    fossil fuels. In addition, a ground-based electricity generation system is now increasingly realized as also vulnerable to disruption. What advantages does space solar power (SSP) offer over other renewable energy sources (wind, terrestrial photovoltaics, biopower, and geothermal) in addressing these concerns? What are disadvantages? This paper discusses the economics of renewable energy in the United States' market in two geographic regions (the west coast and the north central regions) where renewable energy resources are abundant and relatively low cost (thus, aggressively competitive with SSP), but where the security and reliability advantages of SSP may indeed outweigh any generation cost advantage of the terrestrial technologies.

  14. Multi-site solar power forecasting using gradient boosted regression trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Caroline Stougård; Bacher, Peder; Shiga, Takahiro


    The challenges to optimally utilize weather dependent renewable energy sources call for powerful tools for forecasting. This paper presents a non-parametric machine learning approach used for multi-site prediction of solar power generation on a forecast horizon of one to six hours. Historical power...... of root mean squared error on all forecast horizons. The predictive performance and the simplicity of the model setup make the boosted tree model a simple and attractive compliment to conventional forecasting techniques. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. Role of Concentrating Solar Power in Integrating Solar and Wind Energy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.


    As wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) increase in penetration it is increasingly important to examine enabling technologies that can help integrate these resources at large scale. Concentrating solar power (CSP) when deployed with thermal energy storage (TES) can provide multiple services that can help integrate variable generation (VG) resources such as wind and PV. CSP with TES can provide firm, highly flexible capacity, reducing minimum generation constraints which limit penetration and results in curtailment. By acting as an enabling technology, CSP can complement PV and wind, substantially increasing their penetration in locations with adequate solar resource.

  16. Performance Analysis and Optimization of a Solar Powered Stirling Engine with Heat Transfer Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-En Ho


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the optimization of the performance of a solar powered Stirling engine based on finite-time thermodynamics. Heat transference in the heat exchangers between a concentrating solar collector and the Stirling engine is studied. The irreversibility of a Stirling engine is considered with the heat transfer following Newton's law. The power generated by a Stirling engine is used as an objective function for maximum power output design with the concentrating solar collector temperature and the engine thermal efficiency as the optimization parameters. The maximum output power of engine and its corresponding system parameters are determined using a genetic algorithm.

  17. Thermal design of a fully equipped solar-powered desert home

    KAUST Repository

    Serag-Eldin, M.A.


    The paper presents a conceptual design and thermodynamic analysis of a solar-powered desert home. The home is airconditioned and provides all modern comforts and facilities. Electrical power, which drives the entire energy system, is generated by roof mounted photovoltaic modules. A detailed dynamic heat transfer analysis is conducted for the building envelope, coupled with a solar radiation model. A dynamic heat balance for a typical Middle-Eastern desert site, reveals that indeed such a design is feasible with present day technology; and should be even more attractive with future advances in technology.

  18. Nanoimprinted photonic crystal color filters for solar-powered reflective displays. (United States)

    Cho, Eun-Hyoung; Kim, Hae-Sung; Sohn, Jin-Seung; Moon, Chang-Youl; Park, No-Cheol; Park, Young-Pil


    A novel concept for reflective displays that uses two-dimensional photonic crystals with subwavelength gratings is introduced. A solar-powered reflective display with photonic crystal color filters was analyzed by a theoretical approach. We fabricated the photonic crystal color filters on a glass substrate by using low-cost nanoimprint lithography and multi-scan excimer laser annealing to produce RGB color filters through a single patterning process. The theoretical and experimental results show that the color filters have high reflectance and angular tolerance, which was qualitatively confirmed by chromaticity coordination analysis.

  19. Optimization technique for improved microwave transmission from multi-solar power satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, G.D.; Kerwin, E.M.


    An optimization technique for generating antenna illumination tapers allows improved microwave transmission efficiencies from proposed solar power satellite (SPS) systems and minimizes sidelobe levels to meet preset environmental standards. The cumulative microwave power density levels from 50 optimized SPS systems are calculated at the centroids of each of the 3073 counties in the continental United States. These cumulative levels are compared with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) measured levels of electromagnetic radiation in seven eastern cities. Effects of rectenna relocations upon the power levels/population exposure rates are also studied.

  20. Open-WiSe: a solar powered wireless sensor network platform. (United States)

    González, Apolinar; Aquino, Raúl; Mata, Walter; Ochoa, Alberto; Saldaña, Pedro; Edwards, Arthur


    Because battery-powered nodes are required in wireless sensor networks and energy consumption represents an important design consideration, alternate energy sources are needed to provide more effective and optimal function. The main goal of this work is to present an energy harvesting wireless sensor network platform, the Open Wireless Sensor node (WiSe). The design and implementation of the solar powered wireless platform is described including the hardware architecture, firmware, and a POSIX Real-Time Kernel. A sleep and wake up strategy was implemented to prolong the lifetime of the wireless sensor network. This platform was developed as a tool for researchers investigating Wireless sensor network or system integrators.

  1. Sulfur Based Thermochemical Heat Storage for Baseload Concentrated Solar Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Bunsen [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)


    This project investigates the engineering and economic feasibility of supplying baseload power using a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant integrated with sulfur based thermochemical heat storage. The technology stores high temperature solar heat in the chemical bonds of elemental sulfur. Energy is recovered as high temperature heat upon sulfur combustion. Extensive developmental and design work associated with sulfur dioxide (SO2) disproportionation and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) decomposition chemical reactions used in this technology had been carried out in the two completed phases of this project. The feasibility and economics of the proposed concept was demonstrated and determined.

  2. Space power system utilizing Fresnel lenses for solar power and also thermal energy storage (United States)

    Turner, R. H.


    A solar power plant suitable for earth orbits passing through Van Allen radiation belts is described. The solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency is estimated to be around 9 percent, and the expected power-to-weight ratio is competitive with photovoltaic arrays. The system is designed to be self-contained, to be indifferent to radiation belt exposures, store energy for periods when the orbiting system is in earth shadow (so that power generation is contant), have no moving parts and no working fluids, and be robust against micrometeorite attack. No electrical batteries are required.

  3. Multi-objective PSO based optimal placement of solar power DG in radial distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Kumar


    Full Text Available Ever increasing trend of electricity demand, fossil fuel depletion and environmental issues request the integration of renewable energy into the distribution system. The optimal planning of renewable distributed generation (DG is much essential for ensuring maximum benefits. Hence, this paper proposes the optimal placement of probabilistic based solar power DG into the distribution system. The two objective functions such as power loss reduction and voltage stability index improvement are optimized. The power balance and voltage limits are kept as constraints of the problem. The non-sorting pare to-front based multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO technique is proposed on standard IEEE 33 radial distribution test system.

  4. Domestic Material Content in Molten-Salt Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This study lists material composition data for two concentrating solar power (CSP) plant designs: a molten-salt power tower and a hypothetical parabolic trough plant, both of which employ a molten salt for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and thermal storage media. The two designs have equivalent generating and thermal energy storage capacities. The material content of the saltHTF trough plant was approximately 25% lower than a comparably sized conventional oil-HTF parabolic trough plant. The significant reduction in oil, salt, metal, and insulation mass by switching to a salt-HTF design is expected to reduce the capital cost and LCOE for the parabolic trough system.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Biosecurity is a relatively new area global, being promoted by the significant results, particularly in the last 20 years, fundamental and applied research. Biotechnology is a collection of techniques that can be used in the agro-food, medical and industrial. The paper examines the potential impact of transgenic biotechnology, vulnerabilities, implications, benefits and risks, quality of life and health. Introduction into the environment, cross-border trade and use of GMOs resulting from modern biotechnology can untoward effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, food security and safety. It is openly acknowledged that modern biotechnology has great potential to promote human welfare, in particular, to overcome the critical needs in food, agriculture and human health. Establish appropriate safety measures when using genetically modified organisms (biosecurity policy, regulatory regime, scientific and technical measures is a highly sensitive process, aiming both to maximize the benefits of modern biotechnology and to minimize potential risk

  6. Impact of climate change on future concentrated solar power (CSP) production (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Folini, Doris; Henschel, Florian


    Traditionally, for the planning and assessment of solar power plants, the amount of solar radiation incident on the Earth's surface is assumed to be invariable over the years. However, with changing climate and air pollution levels, solar resources may no longer be stable over time and undergo substantial decadal changes. Observational records covering several decades indeed confirm long-term changes in this quantity. In a previous study (Wild et al. 2015, Solar Energy)1 we examined how the latest generation of climate models (CMIP5) projects potential changes in surface solar radiation over the coming decades, and how this may affect, in combination with the expected greenhouse warming, future power output from photovoltaic (PV) systems. In the present complementary study, we use the CMIP5 model projections to estimate possible future changes in power output from Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) systems due to changing climate and air pollution levels up to the mid-21th century. The results indicate a potential for future increases in CSP production in many parts of the globe, with few exceptions such as the North of India and the irrelevant polar areas. Compared to the changes in PV production, the estimated future production changes by CSP are larger by a factor of 4.

  7. Concentrating Solar Power: Best Practices Handbook for the Collection and Use of Solar Resource Data (CSP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffel, T.; Renne, D.; Myers, D.; Wilcox, S.; Sengupta, M.; George, R.; Turchi, C.


    As the world looks for low-carbon sources of energy, solar power stands out as the most abundant energy resource. Harnessing this energy is the challenge for this century. Photovoltaics and concentrating solar power (CSP) are two primary forms of electricity generation using sunlight. These use different technologies, collect different fractions of the solar resource, and have different siting and production capabilities. Although PV systems are most often deployed as distributed generation sources, CSP systems favor large, centrally located systems. Accordingly, large CSP systems require a substantial investment, sometimes exceeding $1 billion in construction costs. Before such a project is undertaken, the best possible information about the quality and reliability of the fuel source must be made available. That is, project developers need to have reliable data about the solar resource available at specific locations to predict the daily and annual performance of a proposed CSP plant. Without these data, no financial analysis is possible. This handbook presents detailed information about solar resource data and the resulting data products needed for each stage of the project.

  8. Prefeasibility Study of a Solar Power Plant Project and Optimization of a Meteorological Station Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Derouich


    Full Text Available A prefeasibility study of a solar power plant project was carried out in order to study and search the best location to install a concentrated solar power plant according to a tender with the Algerian electricity company “SPE” following a specific criteria and methodology in order to obtain a site with a maximum possible irradiation along with other economic constraints. Normally, eleven years of solar irradiation data from an on-ground weather station is needed for site assessment, such data are not available, hence the typical meteorological year irradiation based on satellite imagery results is needed in order to have the accurate value, therefore we can give the right evaluation for the site candidate. Additionally, an analysis of a weather measurement station was carried out to ensure the proper functioning of the weather data reception and analysis processes, and thus to optimize the algorithm of a data logger in order to get the right measurement with a minimum error. The correction algorithm was developed by weather scientists and was added to the data logger main program.

  9. Financial and Performance Analyses of Microcontroller Based Solar-Powered Autorickshaw for a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Raihan Mohammad Siddique


    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study to examine the economic viability and performance analysis of a microcontroller based solar powered battery operated autorickshaw (m-SBAR, for the developing countries, which is compared with different types of rickshaws such as pedal rickshaw (PR, battery operated autorickshaw (BAR, and solar-powered battery operated autorickshaw (SBAR, available in Bangladesh. The BAR consists of a rickshaw structure, a battery bank, a battery charge controller, a DC motor driver, and a DC motor whereas the proposed m-SBAR contains additional components like solar panel and microcontroller based DC motor driver. The complete design considered the local radiation data and load profile of the proposed m-SBAR. The Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE analysis, Net Present Worth, payback periods, and Benefit-to-Cost Ratio methods have been used to evaluate the financial feasibility and sensitivity analysis of m-SBAR, grid-powered BAR, and PR. The numerical analysis reveals that LCOE and Benefit-to-Cost Ratio of the proposed m-SBAR are lower compared to the grid-powered BAR. It has also been found that microcontroller based DC motor control circuit reduces battery discharge rate, improves battery life, and controls motor speed efficiency.

  10. Simulation and Evaluation of Small Scale Solar Power Tower Performance under Malaysia Weather Conditions (United States)

    Gamil, A. M.; Gilani, S. I.; Al-Kayiem, H. H.


    Solar energy is the most available, clean, and inexpensive source of energy among the other renewable sources of energy. Malaysia is an encouraging location for the development of solar energy systems due to abundant sunshine (10 hours daily with average solar energy received between 1400 and 1900 kWh/m2). In this paper the design of heliostat field of 3 dual-axis heliostat units located in Ipoh, Malaysia is introduced. A mathematical model was developed to estimate the sun position and calculate the cosine losses in the field. The study includes calculating the incident solar power to a fixed target on the tower by analysing the tower height and ground distance between the heliostat and the tower base. The cosine efficiency was found for each heliostat according to the sun movement. TRNSYS software was used to simulate the cosine efficiencies and field hourly incident solar power input to the fixed target. The results show the heliostat field parameters and the total incident solar input to the receiver.

  11. Lessons learned on solar powered wireless sensor network deployments in urban, desert environments

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Ahmad H.


    The successful deployment of a large scale solar powered wireless sensor network in an urban, desert environment is a very complex task. Specific cities of such environments cause a variety of operational problems, ranging from hardware faults to operational challenges, for instance due to the high variability of solar energy availability. Even a seemingly functional sensor network created in the lab does not guarantee reliable long term operation, which is absolutely necessary given the cost and difficulty of accessing sensor nodes in urban environments. As part of a larger traffic flow wireless sensor network project, we conducted several deployments in the last two years to evaluate the long-term performance of solar-powered urban wireless sensor networks in a desert area. In this article, we share our experiences in all domains of sensor network operations, from the conception of hardware to post-deployment analysis, including operational constraints that directly impact the software that can be run. We illustrate these experiences using numerous experimental results, and present multiple unexpected operational problems as well as some possible solutions to address them. We also show that current technology is far from meeting all operational constraints for these demanding applications, in which sensor networks are to operate for years to become economically appealing.

  12. Lobatto-Milstein Numerical Method in Application of Uncertainty Investment of Solar Power Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Eissa


    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a growing interest in the production of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES. The RES investment is characterized by uncertainty, which is long-term, costly and depends on feed-in tariff and support schemes. In this paper, we address the real option valuation (ROV of a solar power plant investment. The real option framework is investigated. This framework considers the renewable certificate price and, further, the cost of delay between establishing and operating the solar power plant. The optimal time of launching the project and assessing the value of the deferred option are discussed. The new three-stage numerical methods are constructed, the Lobatto3C-Milstein (L3CM methods. The numerical methods are integrated with the concept of Black–Scholes option pricing theory and applied in option valuation for solar energy investment with uncertainty. The numerical results of the L3CM, finite difference and Monte Carlo methods are compared to show the efficiency of our methods. Our dataset refers to the Arab Republic of Egypt.

  13. Solar Power Satellite system in formation on a common geostationary orbit (United States)

    Salazar, F. J. T.; Winter, O. C.


    The diurnal day-night cycle severely limits the Terrestrial solar power. To overcome this limitation, a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) system, consisting of a sunlight reflector and a microwave energy generator-transmitter in formation, is presented in this work. The microwave transmitting satellite (MTS) is placed on a common geostationary orbit (GEO) in the Earth’s equatorial plane, and the sunlight reflector uses the solar radiation pressure to achieve quasi-periodic orbits about the MTS, so that the sunlight is always redirected to the MTS, which converts the solar energy in electromagnetic power and transmits it by microwaves to an Earth-receiving antenna. Assuming the sun line direction constant at dierent seasons (i.e. autumn/spring equinoxes and winter and summer solstices), previous studies have shown the existence of a family of displaced ecliptic orbits above or below the equatorial plane of the Earth around a GEO. In this study, the position of the Sun is assumed on the ecliptic plane with a mean obliquity (inclination of Earth’s equator with respect to the ecliptic) of 23.5◦. A linear solution as an initial condition for the full equations of motions about a GEO, which yields bounded orbit for the sunlight reflector about the MTS in the Earth-satellite two-body problem with solar radiation pressure. To redirect the sunlight to the MTS, the law of reflection is satisfied by the space mirror attitude.

