WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustainable seas expeditions

  1. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrén, T; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Cotterill, Carol

    2015-01-01

    -rich clay. Due to the stratified water column of the brackish Baltic Sea and the recurrent and widespread anoxia, the deeper basins harbor laminated sediments that provide a unique opportunity for high-resolution chronological studies. The Baltic Sea is a eutrophic intra-continental sea that is strongly...... degassing upon core recovery. The depth distributions of conservative sea water ions still reflected the transition at the end of the last glaciation from fresh-water clays to Holocene brackish mud. High-resolution sampling and analyses of interstitial water chemistry revealed the intensive mineralization......The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different set- tings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region...

  2. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrén, T.; Barker Jørgensen, B.; Cotterill, C.; Green, S.; IODP expedition 347 scientific party, the

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different settings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial-interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region with changing ice cover and major shifts in temperature, salinity, and biological communities. Using the Greatship Manisha as a European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) mission-specific platform, we recovered 1.6 km of core from nine sites of which four were additionally cored for microbiology. The sites covered the gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean, several sub-basins in the southern Baltic Sea, a deep basin in the central Baltic Sea, and a river estuary in the north. The waxing and waning of the Scandinavian ice sheet has profoundly affected the Baltic Sea sediments. During the Weichselian, progressing glaciers reshaped the submarine landscape and displaced sedimentary deposits from earlier Quaternary time. As the glaciers retreated they left a complex pattern of till, sand, and lacustrine clay, which in the basins has since been covered by a thick deposit of Holocene, organic-rich clay. Due to the stratified water column of the brackish Baltic Sea and the recurrent and widespread anoxia, the deeper basins harbor laminated sediments that provide a unique opportunity for high-resolution chronological studies. The Baltic Sea is a eutrophic intra-continental sea that is strongly impacted by terrestrial runoff and nutrient fluxes. The Holocene deposits are recorded today to be up to 50 m deep and geochemically affected by diagenetic alterations driven by organic matter degradation. Many of the cored sequences were highly supersaturated with respect to methane, which caused strong degassing upon core recovery. The depth distributions of conservative sea water ions still reflected the transition at the end of the last glaciation from fresh-water clays to

  3. Japan Sea expeditions for studies on water circulation and transport processes of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togawa, Orihiko; Ito, Toshimichi; Kobayashi, Takuya; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi

    2006-02-01

    The Japan Sea expeditions at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA from October 1, 2005, former JAERI: Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute until September 30, 2005) were started on its participation in the first and second Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expeditions in 1994 and 1995 to investigate the situation on marine pollution due to radioactive wastes dumped in the Japan Sea and other seas around Japan. After the joint expeditions, JAEA continued to conduct the Japan Sea expeditions not only to monitor the impacts of radioactive wastes dumped in the Japan Sea, but also to investigate water circulation and the migration behavior of radionuclides in the Japan Sea. Taking account of some difficulties and constraints due to the political boundaries in the Japan Sea, the expeditions were carried out, separating the sea into two regions; one is the Japanese exclusive economical zone (EEZ) and the other is the Russian EEZ. The data of observations and measurements obtained in the two regions were analyzed together. The program of the Japan Sea expeditions included large-volume seawater sampling at different depths and seabed sediment sampling for measurements of representative anthropogenic radionuclides. To investigate the migration behavior of the radionuclides more in detail, associated oceanographic observations were also implemented; CTD/MBS (conductivity-temperature-depth meter with multi-bottle sampler) casts, analysis of dissolved oxygen and nutrients, deployment and recovery of mooring systems with current meters and sediment traps, and so on. Additional seawater samples were taken with CTD/MBS for further analysis on land. This report summarizes the results of the Japan Sea expeditions (Phase 1) conducted and/or jointed by JAEA from 1994 to 2002. First the report explains oceanographic features of the Japan Sea, main expeditions in the past and the summarized results of the Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expeditions. Then the report gives an outline of the

  4. Particle sizes of Pliocene and Pleistocene core sediments from IODP Expedition 323 in the Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data compilation includes the results of grain size analyses of core sediment collected by IODP during Expedition 323 in the Bering Sea. One dataset is included...

  5. Studioantarctica: Embedding Art in a Geophysics Sea Ice Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Gabby; Stevens, Craig

    2017-04-01

    Here we report on a six year collaboration developing new modes of communication using the interconnections between art and science in the context of climate science. We use the polar regions as a context for the collaboration in part because it holds a special place in the imaginations of many people. Not only is it is a part of the planet likely to be never visited be the viewer but there is a growing understanding of the role the poles play in the planet's climate. Motivated by the potential for cross-disciplinary outcomes, an artist was embedded in a science expedition to the fast sea ice around Antarctica. Both the science and art focused on ice crystal formation. Most elements of the art process had three phases, pre, during and post - as with the science. The environment largely dominated the progress and evolution of ideas. The results were multi-material and multiscale and provide a way to entrain a wide range of audiences, while also making non-didactic connections around global climate - and producing art. This built on a continuum of approaches where we have evolved from consideration and debate about synergies in approach, through to cross-fertilisation of ideas, shared labour, trial remote controlling and finally shared field experimentation. Certainly this is ground-breaking in an academic sense, but beyond this, it is proving a powerful attractor in engaging primary school students. In a class room setting we describe our work and experiences, both separately and in combination, as well as our recent experiences seeking to bridge the disciplinary divide. We then ask the students to contribute to the process of creating science-inspired art. There are complementary perspectives on the evolving process, their associated communication strands and how this drives a suite of communication and education outcomes. The need to understand how these systems are changing as the human species modifies its planet is urgent. Science around the connection between

  6. Organic Matter Contents and Paleoproductivity Variation Within Late Pleistocene Japan Sea/East Sea Sediments: Results from IODP Expedition 346

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, H. D.; Anderson, W. T., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Inorganic and organic matter concentrations as well as the stable isotopes of nitrogen and organic carbon are presented for continuous sedimentary sequences collected during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 346 in the Japan Sea/East Sea in 2013. During major glacioeustatic sea level changes, the paleoceanographic conditions within the Japan Sea/East Sea widely vary due to the shallow, narrow straights connecting the sea to surrounding waters limiting an influx of oceanic currents. During glacial sea level low-stands the sea can be nearly isolated, creating a highly-stratified water column and hypoxic to anoxic bottom water conditions. Meanwhile during sea level high-stands, the Tsushima Warm Current (TWC) flows into the sea bringing warmer, nutrient-rich inputs, leading to vertical mixing and oxic conditions. This study aims to better understand the role of orbital cycling within the organic matter and stable isotope contents of these Late Pleistocene sediments. A total of 192 samples were analyzed each for %CaCO3, %TOC, δ13C, %N, and δ15N from two Expedition 346 sampling sites (U1426 and U1427) during the last 430,000 years and statistical analyses were completed using wavelet and time series analyses. Carbonate concentration ranges from 0-44.3%, total organic carbon 0.2 to 6.4%, δ13C -25.8 to -19.6‰, %N 0.04 to 0.4%, and δ15N 3.8 to 13.1‰. These results are well correlated with b* color values of the sediment and generally show increased productivity during interglacial periods, likely through increased vertical mixing and deepwater ventilation, when compared to glacial periods within the Japan Sea/East Sea when the sea may be partially isolated.

  7. East Weddell Sea echinoids from the JR275 expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Saucède

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding the echinoids in this dataset is based on the Agassiz Trawl (AGT and epibenthic sledge (EBS samples collected during the British Antarctic Survey cruise JR275 on the RRS James Clark Ross in the austral summer 2012. A total of 56 (1 at the South Orkneys and 55 in the Eastern Weddell Sea Agassiz Trawl and 18 (2 at the South Orkneys and 16 in the Eastern Weddell Sea epibenthic sledge deployments were performed at depths ranging from ~280 to ~2060 m. This presents a unique collection for the Antarctic benthic biodiversity assessment of an important group of benthic invertebrates. In total 487 specimens belonging to six families, 15 genera, and 22 morphospecies were collected. The species richness per station varied between one and six. Total species richness represents 27% of the 82 echinoid species ever recorded in the Southern Ocean (David et al. 2005b, Pierrat et al. 2012, Saucède et al. 2014. The Cidaridae (sub-family Ctenocidarinae and Schizasteridae are the two most speciose families in the dataset. They comprise seven and nine species respectively. This is illustrative of the overall pattern of echinoid diversity in the Southern Ocean where 65% of Antarctic species belong to the families Schizasteridae and Cidaridae (Pierrat et al. 2012.

  8. Postcolonial partnerships: deep sea research, media coverage and (inter)national narratives on the Galathea Deep Sea Expedition from 1950 to 1952.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    2010-03-01

    The Danish Galathea Deep Sea Expedition between 1950 and 1952 combined scientific and official objectives with the production of national and international narratives distributed through the daily press and other media. Dispatched by the Danish government on a newly acquired naval ship, the expedition undertook groundbreaking deep sea research while also devoting efforts to showing the flag, public communication of science, and international cooperation. The expedition was conceived after the war as a way in which to rehabilitate Denmark's reputation internationally and to rebuild national pride. To this end, the expedition included an onboard press section reporting the expedition to the Danish public and to an international audience. The press section mediated the favourable, post-war and postcolonial image of Denmark as an internationalist, scientific, modernizing and civilizing nation for which the expedition planners and many others were hoping. The expedition, therefore, was highly relevant to, indeed fed on, the emerging internationalist agenda in Denmark's foreign policy. Bringing out these aspects of the historical context of the expedition, this paper adds important perspectives to our knowledge about the expedition in particular and, more generally, about scientific exploration in the immediate post-war and postcolonial period.

  9. Sustainable Foods and Medicines Support Vitality, Sex and Longevity for a 100-Year Starship Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M. R.

    Extended space flight requires foods and medicines that sustain crew health and vitality. The health and therapeutic needs for the entire crew and their children for a 100-year space flight must be sustainable. The starship cannot depend on resupply or carry a large cargo of pharmaceuticals. Everything in the starship must be completely recyclable and reconstructable, including food, feed, textiles, building materials, pharmaceuticals, vaccines, and medicines. Smart microfarms will produce functional foods with superior nutrition and sensory attributes. These foods provide high-quality protein and nutralence (nutrient density), that avoids obesity, diabetes, and other Western diseases. The combination of functional foods, lifestyle actions, and medicines will support crew immunity, energy, vitality, sustained strong health, and longevity. Smart microfarms enable the production of fresh medicines in hours or days, eliminating the need for a large dispensary, which eliminates concern over drug shelf life. Smart microfarms are adaptable to the extreme growing area, resource, and environmental constraints associated with an extended starship expedition.

  10. Sustainability assessment: dressing up SEA - experiences from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, K

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available as Sustainability Assessment and how Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has been conceptualised and promoted in South Africa. This paper therefore investigates the following questions: Could the South African concept and application of SEA be what is required...

  11. Lectotype designations of new species of hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa), described by C.M. Fraser, from Allan Hancock Pacific and Caribbean Sea Expeditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calder, D.R.; Vervoort, W.; Hochberg, F.G.

    2009-01-01

    Hydroids of the Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions, and those of the Allan Hancock Caribbean Sea Expedition, were examined by Charles McLean Fraser in a series of reports published between 1938 and 1948. A total of 159 new nominal species was described from material collected in the eastern Pacific

  12. Baltic Sea Maritime Spatial Planning for Sustainable Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten; Schrøder, Anne Lise

    2017-01-01

    in the marine and maritime sectors with great potential for innovation and economic growth. Holistic spatial planning systems supporting sustainable development have proved themselves in terrestrial planning and are also needed at sea. Due to this reason, the BONUS BASMATI project is based on the ecosystem...... services approach to assist in assessing sustainable solutions corresponding to policy goals.......The current and potential use of the seas and oceans is often called the ‘Blue Economy’. Recently, the European Commission launched its Blue Growth Strategy on the opportunities for marine and maritime sustainable growth. The European Commission considers that Blue Growth is a long-term strategy...

  13. Investigation of environmental radioactivity in waste dumping areas of the far eastern seas. JAERI`s activities in the 1st Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expedition 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Hikaru; Matsunaga, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yabuuchi, Noriaki

    1996-10-01

    Large quantities of radioactive waste have been dumped in the Far Eastern Sea by the former USSR and Russia. In order to survey marine radioactive contamination in the Far Eastern Sea, the first Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expedition was conducted according to the governmental agreement. The joint expedition was conducted at the areas of the Russian radioactive waste dumping site from March 18 1994 to April 6, 1994. JAERI participated in this expedition according to the request from STA Japan, and conducted mainly on-board measurement of marine radioactivities. The results showed that the radionuclides concentrations in seawater and seabed sediment samples from the study site were not different from those in the western North Pacific. This report summarises JAERI`s activities in the expedition. Final report by Japanese-Korean-Russian government and IAEA is annexed. (author)

  14. Investigation of environmental radioactivity in waste dumping areas of the far eastern seas. JAERI's activities in the 1st Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expedition 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Hikaru; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Yabuuchi, Noriaki.

    1996-10-01

    Large quantities of radioactive waste have been dumped in the Far Eastern Sea by the former USSR and Russia. In order to survey marine radioactive contamination in the Far Eastern Sea, the first Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expedition was conducted according to the governmental agreement. The joint expedition was conducted at the areas of the Russian radioactive waste dumping site from March 18 1994 to April 6, 1994. JAERI participated in this expedition according to the request from STA Japan, and conducted mainly on-board measurement of marine radioactivities. The results showed that the radionuclides concentrations in seawater and seabed sediment samples from the study site were not different from those in the western North Pacific. This report summarises JAERI's activities in the expedition. Final report by Japanese-Korean-Russian government and IAEA is annexed. (author)

  15. The Soviet-Polish expedition on the study of natural radioactivity of the Baltic sea sediments (June-July 1975)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, A.A.; Vypykh, K.; Nevesskij, E.N.

    1976-01-01

    Results of the work of the common Soviet-Polish expedition on natural radioactivity of the Baltic Sea ground during June-July 1975 are presented. The work was aimed at revealing higher concentrations of heavy minerals and certain valuable mineral complexes and at establishing the rules of their localization at the sea bottom by means of radiometric and radiospectral survey of sea bottom. Spectrometric surveying made it possible to collect simultaneously with the ship's movement continuous information on distribution and contents of natural radioactive minerals, i.e. uranium, thorium and potassium in the upper layers of marine sediments. The level of gamma-activity of the sea grounds was being recorded. A correlation was found between the ground radioactivity level in certain areas of Eastern Baltics and the contents of some minerals, in particular, zircon. The maps of bottom concretion fields for some areas was composed. 'Splashes' of gamma-activity which is primarily due to thorium were found to be associated with the presence of local morphological elements of buried ancient relief covered by thin layers of silt at the sea bottom. It was established that iso-lines of gamma-radiation field run primarily along the latitudes; that the total intensity of soil radiation and its richness in heavy elements increase from the West to the East and the enriched band apparently becomes narrower in the same direction

  16. Expedition agroparks : research by design into sustainable development and agriculture in network society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This book is the result of several years of expedition into the development of metropolitan FoodClusters. The authors fascination for the agricultural landscapes in and around metropolises led him to the conclusion that improving the efficiency of agriculture is the most effective way to safeguard

  17. Reconstructing Holocene temperature and salinity variations in the western Baltic Sea region : A multi-proxy comparison from the Little Belt (IODP Expedition 347, Site M0059)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotthoff, Ulrich; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Ash, Jeanine; Fanget, Anne-Sophie; Krupinski, Nadine Quintana; Peyron, Odile; Stepanova, Anna; Warnock, Jonathan; van Helmond, N.A.G.M.; Passey, Benjamin H.; Clausen, Ole Rono; Bennike, O.; Andrén, Elinor; Granoszewski, Wojciech; Andrén, Thomas; Filipsson, Helena L.; Solveig-Seidenkrantz, M.; Slomp, C.P.; Bauersachs, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    Sediment records recovered from the Baltic Sea during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 347 provide a unique opportunity to study paleoenvironmental and -climate change in central/northern Europe. Such studies contribute to a better understanding of how environmental parameters change in

  18. Sea ice thickness measurements collected during the LOMROG 2007 and 2009 expeditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René; Hanson, Susanne

    and 2009 we have collected a unique data set of late summer sea ice thickness, freeboard height and snow depth from the high Arctic Ocean during the time of the annual minimum sea ice extent. The data were collected by on-the-ground drilling and EM measurements. Here we give a brief overview of the data......According to scientific measurements, the Arctic sea ice extent has declined dramatically over the past thirty years, with the most extreme decline seen in the summer melt season. Other observations indicate that the sea ice has become thinner and perennial ice less widely distributed...... collection, as well as the results including the freeboard-to-sea-ice thickness conversion factor, which is used when interpreting freeboard heights measured by remote sensing....

  19. South China Sea Tectonics and Magnetics: Constraints from IODP Expedition 349 and Deep-tow Magnetic Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Li, C. F.; Kulhanek, D. K.; Zhao, X.; Liu, Q.; Xu, X.; Sun, Z.; Zhu, J.

    2014-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is the largest low-latitude marginal sea in the world. Its formation and evolution are linked to the complex continental-oceanic tectonic interaction of the Eurasian, Pacific, and Indo-Australian plates. Despite its relatively small size and short history, the SCS has undergone nearly a complete Wilson cycle from continental break-up to seafloor spreading to subduction. In January-March 2014, Expedition 349 of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) drilled five sites in the deep basin of the SCS. Three sites (U1431, U1433, and U1434) cored into oceanic basement near the fossil spreading center on the East and Southwest Subbasins, whereas Sites U1432 and U1435 are located near the northern continent/ocean boundary of the East Subbasin. Shipboard biostratigraphy based on microfossils preserved in sediment directly above or within basement suggests that the preliminary cessation age of spreading in both the East and Southwest Subbasins is around early Miocene (16-20 Ma); however, post-cruise radiometric dating is being conducted to directly date the basement basalt in these subbasins. Prior to the IODP drilling, high-resolution near-seafloor magnetic surveys were conducted in 2012 and 2013 in the SCS with survey lines passing near the five IODP drilling sites. The deep-tow surveys revealed detailed patterns of the SCS magnetic anomalies with amplitude and spatial resolutions several times better than that of traditional sea surface measurements. Preliminary results reveal several episodes of magnetic reversal events that were not recognized by sea surface measurements. Together the IODP drilling and deep-tow magnetic surveys provide critical constraints for investigating the processes of seafloor spreading in the SCS and evolution of a mid-ocean ridge from active spreading to termination.

  20. Radioactive contamination at dumping sites for nuclear waste in the Kara Sea. Results from the Russian-Norwegian 1993 expedition to the Kara Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, P; Rudjord, A L [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway); Salbu, B [Norges Landbrukshoegskole, Vollebekk (Norway); and others

    1994-11-01

    During the 1993 Joint Russian-Norwegian Expedition to the Kara Sea, three dumping sites for nuclear waste were investigated: The Tsivolky Bay, the Stepovogo bay and an area in the open Kara Sea (The Novaya Zemlya Trough). Dumped waste was localized and inspected in the Tsivolky Bay and in the Stepovogo Bay using side scanning sonar and underwater camera. In the Stepovogo Bay, the dumped nuclear submarine no. 601, containing spent nuclear fuel was localized. Samples of waters, sediments and biota were collected at nine stations and later analyzed for several radionuclides (gammaemitters, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am). The analyses of the samples al the following conclusions to be drawn: (1) Elevated levels of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr and presence of {sup 60}Co were observed in the inner part of the Stepovogo Bay, and in one sample collected close to the hull of the dumped nuclear submarine in the Stepovogo Bay. {sup 60}Co was also observed in the Tsivolky Bay. This radioactive contamination most likely originates from the dumped radioactive material. It may be due to leaching from the waste. (2) The enhanced levels of contamination caused by dumped nuclear waste are still low and restricted to small areas. Thus, radiation doses from the existing contamination would be negligible. Radioactive contamination outside these areas is similar to the activity levels in the open Kara Sea. 46 refs.

  1. Radioactive contamination at dumping sites for nuclear waste in the Kara Sea. Results from the Russian-Norwegian 1993 expedition to the Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Rudjord, A.L.; Salbu, B.

    1994-11-01

    During the 1993 Joint Russian-Norwegian Expedition to the Kara Sea, three dumping sites for nuclear waste were investigated: The Tsivolky Bay, the Stepovogo bay and an area in the open Kara Sea (The Novaya Zemlya Trough). Dumped waste was localized and inspected in the Tsivolky Bay and in the Stepovogo Bay using side scanning sonar and underwater camera. In the Stepovogo Bay, the dumped nuclear submarine no. 601, containing spent nuclear fuel was localized. Samples of waters, sediments and biota were collected at nine stations and later analyzed for several radionuclides (gammaemitters, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am). The analyses of the samples al the following conclusions to be drawn: 1) Elevated levels of 137 Cs and 90 Sr and presence of 60 Co were observed in the inner part of the Stepovogo Bay, and in one sample collected close to the hull of the dumped nuclear submarine in the Stepovogo Bay. 60 Co was also observed in the Tsivolky Bay. This radioactive contamination most likely originates from the dumped radioactive material. It may be due to leaching from the waste. 2) The enhanced levels of contamination caused by dumped nuclear waste are still low and restricted to small areas. Thus, radiation doses from the existing contamination would be negligible. Radioactive contamination outside these areas is similar to the activity levels in the open Kara Sea. 46 refs

  2. The diplomacy of scientific research in the South China Sea: the case of join to oceanographic marine scientific research expedition between Vietnam and the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyawan, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    The South China Sea is one of the hot-spot areas in the world. This area is claimed by China, Malaysia, Brunei, Taiwan, Vietnam and the Philippines. It also noted, the South China Sea is rich in biodiversity as well as oil and gas. On the other side, environmental degradation is still happening in the South China Sea due to the reluctance of surrounding states to conduct a preservation program and mitigating action on climate change effects. Joint Oceanographic Marine Scientific Research Expedition between Vietnam and the Philippines is a breakthrough to start collaboration actions as well as to conduct Science Diplomacy.

  3. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in airborne particulates collected during a research expedition from the Bohai Sea to the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Ming; Ding, Xiang; Mai, Bi-Xian; Xie, Zhou-Qing; Xiang, Cai-Hong; Sun, Li-Guang; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Fu, Jia-Mo; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2005-10-15

    In July to September 2003, particulates in the oceanic atmosphere from the Bohai Sea to the high Arctic (37 degrees N to 80 degrees N) were collected aboard a research expedition icebreaker, Xuelong (Snow Dragon), under the 2003 Chinese Arctic Research Expedition Program (CHINARE 2003). These samples were analyzed to elucidate the atmospheric distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the North Pacific Ocean and adjacent Arctic region. The levels of 11 PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -66, -100, -99, -85, -154, -153, -138, -183, and -209; the sum was defined as sigma11PBDE) in the oceanic atmosphere of Far East Asia (34-48 degrees N/122-148 degrees E) ranged from 2.25 to 198.9 pg/m3 with a mean of 58.3 pg/m3. BDE-47, -99, -100, and -209 were the dominant congeners in all the samples, suggesting that the widely used commercial penta- and deca-BDE products were the original sources. The PBDE levels exhibited a decreasing trend from the mid- to high-latitudinal regions of the North Pacific Ocean, probably resulting from dilution, deposition, and decomposition of PBDEs during long-range transport of air masses. On the other hand, no apparent geographical pattern of PBDE distribution was observed within the Arctic, attributable to unstable air circulation and strong air mixing. Correlations among the PBDE congeners suggested that air masses collected from the North Pacific Ocean were relatively fresh, whereas those from the Arctic were aged as a result of photodecompoisiton. The higher average level (17.3 pg/m3) of PBDE congeners in the Arctic than those in the adjacent North Pacific Ocean (12.8 pg/m3) or other remote areas reported in the literature was attributed to the impact of the North American continent and temperature effects, which was consistent with the hypotheses of global fractionation.

  4. Meteorological conditions in a thinner Arctic sea ice regime from winter to summer during the Norwegian Young Sea Ice expedition (N-ICE2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lana; Hudson, Stephen R.; Walden, Von P.; Graham, Robert M.; Granskog, Mats A.

    2017-07-01

    Atmospheric measurements were made over Arctic sea ice north of Svalbard from winter to early summer (January-June) 2015 during the Norwegian Young Sea Ice (N-ICE2015) expedition. These measurements, which are available publicly, represent a comprehensive meteorological data set covering the seasonal transition in the Arctic Basin over the new, thinner sea ice regime. Winter was characterized by a succession of storms that produced short-lived (less than 48 h) temperature increases of 20 to 30 K at the surface. These storms were driven by the hemispheric scale circulation pattern with a large meridional component of the polar jet stream steering North Atlantic storms into the high Arctic. Nonstorm periods during winter were characterized by strong surface temperature inversions due to strong radiative cooling ("radiatively clear state"). The strength and depth of these inversions were similar to those during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) campaign. In contrast, atmospheric profiles during the "opaquely cloudy state" were different to those from SHEBA due to differences in the synoptic conditions and location within the ice pack. Storm events observed during spring/summer were the result of synoptic systems located in the Barents Sea and the Arctic Basin rather than passing directly over N-ICE2015. These synoptic systems were driven by a large-scale circulation pattern typical of recent years, with an Arctic Dipole pattern developing during June. Surface temperatures became near-constant 0°C on 1 June marking the beginning of summer. Atmospheric profiles during the spring and early summer show persistent lifted temperature and moisture inversions that are indicative of clouds and cloud processes.

  5. Revised South China Sea spreading history based on macrostructure analysis of IODP Expedition 349 core samples and geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z.; Ding, W.; Zhao, X.; Qiu, N.; Lin, J.; Li, C.

    2017-12-01

    In Internaltional Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 349, four sites were drilled and cored successfully in the South China Sea (SCS). Three of them are close to the central spreading ridge (Sites U1431, U1433 and U1434), and one (Site U1435) is located on an outer rise,,providingsignificant information on the spreading history of the SCS.In order to constrain the spreading historymore accurately with the core results, we analyzed the identifiable macrostructures (over 300 fractures, veins and slickensides)from all the consolidated samples of these four drill sites. Then we made a retrograde reconstruction of the SCS spreading history with the constraints of the estimated fractures and veins, post-spreading volcanism,seismic interpretation, as well as free-air gravity and magnetic anomaly and topography analysis. Our study indicates that the spreading of the SCS experienced at least one ridge jump event and two events of ridge orientation and spreading direction adjustment, which mademagnetic anomaly orientation, ridge positionand facture zone directionskeep changing in the South China Sea. During the last spreading stage, the spreading direction was north-southward but lasted for a very short time period. The oceanic crust is wider in the eastern SCS and tapers out toward west.Due to the subductionof SCS beneath the Philippine Sea plate, the seafloor began to develop new fractures:the NWW-to EW-trending R' shear faults and the NE-trending P faultsbecame dominant faults and controlled the eruption of post-drift volcanism.

  6. Winter snow conditions on Arctic sea ice north of Svalbard during the Norwegian young sea ICE (N-ICE2015) expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkouriadi, Ioanna; Gallet, Jean-Charles; Graham, Robert M.; Liston, Glen E.; Polashenski, Chris; Rösel, Anja; Gerland, Sebastian

    2017-10-01

    Snow is a crucial component of the Arctic sea ice system. Its thickness and thermal properties control heat conduction and radiative fluxes across the ocean, ice, and atmosphere interfaces. Hence, observations of the evolution of snow depth, density, thermal conductivity, and stratigraphy are crucial for the development of detailed snow numerical models predicting energy transfer through the snow pack. Snow depth is also a major uncertainty in predicting ice thickness using remote sensing algorithms. Here we examine the winter spatial and temporal evolution of snow physical properties on first-year (FYI) and second-year ice (SYI) in the Atlantic sector of the Arctic Ocean, during the Norwegian young sea ICE (N-ICE2015) expedition (January to March 2015). During N-ICE2015, the snow pack consisted of faceted grains (47%), depth hoar (28%), and wind slab (13%), indicating very different snow stratigraphy compared to what was observed in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean during the SHEBA campaign (1997-1998). Average snow bulk density was 345 kg m-3 and it varied with ice type. Snow depth was 41 ± 19 cm in January and 56 ± 17 cm in February, which is significantly greater than earlier suggestions for this region. The snow water equivalent was 14.5 ± 5.3 cm over first-year ice and 19 ± 5.4 cm over second-year ice.

  7. Redescription of the deep-sea colonial ascidian Synoicum molle (Herdman, 1886: first record since its original finding during the Challenger Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Maggioni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The colonial ascidian Synoicum molle (Herdman, 1886 was recorded for the first time after its original description. The slope area where S. molle was discovered during the Challenger Expedition (1872-1876, located at the mouth off Río de La Plata (Argentine Sea, still remains highly underexplored. During a series of deep-sea prospections along the SW Atlantic (A.R.A. Puerto Deseado, August 2012, 7 colonies of S. molle were collected few km from the type locality. The finding permitted to perform, for the first time, a complete morphological description of this species. The proper identification of marine species, especially deep-sea organisms, has implications for the general knowledge of biodiversity, a necessary tool for the conservation and study of ecosystem benefits that marine environments provide.

  8. Sedimentation in a Submarine Seamount Apron at Site U1431, International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 349, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadd, K. A.; Clift, P. D.; Hyun, S.; Jiang, T.; Liu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 349 Site U1431 is located near the relict spreading ridge in the East Subbasin of the South China Sea. Holes at this site were drilled close to seamounts and intersected the volcaniclastic apron. Volcaniclastic breccia and sandstone at Site U1431 are dated as late middle Miocene to early late Miocene (~8-13 Ma), suggesting a 5 m.y. duration of seamount volcanism. The apron is approximately 200 m thick and is sandwiched between non-volcaniclastic units that represent the background sedimentation. These comprise dark greenish gray clay, silt, and nannofossil ooze interpreted as turbidite and hemipelagic deposits that accumulated at abyssal water depths. At its base, the seamount sequence begins with dark greenish gray sandstone, siltstone, and claystone in upward fining sequences interpreted as turbidites intercalated with minor intervals of volcaniclastic breccia. Upsection the number and thickness of breccia layers increases with some beds up to 4.8 m and possibly 14.5 m thick. The breccia is typically massive, ungraded, and poorly sorted with angular to subangular basaltic clasts, as well as minor reworked subrounded calcareous mudstone, mudstone, and sandstone clasts. Basaltic clasts include nonvesicular aphyric basalt, sparsely vesicular aphyric basalt, highly vesicular aphyric basalt, and nonvesicular glassy basalt. Mudstone clasts are clay rich and contain foraminifer fossils. The matrix comprises up to 40% of the breccia beds and is a mix of clay, finer grained altered basalt clasts, and mafic vitroclasts with rare foraminifer fossils. Some layers have calcite cement between clasts. Volcaniclastic sandstone and claystone cycles interbedded with the breccia layers have current ripples and parallel laminations indicative of high-energy flow conditions during sedimentation. The breccia beds were most likely deposited as a series of debris flows or grain flows. This interpretation is supported by their

  9. EMODnet MedSea Checkpoint for sustainable Blue Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussat, Eric; Pinardi, Nadia; Manzella, Giuseppe; Blanc, Frederique

    2016-04-01

    The EMODNET checkpoint is a wide monitoring system assessment activity aiming to support the sustainable Blue Growth at the scale of the European Sea Basins by: 1) Clarifying the observation landscape of all compartments of the marine environment including Air, Water, Seabed, Biota and Human activities, pointing out to the existing programs, national, European and international 2) Evaluating fitness for use indicators that will show the accessibility and usability of observation and modeling data sets and their roles and synergies based upon selected applications by the European Marine Environment Strategy 3) Prioritizing the needs to optimize the overall monitoring Infrastructure (in situ and satellite data collection and assembling, data management and networking, modeling and forecasting, geo-infrastructure) and release recommendations for evolutions to better meet the application requirements in view of sustainable Blue Growth The assessment is designed for : - Institutional stakeholders for decision making on observation and monitoring systems - Data providers and producers to know how their data collected once for a given purpose could fit other user needs - End-users interested in a regional status and possible uses of existing monitoring data Selected end-user applications are of paramount importance for: (i) the blue economy sector (offshore industries, fisheries); (ii) marine environment variability and change (eutrophication, river inputs and ocean climate change impacts); (iii) emergency management (oil spills); and (iv) preservation of natural resources and biodiversity (Marine Protected Areas). End-user applications generate innovative products based on the existing observation landscape. The fitness for use assessment is made thanks to the comparison of the expected product specifications with the quality of the product derived from the selected data. This involves the development of checkpoint information and indicators based on Data quality and

  10. Caudwell xtreme everest expedition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grocott, Michael P. W.; Martin, Daniel S.; Wilson, Mark H.; Mitchell, Kay; Dhillon, Sundeep; Mythen, Monty G.; Montgomery, Hugh E.; Levett, Denny Z. H.; Ahuja, V.; Aref-Adib, G.; Burnham, R.; Chisholm, A.; Clarke, K.; Coates, D.; Coates, M.; Cook, D.; Cox, M.; Dhillon, S.; Dougall, C.; Doyle, P.; Duncan, P.; Edsell, M.; Edwards, L.; Evans, L.; Gardiner, P.; Grocott, M.; Gunning, P.; Hart, N.; Harrington, J.; Harvey, J.; Holloway, C.; Howard, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Imray, C.; Ince, C.; Jonas, M.; van der Kaaij, J.; Khosravi, M.; Kolfschoten, N.; Levett, D.; Luery, H.; Luks, A.; Martin, D.; McMorrow, R.; Meale, P.; Mitchell, K.; Montgomery, H.; Morgan, G.; Morgan, J.; Murray, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Caudwell Xtreme Everest (CXE) expedition involved the detailed study of 222 subjects ascending to 5300 m or higher during the first half of 2007. Following baseline measurements at sea level, 198 trekker-subjects trekked to Everest Base Camp (EBC) following an identical ascent profile. An

  11. A Triple P review of the feasibility of sustainable offshore seaweed production in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van den S.W.K.; Stuiver, M.; Veenstra, F.A.; Bikker, P.; Lopez Contreras, A.M.; Palstra, A.P.; Broeze, J.; Jansen, H.M.; Jak, R.G.; Gerritsen, A.L.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Kals, J.; Blanco Garcia, A.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Duijn, van A.P.; Mulder, W.J.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the potential of seaweed, cultivated in the North Sea, as a sustainable and profitable resource for feed and non-food applications. Seawood production can take place as part of multi-use platforms at sea (MUPS). A review of the state-of-the-art in seaweed production and its

  12. Sequencing at sea : challenges and experiences in Ion Torrent PGM sequencing during the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, Yan Wei; Cuevas, Daniel A; Silva, Genivaldo Gueiros Z; Aguinaldo, Kristen; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Haas, Andreas F; Hatay, Mark; Sanchez, Savannah E; Wegley-Kelly, Linda; Dutilh, Bas E; Harkins, Timothy T; Lee, Clarence C; Tom, Warren; Sandin, Stuart A; Smith, Jennifer E; Zgliczynski, Brian; Vermeij, Mark J A; Rohwer, Forest; Edwards, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Genomics and metagenomics have revolutionized our understanding of marine microbial ecology and the importance of microbes in global geochemical cycles. However, the process of DNA sequencing has always been an abstract extension of the research expedition, completed once the samples were returned

  13. Sequencing at sea: challenges and experiences in Ion Torrent PGM sequencing during the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, Y.W.; Cuevas, D.A.; Silva, G.G.Z.; Aguinaldo, K.; Dinsdale, E.A.; Haas, A.F.; Hatay, M.; Sanchez, S.E.; Wegley-Kelly, L.; Dutilh, B.E.; Harkins, T.T.; Lee, C.C.; Tom, W.; Sandin, S.A.; Smith, J.E.; Zgliczynski, B.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Rohwer, F.; Edwards, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Genomics and metagenomics have revolutionized our understanding of marine microbial ecology and the importance of microbes in global geochemical cycles. However, the process of DNA sequencing has always been an abstract extension of the research expedition, completed once the samples were returned

  14. The Wadden Sea region: towards a science for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazelmans, J.G.A.; Kabat, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Wadden Sea is one of the largest intertidal areas in the world and has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in recognition of its unique natural features. Major changes in the morphology and ecology of the Wadden Sea over the past millennium resulted from increasing anthropogenic

  15. The Wadden Sea Region : Towards a science for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabat, Pavel; Bazelmans, Jos; van Dijk, Jouke; Herman, Peter M. J.; van Oijen, Tim; Pejrup, Morten; Reise, Karsten; Speelman, Hessel; Wolff, Wim J.

    2012-01-01

    The Wadden Sea is one of the largest intertidal areas in the world and has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in recognition of its unique natural features. major changes in the morphology and ecology of the Wadden Sea over the past millennium resulted from increasing anthropogenic

  16. The Wadden Sea Region: Towards a science for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabat, P.; Bazelmans, J.; Dijk, van J.; Hermans, P.; Oijen, van T.

    2012-01-01

    The Wadden Sea is one of the largest intertidal areas in the world and has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in recognition of its unique natural features. Major changes in the morphology and ecology of the Wadden Sea over the past millennium resulted from increasing anthropogenic

  17. Sustainable Seas Student Intertidal Monitoring Project, Duxbury Reef, Bolinas, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soave, K.; Dean, A.; Prescutti, K.; Ball, O.; Chang, E.; Darakananda, K.; Jessup, K.; Poutian, J.; Schwalbe, H.; Storm, E.

    2008-12-01

    The Sustainable Seas Student Monitoring Project at the Branson School in Ross, CA has monitored Duxbury Reef in Bolinas, CA since 1999, in cooperation with the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association and the Gulf of Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. Goals of the project include: 1) To monitor the rocky intertidal habitat and develop a baseline database of invertebrates and algal density and abundance; 2) To contribute to the conservation of the rocky intertidal habitat through education of students and visitors about intertidal species and requirements for maintaining a healthy, diverse intertidal ecosystem; 3) To increase stewardship in the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary; and 4) To contribute abundance and population data on key algae and invertebrate species to the national database, LiMPETS (Long Term Monitoring Program and Experiential Training for Students). Student volunteers complete an intensive training course on the natural history of intertidal invertebrates and algae, identification of key species, rocky intertidal ecology, interpretation and monitoring techniques, and history of the sanctuary. Students identify and count key invertebrate and algae species along two permanent transects (A and B), and using randomly determined points within a permanent 100 m2 area, three times per year (fall, winter, and late spring). Using the data collected since 2004, we will analyze the population densities of aggregating anemones, Anthopleura elegantissima, for seasonal abundance variations as well as long-term population trends. We will also follow the seasonal and long-term population fluctuations of red algal turf, Endocladia muricata and Gelidium coulteri, and black turban snails, Tegula funebralis. Comparing populations of turf algae and the herbivorous black turban snails gathered before and after the November 7, 2007 San Francisco Bay oil spill shows very little impact on the Duxbury Reef intertidal inhabitants. Future analyses will

  18. Sequencing at sea: challenges and experiences in Ion Torrent PGM sequencing during the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wei Lim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Genomics and metagenomics have revolutionized our understanding of marine microbial ecology and the importance of microbes in global geochemical cycles. However, the process of DNA sequencing has always been an abstract extension of the research expedition, completed once the samples were returned to the laboratory. During the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition, we started the first effort to bring next generation sequencing to some of the most remote locations on our planet. We successfully sequenced twenty six marine microbial genomes, and two marine microbial metagenomes using the Ion Torrent PGM platform on the Merchant Yacht Hanse Explorer. Onboard sequence assembly, annotation, and analysis enabled us to investigate the role of the microbes in the coral reef ecology of these islands and atolls. This analysis identified phosphonate as an important phosphorous source for microbes growing in the Line Islands and reinforced the importance of L-serine in marine microbial ecosystems. Sequencing in the field allowed us to propose hypotheses and conduct experiments and further sampling based on the sequences generated. By eliminating the delay between sampling and sequencing, we enhanced the productivity of the research expedition. By overcoming the hurdles associated with sequencing on a boat in the middle of the Pacific Ocean we proved the flexibility of the sequencing, annotation, and analysis pipelines.

  19. Radioactive contamination from dumped nuclear waste in the Kara Sea--results from the joint Russian-Norwegian expeditions in 1992-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbu, B; Nikitin, A I; Strand, P; Christensen, G C; Chumichev, V B; Lind, B; Fjelldal, H; Bergan, T D; Rudjord, A L; Sickel, M; Valetova, N K; Føyn, L

    1997-08-25

    Russian-Norwegian expeditions to the Kara Sea and to dumping sites in the fjords of Novaya Zemlya have taken place annually since 1992. In the fjords, dumped objects were localised with sonar and ROV equipped with underwater camera. Enhanced levels of 137Cs, 60Co, 90Sr and 239,240Pu in sediments close to dumped containers in the Abrosimov and Stepovogo fjords demonstrated that leaching from dumped material has taken place. The contamination was inhomogeneously distributed and radioactive particles were identified in the upper 10 cm of the sediments. 137Cs was strongly associated with sediments, while 90Sr was more mobile. The contamination was less pronounced in the areas where objects presumed to be reactor compartments were located. The enhanced level of radionuclides observed in sediments close to the submarine in Stepovogo fjord in 1993 could, however, not be confirmed in 1994. Otherwise, traces of 60Co in sediments were observed in the close vicinity of all localised objects. Thus, the general level of radionuclides in waters, sediments and biota in the fjords is, somewhat higher or similar to that of the open Kara Sea, i.e. significantly lower than in other adjacent marine systems (e.g. Irish Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea). The main sources contributing to radioactive contamination were global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, river transport from Ob and Yenisey, marine transport of discharges from Sellafield, UK and fallout from Chernobyl. Thus, the radiological impact to man and the arctic environment of the observed leakages from dumped radioactive waste today, is considered to be low. Assuming all radionuclides are released from the waste, preliminary assessments indicate a collective dose to the world population of less than 50 man Sv.

  20. Anthropogenic radionuclides in sediments in the NW Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas. Results of the 1994-1995 Japanese-Korean-Russian expeditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, H.B.L.; Amano, H.; Berezhnov, V.I.; Nikitin, A.; Veletova, N.K.; Chaykovskaya, E.; Chumichev, V.B.; Chung, C.S.; Gastaud, J.; Hirose, K.; Hong, G.H.; Kim, C.K.; Kim, S.H.; Lee, S.H.; Morimoto, T.; Oda, K.; Povinec, P.P.; Togawa, O.; Suzuki, E.; Tkalin, A.; Volkov, Y.; Yoshida, K.

    1999-01-01

    Assessment of contamination of anthropogenic radionuclides from past dumping of radioactive waste in areas of the Okhotsk Sea, NW Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan/East Sea has been performed. Two joint Japanese-Korean-Russian scientific expeditions were carried out in 1994-1995, where seawater and seabed sediments were samples from 22 sites. Results of sediment analysis are reported here, where concentrations of 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu and 241Am in surface layer and bulk sediments showed on large spatial variations, ranging between -1 dry wt., -1 dry wt., -1 dry wt., 0.006 and 2.0 Bq kg -1 dry wt., 0.03 and 1.8 Bq kg -1 dry wt., respectively. However, the concentrations are comparable with those found in reference sites outside the dumping areas and they generally fall within ranges previously reported for non-dumping areas of the investigated seas. Estimates of sediment inventories indicated differences in radionuclide load between shelf/slope and basin type sediments as well as dependence on water depth. Except for the shallow areas, most of the inventories of 90Sr, 137Cs and Pu isotopes are still to be found in the water column. Total inventories (in water+sediment) show a surplus of 137Cs and Pu-isotopes compared to expected integrated global fall-out deposition, which is consistent with previous observations in non-dumping areas in the seas investigated. Analysis of sediment 238Pu/239,240Pu activity ratios showed values in accord with that of global fall-out. Analysis of radionuclide depth distributions in core samples from areas of the Sea of Okhotsk showed sedimentation rates of 0.2-0.4 g cm -2 year -1 and 0.03 g cm -2 year -1 for shelf and basin areas respectively, which is similar to values found in the Sea of Japan/East Sea. Depth profiles of 90Sr, 137Cs and Pu isotopes in cores of the basin area indicate a typical delay compared to the input records of global fall-out

  1. All at Sea: Sustaining livelihoods through maritime tourism in Croatia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... human capital, physical and social aspect, and natural capital) have proved to ... Keywords: Sustainable livelihoods, maritime tourism, seafaring community, entrepreneurship, Croatia.

  2. How deep-sea wood falls sustain chemosynthetic life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bienhold

    Full Text Available Large organic food falls to the deep sea--such as whale carcasses and wood logs--are known to serve as stepping stones for the dispersal of highly adapted chemosynthetic organisms inhabiting hot vents and cold seeps. Here we investigated the biogeochemical and microbiological processes leading to the development of sulfidic niches by deploying wood colonization experiments at a depth of 1690 m in the Eastern Mediterranean for one year. Wood-boring bivalves of the genus Xylophaga played a key role in the degradation of the wood logs, facilitating the development of anoxic zones and anaerobic microbial processes such as sulfate reduction. Fauna and bacteria associated with the wood included types reported from other deep-sea habitats including chemosynthetic ecosystems, confirming the potential role of large organic food falls as biodiversity hot spots and stepping stones for vent and seep communities. Specific bacterial communities developed on and around the wood falls within one year and were distinct from freshly submerged wood and background sediments. These included sulfate-reducing and cellulolytic bacterial taxa, which are likely to play an important role in the utilization of wood by chemosynthetic life and other deep-sea animals.

  3. How Deep-Sea Wood Falls Sustain Chemosynthetic Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienhold, Christina; Pop Ristova, Petra; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Dittmar, Thorsten; Boetius, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Large organic food falls to the deep sea – such as whale carcasses and wood logs – are known to serve as stepping stones for the dispersal of highly adapted chemosynthetic organisms inhabiting hot vents and cold seeps. Here we investigated the biogeochemical and microbiological processes leading to the development of sulfidic niches by deploying wood colonization experiments at a depth of 1690 m in the Eastern Mediterranean for one year. Wood-boring bivalves of the genus Xylophaga played a key role in the degradation of the wood logs, facilitating the development of anoxic zones and anaerobic microbial processes such as sulfate reduction. Fauna and bacteria associated with the wood included types reported from other deep-sea habitats including chemosynthetic ecosystems, confirming the potential role of large organic food falls as biodiversity hot spots and stepping stones for vent and seep communities. Specific bacterial communities developed on and around the wood falls within one year and were distinct from freshly submerged wood and background sediments. These included sulfate-reducing and cellulolytic bacterial taxa, which are likely to play an important role in the utilization of wood by chemosynthetic life and other deep-sea animals. PMID:23301092

  4. Expedition sol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland

    2006-01-01

    Tag på expedition sol rundt i museet. Er der nogen, der har taget en bid af solen? Hvorfor bliver der solformørkelse? Kan vi undvære Solen?......Tag på expedition sol rundt i museet. Er der nogen, der har taget en bid af solen? Hvorfor bliver der solformørkelse? Kan vi undvære Solen?...

  5. The "Physical feedbacks of Arctic PBL, Sea ice, Cloud and AerosoL (PASCAL)" campaign during the Arctic POLARSTERN expedition PS106 in spring 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macke, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Polar regions are important components in the global climate system. The widespread surface snow and ice cover strongly impacts the surface energy budget, which is tightly coupled to global atmospheric and oceanic circulations. The coupling of sea ice, clouds and aerosol in the transition zone between Open Ocean and sea ice is the focus of the PASCAL investigations to improve our understanding of the recent dramatic reduction in Arctic sea-ice. A large variety of active/passive remote sensing, in-situ-aerosol observation, and spectral irradiance measurements have been obtained during the German research icebreaker POLARSTERN expedition PS106, and provided detailed information on the atmospheric spatiotemporal structure, aerosol and cloud chemical and microphysical properties as well as the resulting surface radiation budget. Nearly identical measurements at the AWIPEV Base (German - French Research Base) in Ny-Ålesund close to the Open Ocean and collocated airborne activities of the POLAR 5 and POLAR 6 AWI aircraft in the framework of the ACLOUD project have been carried out in parallel. The airborne observations have been supplemented by observations of the boundary layer structure (mean and turbulent quantities) from a tethered balloon reaching up to 1500 m, which was operated at an ice floe station nearby POLARSTERN for two weeks. All observational activities together with intense modelling at various scales are part of the German Collaborative Research Cluster TR 172 "Arctic Amplification" that aims to provide an unprecedented picture of the complex Arctic weather and climate system. The presentation provides an overview of the measurements on-board POLARSTERN and on the ice floe station during PASCAL from May 24 to July 21 2017. We conclude how these and future similar measurements during the one-year ice drift of POLARSTERN in the framework of MOSAiC help to reduce uncertainties in Arctic aerosol-cloud interaction, cloud radiative forcing, and surface

  6. Sustainable manure management in the Baltic Sea Region - results, cases and project recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Luostarinen, S; Hamelin, Lorie

    This magazine contains the major results, conclusions and recommendations of the project Baltic Forum for Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Manure Management (Baltic Manure) which via co-funding from Interreg Baltic Sea Region programme has been a Flagship project in the EU Strategy...

  7. Reconstructing Holocene temperature and salinity variations in the western Baltic Sea region: a multi-proxy comparison from the Little Belt (IODP Expedition 347, Site M0059)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotthoff, Ulrich; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Ash, Jeanine L.; Fanget, Anne-Sophie; Quintana Krupinski, Nadine; Peyron, Odile; Stepanova, Anna; Warnock, Jonathan; Van Helmond, Niels A. G. M.; Passey, Benjamin H.; Rønø Clausen, Ole; Bennike, Ole; Andrén, Elinor; Granoszewski, Wojciech; Andrén, Thomas; Filipsson, Helena L.; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Slomp, Caroline P.; Bauersachs, Thorsten

    2017-12-01

    Sediment records recovered from the Baltic Sea during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 347 provide a unique opportunity to study paleoenvironmental and climate change in central and northern Europe. Such studies contribute to a better understanding of how environmental parameters change in continental shelf seas and enclosed basins. Here we present a multi-proxy-based reconstruction of paleotemperature (both marine and terrestrial), paleosalinity, and paleoecosystem changes from the Little Belt (Site M0059) over the past ˜ 8000 years and evaluate the applicability of inorganic- and organic-based proxies in this particular setting. All salinity proxies (diatoms, aquatic palynomorphs, ostracods, diol index) show that lacustrine conditions occurred in the Little Belt until ˜ 7400 cal yr BP. A connection to the Kattegat at this time can thus be excluded, but a direct connection to the Baltic Proper may have existed. The transition to the brackish-marine conditions of the Littorina Sea stage (more saline and warmer) occurred within ˜ 200 years when the connection to the Kattegat became established after ˜ 7400 cal yr BP. The different salinity proxies used here generally show similar trends in relative changes in salinity, but often do not allow quantitative estimates of salinity. The reconstruction of water temperatures is associated with particularly large uncertainties and variations in absolute values by up to 8 °C for bottom waters and up to 16 °C for surface waters. Concerning the reconstruction of temperature using foraminiferal Mg  /  Ca ratios, contamination by authigenic coatings in the deeper intervals may have led to an overestimation of temperatures. Differences in results based on the lipid paleothermometers (long chain diol index and TEXL86) can partly be explained by the application of modern-day proxy calibrations to intervals that experienced significant changes in depositional settings: in the case of our study, the change from

  8. UBC-Nepal expedition: The use of oral antioxidants does not alter cerebrovascular function at sea level or high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Alexander B; Hoiland, Ryan L; Lewis, Nia C S; Tymko, Michael M; Tremblay, Joshua C; Stembridge, Michael; Nowak-Flück, Daniela; Carter, Howard H; Bailey, Damian M; Ainslie, Philip N

    2018-04-01

    What is the central question of the study? Does the use of antioxidants alter cerebrovascular function and blood flow at sea level (344 m) and/or high altitude (5050 m)? What is the main finding and its importance? This is the first study to investigate whether antioxidant administration alters cerebrovascular regulation and blood flow in response to hypercapnia, acute hypoxia and chronic hypoxia in healthy humans. We demonstrate that an acute dose of antioxidants does not alter cerebrovascular function and blood flow at sea level (344 m) or after 12 days at high altitude (5050 m). Hypoxia is associated with an increase in systemic and cerebral formation of free radicals and associated reactants that may be linked to impaired cerebral vascular function and neurological sequelae. To what extent oral antioxidant prophylaxis impacts cerebrovascular function in humans throughout the course of acclimatization to the hypoxia of terrestrial high altitude has not been examined. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of orally ingested antioxidants at clinically relevant doses (vitamins C and E and α-lipoic acid) on cerebrovascular regulation at sea level (344 m; n = 12; female n = 2 participants) and at high altitude (5050 m; n = 9; female n = 2) in a randomized, placebo-controlled and double-blinded crossover design. Hypercapnic and hypoxic cerebrovascular reactivity tests of the internal carotid artery (ICA) were conducted at sea level, and global and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF; i.e. ICA and vertebral artery) were assessed 10-12 days after arrival at 5050 m. At sea level, acute administration of antioxidants did not alter cerebral hypoxic cerebrovascular reactivity (pre versus post: 1.5 ± 0.7 versus 1.2 ± 0.8%∆CBF/-%∆SpO2; P = 0.96) or cerebral hypercapnic cerebrovascular reactivity (pre versus post: 5.7 ± 2.0 versus 5.8 ± 1.9%∆CBF/∆mmHg; P = 0.33). Furthermore, global CBF (P = 0.43) and

  9. A late glacial record of ice-sheet dynamics and melt supply recovered in the sediments of IODP Expedition 347 in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passchier, Sandra; Jensen, Jørn Bo; Kenzler, Michael; Johnson, Sean; Andrén, Thomas; Barker Jørgensen, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Modern observations of increased surface ablation, meltwater routing to the bed, and increases in glacial speeds point to feedbacks between ice-sheet dynamics, melt supply, and subglacial discharge. Paleorecords have the potential to explore the decadal to centennial variability of these systems, but until recently such records were short and discontinuous in ice-proximal settings and underutilized for this specific purpose. The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 347 in the Baltic Sea recovered annually laminated sediments that document the dynamics of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet. Hydraulic piston cores recovered from Sites M0060, M0063, M0064, and M0065 allow us to reconstruct a nearly complete record of ca. 6000 years in ice retreat history at annual to decadal resolution between ca. 17 and 11ka. The late glacial successions of these four IODP drillsites comprise of a till or proglacial fluvioglacial sediment overlain by variable thicknesses of well-laminated deglacial successions within several high-recovery holes. As the Scandinavian Ice Sheet retreated from the western Baltic Sea, and to the North, the ice-sheet's grounding line migrated across the four sites and deposited overlapping sections of high-resolution ice-proximal to ice-distal successions. Laser particle size results from Sites M0060 and M0063, and inspection of line-scan images, show shifts in sedimentary facies and lithologies that were not recognized during initial visual core description. For example, at Site M0060 in the Kattegat, ice-rafting fluxes in silty clays decrease upward and are negligible in the overlying varved succession. These characteristics are interpreted as ice retreat within a calving bay environment from ca. 17ka onward, followed by distal glacial marine deposition from sediment plumes governed by meltwater discharge. Moreover, at Site M0063 in the Baltic Sea, laser particle size distributions record an abrupt shift from interlaminated clayey silt to laminated clay

  10. Spring snow conditions on Arctic sea ice north of Svalbard, during the Norwegian Young Sea ICE (N-ICE2015) expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Jean-Charles; Merkouriadi, Ioanna; Liston, Glen E.; Polashenski, Chris; Hudson, Stephen; Rösel, Anja; Gerland, Sebastian

    2017-10-01

    Snow is crucial over sea ice due to its conflicting role in reflecting the incoming solar energy and reducing the heat transfer so that its temporal and spatial variability are important to estimate. During the Norwegian Young Sea ICE (N-ICE2015) campaign, snow physical properties and variability were examined, and results from April until mid-June 2015 are presented here. Overall, the snow thickness was about 20 cm higher than the climatology for second-year ice, with an average of 55 ± 27 cm and 32 ± 20 cm on first-year ice. The average density was 350-400 kg m-3 in spring, with higher values in June due to melting. Due to flooding in March, larger variability in snow water equivalent was observed. However, the snow structure was quite homogeneous in spring due to warmer weather and lower amount of storms passing over the field camp. The snow was mostly consisted of wind slab, faceted, and depth hoar type crystals with occasional fresh snow. These observations highlight the more dynamic character of evolution of snow properties over sea ice compared to previous observations, due to more variable sea ice and weather conditions in this area. The snowpack was isothermal as early as 10 June with the first onset of melt clearly identified in early June. Based on our observations, we estimate than snow could be accurately represented by a three to four layers modeling approach, in order to better consider the high variability of snow thickness and density together with the rapid metamorphose of the snow in springtime.

  11. Identified Natural Hazards May Cause Adverse Impact on Sustainability of Desalination Plants in Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburizaiza, O. S.; Zaigham, N. A.; Nayyar, Z. A.; Mahar, G. A.; Siddique, A.; Eusufi, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    The Red Sea and its surrounding countries have harsh arid climatic conditions where fast growth of the socio-economic activities and rapid change of lifestyle have caused tremendous stress on water to the level of acute crisis. To meet the water demands, the Red Sea countries have adopted seawater desalination giving priority against their land-based resources. Saudi Arabia is the largest desalinated-water producers in the Red Sea and has practically no adequate backup plan in case of sudden unforeseen emergency. Out of about 3.64 million m3/day, Saudi Arabia is alone being desalinated about 3.29 m3/day seawater from Red Sea and more projects are in progress. Present integrated research study has identified some of natural and anthropogenic hazards, which may be major threats to the quality of the seawater as well as to the desalination plants themselves. Results of present study reveal that the submarine complex morphologic features may cause the isolation of Red Sea from any of the open sea, the increase in the seismicity trends, the active volcanism causing unique longitudinal as well as transverse deformations of the axial trough particularly in the southern part of the Red Sea, the consistently generating enormous hot-brine tectonic-factory all along the deeper parts of the Red Sea rifting trough and other related issues. Considering the identified odd conditions, the total dependence on seawater desalination may not be worthwhile for sustainable water management strategy and consequent socio-economic developments in future. It is recommended that the priority should also be given mainly in three main disciplines to meet the future water challenges - one, developing reliable backup water management; second, alternate options for the supplementary resources of water; and third, the development and immediate implementation of the water-use conservation strategy plan.

  12. IODP Expedition 310 Reconstructs Sea Level, Climatic, and Environmental Changes in the South Pacific during the Last Deglaciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasufumi Iryu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The timing and course of the last deglaciation (19,000–6,000 years BP are essential components for understanding the dynamics of large ice sheets (Lindstrom and MacAyeal, 1993 and their effects on Earth’s isostasy (Nakada and Lambeck, 1989; Lambeck, 1993; Peltier, 1994, as well as the complex relationship between freshwater fluxes to the ocean, thermohaline circulation, and, hence, global climate during the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene. Moreover, the lastdeglaciation is generally seen as a possible analogue for the environmental changes and increased sea level that Earth may experience because of the greenhouse effect, related thermal expansion of oceans, and the melting of polar ice sheets.

  13. Identifying the morphologies of gas hydrate distribution using P-wave velocity and density: a test from the GMGS2 expedition in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Liu, Xuewei

    2018-06-01

    Pore-filling and fracture-filling are two basic distribution morphologies of gas hydrates in nature. A clear knowledge of gas hydrate morphology is important for better resource evaluation and exploitation. Improper exploitation may cause seafloor instability and exacerbate the greenhouse effect. To identify the gas hydrate morphologies in sediments, we made a thorough analysis of the characteristics of gas hydrate bearing sediments (GHBS) based on rock physics modeling. With the accumulation of gas hydrate in sediments, both the velocities of two types of GHBS increase, and their densities decrease. Therefore, these two morphologies cannot be differentiated only by velocity or density. After a series of tests, we found the attribute ρ {{V}{{P}}}0.5 as a function of hydrate concentration show opposite trends for these two morphologies due to their different formation mechanisms. The morphology of gas hydrate can thus be identified by comparing the measured ρ {{V}{{P}}}0.5 with its background value, which means the ρ {{V}{{P}}}0.5 of the hydrate-free sediments. In 2013, China’s second gas hydrate expedition was conducted by Guangzhou Marine Geologic Survey to explore gas hydrate resources in the northern South China Sea, and both two hydrate morphologies were recovered. We applied this method to three sites, which include two pore-filling and three fracture-filling hydrate layers. The data points, that agree with the actual situations, account for 72% and 82% of the total for the two pore-filling hydrate layers, respectively, and 86%, 74%, and 69% for the three fracture-filling hydrate layers, respectively.

  14. Sustainability evaluation of different systems for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) farming based on emergy theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang

    2015-06-01

    Emergy analysis is effective for analyzing ecological economic systems. However, the accuracy of the approach is affected by the diversity of economic level, meteorological and hydrological parameters in different regions. The present study evaluated the economic benefits, environmental impact, and sustainability of indoor, semi-intensive and extensive farming systems of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) in the same region. The results showed that A. japonicus indoor farming system was high in input and output (yield) whereas pond extensive farming system was low in input and output. The output/input ratio of indoor farming system was lower than that of pond extensive farming system, and the output/input ratio of semi-intensive farming system fell in between them. The environmental loading ratio of A. japonicus extensive farming system was lower than that of indoor farming system. In addition, the emergy yield and emergy exchange ratios, and emergy sustainability and emergy indexes for sustainable development were higher in extensive farming system than those in indoor farming system. These results indicated that the current extensive farming system exerted fewer negative influences on the environment, made more efficient use of available resources, and met more sustainable development requirements than the indoor farming system. A. japonicus farming systems showed more emergy benefits than fish farming systems. The pond farming systems of A. japonicus exploited more free local environmental resources for production, caused less potential pressure on the local environment, and achieved higher sustainability than indoor farming system.

  15. SeaHawk: an advanced CubeSat mission for sustained ocean colour monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, John M.; Jeffrey, Hazel; Gorter, Hessel; Anderson, Pamela; Clark, Craig; Holmes, Alan; Feldman, Gene C.; Patt, Frederick S.

    2016-10-01

    Sustained ocean color monitoring is vital to understanding the marine ecosystem. It has been identified as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV) and is a vital parameter in understanding long-term climate change. Furthermore, observations can be beneficial in observing oil spills, harmful algal blooms and the health of fisheries. Space-based remote sensing, through MERIS, SeaWiFS and MODIS instruments, have provided a means of observing the vast area covered by the ocean which would otherwise be impossible using ships alone. However, the large pixel size makes measurements of lakes, rivers, estuaries and coastal zones difficult. Furthermore, retirement of a number of widely used and relied upon ocean observation instruments, particularly MERIS and SeaWiFS, leaves a significant gap in ocean color observation opportunities This paper presents an overview of the SeaHawk mission, a collaborative effort between Clyde Space Ltd., the University of North Carolina Wilmington, Cloudland Instruments, and Goddard Spaceflight Center, funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. The goal of the project is to enhance the ability to observe ocean color in high temporal and spatial resolution through use of a low-cost, next-generation ocean color sensor flown aboard a CubeSat. The final product will be 530 times smaller (0.0034 vs 1.81m3) and 115 time less massive (3.4 vs 390.0kg) but with a ground resolution 10 times better whilst maintaining a signal/noise ratio 50% that of SeaWiFs. This paper will describe the objectives of the mission, outline the payload specification and the spacecraft platform to support it.

  16. A transnational and holistic breeding approach is needed for sustainable wheat production in the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawade, Aakash; Armoniené, Rita; Berg, Gunilla; Brazauskas, Gintaras; Frostgård, Gunilla; Geleta, Mulatu; Gorash, Andrii; Henriksson, Tina; Himanen, Kristiina; Ingver, Anne; Johansson, Eva; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Koppel, Mati; Koppel, Reine; Makela, Pirjo; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Podyma, Wieslaw; Roitsch, Thomas; Ronis, Antanas; Svensson, Jan T; Vallenback, Pernilla; Weih, Martin

    2018-03-14

    The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish water bodies in the world. Eutrophication is a major concern in the Baltic Sea due to the leakage of nutrients to the sea with agriculture being the primary source. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most widely grown crop in the countries surrounding the Baltic Sea and thus promoting sustainable agriculture practices for wheat cultivation will have a major impact on reducing pollution in the Baltic Sea. This approach requires identifying and addressing key challenges for sustainable wheat production in the region. Implementing new technologies for climate-friendly breeding and digital farming across all surrounding countries should promote sustainable intensification of agriculture in the region. In this review, we highlight major challenges for wheat cultivation in the Baltic Sea region and discuss various solutions integrating transnational collaboration for pre-breeding and technology sharing to accelerate development of low input wheat cultivars with improved host plant resistance to pathogen and enhanced adaptability to the changing climate. © 2018 The Authors. Physiologia Plantarum published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  17. Achieving maximum sustainable yield in mixed fisheries: a management approach for the North Sea demersal fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Vermard, Youen; Dolder, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    . An objective method is suggested that provides an optimal set of fishing mortality within the range, minimizing the risk of total allowable catch mismatches among stocks captured within mixed fisheries, and addressing explicitly the trade-offs between the most and least productive stocks........ Recent paths towards operationalizing MSY at the regional scale have suggested the expansion of the concept into a desirable area of “pretty good yield”, implemented through a range around FMSY that would allow for more flexibility in management targets. This article investigates the potential of FMSY...... ranges to combine long-term single-stock targets with flexible, short-term, mixed-fisheries management requirements applied to the main North Sea demersal stocks. It is shown that sustained fishing at the upper bound of the range may lead to unacceptable risks when technical interactions occur...

  18. Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Mei, Ying; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of Sustainability. It is divided into the following sections : • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management.

  19. Expedition surveys of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Russian Far Eastern coastal areas and in the North- Western Pacific in connection with accident at the 'Fukushima-1' NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Aleksandr; Shershakov, Viacheslav; Artemev, Georgii [Research and Production Association ' Typhoon' (RPA ' Typhoon' ), Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); Ramzaev, Valery [Ramzaev Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Osokin, Vladimir [V.G.Khlopin Radium institute, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sevastianov, Aleksandr [Far Eastern Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    In accordance with decision of the Russian Federation Federal Service on Hydro-meteorology and Environmental Monitoring (Roshydromet) on assessment of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Russian coastal areas of the Far East in connection with accident at the 'Fukushima-1' NPP in Japan, two radioecological expedition surveys were conducted onboard of research vessels of the Far Eastern Regional Hydro-meteorological Research Institute (FERHRI) of Roshydromet in the Sea of Japan and in the North-Western Pacific (in the area adjacent to Kurile Islands and in the Kuroshio current selected area (coordinates 36 deg. 00'- 39 deg. 33' n., 146 deg. 33'- 150 deg. 00' e.): first survey in April-May 2011, onboard R/V 'Pavel Gordienko', second survey in August-September 2012, onboard R/V 'Akademik Shokalsky'. Both surveys were conducted under the Russian Geographical Society patronage. The leading Russian institutions dealing with ensuring of population radiation safety and protection of environment from radioactive contamination were enlisted to investigations. The following main observations were performed during the surveys: constant measurement of gamma-radiation dose rate above the sea surface; twenty-four hour sampling of atmospheric aerosols, sea water sampling from the surface and deep water horizons with preliminary concentrating of radionuclides for onboard gamma-spectrometry and for subsequent transportation to the shore laboratories for further analysis. During the expeditions, a real-time data were received onboard of research vessels which characterize impact of input of radioactive products of the 'Fukushima-1' NPP accident on radioactive contamination of environment existed on that period (these are onboard estimates of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs concentrations in the sea water samples and {sup 131}I, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs content in atmospheric aerosol samples, data

  20. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA, Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA and Sustainability in Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Sanguinetto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper was aimed at conducting a bibliographical research on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA, Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA and their relation to the Ecological Economic Zoning (EEZ in the state of Minas Gerais. It is believed that the EIA is subject to failures as it does not take into account larger impacts upon space, time, cumulative and synergistic effects, whereas reflecting a reductionist point of view of the undertaking to the detriment of a broader, systemic, holistic perspective. With a view to compensate for such failure, the SEA is seen as an appropriate tool for the evaluation of political impacts, plans and programs which, conversely, guides the implementation of projects in an more integrated manner. Therefore, two EIAs can be used as reference; one refers to a rural electrification program in the state of Minas Gerais and the other approaches the integration planning of water sources in the metropolitan area of the state of São Paulo. While planning the Ecological Economic Zoning of the state, Minas Gerais takes a decisive step forward the reduction of conflicts related with multiple interests of economic development, providing and forming the basis for the essential balance among profit, preservation and environmental conservation, social justice, respect and cultural diversity, political and institutional maturation, ethic and plurality, which splash the sustainability colors on the canvas of the future.

  1. Joint Russian-Norwegian expedition to the dumping sites for radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in the Stepovogo fjord of the Kara sea, August - September 2012: investigations performed and main results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Aleksandr; Shershakov, Viacheslav; Valetova, Nailja; Petrenko, Galina; Katrich, Ivan; Fedorova, Anastasia [Research and Production Association ' Typhoon' , 249038, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); Kazennov, Alexey [National Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Lind, Bjorn; Gwynn, Justin; Rudjord, Anne Liv [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway); Heldal, Hilde Elise [Institute of Marine Research, Bergen (Norway); Blinova, Oxana; Osvath, Iolanda; Levy, Isabelle; Bartocci, Jean; Khanh Pham, Mai; Sam, Adam; Nies, Hartmut [IAEA-MEL (Monaco); Grishin, Denis [Krylov State Research Centre, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Salbu, Brit; Ole- Christian, Lind; Teien, Hans-Cristian [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway); Sidhu, Rajdeep Singh; Straalberg, Elisabeth [Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway); Logoyda, Igor [State Scientific Centre ' Yuzhmorgeologiya' , Gelendzhik (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Stepovogo fjord, located on the Eastern coast of Novaya Zemlya, is one of the most important former Soviet Union dumping sites for radioactive waste in the Kara Sea. In addition to some 2000 dumped containers with conventional radioactive wastes, the nuclear submarine K-27 was dumped in Stepovogo fjord with two reactors loaded with spent nuclear fuel (SNF).Joint Russian and Norwegian surveys of the marine environment in Stepovogo fjord were first conducted in 1993 and 1994. In accordance with the working plan of the Joint Russian-Norwegian Expert Group on the Investigation of Radioactive Contamination in the Northern Areas, a follow up expedition into the radioecological status of Stepovogo fjord was carried out in August and September of 2012 onboard the R.V. 'Ivan Petrov' of the Roshydromet Northern Department. Investigations carried out in Stepovogo fjord during the expedition included: Sonar surveys, ROV inspections and in situ gamma measurements of the dumped nuclear submarine K-27 and dumped containers with radioactive waste Sampling of seawater, bottom sediments and marine biota. Results of the analysis of marine environmental samples performed by Russia, Norway and the IAEA, are presented and discussed in the paper. Preliminary measurements on surface sediments and water samples showed that the level of {sup 137}Cs contamination was generally low. However, slightly enhanced levels of {sup 137}Cs were detected in bottom seawater and sediment collected in the area with dumped containers. Measurements taken around the dumped nuclear submarine K-27 did not indicate any leakage of radioactive substances from the submarine. A similar picture for the level of radioactive contamination in Stepovogo fjord was observed in the first joint Russian-Norwegian expedition in 1993-94. (authors)

  2. Advantages of combined application of SEA with ESIA in strategic planning for sustainable territorial development of tourism destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenković-Riznić Marina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas standard SEA (Strategic Environmental Assessment and EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment methodologies aim to assess the impacts of certain activities solely on environmental quality, new tendencies in spatial and environmental planning are directed towards the application of environmental social impact assessment (ESIA, which implies assessment of the impacts on the quality of life, as well as on natural and cultural heritage. In the ESIA procedure, identification and assessment of direct, indirect and cumulative effects of tourism-related and other different activities are of key importance. The paper presents two case studies of ecologically vulnerable tourism destinations to explore whether the application of SEA/ESIA to strategic planning helps control, minimize or avoid negative effects of tourism; in addition, the case studies are analysed to check the efficiency of SEA/ESIA as instruments for coordination between spatial and tourism planning for sustainable territorial development of tourism destinations. The results/findings of the analysed case studies show that the application of combined SEA and adapted ESIA methods contributes to better understanding of the specific problems related to sustainable territorial development of tourism destinations, and provides support to the planning options and solutions aimed at addressing these problems n a more ecologically and socially justifiable manner. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR36036: Sustainable development of the Danube area in Serbia i br. III47014: The Role and Implementation of the National Spatial Plan and Regional Development Documents in Renewal of Strategic Research, Thinking and Governance in Serbia

  3. Sea Level History in 3D: Early results of an ultra-high resolution MCS survey across IODP Expedition 313 drillsites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, G. S.; Kucuk, H. M.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Austin, J. A., Jr.; Fulthorpe, C.; Newton, A.; Baldwin, K.; Johnson, C.; Stanley, J. N.; Bhatnagar, T.