  14. Solar-powered hearing aids for children with impaired hearing in Vietnam: a pilot study. (United States)

    Vo, Quang Thanh; Pham, Dung; Choi, Kevin J; Nguyen, Uyen T T; Le, Lan; Shanewise, Trudy; Tran, Lien; Nguyen, Nga; Lee, Walter T


    Hearing loss is a barrier to speech and social and cognitive development. This can be especially pronounced in children living in low- and middle-income countries with limited resources. To determine the feasibility, durability and social impact of ComCare GLW solar-powered hearing aids provided for Vietnamese children with hearing impairment. A retrospective review of data from an international, multi-discipline humanitarian visit was performed. Hearing aids were given to 28 children enrolled at the Khoai Chau Functional Rehabilitation School, Hung Yen Province, Vietnam. Device inspection and observational assessments were performed by teachers using a modified Parents' Evaluation of Aural/Oral Performance of Children and an Infant Hearing Program Amplification Benefit Questionnaire. Qualitative interviews were undertaken to assess the study aims. Hearing aids were well tolerated for use during regular school hours. All units remained functional during the study period (12 months). Teachers noted increased student awareness and responsiveness to surrounding sounds, but the degree of response to amplification varied between children. There was no significant improvement in speech development as all subjects had prelingual deafness. Teachers felt confident in troubleshooting any potential device malfunction. A solar-powered hearing aid may be a viable option for children in low- and middle-income countries. This study demonstrates that device distribution, maintenance and function can be established in countries with limited resources, while providing feasibility data to support future studies investigating how similar devices may improve the quality of life of those with hearing loss.

  15. Coherence-limited solar power conversion: the fundamental thermodynamic bounds and the consequences for solar rectennas (United States)

    Mashaal, Heylal; Gordon, Jeffrey M.


    Solar rectifying antennas constitute a distinct solar power conversion paradigm where sunlight's spatial coherence is a basic constraining factor. In this presentation, we derive the fundamental thermodynamic limit for coherence-limited blackbody (principally solar) power conversion. Our results represent a natural extension of the eponymous Landsberg limit, originally derived for converters that are not constrained by the radiation's coherence, and are irradiated at maximum concentration (i.e., with a view factor of unity to the solar disk). We proceed by first expanding Landsberg's results to arbitrary solar view factor (i.e., arbitrary concentration and/or angular confinement), and then demonstrate how the results are modified when the converter can only process coherent radiation. The results are independent of the specific power conversion mechanism, and hence are valid for diffraction-limited as well as quantum converters (and not just classical heat engines or in the geometric optics regime). The derived upper bounds bode favorably for the potential of rectifying antennas as potentially high-efficiency solar converters.

  16. The Solar Umbrella: A Low-cost Demonstration of Scalable Space Based Solar Power (United States)

    Contreras, Michael T.; Trease, Brian P.; Sherwood, Brent


    Within the past decade, the Space Solar Power (SSP) community has seen an influx of stakeholders willing to entertain the SSP prospect of potentially boundless, base-load solar energy. Interested parties affiliated with the Department of Defense (DoD), the private sector, and various international entities have all agreed that while the benefits of SSP are tremendous and potentially profitable, the risk associated with developing an efficient end to end SSP harvesting system is still very high. In an effort to reduce the implementation risk for future SSP architectures, this study proposes a system level design that is both low-cost and seeks to demonstrate the furthest transmission of wireless power to date. The overall concept is presented and each subsystem is explained in detail with best estimates of current implementable technologies. Basic cost models were constructed based on input from JPL subject matter experts and assume that the technology demonstration would be carried out by a federally funded entity. The main thrust of the architecture is to demonstrate that a usable amount of solar power can be safely and reliably transmitted from space to the Earth's surface; however, maximum power scalability limits and their cost implications are discussed.

  17. Wearable Large-Scale Perovskite Solar-Power Source via Nanocellular Scaffold. (United States)

    Hu, Xiaotian; Huang, Zengqi; Zhou, Xue; Li, Pengwei; Wang, Yang; Huang, Zhandong; Su, Meng; Ren, Wanjie; Li, Fengyu; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Yiwang; Song, Yanlin


    Dramatic advances in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and the blossoming of wearable electronics have triggered tremendous demands for flexible solar-power sources. However, the fracturing of functional crystalline films and transmittance wastage from flexible substrates are critical challenges to approaching the high-performance PSCs with flexural endurance. In this work, a nanocellular scaffold is introduced to architect a mechanics buffer layer and optics resonant cavity. The nanocellular scaffold releases mechanical stresses during flexural experiences and significantly improves the crystalline quality of the perovskite films. The nanocellular optics resonant cavity optimizes light harvesting and charge transportation of devices. More importantly, these flexible PSCs, which demonstrate excellent performance and mechanical stability, are practically fabricated in modules as a wearable solar-power source. A power conversion efficiency of 12.32% for a flexible large-scale device (polyethylene terephthalate substrate, indium tin oxide-free, 1.01 cm2 ) is achieved. This ingenious flexible structure will enable a new approach for development of wearable electronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Robotized Inspection of Vertical Structures of a Solar Power Plant Using NDT Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Felsch


    Full Text Available Concentrated solar power (CSP plants are expansive facilities that require substantial inspection and maintenance. A fully automated inspection robot increases the efficiency of maintenance work, reduces operating and maintenance costs, and improves safety and work conditions for service technicians. This paper describes a climbing robot that is capable of performing inspection and maintenance on vertical surfaces of solar power plants, e.g., the tubes of the receiver in a central tower CSP plant. Specifically, the service robot’s climbing mechanism is explained and the results of the nondestructive inspection methods are reviewed. The robot moves on the panels of the receiver in the tower and aligns the sensors correctly for inspection. The vertical movement of the climbing kinematics is synchronized with the movement of the tower’s crane. Various devices that detect surface defects and thickness losses inside the tube were integrated into the robot. Since the tubes are exposed to very high radiation, they need to be inspected regularly.

  19. Energy storage and power conditioning aspects of photovoltaic solar power systems. Volume I. First quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Solar energy may be utilized as thermal energy or converted into electricity by solar cells. ERDA's National Photovoltaic Conversion Program is concerned with this latter approach and is currently sponsoring industrial programs for photovoltaic systems and devices. In one such program, Spectrolab, Inc., is charged with performing conceptual design and analysis of three photovoltaic solar power systems. The sizes of these three systems will cover the requirements of residential, commercial and electric utility central station applications. In addition to a solar cell array, photovoltaic power systems must also include an energy storage system to enable operation during periods of low insolation and a power conditioning system to control the dc power from the array and convert it into an ac waveshape compatible with existing electrical equipment. The Scientific Development Operation of Bechtel Corporation is participating in the Spectrolab program by compiling and studying data on the energy storage and power conditioning aspects of all three photovoltaic solar power systems and by the conceptual design of the system for electric utility central station applications. The results of the energy storage and power conditioning study effort are presented in this report. (W.D.M.)

  20. Design approach for solar cell and battery of a persistent solar powered GPS tracker (United States)

    Sahraei, Nasim; Watson, Sterling M.; Pennes, Anthony; Marius Peters, Ian; Buonassisi, Tonio


    Sensors with wireless communication can be powered by photovoltaic (PV) devices. However, using solar power requires thoughtful design of the power system, as well as a careful management of the power consumption, especially for devices with cellular communication (because of their higher power consumption). A design approach can minimize system size, weight, and/or cost, while maximizing device performance (data transmission rate and persistence). In this contribution, we describe our design approach for a small form-factor, solar-powered GPS tracker with cellular communication. We evaluate the power consumption of the device in different stages of operation. Combining measured power consumption and the calculated energy-yield of a solar cell, we estimate the battery capacity and solar cell area required for 5 years of continuous operation. We evaluate trade-offs between PV and battery size by simulating the battery state of charge. The data show a trade-off between battery capacity and solar-cell area for given target data transmission rate and persistence. We use this analysis to determine the combination of solar panel area and battery capacity for a given application and the data transmission rate that results in minimum cost or total weight of the system.

  1. Control of Solar Power Plants Connected Grid with Simple Calculation Method on Residential Homes (United States)

    Kananda, Kiki; Nazir, Refdinal


    One of the most compatible renewable energy in all regions to apply is solar energy. Solar power plants can be built connected to existing or stand-alone power grids. In assisting the residential electricity in which there is a power grid, then a small scale solar energy power plants is very appropriate. However, the general constraint of solar energy power plants is still low in terms of efficiency. Therefore, this study will explain how to control the power of solar power plants more optimally, which is expected to reactive power to zero to raise efficiency. This is a continuation of previous research using Newton Rapshon control method. In this study we introduce a simple method by using ordinary mathematical calculations of solar-related equations. In this model, 10 PV modules type of ND T060M1 with a 60 Wp capacity are used. The calculations performed using MATLAB Simulink provide excellent value. For PCC voltage values obtained a stable quantity of approximately 220 V. At a maximum irradiation condition of 1000 W / m2, the reactive power value of Q solar generating system maximum 20.48 Var and maximum active power of 417.5 W. In the condition of lower irradiation, value of reactive power Q almost close to zero 0.77Var. This simple mathematical method can provide excellent quality control power values.

  2. Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Schuller; Frank Little; Darren Malik; Matt Betts; Qian Shao; Jun Luo; Wan Zhong; Sandhya Shankar; Ashwin Padmanaban


    We demonstrated that adding nanoparticles to a molten salt would increase its utility as a thermal energy storage medium for a concentrating solar power system. Specifically, we demonstrated that we could increase the specific heat of nitrate and carbonate salts containing 1% or less of alumina nanoparticles. We fabricated the composite materials using both evaporative and air drying methods. We tested several thermophysical properties of the composite materials, including the specific heat, thermal conductivity, latent heat, and melting point. We also assessed the stability of the composite material with repeated thermal cycling and the effects of adding the nanoparticles on the corrosion of stainless steel by the composite salt. Our results indicate that stable, repeatable 25-50% improvements in specific heat are possible for these materials. We found that using these composite salts as the thermal energy storage material for a concentrating solar thermal power system can reduce the levelized cost of electricity by 10-20%. We conclude that these materials are worth further development and inclusion in future concentrating solar power systems.

  3. Design and development of solar power-assisted manual/electric wheelchair. (United States)

    Chien, Chi-Sheng; Huang, Tung-Yung; Liao, Tze-Yuan; Kuo, Tsung-Yuan; Lee, Tzer-Min


    Wheelchairs are an essential assistive device for many individuals with injury or disability. Manual wheelchairs provide a relatively low-cost solution to the mobility needs of such individuals. Furthermore, they provide an effective means of improving the user's cardiopulmonary function and upper-limb muscle strength. However, manual wheelchairs have a loss gross mechanical efficiency, and thus the risk of user fatigue and upper-limb injury is increased. Electric-powered wheelchairs reduce the risk of injury and provide a more convenient means of transportation. However, they have a large physical size and are relatively expensive. Accordingly, the present study utilizes a quality function deployment method to develop a wheelchair with a user-selectable manual/electric propulsion mode and an auxiliary solar power supply system. The auxiliary solar power supply increased the travel range of the wheelchair by approximately 26% compared with that of a wheelchair powered by battery alone. Moreover, the wheelchair has a modular design and can be disassembled and folded for ease of transportation or storage. Overall, the present results suggest that the proposed wheelchair provides an effective and convenient means of meeting the mobility needs of individuals with mobility difficulties.

  4. Teknologi Portable Inflated Solar Power Cold Storage House Sebagai Fasilitas Pendukung Peningkatan Produksi Dan Pemasaran Perikanan Nelayan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ikhsan Setiawan


    Full Text Available Global fish production currently reaches 158 million tons with the largest number of 91.3 million tons coming from the capture fisheries sector. Export results continue to increase to 35.4 billion dollars in 2012. Portable Inflated Solar Power Cold Storage House technology as a production support facility and fishermen fisheries marketing, can be constructed and transferred to certain residential locations easily, safely, quickly and lightly (0.55 mm PVC Terpaulin. Research Methods using Experimental Method and Action Research, beginning with the development of design, manufacturing, testing and repairing of prototype. Portable Inflated Solar Power Cold Storage House included: (1 technical test the speed of manufacture, transportation, assembly, installation, disassembly of Portable Inflated Structure, (2 Solar Power Cold Storage technical test related to Solar Power and Cold Storage products according to the condition of fisherman, so the fisherman fish results obtained are hygienic, cheap and profitable. The first year to develop the design of prototype Portable Inflated Solar Power Cold Storage House, followed by making prototype and ended with a prototype trial test at Narotama University Laboratory. The results of this research were continued mass production to support the acceleration of national fish absorption that hygienic, cheap and profitable.

  5. Biotechnology and bioeconomy in China. (United States)

    Li, Qing; Zhao, Qinghua; Hu, Yihong; Wang, Hongguang


    From the review of the achievements and advantages in the development of biotechnology (BT) and bioindustry in China, it is clear that the bioeconomy would provide a tremendous opportunity for China to develop sustainably or even surpass a few developed countries. A long-term vision has been made to guide the research and development and industrialization of BT in China. This review detailed the strategies, targets, priorities, and key technologies in each stage. Furthermore, the reviewers expatiated on the establishment of the favorable policies, the foundation of the professional groups, the establishment of the advanced laboratories or centers, the investment mechanisms, the development and evaluation of biosafety, the encouragement and support for the international collaborations and exchanges, and the establishment of the general organizational structure.

  6. [Biotechnology's macroeconomic impact]. (United States)

    Dones Tacero, Milagros; Pérez García, Julián; San Román, Antonio Pulido


    This paper tries to yield an economic valuation of biotechnological activities in terms of aggregated production and employment. This valuation goes beyond direct estimation and includes the indirect effects derived from sectorial linkages between biotechnological activities and the rest of economic system. To deal with the proposed target several sources of data have been used, including official data from National Statistical Office (INE) such us national accounts, input-output tables, and innovation surveys, as well as, firms' level balance sheets and income statements and also specific information about research projects compiled by Genoma Spain Foundation. Methodological approach is based on the estimation of a new input-output table which includes the biotechnological activities as a specific branch. This table offers both the direct impact of these activities and the main parameters to obtain the induced effects over the rest of the economic system. According to the most updated available figures, biotechnological activities would have directly generated almost 1,600 millions of euros in 2005, and they would be employed more than 9,000 workers. But if we take into account the full linkages with the rest of the system, the macroeconomic impact of Biotechnological activities would reach around 5,000 millions euros in production terms (0.6% of total GDP) and would be responsible, directly or indirectly, of more than 44,000 employments.

  7. Sustainable biotechnology: sources of renewable energy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Om V; Harvey, Steven P


    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anuj K. Chandel, Om V. Singh, and L.Venkateswar Rao 63 Tactical Garbage to Energy Refinery (TGER) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . James J. Valdes and Jerry B. Warner...

  8. Fueling industrial biotechnology growth with bioethanol. (United States)

    Otero, José Manuel; Panagiotou, Gianni; Olsson, Lisbeth


    Industrial biotechnology is the conversion of biomass via biocatalysis, microbial fermentation, or cell culture to produce chemicals, materials, and/or energy. Industrial biotechnology processes aim to be cost-competitive, environmentally favorable, and self-sustaining compared to their petrochemical equivalents. Common to all processes for the production of energy, commodity, added value, or fine chemicals is that raw materials comprise the most significant cost fraction, particularly as operating efficiencies increase through practice and improving technologies. Today, crude petroleum represents the dominant raw material for the energy and chemical sectors worldwide. Within the last 5 years petroleum prices, stability, and supply have increased, decreased, and been threatened, respectively, driving a renewed interest across academic, government, and corporate centers to utilize biomass as an alternative raw material. Specifically, bio-based ethanol as an alternative biofuel has emerged as the single largest biotechnology commodity, with close to 46 billion L produced worldwide in 2005. Bioethanol is a leading example of how systems biology tools have significantly enhanced metabolic engineering, inverse metabolic engineering, and protein and enzyme engineering strategies. This enhancement stems from method development for measurement, analysis, and data integration of functional genomics, including the transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and fluxome. This review will show that future industrial biotechnology process development will benefit tremendously from the precedent set by bioethanol - that enabling technologies (e.g., systems biology tools) coupled with favorable economic and socio-political driving forces do yield profitable, sustainable, and environmentally responsible processes. Biofuel will continue to be the keystone of any industrial biotechnology-based economy whereby biorefineries leverage common raw materials and unit operations to integrate

  9. Colloids in Biotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Fanun, Monzer


    Colloids have come a long way from when Thomas Graham coined the term colloid to describe 'pseudo solutions'. This book enables scientists to close the gap between extensive research and translation into commercial options in biomedicine and biotechnology. It covers biosurfactants and surface properties, phase behavior, and orientational change of surfactant mixtures with peptides at the interface. It also covers adsorption of polymers and biopolymers on the surface and interface, discusses colloidal nanoparticles and their use in biotechnology, and delves into bioadhesion and microencapsulati

  10. Disclosing Biology Teachers' Beliefs about Biotechnology and Biotechnology Education (United States)

    Fonseca, Maria Joao; Costa, Patricio; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando


    Teachers have been shown to frequently avoid addressing biotechnology topics. Aiming to understand the extent to which teachers' scarce engagement in biotechnology teaching is influenced by their beliefs and/or by extrinsic constraints, such as practical limitations, this study evaluates biology teachers' beliefs about biotechnology and…

  11. Concentrating Solar Power - Molten Salt Pump Development, Final Technical Report (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael McDowell; Alan Schwartz


    goal is to design a pump for a trough solar power plant system, the intent is for the design to be extensible to a solar power tower application. This can be accomplished by adding pumping stages to increase the discharge pressure to the levels necessary for a solar power tower application. This report incorporates all available conceptual design information completed for this project in Phase I.