    2015-12-01

    Although globally averaged sea level is rising at roughly 3 mm/yr (and is accelerating), rates of local sea-level change measured at coastlines may differ from this number by a factor of two or more; at some locations, sea level may even be falling. This is due to local processes that can match or even reverse the global trend, making it clear that reliable predictions of future impacts of sea-level rise require a firm understanding of processes at the local level. The history of local sea-level change and shoreline response is contained in the geologic record of shallow-water sediments. We report on a continuing study of sea-level history in sediments at the New Jersey continental margin, where compaction and glacial isostatic adjustment are currently adding 2 mm/yr to the globally averaged rise. We collected 570 sq km of ultra-high resolution 3D MCS data aboard the R/V Langseth in June-July 2015; innovative recording and preliminary results are described by Nedimovic et al. in this same session. The goal was to provide regional context to coring and logging at IODP Exp 313 sites 27-29 that were drilled 750 m into the New Jersey shelf in 2009. These sites recovered a nearly continuous record of post-Eocene sediments from non-marine soils, estuaries, shoreface, delta front, pro-delta and open marine settings. Existing seismic data are good but are 2D high-resolution profiles at line spacings too wide to enable mapping of key nearshore features. The Langseth 3D survey used shallow towing of a tuned air gun array to preserve high frequencies, and twenty-four 50-m PCables each 12.5 apart provided 6.25 x 3.125 m common-midpoint bins along seventy-seven 50-km sail lines. With this especially dense spatial resolution of a pre-stack time migrated volume we expect to map rivers, incised valleys, barrier islands, inlets and bays, pro-delta clinoforms, tidal deltas, sequence boundaries, debris flow aprons, and more. Seismic attributes linked to sedimentary facies and

  4. The IAEA '97 Pacific Ocean expedition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P.P.; Huynh-Ngoc, L.; Liong Wee Kwong, L.

    1999-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) started in 1995 a five-year project 'Research on World-wide Marine Radioactivity', generously supported by the Government of Japan. In the framework of the project, IAEA-MEL conducted the 'IAEA '97 Pacific Ocean Expedition' to the NW Pacific Ocean from 21 October to 20 November, 1997. The objectives of the expedition were to provide new data on the current marine radioactivity in order to compare them with data sets obtained during national and international surveys at sites used for radioactive waste dumping or nuclear bomb testing in the NW Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas

  5. Crustose corallinaceous algae (Rhodophyta) of the New Zealand and United States scientific expedition to the Ross Sea, Balleny Islands, and Macquarie Ridge, 1965

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaneveld, Jacques S.; Sanford, Robert B.

    1980-01-01

    Fourteen taxa of crustose Corallinaceae are described from a collection of marine algae picked up in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic waters along a Ross Sea — Balleny Islands — Macquarie Island traject aboard the USS Glacier in 1965. Three of these taxa are newly described, i.e. Lithothamnium

  6. A new Cumacea genus (Crustacea: Peracarida: Diastylidae) from the deep-sea expedition Diva-1 with RV ‘METEOR’ to the Angola Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mühlenhardt-Siegel, Ute

    2003-01-01

    A new deep-sea genus and species Divacuma tuerkayi n. gen., n. sp. of the family Diastylidae from the Angola Basin is described. The similarity between the new genus and Leptostylis/Leptostybides is mentioned, the most striking character of the new genus is the male having only one pair of pleopods.

  7. UBC-Nepal expedition: markedly lower cerebral blood flow in high-altitude Sherpa children compared with children residing at sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flück, Daniela; Morris, Laura E; Niroula, Shailesh; Tallon, Christine M; Sherpa, Kami T; Stembridge, Mike; Ainslie, Philip N; McManus, Ali M

    2017-10-01

    Developmental cerebral hemodynamic adaptations to chronic high-altitude exposure, such as in the Sherpa population, are largely unknown. To examine hemodynamic adaptations in the developing human brain, we assessed common carotid (CCA), internal carotid (ICA), and vertebral artery (VA) flow and middle cerebral artery (MCA) velocity in 25 (9.6 ± 1.0 yr old, 129 ± 9 cm, 27 ± 8 kg, 14 girls) Sherpa children (3,800 m, Nepal) and 25 (9.9 ± 0.7 yr old, 143 ± 7 cm, 34 ± 6 kg, 14 girls) age-matched sea level children (344 m, Canada) during supine rest. Resting gas exchange, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and heart rate were assessed. Despite comparable age, height and weight were lower (both P sea level children. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and ventilation were similar, whereas oxygen saturation (95 ± 2 vs. 99 ± 1%, P sea level children. This was reflected in a lower ICA flow (283 ± 108 vs. 333 ± 56 ml/min, P = 0.05), VA flow (78 ± 26 vs. 118 ± 35 ml/min, P sea level children (425 ± 92 vs. 441 ± 81 ml/min, P = 0.52). Scaling flow and oxygen uptake for differences in vessel diameter and body size, respectively, led to the same findings. A lower cerebral blood flow in Sherpa children may reflect specific cerebral hemodynamic adaptations to chronic hypoxia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Cerebral blood flow is lower in Sherpa children compared with children residing at sea level; this may reflect a cerebral hemodynamic pattern, potentially due to adaptation to a hypoxic environment. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Sustainable development - billions of watts under the seas - Marine current turbines play simple - Technological waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, Th.

    2011-01-01

    The author evokes the opportunities of power generation by the development of sea current or tidal stream turbines. Some developments are already tested by Norwegian, French, Danish, British and American companies. Some specific turbines are briefly presented. In order to reduce the cost of the electricity production from sea currents, manufacturers are using simple and robust technologies, and exploit the experience gained on wind turbines. Some designs and prototypes are evoked for the production of electricity by sea waves (Pelamis and Oyster projects). Principles, strengths and production projects are briefly indicated. The challenge of maintenance in sea environment is outlined for these projects

  9. Should the Dead Sea Be Sustainable?: Investigating Environmental Issues Using a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Cheston Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Many students leave the environmental science classroom with misconceptions centered on the availability of natural resources such as water. This article presents a case study where students assume the roles of various stakeholders and articulate their position on whether or not to pipe water from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea. Additionally,…

  10. Framing the Arctic: Reconsidering Roald Amundsen’s Gjøa Expedition Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Høvik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1906 Roald Amundsen’s Gjøa Expedition returned to Norway after three years in the Arctic. The first to complete a Northwest Passage by sea, the expedition also brought back a substantial amount of ethnographic material concerning the Netsilik Inuit, with whom Amundsen and his crew had been in sustained contact during their stay on King William Island in Nunavut between 1903 and 1905. This material included a large number of photographs, forty-two of which were included as illustrations in his expedition narrative, titled Nordvest-passagen and first released in Norwegian in 1907. Focusing on a selection of published and unpublished photographs from Amundsen’s voyage and their interrelationships, this article examines the degree to which the Gjøa Expedition’s use of photography formed part of a planned project that intersected with anthropological concerns and practices of its time. My purpose is further to demonstrate that there is a discernible change in the representation of indigeneity that occurs when particular photographs were selected and then contextually reframed as illustrations in Nordvest-passagen. On the one hand, the extensive body of photographs taken in the field elaborates the close interaction between crew and Inuit recorded in Amundsen’s personal diary and published narrative, testifying to the existence of an active and dynamic contact zone. In this regard, the original photographs could arguably be read as a dialogic portrayal of the unique individuals Amundsen’s crew met while in the Arctic. On the other hand, a peculiar distancing seems to have taken place as the Gjøa Expedition’s photographs were selected and reproduced as illustrations for Amundsen’s expedition narrative. Likely connected to a desire to match his expedition narrative to existing scientific visual and literary conventions, this shift suggests Amundsen’s attempts through textual and visual means to deny the Netsilik Inuit

  11. Reconstructing Holocene temperature and salinity variations in the western Baltic Sea region: a multi-proxy comparison from the Little Belt (IODP Expedition 347, Site M0059

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Kotthoff

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sediment records recovered from the Baltic Sea during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 347 provide a unique opportunity to study paleoenvironmental and climate change in central and northern Europe. Such studies contribute to a better understanding of how environmental parameters change in continental shelf seas and enclosed basins. Here we present a multi-proxy-based reconstruction of paleotemperature (both marine and terrestrial, paleosalinity, and paleoecosystem changes from the Little Belt (Site M0059 over the past  ∼  8000 years and evaluate the applicability of inorganic- and organic-based proxies in this particular setting. All salinity proxies (diatoms, aquatic palynomorphs, ostracods, diol index show that lacustrine conditions occurred in the Little Belt until  ∼  7400 cal yr BP. A connection to the Kattegat at this time can thus be excluded, but a direct connection to the Baltic Proper may have existed. The transition to the brackish–marine conditions of the Littorina Sea stage (more saline and warmer occurred within  ∼  200 years when the connection to the Kattegat became established after  ∼  7400 cal yr BP. The different salinity proxies used here generally show similar trends in relative changes in salinity, but often do not allow quantitative estimates of salinity. The reconstruction of water temperatures is associated with particularly large uncertainties and variations in absolute values by up to 8 °C for bottom waters and up to 16 °C for surface waters. Concerning the reconstruction of temperature using foraminiferal Mg  /  Ca ratios, contamination by authigenic coatings in the deeper intervals may have led to an overestimation of temperatures. Differences in results based on the lipid paleothermometers (long chain diol index and TEXL86 can partly be explained by the application of modern-day proxy calibrations to intervals that experienced significant

  12. The Russian-Swedish tundra radioecology expedition 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, B.R.; Holm, E.; Carlsson, K.Aa.; Josefsson, D.; Roos, P.

    1995-01-01

    The expedition investigated the ecology of the anthropogenic radio nuclides 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and 239,240 Pu in the Northern Sea to explain the origin from different sources. It had been shown from an earlier expedition that the levels of 137 Cs are higher in the central Arctic Ocean than further south in Barents Sea. The question was if this was due to inflow from the Atlantic or is due to other origin. The expedition also examined the outflow of 90 Sr from the rivers along the Siberian coast in order to investigate if the permafrost enhances the run-off of radionuclides from tundra. Study of anthropogenic radionuclides in the mixing zone between fresh and salt water at the different river systems along the Siberian coast was of particular interest. Some of the results from the expedition are presented in the present paper. 3 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  13. The use of amino acid indices for assessing organic matter quality and microbial abundance in deep-sea Antarctic sediments of IODP Expedition 318

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Stephanie A; Mills, Christopher T.; Mandernack, Kevin W

    2016-01-01

    The Adélie Basin, located offshore of the Wilkes Land margin, experiences unusually high sedimentation rates (~ 2 cm yr− 1) for the Antarctic coast. This study sought to compare depthwise changes in organic matter (OM) quantity and quality with changes in microbial biomass with depth at this high-deposition site and an offshore continental margin site. Sediments from both sites were collected during the International Ocean Drilling (IODP) Program Expedition 318. Viable microbial biomass was estimated from concentrations of bacterial-derived phospholipid fatty acids, while OM quality was assessed using four different amino acid degradation proxies. Concentrations of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) measured from the continental margin suggest an oligotrophic environment, with THAA concentrations representing only 2% of total organic carbon with relative proportions of non-protein amino acids β-alanine and γ-aminobutyric acid as high as 40%. In contrast, THAA concentrations from the near-shore Adélie Basin represent 40%–60% of total organic carbon. Concentrations of β-alanine and γ-aminobutyric acid were often below the detection limit and suggest that the OM of the basin as labile. DI values in surface sediments at the Adélie and margin sites were measured to be + 0.78 and − 0.76, reflecting labile and more recalcitrant OM, respectively. Greater DI values in deeper and more anoxic portions of both cores correlated positively with increased relative concentrations of phenylalanine plus tyrosine and may represent a change of redox conditions, rather than OM quality. This suggests that DI values calculated along chemical profiles should be interpreted with caution. THAA concentrations, the percentage of organic carbon (CAA%) and total nitrogen (NAA%) represented by amino acids at both sites demonstrated a significant positive correlation with bacterial abundance estimates. These data suggest that the selective degradation of amino acids, as

  14. Physicochemical Properties of Sea Water and Bittern in Indonesia: Quality Improvement and Potential Resources Utilization for Marine Environmental Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Apriani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The traditional salt production in Indonesia was investigated to report the preparation and processing of salt, determine the characteristics of sea water and bittern as well as explore the potential of bittern management with appropriate technology. Field study and comprehensive analysis were performed so as to better understand the salt making, providing valuable information for the proposal of targeted management strategies in salt quality improvement and wastewater recovery. The results show that Na^+,Cl^- and Ca^(2+ in East Java Province bittern were found greater than the majority of values found in the literature. The highest concentrations of Na^+,Cl^- and Ca^(2+ were measured in Camplong-Sampang District. The highest concentrations of Mg^(2+and trace metals were recorded in Panceng-Gresik District. The trace metals found in sea water and bittern need particular concern to be removed without disposing of sea water minerals. The potential number of bittern in Indonesia promoted the development of the bittern management for magnesium recovery and achieving marine environment sustainability. High purified material recovery can be achieved by using crystallization technology.

  15. Deep-sea mining: Economic, technical, technological, and environmental considerations for sustainable development

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    investment of $1.95 billion as capital expenditure and $9 billion as operating expenditure for a single deep-sea mining venture. In view of high investment, technological challenges and economic considerations, private-public cooperation could be an effective...

  16. Remote coral reefs can sustain high growth potential and may match future sea-level trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Chris T; Murphy, Gary N; Graham, Nicholas A J; Wilson, Shaun K; Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A; East, Holly K

    2015-12-16

    Climate-induced disturbances are contributing to rapid, global-scale changes in coral reef ecology. As a consequence, reef carbonate budgets are declining, threatening reef growth potential and thus capacity to track rising sea-levels. Whether disturbed reefs can recover their growth potential and how rapidly, are thus critical research questions. Here we address these questions by measuring the carbonate budgets of 28 reefs across the Chagos Archipelago (Indian Ocean) which, while geographically remote and largely isolated from compounding human impacts, experienced severe (>90%) coral mortality during the 1998 warming event. Coral communities on most reefs recovered rapidly and we show that carbonate budgets in 2015 average +3.7 G (G = kg CaCO3 m(-2) yr(-1)). Most significantly the production rates on Acropora-dominated reefs, the corals most severely impacted in 1998, averaged +8.4 G by 2015, comparable with estimates under pre-human (Holocene) disturbance conditions. These positive budgets are reflected in high reef growth rates (4.2 mm yr(-1)) on Acropora-dominated reefs, demonstrating that carbonate budgets on these remote reefs have recovered rapidly from major climate-driven disturbances. Critically, these reefs retain the capacity to grow at rates exceeding measured regional mid-late Holocene and 20th century sea-level rise, and close to IPCC sea-level rise projections through to 2100.

  17. John Murray / MABAHISS expedition versus the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) in retrospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, A. A.; Morcos, S. A.

    In addition to its scientific achievements, the John Murray/Mabahiss Expedition was a unique experiment in technology transfer and it pioneered bilateral relations in the field of oceanography, at a time when the Law of the Sea was not even an embryonic concept. The Expedition will be remembered for its profound influence on the development of oceanography in Egypt, and subsequently in several Arab and African countries, as well as for its socio-economic impact in Egypt. The International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) was an elaborate exercise involving both the most sophisticated developments in oceanography of the day and the full complexity of international relations which necessitated the scientific, coordinating and supporting mechanisms of SCOR, IOC and Unesco combined. Each exercise separated by 25 years represented a significant event in the development of oceanography. Each was a natural product of the prevailing state of the art and the international climate. Oceanography had made a quantum jump in technology in the intervening quarter of a century, which had put the cost of deep sea oceanography quite beyond the financial capabilities of many developing countries, an important factor to bear in mind when comparing the impact of the John Murray/Mabahiss Expedition on Egypt with that of the IIOE, on the Indian Ocean countries.

  18. Oceanographic data collected during the Submarine Ring of Fire 2006 expedition aboard the R/V MELVILLE along the Mariana Arc in the Philippine Sea from April 18, 2006 - May 13, 2006 (NODC Accession 0010750)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multiple data types were collected during the Submarine Ring of Fire 2006 expedition sponsored by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration.

  19. The role of geodata and geotools in sustainable energy planning. The Interreg project 'North Sea Sustainable Energy Planning'; Die Bedeutung von Geodaten und Geowerkzeugen fuer eine nachhaltige Energieplanung. Das Interreg-Projekt 'North Sea Sustainable Energy Planning'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knies, Juergen [Jade Hochschule Wilhelmshaven/Oldenburg/Elsfleth, Oldenburg (DE). Inst. fuer Angewandte Photogrammetrie und Geoinformatik (IAPG)

    2012-07-01

    The Interreg IVB project 'North Sea Sustainable Energy Planning' is to promote the development of models for regional development in consideration of renewable energy sources and the implementation of measures for higher energy efficiency in consideration of regional and international boundary conditions. Geodata and geotools provide a basis for sustainable energy planning. The Institute of Applied Photogrammetry and Geoinformatics of Jade Hochschule University developed concepts and geotools to support decision-makers in this task. The concepts and tools are presented in this paper.

  20. Expeditions and other exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1964-01-01

    Previous to the 4th UNESCO Expedition, Dr H. Sleumer of the Rijksherbarium made three trips together with Mr Tem Smitinand, first to Doi Chiengdao and Doi Suthep in the North (Aug. 15-21, 1963), then to the Khao Yai National Park in Central Siam (Aug. 28-29), then to Pha Nok Khao and Phu Krading

  1. Expeditions and other fieldwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1989-01-01

    The Forest Research Institute of Malaysia (FRIM) has started a project on the conservation of fruit trees. Collecting expeditions have been made in 1988 to the Kraun Game Reserve (c. 102° 30’ E, 3° 40’ N), Maxwell’s Hill, Endau-Rompin. Collections were not only made of fruit trees, but also of any

  2. The Study on Eco-environmental Issue of Aral Sea from the Perspective of Sustainable Development of Silk Road Economic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hanyan

    2017-04-01

    The Aral Sea crisis is the most prominent environmental problem in building Silk Road and Economic Belt, which is mainly induced by extensive exploitation of land resources in Aral Sea basin since the middle of last century. The upstream part of Amu Darya River, as the main water source of Aral Sea, is almost entirely located in Tajikistan, thus, the development and utilization of Tajikistan water resources affect the whole Aral Sea basin. The author puts forward oriented-development of green energy under the overall framework of co-building Silk Road and Economic Belt, developing small hydro-power and dam-free hydro-power stations, standardized implementation of agricultural modernization in Central Asia, through high efficiency and water saving agriculture to achieve “returning water to sea”, to reverse drying trend of Aral Sea, to renovate ecological environment, resulting in simultaneous implementation of agricultural production and Aral Sea governance, simultaneous achievement of agricultural harvest and ecological environment improvement of Aral Sea basin. The article makes a scientific proof of reality and feasibility regarding the proposed methods. Green ecological environment and stable social environment will contribute to the sustainable development of Green Silk Road and Economic belt.…

  3. Environmental Modeling Using Remote Sensing And GIS For Sustainable Ecotourism Development Of RAS Banas Area, Red Sea Coast, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, A.H.; El-Leithy, B.M.; Khalaf, F.I.

    2003-01-01

    This study aims at supporting sound planning for sustainable ecotourism development of Ras Banas area along the Red Sea Coast, Egypt. This area is characterized by unique coastal ecosystems and fragile environment. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data have been used as a source of information for the preparation of different thematic geo-environmental maps of the coastal area through visual or digital image interpretation. A digital database for the area was established and the essential derived maps representing data layers on the spatial distribution of different types of terrestrial ecosystems have been used for building a Geographic Information System (GIS) model. The thematic maps include: (1) land cover classification with emphasis on the coastal formations (sabkha, coral reefs, coastal islands and mangroves), (2) shore line, (3) drainage network and (4) basins and flash flood hazard map. In addition, topographic sheets at scale of I :50,000 were digitized and transformed to GIS digital maps that include two layers for coordinate grid and contour lines with spot heights. A spatial model has been developed and constructed for analyzing large spatial data in a GIS environment. The development of the model scenarios aimed at quantifying the impacts of different derived layers that required an assessment of different factors influencing the model. Different layers have been given different weights, based on their anticipated contributions to the model. The model was subjected to various dynamic trials related to its layer components and weights. An environmental sensitivity index map was prepared, where the coastal zone was classified, on the basis of its relative sensitivity to anthropogenic activities, into a high, a medium and a low sensitivity classes. Sensitivity classification has been used for the delineation of the suitable sites for potential sustainable ecotourism development. This derivative mapping and integrated modeling has added a significant new

  4. Ecosystem services sustainability in the Mediterranean Sea: assessment of status and trends using multiple modelling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liquete, Camino; Piroddi, Chiara; Macías, Diego; Druon, Jean-Noël; Zulian, Grazia

    2016-09-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems support important processes and functions that bring direct benefits to human society. Yet, marine ecosystem services are usually overlooked due to the challenges in identifying and quantifying them. This paper proposes the application of several biophysical and ecosystem modelling approaches to assess spatially and temporally the sustainable use and supply of selected marine ecosystem services. Such services include food provision, water purification, coastal protection, lifecycle maintenance and recreation, focusing on the Mediterranean region. Overall, our study found a higher number of decreasing than increasing trends in the natural capacity of the ecosystems to provide marine and coastal services, while in contrast the opposite was observed to be true for the realised flow of services to humans. Such a study paves the way towards an effective support for Blue Growth and the European maritime policies, although little attention is paid to the quantification of marine ecosystem services in this context. We identify a key challenge of integrating biophysical and socio-economic models as a necessary step to further this research.

  5. Inoculation Expedition of Agar wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, C.S.; Mohd Fajri Osman; Rusli Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Inoculation expedition of agar wood is a main field works for researcher in Nuclear Malaysia to prove the real inoculation of agar wood in real jungle. These expeditions was conducted fourth times in the jungles of Malaysia including Gunung Tebu in Terengganu, Murum in Belaga, Sarawak, Kampung Timbang in Kota Belud, Sabah and Nuclear Malaysia itself. This expedition starts from preparation of samples and equipment, transportation into the jungle, searching and recognition of agar wood and lastly, inoculation of the agar wood. Safety aspects precedence set out in the preparation and implementation of this expedition. (author)

  6. Satellite Eye for the Galathea 3 ship expedition: Global tour 2006-2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Sørensen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Satellite Eye for Galathea 3 (www.satellitecye.dk contains education at the internet for secondary and upper secondary schools and the public. The Galathea 3 ship expedition circumnavigated the globe starting from Denmark 11 August 2006, visiting Greenland, Azores, South Africa, Australia, Solomon...... of the expedition and these classes in particular used the Satellite Eye teaching material. In Google Earth satellite images of many themes are shown. These include sea ice, sea surface temperature, ocean wind, wave height, sea surface level, ozone, clouds and radar images of ocean and land. Also high spatial...

  7. Mt. Kilimanjaro expedition in earth science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Elena; Yoshikawa, Kenji; Narita, Kenji; Brettenny, Mark; Yule, Sheila; O'Toole, Michael; Brettenny, Rogeline

    2010-05-01

    Mt. Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain is 5,895 meters above sea level and is located 330 km south of the equator in Tanzania. In 1976 glaciers covered most of Mt. Kilimanjaro's summit; however in 2000, an estimated eighty percent of the ice cap has disappeared since the last thorough survey done in 1912. There is increased scientific interest in Mt. Kilimanjaro with the increase in global and African average temperatures. A team of college and pre-college school students from Tanzania, South Africa and Kenya, teachers from South Africa and the United States, and scientists from the University of Alaska Fairbanks in the United States and Akita University in Japan, climbed to the summit of Mt Kilimanjaro in October 2009. They were accompanied by guides, porters, two expedition guests, and a videographer. This expedition was part of the GLOBE Seasons and Biomes Earth System Science Project and the GLOBE Africa science education initiative, exploring and contributing to climate change studies. Students learned about earth science experientially by observing their physical and biological surroundings, making soil and air temperature measurements, participating in discussions, journaling their experience, and posing research questions. The international trekkers noted the change in the biomes as the altitude, temperature and conditions changed, from cultivated lands, to rain forest, heath zone, moorland, alpine desert, and summit. They also discovered permafrost, but not at the summit as expected. Rather, it was where the mountain was not covered by a glacier and thus more exposed to low extreme temperatures. This was the first report of permafrost on Mt. Kilimanjaro. Classrooms from all over the world participated in the expedition virtually. They followed the trek through the expedition website (http://www.xpeditiononline.com/) where pictures and journals were posted, and posed their own questions which were answered by the expedition and base camp team members

  8. A lunar polar expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-09-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  9. UBC-Nepal expedition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alexander B; Hoiland, Ryan L; Lewis, Nia C S

    2018-01-01

    the course of acclimatization to the hypoxia of terrestrial high altitude has not been examined. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of orally ingested antioxidants at clinically relevant doses (vitamins C and E and α-lipoic acid) on cerebrovascular regulation at sea level...... (344 m; n = 12; female n = 2 participants) and at high altitude (5050 m; n = 9; female n = 2) in a randomized, placebo-controlled and double-blinded crossover design. Hypercapnic and hypoxic cerebrovascular reactivity tests of the internal carotid artery (ICA) were conducted at sea level, and global...... that an oral antioxidant cocktail known to attenuate systemic oxidative stress failed to alter cerebrovascular function at sea level and CBF during acclimatization to high altitude....

  10. ISS Expedition 08 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 08 from 10/2003-04/2004. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  11. Expedition-8 Crew Members Portrait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This is a portrait of the Expedition-8 two man crew. Pictured left is Cosmonaut Alexander Y, Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer; and Michael C. Foale (right), Expedition-8 Mission Commander and NASA ISS Science Officer. The crew posed for this portrait while training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. The two were launched for the International Space Station (ISS) aboard a Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan, along with European Space Agency (ESA) Astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain, on October 18, 2003.

  12. The New Man and the Sea: Climate Change Perceptions and Sustainable Seafood Preferences of Florida Reef Anglers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Harper

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Florida Reef stakeholders have downplayed the role of anthropogenic climate change while recognizing the reef system’s degradation. With an emphasis on recreational anglers, a survey using contingent valuation methods investigated stakeholders’ attitudes about the Florida Reef, climate change, and willingness to pay for sustainable and local seafood. Angst expressed about acidification and other climate change effects represents a recent shift of opinion. Supermajorities were willing to pay premiums for sustainably harvested and especially local seafood. Regression analysis revealed trust in seafood labels, travel to coral reefs, political orientation, place of birth, and motorboat use as strong, direct predictors of shopping behavior, age and environmental concerns as moderately influential, and income and education as surprisingly poor predictors. Distrust of authority may motivate some stakeholders, but new attitudes about climate change and the high desirability of local seafood offer potential for renewed regional engagement and market-based incentives for sustainability.

  13. The first microbiological contamination assessment by deep-sea drilling and coring by the D/V Chikyu at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (IODP Expedition 331

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori eYanagawa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 331 at the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the Mid-Okinawa Trough by the D/V Chikyu, we conducted microbiological contamination tests of the drilling and coring operations. The contamination from the drilling mud fluids was assessed using both perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT and fluorescent microsphere beads. PFT infiltration was detected from the periphery of almost all whole round cores. By contrast, fluorescent microspheres were not detected in hydrothermally active core samples, possibly due to thermal decomposition of the microspheres under high-temperature conditions. Microbial contamination from drilling mud fluids to the core interior subsamples was further characterized by molecular-based evaluation. The microbial 16S rRNA gene phylotype compositions in the drilling mud fluids were mainly composed of sequences of Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and not archaeal sequences. The phylotypes that displayed more than 97% similarity to the sequences obtained from the drilling mud fluids were defined as possible contaminants in this study and were detected as minor components of the bacterial phylotype compositions in 13 of 37 core samples. The degree of microbiological contamination was consistent with that determined by the PFT and/or microsphere assessments. This study suggests a constructive approach for evaluation and eliminating microbial contamination during riser-less drilling and coring operations by the D/V Chikyu.

  14. Hierarchy of factors exerting an impact on nutrient load of the Baltic Sea and sustainable management of its drainage basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiedrzyńska, Edyta; Jóźwik, Adam; Kiedrzyński, Marcin; Zalewski, Maciej

    2014-11-15

    The aim of the paper was to evaluate 23 catchment factors that determine total phosphorus and total nitrogen load to the Baltic Sea. Standard correlation analysis and clustering were used. Both phosphorus and nitrogen loads were found to be positively related to the number of pigs and the human population associated with wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) per km(2), while the number of cattle and agricultural area were found to influence nitrogen rather than phosphorus load, and the area of forests is negatively related to loads of both nutrients. Clustering indicates an overall north-south pattern in the spatial co-occurrence of socio-ecological factors, with some exceptions discussed in the paper. Positive steps in the Baltic Sea region have already been taken, but much remains to be done. The development of coherent response policies to reduce eutrophication in the Baltic Sea should be based on a comprehensive knowledge base, an appropriate information strategy and learning alliance platform in each drainage river catchments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 21 CFR 1401.6 - Expedited process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expedited process. 1401.6 Section 1401.6 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.6 Expedited process. (a) Requests and appeals will be given expedited treatment whenever ONDCP determines either: (1...

  16. Riverland expedited response action assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) prepare an expedited response action (ERA) for the Riverland Railroad Car Wash Pit (located in the Riverland Rail Yard) and the 600 Area Army Munitions Burial Site (Munitions Cache). This assessment report details the actions taken to complete the Riverland ERA

  17. A reconsideration on deep sea bed disposal of high level radiological wastes. A post-Fukushima reflection on sustainable nuclear energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) is a common issue among all nuclear developing countries. However, this becomes especially a hard issue for sustainable nuclear energy in Japan after Fukushima Daiichi accident. In this paper, the difficulty of realizing underground HLW disposal in Japanese islands is first discussed from socio-political aspects. Then, revival of old idea of deep seabed disposal of HLW in Pacific Ocean is proposed as an alternative way of HLW disposal. Although this old idea had been abandoned in the past for the reason that it would violate London Convention which prohibits dumping radioactive wastes in public sea, the author will stress the merit of seabed disposal of HLW deep in Pacific Ocean not only from the view point of more safe and ultimate way of disposing HLWs (both vitrified and spent fuel) than by underground disposal, but also the emergence of new marine project by synergetic collaboration of rare-earth resource exploration from the deep sea floor in Pacific Ocean. (author)

  18. The meaning of ice: scientific scrutiny and the visual record obtained from the British polar expeditions between 1772 and 1854

    OpenAIRE

    Ware, Trevor David Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is an analysis of the work produced by artists accompanying naval expeditions to the Arctic and Antarctic regions between 1772 and 1854. The expeditions were mainly by sea and supplemented in the Arctic by some overland. Their aims were scientific and organised chiefly, but not exclusively, in conjunction with the Royal Society of London. Various British Governments sought strategic advantages along with international recognition for finding both a Southern Continent and a North W...

  19. Management measures and fishers’ commitment towards sustainable exploitation: a case study of Atlantic salmon fisheries in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet; Michielsens, Catherina C.G.J.; Karjalainen, Timo P.

    2007-01-01

    management measures on the stocks. Based on interviews and a questionnaire, we use a Bayesian belief network to examine which factors determine fishers’ commitment to sustainable fisheries goals, what impact commitment has on exploitation rate, and what measures can be taken to improve commitment. In addition...... of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stocks. The results indicate that the more fishers rely on fishing as their source of income, the less is their commitment and the smaller is the impact of changes in commitment on subsequent catches. The results suggest that commitment can be improved by selecting management...

  20. Decreased anaerobic performance and hormone adaptation after expedition to Peak Lenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kung-tung; Chen, Yu-yawn; Wu, Huey-june; Chang, Chen-kang; Lee, Wen-tsung; Lu, Yen-yuan; Liu, Chieh-chung; Yang, Rong-sen; Lin, Jung-charng

    2008-11-20

    The change of anaerobic exercise abilities during and after a high-altitude expedition or hypoxic exposure is not well studied. To evaluate the effects of an extreme-altitude expedition on anaerobic performance, the 10-second supramaximal test and endocrine hormones were evaluated before and after an expedition to Peak Lenin. Four subjects (3 male and 1 female, age (30.5 +/- 16.5) years) were recruited into the study. Three sets of tests were performed, including a basic test at sea level and 20 days before first arrival at the base camp (3600 m), a middle test done at day after returning from the summit to the base camp and the post test at the 10th day after return to the sea level. Both the supramaximal test, performed by a cycle ergometer, and body composition, performed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, were completed before the basic test and post test. The endocrine hormones including cortisol, growth hormone, testosterone, noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, glucagon and beta-endorphin were measured at all tests. Comparing the conditions before and after the expedition, the body measurement parameters were decreased after the expedition, i.e., body weight (-4.22%, P Lenin had occurred. The real physiological significance needs to be further investigated.

  1. Expeditions to Komsomolets in 1993 and 1994; Tokt til Komsomolets i 1993 og 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolstad, A.K.

    1995-09-01

    The Russian nuclear submarine Komsomolets went down about 180 km southwest of the Bear Island in the Norwegian Sea on April 7, 1989. According to Russian information the submarine contains one nuclear reactor and two torpedoes with nuclear warheads. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority has taken part in the Russian expeditions to the accident site since 1991. This is a report from the expeditions in 1993 and 1994. It includes sampling, analysis and results obtained by the Norwegian part. 5 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Soviet Archaeological Expedition as a Research Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sveshnikova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Soviet archaeological expeditions are the main focus of my research. They provide us with very interesting examples of archaeological expeditions as a part of a society, and not only as a part of science. After the 1960s it was an especially popular leisure practice. Many people who were not professional archaeologists went on expeditions in their leisure time and worked there as diggers or shovelmen (excavators. A Soviet archaeologist described them as people who ‘prefer to spend their vacation in archaeological expeditions in various parts of our country instead of seaside resorts.

  3. Sustainability Organic Agriculture and Livestock Production with Respect to European Union in Eastern Anatolia and East Black Sea Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecihi Aksakal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of farm households in Turkey and especially the Eastern Anatolia are still based on low-input semi subsistence agriculture and livestock production. Despite a slow decline in recent years, agriculture and livestock production remains a major employer in Turkey and it is a significant contributor to the country’s gross domestic product, GDP. Whist Turkey is one of the EU candidate countries, is self sufficient in food production and Turkish agriculture is poorly structured inefficient, with farming in the Eastern Anatolia being mainly subsistence farming. Yet, these traditional rural structures combined with poor access to low level of education and low level of off-farm unemployment problem makes the situation more complicated and unsustainable. The best way to promote sustainability, better and higher production of Eastern Anatolian and rural Turkey is to invest in the local people, villages through improved, continuing and effective agricultural and livestock programs in particular. Investment in human capital especially in the rural areas leads to more employment opportunities through entrepreneurship and innovation in organic agriculture and livestock production. A holistic approach to developing and improving supply chains could unlock the potential for sophisticated, state-of-the-art organic agriculture and livestock producers and businesses in the region to become EU and global players. Eastern Anatolian livestock producers and the farmers have the ambitions to take part in future progress because the region is naturally organic not by design but default. It is for sure that present potential of the region has not been fully determined and utilized. EU has greatly benefited from previous enlargements economically, politically and socially. When European Union (EU and Turkish Government relations considered and accession of Turkey to EU would be the logical consequence of the previous accessions. The screening on chapter 11

  4. Medical Operational Challenges in the Expedition 16 Landing and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, S.; Johnston, S. L.; Ilcus, L. S.; Shevchenko, V.

    2009-01-01

    On April 19, 2008 the crew of Expedition 16 left the International Space Station and returned to earth via their Soyuz TMA-11 capsule after 192 days on orbit. Their capsule experienced the second consecutive and third ballistic reentry in the last 10 TMA recoveries and landed approximately 260 miles (420 km) from the prime landing site. Issues: The purpose of this presentation will be to describe, not only the typical medical operational challenges faced by Flight Surgeons recovering a long duration crew from space, but also address the unique challenges that existed with the Expedition 16 landing and crew recovery. Nominal Soyuz recovery challenges include remote recovery sites with crew exposures to sleep shifting and fatigue, dehydration, hypothermia and hyperthermia, and rotational, sustained, and impact g-forces. These environmental factors coupled with the patho-physiologic neuro-vestibular and orthostatic intolerance changes that occur secondary to the crews reintroduction into the earth s gravity field will be detailed. Additional challenges that were unique to this expedition included a ballistic reentry with higher g-loads, the presence of fire outside of the capsule on landing, a contingency medical event of a ground support personnel, and loss of communications with the crew just prior to landing and during recovery operations. Conclusions: In spite of these unique challenges the Russian Search and Rescue Forces and Medical Support personnel along with U.S. Medical Support performed well together. Possible improvements in training and coordination will be discussed.

  5. CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery from the Residual Zone - A Sustainable Vision for North Sea Oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jamie; Haszeldine, Stuart; Wilkinson, Mark; Johnson, Gareth

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a 'new vision for North Sea oil production' where previously unattainable residual oil can be produced with the injection of CO2 that has been captured at power stations or other large industrial emitters. Not only could this process produce incremental oil from a maturing basin, reducing imports, it also has the capability to store large volumes of CO2 which can offset the emissions of additional carbon produced. Around the world oil production from mature basins is in decline and production from UK oil fields peaked in 1998. Other basins around the world have a similar story. Although in the UK a number of tax regimes, such as 'brown field allowances' and 'new field allowances' have been put in place to re-encourage investment, it is recognised that the majority of large discoveries have already been made. However, as a nation our demand for oil remains high and in the last decade imports of crude oil have been steadily increasing. The UK is dependent on crude oil for transport and feedstock for chemical and plastics production. Combined with the necessity to provide energy security, there is a demand to re-assess the potential for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR) in the UK offshore. Residual oil zones (ROZ) exist where one of a number of natural conditions beyond normal capillary forces have caused the geometry of a field's oil column to be altered after filling [1]. When this re-structuring happens the primary interest to the hydrocarbon industry has in the past been in where the mobile oil has migrated to. However it is now considered that significant oil resource may exist in the residual zone play where the main oil column has been displaced. Saturations within this play are predominantly close to residual saturation (Sr) and would be similar to that of a water-flooded field [2]. Evidence from a number of hydrocarbon fairways shows that, under certain circumstances, these residual zones in US fields are comparable in thickness to the

  6. [The royal philanthropic expedition of the vaccine (Xavier de Balmis/Josep Salvany). 1803-1806].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botet, Francesc Asensi

    2009-12-01

    Six years after Jenner discovered the anti-smallpox vaccine, King Charles IV mandated the initiation of vaccination campaigns throughout his kingdom. The overseas campaign was coordinated by the Valencian military doctor Xavier de Balmis with the aid of the Catalan Josep Salvany. The vaccine was transported to America "in vivo" in 22 children. The expedition departed from La Coruña on November 1806 and arrived to the Venezuelan port of La Guayra where it was split in two: One sub expedition under the order of Josep Salvany, continued by land to Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. Salvany died in the Bolivian city of Cochabamba. The other sub expedition, leaded by Balmis himself, continued by sea to Cuba and Mexico. From Acapulco it arrived to Manila and from there to Macau followed by inland penetration into China.

  7. 28 CFR 51.34 - Expedited consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited consideration. 51.34 Section 51... consideration. (a) When a submitting authority is required under State law or local ordinance or otherwise finds... the submission be given expedited consideration. The submission should explain why such consideration...

  8. Expedition medicine: A southern African perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adventure tourists with adequate financial means. ... made wilderness expeditions much safer, they have not been able ... to space – the unifying characteristics of expedition medicine remain ... 4 Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, ... Therefore, while learning.

  9. Underway pCO2 Measurements in Surface Waters and the Atmosphere During the R/V Xue Long Arctic CHINARE2010 Expedition in the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea and Arctic Ocean from 2010-07-09 to 2010-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0164193)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0164193 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from R/V Xue Long Arctic CHINARE2010 Expedition in the North...

  10. The USGS Salton Sea Science Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Harvey Lee; Barnum, Douglas A.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Salton Sea Science Office (SSSO) provides scientific information and evaluations to decisionmakers who are engaged in restoration planning and actions associated with the Salton Sea. The primary focus is the natural resources of the Salton Sea, including the sea?s ability to sustain biological resources and associated social and economic values.

  11. Dumping of radioactive waste in the Barents and Kara seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.; Christensen, G.C.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the level of radioactive contamination in the Kara Sea and to assess short- and long-term consequences of dumped radioactive waste, joint Russian-Norwegian expeditions have been performed annually since 1992. Results from the 1992 joint expedition to the Kara Sea demonstrated very low concentrations of radionuclides in waters and sediments. Contributions from different sources: global fallout, river transport, marine transport of discharges from European reprocessing plants and of fallout from Chernobyl, could be identified. From the expeditions in 1993 and 1994 to three bays at Novaya Zemlya, local contamination in the Stepovogo and the Abrosimov bays due to leakage from the dumped radioactive waste could be confirmed. Results from the 1994 expedition will be published in 1995. The levels of radioactivity in the Kara Sea are, however, very low and represent at present an extremely low impact on man and the marine ecosystem. (Author)

  12. Evaluating tidal marsh sustainability in the face of sea-level rise: a hybrid modeling approach applied to San Francisco Bay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Stralberg

    Full Text Available Tidal marshes will be threatened by increasing rates of sea-level rise (SLR over the next century. Managers seek guidance on whether existing and restored marshes will be resilient under a range of potential future conditions, and on prioritizing marsh restoration and conservation activities.Building upon established models, we developed a hybrid approach that involves a mechanistic treatment of marsh accretion dynamics and incorporates spatial variation at a scale relevant for conservation and restoration decision-making. We applied this model to San Francisco Bay, using best-available elevation data and estimates of sediment supply and organic matter accumulation developed for 15 Bay subregions. Accretion models were run over 100 years for 70 combinations of starting elevation, mineral sediment, organic matter, and SLR assumptions. Results were applied spatially to evaluate eight Bay-wide climate change scenarios.Model results indicated that under a high rate of SLR (1.65 m/century, short-term restoration of diked subtidal baylands to mid marsh elevations (-0.2 m MHHW could be achieved over the next century with sediment concentrations greater than 200 mg/L. However, suspended sediment concentrations greater than 300 mg/L would be required for 100-year mid marsh sustainability (i.e., no elevation loss. Organic matter accumulation had minimal impacts on this threshold. Bay-wide projections of marsh habitat area varied substantially, depending primarily on SLR and sediment assumptions. Across all scenarios, however, the model projected a shift in the mix of intertidal habitats, with a loss of high marsh and gains in low marsh and mudflats.Results suggest a bleak prognosis for long-term natural tidal marsh sustainability under a high-SLR scenario. To minimize marsh loss, we recommend conserving adjacent uplands for marsh migration, redistributing dredged sediment to raise elevations, and concentrating restoration efforts in sediment-rich areas

  13. Geologic implications of gas hydrates in the offshore of India: results of the National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Boswell, Ray; Cochran, J.R.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Lall, Malcolm; Mazumdar, Aninda; Ramana, Mangipudi Venkata; Ramprasad, Tammisetti; Riedel, Michael; Sain, Kalachand; Sathe, Arun Vasant; Vishwanath, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 (NGHP-01) is designed to study the occurrence of gas hydrate along the passive continental margin of the Indian Peninsula and in the Andaman convergent margin, with special emphasis on understanding the geologic and geochemical controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate in these two diverse settings. The NGHP-01 expedition established the presence of gas hydrates in the Krishna-Godavari and Mahanadi Basins, and the Andaman Sea. The expedition discovered in the Krishna-Godavari Basin one of the thickest gas hydrate accumulations ever documented, in the Andaman Sea one of the thickest and deepest gas hydrate stability zones in the world, and established the existence of a fully developed gas hydrate petroleum system in all three basins.

  14. Embark students on geosciences expeditions, across the oceans …

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Marion; Darrieu, Michele; Pointu, Agnes; Maruejol, Patricia; Cooper, Sharon

    2017-04-01

    As teachers we can live and share a fabulous experience of science and research on the scientific drilling vessels and platforms of IODP-ECORD and JAMSTEC consortiums. ECORD offered us the opportunity to embark on the IODP 359, 360 and 362 expeditions as Education Officers. Our task was to communicate about science with the general public and students from 7 to 25 years-old. In this presentation, we will focus on the 360 expedition, South West Indian Ridge-lower crust and Moho. We explain the three steps of the "teacher at sea" experience from the very first idea to the real pedagogical work during and after the expedition. -Apply, get ready and leave… for two months: From the difficulties you may encounter to the most efficient ways to prepare the pedagogical tasks. -Work, live onboard and get back: We will describe the main activities of the Education officers among the Science party and the way all this can become a highly changing-life experience. -Use data, share and inspire: We will detail some strategies we used to catch the attention of the students. They could participate to "live" science and have a better idea of the job of researcher. Now, we have to inspire others teachers to use our data and pedagogical documents, or to get the opportunity to embark ! What gets out of these crossed experiences is that the quality of the human relationships, and the way the students can get closer to the scientists during the interactions, are the keys to motivate students and give them a new vision of the scientific research.

  15. Educational expeditions - et norsk perspektiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Horgen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe topic of this article is the Norwegian concept of “friluftsliv” (outdoor life, used as a pedagogical tool to support personal growth. While supporting personal growth appears to be a central pedagogical strategy within Anglo-American and British youth expeditions and adventure programming, this does not appear to be case in the Norwegian outdoor tradition. My research question is: Do Norwegian Outdoor Education students experience a learning outcome related to personal growth, and to their abilities as leaders/mentors, during ski expeditions? I have collected data through a three-year period, after three ski expeditions with Outdoor Education students from an outdoor bachelor-programme at Telemark University College.The students have given written answers to questions regarding personal growth in which several informants’ express thoughts about experiences related to “self” and “identity”. They reflect upon experiences related to “mastering” and “performing”, to acceptance of their own strengths and weaknesses, and about developing self-confidence. They also reflect upon learning outcomes related to interpersonal relations and abilities, self-control, communication and caregiving. The informants have experienced, as leaders/mentors, that it is important to be able to, to “read” situations, to make good assessments of the situations, and to make good decisions related to the situations. As a follow up to this, the informants highlight the importance of being aware of each individual in the group, the importance of encouragement, being positive and caregiving. This study has shown that ski expeditions in “a Norwegian tradition” may have a potential when it comes to encouraging reflections related to personal growth and leadership abilities. Hopefully this study can contribute to increased awareness of the pedagogical potential, for personal growth, within the Norwegian concept of

  16. Regional ocean-colour chlorophyll algorithms for the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Brewin, Robert J.W.; Raitsos, Dionysios E.; Dall'Olmo, Giorgio; Zarokanellos, Nikolaos; Jackson, Thomas; Racault, Marie-Fanny; Boss, Emmanuel S.; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Jones, Burton; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    an ocean-colour model for the Red Sea, parameterised to data collected during the Tara Oceans expedition, that estimates remote-sensing reflectance as a function of chlorophyll concentration. We used the Red Sea model to tune the standard chlorophyll

  17. Riverland expedited response action proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) prepare an expedited response action (ERA) for the Riverland Railroad Car Wash Pit and the 600 Area Army Munitions Burial Site. A non-time-critical ERA proposal includes preparation of an engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) section. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA proposal will undergo reviews by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE, EPA, Ecology, and the public. Ecology and EPA will issue an Action Agreement Memorandum after resolution of all review comments. The, memorandum will authorize remediation activities. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-1 Operable Unit. A No Action Record of Decision may be issued after cleanup completion

  18. Antarctic Starfish (Echinodermata, Asteroidea) from the ANDEEP3 expedition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, Bruno; Jangoux, Michel; Wilmes, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This dataset includes information on sea stars collected during the ANDEEP3 expedition, which took place in 2005. The expedition focused on deep-sea stations in the Powell Basin and Weddell Sea.Sea stars were collected using an Agassiz trawl (3m, mesh-size 500µm), deployed in 16 stations during the ANTXXII/3 (ANDEEP3, PS72) expedition of the RV Polarstern. Sampling depth ranged from 1047 to 4931m. Trawling distance ranged from 731 to 3841m. The sampling area ranges from -41°S to -71°S (latitude) and from 0 to -65°W (longitude). A complete list of stations is available from the PANGAEA data system (http://www.pangaea.de/PHP/CruiseReports.php?b=Polarstern), including a cruise report (http://epic-reports.awi.de/3694/1/PE_72.pdf).The dataset includes 50 records, with individual counts ranging from 1-10, reaching a total of 132 specimens.The andeep3-Asteroidea is a unique dataset as it covers an under-explored region of the Southern Ocean, and that very little information was available regarding Antarctic deep-sea starfish. Before this study, most of the information available focused on starfish from shallower depths than 1000m. This dataset allowed to make unique observations, such as the fact that some species were only present at very high depths (Hymenaster crucifer, Hymenaster pellucidus, Hymenaster praecoquis, Psilaster charcoti, Freyella attenuata, Freyastera tuberculata, Styrachaster chuni and Vemaster sudatlanticus were all found below -3770m), while others displayed remarkable eurybathy, with very high depths amplitudes (Bathybiaster loripes (4842m), Lysasterias adeliae (4832m), Lophaster stellans (4752m), Cheiraster planeta (4708m), Eremicaster crassus (4626m), Lophaster gaini (4560m) and Ctenodiscus australis (4489m)).Even if the number of records is relatively small, the data bring many new insights on the taxonomic, bathymetric and geographic distributions of Southern starfish, covering a very large sampling zone. The dataset also brings to light six

  19. Ship Sensor Observations for Deep Sea Medicines 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown during the "Deep Sea Medicines 2003: Exploration of the Gulf of Mexico" expedition...

  20. Ship Track for Mountains in the Sea 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the R/V Atlantis during the "Mountains in the Sea 2003" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of...

  1. Ship Sensor Observations for Mountains in the Sea 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the R/V Atlantis during the "Mountains in the Sea 2003" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and...

  2. Particulate absorption properties in the Red Sea from hyperspectral particulate absorption spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Tiwari, Surya Prakash; Zarokanellos, Nikolaos; Kheireddine, Malika; Shanmugam, Palanisamy; Jones, Burton

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the variability of particulate absorption properties using a unique hyperspectral dataset collected in the Red Sea as part of the TARA Oceans expedition. The absorption contributions by phytoplankton (aph) and non

  3. Ship Track for Deep Sea Medicines 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the Ronald H. Brown during the "Deep Sea Medicines 2003: Exploring the Gulf of Mexico" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  4. Expedition 8 Crew Interview: Pedro Duque

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Pedro Duque is interviewed in preparation for his flight to and eight day stay on the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the Cervantes mission. Duque arrived on the ISS with the Expedition 8 crew onboard a Soyuz TMA-3, the seventh Soyuz flight to the station. He departed from the ISS on a Soyuz TMA-2 with the Expedition 7 crew of the ISS. In the video, Duque answers questions on: the goals of his flight; his life and career path; the Columbus Module, which ESA will contribute to the ISS, the ride onboard a Soyuz, and the importance of the ISS.

  5. Nr 251 - Report on the behalf of the Commission of finances, general economy and budget control on the finance bill project for 2013. Appendix Nr 13: ecology, sustainable development and planning, risk prevention, management and steering of policies of ecology, energy, sustainable development and sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, Christian; Mariton, Herve

    2012-01-01

    After having indicated some key figures (public finances and budgets awarded to different involved institutions and agencies), this report comments and discusses the various challenges and financial aspects regarding risk prevention: evolution of endowments in 2013, action in the field of prevention of technological risks and pollutions, issue of nuclear safety after the Fukushima accident (actions undertaken by the ASN, IRSN and ANDRA), assessment of the implementation of the PPRN (plan of prevention of natural risks) and management of flood risks, management of the after-mine period. The second part discusses the management and steering of policies of ecology, energy, sustainable development and sea in a context of decreased endowments

  6. Report on the behalf of the Finance, General Economy and Budgetary Control Commission on the Finance bill for 2011 (n. 2824), appendix N. 13: ecology, sustainable development and land planning, hazard prevention, management and steering of ecology, energy, sustainable development, land planning and sea policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report comments the grants awarded to two programmes, the first one concerning the prevention of hazards, and the second concerning the management and steering of ecology, energy, sustainable development, land planning and sea policies. These two programmes are emblematic of the French government's action and ambition in the field of sustainable development and ecology. For the first one, the report comments the evolution of grants, their objectives and performance indicators. Then it addresses its various aspects: prevention of technological hazards and pollutions, prevention of natural and hydraulic hazards, nuclear safety, after-mine management. For the second programme, the report gives an assessment of the ministry reorganization, and comments the means requested for 2011

  7. 20 CFR 405.701 - Expedited appeals process-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expedited appeals process-general. 405.701 Section 405.701 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS FOR ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Expedited Appeals Process for Constitutional Issues § 405.701 Expedited...

  8. 7 CFR 1703.112 - Expedited telecommunications loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited telecommunications loans 1703.112 Section... § 1703.112 Expedited telecommunications loans RUS will expedite consideration and determination of an application submitted by an RUS telecommunications borrower for a loan under the Act or an advance of such...

  9. Conceptualising sustainability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, Jenny; Annandale, David; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2004-01-01

    Sustainability assessment is being increasingly viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainability. However, this is a new and evolving concept and there remain very few examples of effective sustainability assessment processes implemented anywhere in the world. Sustainability assessment is often described as a process by which the implications of an initiative on sustainability are evaluated, where the initiative can be a proposed or existing policy, plan, programme, project, piece of legislation, or a current practice or activity. However, this generic definition covers a broad range of different processes, many of which have been described in the literature as 'sustainability assessment'. This article seeks to provide some clarification by reflecting on the different approaches described in the literature as being forms of sustainability assessment, and evaluating them in terms of their potential contributions to sustainability. Many of these are actually examples of 'integrated assessment', derived from environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA), but which have been extended to incorporate social and economic considerations as well as environmental ones, reflecting a 'triple bottom line' (TBL) approach to sustainability. These integrated assessment processes typically either seek to minimise 'unsustainability', or to achieve TBL objectives. Both aims may, or may not, result in sustainable practice. We present an alternative conception of sustainability assessment, with the more ambitious aim of seeking to determine whether or not an initiative is actually sustainable. We term such processes 'assessment for sustainability'. 'Assessment for sustainability' firstly requires that the concept of sustainability be well-defined. The article compares TBL approaches and principles-based approaches to developing such sustainability criteria, concluding that the latter are more appropriate, since they avoid many

  10. The expediting resolutions of the Federal Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Even before the Third Update of their Energy Programme was dismissed the Federal Government had decreed ten measures for expediting the licensing procedures for nuclear power plants in October. The statements of politicians, experts and a journalist are given. (orig./UA) [de

  11. Strategic environmental assessment for sustainability: A review of a decade of academic research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Lisa, E-mail: lisa.white@usask.ca [School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, 117 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5A5 (Canada); Noble, Bram F., E-mail: b.noble@usask.ca [Department of Geography and Planning, School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, 117 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5A5 (Canada)

    2013-09-15

    This paper examines the strategic environmental assessment (SEA)–sustainability relationship over the past decade, from 2000 to 2010, focusing in particular on the incorporation of sustainability in SEA. A total of 86 papers from the academic literature containing the terms ‘sustainability’ or ‘sustainable development’ and ‘strategic environmental assessment’ were identified and reviewed. Several common themes emerged by which SEA can support sustainability, including providing a framework to support decision making for sustainability; setting sustainability objectives, ensuring the consideration of ‘more sustainable’ alternatives, and integrating sustainability criteria in PPP development; and promoting sustainability outcomes through tiering and institutional learning. At the same time, our review identified many underlying barriers that challenge SEA for sustainability, including the variable interpretations of the scope of sustainability in SEA; the limited use of assessment criteria directly linked to sustainability objectives; and challenges for decision-makers in operationalizing sustainability in SEA and adapting PPP development decision-making processes to include sustainability issues. To advance SEA for sustainability there is a need to better define the scope of sustainability in SEA; clarify how to operationalize the different approaches to sustainability in SEA, as opposed to simply describing those approaches; provide guidance on how to operationalize broad sustainability goals through assessment criteria in SEA; and understand better how to facilitate institutional learning regarding sustainability through SEA application. -- Highlights: ► There is significant potential for SEA to support sustainability in PPP development. ► However, there are still many barriers in place that challenge SEA for sustainability. ► The scope and approaches to sustainability in SEA must be better defined and described. ► Guidance is needed to

  12. Strategic environmental assessment for sustainability: A review of a decade of academic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Lisa; Noble, Bram F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the strategic environmental assessment (SEA)–sustainability relationship over the past decade, from 2000 to 2010, focusing in particular on the incorporation of sustainability in SEA. A total of 86 papers from the academic literature containing the terms ‘sustainability’ or ‘sustainable development’ and ‘strategic environmental assessment’ were identified and reviewed. Several common themes emerged by which SEA can support sustainability, including providing a framework to support decision making for sustainability; setting sustainability objectives, ensuring the consideration of ‘more sustainable’ alternatives, and integrating sustainability criteria in PPP development; and promoting sustainability outcomes through tiering and institutional learning. At the same time, our review identified many underlying barriers that challenge SEA for sustainability, including the variable interpretations of the scope of sustainability in SEA; the limited use of assessment criteria directly linked to sustainability objectives; and challenges for decision-makers in operationalizing sustainability in SEA and adapting PPP development decision-making processes to include sustainability issues. To advance SEA for sustainability there is a need to better define the scope of sustainability in SEA; clarify how to operationalize the different approaches to sustainability in SEA, as opposed to simply describing those approaches; provide guidance on how to operationalize broad sustainability goals through assessment criteria in SEA; and understand better how to facilitate institutional learning regarding sustainability through SEA application. -- Highlights: ► There is significant potential for SEA to support sustainability in PPP development. ► However, there are still many barriers in place that challenge SEA for sustainability. ► The scope and approaches to sustainability in SEA must be better defined and described. ► Guidance is needed to

  13. Overfishing Drivers and Opportunities for Recovery in Small-Scale Fisheries of the Midriff Islands Region, Gulf of California, Mexico: the Roles of Land and Sea Institutions in Fisheries Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cinti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Institutions play an important role in shaping individual incentives in complex social-ecological systems, by encouraging or discouraging resource overuse. In the Gulf of California, Mexico, there is widespread evidence of declines in small-scale fishery stocks, largely attributed to policy failures. We investigated formal and informal rules-in-use regulating access and resource use by small-scale fishers in the two most important fishing communities of the Midriff Islands region in the Gulf of California, which share several target species and fishing grounds. The Midriff Islands region is a highly productive area where sustainable use of fisheries resources has been elusive. Our study aimed to inform policy by providing information on how management and conservation policies perform in this unique environment. In addition, we contrast attributes of the enabling conditions for sustainability on the commons in an effort to better understand why these communities, albeit showing several contrasting attributes of the above conditions, have not developed sustainable fishing practices. We take a novel, comprehensive institutional approach that includes formal and informal institutions, incorporating links between land (i.e., communal land rights and sea institutions (i.e., fisheries and conservation policies and their effects on stewardship of fishery resources, a theme that is practically unaddressed in the literature. Insufficient government support in provision of secure rights, enforcement and sanctioning, and recognition and incorporation of local arrangements and capacities for management arose as important needs to address in both cases. We highlight the critical role of higher levels of governance, that when disconnected from local practices, realities, and needs, can be a major impediment to achieving sustainability in small-scale fisheries, even in cases where several facilitating conditions are met.

  14. Joint Polish–Finnish sampling of surface waters around the phosphogypsum waste stacks in Gdańsk and Police from 1 to 3 July 2013 – Results of the expedition

    OpenAIRE

    Räike, Antti; Koskela, Jarkko; Knuuttila, Seppo; Lehtoranta, Jouni; Pitkänen, Heikki; Risto, Maarit; Vuorinen, Jyrki

    2015-01-01

    The report describes the results of the joint Polish–Finnish sampling expedition aimed at estimating the possible effects of the two Polish phosphogypsum stacks located in Wislinka (Gdańsk) and Police on the loading of the Baltic Sea and the nearby watercourses. The joint expedition was based on the agreement between the Polish and Finnish Ministers of the Environment in June 2013. The results indicate a clear effect of the phosphogypsum stack on phosphate and total phosphorus concentratio...

  15. The Second International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Greg; Hood, Raleigh

    2015-04-01

    The International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) was one of the greatest international, interdisciplinary oceanographic research efforts of all time. Planning for the IIOE began in 1959 and the project officially continued through 1965, with forty-six research vessels participating under fourteen different flags. The IIOE motivated an unprecedented number of hydrographic surveys (and repeat surveys) over the course of the expedition covering the entire Indian Ocean basin. And it was an interdisciplinary endeavor that embraced physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, meteorology, marine biology, marine geology and geophysics. The end of 2015 will mark the 50th Anniversary of the completion of the IIOE. SCOR and the IOC are working to stimulate a new phase of coordinated international research focused on the Indian Ocean for a 5-year period beginning in late 2015 and continuing through 2020. The goal is to help to organize ongoing research and stimulate new initiatives in the 2015-2020 time frame as part of a larger expedition. Several International programs that have research ongoing or planned in the Indian Ocean during this time period and many countries are planning cruises in this time frame as well. These programs and national cruises will serve as a core for the new Indian Ocean research focus, which has been dubbed "IIOE-2." The overarching goal of the IIOE-2 is to advance our understanding of interactions between geological, oceanic and atmospheric processes that give rise to the complex physical dynamics of the Indian Ocean region, and to determine how those dynamics affect climate, extreme events, marine biogeochemical cycles, ecosystems and human populations. This understanding is required to predict the impacts of climate change, pollution, and increased fish harvesting on the Indian Ocean and its nations, as well as the influence of the Indian Ocean on other components of the Earth System. New understanding is also fundamental to policy makers for

  16. Mastery of the sea uses in the outlook of sustainable development in France and in its overseas territories; Maitrise des usages de la mer dans l'optique du developpement durable en metropole et outre-mer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    France disposes of the second widest maritime zone in the world which represents numerous halieutic, energetic and mineral resources. However, the knowledge about these resources remains in general insufficient to allow its responsible exploitation in the respect of ecosystems biodiversity, or to allow an economically profitable exploitation because the existing technologies remain emerging. Moreover, most of the ocean exploitation is localized in the coastal area (up to few tens of km from the coast). This fragile area is threatened by an increasing number of activities which superadd to the traditional ones (fishing, navigation, tourism). Thus, the sustainable management of these coastal areas is an important challenge that France has to take up. This document stresses on the need for a better knowledge of the marine environment (situation of the halieutic resources, study of oceanic circulation, physiology of species, inventory of sea bottom and underground resources, mapping of accessible energy resources, evolution of climates, drift of pollutions, study of renewable sea energies (wind, heat, wave, tide, currents)) and for an integrated management of the coastal areas (recommendations, mapping, development of wind power systems, exploitation of marine granulates, aquaculture). (J.S.)

  17. Effects of sea-ice and biogeochemical processes and storms on under-ice water fCO2 during the winter-spring transition in the high Arctic Ocean: Implications for sea-air CO2 fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Agneta; Chierici, Melissa; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Olsen, Are; Assmy, Philipp; Peterson, Algot K.; Spreen, Gunnar; Ward, Brian

    2017-07-01

    We performed measurements of carbon dioxide fugacity (fCO2) in the surface water under Arctic sea ice from January to June 2015 during the Norwegian young sea ICE (N-ICE2015) expedition. Over this period, the ship drifted with four different ice floes and covered the deep Nansen Basin, the slopes north of Svalbard, and the Yermak Plateau. This unique winter-to-spring data set includes the first winter-time under-ice water fCO2 observations in this region. The observed under-ice fCO2 ranged between 315 µatm in winter and 153 µatm in spring, hence was undersaturated relative to the atmospheric fCO2. Although the sea ice partly prevented direct CO2 exchange between ocean and atmosphere, frequently occurring leads and breakup of the ice sheet promoted sea-air CO2 fluxes. The CO2 sink varied between 0.3 and 86 mmol C m-2 d-1, depending strongly on the open-water fractions (OW) and storm events. The maximum sea-air CO2 fluxes occurred during storm events in February and June. In winter, the main drivers of the change in under-ice water fCO2 were dissolution of CaCO3 (ikaite) and vertical mixing. In June, in addition to these processes, primary production and sea-air CO2 fluxes were important. The cumulative loss due to CaCO3 dissolution of 0.7 mol C m-2 in the upper 10 m played a major role in sustaining the undersaturation of fCO2 during the entire study. The relative effects of the total fCO2 change due to CaCO3 dissolution was 38%, primary production 26%, vertical mixing 16%, sea-air CO2 fluxes 16%, and temperature and salinity insignificant.

  18. Psychosocial issues during an expedition to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Much is known about psychological and interpersonal issues affecting astronauts participating in manned space missions near the Earth. But in a future long-distance, long-duration expedition to Mars, additional stressors will occur that will result in psychological, psychiatric, and interpersonal effects on the crew, both negative and positive. This paper will review what is known about important psychosocial issues in space and will extrapolate them to the scenario of a future manned space mission to Mars.

  19. IODP Expeditions 303 and 306 Monitor Miocene- Quaternary Climate in the North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alvarez-Zarikian

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The IODP Expeditions 303 and 306 drilling sites were chosen for two reasons: (1 to capture Miocene-Quaternary millennial-scale climate variability in sensitive regions at the mouth of the Labrador Sea and in the North Atlantic icerafted debris (IRD belt (Ruddiman et al., 1977, and (2 to provide the sedimentary and paleomagnetic attributes, including adequate sedimentation rates, for constructinghigh-resolution isotopic and magnetic stratigraphies.High accumulation rates, reaching 20 cm ky-1, permit the study of millennial-scale variations in climate and in the Earth's magnetic fi eld over the past several million years, when the amplitude and frequency of climate variability changed substantially. Shipboard logging and scanning data (magnetic susceptibility and remanence, density, natural gamma radiation, digital images and color refl ectance and post-expedition x-ray fl uorescence (XRF scanning datahave revealed that the sediment cores recovered on Expeditions 303 and 306 contain detailed histories of millennial-scale climate and geomagnetic fi eld variability throughout the late Miocene to Quaternary epochs. The climate proxies will be integrated with paleomagnetic data to place the records of millennial-scale climate change into a high resolution stratigraphy based on oxygen isotope andrelative paleomagnetic intensity (RPI. The paleomagnetic record of polarity reversals, excursions and RPI in these cores is central to the construction of the stratigraphic template and will provide detailed documentation of geomagnetic fi eld behavior.

  20. Nuclear installations in the baltic sea region and the stake holders cooperation: a crucial step towards energy security, environmental sustainability and political stability in the region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, M.; Mandere, N.; Olsson, L. [Lund Univ., Centre for Sustainability Studies (LUCSUS) (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    Radiation hazards are trans-boundary. The prevention of accidents must be managed locally. But the awareness, preparedness, and the responsibilities in the case of emergencies must be managed at the local and regional level, and must rely on close interaction between the local and regional levels. The Baltic Sea Region contains over 40 nuclear reactors contributing to energy security, but also posing a potential threat to human, environmental, and political security. The aim of this paper is to integrate the four fields of security: health, environment, energy, and political by analysing awareness, preparedness responsibility and decision making related to nuclear installations. With increasing political, economical, cultural and physical (in term of energy infrastructure) integration, the region needs to take a comprehensive approach to create adequate structure for managing risks and thereby promote security. (authors)

  1. Nuclear installations in the baltic sea region and the stake holders cooperation: a crucial step towards energy security, environmental sustainability and political stability in the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, M.; Mandere, N.; Olsson, L.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation hazards are trans-boundary. The prevention of accidents must be managed locally. But the awareness, preparedness, and the responsibilities in the case of emergencies must be managed at the local and regional level, and must rely on close interaction between the local and regional levels. The Baltic Sea Region contains over 40 nuclear reactors contributing to energy security, but also posing a potential threat to human, environmental, and political security. The aim of this paper is to integrate the four fields of security: health, environment, energy, and political by analysing awareness, preparedness responsibility and decision making related to nuclear installations. With increasing political, economical, cultural and physical (in term of energy infrastructure) integration, the region needs to take a comprehensive approach to create adequate structure for managing risks and thereby promote security. (authors)

  2. Oceanographic data collected during the HB1204 (Deep-Sea Corals and Benthic Habitats in Northeast Deepwater Canyons) expedition on NOAA Ship Henry Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean between 2012-07-03 to 2012-07-18 (NCEI Accession 0097966)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A multi-disciplinary team of scientists on the Henry Bigelow HB1204 mission surveyed and ground-truthed known or suspected deep-sea coral habitats associated with...

  3. Scientific results of the Second Gas Hydrate Drilling Expedition in the Ulleung Basin (UBGH2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Byong-Jae; Collett, Timothy S.; Riedel, Michael; Kim, Gil-Young; Chun, Jong-Hwa; Bahk, Jang-Jun; Lee, Joo Yong; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Yoo, Dong-Geun

    2013-01-01

    As a part of Korean National Gas Hydrate Program, the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Drilling Expedition (UBGH2) was conducted from 9 July to 30 September, 2010 in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, offshore Korea using the D/V Fugro Synergy. The UBGH2 was performed to understand the distribution of gas hydrates as required for a resource assessment and to find potential candidate sites suitable for a future offshore production test, especially targeting gas hydrate-bearing sand bodies in the basin. The UBGH2 sites were distributed across most of the basin and were selected to target mainly sand-rich turbidite deposits. The 84-day long expedition consisted of two phases. The first phase included logging-while-drilling/measurements-while-drilling (LWD/MWD) operations at 13 sites. During the second phase, sediment cores were collected from 18 holes at 10 of the 13 LWD/MWD sites. Wireline logging (WL) and vertical seismic profile (VSP) data were also acquired after coring operations at two of these 10 sites. In addition, seafloor visual observation, methane sensing, as well as push-coring and sampling using a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) were conducted during both phases of the expedition. Recovered gas hydrates occurred either as pore-filling medium associated with discrete turbidite sand layers, or as fracture-filling veins and nodules in muddy sediments. Gas analyses indicated that the methane within the sampled gas hydrates is primarily of biogenic origin. This paper provides a summary of the operational and scientific results of the UBGH2 expedition as described in 24 papers that make up this special issue of the Journal of Marine and Petroleum Geology.

  4. Some new and rare Copepoda Calanoida from East Indian Seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, W.

    1949-01-01

    The rich material of Copepods collected by the Snellius Expedition in the seas of the Eastern part of the Malay Archipelago was placed at my disposal in 1943 by Prof. Dr. H. Boschma. The material proved to be very interesting and contained, besides new species, many rare forms found for the first

  5. Activities of the 44th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-44 wintering party, 2003-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyasu Kojima

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The 44th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-44 wintering party conducted the VIth five-year JARE program from February 1st 2003 to January 31st 2004 at both Syowa and Dome Fuji Stations. Thirty-six members at Syowa Station and 8 members at Dome Fuji Station were engaged in the various scientific and logistic activities. Many observation programs in meteorology, upper atmospheric physics, atmospheric sciences and glaciology, geophysics and biology and medical science were carried out in addition to logistic activities such at Syowa Station. As sea ice in Ongul Strait was unstable until early August, the start of the field activities in the southern coastal area was delayed until early October. However, many field teams engaged in seismic, Global Positioning System (GPS observations and a penguin census study made observations around the coastal area of east Lutzow-Holm Bay in October and November when sea ice was stable.