  12. National Center for Biotechnology Information (United States)

    ... to NCBI Sign Out NCBI National Center for Biotechnology Information Search database All Databases Assembly Biocollections BioProject ... Search Welcome to NCBI The National Center for Biotechnology Information advances science and health by providing access ...

  13. Reduced storage and balancing needs in a fully renewable European power system with excess wind and solar power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin; von Bremen, Lüder

    The storage and balancing needs of a simplified European power system, which is based on wind and solar power generation only, are derived from an extensive weather-driven modeling of hourly power mismatches between generation and load. The storage energy capacity, the annual balancing energy...... and the balancing power are found to depend significantly on the mixing ratio between wind and solar power generation. They decrease strongly with the overall excess generation. At 50% excess generation the required long-term storage energy capacity and annual balancing energy amount to 1% of the annual consumption...

  14. Reduced storage and balancing needs in a fully renewable European power system with excess wind and solar power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin; von Bremen, Lüder


    The storage and balancing needs of a simplified European power system, which is based on wind and solar power generation only, are derived from an extensive weather-driven modeling of hourly power mismatches between generation and load. The storage energy capacity, the annual balancing energy...... and the balancing power are found to depend significantly on the mixing ratio between wind and solar power generation. They decrease strongly with the overall excess generation. At 50% excess generation the required long-term storage energy capacity and annual balancing energy amount to 1% of the annual consumption...

  15. Design and simulation of front end power converter for a microgrid with fuel cells and solar power sources (United States)

    Jeevargi, Chetankumar; Lodhi, Anuj; Sateeshkumar, Allu; Elangovan, D.; Arunkumar, G.


    The need for Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is increasing due to increased demand for the supply of power and it is also environment friendly.In the recent few years, the cost of generation of the power from the RES has been decreased. This paper aims to design the front end power converter which is required for integrating the fuel cells and solar power sources to the micro grid. The simulation of the designed front end converter is carried out in the PSIM 9.1.1 software. The results show that the designed front end power converter is sufficient for integrating the micro grid with fuel cells and solar power sources.

  16. Hypermodular Self-Assembling Space Solar Power -- Design Option for Mid-Term GEO Utility-Scale Power Plants

    CERN Document Server

    Leitgab, Martin


    This paper presents a design for scaleable space solar power systems based on free-flying reflectors and module self-assembly. Lower system cost of utility-scale space solar power is achieved by design independence of yet-to-be-built in-space assembly or transportation infrastructure. Using current and expected near-term technology, this study describe a design for mid-term utility-scale power plants in geosynchronous orbits. High-level economic considerations in the context of current and expected future launch costs are given as well.

  17. Fostering biotechnology entrepreneurship in developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Key words: Entrepreneur, biotechnology, investment. INTRODUCTION. The biotechnological revolution has been ... western economies, biotechnology provides the promise to vastly improve the quality of life. The new ... At the forefront to exploit biotechnology in developing countries should be the entrepreneurial scientist.

  18. Food production in developing countries - the role of plant biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Ferreira


    Full Text Available The world is facing major problems with regard to food production. Agricultural land suffers from various conditions which make it less efficient for crop production while the rapid population growth, especially in developing countries, raises concern for sustainable food production. The Green Revolution has failed to secure sustainable food production and it is hoped that biotechnology will facilitate the transition to more sustainable agriculture. Excellent progress has been made with both Cell Biology (tissue culture and Molecular Biology (genetic engineering.

  19. The contribution of microbial biotechnology to economic growth and employment creation. (United States)

    Timmis, Kenneth; de Lorenzo, Victor; Verstraete, Willy; Ramos, Juan Luis; Danchin, Antoine; Brüssow, Harald; Singh, Brajesh K; Timmis, James Kenneth


    Our communication discusses the profound impact of bio-based economies - in particular microbial biotechnologies - on SDG 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all. A bio-based economy provides significant potential for improving labour supply, education and investment, and thereby for substantially increasing the demographic dividend. This, in turn, improves the sustainable development of economies. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Are policy incentives for solar power effective? Evidence from residential installations in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crago, Christine Lasco; Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya


    State incentives for solar power have grown significantly in the past several years. This paper examines the effectiveness of policy incentives to increase residential solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity. We use county-level panel data and control for demographic characteristics, solar resources, and pro-environmental preferences. Results show that among financial incentives, rebates have the most impact with an additional $1 per watt rebate increasing annual PV capacity additions by close to 50%. Factors that affect financial returns to solar PV such as electricity price and solar insolation are also found to be significant. Results also point to a significant positive relationship between hybrid vehicle sales and residential PV capacity growth, indicating the importance of pro-environmental preferences as a predictor of solar PV demand. Back of the envelope calculations suggest that the cost of carbon mitigation through rebates is around $184 per ton of CO2.

  1. Computational Analysis of Nanoparticles-Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrated Solar Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vinod [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)


    High fidelity computational models of thermocline-based thermal energy storage (TES) were developed. The research goal was to advance the understanding of a single tank nanofludized molten salt based thermocline TES system under various concentration and sizes of the particles suspension. Our objectives were to utilize sensible-heat that operates with least irreversibility by using nanoscale physics. This was achieved by performing computational analysis of several storage designs, analyzing storage efficiency and estimating cost effectiveness for the TES systems under a concentrating solar power (CSP) scheme using molten salt as the storage medium. Since TES is one of the most costly but important components of a CSP plant, an efficient TES system has potential to make the electricity generated from solar technologies cost competitive with conventional sources of electricity.

  2. Solar-powered absorption refrigeration system; Solarbetriebene Absorptions-Kaeltemaschine MGB - Zuerich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbaz, C.; Utz, C.


    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews the project implemented at the head offices of the Migros co-operative society MGB in Zurich, Switzerland, involving cold generation using evacuated solar collectors and an absorption refrigeration system. The experience gained with this first solar powered cooling system using evacuated tube collectors located on the flat roof of the building is discussed. Considerable possibilities for the optimisation of the system are discussed, including the use of excess heat stored overnight in the warm-up phase of operation on the next day. The advantages of the correct placing of equipment rooms near to collectors and cooling-towers are discussed. The operation and characteristics of the installation in winter and summer operation are briefly described and figures on its performance and the costs involved are quoted.

  3. Chemical looping fluidized-bed concentrating solar power system and method (United States)

    Ma, Zhiwen


    A concentrated solar power (CSP) plant comprises a receiver configured to contain a chemical substance for a chemical reaction and an array of heliostats. Each heliostat is configured to direct sunlight toward the receiver. The receiver is configured to transfer thermal energy from the sunlight to the chemical substance in a reduction reaction. The CSP plant further comprises a first storage container configured to store solid state particles produced by the reduction reaction and a heat exchanger configured to combine the solid state particles and gas through an oxidation reaction. The heat exchanger is configured to transfer heat produced in the oxidation reaction to a working fluid to heat the working fluid. The CSP plant further comprises a power turbine coupled to the heat exchanger, such that the heated working fluid turns the power turbine, and a generator coupled to and driven by the power turbine to generate electricity.

  4. Compatibility of Anfis controller and FPGA in solar power generation for a domestic oad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arulprakash Andigounder


    Full Text Available Among other soft computing techniques, the Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (Anfis gives a significant and advantageous result in solar power generation, especially in tracking the maximum power point. Due to the dynamic nature of solar irradiance and temperature, efficient energy conversion is not possible. However, advancements in the areas of artificial intelligence have made it possible to overcome the hurdles. The Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT technique adopting the advantages of Anfis has been proven to be more successful with a fast dynamic response and high accuracy. The complete system is modeled using Matlab/Simulink; the hardware results are validated with the benefits of Field Programmable Logic Array (FPGA instead of ordinary micro-controllers.

  5. Population Pressure, Global Living Standards, and the Promise of Space Solar Power (United States)

    Strickland, John K., Jr.


    uses of electricity and fuels currently covered by fossil fuels. This is a global replacement load of about 9000 gigawatts. Green theorists are divided on this issue. Some claim that ground based solar, wind, and other renewable sources will supply all the energy we need, ignoring economic costs that severely limit their use. Others would (unrealistically) require the developed countries to reduce their energy consumption per capita to a level closer to that of the developing world, thereby admitting the limitations of the "appropriate" systems they espouse. Both sides in the past have rejected as "non-appropriate" and/or "dangerous" all the chemically clean energy sources of high capacity that have been previously proposed, such as safer nuclear fission, fusion power, and space solar power. If ground based "appropriate" energy sources are not sufficient, the economic and social effects of sudden forced curtailments of fossil energy use could be drastic. This paper supports the thesis that Space Solar Power does have the potential to provide such a clean, abundant, and economical energy source. It will cover both the limitations and promise of ground based energy sources, including the difficulties of using intermittent energy sources. It will discuss whether specified levels of energy cost increases would be damaging to the world economy and whether economical ground based sources alone would have sufficient capacity. It will show how the one major problem of launch costs, (currently preventing economical implementation of Space Solar Power), has a number of quite reasonable solutions. Finally, it will consider whether Space Solar Power, along with the other major space goals of Science &Exploration, Mars Colonization, Non- terrestrial Materials Recovery and Space Tourism, could be another space "killer app" which, by creating a high demand for launch services, could force large reductions in launch costs.

  6. Engineering bacterial efflux pumps for solar-powered bioremediation of surface waters. (United States)

    Kapoor, Vikram; Wendell, David


    Antibiotics are difficult to selectively remove from surface waters by present treatment methods. Bacterial efflux pumps have evolved the ability to discriminately expel antibiotics and other noxious agents via proton and ATP driven pathways. Here, we describe light-dependent removal of antibiotics by engineering the bacterial efflux pump AcrB into a proteovesicle system. We have created a chimeric protein with the requisite proton motive force by coupling AcrB to the light-driven proton pump Delta-rhodopsin (dR) via a glycophorin A transmembrane domain. This creates a solar powered protein material capable of selectively capturing antibiotics from bulk solutions. Using environmental water and direct sunlight, our AcrB-dR vesicles removed almost twice as much antibiotic as the treatment standard, activated carbon. Altogether, the AcrB-dR system provides an effective means of extracting antibiotics from surface waters as well as potential antibiotic recovery through vesicle solubilization.

  7. Solar-powered electrochemical energy storage: an alternative to solar fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mingzhe; McCulloch, William D.; Huang, Zhongjie; Trang, Brittany B.; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Wu, Yiying


    Because of the intermittent nature of solar radiation, being able to simultaneously convert and store solar energy is a significant advance for efficiently harnessing solar energy. Solar fuels have already been recognized as a promising method towards this goal and have attracted tremendous research interest recently. Alternatively, this goal can also be achieved by using the solar-powered electrochemical energy storage (SPEES) strategy, which integrates a photoelectrochemical cell and an electrochemical cell into a single device. The integrated device is able to harvest solar energy and store it in situ within the device via a photocharging process and also distribute the energy as electric power when needed. This essay reviews the past SPEES research and analyzes its future prospects with a special emphasis on chemical design and material choices. We hope that the article will help draw more research attention to this field and stimulate additional exciting investigations toward more efficient solar energy utilization.

  8. Electrostatic protection of the solar power satellite and rectenna. Part 2: Lightning protection of the rectenna (United States)


    Computer simulations and laboratory tests were used to evaluate the hazard posed by lightning flashes to ground on the Solar Power Satellite rectenna and to make recommendations on a lightning protection system for the rectenna. The distribution of lightning over the lower 48 of the continental United States was determined, as were the interactions of lightning with the rectenna and the modes in which those interactions could damage the rectenna. Lightning protection was both required and feasible. Several systems of lightning protection were considered and evaluated. These included two systems that employed lightning rods of different lengths and placed on top of the rectenna's billboards and a third, distribution companies; it consists of short lightning rods all along the length of each billboard that are connected by a horizontal wire above the billboard. The distributed lightning protection system afforded greater protection than the other systems considered and was easier to integrate into the rectenna's structural design.

  9. Convex relaxation of Optimal Power Flow in Distribution Feeders with embedded solar power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Alexander Niels August; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun


    There is an increasing interest in using Distributed Energy Resources (DER) directly coupled to end user distribution feeders. This poses an array of challenges because most of today’s distribution feeders are designed for unidirectional power flow. Therefore when installing DERs such as solar...... panels with uncontrolled inverters, the upper limit of installable capacity is quickly reached in many of today’s distribution feeders. This problem can often be mitigated by optimally controlling the voltage angles of inverters. However, the optimal power flow problem in its standard form is a large...... scale non-convex optimization problem, and thus can’t be solved precisely and also is computationally heavy and intractable for large systems. This paper examines the use of a convex relaxation using Semi-definite programming to optimally control solar power inverters in a distribution grid in order...

  10. Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; Campbell, C.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Heath, G.


    This report provides data and analysis of the land use associated with utility-scale ground-mounted solar facilities, defined as installations greater than 1 MW. We begin by discussing standard land-use metrics as established in the life-cycle assessment literature and then discuss their applicability to solar power plants. We present total and direct land-use results for various solar technologies and system configurations, on both a capacity and an electricity-generation basis. The total area corresponds to all land enclosed by the site boundary. The direct area comprises land directly occupied by solar arrays, access roads, substations, service buildings, and other infrastructure. As of the third quarter of 2012, the solar projects we analyze represent 72% of installed and under-construction utility-scale PV and CSP capacity in the United States.

  11. Attitude maneuvers of a solar-powered electric orbital transfer vehicle (United States)

    Jenkin, Alan B.


    Attitude maneuver requirements of a solar-powered electric orbital transfer vehicle have been studied in detail. This involved evaluation of the yaw, pitch, and roll profiles and associated angular accelerations needed to simultaneously steer the vehicle thrust vector and maintain the solar array pointed toward the sun. Maintaining the solar array pointed exactly at the sun leads to snap roll maneuvers which have very high (theoretically unbounded) accelerations, thereby imposing large torque requirements. The problem is exacerbated by the large solar arrays which are needed to generate the high levels of power needed by electric propulsion devices. A method of eliminating the snap roll maneuvers is presented. The method involves the determination of relaxed roll profiles which approximate a forced transition between alternate exact roll profiles and incur only small errors in solar array pointing. The method makes it feasible to perform the required maneuvers using currently available attitude control technology such as reaction wheels, hot gas jets, or gimballed main engines.

  12. Direct conversion of light to radio frequency energy. [using photoklystrons for solar power satellites (United States)

    Freeman, J. W.; Simons, S.


    A description is presented of the test results obtained with the latest models of the phototron. The phototron was conceived as a replacement for the high voltage solar cell-high power klystron combination for the solar power satellite concept. Physically, the phototron is a cylindrical evacuated glass tube with a photocathode, two grids, and a reflector electrode in a planar configuration. The phototron can be operated either in a biased mode where a low voltage is used to accelerate the electron beam produced by the photocathode or in an unbiased mode referred to as self-oscillation. The device is easily modulated by light input or voltage to broadcast in AM or FM. The range of operation of the present test model phototrons is from 2 to 200 MHz.

  13. Towards prioritizing flexibility in the design and construction of concentrating solar power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topel, Monika; Lundqvist, Mårten; Haglind, Fredrik


    to include flexibility as a design objective are analyzed and their potential impact on the LCOE is quantified. The scenarios were modeled and analyzed using a techno-economic model of a direct steam generation solar tower power plant. Sensitivity studies were carried out for each scenario, in which...... the level of improvement due to each scenario was compared to the base case. Then, the results obtained for each scenario were compared for similar levels of LCOE and flexibility improvements. In general, all scenarios were beneficial on power plant performance. Improvements on the LCOE in the range of 3......In the operation and maintenance of concentrating solar power plants, high operational flexibility is required in order to withstand the variability from the inherent solar fluctuations. However, during the development phases of a solar thermal plant, this important objective is overlooked...