  6. Silent film: The Carlsberg Foundation’s Oceanographic Expedition Round the World, 1928–30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    the surveys conducted onboard, as well as encounters with local populations round the World. This silent film consists of c. 20 different sequences. There is a very instructive introduction to the fishing gear, as it is being deployed in the sea, although this is supplemented by camera shots from what......Danish marine scientist, Johannes Schmidt was also a pioneer when it comes to popularizing deep-sea marine research through the use of mass media. When Schmidt headed the Carlsberg Foundation’s Oceanographical Expedition Round the World, 1928-1930, he brought along a film camera, documenting...... is clearly an aquarium, where the functioning of the water sampler is shown in action. As the Dana moves into the Pacific Ocean the focus of the film also changes. In the sections from the Pacific and Indian Oceans the film includes captions describing the local inhabitants of the Polynesian islands...

  7. MaNIDA: Integration of marine expedition information, data and publications: Data Portal of German Marine Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppe, Roland; Scientific MaNIDA-Team

    2013-04-01

    The Marine Network for Integrated Data Access (MaNIDA) aims to build a sustainable e-infrastructure to support discovery and re-use of marine data from distinct data providers in Germany (see related abstracts in session ESSI 1.2). In order to provide users integrated access and retrieval of expedition or cruise metadata, data, services and publications as well as relationships among the various objects, we are developing (web) applications based on state of the art technologies: the Data Portal of German Marine Research. Since the German network of distributed content providers have distinct objectives and mandates for storing digital objects (e.g. long-term data preservation, near real time data, publication repositories), we have to cope with heterogeneous metadata in terms of syntax and semantic, data types and formats as well as access solutions. We have defined a set of core metadata elements which are common to our content providers and therefore useful for discovery and building relationships among objects. Existing catalogues for various types of vocabularies are being used to assure the mapping to community-wide used terms. We distinguish between expedition metadata and continuously harvestable metadata objects from distinct data providers. • Existing expedition metadata from distinct sources is integrated and validated in order to create an expedition metadata catalogue which is used as authoritative source for expedition-related content. The web application allows browsing by e.g. research vessel and date, exploring expeditions and research gaps by tracklines and viewing expedition details (begin/end, ports, platforms, chief scientists, events, etc.). Also expedition-related objects from harvesting are dynamically associated with expedition information and presented to the user. Hence we will provide web services to detailed expedition information. • Other harvestable content is separated into four categories: archived data and data products, near

  8. Behavioral Issues Associated With Long Duration Space Expeditions: Review and Analysis of Astronaut Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struster, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Personal journals maintained by NASA astronauts during six-month expeditions onboard the International Space Station were analyzed to obtain information concerning a wide range of behavioral and human factors issues. Astronauts wrote most about their work, followed by outside communications (with mission control, family, and friends), adjustment to the conditions, interactions with crew mates, recreation/leisure, equipment (installation, maintenance), events (launches, docking, hurricanes, etc.), organization/management, sleep, and food. The study found evidence of a decline in morale during the third quarters of the missions and identified key factors that contribute to sustained adjustment and optimal performance during long-duration space expeditions. Astronauts reported that they benefited personally from writing in their journals because it helped maintain perspective on their work and relations with others. Responses to questions asked before, during, and after the expeditions show that living and working onboard the ISS is not as difficult as the astronauts anticipate before starting their six-month tours of duty. Recommendations include application of study results and continuation of the experiment to obtain additional data as crew size increases and operations evolve.

  9. IODP Expedition 352 (Bonin Forearc): First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J. A.; Reagan, M. K.; Stern, R. J.; Petronotis, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Expedition #352 (Testing Subduction Initiation and Ophiolite Models by Drilling the Outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana Forearc: July 30-Sept. 29, 2014) is just underway at the time of writing. It is testing the Stern-Bloomer hypothesis that subduction initiation (SI) was followed by a strongly extensional period of slab sinking and trench roll-back and then by a transitional period leading to the establishment of significant slab-parallel plate motion and hence normal subduction. The Expedition aims to carry out offset drilling at two sites near 28°30'N in the Bonin forearc. Ideally, these together will give the vertical volcanic stratigraphy needed to trace the geodynamic and petrogenetic processes associated with SI, and provide the complete reference section required for comparison with volcanic sequences of possible SI origin found on land in ophiolite complexes and elsewhere. We predict, but need to confirm, a c. 1.0-1.5km sequence with basal, MORB-like forearc basalts (known as FAB) marking the initial period of extension, boninites characterizing the transitional period, and tholeiitic and calc-alkaline lavas marking the establishment of normal arc volcanism. Study of such a sequence will enable us to understand the chemical gradients within and across these volcanic units, to reconstruct mantle flow and melting processes during the course of SI, and to test the hypothesis that fore-arc lithosphere created during SI is the birthplace of most supra-subduction zone ophiolites. Here, we present the first Expedition results, including (a) the volcanic stratigraphic record and subdivision into lava units, (b) the classifications and interpretations made possible by shipboard (portable XRF and ICP) analyses and down-hole measurements, and (c) the biostratigraphic, magnetic, mineralogical, sedimentary and structural constraints on the geological history of the SI section and the interactions between magmatic, hydrothermal and tectonic activity during its evolution.

  10. Rn 222 in the Black Sea waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzova, A.P.; Batrakov, G.F.; Eremeev, V.N.; Zemlyanoj, A.D.; Ivanova, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    Results of Rn 222 concentration measurements in the Black Sea waters obtained in the summer of 1986 during the expedition of the Akademik Vernadskij research ship are presented. It is ascertained that the intensity of vertical turbulent exchange produces the main effect on Rn 222 distribution in the sea surface waters. The vertical distribution in a 200 m layer is characterized by the growth of concentration with depth, which is caused by the presence of Ra 226 increased concentration region, that coincides with the boundary layer between oxygen and hydrogen sulfide

  11. Grassland Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah U. Potter; Paulette L. Ford

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss grassland sustainability in the Southwest, grassland management for sustainability, national and local criteria and indicators of sustainable grassland ecosystems, and monitoring for sustainability at various scales. Ecological sustainability is defined as: [T]he maintenance or restoration of the composition, structure, and processes of...

  12. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Jon C.; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; Ucrit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3) there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (Usus) and minimum cost of transport (COTmin); and (4) variation in Usus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (Uopt; i.e., the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance traveled). Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg−1. Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between Ucrit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced Ucrit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between Usus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between Usus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high Usus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between Usus and Uopt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming economy and

  13. 17 CFR 201.500 - Expedited consideration of proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expedited consideration of proceedings. 201.500 Section 201.500 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Expedited consideration of proceedings. Consistent with the Commission's or the hearing officer's other...

  14. 20 CFR 405.715 - Agreement in expedited appeals process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agreement in expedited appeals process. 405.715 Section 405.715 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS FOR ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Expedited Appeals Process for Constitutional Issues § 405...

  15. 8 CFR 235.3 - Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal. 235.3 Section 235.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.3 Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal. (a) Detention...

  16. 8 CFR 287.10 - Expedited internal review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... jurisdiction regarding criminal violations of law. [68 FR 35281, June 13, 2003] ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited internal review process. 287.10... OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.10 Expedited internal review process. (a) Violations of standards for...

  17. 42 CFR 405.853 - Expedited appeals process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....853 Expedited appeals process. (a) Conditions for use of expedited appeals process (EAP). A party may use the EAP set forth in § 405.718 of this chapter to request court review in place of the ALJ hearing... the request for an EAP. (b) Content of the request for EAP. The request for an EAP: (1) Alleges that...

  18. 42 CFR 405.718 - Expedited appeals process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Part A § 405.718 Expedited appeals process. (a) Conditions for use of expedited appeals process (EAP). A party may use the EAP to request court review in place of an administrative law judge (ALJ..., with the request for the EAP. (b) Content of the request for EAP. The request for the EAP: (1) Alleges...

  19. The ornithology of the Baudin expedition (1800-1804)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.J.F.J.

    2018-01-01

    The expedition commanded by Nicolas Baudin to Tenerife, Mauritius, Australia, Timor and South Africa in 1800-1804 is fully researched in regard to ornithology. The expedition was government-funded and scientific equipped and had as one of the core activities collecting natural history items.

  20. Social interaction and pain: An arctic expedition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Per; Heathcote, Lauren C; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    Complex human behaviour can only be understood within its social environment. However, disentangling the causal links between individual outcomes and social network position is empirically challenging. We present a research design in a closed real-world setting with high-resolution temporal data to understand this interplay within a fundamental human experience - physical pain. Study participants completed an isolated 3-week hiking expedition in the Arctic Circle during which they were subject to the same variation in environmental conditions and only interacted amongst themselves. Adolescents provided daily ratings of pain and social interaction partners. Using longitudinal network models, we analyze the interplay between social network position and the experience of pain. Specifically, we test whether experiencing pain is linked to decreasing popularity (increasing isolation), whether adolescents prefer to interact with others experiencing similar pain (homophily), and whether participants are increasingly likely to report similar pain as their interaction partners (contagion). We find that reporting pain is associated with decreasing popularity - interestingly, this effect holds for males only. Further exploratory analyses suggest this is at least partly driven by males withdrawing from contact with females when in pain, enhancing our understanding of pain and masculinity. Contrary to recent experimental and clinical studies, we found no evidence of pain homophily or contagion in the expedition group. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sound-scattering layers of the Black Sea based on ADCP observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A. N.; Lemeshko, E. M.; Fedorov, S. V.

    2017-09-01

    The paper discusses the results of expeditions to the northwestern part of the Black Sea carried out in 2004-2008. Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) with an operating frequency of 150 and 300 kHz were used as the echo sounders. The characteristic scales of the spatial variability of sound scattering in the Black Sea were determined; the revealed peculiarities are interpreted. The characteristics of a deep soundscattering layer in the Black Sea are given.

  2. Student Experiences: the 2013 Cascadia Initiative Expedition Team's Apply to Sail Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, H.; Hooft, E. E.; Fattaruso, L.

    2013-12-01

    During the summer of 2013, the Cascadia Initiative Expedition Team led six oceanographic expeditions to recover and redeploy ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) across the Cascadia subduction zone and Juan de Fuca plate. The Cascadia Initiative (CI) is an onshore/offshore seismic and geodetic experiment to study questions ranging from megathrust earthquakes to volcanic arc structure to the formation, deformation and hydration of the Juan de Fuca and Gorda plates with the overarching goal of understanding the entire subduction zone system. The Cascadia Initiative Expedition Team is a team of scientists charged with leading the oceanographic expeditions to deploy and recover CI OBSs and developing the associated Education and Outreach effort. Students and early career scientists were encouraged to apply to join the cruises via the Cascadia Initiative Expedition Team's Apply to Sail Program. The goal of this call for open participation was to help expand the user base of OBS data by providing opportunities for students and scientists to directly experience at-sea acquisition of OBS data. Participants were required to have a strong interest in learning field techniques, be willing to work long hours at sea assisting in OBS deployment, recovery and preliminary data processing and have an interest in working with the data collected. In total, there were 51 applicants to the Apply to Sail Program from the US and 4 other countries; 21 graduate students as well as a few undergraduate students, postdocs and young scientists from the US and Canada were chosen to join the crew. The cruises lasted from 6 to 14 days in length. OBS retrievals comprised the three first legs, of which the first two were aboard the Research Vessel Oceanus. During each of the retrievals, multiple acoustic signals were sent while the vessel completed a semi-circle around the OBS to accurately determine its position, a final signal was sent to drop the seismometer's anchor, and finally the ship and crew

  3. The roles of MCDW and deep water iron supply in sustaining a recurrent phytoplankton bloom on central Pennell Bank (Ross Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustka, Adam B.; Kohut, Josh T.; White, Angelicque E.; Lam, Phoebe J.; Milligan, Allen J.; Dinniman, Michael S.; Mack, Stefanie; Hunter, Elias; Hiscock, Michael R.; Smith, Walker O.; Measures, Chris I.

    2015-11-01

    During January-February 2011 standing stocks of phytoplankton (chl a) in the Pennell Bank region of the Ross Sea were variable over 10-100 km spatial scales. One area of elevated chl a on central Pennell Bank (CPB) appeared to be a recurrent mid-summer feature. The western flank (WF) of Pennell Bank had pronounced signatures of Modified Circumpolar Deep Water (MCDW). We evaluated the spatial extent of Fe limitation and net primary production and tested whether MCDW may provide elevated amounts of Fe to the CPB region, through a combination of in situ measurements, shipboard incubations and a horizontally resolved physical model. Regional fluxes of dissolved Fe from deep to surface waters were compared to calculated Fe demands. Low in situ variable to maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm; 0.24-0.37) and surface water dissolved Fe concentrations (~0.12-0.21 nM) were suggestive of widespread limitation, corroborated by the consistent responses (Fv/Fm, growth, and nutrient removal ratios) of incubation treatments to Fe addition. MCDW from the WF region had lower dissolved Fe concentrations than that measured in CDW (Circumpolar Deep Water), which suggests on-shelf modification with Fe deplete surface waters and is consistent with the lack of stimulation due to incubation amendments with filtered MCDW. Model results and empirical data suggest MCDW from the WF region is further modified and mixed en route to the CPB region, leading to both the erosion of the canonical MCDW signature and an elevated dissolved Fe inventory of CPB region deep water. This suggests the addition of Fe possibly via diagenesis, as suggested by Marsay et al. (2014). Calculated deep water supply rates to the surface waters of CPB were ~0.18-0.43 m d-1, while calculated rates at the WF or northern Pennell Bank (NPB) regions were negative. The CPB populations exhibited ~4.5-fold higher net production rates compared to those in the WF and NPB regions and required 520-3200 nmol Fe m-2 d-1. The modeled vertical

  4. Fossil ostracodes of continental shelf cores at IODP Site U1354 (Expedition 317)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunoki, S.; Ohi, T.; Kawagata, S.; Ishida, K.; Shipboard Scientific Party, E.

    2010-12-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 317 was devoted to understanding the relative importance of global sea level (eustasy) versus local tectonic and sedimentary processes in controlling continental margin sedimentary cycles. The expedition recovered sediments from the Eocene to recent period, with a particular focus on the sequence stratigraphy of the late Miocene to recent, when global sea level change was dominated by glacioeustasy. Drilling in the Canterbury Basin, on the eastern margin of the South Island of New Zealand took advantage of high rates of Neogene sediment supply, which preserved a high-frequency (0.1-0.5 m.y.) record of depositional cyclicity. Ostracodes are crustaceans that widely inhabit marine, brackish, and non-marine environments. Shallow marine species have more restricted habitat and respond sensitively to environmental changes. Therefore they are a useful tool for high-resolution analyses of paleoenvironmental changes. We study samples older than ~1.0 Ma from Site U1354, which is in an intermediate position within the three shelf sites transect of Expedition 317. Quaternary to early Pliocene (~4.5 Ma) sediments were cored in this site with best core recovery (81%) among the shelf sites. The period from the Pliocene to Pleistocene is known for distinct paleoclimatic changes, from the intensive warming at around 3.5 Ma, to the cooling stage starting from 2.75 Ma. We expect that high-resolution analyses of fossil ostracode assemblages reveal detailed sea level and paleoceanographic changes on the continental shelf of the Canterbury Basin caused by global climate changes. Samples were examined at 1.5 m depth intervals. Samples of ~20 cc were freeze-dried and washed through a 63 µm opening sieve. The residues were dried and then divided into aliquot parts containing around 200 specimens using a sample splitter. All individual ostracodes were picked from residues coarser than 125 µm. Valves and carapaces were counted as one

  5. Mortality disparities among groups participating in an East Africa surveying expedition: the Herbert Henry Austin expedition of 1900-1901.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperato, Pascal James; Imperato, Gavin H; Imperato, Austin C

    2013-10-01

    In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a number of European expeditions traveled to the region of Lake Rudolf, now largely in northern Kenya. Although diverse in intent, many of these were undertaken in the interests of furthering colonial territorial claims. In 1900-1901, Major Herbert Henry Austin led a British expedition down to the lake from Khartoum in the north. Of the 62 African, Arab, and European members of this expedition, only 18 (29 %) arrived at its final destination at Lake Baringo in Kenya. Because of a confluence of adverse climatic, social, and political conditions, the expedition ran short of food supplies when it arrived at the northern end of the lake in April 1901. For the next 4 months, the members of the expedition struggled down the west side of the lake and beyond. The greatest mortality (91 %) occurred among the 32 African transport drivers who were the most marginally nourished at the outset of the trip. The lowest mortality among the Africans on the expedition (15 %) occurred among the members of the Tenth Sudanese Rifles Battalion, who had an excellent nutritional status at the start of the expedition. Major Austin himself suffered from severe scurvy with retinal hemorrhages which left him partially blind in his right eye. An analysis of the mortality rates among the groups that participated in this expedition was undertaken. This revealed that poor nutritional status at the start of the trip was predictive of death from starvation.

  6. Earth Expeditions: Telling the stories of eight NASA field campaigns by focusing on the human side of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, S.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Earth Right Now communication team kicked off an ambitious multimedia campaign in March 2016 to tell the stories of eight major field campaigns studying regions of critical change from the land, sea and air. Earth Expeditions focused on the human side of science, with live reporting from the field, behind-the-scenes images and videos, and extended storytelling over a six-month period. We reported from Greenland to Namibia, from the eastern United States to the South Pacific. Expedition scientists explored ice sheets, air quality, coral reefs, boreal forests, marine ecosystems and greenhouse gases. All the while the campaign communications team was generating everything from blog posts and social media shareables, to Facebook Live events and a NASA TV series. We also participated in community outreach events and pursued traditional media opportunities. A massive undertaking, we will share lessons learned, best practices for social media and some of our favorite moments when science communication touched our audience's lives.

  7. Technical procedures for aeromagnetic surveys in Antarctica during the Italian expeditions (1988-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Damaske

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available For most of Antarctica, the geophysical data now available are those of aeromagnetic surveys performed there from 1950 to 1960. Until 1984, the inaccurate positioning and insufficient monitoring of geomagnetic time variations allowed the investigation of the geomagnetic residual field only along profiles. The Ganovex IV aeromagnetic survey, performed by BGR-USGS over the Ross Sea and the Northern Victoria Land, and the geophysical investigations of BAS on the Southern Antarctic peninsula and the Ronne ice shelf region corresponds to the recent advancement of these techniques in Antarctica. The first experiments of aeromagnetic measurements, during the Italian expeditions in Antarctica were made during the 1988-1989 field season. Some geomagnetic helicopter borne profiles were accomplished with a Proton Precession Magnetometer (PPM in the Terra Nova Bay-Gerlache Inlet area. In the 1989-1990 ItaliAntartide expedition some profiles were flown over the suture between the Wilson and Bower terranes, in Northern Victoria Land. During the 1991-1992 expedition, in cooperation with researchers of BGR (Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe of Hannover, the GITARA I (German ITalian Aeromagnetic Rescarch Antarctica program, as part of the LIRA (Litospheric Investigation in the Ross Sea Area project, was carried out. The investigated area lies between the latitudes 74°18' S and 75°18' S and the longitudes 160°30' E and 164°30'E and it corresponds to a portion of the North Victoria Land, located between the Eisenhower Range and the, DrygaIski Ice Tongue. The survey was made with a Cesium vapour magnetometer. The positioning system was of the “Range-Range” type, it consisted of three transmitters (beacons, installed inside the investigated area and located with GPS measurements. The line spacing was 4.4 km, with tie lines every 22 km. The survey covered an area of 6500 km2 . Four PPM base stations for the determination of the time variation

  8. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mavis Dora

    2012-01-01

    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  9. In situ phytoplankton distributions in the Amundsen Sea Polynya measured by autonomous gliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Schofield

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Amundsen Sea Polynya is characterized by large phytoplankton blooms, which makes this region disproportionately important relative to its size for the biogeochemistry of the Southern Ocean. In situ data on phytoplankton are limited, which is problematic given recent reports of sustained change in the Amundsen Sea. During two field expeditions to the Amundsen Sea during austral summer 2010–2011 and 2014, we collected physical and bio-optical data from ships and autonomous underwater gliders. Gliders documented large phytoplankton blooms associated with Antarctic Surface Waters with low salinity surface water and shallow upper mixed layers (< 50 m. High biomass was not always associated with a specific water mass, suggesting the importance of upper mixed depth and light in influencing phytoplankton biomass. Spectral optical backscatter and ship pigment data suggested that the composition of phytoplankton was spatially heterogeneous, with the large blooms dominated by Phaeocystis and non-bloom waters dominated by diatoms. Phytoplankton growth rates estimated from field data (≤ 0.10 day−1 were at the lower end of the range measured during ship-based incubations, reflecting both in situ nutrient and light limitations. In the bloom waters, phytoplankton biomass was high throughout the 50-m thick upper mixed layer. Those biomass levels, along with the presence of colored dissolved organic matter and detritus, resulted in a euphotic zone that was often < 10 m deep. The net result was that the majority of phytoplankton were light-limited, suggesting that mixing rates within the upper mixed layer were critical to determining the overall productivity; however, regional productivity will ultimately be controlled by water column stability and the depth of the upper mixed layer, which may be enhanced with continued ice melt in the Amundsen Sea Polynya.

  10. Combining expedited cleanup with innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagood, M.C.; Rohay, V.J.; Valcich, P.J.; Brouns, T.M.; Cameron, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    A Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) expedited response action (ERA) has been initiated at the Hanford Site, Washington, for the removal of carbon tetrachloride from contaminated soils to mitigate further contamination of the groundwater. Soil vapor extraction with aboveground collection and treatment was chosen as the preferred remedial technology for the first phase of the ERA. At the same time, innovative technology demonstrations are being conducted in coordination with the ERA to determine the viability of emerging technologies that can be used to characterize, remediate, and monitor carbon tetrachloride and cocontaminants. The overall goal is to improve the performance and decrease the costs of carbon tetrachloride remediation while maintaining a safe working environment

  11. Mathematics in narratives of Geodetic expeditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrall, Mary

    2006-12-01

    In eighteenth-century France, geodesy (the measure of the earth's shape) became an arena where mathematics and narrative intersected productively. Mathematics played a crucial role not only in the measurements and analysis necessary to geodesy but also in the narrative accounts that presented the results of elaborate and expensive expeditions to the reading public. When they returned to France to write these accounts after their travels, mathematician-observers developed a variety of ways to display numbers and mathematical arguments and techniques. The numbers, equations, and diagrams they produced could not be separated from the story of their acquisition. Reading these accounts for the interplay of these two aspects--the mathematical and the narrative--shows how travelers articulated the intellectual and physical difficulties of their work to enhance the value of their results for specialist and lay readers alike.

  12. Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition II: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James G.; Toon, Owen B.

    1993-11-01

    The sudden onset of ozone depletion in the antarctic vortex set a precedent for both the time scale and the severity of global change. The Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE), staged from Punta Arenas, Chile, in 1987, established that CFCs, halons, and methyl bromide, the dominant sources of chlorine and bromine radicals in the stratosphere, control the rate of ozone destruction over the Antarctic; that the vortex is depleted in reactive nitrogen and water vapor; and that diabatic cooling during the Antarctic winter leads to subsidence within the vortex core, importing air from higher altitudes and lower latitudes. This last conclusion is based on observed dramatic distortion in the tracer fields, most notably N2O.In 1989, the first Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-I), staged from Stavanger, Norway, and using the same aircraft employed for AAOE (the NASA ER-2 and the NASA DC-8), discovered that while NOx and to some degree NOy were perturbed within the arctic vortex, there was little evidence for desiccation. Under these (in contrast to the antarctic) marginally perturbed conditions, however, ClO was found to be dramatically enhanced such that a large fraction of the available (inorganic) chlorine resided in the form of ClO and its dimer ClOOCl.This leaves two abiding issues for the northern hemisphere and the mission of the second Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-II): (1) Will significant ozone erosion occur within the arctic vortex in the next ten years as chlorine loading in the stratosphere exceeds four parts per billion by volume? (2) Which mechanisms are responsible for the observed ozone erosion poleward of 30°N in the winter/spring northern hemisphere reported in satellite observations?

  13. Expedited patent examination for green inventions: Developing countries' policy choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Bingbin

    2013-01-01

    Innovation in green technology is important. Patent rights can provide incentives for green technology research and development. Expedited patent examination for green inventions has emerged as a policy instrument to provide such incentives. Developing countries were never opposed to patents for green technologies. China and Brazil have led the way by offering expedited examinations for green patent applications. More developing countries are expected to follow. Expedited examination for green technologies is consistent with the intellectual property system objectives and is justified by the clear social benefit from green technologies. Introducing such expedited programs in developing countries has sufficient advantages. Existing models of expedited programs for green technologies are analyzed to generalize key issues and to discern suitable policy choices for developing countries. When introducing such programs, a balanced definition for green technology is preferred; a special classification requirement is premature and is not recommended; a pre-examination search requirement is generally recommended to balance patent office workloads, and a green patent database is recommended. - Highlights: • There is no north–south divide in promoting green technologies. • Earlier issuance of green patents has its great social benefit. • Green patent application should receive expedited examination. • Developing countries should introduce such expedited programs. • A suitable approach for developing countries is searched and recommended

  14. 20 CFR 405.725 - Effect of expedited appeals process agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROCESS FOR ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Expedited Appeals Process for Constitutional Issues § 405.725 Effect of expedited appeals process agreement. After an expedited appeals process agreement is... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of expedited appeals process agreement...

  15. Strategic Mobility 21 Joint Sea Based Logistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mallon, Lawrence G

    2008-01-01

    .... Conceptually the SM21 JDDSP would support sea-based logistics through the use of advanced distribution information management systems and the management of sustainment buffer stocks at strategic...

  16. Strategic Mobility 21 Joint Sea Based Logistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mallon, Lawrence G

    2008-01-01

    ...-be requirements. The objective of the SM2l-JDDSP sea based logistics architecture is to support the timely distribution of the right classes of supply in sufficient quantities to allow sustained joint combat operations...

  17. Increasing Shore-based Participation of Scientists & Students in Telepresence-enabled Nautilus Expeditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K. L. C.; Raineault, N.; Carey, S.; Eberli, G. P.; John, B. E.; Cheadle, M. J.; German, C. R.; Mirmalek, Z.; Pallant, A.

    2016-02-01

    As the US oceanographic research fleet shrinks, reducing seagoing opportunities for scientists and students, remote participation in cruises via telepresence will become increasingly vital. The Nautilus Exploration Program is improving the experience of shoreside participants through the development of new tools and methodologies for connecting them to expeditions in real time increasing accessibility to oceanographic cruises. The Scientist Ashore Program is a network of scientists around the world who participate in Exploration Vessel Nautilus expeditions from their own labs or homes. We have developed a suite of collaboration tools to allow scientists to view video and data in real time, as well as to communicate with ship-based and other shore-based participants to enable remote participation in cruises. Post-cruise, scientists and students may access digital data and biological and geological samples from our partner shore-based repositories: the University of Rhode Island Inner Space Center, Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology, and URI Marine Geological Samples Lab. We present examples of successful shore-based participation by scientists and students in Nautilus expeditions. In 2013, Drs. Cheadle and John stood watch 24/7 with ten undergraduate and graduate students at the University of Wyoming, recording geologic features and samples, during a cruise to the Cayman Rise. The Straits of Florida & Great Bahama Bank cruise was co-led by Dr. Eberli at the University of Miami in 2014, greatly complementing existing data. That same year, the ISC hosted four early career scientists and their twelve undergraduate students who led dives from shore in collaboration with Dr. Carey, Lead Scientist at sea on the Kick'em Jenny Volcano & the Barbados Mud Volcanoes cruise. In 2015, 12 Scientists Ashore worked in collaboration with the ship-based team on the exploration of Galapagos National Park, and more than 20 are working with OET on post-cruise data & sample analysis.

  18. Expedition Earth and Beyond: Student Scientist Guidebook. Model Research Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Paige Valderrama

    2009-01-01

    The Expedition Earth and Beyond Student Scientist Guidebook is designed to help student researchers model the process of science and conduct a research investigation. The Table of Contents listed outlines the steps included in this guidebook

  19. Field Science Ethnography: Methods For Systematic Observation on an Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Haughton-Mars expedition is a multidisciplinary project, exploring an impact crater in an extreme environment to determine how people might live and work on Mars. The expedition seeks to understand and field test Mars facilities, crew roles, operations, and computer tools. I combine an ethnographic approach to establish a baseline understanding of how scientists prefer to live and work when relatively unemcumbered, with a participatory design approach of experimenting with procedures and tools in the context of use. This paper focuses on field methods for systematically recording and analyzing the expedition's activities. Systematic photography and time-lapse video are combined with concept mapping to organize and present information. This hybrid approach is generally applicable to the study of modern field expeditions having a dozen or more multidisciplinary participants, spread over a large terrain during multiple field seasons.

  20. 42 CFR 405.1202 - Expedited determination procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Reconsiderations of Provider Service Terminations, and Procedures for Inpatient Hospital Discharges § 405.1202... exercise the right to an expedited determination must submit a request for a determination to the QIO in...

  1. Calanoid copepods of the International Indian Ocean Expedition

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stephen, R.; Devi, K.S.; Meenakshikunjamma, P.P.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Saraswathy, M.

    The distribution of calanoid copepods is discussed based on the subsorted taxa of the International Indian Ocean Expedition samples. Of the 32 calanoid taxa only 17 groups were considered as significant components. The family Eycalanidae...

  2. Caribbean Sea Level Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Crespo Jones, H.

    2012-12-01

    requirements and factors have been considered for the sustainability of the stations. The sea level stations have to potentially sustain very aggressive conditions of not only tsunamis, but on a more regular basis, hurricanes. Given the requirement that the data be available in near real time, for tsunami and other coastal hazard application, robust communication systems are also essential. For the local operator, the ability to be able to visualize the data is critical and tools like the IOC Sea level Monitoring Facility and the Tide Tool program are very useful. It has also been emphasized the need for these stations to serve multiple purposes. For climate and other research applications the data need to be archived, QC'd and analyzed. Increasing the user base for the sea level data has also been seen as an important goal to gain the local buy in; local weather and meteorological offices are considered as key stakeholders but for whom applications still need to be developed. The CARIBE EWS continues to look forward to working with other IOC partners including the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) and Sub-Commission for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (IOCARIBE)/GOOS, as well as with local, national and global sea level station operators and agencies for the development of a sustainable sea level network.

  3. IODP Expedition 329: Life and Habitability Beneath the Seafloor of the South Pacific Gyre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alvarez Zarikian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 329 made major strides toward fulfilling its objectives. Shipboard studies documented (1 fundamental aspects of habitability and life in this very low activity subseafloor sedimentary ecosystem and (2 first-order patterns of habitability within the igneous basement. A broad range of postexpedition studies will complete the expedition objectives.Throughout the South Pacific Gyre (SPG; Sites U1365–U1370, dissolved oxygen and nitrate are present throughout the entire sediment sequence, and sedimentary microbial cell counts are lower than at all previously drilled IODP/Ocean Drilling Program (ODP/Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP sites. In contrast, at Site U1371 in the upwelling zone just south of the gyre, detectable oxygen and nitrate are limited to the top and bottom of the sediment column, manganesereduction is a prominent electron-accepting process, and cell concentrations are higher than at the same depths in the SPG sites throughout the sediment column.Geographic variation in subseafloor profiles of dissolved and solid-phase chemicals are consistent with the magnitude of organic-fueled subseafloor respiration declining from outside the gyre to the gyre center.Chemical profiles in the sedimentary pore water and secondary mineral distributions in the basaltic basement indicate that basement alteration continues on the timescale of formation fluid replacement, even at the sites with the oldest basement (84–120 Ma at Sites U1365 and U1366.

  4. Expedition 357 Preliminary Report: Atlantis Massif Serpentinization and Life

    OpenAIRE

    Früh-Green, GL; Orcutt, BN; Green, S; Cotterill, C; McCaig, AM; Expedition 357 Scientists,

    2016-01-01

    International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 357 successfully cored an east–west transect across the southern wall of Atlantis Massif on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge to study the links between serpentinization processes and microbial activity in the shallow subsurface of highly altered ultramafic and mafic sequences that have been uplifted to the seafloor along a major detachment fault zone. The primary goals of this expedition were to (1) examine the role of serpent...

  5. Communicating polar sciences to school children through a scientific expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacarra, Maite; Lamarque, Gaelle; Koenig, Zoé; Bourgain, Pascaline; Mathilde Thierry, Anne

    2015-04-01

    APECS-France, the French national committee of the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS), was created in 2013 to improve the dissemination of polar sciences towards the general public and school children in particular, through activities developed in French for French schools. During the autumn of 2014, a young polar oceanographer from the University Pierre and Marie Curie, Zoé Koenig, participated in an expedition on board a sailing vessel in the Southern Ocean. APECS-France set up a new education and outreach project called "Zoé en Expé". Using different media, about 800 children, aged 6 to 12, and from 40 schools, were actively involved in the project. Interactions between Zoé and the students occurred before, during, and after the expedition, through a newsletter, a blog updated in real-time during the expedition, webinars (interactive video-conferences), and visits in classrooms when possible. Teachers were given a list of websites dedicated to polar and oceanographic science outreach and activities adapted to the age and level of the students were offered. Different activities were developed around the expedition, depending on teachers' objectives and children affinities. In particular, students were able to relate to the expedition by imagining a day in the life of Chippy, the mascot of the expedition. They were then asked to draw and/or write Chippy's adventures. APECS-France is now planning to edit a children's book using students' drawings as well as photographs taken during the expedition. Older students were also able to follow in real-time sensors released in the Southern Ocean by Zoé, measuring salinity and temperature. Throughout this 3-month project, children were able to study a wide range of topics (oceanography, biology, history, geography…). The expedition and the educational project allowed raising the awareness of children about the fragile and badly known Antarctic environment.

  6. Saba Bank research expedition 2013 - Progress Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van I.J.M.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    The Saba Bank is the largest submerged carbonate platform of 2,200 km2 in the Caribbean Sea, which lies partially within the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Netherlands and partially within the territorial waters of Saba and St. Eustatius. The Saba Bank houses an expansive coral reef ecosystem with a

  7. Sustainable development - billions of watts under the seas - Marine current turbines play simple - Technological waves; Developpement durable - Des milliards de watts sous les mers - Les hydroliennes jouent la simplicite - Vagues technologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Th.

    2011-10-27

    The author evokes the opportunities of power generation by the development of sea current or tidal stream turbines. Some developments are already tested by Norwegian, French, Danish, British and American companies. Some specific turbines are briefly presented. In order to reduce the cost of the electricity production from sea currents, manufacturers are using simple and robust technologies, and exploit the experience gained on wind turbines. Some designs and prototypes are evoked for the production of electricity by sea waves (Pelamis and Oyster projects). Principles, strengths and production projects are briefly indicated. The challenge of maintenance in sea environment is outlined for these projects

  8. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  9. Sodium dichromate expedited response action assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) perform an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill. The ERA lead regulatory agency is Ecology and EPA is the support agency. The ERA was categorized as non-time-critical, which required preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA). The EE/CA was included in the ERA proposal. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the removal action may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. This ERA process started in March 1992. The ERA proposal went through a parallel review process with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE Richland Operations (RL), EPA, Ecology, and a 30-day public comment period. Ecology and EPA issued an Action Agreement Memorandum in March 1993 (Appendix A). The memorandum directed excavation of all anomalies and disposal of the collected materials at the Hanford Site Central Landfill. Primary field activities were completed by the end of April 1993. Final waste disposal of a minor quantity of hazardous waste was completed in July 1993

  10. Expedited site characterization. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) has been developed, demonstrated, and deployed as a new time-saving, cost-effective approach for hazardous waste site investigations. ESC is an alternative approach that effectively shortens the length of the assessment period and may significantly reduce costs at many sites. It is not a specific technology or system but is a methodology for most effectively conducting a site characterization. The principal elements of ESC are: a field investigation conducted by an integrated team of experienced professionals working in the field at the same time, analysis, integration and initial validation of the characterization data as they are obtained in the field, and a dynamic work plan that enables the team to take advantage of new insights from recent data to adjust the work plan in the field. This report covers demonstrations that took place between 1989 and 1996. This paper gives a description of the technology and discusses its performance, applications, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  11. Expedited site characterization. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) has been developed, demonstrated, and deployed as a new time-saving, cost-effective approach for hazardous waste site investigations. ESC is an alternative approach that effectively shortens the length of the assessment period and may significantly reduce costs at many sites. It is not a specific technology or system but is a methodology for most effectively conducting a site characterization. The principal elements of ESC are: a field investigation conducted by an integrated team of experienced professionals working in the field at the same time, analysis, integration and initial validation of the characterization data as they are obtained in the field, and a dynamic work plan that enables the team to take advantage of new insights from recent data to adjust the work plan in the field. This report covers demonstrations that took place between 1989 and 1996. This paper gives a description of the technology and discusses its performance, applications, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned

  12. N Springs expedited response action proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Since signing the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in 1989, the parties to the agreement have recognized the need to modify the approach to conducting investigations, studies, and cleanup actions at Hanford. To implement this approach, the parties have jointly developed the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy. The strategy defines a non-time-critical expedited response action (ERA) as a response action ``needed to abate a threat to human health or welfare or the environment where sufficient time exists for formal planning prior to initiation of response. In accordance with the past-practice strategy, DOE proposes to conduct an ERA at the N Springs, located in the Hanford 100 N Area, to substantially reduce the strontium-90 transport into the river through the groundwater pathway. The purpose of this ERA proposal is to provide sufficient information to select a preferred alternative at N Springs. The nature of an ERA requires that alternatives developed for the ERA be field ready; therefore, all the technologies proposed for the ERA should be capable of addressing the circumstances at N Springs. A comparison of these alternatives is made based on protectiveness, cost, technical feasibility, and institutional considerations to arrive at a preferred alternative. Following the selection of an alternative, a design phase will be conducted; the design phase will include a detailed look at design parameters, performance specifications, and costs of the selected alternative. Testing will be conducted as required to generate design data.

  13. Late Holocene sea ice conditions in Herald Canyon, Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, C.; O'Regan, M.; Rattray, J. E.; Hutchinson, D. K.; Cronin, T. M.; Gemery, L.; Barrientos, N.; Coxall, H.; Smittenberg, R.; Semiletov, I. P.; Jakobsson, M.

    2017-12-01

    Sea ice in the Arctic Ocean has been in steady decline in recent decades and, based on satellite data, the retreat is most pronounced in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. Historical observations suggest that the recent changes were unprecedented during the last 150 years, but for a longer time perspective, we rely on the geological record. For this study, we analyzed sediment samples from two piston cores from Herald Canyon in the Chukchi Sea, collected during the 2014 SWERUS-C3 Arctic Ocean Expedition. The Herald Canyon is a local depression across the Chukchi Shelf, and acts as one of the main pathways for Pacific Water to the Arctic Ocean after entering through the narrow and shallow Bering Strait. The study site lies at the modern-day seasonal sea ice minimum edge, and is thus an ideal location for the reconstruction of past sea ice variability. Both sediment cores contain late Holocene deposits characterized by high sediment accumulation rates (100-300 cm/kyr). Core 2-PC1 from the shallow canyon flank (57 m water depth) is 8 meter long and extends back to 4200 cal yrs BP, while the upper 3 meters of Core 4-PC1 from the central canyon (120 mwd) cover the last 3000 years. The chronologies of the cores are based on radiocarbon dates and the 3.6 ka Aniakchak CFE II tephra, which is used as an absolute age marker to calculate the marine radiocarbon reservoir age. Analysis of biomarkers for sea ice and surface water productivity indicate stable sea ice conditions throughout the entire late Holocene, ending with an abrupt increase of phytoplankton sterols in the very top of both sediment sequences. The shift is accompanied by a sudden increase in coarse sediments (> 125 µm) and a minor change in δ13Corg. We interpret this transition in the top sediments as a community turnover in primary producers from sea ice to open water biota. Most importantly, our results indicate that the ongoing rapid ice retreat in the Chukchi Sea of recent decades was unprecedented during the

  14. World as The Biggest Clasroom. Travel as The Best Lesson. Independent Scientific School Expeditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksik, Ireneusz; Lorek, Grzegorz; Dacy-Ignatiuk, Katarzyna

    2013-04-01

    We are a group of teachers from Poland who think that classroom lessons are not enough for our pupils to understand the world. We had a dream to take our students and show them the most beautiful places and phenomena on the Earth. But how to do it? Though today's travelling is so easy as never before, there are still some problems for young Poles - not only funding but also philosophy of travelling. It looks that we found a solution a few years ago - why not to organise quite independent school scientific expeditions? Without travel agencies and agents we can reduce costs of travelling 2-3 times! And we did it! We buy cheap flight tickets, fly to our destination and then... we must manage with all problems ourselves. We sleep in tents or budget hostels, use local means of transport and eat food from cheap markets or street eating places. Our motto is: "To see as much as possible for the minimum money". There are many more advantages - we decide where to go and how much time we spend in one area, we can change our route in every moment if something appears worth seeing. Our small groups are very mobile, sometimes local people invite us to visit their houses (like in Iran or Morocco). Expeditions allow students to watch, feel, touch, taste and smell phenomena, places and organisms which they could only read about in a classroom and to understand people from other cultures and religions. The list of nature and culture jewels that we have already seen is still growing - sands and oasis of Sahara, snow peaks of Himalayas, salt waters of Caspian Sea in Iran, geysers, volcanoes and glaciers of Iceland, the biggest sea birds colonies and whales in the North Atlantic, ancient cities - Fez, Marrakesh, Esfahan, Varanasi and Yazd.

  15. Sea Dragon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... In preparation for these changes, the Navy is exploring new command and control relationships, and the Marine Corps established Sea Dragon to experiment with emerging technologies, operational...

  16. Joint Russian-Norwegian collaboration on radioactive contamination from dumped nuclear waste in the Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, A.I.; Salbu, B.; Strand, P.

    1995-01-01

    Joint Russian-Norwegian expeditions to the Kara Sea have taken place annually since 1992. The 1992 expedition to the open Kara Sea included for the first time scientists from Western countries. During the 1993 expedition underwater investigations of dumped objects in the Tsivolky Fjord and the Stepovogo Fjord was performed in addition to sample collection. This program was also carried out in the Abrosimov Fjord and the Stepovogo Fjord in 1994. The enhanced levels of 137 Cs and 90 Sr, and the presence of 60 Co in sediments from Stepovogo Fjord as well as traces of 60 Co in samples from Tsivolky Fjord, show that leakage from dumped radioactive water has taken place. The contamination was localized to nearby dumped objects. The concentrations of radionuclides in waters and sediments in the open Kara Sea are presently very low and significantly lower than in other marine areas, e.g. the Irish Sea, the Baltic Sea, and the North Sea. The results imply that the impact of radioactive contamination from dumped radioactive waste on the Kara Sea environment is at present very low. 4 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  17. The Xanthophyceae and Chlorophyceae of the Western Ross Sea, Victoria Land, Antarctica and Macquarie Island collected under the direction of Prof. Dr. J. S. Zaneveld (1963—1967)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, H.P.; Zaneveld, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    During the austral summer seasons of 1963-1964 and 1964-1965, and during the austral winter season of 1967 Prof. Dr. J.S. Zaneveld made collection expeditions to the western Ross Sea. In 1965 collections were also made from the U.S.C.G. icebreaker ‘Glacier’, around the western Ross Sea and around

  18. Amalgamating sustainable design strategies into architectural curricula

    OpenAIRE

    Elnokaly, Amira; Elseragy, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    In the era of climate change, rising sea levels, the hole in the ozone layer and current food crisis, sustainability is no longer a matter of choice; it is a must. While the term sustainability manages to embed itself in all aspects of contemporary life, sustainability in the built environment requires special attention. Designs created by architects and planners play a fundamental part in shaping the way we live, behave and interact with our surroundings. Smith (2001) argued that...

  19. Microplastic sampling in the Mediterranean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biginagwa, Fares; Sosthenes, Bahati; Syberg, Kristian

    The extent of microplastic pollution in the Southwestern Mediterranean Sea is not yet known, although on Northwestern part has been previously studied. Plastic samples were collected at 7 transects during a 10 day expedition from Sicily (Italy) to Malaga (Spain) in September 2014. A 330 µM mesh...... manta trawl was used for surface water sampling. Physical and chemical characterization of plastic particles was performed with regard to size (1-5mm), shape (fragment, line, thin film, foam and pellets), color (transparent, white, black and colored), density and chemical composition according...

  20. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...

  1. Neurotoxin localization to ectodermal gland cells uncovers an alternative mechanism of venom delivery in sea anemones

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Yehu; Genikhovich, Grigory; Gordon, Dalia; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Zenkert, Claudia; Özbek, Suat; Technau, Ulrich; Gurevitz, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Jellyfish, hydras, corals and sea anemones (phylum Cnidaria) are known for their venomous stinging cells, nematocytes, used for prey and defence. Here we show, however, that the potent Type I neurotoxin of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, Nv1, is confined to ectodermal gland cells rather than nematocytes. We demonstrate massive Nv1 secretion upon encounter with a crustacean prey. Concomitant discharge of nematocysts probably pierces the prey, expediting toxin penetration. Toxin efficie...

  2. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  3. Distribution and seasonal abundance of carangid larvae in the Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peter, K.J.; Balachandran, T.

    Carangid larvae were recorded from 8.8% of the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) stations in the Arabian Sea and 13.2% in the Bay of Bengal. Their total contribution was 1.1% of the total larvae collected. The highest number of larvae...

  4. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    Declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) can be viewed as a piece of international regulation. Over the past 30 years research at universities has produced convincing data to warn about deterioration of the environment, resource scarcity and the need for sustainability. This in turn....... Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...

  5. Past and present Aral Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhovniy, Viktor; Stulina, Galina; Eshchanov, Odylbek

    2013-04-01

    organized in 2005-2009 sixth expeditions for complex remote sensing and ground investigations Aral Sea former bottom that were complemented in 2010 -2011 by two expeditions with GFZ. As a result, the landscape, soils and environment mapping was done with determination of ecologically unstable zones and assessment total change of lands situation compared with the pre-independence time. Moreover - methodic of monitoring water, environment and hydro geological indicators on the all deltas area was elaborated, organized its testing and combined with remote sensing data on Amudarya delta for 2009-2012. It permits to SIC ICWC to organize systematic permanent (decadal) monitoring and recording of size, volume and level of water in Aral Sea. Since the beginning of regular observations over the Aral Sea level, 2 periods can be emphasized: 1. Conditionally natural period - 1911-1960 - characterized by a relatively stable hydrological regime, with fluctuations in the level around 53 m and the range of inter-annual fluctuations at no more than 1 m., when the sea received annually about a half of the run-off in the Syrdarya and Amudarya Rivers, i.e. 50-60 km3/yr. 2. Intensive anthropogenic impact period - since the 1960s, a vast extension of irrigable land was carried out in Central Asia that resulted in intensive diversion of river run-off. Since then, the sea level has been falling steadily, causing a dramatic reduction in the water surface area, a decrease in water volume and depths, great changes in shoreline configuration and an expansion of the desert areas adjacent to the Aral Sea. From 1960-1985, when the sea was an integral water body, slight lowering in the sea level took place until the 1970s, when the sea-level decreased with the mean level lowering 1 m. The desiccation process accelerated visibly from the mid 1970s. In 1975-1980, the level decreased by 0.65 m a year on average. Moreover, the level dropped greatly, when the run-off of the Amudarya did not reach the Aral Sea

  6. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...

  7. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuil...

  8. Sustainability Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability labeling originated from a need to protect the identity of alternative systems of food production and to increase market transparency. From the 1980s onwards sustainability labeling has changed into a policy instrument replacing direct government regulation of the food market, and a

  9. Lithuanian Cluster of Sea Economics – Instrument of Sustainable Regional Development Lietuvos jūrų ūkio klasteris – darnios regiono plėtros instrumentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Grublienė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The article analyses problems of cluster’s formation in Lithuania. The reasons why clusters in Lithuania are evolving slowly are described in this article. Also cluster’s development process in a logical sequence is submitted. The article accented that the Lithuanian cluster’s policy principles should assess the specific Lithuanian conditions, the positive foreign experience and strategic objectives of competitiveness.Lithuanian status of fisheries sector is estimated. Also the main problems in this sector are named: complexity of management, decreasing of fishing quota, shorter season of cod fishing, economic problems. The article made assumptions that the clustering process should ensure more sustainable development of the sector, a new operational quality creating the ability to compete at lower prices and innovation. Also it was emphasized that clustering processes should assess such factors as: sector’s culture, competitive opportunities and sustainable development of the region.During formation of this cluster it is recommended to assess the fisheries sector as the component of Lithuanian maritime economy. Lithuanian maritime cluster should be developed allowing for common features inherent in clusters, assessing sustainable development principles of the sector. In this way Lithuanian maritime cluster combines not only the fisheries sector but also the activities characterized by Lithuanian maritime economy.

    Keywords: cluster, sea economics, regional development, fisheries sector.

    Dive Activities for Expedition to the Deep Slope 2007 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information about dive activities were recorded by personnel during the "Expedition to the Deep Slope 2007" expedition, June 4 through July 6, 2007. Additional...

  10. Submersible Data (Dive Trackpoints) for Expedition to the Deep Slope 2007 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the ROV Jason along its track during sixteen dives of the 2007 "Expedition to the Deep Slope" expedition sponsored by the National...

  11. Dive Activities for Expedition to the Deep Slope 2006 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information about dive activities were recorded by personnel during the "Expedition to the Deep Slope 2006" expedition, May 7 through June 2, 2006. Additional...

  12. Contamination Tracer Testing With Seabed Rock Drills: IODP Expedition 357

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, B.; Bergenthal, M.; Freudenthal, T.; Smith, D. J.; Lilley, M. D.; Schneiders, L.; Fruh-Green, G. L.

    2016-12-01

    IODP Expedition 357 utilized seabed rock drills for the first time in the history of the ocean drilling program, with the aim of collecting intact core of shallow mantle sequences from the Atlantis Massif to examine serpentinization processes and the deep biosphere. This new drilling approach required the development of a new system for delivering synthetic tracers during drilling to assess for possible sample contamination. Here, we describe this new tracer delivery system, assess the performance of the system during the expedition, provide an overview of the quality of the core samples collected for deep biosphere investigations based on tracer concentrations, and make recommendations for future applications of the system.

  13. Contamination tracer testing with seabed drills: IODP Expedition 357

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, Beth N.; Bergenthal, Markus; Freudenthal, Tim; Smith, David; Lilley, Marvin D.; Schnieders, Luzie; Green, Sophie; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.

    2017-11-01

    IODP Expedition 357 utilized seabed drills for the first time in the history of the ocean drilling program, with the aim of collecting intact sequences of shallow mantle core from the Atlantis Massif to examine serpentinization processes and the deep biosphere. This novel drilling approach required the development of a new remote seafloor system for delivering synthetic tracers during drilling to assess for possible sample contamination. Here, we describe this new tracer delivery system, assess the performance of the system during the expedition, provide an overview of the quality of the core samples collected for deep biosphere investigations based on tracer concentrations, and make recommendations for future applications of the system.

  14. Adaptive sampling program support for expedited site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.

    1993-01-01

    Expedited site characterizations offer substantial savings in time and money when assessing hazardous waste sites. Key to some of these savings is the ability to adapt a sampling program to the ''real-time'' data generated by an expedited site characterization. This paper presents a two-prong approach to supporting adaptive sampling programs: a specialized object-oriented database/geographical information system for data fusion, management and display; and combined Bayesian/geostatistical methods for contamination extent estimation and sample location selection

  15. Afterschool Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary D. Joyce

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth participation in quality extended learning opportunities (ELOs results in positive academic, physical, mental health, and social/emotional outcomes. Funding is essential to implementing and sustaining quality ELOs; however multiple funding barriers and challenges exist. Understanding the types of funds available for ELOs and the factors that influence sustainability is critical. Through surveys and telephone interviews of ELO providers, this descriptive study identified and examined ELO funding streams, the ways ELO providers use these funding streams, and the barriers and challenges to sustainability. ELO programs often relied on one major funding stream coupled with nutrition supports as well as in-kind resources. Barriers to sustainability included year-to-year funding, transportation costs, reducing community partnerships, and difficulty in diversifying funds. Recommendations to enhance ELO sustainability are offered, particularly in relation to overcoming the challenges to diversification of funding resources and establishing mutually supportive partnerships and collaboration.

  16. Sea Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Kenneth C.

    Forty-foot, storm-swept seas, Spitzbergen polar bears roaming vast expanses of Arctic ice, furtive exchanges of forbidden manuscripts in Cold War Moscow, the New York city fashion scene, diving in mini-subs to the sea floor hot srings, life with the astronauts, romance and heartbreak, and invading the last bastions of male exclusivity: all are present in this fast-moving, non-fiction account of one woman' fascinating adventures in the world of marine geology and oceanography.

  17. Pleistocene calcareous nannofossil biochronology at IODP Site U1385 (Expedition 339)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestra, B.; Flores, J.-A.; Hodell, D. A.; Hernández-Molina, F. J.; Stow, D. A. V.

    2015-12-01

    During Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 339, Site U1385 (37°34‧N, 10°7‧W, 2578 m below sea level) was drilled in the lower slope of the Portuguese margin, to provide a marine reference section of Pleistocene millennial-scale climate variability. Five holes were cored using the Advanced Piston Corer (APC) to a depth of ~ 151 m below sea floor (mbsf) recovering a continuous stratigraphic record covering the past 1.4 Ma. Here we present results of the succession of standard and unconventional calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphic events. The quantitative study of calcareous nannofossils showed well-preserved and abundant assemblages throughout the core. Most conventional Pleistocene events were recognized and the timing of bioevents were calibrated using correlation to the new oxygen isotope stratigraphy record developed for the Site U1385. The analyses provide further data on the stratigraphic distribution of selected species and genera, such as the large Emiliania huxleyi (> 4 μm), Gephyrocapsa caribbeanica, Helicosphaera inversa, Gephyrocapsa omega and Reticulofenestra asanoi (> 6 μm) and other circular-subcircular small reticulofenestrids, resulting in new insights into the environmental control of their stratigraphic patterns. Finally, the comparison between nannofossil datums and oxygen isotope stratigraphy on the same samples has resulted in an accurate revision of timing of the events, providing valuable biochronologic information.

  18. Mechanism of the biological response to winter cooling in the northeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Bhattathiri, P.M.A.; DileepKumar, M.; Raghukumar, S.; Nair, K.K.C.; Ramaiah, N.

    The Arabian Sea is one of the most biologically productive ocean regions, mainly due to the upwelling of nutrients during the summer (southwest) monsoon. But the northern Arabian Sea continues to sustain fairly high biological production after...

  19. Spawning of bluefin tuna in the black sea: historical evidence, environmental constraints and population plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, Brian R; Mariani, Patrizio

    2012-01-01

    The lucrative and highly migratory Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus 1758; Scombridae), used to be distributed widely throughout the north Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. Its migrations have supported sustainable fisheries and impacted local cultures since antiquity...

  1. 20 CFR 405.705 - When the expedited appeals process may be used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROCESS FOR ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Expedited Appeals Process for Constitutional Issues § 405.705 When the expedited appeals process may be used. If you have filed a disability claim, you may... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When the expedited appeals process may be...

  2. 20 CFR 405.720 - Notice of agreement to expedite appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....720 Section 405.720 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS FOR ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Expedited Appeals Process for Constitutional Issues § 405.720 Notice of agreement to expedite appeal. If we agree that you can use the expedited appeals process...

  3. Evidence for radionuclide transport by sea ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meese, D.A.; Tucker, W.B.; Gow, A.J.; Reimnitz, E.; Bischof, J.; Darby, D.

    1997-01-01

    Ice and ice-borne sediments were collected across the Arctic Basin during the Arctic Ocean Section, 1994 (AOS-94), a recent US/Canada trans-Arctic expedition. Sediments were analysed for 137 Cs, clay mineralogy and carbon. Concentrations of 137 Cs ranged from 5 to 73 Bq kg -1 in the ice-borne sediments. Concentrations of ice samples without sediment were all less than 1 Bq m -3 . The sediment sample with the highest 137 Cs concentration (73 Bq kg -1 ) was collected in the Beaufort Sea. This concentration was significantly higher than in bottom sediments collected in the same area, indicating an ice transport mechanism from an area with correspondingly higher concentrations. Recent results from the application of ice transport models and sediment analyses indicate that it is very likely that sediments are transported by ice, from the Siberian shelf areas to the Beaufort Sea

  4. Sea-ice monitoring by ship-based visual observation during JARE ―Simplification of observation method based on the ASPeCt protocol―

    OpenAIRE

    Kay I. Ohshima; Shuki Ushio; Akihisa S. Otsuki

    2006-01-01

    A protocol for ship-based visual observation of sea ice is proposed for the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE). The protocol is a simplified version of the ASPeCt protocol, used for extracting quantitative information on sea ice. The ship-based visual observations started from JARE-46. In the pack ice region, ice thickness, ratio of deformed ice, and total ice volume increased toward the coast. Continuous monitoring of sea ice, particularly its thickness, by ship-based observation ...

  5. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  6. Joint pricing and inventory replenishment decisions with returns and expediting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Stuart X.

    2012-01-01

    We study a single-item periodic-review model for the joint pricing and inventory replenishment problem with returns and expediting. Demand in consecutive periods are independent random variables and their distributions are price sensitive. At the end of each period, after the demand is realized, a

  7. 15 CFR 325.8 - Expediting the certification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expediting the certification process. 325.8 Section 325.8 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS EXPORT TRADE...

  8. 8 CFR 1235.3 - Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal. 1235.3 Section 1235.3 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 1235.3 Inadmissible aliens...

  9. Job Grading Standard for Materials Expediter WG-6705.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

    The standard is used to grade nonsupervisory jobs involved in routing and expediting the movement of parts, end items, supplies, and materials within production and repair facilities to meet priority needs. The work requires knowledge of material characteristics, uses, condition, industrial production shop procedures, shop layout, and internal…

  10. Exploring Values and Personal and Social Development: Learning through Expeditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Peter; Von Wald, Kris

    2010-01-01

    Travel and overseas experiences, particularly those involving some form of outdoor education, are regarded by many young people, parents, university admissions and employers as somehow beneficial to a young person's development. Often, expedition experiences are happening at crucial times in life (the teen years) when metaphysical (rather than…

  11. An Environmental Expedition Course in Search of the Maya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loret, John

    1978-01-01

    Sponsoring an interdisciplinary program (over 30 lecture hours of geology, ecology, anthropology, ethnology, and agriculture of the Yucatan and Meso-America), Queens College and the University of Connecticut provide expeditions to Mexico and study of local geomorphology, stratigraphy, climate, topography, soils, archeological sites, flora, and…

  12. ISS Potable Water Quality for Expeditions 26 through 30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2012-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Expeditions 26-30 spanned a 16-month period beginning in November of 2010 wherein the final 3 flights of the Space Shuttle program finished ISS construction and delivered supplies to support the post-shuttle era of station operations. Expedition crews relied on several sources of potable water during this period, including water recovered from urine distillate and humidity condensate by the U.S. water processor, water regenerated from humidity condensate by the Russian water recovery system, and Russian ground-supplied potable water. Potable water samples collected during Expeditions 26-30 were returned on Shuttle flights STS-133 (ULF5), STS-134 (ULF6), and STS-135 (ULF7), as well as Soyuz flights 24-27. The chemical quality of the ISS potable water supplies continued to be verified by the Johnson Space Center s Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) via analyses of returned water samples. This paper presents the chemical analysis results for water samples returned from Expeditions 26-30 and discusses their compliance with ISS potable water standards. The presence or absence of dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) is specifically addressed, since DMSD was identified as the primary cause of the temporary rise and fall in total organic carbon of the U.S. product water that occurred in the summer of 2010.

  13. Sea level trends in South East Asian Seas (SEAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2014-10-01

    Southeast Asian Seas (SEAS) span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The SEAS regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost two decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17 year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement in areas and at times of strong signal to noise associated decadal variability forced by low frequency variations in Pacific trade winds. The SEAS region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer time scales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past twenty years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the SEAS region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the SEAS regional sea level trends during 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the SEAS will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  14. Deglacial sea level history of the East Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.; O'Regan, Matt; Pearce, Christof; Gemery, Laura; Toomey, Michael; Semiletov, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Deglacial (12.8–10.7 ka) sea level history on the East Siberian continental shelf and upper continental slope was reconstructed using new geophysical records and sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition. The focus of this study is two cores from Herald Canyon, piston core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1 (4-PC1) and multicore SWERUS-L2-4-MC1 (4-MC1), and a gravity core from an East Siberian Sea transect, SWERUS-L2-20-GC1 (20-GC1). Cores 4-PC1 and 20-GC were taken at 120 and 115 m of modern water depth, respectively, only a few meters above the global last glacial maximum (LGM;  ∼  24 kiloannum or ka) minimum sea level of  ∼  125–130 meters below sea level (m b.s.l.). Using calibrated radiocarbon ages mainly on molluscs for chronology and the ecology of benthic foraminifera and ostracode species to estimate paleodepths, the data reveal a dominance of river-proximal species during the early part of the Younger Dryas event (YD, Greenland Stadial GS-1) followed by a rise in river-intermediate species in the late Younger Dryas or the early Holocene (Preboreal) period. A rapid relative sea level rise beginning at roughly 11.4 to 10.8 ka ( ∼  400 cm of core depth) is indicated by a sharp faunal change and unconformity or condensed zone of sedimentation. Regional sea level at this time was about 108 m b.s.l. at the 4-PC1 site and 102 m b.s.l. at 20-GC1. Regional sea level near the end of the YD was up to 42–47 m lower than predicted by geophysical models corrected for glacio-isostatic adjustment. This discrepancy could be explained by delayed isostatic adjustment caused by a greater volume and/or geographical extent of glacial-age land ice and/or ice shelves in the western Arctic Ocean and adjacent Siberian land areas.

  15. Deglacial sea level history of the East Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Cronin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Deglacial (12.8–10.7 ka sea level history on the East Siberian continental shelf and upper continental slope was reconstructed using new geophysical records and sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition. The focus of this study is two cores from Herald Canyon, piston core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1 (4-PC1 and multicore SWERUS-L2-4-MC1 (4-MC1, and a gravity core from an East Siberian Sea transect, SWERUS-L2-20-GC1 (20-GC1. Cores 4-PC1 and 20-GC were taken at 120 and 115 m of modern water depth, respectively, only a few meters above the global last glacial maximum (LGM;  ∼  24 kiloannum or ka minimum sea level of  ∼  125–130 meters below sea level (m b.s.l.. Using calibrated radiocarbon ages mainly on molluscs for chronology and the ecology of benthic foraminifera and ostracode species to estimate paleodepths, the data reveal a dominance of river-proximal species during the early part of the Younger Dryas event (YD, Greenland Stadial GS-1 followed by a rise in river-intermediate species in the late Younger Dryas or the early Holocene (Preboreal period. A rapid relative sea level rise beginning at roughly 11.4 to 10.8 ka ( ∼  400 cm of core depth is indicated by a sharp faunal change and unconformity or condensed zone of sedimentation. Regional sea level at this time was about 108 m b.s.l. at the 4-PC1 site and 102 m b.s.l. at 20-GC1. Regional sea level near the end of the YD was up to 42–47 m lower than predicted by geophysical models corrected for glacio-isostatic adjustment. This discrepancy could be explained by delayed isostatic adjustment caused by a greater volume and/or geographical extent of glacial-age land ice and/or ice shelves in the western Arctic Ocean and adjacent Siberian land areas.

  16. Deglacial sea level history of the East Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.; O'Regan, Matt; Pearce, Christof; Gemery, Laura; Toomey, Michael; Semiletov, Igor; Jakobsson, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Deglacial (12.8-10.7 ka) sea level history on the East Siberian continental shelf and upper continental slope was reconstructed using new geophysical records and sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition. The focus of this study is two cores from Herald Canyon, piston core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1 (4-PC1) and multicore SWERUS-L2-4-MC1 (4-MC1), and a gravity core from an East Siberian Sea transect, SWERUS-L2-20-GC1 (20-GC1). Cores 4-PC1 and 20-GC were taken at 120 and 115 m of modern water depth, respectively, only a few meters above the global last glacial maximum (LGM; ˜ 24 kiloannum or ka) minimum sea level of ˜ 125-130 meters below sea level (m b.s.l.). Using calibrated radiocarbon ages mainly on molluscs for chronology and the ecology of benthic foraminifera and ostracode species to estimate paleodepths, the data reveal a dominance of river-proximal species during the early part of the Younger Dryas event (YD, Greenland Stadial GS-1) followed by a rise in river-intermediate species in the late Younger Dryas or the early Holocene (Preboreal) period. A rapid relative sea level rise beginning at roughly 11.4 to 10.8 ka ( ˜ 400 cm of core depth) is indicated by a sharp faunal change and unconformity or condensed zone of sedimentation. Regional sea level at this time was about 108 m b.s.l. at the 4-PC1 site and 102 m b.s.l. at 20-GC1. Regional sea level near the end of the YD was up to 42-47 m lower than predicted by geophysical models corrected for glacio-isostatic adjustment. This discrepancy could be explained by delayed isostatic adjustment caused by a greater volume and/or geographical extent of glacial-age land ice and/or ice shelves in the western Arctic Ocean and adjacent Siberian land areas.

  17. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  18. Agriculture: Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  19. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  20. Sustainable Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Futures is a voluntary program that encourages industry to use predictive models to screen new chemicals early in the development process and offers incentives to companies subject to TSCA section 5.

  1. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  2. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt......, that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  3. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  4. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs......” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resources. While growth has delivered benefits, however, it has done so unequally and unsustainably. This thesis focuses...... on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...

  5. Seeking Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L. Spash

    2014-01-01

    What does sustainability research do to help the environment? One might well wonder when observing the annual conference season with various academics and professors in sustainability science, ecological economics or environmental ethics driving to the airport to fly off to international meetings to discuss how bad things are getting, what should been done about it, and how time is running out for action. In fact, singling out a few academic groups is highly unfair because the link between pr...

  6. Local Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizosa Umana, Julio

    1998-01-01

    The current polemic about the possibilities of sustainable development has led to a renovated interest for the topic of the sustainability of the communities and the local sustainability. In front of the global sustainability whose conditions have been exposed by systemic ecologists and for macro economists, the sustainability of specific places arises in the planet whose conditions are object of study of the ecology of landscapes, of the ecological economy, of the cultural anthropology, of the environmental sociology and naturally, of the integral environmentalism. In this discussion the Colombian case charges unusual interest to be one of the few countries of Latin America, where a very dense net of municipalities exists, each one with its urban helmet and with a position and some functions defined by the political constitution of the nation. This net of municipalities and of urban helmets it also constitutes net of alternative to the current macro-cephalic situation. As well as Bogota grew, in a hundred years, of less than a hundred thousand inhabitants to six million inhabitants, each one of these municipalities contains a potential of growth that depends on the characteristics of its ecological, social, economic and politic sustainability

  7. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  8. PERSPECTIVE: The tripping points of sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Alan D.

    2009-12-01

    , according to Titus et al, is for communities to develop a common vision about which lands will be protected and which lands will yield to the rising sea, similar to the way land use plans identify commercial, residential, agricultural, and conservation lands. The supplementary material in their paper (as well as a related web site suggested by the peer review process of this journal) provides maps that depict the likelihood of shore protection based on existing land use data and the assessment of the local governments. Such maps, they suggest, might be used as a starting point to promote dialogue within communities about which lands should be protected and which lands are allowed to become submerged. A second tripping point relates to conflict between existing environmental laws and their collective ability to respond to the impacts of global warming. For example, property owners are automatically issued permits for construction of hard shore-protection structures (e.g. bulkheads and revetments) without an assessment of their environmental impact. Normally, under the Clean Water Act, the impact of each permit is assessed separately, but there is a special expedited process for activities with no cumulative impact. The Corps of Engineers concluded that shore protection does not have a cumulative impact, and that might be true if shore erosion was rare and stable shores the general rule. But once we recognize that the sea level is rising, then shore erosion becomes the general rule and a cumulative impact is likely. Under the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA), cumulative impacts have been defined as `the impacts of an activity ``added to other past present and reasonably future actions'' regardless of who takes the other actions'. If the NEPA were actually evoked, it would considerably delay permit approvals and substantially impact the Corps of Engineers' process for issuing permits. The potential impact of sea level rise clearly requires a holistic approach to

  9. Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  10. Formation MicroScanner (FMS) data and orbital cycle records: preliminary interpretation from the Asian Monsoon IODP Expedition 346

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanna, Lofi; Grizel, Jimenez Soto; Ryuji, Tada; Murray Richard, W.; Alvarez Zarikian Carlos, A.; Martin, Ziegler

    2015-04-01

    Recently, IODP Expedition 346 (29 July-27 September 2013) drilled seven sites in in the marginal sea bordered by the Eurasian continent, the Korean Peninsula, and the Japanese Islands, as well as two closely spaced sites in the East China Sea. Expedition 346 was the first scientific drilling expedition ever to focus exclusively on the climate system in this region. During the expedition, the Formation MicroScanner (FMS) downhole logging tool was deployed, providing high-resolution electrical resistivity-based images of borehole walls. Features such as bedding, slump folding and bioturbation can be resolved. Here we analyze FMS image resistivity data collected at Site U1425 that extend back to the Miocene. Analysis allowed the recognition of several FMS intervals, with vertical extension ranging from several tens of centimeters to a few meters, with an apparent cyclicity. These FMS intervals correlate well with other downhole logs (Total Gamma Ray, Uranium, Thorium, Potassium and density). Conductive intervals generally correlate with low gamma ray and low density log values. Conversely, more resistive intervals generally correlate with higher values in the gamma ray and bulk density logs. This relationship can be interpreted in terms of the relative abundance of terrigenous clay/diatoms in the sediment. Clay has high K and Th contents and relatively higher density and lower porosity than higher diatom-rich sediment. Consequently, with the exception of sporadic ash and dolomite layers, conductive intervals in the FMS images tend to reflect intervals enriched in diatoms, whereas resistive intervals reflect relative high-terrigenous clay content. An apparent cyclic nature, with several orders of cycles on the FMS images, is locally clearly observed. The cyclic pattern consists of ~4-8 m thick resistive intervals alternating with conductive intervals, generally correlating in core with laminated (diatomite or carbonate rich) intervals. These conductive intervals often

  11. Sea level change

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Church, J.A.; Clark, P.U.; Cazenave, A.; Gregory, J.M.; Jevrejeva, S.; Levermann, A.; Merrifield, M.A.; Milne, G.A.; Nerem, R.S.; Nunn, P.D.; Payne, A.J.; Pfeffer, W.T.; Stammer, D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    This chapter considers changes in global mean sea level, regional sea level, sea level extremes, and waves. Confidence in projections of global mean sea level rise has increased since the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) because of the improved...

  12. Indian continental margin gas hydrate prospects : results of the Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) expedition 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, T [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Riedel, M. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Cochran, J.R. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory; Boswell, R. [United States Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). National Energy Technology Lab; Kumar, P. [Pushpendra Kumar Oil and Natural Gas Corp. Ltd., Mumbai (India). Inst. of Engineering and Ocean Technology; Sathe, A.V. [Oil and Natural Gas Corp. Ltd., Uttaranchal (India). KDM Inst. of Petroleum Exploration

    2008-07-01

    The geologic occurrence of gas hydrate deposits along the continental margins of India were investigated in the first expedition of the Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP). The objective was to determine the regional context and characteristics of the gas hydrate deposits through scientific ocean drilling, logging, and analytical activities. A research drill ship was the platform for the drilling operation. The geological and geophysical studies revealed 2 geologically distinct areas with inferred gas hydrate occurrences, notably the passive continental margins of the Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin. The NGHP Expedition 01 focused on understanding the geologic and geochemical controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate in these 2 diverse settings. The study established the presence of gas hydrates in Krishna-Godavari, Mahanadi and Andaman basins. Site 10 in the Krishna-Godavari Basin was discovered to be the one of the richest gas hydrate accumulations yet documented, while site 17 in the Andaman Sea had the thickest and deepest gas hydrate stability zone yet known. The existence of a fully-developed gas hydrate system in the Mahanadi Basin was also discovered. Most of the gas hydrate occurrences discovered during this expedition appeared to contain mostly methane which was generated by microbial processes. However, there was also evidence of a thermal origin for a portion of the gas within the hydrates of the Mahanadi Basin and the Andaman offshore area. Gas hydrate in the Krishna-Godavari Basin appeared to be closely associated with large scale structural features, in which the flux of gas through local fracture systems, generated by the regional stress regime, controlled the occurrence of gas hydrate. 3 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  13. Workshops with expedition trips organized by the Central Botanical Gardens of NAS of Belarus - an effective instrument of international cooperation between botanical gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiridovich Elena Vladimirovna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available NASB Central Botanical Garden (CBG in 2013-2016 made by the lead agency, the organizer of four international scientific workshops with with expedition trips "Strategies and methods of botanical gardens for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity of the natural flora" (Minsk, protected nature areas (PNAs of the Republic of Belarus, which was attended by representatives of leading botanical gardens of the US, Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Poland and Lithuania. During the scientific seminars discussions and expeditions at 2013-2015 the overall goal of joint work - addressing the conservation of biodiversity of flora and strengthening the role of scientific support for optimal implementation of the Global Strategy Plant Conservation (GSPC were defined, as well as specific joint projects are elaborated.