  14. Global Sea Level Stabilization-Sand Dune Fixation: A Solar-powered Sahara Seawater Textile Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Badescu, Viorel; Bolonkin, Alexander A


    Could anthropogenic saturation with pumped seawater of the porous ground of active sand dune fields in major deserts (e.g., the westernmost Sahara) cause a beneficial reduction of global sea level? Seawater extraction from the ocean, and its deposition on deserted sand dune fields in Mauritania and elsewhere via a Solar-powered Seawater Textile Pipeline (SSTP) can thwart the postulated future global sea level. Thus, Macro-engineering offers an additional cure for anticipated coastal change, driven by global sea level rise, that could supplement, or substitute for (1) stabilizing the shoreline with costly defensive public works (armoring macroprojects) and (2) permanent retreat from the existing shoreline (real and capital property abandonment). We propose Macro-engineering use tactical technologies that sculpt and vegetate barren near-coast sand dune fields with seawater, seawater that would otherwise, as commonly postulated, enlarge Earth seascape area! Our Macro-engineering speculation blends eremology with...

  15. Towards Space Solar Power - Examining Atmospheric Interactions of Power Beams with the HAARP Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Leitgab, M


    In the most common space solar power (SSP) system architectures, solar energy harvested by large satellites in geostationary orbit is transmitted to Earth via microwave radiation. Currently, only limited information about the interactions of microwave beams with energy densities of several tens to hundreds of W/m$^2$ with the different layers of the atmosphere is available. Governmental bodies will likely require detailed investigations of safety and atmospheric effects of microwave power beams before issuing launch licenses for SSP satellite systems. This paper proposes to collect representative and comprehensive data of the interaction of power beams with the atmosphere by extending the infrastructure of the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, USA. Estimates of the transmission infrastructure performance as well as measurement devices and scientific capabilities of possible upgrade scenarios will be discussed. The proposed upgrade of the HAARP facility is expected to d...

  16. Thermal design of a modern, air-conditioned, single-floor, solar-powered desert house

    KAUST Repository

    Serag-Eldin, M. A.


    The paper presents a thermal analysis of a single-floor, solar-powered desert house. The house is air-conditioned and provides all modern comforts and facilities. Electrical power, which drives the entire energy system, is generated by roof-mounted photovoltaic modules. The modules are fixed on special cradles which fold at night to expose the roof to the night sky, thereby enhancing night-time cooling, which is substantial in the desert environment. A detailed dynamic heat transfer analysis is conducted for the building envelope, coupled with a solar radiation model. Application to a typical Middle-Eastern desert site reveals that indeed such a design is feasible with present-day technology; and should be even more attractive with future advances in technology. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  17. Ancillary Services for the European Grid with High Shares of Wind and Solar Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hulle, Frans; Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha


    With significantly increasing share of variable renewable power generation like wind and solar PV, the need in the power system for ancillary services supporting the network frequency, voltage, etc. changes. Turning this issue around, market opportunities will emerge for wind and solar PV...... technology to deliver such grid services. In the European power system, adequate market mechanisms need to be developed to ensure that there will be an efficient trading of these services. For that purpose a range of (economic) characteristics of wind (and solar) power as providers of grid services need...... to be better understood. This relates both to the technical capabilities of the plants for delivering specific services and to the quantification of the needs. The paper presents the approach of the European IEE project REserviceS, aiming at establishing reference guidance for the ongoing developments...

  18. Worldwide impact of aerosol's time scale on the predicted long-term concentrating solar power potential. (United States)

    Ruiz-Arias, Jose A; Gueymard, Christian A; Santos-Alamillos, Francisco J; Pozo-Vázquez, David


    Concentrating solar technologies, which are fuelled by the direct normal component of solar irradiance (DNI), are among the most promising solar technologies. Currently, the state-of the-art methods for DNI evaluation use datasets of aerosol optical depth (AOD) with only coarse (typically monthly) temporal resolution. Using daily AOD data from both site-specific observations at ground stations as well as gridded model estimates, a methodology is developed to evaluate how the calculated long-term DNI resource is affected by using AOD data averaged over periods from 1 to 30 days. It is demonstrated here that the use of monthly representations of AOD leads to systematic underestimations of the predicted long-term DNI up to 10% in some areas with high solar resource, which may result in detrimental consequences for the bankability of concentrating solar power projects. Recommendations for the use of either daily or monthly AOD data are provided on a geographical basis.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical hazards also exist: the risk of electric shock from high powered electrophoresis equipment, the danger of exposure to high intensity ultra violet radiation and precautions to be taken when handling liquefied gasses are just a few examples of significant hazards in the biotechnology laboratory working environment.

  20. Biotechnology and Biosafety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.


    This chapter analyzes global policy approaches to ensuring safe use of modern biotechnology in agriculture. Biosafety is analyzed here as an anticipatory governance challenge, one where the nature and extent of the problem remains both uncertain and contested. The chapter compares two dominant

  1. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity (United States)

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph


    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  2. Biotechnological advances in Lilium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakhshaie, Mehdi; Khosravi, Solmaz; Azadi, Pejman; Bagheri, Hedayat; Tuyl, van Jaap M.


    Modern powerful techniques in plant biotechnology have been developed in lilies (Lilium spp., Liliaceae) to propagate, improve and make new phenotypes. Reliable in vitro culture methods are available to multiply lilies rapidly and shorten breeding programs. Lilium is also an ideal model plant to

  3. TSCA Biotechnology Notifications Status (United States)

    This Notifications Table lists only those submissions received under the Biotechnology Regulation, beginning in 1998. From the Table, you can link to a brief summary of select submission and, in many cases, to a fact sheet on the decision reached by OPPT.

  4. Biotechnology in weed control (United States)

    Biotechnology can be used to enhance the management of weeds in several ways. Crops have been made resistant to herbicides by inserting transgenes that impart herbicide resistance into the plant genome. Glyphosate and glufosinate-resistant crops are commercialized in North America and crops made res...

  5. Biotechnology of trees: Chestnut (United States)

    C.D. Nelson; W.A. Powell; S.A. Merkle; J.E. Carlson; F.V. Hebard; N Islam-Faridi; M.E. Staton; L. Georgi


    Biotechnology has been practiced on chestnuts (Castanea spp.) for many decades, including vegetative propagation, controlled crossing followed by testing and selection, genetic and cytogenetic mapping, genetic modifi cation, and gene and genome sequencing. Vegetative propagation methods have ranged from grafting and rooting to somatic embryogenesis, often in...

  6. State responses to biotechnology. (United States)

    Harris, Rebecca C


    This article reviews biotechnology legislation in the 50 states for 11 policy areas spanning 1990-2010, an era of immense growth in biotechnology, genetic knowledge, and significant policy development. Policies regarding health insurance, life insurance, long-term care insurance, DNA data bank collection, biotech research protection, biotech promotion and support, employment discrimination, genetic counselor licensing, human cloning, and genetic privacy each represent major policy responses arising from biotechnology and coinciding with key areas of state regulation (insurance, criminal justice, economic development, labor law, health and safety, privacy, and property rights). This analysis seeks to answer three questions regarding biotechnology legislation at the state level: who is acting (policy adoption), when is policy adopted (policy timing), and what is policy doing (policy content). Theoretical concerns examine state ideology (conservative or liberal), policy type (economic or moral), and the role of external events (federal law, news events, etc.) on state policy adoption. Findings suggest ideological patterns in adoption, timing, and content of biotech policy. Findings also suggest economic policies tend to be more uniform in content than moral policies, and findings also document a clear link between federal policy development, external events, and state policy response.

  7. Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It serves scientists in the field of Agriculture, Food science and Technology; Animal science, Agriculture Economy and Extension, Fisheries and Aquiculture, Biotechnology, Breeding and Veterinarians. Other websites associated with this journal: ...

  8. A green light for engineered algae: redirecting metabolism to fuel a biotechnology revolution. (United States)

    Rosenberg, Julian N; Oyler, George A; Wilkinson, Loy; Betenbaugh, Michael J


    Microalgae have the potential to revolutionize biotechnology in a number of areas including nutrition, aquaculture, pharmaceuticals, and biofuels. Although algae have been commercially cultivated for over 50 years, metabolic engineering now seems necessary in order to achieve their full processing capabilities. Recently, the development of a number of transgenic algal strains boasting recombinant protein expression, engineered photosynthesis, and enhanced metabolism encourage the prospects of designer microalgae. Given the vast contributions that these solar-powered, carbon dioxide-sequestering organisms can provide to current global markets and the environment, an intensified focus on microalgal biotechnology is warranted. Ongoing advances in cultivation techniques coupled with genetic manipulation of crucial metabolic networks will further promote microalgae as an attractive platform for the production of numerous high-value compounds.

  9. Experimental validation of a sub-surface model of solar power for distributed marine sensor systems (United States)

    Hahn, Gregory G.; Cantin, Heather P.; Shafer, Michael W.


    The capabilities of distributed sensor systems such as marine wildlife telemetry tags could be significantly enhanced through the integration of photovoltaic modules. Photovoltaic cells could be used to supplement the primary batteries for wildlife telemetry tags to allow for extended tag deployments, wherein larger amounts of data could be collected and transmitted in near real time. In this article, we present experimental results used to validate and improve key aspects of our original model for sub-surface solar power. We discuss the test methods and results, comparing analytic predictions to experimental results. In a previous work, we introduced a model for sub-surface solar power that used analytic models and empirical data to predict the solar irradiance available for harvest at any depth under the ocean's surface over the course of a year. This model presented underwater photovoltaic transduction as a viable means of supplementing energy for marine wildlife telemetry tags. The additional data provided by improvements in daily energy budgets would enhance the temporal and spatial comprehension of the host's activities and/or environments. Photovoltaic transduction is one method that has not been widely deployed in the sub-surface marine environments despite widespread use on terrestrial and avian species wildlife tag systems. Until now, the use of photovoltaic cells for underwater energy harvesting has generally been disregarded as a viable energy source in this arena. In addition to marine telemetry systems, photovoltaic energy harvesting systems could also serve as a means of energy supply for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), as well as submersible buoys for oceanographic data collection.

  10. Optimized dispatch in a first-principles concentrating solar power production model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Michael J.; Newman, Alexandra M.; Hamilton, William T.; Braun, Robert J.


    Concentrating solar power towers, which include a steam-Rankine cycle with molten salt thermal energy storage, is an emerging technology whose maximum effectiveness relies on an optimal operational and dispatch policy. Given parameters such as start-up and shut-down penalties, expected electricity price profiles, solar availability, and system interoperability requirements, this paper seeks a profit-maximizing solution that determines start-up and shut-down times for the power cycle and solar receiver, and the times at which to dispatch stored and instantaneous quantities of energy over a 48-h horizon at hourly fidelity. The mixed-integer linear program (MIP) is subject to constraints including: (i) minimum and maximum rates of start-up and shut-down, (ii) energy balance, including energetic state of the system as a whole and its components, (iii) logical rules governing the operational modes of the power cycle and solar receiver, and (iv) operational consistency between time periods. The novelty in this work lies in the successful integration of a dispatch optimization model into a detailed techno-economic analysis tool, specifically, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM). The MIP produces an optimized operating strategy, historically determined via a heuristic. Using several market electricity pricing profiles, we present comparative results for a system with and without dispatch optimization, indicating that dispatch optimization can improve plant profitability by 5-20% and thereby alter the economics of concentrating solar power technology. While we examine a molten salt power tower system, this analysis is equally applicable to the more mature concentrating solar parabolic trough system with thermal energy storage.

  11. Economic evaluation of solar-powered triple-fluid Einstein refrigeration cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qenawy, A.M.; El-Dib, A.W.F.; Ghoraba, M.M. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt). Mechanical Power Dept., Faculty of Engineering


    The renewed interest in solar cooling systems can be attributed to rising energy prices and environmental concerns. However, the controlling factor for successful commercialization of such systems is their economic feasibility. In response, systems using solar energy are being actively developed. An alternative to vapor compression systems is the absorption refrigerator cycle which can be driven by low grade energy such as solar energy. Single pressure absorption systems are characterized by absorbing and refrigerant mediums as well as by a pressure-equalizing medium. Two cycles of this type exist, namely the ammonia-water-hydrogen (AWH) and the Einstein cycles. In the Einstein refrigeration cycle, the generator produces ammonia, the pressure-equalizing fluid that lowers the liquid butane partial pressure in the evaporator, thereby producing a cooling effect. In the proposed system, the solar collector acts as the generator. This paper investigated the economics of solar powered Einstein refrigeration system for use in the food industry or for ice production in isolated fish villages in Egypt. Such an icemaker could be used to refrigerate vaccines, meat, dairy products or vegetables. The ice can be sold as a commercial product, or used in a cooler or icebox refrigerator. Solar energy is required to produce the cooling effect in the solar powered Einstein refrigeration cycle. Although solar radiant energy is free, the equipment required to convert it to a useful cooling is not. The system ice production cost was found to be approximately 50 per cent more than other conventional refrigeration systems. Although the initial cost of the solar refrigerator was found to be relatively high, it could be an acceptable solution if this equipment is mass produced. The use of the system is essential in rural areas which do not have electric service. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Transient analysis of a molten salt central receiver (MSCR) in a solar power plant (United States)

    Joshi, A.; Wang, C.; Akinjiola, O.; Lou, X.; Neuschaefer, C.; Quinn, J.


    Alstom is developing solar power tower plants utilizing molten salt as the working fluid. In solar power tower, the molten salt central receiver (MSCR) atop of the tower is constructed of banks of tubes arranged in panels creating a heat transfer surface exposed to the solar irradiation from the heliostat field. The molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF), in this case 60/40%wt NaNO3-KNO3, flows in serpentine flow through the surface collecting sensible heat thus raising the HTF temperature from 290°C to 565°C. The hot molten salt is stored and dispatched to produce superheated steam in a steam generator, which in turn produces electricity in the steam turbine generator. The MSCR based power plant with a thermal energy storage system (TESS) is a fully dispatchable renewable power plant with a number of opportunities for operational and economic optimization. This paper presents operation and controls challenges to the MSCR and the overall power plant, and the use of dynamic model computer simulation based transient analyses applied to molten salt based solar thermal power plant. This study presents the evaluation of the current MSCR design, using a dynamic model, with emphasis on severe events affecting critical process response, such as MS temperature deviations, and recommend MSCR control design improvements based on the results. Cloud events are the scope of the transient analysis presented in this paper. The paper presents results from a comparative study to examine impacts or effects on key process variables related to controls and operation of the MSCR plant.

  13. Molten salt concentrating solar plants. Their potential contribute to a better grid integration of solar power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falchetta, Massimo [ENEA - Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, Rome (Italy)


    Solar energy is becoming of increasing importance in Power Systems. Among solar technologies, use of molten salt heat storage in Concentrating Solar Power plants (CSP) is a cost effective way to improve the value for the grid operator of a non controllable energy source as solar power is. In such type of plants, a high temperature fluid is stored on tanks using solar input; the heat is then released when needed to feed a steam turbine and produce electricity on demand. Depending on tank size, technical solutions are commercially available with storage sizes ranging from 6 hours to 15 hours of nominal output, or even more. Options actually commercially available are the central receiver (Tower) with molten salt direct storage and linear parabolic through field with oil as Heat Transfer Fluid and molten salt as indirect storage; parabolic trough field with molten salt as HTF and as direct storage. The paper concentrates more on the last solution, developed by ENEA since 2001 and firstly introduced in the demonstrative 5 MW unit at Archimede ENEL's Power station. The papers present a simplified dynamic simulation approach, able to show the advantages from the point of view of dispatchability of power output and load following ability of this type of plant from a typical year worth of data of DNI and electricity prices on the Italian market. The model includes the main features affecting plant power output, namely optical efficiency as related to ANI (Aperture Normal Irradiation), solar field main dynamics, storage dynamics and typical operating procedures. (orig.)

  14. A bibliometric assessment of ASEAN collaboration in plant biotechnology

    KAUST Repository

    Payumo, Jane


    This study draws on publication and citation data related to plant biotechnology from a 10-year (2004–2013) period to assess the research performance, impact, and collaboration of member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Plant biotechnology is one of the main areas of cooperation between ASEAN member states and among the research areas promoted to achieve regional food security and sustainable development. In general, findings indicate increased scientific output, influence, and overall collaboration of ASEAN countries in plant biotechnology over time. Research performance and collaboration (domestic, regional, and international) of the region in plant biotechnology are linked to the status of the economic development of each member country. Thailand produced the most publications of the ASEAN member states while Singapore had the highest influence as indicated by its citation activity in plant biotechnology among the ASEAN countries. Domestic and international collaborations on plant biotechnology are numerous. Regional collaboration or partnership among ASEAN countries was, however, was found to be very limited, which is a concern for the region’s goal of economic integration and science and technology cooperation. More studies using bibliometric data analysis need to be conducted to understand plant biotechnology cooperation and knowledge flows between ASEAN countries. © 2015 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary

  15. Full environmental life cycle cost analysis of concentrating solar power technology: contribution of externalities to overall energy costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corona, B.; Cerrajero, E.; San Miguel, G.


    The aim of this work is to investigate the use of Full Environmental Life Cycle Costing (FeLCC) methodology to evaluate the economic performance of a 50 MW parabolic trough Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant operating in hybrid mode with different natural gas inputs (between 0% and 30%). The

  16. Delta Lloyd solar boat team; sailing 30km/h with a solar-powered boat, using hydrofoils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tra, M.


    Every two years since 2006, the Delta Lloyd Solar Boat Team builds a boat to participate in the World Cup for solar-powered boats, across the ‘Elfsteden-route’, the famous tour of the eleven cities in the Dutch province of Friesland. The upcoming year the team, consisting of a new group of students,

  17. 78 FR 53778 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Blythe Solar Power Project... (United States)


    ... proposing to construct, operate, maintain, and decommission the BSPP ] using solar photovoltaic (PV... concentrating solar trough to solar PV, adjust other aspects of the project layout related to the technology... Solar Power Project, Riverside County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  18. Testing an attachment method for solar-powered tracking devices on a long-distance migrating shorebird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Ying Chi; Brugge, Maarten; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Dekinga, Anne; Porter, Ron; Klaassen, Raymond; Piersma, Theunis

    Small solar-powered satellite transmitters and GPS data loggers enable continuous, multi-year, and global tracking of birds. What is lacking, however, are reliable methods to attach these tracking devices to small migratory birds so that (1) flight performance is not impacted and (2) tags are

  19. Testing an attachment method for solar-powered tracking devices on a long-distance migrating shorebird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Y.-C; Brugge, M.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Dekinga, A.; Porter, R.; Klaassen, R.H.G.; Piersma, T.


    Small solar-powered satellite transmitters andGPS data loggers enable continuous, multi-year, and globaltracking of birds. What is lacking, however, are reliablemethods to attach these tracking devices to small migratorybirds so that (1) flight performance is not impacted and (2)tags are retained

  20. Combining malaria control with house electrification: adherence to recommended behaviours for proper deployment of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems, Rusinga Island, western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oria, P.A.; Alaii, J.; Ayugi, M.; Takken, W.; Leeuwis, C.


    objective To investigate community adherence to recommended behaviours for proper deployment of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS) after 3- to 10-week use. methods Solar-powered mosquito trapping system, which also provided power for room lighting and charging mobile phones, were

  1. A 100 kW-Class Technology Demonstrator for Space Solar Power (United States)

    Carrington, Connie; Howell, Joe; Day, Greg


    A first step in the development of solar power from space is the flight demonstration of critical technologies. These fundamental technologies include efficient solar power collection and generation, power management and distribution, and thermal management. In addition, the integration and utilization of these technologies into a viable satellite bus could provide an energy-rich platform for a portfolio of payload experiments such as wireless power transmission (WPT). This paper presents the preliminary design of a concept for a 100 kW-class fiee-flying platform suitable for flight demonstration of technology experiments. Recent space solar power (SSP) studies by NASA have taken a stepping stones approach that lead to the gigawatt systems necessary to cost-effectively deliver power from space. These steps start with a 100 kW-class satellite, leading to a 500 kW and then a 1 MW-class platform. Later steps develop a 100 M W bus that could eventually lead to a 1-2 GW pilot plant for SSP. Our studies have shown that a modular approach is cost effective. Modular designs include individual laser-power-beaming satellites that fly in constellations or that are autonomously assembled into larger structures at geosynchronous orbit (GEO). Microwave power-beamed approaches are also modularized into large numbers of identical units of solar arrays, power converters, or supporting structures for arrays and microwave transmitting antennas. A cost-effective approach to launching these modular units is to use existing Earth-to-orbit (ETO) launch systems, in which the modules are dropped into low Earth orbit (LEO) and then the modules perform their own orbit transfer to GEO using expendable solar arrays to power solar electric thrusters. At GEO, the modules either rendezvous and are assembled robotically into larger platforms, or are deployed into constellations of identical laser power-beaming satellites. Since solar electric propulsion by the modules is cost-effective for both

  2. Biotechnology organizations in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    products and processes. What types of strategies are small entrepreneurs pursuing in order to create markets for their new products and processes, and how have specific strategies emerged? The primary interest is the network process through which the technological field and the development of institutions......This volume analyzes the dynamics and interactive processes among the players (individuals, institutions, and organizations/firms) that have constituted and legitimized the development of the biotechnology industries. The unit of analysis is small entrepreneurial firms developing biotechnological...... technologies through network formations is linked to the concept of strategy that is used throughout the book. Hence the strategies are developed along with the creation of technological knowledge, and it is hoped that the diffusion of this specific knowledge will bring new actors into the technological arena...

  3. Biotechnology in South Africa. (United States)

    Cloete, Thomas E; Nel, Louis H; Theron, Jacques


    Since adopting the National Biotechnology Strategy in 2001, the South African government has established several regional innovation centres and has put in place initiatives to encourage international partnerships that can spur internal development of life science ventures. This strategy seeks to capitalize on the high quality of research carried out in public research institutions and universities but is hampered, somewhat, by the lack of entrepreneurial culture among South African researchers due to, among other reasons, the expenses involved in registering foreign patents. Although private sector development is still relatively embryonic, start-ups are spinning out of universities and pre-existing companies. These represent a vital source of innovations for commercialization in the future, provided that the challenges facing the emerging South African biotechnology industry can be overcome.

  4. Microfluidics in biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Dimitri


    Full Text Available Abstract Microfluidics enables biotechnological processes to proceed on a scale (microns at which physical processes such as osmotic movement, electrophoretic-motility and surface interactions become enhanced. At the microscale sample volumes and assay times are reduced, and procedural costs are lowered. The versatility of microfluidic devices allows interfacing with current methods and technologies. Microfluidics has been applied to DNA analysis methods and shown to accelerate DNA microarray assay hybridisation times. The linking of microfluidics to protein analysis techologies, e.g. mass spectrometry, enables picomole amounts of peptide to be analysed within a controlled micro-environment. The flexibility of microfluidics will facilitate its exploitation in assay development across multiple biotechnological disciplines.

  5. Biotechnology and Composite Materials (United States)


    Three Biotechnology Areas for the Development of Advanced Composite Materials and Structures" " Seashells as a Natural Model to Study Laminated...cell [7]. Application areas of wood to man-made composites could include its cellular microstructure for providing information to the design of novel...respectively however their volumes are equal [11]. Bone utilizes such unique designs as a cellular microstructure (osteons), a fibrous matrix and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Artiukhova


    Full Text Available Summary. The article presents data on the development of technology and qualitative research, bio-products «Healing-1». One of the promising directions in food biotechnology is the development of new integrated starter-based consortia of microorganisms, which have higher activity compared with cultures prepared using pure cultures. So it was interesting studies on the development of new biotechnology and bio-based microbial consortium of lactic acid bacteria. Based on the analysis of biotechnological properties of native cultures created a new consortium of microorganisms containing lactic acid streptococci and bacilli, allowing the maximum extent possible to implement the physiological, biochemical and technological potential of microorganisms. Scientifically substantiated and experimentally developed a new biotechnology production of bioproducts «Healing-1», obtained on the basis of microbial consortium with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Experimentally investigated quality parameters of organic food «Healing-1» using a new microbial consortium as freshly prepared and during storage. Found that antagonistic activity of microflora bio «Healing-1» with respect to pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic bacteria, as well as its resistance to substances in the gastrointestinal tract of man is more pronounced compared to bioproducts obtained using a separate starter, members of the microbial consortium. It should be noted a more pronounced synthesis of exopolysaccharides in bioproduct «Healing-1», which leads to increased viscosity of the system and improves the consistency of bio. New bioproducts have good organoleptic characteristics and contain a high number of viable cells of lactic acid bacteria. High stability and survival of lactic acid bacteria during storage. In the study of attacked proteins bioproducts digestive proteinases «in vitro» found that the fermentation of milk microbial consortium increases the digestibility

  7. 2001 Industry Studies: Biotechnology (United States)


    miscarriages in the birth mother, and the possibility of severe developmental abnormalities in the cloned child .32 The key question is…are we willing to...Curing malnutrition , sickness and plain starvation will require more than providing a new and abundant food source. The majority of these real Research, Chronicle of Higher Education, 12/15/2000, Vo. 47 Issue 16, PA21, 2-5. National Science and Technology Council, Biotechnology for

  8. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana


    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  9. Microfluidics in biotechnology


    Ivanov Dimitri; Barry Richard


    Abstract Microfluidics enables biotechnological processes to proceed on a scale (microns) at which physical processes such as osmotic movement, electrophoretic-motility and surface interactions become enhanced. At the microscale sample volumes and assay times are reduced, and procedural costs are lowered. The versatility of microfluidic devices allows interfacing with current methods and technologies. Microfluidics has been applied to DNA analysis methods and shown to accelerate DNA microarra...

  10. Using solar-powered refrigeration for vaccine storage where other sources of reliable electricity are inadequate or costly. (United States)

    McCarney, Steve; Robertson, Joanie; Arnaud, Juliette; Lorenson, Kristina; Lloyd, John


    Large areas of many developing countries have no grid electricity. This is a serious challenge that threatens the continuity of the vaccine cold chain. The main alternatives to electrically powered refrigerators available for many years--kerosene- and gas-driven refrigerators--are plagued by problems with gas supply interruptions, low efficiency, poor temperature control, and frequent maintenance needs. There are currently no kerosene- or gas-driven refrigerators that qualify under the minimum standards established by the World Health Organization (WHO) Performance, Quality, and Safety (PQS) system. Solar refrigeration was a promising development in the early 1980s, providing an alternative to absorption technology to meet cold chain needs in remote areas. Devices generally had strong laboratory performance data; however, experience in the field over the years has been mixed. Traditional solar refrigerators relied on relatively expensive battery systems, which have demonstrated short lives compared to the refrigerator. There are now alternatives to the battery-based systems and a clear understanding that solar refrigerator systems need to be designed, installed, and maintained by technicians with the necessary knowledge and training. Thus, the technology is now poised to be the refrigeration method of choice for the cold chain in areas with no electricity or extremely unreliable electricity (less than 4h per average day) and sufficient sunlight. This paper highlights some lessons learned with solar-powered refrigeration, and discusses some critical factors for successful introduction of solar units into immunization programs in the future including: •Sustainable financing mechanisms and incentives for health workers and technicians are in place to support long-term maintenance, repair, and replacement parts. •System design is carried out by qualified solar refrigerator professionals taking into account the conditions at installation sites. •Installation and

  11. Concentrating Solar Power Central Receiver Panel Component Fabrication and Testing FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Michael W [Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne; Miner, Kris [Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne


    The objective of this project is to complete a design of an advanced concentrated solar panel and demonstrate the manufacturability of key components. Then confirm the operation of the key components under prototypic solar flux conditions. This work is an important step in reducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) from a central receiver solar power plant. The key technical risk to building larger power towers is building the larger receiver systems. Therefore, this proposed technology project includes the design of an advanced molten salt prototypic sub-scale receiver panel that can be utilized into a large receiver system. Then complete the fabrication and testing of key components of the receive design that will be used to validate the design. This project shall have a significant impact on solar thermal power plant design. Receiver panels of suitable size for utility scale plants are a key element to a solar power tower plant. Many subtle and complex manufacturing processes are involved in producing a reliable, robust receiver panel. Given the substantial size difference between receiver panels manufactured in the past and those needed for large plant designs, the manufacture and demonstration on prototype receiver panel components with representative features of a full-sized panel will be important to improving the build process for commercial success. Given the thermal flux limitations of the test facility, the panel components cannot be rendered full size. Significance changes occurred in the projects technical strategies from project initiation to the accomplishments described herein. The initial strategy was to define cost improvements for the receiver, design and build a scale prototype receiver and test, on sun, with a molten salt heat transport system. DOE had committed to constructing a molten salt heat transport loop to support receiver testing at the top of the NSTTF tower. Because of funding constraints this did not happen. A subsequent plan to

  12. Biotechnology worldwide and the 'European Biotechnology Thematic Network' Association (EBTNA). (United States)

    Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Gartland, K; Szente, M; Viola-Magni, M P; Akbarova, Y


    The European Biotechnology Congress 2011 held under the auspices of the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association (EBTNA) in conjunction with the Turkish Medical Genetics Association brings together a broad spectrum of biotechnologists from around the world. The subsequent abstracts indicate the manner in which biotechnology has permeated all aspects of research from the basic sciences through to small and medium enterprises and major industries. The brief statements before the presentation of the abstracts aim to introduce not only Biotechnology in general and its importance around the world, but also the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association and its aims especially within the framework of education and ethics in biotechnology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. "Othering" agricultural biotechnology: Slovenian media representation of agricultural biotechnology. (United States)

    Zajc, Jožica; Erjavec, Karmen


    While studies on media representations of agricultural biotechnology mostly analyse media texts, this work is intended to fill a research gap with an analysis of journalistic interpretations of media representations. The purpose of this project was to determine how news media represent agricultural biotechnology and how journalists interpret their own representations. A content and critical discourse analysis of news texts published in the Slovenian media over two years and in-depth interviews with their authors were conducted. News texts results suggest that most of the news posts were "othering" biotechnology and biotechnologists: biotechnology as a science and individual scientists are represented as "they," who are socially irresponsible, ignorant, arrogant, and "our" enemies who produce unnatural processes and work for biotechnology companies, whose greed is destroying people, animals, and the environment. Most journalists consider these representations to be objective because they have published the biotechnologists' opinions, despite their own negative attitudes towards biotechnology.

  14. Biotechnology: reality or dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinov Kosana


    Full Text Available The development of molecular biology and molecular genetics, especially of the recombinant DNA technology enabled improvement of experimental methods that provide manipulation within a cell-free system, such as cell and tissue cultures. Such methods resulted in the development of different new technologies with specific properties in relation to the conventional definitions. According to PERSLEY and lantin (2000 the following components are essential for the contemporary biotechnology: (i genomics - a molecular characterization of all genes and gene products of an organism (ii bioinformatics - the assembly of data from genomic analysis into accessible forms; (iii transformation - the introduction of genes controlling a trait of interest into a genome of a desired organism (micro organisms, plants, animal systems. By the application of cotemporary biotechnology new methods in the field of diagnostic are developed such as rapid and more accurate identification of the presence and absence of genes in the genome of the organism of interest (identification of pathogens prenatal diagnostics, molecular markers assisted breeding for plants, etc. The traits of an organism are determined by its genetic material, i.e. by a molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA. watson and crick (1953 were the first scientists to describe the structure of DNA as a double-stranded helix. Higher organisms contain a set of linear DNA molecules - chromosomes and a full set of chromosomes of an organism is a genome. Each genome is divided into a series of functional units, i.e. genes. The traits of an organism depend on genes, but their expression depends not only on genes but also on many other factors, including whether a gene, controlling the trait, expresses, specific cells in which it expresses and specially the mode by which the gene and its product interact with the environment. A special aspect within the application of biotechnology occurs as an interaction of a

  15. Thermal design, analysis and comparison on three concepts of space solar power satellite (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Hou, Xinbin; Wang, Li


    Space solar power satellites (SSPS) have been widely studied as systems for collecting solar energy in space and transmitting it wirelessly to earth. A previously designed planar SSPS concept collects solar power in two huge arrays and then transmits it through one side of the power-conduction joint to the antenna. However, the system's one group of power-conduction joints may induce a single point of failure. As an SSPS concept, the module symmetrical concentrator (MSC) architecture has many advantages. This architecture can help avoid the need for a large, potentially failure-prone conductive rotating joint and limit wiring mass. However, the thermal control system has severely restricted the rapid development of MSC, especially in the sandwich module. Because of the synchronous existence of five suns concentration and solar external heat flux, the sandwich module will have a very high temperature, which will surpass the permissible temperature of the solar cells. Recently, an alternate multi-rotary joints (MR) SSPS concept was designed by the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). This system has multiple joints to avoid the problem of a single point of failure. Meanwhile, this concept has another advantage for reducing the high power and heat removal in joints. It is well known to us that, because of the huge external flux in SSPS, the thermal management sub-system is an important component that cannot be neglected. Based on the three SSPS concepts, this study investigated the thermal design and analysis of a 1-km, gigawatt-level transmitting antenna in SSPS. This study compares the thermal management sub-systems of power-conduction joints in planar and MR SSPS. Moreover, the study considers three classic thermal control architectures of the MSC's sandwich module: tile, step, and separation. The study also presents an elaborate parameter design, analysis and discussion of step architecture. Finally, the results show the thermal characteristics of each SSPS

  16. Locations and attributes of utility-scale solar power facilities in Colorado and New Mexico, 2011 (United States)

    Ignizio, Drew A.; Carr, Natasha B.