  14. The expedition ARCTIC `96 of RV `Polarstern` (ARK XII) with the Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS). Cruise report; Die Expedition ARCTIC `96 des FS `Polarstern` (ARK XII) mit der Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS). Fahrtbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augstein, E.

    1997-11-01

    The multinational expedition ARCTIC `96 was carried out jointly by two ships, the German RV POLARSTERN and the Swedish RV ODEN. The research programme was developed by scientists from British, Canadian, Finish, German, Irish, Norwegian, Russian, Swedish and US American research institutions and universities. The physical programme on POLARSTERN was primarily designed to foster the Arctic Climte System Study (ACSYS) in the framework of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). Investigations during the recent years have provided substantial evidence that the Arctic Ocean and the adjacent shelf seas play a significant role in the thermohaline oceanic circulation and may therefore have a distinct influence on global climate. Consequently the main ACSYS goals are concerned with studies of the governing oceanic, atmospheric and hydrological processes in the entire Arctic region. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Expedition ARCTIC `96 wurde von zwei Forschungsschiffen, der deutschen POLARSTERN und der schwedischen ODEN unter Beteiligung von Wissenschaftlern und Technikern aus Deutschland, Finnland, Grossbritannien, Irland, Kanada, Norwegen, Russland, Schweden und den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika durchgefuehrt. Die physikalischen Projekte auf der POLARSTERN dienten ueberwiegend der Unterstuetzung der Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS) des Weltklimaforschungsprogramms, die auf die Erforschung der vorherrschenden ozeanischen, atmosphaerischen, kryosphaerischen und hydrologischen Prozesse der Arktisregion ausgerichtet ist. (orig.)

  15. Results and analysis of the Armara sea water intercomparison for 137Cs, 238Pu and 239,240Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.I.; Holm, E.; Dahlgaard, H.

    1999-01-01

    With the initiation of the EC-supported Arctic Marine Radioecology (ARMARA) project in late-1995, the need to ensure comparability of radionuclide measurement in sea water between the participating laboratories became apparent, as extensive data sets obtained in the course of separate expeditions, sometimes using different preconcentration and radiochemical techniques, were combined for modelling purposes

  16. Roundtabling Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity...... and procedures to meet ‘good practice’ in standard setting and management. This is opening space for competing initiatives that are less democratic, quicker, and more aligned with industry interests to establish substantial presence in the market for sustainability certifications. These tend to more easily...

  17. Sea level trends in Southeast Asian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2015-05-01

    Southeast Asian seas span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian oceans. The Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost 2 decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17-year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement with decadal variability associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and related fluctuations of trade winds in the region. The Southeast Asian sea region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer timescales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past 20 years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the Southeast Asian sea region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends during the 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the Southeast Asian seas will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  18. U.S., U.S.S.R. Marine Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainger, Lisa A.

    An historic expedition involving U.S. and U.S.S.R. scientists may open a new era of cooperation in marine research. A University of California, San Diego/Scripps Institution of Oceanography ship carrying a team that includes two Soviet scientists is on an expedition that will take the R/V Thomas Washington into the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the U.S.S.R. For the first time in a decade a U.S. research vessel has been given permission to operate in the Soviet Union's EEZ, according to Department of State representative Tom Cocke, who worked with Scripps on this project. The ship will also operate in the U.S. EEZ and international waters.

  19. Expedited Remedial Action Program (SB 923): A California Brownfields initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambridge, M.; Wolfenden, A.K.

    1996-12-31

    California`s Expedited Remedial Action Program (ERAP) created a comprehensive program that promotes an equitable and expedited approach for redevelopment of properties contaminated with hazardous substances. This bill embodies an emerging trend in environmental policy that permits flexibility, cooperation and creativity without compromising protection to public health or the environment. Within the California Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) is promoting a number of programs to facilitate the restoration of contaminated properties as part of its Brownfields initiative. ERAP represents a potentially more efficient process to remediate sites by minimizing economic risks through a clearly identified liability scheme, indemnifying future owners through a covenant not to sue, and providing risk based cleanups that are based on the permanent use of the site.

  20. Voluntary program promotes equitable and expedited remediation of contaminated properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfenden, A.K.; Cambridge, M. [California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, CA (United States). Dept. of Toxic Substances Control

    1995-12-31

    In California, the California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) has developed a more equitable and expedited approach for the redevelopment of sites contaminated with hazardous substances. Senate Bill 923 enacted in 1994, established the Expedited Remedial Action Program (ERAP) under Chapter 6.85 of the California Health and Safety Code. This bill responds to a nationwide demand to reform Superfund laws and promote the restoration of blighted and contaminated parcels--often referred to as Brownfields. The program was designed as an alternative to CERCLA, which has come under criticism for being inefficient, unfair and restricting opportunities for effective cleanups. Cal/EPA`s Department of Toxic Substances Control will implement this pilot program. This pilot program, which will eventually comprise 30 sites, provides incentives for voluntary remediation by addressing key economic issues associated with the remediation and redevelopment of contaminated properties.

  1. Expedited enforcement of UST regulations in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton-Mendoza, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    New Mexico is the first state to implement an expedited enforcement program to enhance compliance with the Underground Storage Tank Regulations (USTR). UST field inspectors conduct inspections at UST facilities to ensure compliance with the USTR. If the inspector detects a violation, a field Notice of Violation is issued to the owner/operator and a penalty assessed. Prior to expedited enforcement 14% of the violations were corrected. Since implementing the program the Underground Storage Tank Bureau has conducted 592 inspections, issued 181 field Notices of Violation and 52% of those cited have complied. As a result of the enforcement program 85% of the facilities inspected are in compliance with USTR. This program has been successful in gaining compliance with USTR, specifically the release detection requirements. The UST Bureau has significantly increased compliance with the Regulations; and thereby reduced the threats to New Mexico's environment posed by petroleum products and hazardous substances released from underground storage tanks

  2. Contamination tracer testing with seabed drills: IODP Expedition 357

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Orcutt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available IODP Expedition 357 utilized seabed drills for the first time in the history of the ocean drilling program, with the aim of collecting intact sequences of shallow mantle core from the Atlantis Massif to examine serpentinization processes and the deep biosphere. This novel drilling approach required the development of a new remote seafloor system for delivering synthetic tracers during drilling to assess for possible sample contamination. Here, we describe this new tracer delivery system, assess the performance of the system during the expedition, provide an overview of the quality of the core samples collected for deep biosphere investigations based on tracer concentrations, and make recommendations for future applications of the system.

  3. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence

  4. Sustainable Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telles, Pedro; Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    and within it how sustainable requirements have increased the level of compliance required, particularly regulatory compliance. Compliance was already present in previous EU public procurement frameworks, but its extent on Directive 2014/24/EU leads the authors to consider the current legal framework...

  5. Exergy sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

    2006-05-01

    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  6. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  7. Sustainable Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltegger, Stefan; Beckmann, Markus; Hockerts, Kai

    2018-01-01

    . We also explore the transformation path of the case company, which starts with simple use and then moves to the feedback to core business pattern. By drawing on insights from lead user theory in innovation management and sustainable entrepreneurship, we ground the new concept in extant literature...

  8. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  9. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  10. Architecture Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich

    2013-01-01

    Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The

  11. Sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    2004-01-01

    Marcel Boiteux evokes the results of the work on the sustainable development by the Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques. This is a vast political programme with the goal of allowing all humanity to live well in growing unity while protecting the environment and favouring economic growth. (author)

  12. Sustainable Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsegai Berhane Ghebretekle

    Ethiopia is selected as a case study in light of its pace in economic growth ... Interrogating the Economy-First Paradigm in 'Sustainable Development' … 65 .... agreement, since such effective global cooperation on climate change ultimately ..... and foster innovation; reduce inequality within and among countries; make cities.

  13. Sustainable Soesterkwartier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahams, H.; Goosen, H.; Jong, de F.; Sickmann, J.; Prins, D.

    2010-01-01

    The municipality of Amersfoort wants to construct an endurable and sustainable eco-town in the Soesterkwartier neighbourhood, by taking future climate change into account. The impact of climate change at the location of the proposed eco-town was studied by a literature review.

  14. Sustainable Sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Kathleen M; Veitch, Daisy

    2016-08-01

    To provide a review of sustainable sizing practices that reduce waste, increase sales, and simultaneously produce safer, better fitting, accommodating products. Sustainable sizing involves a set of methods good for both the environment (sustainable environment) and business (sustainable business). Sustainable sizing methods reduce (1) materials used, (2) the number of sizes or adjustments, and (3) the amount of product unsold or marked down for sale. This reduces waste and cost. The methods can also increase sales by fitting more people in the target market and produce happier, loyal customers with better fitting products. This is a mini-review of methods that result in more sustainable sizing practices. It also reviews and contrasts current statistical and modeling practices that lead to poor fit and sizing. Fit-mapping and the use of cases are two excellent methods suited for creating sustainable sizing, when real people (vs. virtual people) are used. These methods are described and reviewed. Evidence presented supports the view that virtual fitting with simulated people and products is not yet effective. Fit-mapping and cases with real people and actual products result in good design and products that are fit for person, fit for purpose, with good accommodation and comfortable, optimized sizing. While virtual models have been shown to be ineffective for predicting or representing fit, there is an opportunity to improve them by adding fit-mapping data to the models. This will require saving fit data, product data, anthropometry, and demographics in a standardized manner. For this success to extend to the wider design community, the development of a standardized method of data collection for fit-mapping with a globally shared fit-map database is needed. It will enable the world community to build knowledge of fit and accommodation and generate effective virtual fitting for the future. A standardized method of data collection that tests products' fit methodically

  15. Multivariate Regression Approach To Integrate Multiple Satellite And Tide Gauge Data For Real Time Sea Level Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    2010-01-01

    The Sea Level Thematic Assembly Center in the EUFP7 MyOcean project aims at build a sea level service for multiple satellite sea level observations at a European level for GMES marine applications. It aims to improve the sea level related products to guarantee the sustainability and the quality...

  16. STS-102 Expedition 2 Increment and Science Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Merri Sanchez, Expedition 2 Increment Manager, John Uri, Increment Scientist, and Lybrease Woodard, Lead Payload Operations Director, give an overview of the upcoming activities and objectives of the Expedition 2's (E2's) mission in this prelaunch press conference. Ms. Sanchez describes the crew rotation of Expedition 1 to E2, the timeline E2 will follow during their stay on the International Space Station (ISS), and the various flights going to the ISS and what each will bring to ISS. Mr. Uri gives details on the on-board experiments that will take place on the ISS in the fields of microgravity research, commercial, earth, life, and space sciences (such as radiation characterization, H-reflex, colloids formation and interaction, protein crystal growth, plant growth, fermentation in microgravity, etc.). He also gives details on the scientific facilities to be used (laboratory racks and equipment such as the human torso facsimile or 'phantom torso'). Ms. Woodard gives an overview of Marshall Flight Center's role in the mission. Computerized simulations show the installation of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) onto the ISS and the installation of the airlock using SSRMS. Live footage shows the interior of the ISS, including crew living quarters, the Progress Module, and the Destiny Laboratory. The three then answer questions from the press.

  17. Sea salt

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivone; Rangel, António O. S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The geographical indication (GI) status links a product with the territory and with the biodiversity involved. Besides, the specific knowledge and cultural practices of a human group that permit transforming a resource into a useful good is protected under a GI designation. Traditional sea salt is a hand-harvested product originating exclusively from salt marshes from specific geographical regions. Once salt is harvested, no washing, artificial drying or addition of anti-caking agents are all...

  18. Development of standards, criteria, specifications. Vol. 2 - Longlife.. Sustainable, energy efficient and resource saving, residential buildings in consideration of unified procedures and new and adapted technologies. Project in the Baltic Sea region programme 2007-2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueckert, Klaus (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    Energy and Cost Efficiency as the key characteristics of the sustainability have been the main consideration of different parts of research represented in the Longlife 2 Report. Longlife 2 Report is in fact the final result of work package 4 ''Developments of Standards and Criteria for Sustainable Building and Construction''. Work package 4 was created based on the work package 3 ''Analysis and comparison of state of technology, administration and legal procedures, financial situation, demographic needs, similarities and differences in the participant countries: Denmark, Germany, Lithuania, Poland and Russia''. Three competence teams from each participant country studied, analyzed and examined these concepts from different point of view and introduced a framework to define the fundamental concepts of sustainability. This crucial phase of project based on the objectives and activities of each team could be described as follow: Team 1'' Engineering and Building Technology standards'' and related expertise emphasized on the most architectural solutions and characteristics of sustainability in very wide spectrum. That is realized through adaptable methods of design, typology, standards, assessment systems, proper and available materials with the best physical features, the most efficient and advanced structures and technologies in order to have the most possible energy and resource saving beside the less life cycle cost of the residential building. Team 2 '' Method of planning permit and tendering Procedure'' and its expertise from another point of view worked on the legal and administrative aspects of sustainability and examining possibility and capacity of each involved country to realize sustainable construction. Team 3 ''Economical and Financial basis, Industry and quality'' and its related expertise explained and examined the adequate and necessary tools for

  19. Paleoceanographic history of the Lower Bengal Fan during the last glacial cycle - IODP Expedition 354

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekens, P. S.; Weber, M. E.; Lantzsch, H.; Das, S. K.; Williams, T.; Adhikari, R. R.; Jia, G.; Fox, L. R.; Ge, J.; Manoj, M. C.; Savian, J. F.; Reilly, B. T.; Selkin, P. A.; Meynadier, L.; Spiess, V.; France-Lanord, C.; Sharma, B.

    2015-12-01

    IODP Expedition 354 drilled a ~320 km long transect of seven sites on the Lower Bengal Fan at 8o N in the Northern Indian Ocean. The sediments cores recovered record a complex relationship between turbiditic and hemipelagic environments. This variability offers a unique opportunity to link our understanding of tectonic and terrestrial processes with climate and oceanography. With the exception the westernmost Site U1454, all sites show a several meter thick, hemipelagic top layer, usually representing Late Quaternary sediment. We present physical, geochemical and stable isotopic properties of this interval to establish a time frame and assess the paleoceanographic development of the region during the last glacial cycle. We sampled Site U1452C-1H continuously for the uppermost 480 cm of hemipelagic sediment in 2-cm increments. Preliminary results indicate the Toba Ash 1 (0.74 ka) is a distinct time marker in all physical properties. Furthermore, wet-bulk density as well as color reflectance b* (the red-green component) and L* (the lightness) show a dominant precession cyclicity. Hence, we are able to provide an insolation-tuned chronology for the last 200 ka (MIS1 - 7) as a preliminary age model. These records agree well with d18O records retrieved from Chinese caves. We will present a preliminary paleoceanographic proxy data to reconstruct sea-surface temperature (SST), sea-surface salinity (SSS), ice volume, marine biological productivity, nutrient supply, and deep-water circulation. These oceanographic and climate conditions are linked to changes in monsoonal strength and terrestrial input using sedimentary proxies to reconstruct chemical weathering and sediment sources and transport time. This work addresses one of the primary cruise objectives - linking monsoon variability, regional and global climate, and Bay of Bengal sediment deposition.

  20. PSSD - Planning System for Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    PSSD - Planning System for Sustainable Development - is a part of the Baltic Sea Region's INTERREG II C program. The current report describes some theories, methods and tools developed under the PSSD project. First, the theoretical foundation of the project is described. Secondly, the role...... of indicators in sustainable development is discussed and a Web-based indicator generator is described. Thirdly, we describe a number of methods and tools, which support planning for sustainable development. Finally, some technical interface tools - especially a Web-based interface to the methods and tools...

  1. Achieving maximum sustainable yield in mixed fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, Clara; Vermard, Youen; Dolder, Paul J.; Brunel, Thomas; Jardim, Ernesto; Holmes, Steven J.; Kempf, Alexander; Mortensen, Lars O.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Rindorf, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Achieving single species maximum sustainable yield (MSY) in complex and dynamic fisheries targeting multiple species (mixed fisheries) is challenging because achieving the objective for one species may mean missing the objective for another. The North Sea mixed fisheries are a representative example

  2. Searching for sustainable solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, David

    2001-01-01

    At the summit meeting in June 2001, the members of the European Union confirmed their intention to follow up the climate agreement from the UN meeting in Kyoto in 1997. This article reviews the policy and work of Norsk Hydro with respect to climate issues. The core businesses of Norsk Hydro are (1) Oil and energy, (2) Light metal and (3) Agriculture. The company tries to steadily reduce the emission of climate gases and the emission of oil and chemicals to the sea from offshore installations, but it is difficult to balance the progress in this respect with what can be economically realised. The Norwegian aluminium industry has reduced the emission of climate gases with 52 per cent in 2000 compared to 1990. There is some concern among the aluminium works that the EU proposal of emission taxes may increase production costs, which may reduce the European production and increase the import from countries with less stringent standards for sustainable development. As a leading global supplier of mineral fertilizers, Norsk Hydro has an important role to play in providing sustainable production of food

  3. Sustainable rural learning ecologies- a prolegomenon traversing transcendence of discursive notions of sustainability, social justice, development and food sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipane Hlalele

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes, through traversing contested notions of sustainability, social justice, development and food sovereignty, to discourses around creation of sustainable rural learning ecologies. There has always been at least in the realm of scientific discourse, an attempt to dissociate the natural or physical environment from the social and human environment. This trend did not only affect the two spheres of existence only. It is further imbued and spawned fragmented and pervasive terminology, practices and human thought. Drawing from the ‘creating sustainable rural learning ecologies’ research project that commenced in 2011, I challenge and contest the use of such discourses and argue for the transcendence of such. This would, in my opinion, create space for harmonious and fluid co-existence between nature and humanity, such that the contribution of learning practices exudes and expedites sustainability in rural ecologies.

  4. Kon-Tiki2 Expedition 2015-2016 Scientific Cruise Report

    OpenAIRE

    De La Torre Olazabal, Pedro Roberto; Mauritzen, Cecilie; Higraff, Torgeir; Wium Lie, Håkon

    2017-01-01

    The Kon-Tiki2 Expedition was partly an anthropogenic exploration and partly an interdisciplinary oceanic and atmospheric research expedition. As a research expedition it was unique for three reasons: 1) The type of vessel used, 2) the timing of the expedition, and 3) the geographical location. The scientific program was run onboard the ancient design balsa rafts, powered by solar power only, with almost no possibility of stopping the raft, during a year with the strongest El Niño recorded in ...

  5. Sustainable Mobility for Tourists at the Dutch Coastal Islands (Waddeneilanden)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sminia, O.; Vogtländer, J.G.; Brezet, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    The European Coastal Islands around the North sea, are joined together in a project that stimulates sustainable development. Within this 'Cradle-to-Cradle Islands' project, some islands were selected as breading grounds for potentially sustainable projects. One of these projects was the development

  6. Causes for contemporary regional sea level changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammer, Detlef; Cazenave, Anny; Ponte, Rui M; Tamisiea, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Regional sea level changes can deviate substantially from those of the global mean, can vary on a broad range of timescales, and in some regions can even lead to a reversal of long-term global mean sea level trends. The underlying causes are associated with dynamic variations in the ocean circulation as part of climate modes of variability and with an isostatic adjustment of Earth's crust to past and ongoing changes in polar ice masses and continental water storage. Relative to the coastline, sea level is also affected by processes such as earthquakes and anthropogenically induced subsidence. Present-day regional sea level changes appear to be caused primarily by natural climate variability. However, the imprint of anthropogenic effects on regional sea level-whether due to changes in the atmospheric forcing or to mass variations in the system-will grow with time as climate change progresses, and toward the end of the twenty-first century, regional sea level patterns will be a superposition of climate variability modes and natural and anthropogenically induced static sea level patterns. Attribution and predictions of ongoing and future sea level changes require an expanded and sustained climate observing system.

  7. Building sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mass Media

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available particu- lar social environment also being awarded. If a building can be used by the community after hours, it should be awarded extra points.” School sports facilities or meeting halls in corporate buildings, are some example. Multi-purpose use..., architect and senior researcher for the CSIR’s Built Environment Unit, the integra- tion of sustainability in building design cannot begin soon enough before it is too late. He says: “Unfortunately nothing is in place in South Africa. For a start...

  8. Measurements of the total CO2 concentration and partial pressure of CO2 in seawater during WOCE expeditions in the South Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Goddard, J.G.; Chipman, D.W.; Rubin, S.I.

    1993-01-01

    During the first year of the grant, we participated in three WOCE expeditions (a total of 152 days at sea) in the South Pacific Ocean, and the field phase of the proposed investigation has been successfully completed. The total CO 2 concentration and pCO 2 were determined at sea in 4419 water samples collected at 422 stations. On the basis of the shipboard analyses of SIO Reference Solutions for CO, and a comparison with the results of previous expeditions, the overall precision of our total CO 2 determinations is estimated to be about ±2 uM/kg. The deep water data indicate that there is a CO 2 maximum centered about 2600 meters deep. This appears to represent a southward return flow from the North Pacific. The magnitude and distribution of the CO, maximum observed along the 135.0 degrees W meridian differ from those observed along the 150.5 degrees W meridian due to Tuamotu Archipelago, a topographic high which interferes with the southward return flow. The surface water pCO 2 data indicate that the South Pacific sub-tropical gyre water located between about 15 degrees S and 50 degrees S is a sink for atmospheric CO 2

  9. Detailed Tropical Sea Level Record Spanning the Younger Dryas Chronozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, N. A.; Mortlock, R. A.; Wright, J. D.; Fairbanks, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    Variability in sea level is a fundamental measure of past changes in continental ice volume and provides an important benchmark to test climate change hypotheses. Records of the most recent deglaciation show two pulses of accelerated sea-level rise (Meltwater Pulses 1A and 1B) separated by an interval of slower sea level rise. The Younger Dryas chronozone falls within the interval between MWP 1A and 1B. It was first described over 100 years ago and remains one of the most studied periods in Earth’s history. The Younger Dryas was originally constrained with 14C dating to the interval between 11,000 and 10,000 14C years BP, which converts to 13,000 to 11,640 calendar years BP. The climatic expression of the Younger Dryas was most pronounced in the circum North Atlantic where climate proxies returned in some regions to near glacial values. Interpretations of the Younger Dryas’ significance range from a catastrophic global cooling event accompanied by Northern hemisphere ice sheet growth to simply regional changes in ocean and air mass mixing zones confined mainly to the North Atlantic. A detailed sea level record containing the interval from the end of MWP 1A to the beginning of MWP 1B (~14,000 to 11,300 years BP) was generated using 26 new U/Th dates from our 2007 Barbados offshore drilling expedition combined with our 1988 expedition measurements. 16 of these dates fall within the Younger Dryas Chronozone. Younger Dryas sea level positions were based on Acropora palmata samples from 3 overlapping and contemporaneous offshore drill cores (RGF 12 and BBDS 9 & 10) and corrected for minor tectonic uplift. From 14,000 to 11,300 years BP, sea level rose from ~81 to 56.5 m below present sea level with an initial rate of 10 m/kyr that decreased smoothly to <5 m/kyr at the base of MWP 1B. At the beginning of the Younger Dryas, sea level was at 69 m below present and rose 8 m by the end of this interval. In the context of the Barbados sea level record, the Younger Dryas

  10. India National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 02 Technical Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, T. S.; Kumar, P.; Shukla, K. M.; Nagalingam, J.; Lall, M. V.; Yamada, Y.; Schultheiss, P. J.; Holland, M.; Waite, W. F.

    2017-12-01

    The National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 02 (NGHP-02) was conducted from 3-March-2015 to 28-July-2015 off the eastern coast of India. The primary objective of this expedition was the exploration and discovery of highly saturated gas hydrate occurrences in sand reservoirs that would be targets of future production testing. The first 2 months of the expedition were dedicated to logging while drilling (LWD) operations with a total of 25 holes being drilled and logged. The next 3 months were dedicated to coring operations at 10 of the most promising sites. NGHP-02 downhole logging, coring and formation pressure testing have confirmed the presence of large, highly saturated, gas hydrate accumulations in coarse-grained sand-rich depositional systems throughout the Krishna-Godavari Basin within the regions defined during NGHP-02 as Area-B, Area-C, and Area-E. The nature of the discovered gas hydrate occurrences closely matched pre-drill predictions, confirming the project developed depositional models for the sand-rich depositional facies in the Krishna-Godavari and Mahanadi Basins. The existence of a fully developed gas hydrate petroleum system was established in Area-C of the Krishna-Godavari Basin with the discovery of a large slope-basin interconnected depositional system, including a sand-rich, gas-hydrate-bearing channel-levee prospect at Sites NGHP-02-08 and -09. The acquisition of closely spaced LWD and core holes in the Area-B L1 Block gas hydrate accumulation have provided one of the most complete three-dimensional petrophysical-based views of any known gas hydrate reservoir system in the world. It was concluded that Area-B and Area-C in the area of the greater Krishna-Godavari Basin contain important world-class gas hydrate accumulations and represent ideal sites for consideration of future gas hydrate production testing.

  11. Geochemistry of the Bonin Fore-arc Volcanic Sequence: Results from IODP Expedition 352

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, M.; Ryan, J. G.; Shervais, J. W.; Whattam, S. A.; Sakuyama, T.; Kirchenbaur, M.; Li, H.; Nelson, W. R.; Prytulak, J.; Pearce, J. A.; Reagan, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin-Mariana intraoceanic arc system, in the western Pacific, results from ~52 My of subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the eastern margin of the Philippine Sea plate. Four sites were drilled south of the Bonin Islands during IODP Expedition 352 and 1.22 km of igneous basement was cored upslope to the west of the trough. These stratigraphically controlled igneous suites allow study of the earliest stages of arc development from seafloor spreading to convergence. We present the preliminary results of a detailed major and trace element (ICPMS) study on 128 igneous rocks drilled during Expedition 352. Mainly basalts and basaltic andesites were recovered at the two deeper water sites (U1440 and U1441) and boninites at the two westernmost sites (U1439 and U1442). Sites U1440 and U1441 basaltic suites are trace element depleted (e.g. Yb 4-6 x PM); they have fractionated REE patterns (LREE/HREE = 0.2-0.4 x C1-chondrites) compared to mid-ocean ridge basalts. They have compositions overlapping that of previously sampled Fore-Arc Basalts (FAB) series. They are characterized also by an increase in LILE contents relative to neighboring elements up-section (e.g. Rb/La ranging from <1 to 3-7 x PM at Site U1440) suggesting a progressive contamination of their source by fluids. This process in turn may have favored melting and efficient melt extraction from the source and thus its extreme depletion. Boninites are depleted in moderately incompatible elements with a decrease in their contents up-section (e.g. Yb = ~6.2 to 2.8 x C1-chondrite at Site U1439). These changes in trace element contents are associated with the development of a positive Zr-Hf anomaly relative to neighboring elements and a strong increase in LILE (e.g., Zr/Sm=~1 to 2.6 x PM and Rb/La=1-2 to 10-18). The progressive upward depletion of boninitic lavas could reveal the incorporation of harzburgitic residues from FAB generation into their mantle source.

  12. Sediments in Arctic sea ice: Implications for entrainment, transport and release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurnberg, D.; Wollenburg, I.; Dethleff, D.; Eicken, H.; Kassens, H.; Letzig, T.; Reimnitz, E.; Thiede, Jorn

    1994-01-01

    Despite the Arctic sea ice cover's recognized sensitivity to environmental change, the role of sediment inclusions in lowering ice albedo and affecting ice ablation is poorly understood. Sea ice sediment inclusions were studied in the central Arctic Ocean during the Arctic 91 expedition and in the Laptev Sea (East Siberian Arctic Region Expedition 1992). Results from these investigations are here combined with previous studies performed in major areas of ice ablation and the southern central Arctic Ocean. This study documents the regional distribution and composition of particle-laden ice, investigates and evaluates processes by which sediment is incorporated into the ice cover, and identifies transport paths and probable depositional centers for the released sediment. In April 1992, sea ice in the Laptev Sea was relatively clean. The sediment occasionally observed was distributed diffusely over the entire ice column, forming turbid ice. Observations indicate that frazil and anchor ice formation occurring in a large coastal polynya provide a main mechanism for sediment entrainment. In the central Arctic Ocean sediments are concentrated in layers within or at the surface of ice floes due to melting and refreezing processes. The surface sediment accumulation in central Arctic multi-year sea ice exceeds by far the amounts observed in first-year ice from the Laptev Sea in April 1992. Sea ice sediments are generally fine grained, although coarse sediments and stones up to 5 cm in diameter are observed. Component analysis indicates that quartz and clay minerals are the main terrigenous sediment particles. The biogenous components, namely shells of pelecypods and benthic foraminiferal tests, point to a shallow, benthic, marine source area. Apparently, sediment inclusions were resuspended from shelf areas before and incorporated into the sea ice by suspension freezing. Clay mineralogy of ice-rafted sediments provides information on potential source areas. A smectite

  13. Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology Facility Expedites Manufacturing Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology facility (CoMET) at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) paves the way for innovative wind turbine components and accelerated manufacturing. Available for use by industry partners and university researchers, the 10,000-square-foot facility expands NREL's composite manufacturing research capabilities by enabling researchers to design, prototype, and test composite wind turbine blades and other components -- and then manufacture them onsite. Designed to work in conjunction with NREL's design, analysis, and structural testing capabilities, the CoMET facility expedites manufacturing innovation.

  14. Quality Assurance Plan, N springs expedited response action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    This document is the Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) to be followed during the definitive design, construction, and operational phases for activities associated with the N Springs Expedited Response Action (ERA) for the 100-NR-2 Operable Unit (OU). Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) will comply with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance (DOE 1989), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), EPA/530-SW-86-031, Technical Guidance Document: Construction Quality Assurance for Hazardous Waste Land Disposal Facilities (EPA 1986)

  15. Geochemistry of uranium in the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhorov, V.A.; Bogushlavskij, S.G.; Babinets, A.E.; Solov'eva, L.V.; Kirchanova, A.I.; Kir'yanov, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    According to the results of expedition investigations on the base of SCOICH program (''Acade''Mmician Vernadsky'' and ichael Lomonosov'' shiptrips) main geometrical peculiarities of uranium distribution in deep water of the Black Sea including benthic and silt waters are studied. Sampling have been made from the surface layer across the whole width of the water and from benthic sediments (silt water). Uranium in samples has been determined by the adsorption-colorimetric method. Nonuniform uranium distribution (depending on water dynamics) over the basin area and across the whole width of water is established. Most of uranium is contained in the 0-500 m layer and in the eastern part of the sea. Uranium content decreases in depth, it is higher in the benthic water layer. It is shown that uranium decrease in a hydrogen-sulphide sea zone is conditioned by its reduction due to formation of more adsorption-active forms and effective sedimentation. Causes of differences in uranium content in silt waters have been found. High uranium concentrations in silt waters are confined to active sulphate reduction characterized by elevated values of pHsub(#betta#), alkalinity, Eh. In weak suphate reduction zones (pHsub(#betta#), Alsub(k) value decrease) in silt waters uranium content is lower as a result of sorption-active forms formation and their transition into the solid phase of sediments

  16. Meteorological observations at Syowa Station, Antarctica, 2009 by the 50th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhei Sugaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the results of meteorological observations carried out by the Meteorological Observation Team of the 50th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-50 at Syowa Station from February 2009 to January 2010. The observation methods, instruments, and statistical methods used by JARE-50 were similar to those used by JARE-49.  The most notable results are as follows.  1 Class-A blizzards, the heaviest storm class, were recorded 13 times. This frequency is the same as in 1978, which was the highest on record. A total of 29 blizzards (of various classes occurred in 2009, which is close to normal.  2 The maximum sustained wind speed of 47.4 m/s was recorded on 21 February 2009.  3 Tropospheric temperatures for May-July over Syowa Station were higher than normal, but temperatures in the lower stratosphere for August-October were lower than normal.  4 Total ozone over Syowa Station was less than 220 m atm-cm between the middle of August and the end of October. The minimum value in 2009 was 135 m atm-cm. Total ozone increased rapidly in November 2009 when the ozone-hole area decreased around Syowa Station.

  17. Interdependences between sustainable development and sustainable economy

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Mioara CÂMPEANU; Carmen Valentina RĂDULESCU

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development and sustainable economy are mostly used concepts. Understanding clearly their meaning allows their use in an appropriate context and, therefore, their boundaries in terms of theoretical and practical approaches on which occasion it can be given their interdependencies. The paper aim is to analyze the interdependences between sustainable development and sustainable economy.

  18. Virtual Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.

  19. Sustainability; Sustentabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter analyses the production chain of ethanol, considering the impacts on the quality of the air, water supplies, soil occupation and biodiversity, and the efforts for the soil preservation. It is pointed out the activities of the production cycle and use of bio ethanol due to great uncertainties as far the environmental impacts is concerning and that will deserve more attention in future evaluations. At same time, the chapter highlights another activities where the present acknowledge is sufficient to assure the control and/or prediction of consequences of the desired intervention on the environment media to accommodate the sugar and ethanol production expansion. The consideration is not conservative but to promote the sustainable development.

  20. Report on the Dutch expedition to observe the 1973 June 30 solar eclipse. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houtgast, J.; Namba, O.

    1979-01-01

    This paper continues to report the Dutch expedition to Atar, Mauritania, to observe the total solar eclipse of June 30, 1973. The purpose of this expedition was to obtain spectra from the transition region photosphere-chromosphere with high spectral and time resolution. (Auth.)

  1. 78 FR 1277 - International Product Change-Global Expedited Package Services-Non-Published Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... POSTAL SERVICE International Product Change--Global Expedited Package Services-- Non-Published...-- Non-Published Rates 4 (GEPS-NPR 4) to the Competitive Products List. DATES: Effective date: January 8... add Global Expedited Package Services-- Non-Published Rates 4 (GEPS-NPR 4) to the Competitive Products...

  2. 76 FR 2930 - International Product Change-Global Expedited Package Services-Non- Published Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... POSTAL SERVICE International Product Change--Global Expedited Package Services-- Non- Published... request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add Global Expedited Package Services-- Non-Published...--Non-Published Rates, to the Competitive Products List, and Notice of Filing (Under Seal) the Enabling...

  3. 38 CFR 3.161 - Expedited Claims Adjudication Initiative-Pilot Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Adjudication Initiative-Pilot Program. 3.161 Section 3.161 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Claims § 3.161 Expedited Claims Adjudication Initiative—Pilot Program. Rules pertaining to the Expedited Claims Adjudication Initiative Pilot Program are set forth in part 20, subpart P, of this chapter...

  4. Professional organisation profile: a faculty of expedition and wilderness medicine for Australasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Peter A; Shaw, Marc T M

    2012-05-01

    A profile of the recent genesis of the Sub-Faculty of Expedition Medicine into a Faculty of Expedition and Wilderness Medicine of The Australasian College of Tropical Medicine is presented. Information is given on aims, structure, professional grades of membership, and the various activities of the Faculty, including publications and scientific meetings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of a Prolonged Altitude Expedition on Glucose Tolerance and Abdominal Fatness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Tsung; Lee, Wen-Chih; Chen, Shih-Chang; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Chen, Chung-Yu; Lee, Shin-Da; Jensen, Jorgen; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of a long-term mountain expedition on glucose tolerance and insulin action. Twelve registered mountaineers ages 31 years (SD = 1.1) participated in a 25-day expedition at a 2,200-3,800-m altitude with an average duration of 8 hr per day. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO[subscript 2]) was…

  6. Zoological results of the Dutch Scientific Expedition to Central-Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidth de Jeude, van Th.W.