    The data series consists of polygonal boundaries for utility-scale solar power facilities (both photovoltaic and concentrating solar power) located within Colorado and New Mexico as of December 2011. Attributes captured for each facility include the following: facility name, size/production capacity (in MW), type of solar technology employed, location, state, operational status, year the facility came online, and source identification information. Facility locations and perimeters were derived from 1-meter true-color aerial photographs (2011) produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP); the photographs have a positional accuracy of about ±5 meters (accessed from the NAIP GIS service: Solar facility perimeters represent the full extent of each solar facility site, unless otherwise noted. When visible, linear features such as fences or road lines were used to delineate the full extent of the solar facility. All related equipment including buildings, power substations, and other associated infrastructure were included within the solar facility. If solar infrastructure was indistinguishable from adjacent infrastructure, or if solar panels were installed on existing building tops, only the solar collecting equipment was digitized. The "Polygon" field indicates whether the "equipment footprint" or the full "site outline" was digitized. The spatial accuracy of features that represent site perimeters or an equipment footprint is estimated at +/- 10 meters. Facilities under construction or not fully visible in the NAIP imagery at the time of digitization (December 2011) are represented by an approximate site outline based on the best available information and documenting materials. The spatial accuracy of these facilities cannot be estimated without more up-to-date imagery – users are advised to consult more recent imagery as it becomes available. The "Status" field provides information about the operational

  17. An analysis of key environmental and social risks in the development of concentrated solar power projects (United States)

    Otieno, George A.; Loosen, Alexander E.


    Concentrated Solar Power projects have impacts on local environment and social conditions. This research set out to investigate the environmental and social risks in the development of such projects and rank these risks from highest to lowest. The risks were analysed for parabolic trough and tower technologies only. A literature review was undertaken, identifying seventeen risks that were then proposed to six CSP experts for scoring. The risks were scored based of five factors on a five tier scale. The scores from the experts were compiled to develop an overall rank of the identified risks. The risk of disruption of local water resources was found to represent the highest risk before and after mitigation with a score of moderate-high and moderate respectively. This score is linked to the importance of water in water scarce regions typified by the best regions for CSP. The risks to avian species, to worker health and safety, due to noise on the environment, to visual and recreational resources completed the top five risks after mitigation.

  18. Development of a solar-powered infrared injection laser microminiature transmitting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falter, D.D.; Alley, G.T.; Falter, K.G.; Rochelle, J.M.; Valentine, K.H.; Westbrook, R.D.; Jellison, G.E. Jr.; Fleming, P.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))


    A solar-powered infrared microminiature transmitting system is being developed to provide scientists with a tool to continuously track and study Africanized bees. Present tracking methods have limited ranges and lack the capability of continuously tracking individual insects. Preliminary field tests of a stationary prototypic transmitter have demonstrated a range of 1.1 km. The basic design consists of an array of nine 1-mm{sup 2} solar cells, which collect energy for storage in a 1.0-{mu}F tantalum chip capacitor. When the capacitor has been charged to a sufficient level, the circuitry that monitors the capacitor voltage level wakes up'' and fires a 5-{mu}s pulse through an 840-nm GaAlAs injection laser diode. The process is then repeated, making the signal frequency (which ranges from 50 to 300 Hz) dependent on solar luminance. The solar cells, capacitor, and laser diode are mounted in hybrid microcircuit fashion directly on the silicon substrate containing the CMOS control and driver circuitry. The transmitter measures {approximately}4 {times} 6 mm and weighs {approximately}65 mg. The receiving system is based on an 8-in. telescope and a Si PIN diode detector. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Predicting efficiency of solar powered hydrogen generation using photovoltaic-electrolysis devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Thomas L.; Kelly, Nelson A. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Chemical Science and Material Systems Laboratory, Mail Code 480-106-269, 30500 Mound Road, Warren, MI 48090-9055 (United States)


    Hydrogen fuel for fuel cell vehicles can be produced by using solar electric energy from photovoltaic (PV) modules for the electrolysis of water without emitting carbon dioxide or requiring fossil fuels. In the past, this renewable means of hydrogen production has suffered from low efficiency (2-6%), which increased the area of the PV array required and therefore, the cost of generating hydrogen. A comprehensive mathematical model was developed that can predict the efficiency of a PV-electrolyzer combination based on operating parameters including voltage, current, temperature, and gas output pressure. This model has been used to design optimized PV-electrolyzer systems with maximum solar energy to hydrogen efficiency. In this research, the electrical efficiency of the PV-electrolysis system was increased by matching the maximum power output and voltage of the photovoltaics to the operating voltage of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer, and optimizing the effects of electrolyzer operating current, and temperature. The operating temperature of the PV modules was also an important factor studied in this research to increase efficiency. The optimized PV-electrolysis system increased the hydrogen generation efficiency to 12.4% for a solar powered PV-PEM electrolyzer that could supply enough hydrogen to operate a fuel cell vehicle. (author)

  20. Gravitational force and torque on a solar power satellite considering the structural flexibility (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Zhang, Jingrui; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Quan


    The solar power satellites (SPS) are designed to collect the constant solar energy and beam it to Earth. They are traditionally large in scale and flexible in structure. In order to obtain an accurate model of such system, the analytical expressions of the gravitational force, gravity gradient torque and modal force are investigated. They are expanded to the fourth order in a Taylor series with the elastic displacements considered. It is assumed that the deformation of the structure is relatively small compared with its characteristic length, so that the assumed mode method is applicable. The high-order moments of inertia and flexibility coefficients are presented. The comprehensive dynamics of a large flexible SPS and its orbital, attitude and vibration evolutions with different order gravitational forces, gravity gradient torques and modal forces in geosynchronous Earth orbit are performed. Numerical simulations show that an accurate representation of the SPS‧ dynamic characteristics requires the retention of the higher moments of inertia and flexibility. Perturbations of orbit, attitude and vibration can be retained to the 1-2nd order gravitational forces, the 1-2nd order gravity gradient torques and the 1-2nd order modal forces for a large flexible SPS in geosynchronous Earth orbit.

  1. Feasibility Study of a Solar-Powered Electric Vehicle Charging Station Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ye


    Full Text Available In China, the power sector is currently the largest carbon emitter and the transportation sector is the fastest-growing carbon emitter. This paper proposes a model of solar-powered charging stations for electric vehicles to mitigate problems encountered in China’s renewable energy utilization processes and to cope with the increasing power demand by electric vehicles for the near future. This study applies the proposed model to Shenzhen City to verify its technical and economic feasibility. Modeling results showed that the total net present value of a photovoltaic power charging station that meets the daily electricity demand of 4500 kWh is $3,579,236 and that the cost of energy of the combined energy system is $0.098/kWh. In addition, the photovoltaic powered electric vehicle model has pollutant reduction potentials of 99.8%, 99.7% and 100% for carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides, respectively, compared with a traditional gasoline-fueled car. Sensitivity analysis results indicated that interest rate has a relatively strong influence on COE (Cost of Energy. An increase in the interest rate from 0% to 6% increases COE from $0.027/kWh to $0.097/kWh. This analysis also suggests that carbon pricing promotes renewable energy only when the price of carbon is above $20/t.

  2. Final Scientific/Technical Report for Program Title: Solar Powered Dewvaporation Desalination System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, Shashidhar [Polestar Technologies Inc., Needham Heights, MA (United States)


    Desalination technologies have been used increasingly throughout the world to produce the drinking water from the brackish ground and sea water for the past few decades. Among the commercially available desalination technologies, reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash distillation are the most widely used technologies globally. However, these technologies are difficult to be directly integrated with green energies without converting them to electricity. Dewvaporation, a desalination process, uses saturated steam as a carrier-gas to evaporate water from saline feeds and form pure condensate. It has the major technical benefit of reusing energy, released from vapor condensation, multiple times. The current proposal has been planned to address this issue. In Phase I, we have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of a new plasmonic nanoparticle based approach through fabrication and evaluation of a solar powered water vapor generation module. The water vapor generation module allows generation of high temperature plasmon on a fiber bundle end, where strong water and plasmon interaction occurs generating water vapor. Plasmon enhanced water evaporation has been realized on plasmonic nanoparticle immobilized substrate with an energy conversion efficiency of over 50%.

  3. Solar radiation pumped solid state of lasers for Solar Power Satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ruiyi [New Jersey (United States)


    The Laser Solar Power Satellites (L-SPS) is the most promising way to overcome global energy and environmental and economical problems. The purpose was to use the favorable combination of solar radiation, modern lasers and the extremely promising phenomenon Optical Phase Conjugation (OPC). Direct conversion of solar energy to energy of a high-power laser beam has the advantage of high efficiency and precise energy transportation. In this paper, direct solar radiation pumping of the laser is compared with the pumping using the intermediate stage of the conversion of the solar radiation in electrical energy. Possible solid-state lasers that can be used in L-SPS are also discussed (including optical system and cooling system). [Spanish] Los Satelites de Energia Solar Laser (L-SPS) son la forma mas prometedora para contrarrestar los problemas globales de energia, ambientales y problemas economicos. El proposito fue el de usar la combinacion favorable de radiacion solar, laseres modernos y el fenomeno extremadamente prometedor de conjugacion de fase optica (OPC). La conversion directa de energia solar a energia de un rayo laser de alta potencia tiene la ventaja de la alta eficiencia y precision de la transportacion de la energia. En este documento la radiacion solar directa impulsada por el laser se compara con la impulsion usando el estado intermedio de conversion de la radiacion solar en energia electrica. Tambien se analizan los posibles laseres de estado solido que pueden usarse en L-SPS (incluyendo el sistema optico y el sistema de enfriamiento).

  4. Two-stage solar power tower cavity-receiver design and thermal performance analysis (United States)

    Pang, Liping; Wang, Ting; Li, Ruihua; Yang, Yongping


    New type of two-stage solar power tower cavity-receiver is designed and a calculating procedure of radiation, convection and flow under the Gaussian heat flux is established so as to determine the piping layout and geometries in the receiver I and II and the heat flux distribution in different positions is obtained. Then the main thermal performance on water/steam temperature, steam quality, wall temperature along the typical tubes and pressure drop are specified according to the heat transfer and flow characteristics of two-phase flow. Meanwhile, a series of systematic design process is promoted and analysis on thermal performance of the two receivers is conducted. Results show that this type of two-stage cavity-receivers can minimize the size and reduce the mean temperature of receiver I while raise the average heat flux, thus increase the thermal efficiency of the two receivers; besides, the multiple serpentine tubes from header can make a more uniform distribution of the outlet parameters, preventing wall overheated.

  5. Balancing Autonomy and Utilization of Solar Power and Battery Storage for Demand Based Microgrids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawder, Matthew T.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Subramanian, Venkat R.


    The growth of intermittent solar power has developed a need for energy storage systems in order to decouple generation and supply of energy. Microgrid (MG) systems comprising of solar arrays with battery energy storage studied in this paper desire high levels of autonomy, seeking to meet desired demand at all times. Large energy storage capacity is required for high levels of autonomy, but much of this expensive capacity goes unused for a majority of the year due to seasonal fluctuations of solar generation. In this paper, a model-based study of MGs comprised of solar generation and battery storage shows the relationship between system autonomy and battery utilization applied to multiple demand cases using a single particle battery model (SPM). The SPM allows for more accurate state-of-charge and utilization estimation of the battery than previous studies of renewably powered systems that have used empirical models. The increased accuracy of battery state estimation produces a better assessment of system performance. Battery utilization will depend on the amount of variation in solar insolation as well as the type of demand required by the MG. Consumers must balance autonomy and desired battery utilization of a system within the needs of their grid.

  6. Phenylnaphthalene as a Heat Transfer Fluid for Concentrating Solar Power: High-Temperature Static Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Jason R [ORNL; Joseph III, Robert Anthony [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL


    Concentrating solar power (CSP) may be an alternative to generating electricity from fossil fuels; however, greater thermodynamic efficiency is needed to improve the economics of CSP operation. One way of achieving improved efficiency is to operate the CSP loop at higher temperatures than the current maximum of about 400 C. ORNL has been investigating a synthetic polyaromatic oil for use in a trough type CSP collector, to temperatures up to 500 C. The oil was chosen because of its thermal stability and calculated low vapor and critical pressures. The oil has been synthesized using a Suzuki coupling mechanism and has been tested in static heating experiments. Analysis has been conducted on the oil after heating and suggests that there may be some isomerization taking place at 450 C, but the fluid appears to remain stable above that temperature. Tests were conducted over one week and further tests are planned to investigate stabilities after heating for months and in flow configurations. Thermochemical data and thermophysical predictions indicate that substituted polyaromatic hydrocarbons may be useful for applications that run at higher temperatures than possible with commercial fluids such as Therminol-VP1.

  7. Role of Meteorology in Flights of a Solar-Powered Airplane (United States)

    Donohue, Casey


    In the summer of 2001, the Helios prototype solar-powered uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) [a lightweight, remotely piloted airplane] was deployed to the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), at Kauai, Hawaii, in an attempt to fly to altitudes above 100,000 ft (30.48 km). The goal of flying a UAV to such high altitudes has been designated a level-I milestone of the NASA Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. In support of this goal, meteorologists from NASA Dryden Flight Research Center were sent to PMRF, as part of the flight crew, to provide current and forecast weather information to the pilots, mission directors, and planners. Information of this kind is needed to optimize flight conditions for peak aircraft performance and to enable avoidance of weather conditions that could adversely affect safety. In general, the primary weather data of concern for ground and flight operations are wind speeds (see Figure 1). Because of its long wing span [247 ft (.75 m)] and low weight [1,500 to 1,600 lb (about 680 to 726 kg)], the Helios airplane is sensitive to wind speeds exceeding 7 kn (3.6 m/s) at the surface. Also, clouds are of concern because they can block sunlight needed to energize an array of solar photovoltaic cells that provide power to the airplane. Vertical wind shear is very closely monitored in order to prevent damage or loss of control due to turbulence.

  8. Integrated Orbit, Attitude, and Structural Control Systems Design for Space Solar Power Satellites (United States)

    Wie, Bong; Roithmayr, Carlos M.


    The major objective of this study is to develop an integrated orbit, attitude, and structural control systems architecture for very large Space Solar Power Satellites (SSPS) in geosynchronous orbit. This study focuses on the 1.2-GW Abacus SSPS concept characterized by a 3.2 x 3.2 km solar-array platform, a 500-m diameter microwave beam transmitting antenna, and a 500 x 700 m earth-tracking reflector. For this baseline Abacus SSPS configuration, we derive and analyze a complete set of mathematical models, including external disturbances such as solar radiation pressure, microwave radiation, gravity-gradient torque, and other orbit perturbation effects. The proposed control systems architecture utilizes a minimum of 500 1-N electric thrusters to counter, simultaneously, the cyclic pitch gravity-gradient torque, the secular roll torque caused by an offset of the center-of-mass and center-of-pressure, the cyclic roll/yaw microwave radiation torque, and the solar radiation pressure force whose average value is about 60 N.

  9. Integrated Orbit, Attitude, and Structural Control System Design for Space Solar Power Satellites (United States)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica (Technical Monitor); Moore, Chris (Technical Monitor); Wie, Bong; Roithmayr, Carlos


    The major objective of this study is to develop an integrated orbit, attitude, and structural control system architecture for very large Space Solar Power Satellites (SSPS) in geosynchronous orbit. This study focuses on the 1.2-GW Abacus SSPS concept characterized by a 3.2 x 3.2 km solar-array platform, a 500-m diameter microwave beam transmitting antenna, and a 500 700 m earth-tracking reflector. For this baseline Abacus SSPS configuration, we derive and analyze a complete set of mathematical models, including external disturbances such as solar radiation pressure, microwave radiation, gravity-gradient torque, and other orbit perturbation effects. The proposed control system architecture utilizes a minimum of 500 1-N electric thrusters to counter, simultaneously, the cyclic pitch gravity-gradient torque, the secular roll torque caused by an o.set of the center-of-mass and center-of-pressure, the cyclic roll/yaw microwave radiation torque, and the solar radiation pressure force whose average value is about 60 N.

  10. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: Screening analysis (United States)


    Screening analysis aimed at the definition of an optimum configuration of a Rankine cycle solar-powered air conditioner designed for residential application were conducted. Initial studies revealed that system performance and cost were extremely sensitive to condensing temperature and to the type of condenser used in the system. Consequently, the screening analyses were concerned with the generation of parametric design data for different condenser approaches; i. e., (1) an ambient air condenser, (2) a humidified ambient air condenser (3) an evaporative condenser, and (4) a water condenser (with a cooling tower). All systems feature a high performance turbocompressor and a single refrigerant (R-11) for the power and refrigeration loops. Data were obtained by computerized methods developed to permit system characterization over a broad range of operating and design conditions. The criteria used for comparison of the candidate system approaches were (1) overall system COP (refrigeration effect/solar heat input), (2) auxiliary electric power for fans and pumps, and (3) system installed cost or cost to the user.

  11. Line-Focus Solar Power Plant Cost Reduction Plan (Milestone Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.; Mehos, M.; Turchi, C.; Glatzmaier, G.; Moss, T.


    Line-focus solar collectors, in particular parabolic trough collectors, are the most mature and proven technology available for producing central electricity from concentrated solar energy. Because this technology has over 25 years of successful operational experience, resulting in a low perceived risk, it is likely that it will continue to be a favorite of investors for some time. The concentrating solar power (CSP) industry is developing parabolic trough projects that will cost billions of dollars, and it is supporting these projects with hundreds of millions of dollars of research and development funding. While this technology offers many advantages over conventional electricity generation -- such as utilizing plentiful domestic renewable fuel and having very low emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants -- it provides electricity in the intermediate power market at about twice the cost of its conventional competitor, combined cycle natural gas. The purpose of this document is to define a set of activities from fiscal year 2011 to fiscal year 2016 that will make this technology economically competitive with conventional means.

  12. Tower reflector for focussing solar power stations. Turmreflektor fuer konzentrierende Solarkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, G.


    The invention concerns a tower collector for focussing solar power stations according to the method of two stage focussing. The purpose of the invention is to create an efficient tower reflector, which can be built simply and which can guarantee a long life by simple measures, particularly with regard to the mirrors. The problem is solved by building up a reflector structure so that the mirrors are carried on a profile structure, which can be cooled. In a first version of the ideas of the invention, the tower reflector is produced by having the galvanised profile structure consisting of material of high conductivity and making it possible to galvanise the mirrors, that a galvanised covering is deposited on the back forming closed cooling ducts, and by depositing a covering of galvanised armouring of great strength for fixing the supporting element afterwards. This galvanised construction can achieve the required high optical surface accuracy and prolonged use due to the active cooling. The temperature of the mirror surface is always kept low, so that radiation losses are prevented. (orig./BWI).

  13. Tower reflector for focussing solar power stations. Turmreflektor fuer konzentrierende Solarkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, G.


    The invention concerns a tower collector for focussing solar power stations according to the method of two stage focussing. The purpose of the invention is to create an efficient tower reflector, which can be built simply and which can guarantee a long life by simple measures, particularly with regard to the mirrors. The problem is solved by building up a reflector structure so that the mirrors are carried on a profile structure, which can be cooled. In a first version of the ideas of the invention, the tower reflector is produced by having the galvanised profile structure consisting of material of high conductivity and making it possible to galvanise the mirrors, so that a galvanised covering is deposited on the back forming closed cooling ducts, and by depositing a covering of galvanised armouring of great strength for fixing the supporting element afterwards. This galvanised construction can achieve the required high optical surface accuracy and prolonged use due to the active cooling. The temperature of the mirror surface is always kept low, so that radiation losses are prevented.

  14. Study on and the implementation of solar powered street lighting in SEEE, USM (United States)

    Arshad, M. S.; Ain, M. F.; Ishak, D.; Rahman, A. L. A.; Nazri, A. S.; Abdullah, M. N.; Kaharuddin, S.; Hussin, R.


    Solar Powered Street Lights is a project that can be served to School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering (SEEE), Universiti Sains Malaysia in electricity cost savings by implementing the existing solar Photovoltaic (PV) system used for a green technology of energy efficiency. Due to the electricity of the national grid Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) continue to increases, perhaps this system is able to maximize cost savings for SEEE. Solar energy collected during the day will be converted into electricity to charge the battery. Electricity charged the battery then will be connected and used to power the lights around the SEEE parking area at night. After taking all important aspects into accounts that help to optimize energy saving, this system has been proven to reduce electricity costs. System data such as the power consumption of the load, battery charging rates, and other relevant data is measured. From the measured data, calculations and analysis were performed to determine the actual performance of the system. Proper wiring connections between solar PV systems and light poles grid around the SEEE parking lot have been executed. As a result, the implementation of this system could save as much as RM 462.86 for the cost of monthly electricity bills incurred by the SEEE.

  15. Detecting photovoltaic solar panels using hyperspectral imagery and estimating solar power production (United States)

    Czirjak, Daniel


    Remote sensing platforms have consistently demonstrated the ability to detect, and in some cases identify, specific targets of interest, and photovoltaic solar panels are shown to have a unique spectral signature that is consistent across multiple manufacturers and construction methods. Solar panels are proven to be detectable in hyperspectral imagery using common statistical target detection methods such as the adaptive cosine estimator, and false alarms can be mitigated through the use of a spectral verification process that eliminates pixels that do not have the key spectral features of photovoltaic solar panel reflectance spectrum. The normalized solar panel index is described and is a key component in the false-alarm mitigation process. After spectral verification, these solar panel arrays are confirmed on openly available literal imagery and can be measured using numerous open-source algorithms and tools. The measurements allow for the assessment of overall solar power generation capacity using an equation that accounts for solar insolation, the area of solar panels, and the efficiency of the solar panels conversion of solar energy to power. Using a known location with readily available information, the methods outlined in this paper estimate the power generation capabilities within 6% of the rated power.

  16. Dynamic Modeling of the Solar Field in Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes A. Barcia


    Full Text Available Parabolic trough solar power plants use a thermal fluid to transfer thermal energy from solar radiation to a water-steam Rankine cycle in order to drive a turbine that, coupled to an electrical generator, produces electricity. These plants have a heat transfer fluid (HTF system with the necessary elements to transform solar radiation into heat and to transfer that thermal energy to the water-steam exchangers. In order to get the best possible performance in the Rankine cycle and, hence, in the thermal plant, it is necessary that the thermal fluid reach its maximum temperature when leaving the solar field (SF. Also, it is mandatory that the thermal fluid does not exceed the maximum operating temperature of the HTF, above which it degrades. It must be noted that the optimal temperature of the thermal fluid is difficult to obtain, since solar radiation can change abruptly from one moment to another. The aim of this document is to provide a model of an HTF system that can be used to optimize the control of the temperature of the fluid without interfering with the normal operation of the plant. The results obtained with this model will be contrasted with those obtained in a real plant.

  17. Cost optimization of the dimensions of the antennas of a solar power satellite system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilev, A.V.; Klassen, V.I.; Laskin, N.N.; Tobolev, A.K.


    The problem of the cost optimization of the dimensions of the antennas of a solar power satellite system is formulated. The optimization problem is twofold: (1) for a given power delivered to the microwave transmitting antenna (TA), to determine the dimensions Lt (the characteristic dimension of the TA) and Lr (the characteristic dimension of the rectenna) which minimize the unit-power cost function for a given amplitude-phase distribution in the aperture of the TA, and (2) for a power delivered to the TA which is proportional to the aperture area, to determine the dimensions Lt and Lr which minimize the unit-power cost function for a given amplitude-phase distribution in the aperture of the TA. Two possible variants of the solution of this problem are considered: (1) the case of a linear antenna (the two-dimensional problem), and (2) the case of square apertures (the three-dimensional problem). A specific example of optimization is considered, where the cost of the TA is $1000/sq m and the cost of the rectenna is $12/sq m. 11 references.

  18. Coccidioidomycosis among Workers Constructing Solar Power Farms, California, USA, 2011-2014. (United States)

    Wilken, Jason A; Sondermeyer, Gail; Shusterman, Dennis; McNary, Jennifer; Vugia, Duc J; McDowell, Ann; Borenstein, Penny; Gilliss, Debra; Ancock, Benedict; Prudhomme, Janice; Gold, Deborah; Windham, Gayle C; Lee, Lauren; Materna, Barbara L


    Coccidioidomycosis is associated with soil-disruptive work in Coccidioides-endemic areas of the southwestern United States. Among 3,572 workers constructing 2 solar power-generating facilities in San Luis Obispo County, California, USA, we identified 44 patients with symptom onset during October 2011-April 2014 (attack rate 1.2 cases/100 workers). Of these 44 patients, 20 resided in California outside San Luis Obispo County and 10 resided in another state; 9 were hospitalized (median 3 days), 34 missed work (median 22 days), and 2 had disseminated disease. Of the 25 patients who frequently performed soil-disruptive work, 6 reported frequent use of respiratory protection. As solar farm construction in Coccidioides-endemic areas increases, additional workers will probably be exposed and infected unless awareness is emphasized and effective exposure reduction measures implemented, including limiting dust generation and providing respiratory protection. Medical providers, including those in non-Coccidioides-endemic areas, should suspect coccidioidomycosis in workers with compatible illness and report cases to their local health department.

  19. Variability Characteristics of European Wind and Solar Power Resources—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Graabak


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the most recent and relevant research into the variability characteristics of wind and solar power resources in Europe. The background for this study is that wind and solar resources will probably constitute major components of the future European power system. Such resources are variable, and EU plans to balance the variability with more grids and demand response. Thus, planning for the future power system requires an in-depth understanding of the variability. Resource variability is a multi-faceted concept best described using a range of distinct characteristics, and this review is structured on the basis of seven of these: Distribution Long-Term (hours to years, Distribution Short-Term (less than one hour, Step Changes, Autocorrelation, Spatial Correlation, Cross Correlation and Predictable Patterns. The review presents simulations and empirical results related to resource variability for each of these characteristics. Results to date reveal that the variability characteristics of the future power system is limited understood. This study recommends the development of a scheme for greater systematic assessment of variability. Such a scheme will contribute to the understanding of the impacts of variability and will make it possible to compare alternative power production portfolios and impacts of grid expansions, demand response and storage technologies.

  20. Improved high temperature solar absorbers for use in Concentrating Solar Power central receiver applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Ambrosini, Andrea; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Lambert, Timothy L.; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Bencomo, Marlene


    Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar absorbers to convert the heat from sunlight to electric power. Increased operating temperatures are necessary to lower the cost of solar-generated electricity by improving efficiencies and reducing thermal energy storage costs. Durable new materials are needed to cope with operating temperatures >600 C. The current coating technology (Pyromark High Temperature paint) has a solar absorptance in excess of 0.95 but a thermal emittance greater than 0.8, which results in large thermal losses at high temperatures. In addition, because solar receivers operate in air, these coatings have long term stability issues that add to the operating costs of CSP facilities. Ideal absorbers must have high solar absorptance (>0.95) and low thermal emittance (<0.05) in the IR region, be stable in air, and be low-cost and readily manufacturable. We propose to utilize solution-based synthesis techniques to prepare intrinsic absorbers for use in central receiver applications.

  1. Design of a nanopatterned long focal-length planar focusing collector for concentrated solar power (United States)

    Ding, Qing; Choubal, Aakash; Toussaint, Kimani C.


    Concentrated solar power (CSP) facilities heavily utilize parabolic troughs to collect and concentrate sunlight onto receivers that deliver solar thermal energy to heat engines for generating electricity. However, parabolic troughs are bulky and heavy and result in a large capital investment for CSP plants, thereby making it difficult for CSP technology to be competitive with photovoltaics. We present the design of a planar focusing collector (PFC) with focal length beyond the micron scale. The PFC design is based on the use of a nanostructured silver surface for linearly polarized singlewavelength light. The designed PFC consists of metallic nanogrooves on a dielectric substrate. The geometric properties, namely the width and depth, of a single-unit nanogroove allows for full control of the optical phase at desired spatial coordinates along the nanogroove short-axis for a single wavelength. Moreover, we show numerically that such phase control can be used to construct a phase front that mimics that of a cylindrical lens. In addition, we determine the concentration ratio by comparing the width of our PFC design to the cross-sectional width of its focal spot. We also determine the conversion efficiency at long focal lengths by evaluating the ratio of the collected optical power to the incoming optical power. Finally, we examine the focusing behavior across multiple wavelengths and angles of incidence. Our work shows how nano-optics and plasmonics could contribute to this important area of CSP technology.

  2. HelioTrope: An innovative and efficient prototype for solar power production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papageorgiou George


    Full Text Available The solar energy alternative could provide us with all the energy we need as it exist in vast quantities all around us. We only should be innovative enough in order to improve the efficiency of our systems in capturing and converting solar energy in usable forms of power. By making a case for the solar energy alternative, we identify areas where efficiency can be improved and thereby Solar Energy can become a competitive energy source. This paper suggests an innovative approach to solar energy power production, which is manifested in a prototype given the name HelioTrope. The Heliotrope Solar Energy Production prototype is tested on its' capabilities to efficiently covert solar energy to generation of electricity and other forms of energy for storage or direct use. HelioTrope involves an innovative Stirling engine design and a parabolic concentrating dish with a sun tracking system implementing a control algorithm to maximize the capturing of solar energy. Further, it utilizes a patent developed by the authors where a mechanism is designed for the transmission of reciprocating motion of variable amplitude into unidirectional circular motion. This is employed in our prototype for converting linear reciprocating motion into circular for electricity production, which gives a significant increase in efficiency and reduces maintenance costs. Preliminary calculations indicate that the Heliotrope approach constitutes a competitive solution to solar power production.

  3. Utility-Scale Concentrating Solar Power and Photovoltaic Projects: A Technology and Market Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Lowder, T.; Canavan, B.


    Over the last several years, solar energy technologies have been, or are in the process of being, deployed at unprecedented levels. A critical recent development, resulting from the massive scale of projects in progress or recently completed, is having the power sold directly to electric utilities. Such 'utility-scale' systems offer the opportunity to deploy solar technologies far faster than the traditional 'behind-the-meter' projects designed to offset retail load. Moreover, these systems have employed significant economies of scale during construction and operation, attracting financial capital, which in turn can reduce the delivered cost of power. This report is a summary of the current U.S. utility-scale solar state-of-the-market and development pipeline. Utility-scale solar energy systems are generally categorized as one of two basic designs: concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV). CSP systems can be further delineated into four commercially available technologies: parabolic trough, central receiver (CR), parabolic dish, and linear Fresnel reflector. CSP systems can also be categorized as hybrid, which combine a solar-based system (generally parabolic trough, CR, or linear Fresnel) and a fossil fuel energy system to produce electric power or steam.

  4. 7500 km journey with their solar-powered bicycles: show your solidarity with their efforts

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Our colleagues, Céline and Jean, are currently on a 7500 km journey from Geneva to Astana (Kazakhstan) via Sotchi (in Russia, mandatory stopover) to promote ecology with their solar-powered bicycles. In the context of their trip, they asked the Staff Association to launch an action of solidarity in the framework of the Long-Term Collections. It is with pleasure that we have accepted their proposal and that we offer you the possibility to take part in this humanitarian initiative. You can participate by pledging to donate CHF 10 for each country that will be crossed by Céline and Jean, which corresponds to a maximum commitment of 100 CHF. Indeed, their scheduled trip will include 10 countries across Europe and Asia. Today they are in Hungary, after travelling through parts of Switzerland, France, Italy, Slovenia and Croatia.  The details on how to participate will be published in our next issue of Echo.   For further information about this wonderful adventure, pl...

  5. A 7500 km journey on a solar-powered bicycle: show solidarity with their efforts

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Our two colleagues, Celine and John, in a little less than four weeks have already travelled almost 2500 km of their 7,500 km-long journey on solar-electric bike, where they plan to cycle from Geneva to Astana (Kazakhstan) via Sochi (in Russia, a mandatory stop). With their efforts they want to promote solar and eco-mobility, particularly travel by "solar powered" bike. To add a touch of solidarity to their sportive and human experience, Celine and John asked us to organize an action in the framework of the Long-Term Collections. It is with pleasure that the Staff Association has accepted their proposal. Therefore, we offer you the opportunity to subscribe to a humanitarian initiative where you agree to pay a sum of 10 CHF for countries crossed by Celine and John, with a minimum commitment of 30 CHF and a maximum of 100 CHF. Indeed, their scheduled trip includes crossing ten countries in Europe and Asia. Position of Céline and Jean on Friday 12th of July Today they are in...

  6. Simulation of a solar powered electric vehicle under the constraints of the world solar challenge (United States)

    Roerig, Steven J.


    Development of an effective method for evaluation of alternative energy sources in the automotive industry has always been a necessity for cost efficient design analysis. One viable alternative energy source is electricity. In the present day environment of shrinking fossil fuel supplies and environmental awareness, electric powered vehicles are becoming a low cost, non-polluting, alternative means of transportation. The analysis of reliable electric propulsion can be expensive without a modeling tool for evaluating design strategies before vehicle construction. This thesis explores electricity as an alternative energy source for the automobile of tomorrow. Under the guidelines of the World Solar challenge, a solar powered electric vehicle, using a permanent-magnet brushless dc motor has be modeled and simulated in Simulink (Dynamic System Simulation Software). The simulations were performed with the goal of determining the optimum configuration to efficiently utilize the power supplied from the solar array, batteries, and motor. The simulated vehicle was 'driven' over various terrain's and at various speeds. The results obtained confirm this simulation as an efficient design tool and present an example of an optimum vehicle speed for one particular vehicle configuration.

  7. Solar powered electric propulsion orbit transfer vehicle design and operational effectiveness (United States)

    Makaru, M. M.; Boyarski, D. P.


    The feasibility and cost effectiveness for using solar powered electric propulsion orbit transfer vehicles (EOTV) to move Block 3 NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites from LEO to a 10,900 nm orbit were determined. The electric propulsion systems considered were present and 1990's technology ion engines using mercury, xenon or argon for a propellant. A systems cost model which combines payload, power sources, trajectory, and earth-to-LEO launch parameters with algorithms characterizing the electric propulsion system was used. The least costly systems which had a triptime equal to or less than 90 days were determined. These systems were then compared with the PAM D-II, Centaur-G, and IUS in terms of total deployment costs for 28 GPS satellites launched at a rate of four per year for seven years. The study found that a reusable EOTV with 12 mercury ion engines powered by gallium arsenide concentrator arrays could perform the mission for 57 percent of the cost of the cheapest chemical system.

  8. Assessment and potential use of concentrating solar power plants in Serbia and Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Tomislav M.


    Full Text Available Data assessment and potential use of concentrating solar power (CSP plants in Serbia and the Republic of Srpska are given in the paper. Besides, CSP plants schematics and manner of their functioning are described. Then follows geographical position and the results of PVGIS calculation of the yearly average values of the solar irradiation on horizontal, vertical and optimally inclined plane, optimal inclination, linke turbidity, ratio of diffuse to global solar irradiation, average daytime temperature and 24 hours average of temperature for some locations in Europe where CSP plants are installed or are in construction, and in some cities in Serbia and the Republic of Srpska. The paper also gives comparative surveys of the solar irradiation on horizontal plane and ratio of diffuse to global solar irradiation on some locations in Europe with installed and CSP plants in construction, and in some cities in Serbia and the Republic of Srpska. Data for Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI for locations in Europe with installed or CSP plants under construction, and for some other cities in Serbia and the Republic of Srpska are also given. Data for DNI were obtained by means of SWERA. In the light of the obtained results it was concluded that Serbia and the Republic of Srpska have favorable climatic and geographical conditions for the installation of the experimental CSP plants, and the area of Trebinje in the Republic of Srpska has favorable conditions for commercial CSP plants installation.

  9. A Novel Modeling of Molten-Salt Heat Storage Systems in Thermal Solar Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Peón Menéndez


    Full Text Available Many thermal solar power plants use thermal oil as heat transfer fluid, and molten salts as thermal energy storage. Oil absorbs energy from sun light, and transfers it to a water-steam cycle across heat exchangers, to be converted into electric energy by means of a turbogenerator, or to be stored in a thermal energy storage system so that it can be later transferred to the water-steam cycle. The complexity of these thermal solar plants is rather high, as they combine traditional engineering used in power stations (water-steam cycle or petrochemical (oil piping, with the new solar (parabolic trough collector and heat storage (molten salts technologies. With the engineering of these plants being relatively new, regulation of the thermal energy storage system is currently achieved in manual or semiautomatic ways, controlling its variables with proportional-integral-derivative (PID regulators. This makes the overall performance of these plants non optimal. This work focuses on energy storage systems based on molten salt, and defines a complete model of the process. By defining such a model, the ground for future research into optimal control methods will be established. The accuracy of the model will be determined by comparing the results it provides and those measured in the molten-salt heat storage system of an actual power plant.

  10. Circuit Simulation for Solar Power Maximum Power Point Tracking with Different Buck-Boost Converter Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Kuen Shiau


    Full Text Available The power converter is one of the essential elements for effective use of renewable power sources. This paper focuses on the development of a circuit simulation model for maximum power point tracking (MPPT evaluation of solar power that involves using different buck-boost power converter topologies; including SEPIC, Zeta, and four-switch type buck-boost DC/DC converters. The circuit simulation model mainly includes three subsystems: a PV model; a buck-boost converter-based MPPT system; and a fuzzy logic MPPT controller. Dynamic analyses of the current-fed buck-boost converter systems are conducted and results are presented in the paper. The maximum power point tracking function is achieved through appropriate control of the power switches of the power converter. A fuzzy logic controller is developed to perform the MPPT function for obtaining maximum power from the PV panel. The MATLAB-based Simulink piecewise linear electric circuit simulation tool is used to verify the complete circuit simulation model.

  11. Multi-criteria decision analysis of concentrated solar power with thermal energy storage and dry cooling. (United States)

    Klein, Sharon J W


    Decisions about energy backup and cooling options for parabolic trough (PT) concentrated solar power have technical, economic, and environmental implications. Although PT development has increased rapidly in recent years, energy policies do not address backup or cooling option requirements, and very few studies directly compare the diverse implications of these options. This is the first study to compare the annual capacity factor, levelized cost of energy (LCOE), water consumption, land use, and life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of PT with different backup options (minimal backup (MB), thermal energy storage (TES), and fossil fuel backup (FF)) and different cooling options (wet (WC) and dry (DC). Multicriteria decision analysis was used with five preference scenarios to identify the highest-scoring energy backup-cooling combination for each preference scenario. MB-WC had the highest score in the Economic and Climate Change-Economy scenarios, while FF-DC and FF-WC had the highest scores in the Equal and Availability scenarios, respectively. TES-DC had the highest score for the Environmental scenario. DC was ranked 1-3 in all preference scenarios. Direct comparisons between GHG emissions and LCOE and between GHG emissions and land use suggest a preference for TES if backup is require for PT plants to compete with baseload generators.

  12. Performance comparison of different thermodynamic cycles for an innovative central receiver solar power plant (United States)

    Reyes-Belmonte, Miguel A.; Sebastián, Andrés; González-Aguilar, José; Romero, Manuel


    The potential of using different thermodynamic cycles coupled to a solar tower central receiver that uses a novel heat transfer fluid is analyzed. The new fluid, named as DPS, is a dense suspension of solid particles aerated through a tubular receiver used to convert concentrated solar energy into thermal power. This novel fluid allows reaching high temperatures at the solar receiver what opens a wide range of possibilities for power cycle selection. This work has been focused into the assessment of power plant performance using conventional, but optimized cycles but also novel thermodynamic concepts. Cases studied are ranging from subcritical steam Rankine cycle; open regenerative Brayton air configurations at medium and high temperature; combined cycle; closed regenerative Brayton helium scheme and closed recompression supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle. Power cycle diagrams and working conditions for design point are compared amongst the studied cases for a common reference thermal power of 57 MWth reaching the central cavity receiver. It has been found that Brayton air cycle working at high temperature or using supercritical carbon dioxide are the most promising solutions in terms of efficiency conversion for the power block of future generation by means of concentrated solar power plants.

  13. Liquid metal technology for concentrated solar power systems: Contributions by the German research program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wetzel


    Full Text Available Concentrated solar power (CSP systems can play a major role as a renewable energy source with the inherent possibility of including a thermal energy storage subsystem for improving the plant dispatchability. Next-generation CSP systems have to provide an increased overall efficiency at reduced specific costs and they will require higher operating temperatures and larger heat flux densities. In that context, liquid metals are proposed as advanced high temperature heat transfer fluids, particularly for central receiver systems. Their main advantages are chemical stability at temperatures up to 900 ℃ and even beyond, as well as largely improved heat transfer when compared to conventional fluids like oil or salt mixtures, primarily due to their superior thermal conductivity. However, major issues here are the corrosion protection of structural materials and the development of technology components and control systems, as well as the development of indirect storage solutions, to circumvent the relatively small heat capacity of liquid metals. On the other hand, using liquid metals might enable alternative technologies like direct thermal-electric conversion or use of solar high-tem­perature heat in chemical processes. This article aims at describing research areas and research needs to be addressed for fully evaluating and subsequently utilizing the potential of liquid metals in CSP systems. A second aim of the article is a brief overview of the liquid metal research capabilities of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, their background and their relation to CSP and the aforementioned research pathways.

  14. Suction-recirculation device for stabilizing particle flows within a solar powered solid particle receiver (United States)

    Kolb, Gregory J [Albuquerque, NM


    A suction-recirculation device for stabilizing the flow of a curtain of blackened heat absorption particles falling inside of a solar receiver with an open aperture. The curtain of particles absorbs the concentrated heat from a solar mirror array reflected up to the receiver on a solar power tower. External winds entering the receiver at an oblique angle can destabilize the particle curtain and eject particles. A fan and ductwork is located behind the back wall of the receiver and sucks air out through an array of small holes in the back wall. Any entrained particles are separated out by a conventional cyclone device. Then, the air is recirculated back to the top of the receiver by injecting the recycled air through an array of small holes in the receiver's ceiling and upper aperture front wall. Since internal air is recirculated, heat losses are minimized and high receiver efficiency is maintained. Suction-recirculation velocities in the range of 1-5 m/s are sufficient to stabilize the particle curtain against external wind speeds in excess of 10 m/s.

  15. Methods for Analyzing the Economic Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Caixia [State Grid Energy Research Inst., Beijing (China)


    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) provides multiple quantifiable benefits compared to CSP without storage or to solar photovoltaic (PV) technology, including higher energy value, ancillary services value, and capacity value. This report describes modeling approaches to quantifying these benefits that have emerged through state-level policymaking in the United States as well as the potential applicability of these methods in China. The technical potential for CSP-TES in China is significant, but deployment has not yet achieved the targets established by the Chinese government. According to the 12th Five Year Plan for Renewable Energy (2011-2015), CSP was expected to reach 1 GW by 2015 and 3 GW by 2020 in China, yet as of December 2014, deployment totaled only 13.8 MW. One barrier to more rapid deployment is the lack of an incentive specific to CSP, such as a feed-in tariff. The 13th Five Year Plan for Solar Generation (2016-2020), which is under development, presents an opportunity to establish a feed-in tariff specific to CSP. This report, produced under the auspices of the U.S.-China Renewable Energy Partnership, aims to support the development of Chinese incentives that advance CSP deployment goals.

  16. Balancing autonomy and utilization of solar power and battery storage for demand based microgrids (United States)

    Lawder, Matthew T.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur; Subramanian, Venkat R.


    The growth of intermittent solar power has developed a need for energy storage systems in order to decouple generation and supply of energy. Microgrid (MG) systems comprising of solar arrays with battery energy storage studied in this paper desire high levels of autonomy, seeking to meet desired demand at all times. Large energy storage capacity is required for high levels of autonomy, but much of this expensive capacity goes unused for a majority of the year due to seasonal fluctuations of solar generation. In this paper, a model-based study of MGs comprised of solar generation and battery storage shows the relationship between system autonomy and battery utilization applied to multiple demand cases using a single particle battery model (SPM). The SPM allows for more accurate state-of-charge and utilization estimation of the battery than previous studies of renewably powered systems that have used empirical models. The increased accuracy of battery state estimation produces a better assessment of system performance. Battery utilization will depend on the amount of variation in solar insolation as well as the type of demand required by the MG. Consumers must balance autonomy and desired battery utilization of a system within the needs of their grid.

  17. Modelling Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage for Integration Studies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummon, M.; Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Mehos, M.


    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) can provide multiple benefits to the grid, including low marginal cost energy and the ability to levelize load, provide operating reserves, and provide firm capacity. It is challenging to properly value the integration of CSP because of the complicated nature of this technology. Unlike completely dispatchable fossil sources, CSP is a limited energy resource, depending on the hourly and daily supply of solar energy. To optimize the use of this limited energy, CSP-TES must be implemented in a production cost model with multiple decision variables for the operation of the CSP-TES plant. We develop and implement a CSP-TES plant in a production cost model that accurately characterizes the three main components of the plant: solar field, storage tank, and power block. We show the effect of various modelling simplifications on the value of CSP, including: scheduled versus optimized dispatch from the storage tank and energy-only operation versus co-optimization with ancillary services.

  18. Municipal Added Value through Solar Power Systems in the City of Freiburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Funcke


    Full Text Available The transformation of the conventional energy system towards renewable energies has entailed an increasing decentralization of energy generation in Germany, as the production units are smaller and draw on regional potentials. This can result in positive socio-economic effects in regions where the potential is exploited. The focus of this paper lies on evaluating existing methods and developing new ones, which can be used to determine local added value through renewable energy systems. The methods were required to cover direct as well as induced municipal added value effects and to include all steps of the examined value chain. A combination of methods was tested in a case study for the solar power system value chain in the city of Freiburg (ca. 220,000 inhabitants. The added value through this sector in the year 2009 was calculated at 30.8 million euros through direct effects and 6.2 million euros through induced effects. This total municipal added value of 37 million euros can be converted into roughly 1,500 jobs within the city boundaries. Based on some conservative assumptions, these numbers should be considered as minimum values.

  19. Concentrating solar power plants versus groundwater resources in Mediterranean areas of Spain: The environmental dilemma. (United States)

    Moreno Merino, Luis; Imbern Fernández, Núria; Durán Valsero, Juan José; Aguilera, Héctor


    Concentrating solar power plants (CSPPs) are considered to be particularly respectful of the environment but under Mediterranean climate where surface water scarcity is a key issue, these types of electrical plants usually require groundwater for their cooling towers and use the same aquifers to discharge their salinized effluents. This study analyses de Spanish case, where fifteen out of the fifty active CSPPs use groundwater directly, four discharge their effluents to infiltration ponds and forty-three to surface watercourses most of which recharge underlying aquifers. The volume of water withdrawn and discharged varies greatly among similar plants. The salinity of the effluent exceeds 2.5 times that of the withdrawn water in half of the plants and it may alter the current or potential use of the water turning it unsuitable for drinking or even for irrigation. There is a risk that the impact on groundwater can be extended to related ecosystems such as wetlands. This can become a serious environmental problem, but specific impacts on groundwater are often overlooked in environmental impact assessments of CSPPs and no research on the matter has been reported so far. Other legal and political implications of CSPPs are further discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of a solar-powered organic Rankine cycle using dry organic working fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Spayde


    Full Text Available This paper presents a model to evaluate the performance of a solar-powered organic Rankine cycle (ORC. The system was evaluated in Jackson, MS, using five dry organic working fluids, R218, R227ea, R236ea, R236fa, and RC318. The purpose of this study is to investigate how hourly temperature change affects the electricity production and exergy destruction rates of the solar ORC, and to determine the effect of the working fluid on the proposed system. The system was also evaluated in Tucson, AZ, to investigate the effect of average hourly outdoor temperatures on its performance. The potential of the system to reduce primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions is also investigated. A parametric analysis to determine how temperature and pressure of the organic working fluid, the solar collector area, and the turbine efficiency affect the electricity production is performed. Results show that the ORC produces the most electricity during the middle of the day, when the temperatures are the highest and when the solar collectors have the highest efficiency. Also, R-236ea is the working fluid that shows the best performance of the evaluated fluids. An economic analysis was performed to determine the capital cost available for the proposed system.