    1905-01-01

    The following pages contain an enumeration of the lizards collected in Borneo by the Dutch Borneo-Expedition, of which expedition Mr. J. Büttikofer was the zoologist, and also of the lizards collected by Dr. A. W. Nieuwenhuis during his travels in the interior of this island. The collections made

  7. Zoological results of the Dutch New Guinea expedition, 1939. No. 51) The Birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, G.C.A.

    1953-01-01

    The present paper is the report on a collection of birds brought together during the expedition of the "Koninklijk Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap" to the Wissel Lake area in 1939. The zoologist of this expedition Prof. Dr. H. Boschma collected with the assistance of two mantris of the

  8. 38 CFR 20.1500 - Rule 1500. Expedited Claims Adjudication Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Claims Adjudication Initiative. 20.1500 Section 20.1500 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Adjudication Initiative-Pilot Program § 20.1500 Rule 1500. Expedited Claims Adjudication Initiative. (a) Purpose. The Expedited Claims Adjudication Initiative is a pilot program designed to streamline the claims...

  9. Spheres of Interest: Imperialism, Culture, and Practice in British Solar Eclipse Expeditions, 1860-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Alex Soojung-Kim

    Scientific expeditions have played an important role in the development of Western Science, but have received far less attention than theory-making or experiment. This is a cultural and social history of British solar eclipse expeditions and observing practices. An introductory chapter outlines the historiography of scientific practice, imperialism and science, and scientific expeditions, and explains the importance of solar eclipses to nineteenth-century science. The chapters follow expeditions from their planning, through their execution, and into the publication of results. Chapter 2 is an institutional and social history of British and American eclipse planning. British expeditions were organized by national societies, while American expeditions were planned by individual observatories and colleges. Chapters 3 and 4 move into the field. They show how the evolution of tourist culture, the expansion of imperial spheres of political control, the transfer of Western technological systems to colonial territories shaped the experience of going on an expedition, and even made accurate astrophysical observation possible. They also examine the roles women played on eclipse expeditions. Chapters 5 and 6 examine spectroscopic and visual observation. They study the effects of intellectual shifts, the introduction of photography, and the scaling up of instruments on observing practices. Chapter 6 shows how visual and photographic observations of the solar corona were made. Chapter 7 follows those pictures out of the field, and examines how they were copied and shared with other astronomers.

  10. 49 CFR 385.308 - What may cause an expedited action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.308 What may cause an expedited... inspections or by any other means, may be subjected to an expedited safety audit or a compliance review or may..., or missing a required endorsement. (2) Operating a vehicle placed out of service for violations of...

  11. Sustainability Science Needs Sustainable Data!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    Sustainability science (SS) is an 'emerging field of research dealing with the interactions between natural and social systems, and with how those interactions affect the challenge of sustainability: meeting the needs of present and future generations while substantially reducing poverty and conserving the planet's life support systems' (Kates, 2011; Clark, 2007). Bettencourt & Kaur (2011) identified more than 20,000 scientific papers published on SS topics since the 1980s with more than 35,000 distinct authors. They estimated that the field is currently growing exponentially, with the number of authors doubling approximately every 8 years. These scholars are undoubtedly using and generating a vast quantity and variety of data and information for both SS research and applications. Unfortunately we know little about what data the SS community is actually using, and whether or not the data that SS scholars generate are being preserved for future use. Moreover, since much SS research is conducted by cross-disciplinary, multi-institutional teams, often scattered around the world, there could well be increased risks of data loss, reduced data quality, inadequate documentation, and poor long-term access and usability. Capabilities and processes therefore need to be established today to support continual, reliable, and efficient preservation of and access to SS data in the future, especially so that they can be reused in conjunction with future data and for new studies not conceived in the original data collection activities. Today's long-term data stewardship challenges include establishing sustainable data governance to facilitate continuing management, selecting data to ensure that limited resources are focused on high priority SS data holdings, securing sufficient rights to allow unforeseen uses, and preparing data to enable use by future communities whose specific research and information needs are not yet known. Adopting sustainable models for archival

  12. Statistical Analysis of SSMIS Sea Ice Concentration Threshold at the Arctic Sea Ice Edge during Summer Based on MODIS and Ship-Based Observational Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qing; Li, Fei; Pang, Xiaoping; Luo, Cong

    2018-04-05

    The threshold of sea ice concentration (SIC) is the basis for accurately calculating sea ice extent based on passive microwave (PM) remote sensing data. However, the PM SIC threshold at the sea ice edge used in previous studies and released sea ice products has not always been consistent. To explore the representable value of the PM SIC threshold corresponding on average to the position of the Arctic sea ice edge during summer in recent years, we extracted sea ice edge boundaries from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sea ice product (MOD29 with a spatial resolution of 1 km), MODIS images (250 m), and sea ice ship-based observation points (1 km) during the fifth (CHINARE-2012) and sixth (CHINARE-2014) Chinese National Arctic Research Expeditions, and made an overlay and comparison analysis with PM SIC derived from Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS, with a spatial resolution of 25 km) in the summer of 2012 and 2014. Results showed that the average SSMIS SIC threshold at the Arctic sea ice edge based on ice-water boundary lines extracted from MOD29 was 33%, which was higher than that of the commonly used 15% discriminant threshold. The average SIC threshold at sea ice edge based on ice-water boundary lines extracted by visual interpretation from four scenes of the MODIS image was 35% when compared to the average value of 36% from the MOD29 extracted ice edge pixels for the same days. The average SIC of 31% at the sea ice edge points extracted from ship-based observations also confirmed that choosing around 30% as the SIC threshold during summer is recommended for sea ice extent calculations based on SSMIS PM data. These results can provide a reference for further studying the variation of sea ice under the rapidly changing Arctic.

  13. OPTIMIZATION MODEL FOR MATERIALS EXPEDITION: AN APLICATION IN A RETAIL CHAIN STORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Santos Cruz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In several companies, transportation costs are most part logistics costs. In this context, the appropriate distribution planning figures as a strategic activity in the generation of competitiveness. Previous studies that analyzed the transportation problem do not consider the role of the expedition in their models. This research investigated a transportation problem considering the expedition of goods. A midsize retailer located in the ABC region of Sao Paulo was used to conduct a case study. In addition to documentary data, interviews were conducted with professionals involved in the expedition operation. The results indicated that the company could optimize their expedition by considering the changes proposed in this study. We conclude that the expedition is an important activity in the analysis of a transport model.

  14. Science at the ends of the Earth: astrobiology field expeditions as outreach tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Linda

    martian meteorite, evidence of past and perhaps even present liquid water on Mars, the likelihood of a liquid water ocean on Europa, the possibility of liquid water beneath the surface of Titan, observations of a growing number of extrasolar planets, and identification of new forms of microbial life in an ever-widening range of extreme Earth environments. Consequently, in the 21st century the pace of robotic planetary exploration is speeding up and scientific and public attention is increasingly focusing on astrobiology research, especially the search for signs of life on Mars and in other environments in our solar system. NASA's ASTEP program is sponsoring field campaigns to test science strategies and robotic technologies that could be useful in conducting astrobiological investigations in planetary environments, focusing on Mars and Europa. Public interest in astrobiology research is substantial, and advances in the field are rapid. Thus the NASA Astrobiology Program encourages Principal Investigators to incorporate communication, education, and public outreach initiatives in their research plans. NASA ASTEP projects provide especially good opportunities for communication, education, and outreach. The work of ASTEP projects takes place in remote terrestrial environments, places typically inaccessible to "civilians": the Norwegian protectorate of Svalbard, above the Arctic Circle; the far-northern reaches of the Arctic Ocean; the dry valleys of Antarctica; deep-sea hydrothermal vent systems and other unmapped underwater environments. ASTEP projects involve human researchers working with robotic adjuncts. ASTEP teams often combine include senior and student researchers. Some have even included "embedded" journalists and public affairs officers. ASTEP expeditions typically unfold in visually interesting, sometimes stunning, physical environments. ASTEP expeditions are virtually always intensive learning experiences for their researchers, and thus they provide good

  15. The Wilderness Expedition: An Effective Life Course Intervention to Improve Young People's Well-Being and Connectedness to Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jo; Bragg, Rachel; Pretty, Jules; Roberts, Jo; Wood, Carly

    2016-01-01

    It is well understood that wilderness expeditions improve well-being; however, there is little supporting quantitative data. The aim of this study was to measure the impact of wilderness expeditions on self-esteem (SE) and connectedness to nature (CN) and assess whether benefits varied according to participant and expedition characteristics. SE…

  16. Oceanic fronts in the Sargasso Sea control the early life and drift of Atlantic eels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Hansen, Michael Møller; Maas, Gregory E.

    2010-01-01

    Anguillid freshwater eels show remarkable life histories. In the Atlantic, the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and American eel (Anguilla rostrata) undertake extensive migrations to spawn in the oceanic Sargasso Sea, and subsequently the offspring drift to foraging areas in Europe and North......, during a field expedition to the eel spawning sites in the Sargasso Sea, we carried out a wide range of dedicated bio-physical studies across areas of eel larval distribution. Our findings suggest a key role of oceanic frontal processes, retaining eel larvae within a zone of enhanced feeding conditions...

  17. Will Restored Tidal Marshes Be Sustainable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Orr

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available We assess whether or not restored marshes in the San Francisco Estuary are expected to be sustainable in light of future landscape scale geomorphic processes given typical restored marsh conditions. Our assessment is based on a review of the literature, appraisal of monitoring data for restored marshes, and application of vertical accretion modeling of organic and inorganic sedimentation. Vertical accretion modeling suggests that salt marshes in San Pablo Bay will be sustainable for moderate relative sea level rise (3 to 5 mm yr-1 and average sediment supply (c. 100 mg L-1. Accelerated relative sea level rise (above 6 mm yr-1 and/or reduced sediment supply (50 mg L-1 will cause lowering of the marsh surface relative to the tide range and may cause shifts from high to low marsh vegetation by the year 2100. Widespread conversion of marsh to mudflat-"ecological drowning"-is not expected within this time frame. Marshes restored at lower elevations necessary to aid the natural development of channel systems (c. 0.5 m below mean higher high water are predicted to accrete to high marsh elevations by the year 2100 for moderate relative sea level rise and sediment supply conditions. Existing rates of sediment accretion in restored fresh water tidal marshes of the Delta of greater than 9 mm yr-1 and slightly lower drowning elevations suggest that these marshes will be resilient against relatively high rates of sea level rise. Because of higher rates of organic production, fresh water marshes are expected to be less sensitive to reduced sediment availability than salt marshes. The ultimate long-term threat to the sustainability of tidal marshes is the interruption of coastal rollover-the process by which landward marsh expansion in response to sea level rise compensates for shoreline erosion. Bay front development now prevents most landward marsh expansion, while shoreline erosion is expected to accelerate as sea level rises.

  18. Norwegian North Polar Expedition 1893-1896: Oceanographic Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains water depth, temperature, specific gravity, salinity, and density measurements from the North Polar Basin and the Barents Sea, gathered by...

  19. Persistent organic pollutants in biota samples collected during the Ymer-80 expedition to the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Kylin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available During the 1980 expedition to the Arctic with the icebreaker Ymer, a number of vertebrate species were sampled for determination of persistent organic pollutants. Samples of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus, n=34, glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus, n=8, common eider (Somateria mollissima, n=10, Brünnich's guillemot (Uria lomvia, n=9, ringed seal (Pusa hispida, n=2 and polar bear (Ursus maritimus, n=2 were collected. With the exception of Brünnich's guillemot, there was a marked contamination difference of birds from western as compared to eastern/northern Svalbard. Samples in the west contained a larger number of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners and also polychlorinated terphenyls, indicating local sources. Brünnich's guillemots had similar pollutant concentrations in the west and east/north; possibly younger birds were sampled in the west. In Arctic char, pollutant profiles from lake Linnévatn (n=5, the lake closest to the main economic activities in Svalbard, were similar to profiles in Arctic char from the Shetland Islands (n=5, but differed from lakes to the north and east in Svalbard (n=30. Arctic char samples had higher concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs than the marine species of birds and mammals, possibly due to accumulation via snowmelt. Compared to the Baltic Sea, comparable species collected in Svalbard had lower concentrations of PCB and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, but similar concentrations indicating long-range transport of hexachlorobenzene, HCHs and cyclodiene pesticides. In samples collected in Svalbard in 1971, the concentrations of PCB and DDT in Brünnich's guillemot (n=7, glaucous gull (n=2 and polar bear (n=2 were similar to the concentrations found in 1980.

  20. Mapping the deep sea floor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    's attempt to "wave the Danish flag". The expedition was the first scientific expedition to have on board a separate press section communicating its scientific results as well as Danish nationality to the wider public. In this poster, the Galathea maps of the Philippine Trench are placed within this context...... of combined national "flag-waving", publicity, and scientific exploration....

  1. Sustainable NREL - Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-01

    NREL's Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015 reports on sustainability plans for the lab for the year 2015 based on Executive Order Goals and provides the status on planned actions cited in the FY 2014 report.

  2. N Springs expedited response action performance monitoring plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    Groundwater contained in the 100-NR-2 Operable Unit is contaminated with various radionuclides derived from waste water disposal practices and spills associated with 100-N Reactor operations. Of primary concern is the presence of high levels of 90 Sr in the groundwater and the discharge of 90 Sr-contaminated groundwater to the nearby Columbia River through historic river bank seeps known as ''N Springs.'' A pump-and-treat system is being installed to remove 90 Sr contamination from the groundwater as part of the N Springs expedited response action (ERA). The groundwater extraction system will consist of four extraction and two injection wells with a proposed initial treatment capacity of 50 gal/min. The proposed location of the groundwater extraction system relative to the 90 Sr groundwater plume is presented

  3. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-03-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia’s tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes.

  4. Organized investigation expedites insurance claims following a blowout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstreet, R.

    1996-01-01

    Various types of insurance policies cover blowouts to different degrees, and a proper understanding of the incident and the coverage can expedite the adjustment process. Every well control incident, and the claim arising therefrom, has a unique set of circumstances which must be analyzed thoroughly. A blowout incident, no matter what size or how severe, can have an emotional impact on all who become involved. Bodily injuries or death of friends and coworkers can result in additional stress following a blowout. Thus, it is important that all parties involved remain mindful of sensitive matters when investigating a blowout. This paper reviews the definition of a blowout based on insurance procedures and claims. It reviews blowout expenses and contractor cost and accepted well control policies. Finally, it reviews the investigation procedures normally followed by an agent and the types of information requested from the operator

  5. Expedited remedial action -- A promising opportunity at your doorstep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, E.R.

    1996-12-31

    The Expedited Remedial Action Program or ERAP carries great promise and is limited to no more than 30 sites, there are a number of slots now available, and the legislature will soon be considering a reauthorization of the full state Superfund program, which expires in June 1998, to reportedly be based to a great extent on the ERAP model. The ERAP provides for: (1) The early identification of fair and equitable shares of liability, including an orphan share, where appropriate, to be paid by the state; (2) The elimination of all joint and several liability; (3) Cleanup levels and remedies based on the foreseeable planned use of the site; (4) Site specific risk assessments based on the latest risk assessment protocols; (5) Use of an arbitrator to quickly resolve all significant liability and technical disputes; and (6) Broad and timely releases from future liability upon completion of cleanup.

  6. Report by the mission for the study of marine renewable energies to the Minister of productive recovering, the Minister of ecology, sustainable development and energy, the Minister delegate by the Minister of ecology, sustainable development and energy in charge of transports, sea and fishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boye, Henri; Nataf, Jean-Michel; Caquot, Emmanuel; Clement, Pascal; La Cochetiere, Loic de; Sergent, Philippe

    2013-03-01

    After having presented a set of recommendations aimed at the development of the marine renewable energy sector in France, and recalled some definitions, this report presents the different marine energies, technologies and uses (tide energy, offshore wind energy, wave energy, sea thermal energy, osmotic energy, and so on), proposes an overview of the cooperation and research-development environment (private sector, public sector, national financing, Europe and international, interest of a public-private partnership) and an overview of the main industrial and economic challenges. It addresses the relationship between marine renewable energies and environmental issues (technology impact, perspectives of improvement, opinion of associations committed in the protection of the environment). It proposes an analysis of the law and regulatory context, and the creation of a specific law regime. It finally addresses issues related to planning, zoning and dialogue, and harbour planning

  7. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  8. Sustainability in Transport Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Greve, Carsten

    Contribution to session J: Joint University Sustainability Initiatives. This session will provide an inspiring overview of interdisciplinary research and teaching activities on sustainability bridging DTU, KU, and CBS, and introduce the joint collaboration Copenhagen Sustainability Initiative (COSI...

  9. Going from lectures to expeditions: Creating a virtual voyage in undergraduate ocean science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D.; Garfield, N.; Locke, J.; Anglin, J.; Karl, H.; Edwards, B.

    2003-04-01

    The WWW provides for new collaborations in distributed learning in higher education. The lead author has developed a highly successful online course at the undergraduate level with an enrollment of more than 300 non-science majors each year, We are currently initiating a new focus for the course by emphasizing sea-going research, primarily in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, through the development of a virtual oceanographic voyage over the WWW. The "virtual voyage" courseware combines elements of experiential learning with anytime, anywhere access of the WWW to stimulate inquiry-based learning in the ocean sciences. The first leg of the voyage is currently being synthesized from contemporary ocean research sponsored by a collaboration of U.S. government agencies, including NSF, NOAA, and the USGS. The initial portion of this effort involves transforming portions of USGS Circular 1198, Beyond the Golden Gate -- Oceanography, Geology, Biology, and Environmental Issues in the Gulf of the Farallones, into an interactive expedition by which students participate as scientists aboard a research vessel departing from San Francisco. Virtual experiments on the voyage are patterned after research cruises over the past decade in two national marine sanctuaries and include the technologies of data acquisition and data analysis, as well as providing insight into the methodologies of working marine scientists. Real-time data for monitoring the marine environment are embedded into several modules; for example, students will analyze data from offshore buoys and satellite imagery to assess ocean conditions prior to departing from port. Multibeam sonar is used to create seafloor maps near the Golden Gate Bridge and sediment cores provide evidence of sea-level change in the region. Environmental studies in the region include locating canisters of low-level radioactive waste and assessing potential sites for the disposal for dredged materials from the San Francisco Bay. Upon completion

  10. [Challenges in the context of medical care during a naval research expedition. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, C; Schwarz-Schampera, U; Mommsen, P; Krettek, C

    2014-05-01

    Exploration for natural resources in the seabed of the Indian Ocean was undertaken by the German government institution of earth sciences and resources ("Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe", BGR) in November 2012. To provide for the medical safety of crew and scientists, a cooperation between the BGR and the trauma department of the Hannover Medical School was established. Research by physicians accompanying the naval expedition revealed that medical consultations mainly occur because of respiratory infections, abdominal discomfort, genitourinary discomfort and seasickness, with the rate of traumas being between 31% and 41%. Di Giovanna et al. stated that 97% of all emergencies on cruise ships are not critical and only 3% need an immediate emergency medical intervention. Consultations were already performed on the mainland prior to departure and included minor traumas due to non-appropriate footwear, otitis and respiratory infections. Seasickness was the main reason for consultation during the first days at sea. Strong seas resulted in some bruises. Minor injuries and foreign body injuries to the hands and feet also required consultation. First-degree sunburns resulted from exposure to the sun, while air-conditioning caused rhinosinusitis and conjunctivitis. A special consultation was a buccal splitting of tooth 36. An immediate emergency medical intervention was not necessary due to the relative low level of pain for the patient; however, due to the risk of further damage caused by nocturnal bruxism, a protective splint was formed using a small syringe. Other reasons for consultation were similar to those reported in the general literature. Medical activities at exotic locations may create the vision of a holiday character at first; however, intensive planning and preparation are needed. We recommend contacting police, customs, the federal institute for drugs and medical devices as well as the labour inspectorate, preferably in both the originating

  11. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable technologies

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to deal with the innovative technologies in the field of textiles and clothing sustainability. It details a number of sustainable and innovative technologies and highlights their implications in the clothing sector. There are currently various measures to achieve sustainability in the textiles and the clothing industry, including innovations in the manufacturing stage, which is the crux of this book.

  12. Sustainable diets within sustainable food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybeck, Alexandre; Gitz, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Sustainable diets and sustainable food systems are increasingly explored by diverse scientific disciplines. They are also recognised by the international community and called upon to orient action towards the eradication of hunger and malnutrition and the fulfilment of sustainable development goals. The aim of the present paper is to briefly consider some of the links between these two notions in order to facilitate the operationalisation of the concept of sustainable diet. The concept of sustainable diet was defined in 2010 combining two totally different perspectives: a nutrition perspective, focused on individuals, and a global sustainability perspective, in all its dimensions: environmental, economic and social. The nutrition perspective can be easily related to health outcomes. The global sustainability perspective is more difficult to analyse directly. We propose that it be measured as the contribution of a diet to the sustainability of food systems. Such an approach, covering the three dimensions of sustainability, enables identification of interactions and interrelations between food systems and diets. It provides opportunities to find levers of change towards sustainability. Diets are both the results and the drivers of food systems. The drivers of change for those variously involved, consumers and private individuals, are different, and can be triggered by different dimensions (heath, environment, social and cultural). Combining different dimensions and reasons for change can help facilitate the transition to sustainable diets, recognising the food system's specificities. The adoption of sustainable diets can be facilitated and enabled by food systems, and by appropriate policies and incentives.

  13. Pharmacy-level barriers to implementing expedited partner therapy in Baltimore, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jennifer Z; Diniz, Clarissa P; Coleman, Jenell S

    2018-05-01

    Addressing record high rates of Chlamydia trachomatis incidence in the United States requires the utilization of effective strategies, such as expedited partner therapy, to reduce reinfection and further transmission. Expedited partner therapy, which can be given as a prescription or medication, is a strategy to treat the sexual partners of index patients diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection without prior medical evaluation of the partners. There are multiple steps in the prescription-expedited partner therapy cascade, and we sought to identify pharmacy-level barriers to implementing prescription-expedited partner therapy for Chlamydia trachomatis treatment. We used spatial analysis and ArcGIS, a geographic information system, to map and assess geospatial access to pharmacies within Baltimore, MD, neighborhoods with the highest rates of Chlamydia trachomatis (1180.25-4255.31 per 100,000 persons). Expedited partner therapy knowledge and practices were collected via a telephone survey of pharmacists employed at retail pharmacies located in these same neighborhoods. Cost of antibiotic medication in US dollars was collected. Census tracts with the highest Chlamydia trachomatis incidence rates had lower median pharmacy density than other census tracts (26.9 per 100,000 vs 31.4 per 100,000, P barriers to implementing prescription-expedited partner therapy. Although most Baltimore pharmacists were unaware of expedited partner therapy, they were generally receptive to learning about and filling expedited partner therapy prescriptions. This finding suggests the need for wide dissemination of educational material targeted to pharmacists. In areas with limited geographic access to pharmacies, expedited partner therapy strategies that do not depend on partners physically accessing a pharmacy merit consideration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Les algues sont-elles une ressource marine à exploiter pour développer durablement l’espace caribéen ? Can algae be a sea resource to be exploited to have a sustainable development of Caribbean?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Litzler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available L’algue est une ressource marine peu étudiée par la géographie ; elle offre pourtant des potentialités de développement économique. Les macro-algues cultivées à des fins alimentaires sont une alternative à la pêche. Les micro-algues constituent une biomasse valorisable : molécule pharmaceutique, Oméga 3 et biocarburants. De ces différents usages naît la question suivante : les algues sont-elles une ressource marine à exploiter pour développer durablement les territoires de la zone intertropicale ? Nous présenterons tout d’abord l’algoculture à l’échelle mondiale en soulignant le faible poids de cette activité dans le bassin caribéen. Puis nous montrerons que l’algoculture s’inscrit dans un processus de développement durable en assurant un revenu à des communautés rurales (Petites Antilles. Enfin, dans une approche comparative (États-Unis, nous verrons que l’espace caribéen est une région de projets et d’aménagements durables qui a des atouts pour développer l’algoculture : exposition solaire, hautes températures, proximité de la recherche américaine.Algae as sea resource have not been largely explored in Geography, yet it offers the potential for economic development. Macro-algae are cultivated for food purposes and they can substitute for fishing. Micro-algae can be valued as biomass: “nutraceutics”, Omega 3, biofuel. These various utilizations raise a question: are algae a key to a sustainable development in intertropical islands? We shall present Algaculture on a global scale, while emphasizing its low importance in the Caribbean. Then we shall show how algaculture can be part of a process of sustainable development by providing revenue to rural communities (Lesser Antilles. Finally, in a comparative approach (with the US, we shall see that the Caribbean Region has a number of assets for algaculture that make it suitable for sustainable projects and infrastructures: solar exposure

  15. Recent Multidisciplinary Research Initiatives and IODP Drilling in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Li, C. F.; Wang, P.; Kulhanek, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is the largest low-latitude marginal sea in the world. Its formation and evolution are linked to the complex continental-oceanic tectonic interaction of the Eurasian, Pacific, and Indo-Australian plates. Despite its relatively small size and short history, the SCS has undergone nearly a complete Wilson cycle from continental break-up to seafloor spreading to subduction, serving as a natural laboratory for studying the linkages between tectonic, volcanic, and oceanic processes. The last several years have witnessed significant progress in investigation of the SCS through comprehensive research programs using multidisciplinary approaches and enhanced international collaboration. The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 349 drilled and cored five sites in the SCS in 2014. The expedition successfully obtained the first basaltic rock samples of the SCS relict spreading center, discovered large and frequent deep-sea turbidity events, and sampled multiple seamount volcaniclastic layers. In addition, high-resolution near-seafloor magnetic surveys were conducted in the SCS with survey lines passing near some of the IODP drilling sites. Together the IODP drilling and deep-tow magnetic survey results confirmed, for the first time, that the entire SCS basin might have stopped seafloor spreading at similar ages in early Miocene, providing important constraints on marginal sea geodynamic models. In 2007, IODP Expeditions 367 and 368 will drill the northern margin of the SCS to investigate the mechanisms of rifting to spreading processes. Meanwhile, major progress in studying the SCS processes has also been made through comprehensive multidisciplinary programs, for example, the eight-year-long "South China Sea Deep" initiative, which also supports and encourages strong international collaboration. This presentation will highlight the recent multidisciplinary research initiatives in investigation of the SCS and the important role of

  16. The Governance of Multi-Use Platforms at Sea for Energy Production and Aquaculture: Challenges for Policy Makers in European Seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, Marian; Soma, Katrine; Koundouri, Phoebe; Burg, Van Den Sander; Gerritsen, Alwin; Rockmann, C.

    2016-01-01

    European seas are encountering an upsurge in competing marine activities and infrastructures. Traditional exploitation such as fisheries, tourism, transportation, and oil production are accompanied by new sustainable economic activities such as offshore windfarms, aquaculture, and tidal and wave

  17. Climate change facilitated range expansion of the non-native angular crab Goneplax rhomboides into the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, H.; Boois, de I.J.; Kroncke, I.; Reiss, H.

    2013-01-01

    The angular crab Goneplax rhomboides is native to the north-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. It has rarely been reported from the North Sea, with no evidence of sustainable populations. Compiled survey data, however, revealed an increasing abundance of this species in the North Sea since

  18. A deep sea community at the Kebrit brine pool in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Vestheim, Hege

    2015-02-26

    Approximately 25 deep sea brine pools occur along the mid axis of the Red Sea. These hypersaline, anoxic, and acidic environments have previously been reported to host diverse microbial communities. We visited the Kebrit brine pool in April 2013 and found macrofauna present just above the brine–seawater interface (~1465 m). In particular, inactive sulfur chimneys had associated epifauna of sea anemones, sabellid type polychaetes, and hydroids, and infauna consisting of capitellid polychaetes, gastropods of the genus Laeviphitus (fam. Elachisinidae), and top snails of the family Cocculinidae. The deep Red Sea generally is regarded as extremely poor in benthos. We hypothesize that the periphery along the Kebrit holds increased biomass and biodiversity that are sustained by prokaryotes associated with the brine pool or co-occurring seeps.

  19. Lessons from sea louse and salmon epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, Maya L; Rogers, Luke A; Bateman, Andrew W; Connors, Brendan M; Frazer, L Neil; Godwin, Sean C; Krkošek, Martin; Lewis, Mark A; Peacock, Stephanie J; Rees, Erin E; Revie, Crawford W; Schlägel, Ulrike E

    2016-03-05

    Effective disease management can benefit from mathematical models that identify drivers of epidemiological change and guide decision-making. This is well illustrated in the host-parasite system of sea lice and salmon, which has been modelled extensively due to the economic costs associated with sea louse infections on salmon farms and the conservation concerns associated with sea louse infections on wild salmon. Consequently, a rich modelling literature devoted to sea louse and salmon epidemiology has been developed. We provide a synthesis of the mathematical and statistical models that have been used to study the epidemiology of sea lice and salmon. These studies span both conceptual and tactical models to quantify the effects of infections on host populations and communities, describe and predict patterns of transmission and dispersal, and guide evidence-based management of wild and farmed salmon. As aquaculture production continues to increase, advances made in modelling sea louse and salmon epidemiology should inform the sustainable management of marine resources. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Approaches to defining deltaic sustainability in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John W.; Agboola, Julius; Chen, Zhongyuan; D'Elia, Christopher; Forbes, Donald L.; Giosan, Liviu; Kemp, Paul; Kuenzer, Claudia; Lane, Robert R.; Ramachandran, Ramesh; Syvitski, James; Yañez-Arancibia, Alejandro

    2016-12-01

    Deltas are among the most productive and economically important of global ecosystems but unfortunately they are also among the most threatened by human activities. Here we discuss deltas and human impact, several approaches to defining deltaic sustainability and present a ranking of sustainability. Delta sustainability must be considered within the context of global biophysical and socioeconomic constraints that include thermodynamic limitations, scale and embeddedness, and constraints at the level of the biosphere/geosphere. The development, functioning, and sustainability of deltas are the result of external and internal inputs of energy and materials, such as sediments and nutrients, that include delta lobe development, channel switching, crevasse formation, river floods, storms and associated waves and storm surges, and tides and other ocean currents. Modern deltas developed over the past several thousand years with relatively stable global mean sea level, predictable material inputs from drainage basins and the sea, and as extremely open systems. Human activity has changed these conditions to make deltas less sustainable, in that they are unable to persist through time structurally or functionally. Deltaic sustainability can be considered from geomorphic, ecological, and economic perspectives, with functional processes at these three levels being highly interactive. Changes in this functioning can lead to either enhanced or diminished sustainability, but most changes have been detrimental. There is a growing understanding that the trajectories of global environmental change and cost of energy will make achieving delta sustainability more challenging and limit options for management. Several delta types are identified in terms of sustainability including those in arid regions, those with high and low energy-intensive management systems, deltas below sea level, tropical deltas, and Arctic deltas. Representative deltas are ranked on a sustainability range

  1. Formal hepatitis C education enhances HCV care coordination, expedites HCV treatment and improves antiviral response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubega, Samali; Agbim, Uchenna; Surjadi, Miranda; Mahoney, Megan; Khalili, Mandana

    2013-08-01

    Formal Hepatitis C virus (HCV) education improves HCV knowledge but the impact on treatment uptake and outcome is not well described. We aimed to evaluate the impact of formal HCV patient education on primary provider-specialist HCV comanagement and treatment. Primary care providers within the San Francisco safety-net health care system were surveyed and the records of HCV-infected patients before and after institution of a formal HCV education class by liver specialty (2006-2011) were reviewed retrospectively. Characteristics of 118 patients who received anti-HCV therapy were: mean age 51, 73% males and ~50% White and uninsured. The time to initiation of HCV treatment was shorter among those who received formal education (median 136 vs 284 days, P non-1 genotype (OR 6.17, 95% CI 2.3-12.7, P = 0.0003) and receipt of HCV education (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.1-7.9, P = 0.03) were associated with sustained virologic treatment response. Among 94 provider respondents (response rate = 38%), mean age was 42, 62% were White, and 63% female. Most providers agreed that the HCV education class increased patients' HCV knowledge (70%), interest in HCV treatment (52%), and provider-patient communication (56%). A positive provider attitude (Coef 1.5, 95% CI 0.1-2.9 percent, P = 0.039) was independently associated with referral rate to education class. Formal HCV education expedites HCV therapy and improves virologic response rates. As primary care provider attitude plays a significant role in referral to HCV education class, improving provider knowledge will likely enhance access to HCV specialty services in the vulnerable population. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Coastal seas as resource for Blue Growth - SmartSea project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilainen, Aarno; Alvi, Kimmo; Boman, Anton; Hämäläinen, Jyrki; Kaskela, Anu; Rantataro, Jyrki; Vallius, Henry; Virtasalo, Joonas

    2017-04-01

    Blue growth is a long term strategy of the European Union (EU) to enhance the sustainable growth of the maritime sector. Our surrounding seas have been drivers for the European economy for a long time, but still they have great potential for further exploiting of natural resources and economic growth. Especially if the growth can be achieved in an environmentally sustainable way, benefits are obvious. It has been estimated that improvement of the state of the Baltic Sea would until 2030 create 900 000 jobs in the whole Baltic Sea area, mainly in Blue Tech, tourism, real estate and building businesses (Dahlgren et al. 2015). However, coastal seas already experience multiple stressors like off-shore construction, pollution, eutrophication, shipping, over-fishing, and climate change. In order to obtain sustainable Blue Growth, it is necessary to localize and assess the current maritime activities, estimate their growth potential, and investigate their present and future effects on each other and on the marine environment. The purpose of the SmartSea project is to support the growth of commercial marine activities in the Gulf of Bothnia region, in the northern Baltic Sea. The Gulf of Bothnia is an essential resource in terms of fish farming and wind power, for example, and it is also possible to make use of the geological resources of the gulf. Moreover, the rapid growth of the commercial marine activities and the consequences of the climate change may lead to conflicts between the different activities and harm the marine ecosystem of the Gulf of Bothnia. The SmartSea project aims to identify these risks and find solutions for the sustainable use of the sea. SmartSea project is funded by the Strategic Research Council of Academy of Finland, grant No: 292 985. The project will last for six years (2015-2020) and its funding totals nearly 8 million euros. The project involves close to 40 researchers from eight different institutions: the Finnish Meteorological Institute

  3. Sea Lion Diet Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions pup and breed at four of the nine Channel Islands in southern California. Since 1981, SWFSC MMTD has been conducting a diet study of sea lions...

  4. Sustaining observations in the polar oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsen, E P

    2014-09-28

    Polar oceans present a unique set of challenges to sustained observations. Sea ice cover restricts navigation for ships and autonomous measurement platforms alike, and icebergs present a hazard to instruments deployed in the upper ocean and in shelf seas. However, the important role of the poles in the global ocean circulation provides ample justification for sustained observations in these regions, both to monitor the rapid changes taking place, and to better understand climate processes in these traditionally poorly sampled areas. In the past, the vast majority of polar measurements took place in the summer. In recent years, novel techniques such as miniature CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) tags carried by seals have provided an explosion in year-round measurements in areas largely inaccessible to ships, and, as ice avoidance is added to autonomous profiling floats and gliders, these promise to provide further enhancements to observing systems. In addition, remote sensing provides vital information about changes taking place in sea ice cover at both poles. To make these observations sustainable into the future, improved international coordination and collaboration is necessary to gain optimum utilization of observing networks. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. A Strategic Examination of the Punitive Expedition into Mexico, 1916-1917

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cyrulik, John

    2003-01-01

    This thesis examines the strategy of the United States Army's Punitive Expedition into Mexico following the raid on Columbus, New Mexico, by Francisco Pancho Villa and his followers on 9 March 1916...

  6. The Royal Philanthropic Expedition of the Vaccine: a landmark in the history of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Pérez-de-Celis, E

    2008-11-01

    In 1979, smallpox officially became the first disease ever to be eradicated by mankind. The global efforts to defeat this dreadful pandemic, however, started almost two centuries before. One of the most important, and sometimes forgotten, events in the fight against smallpox was the Royal Philanthropic Expedition of the Vaccine, commissioned by Charles IV of Spain to physicians Francisco Xavier Balmis y Berenguer and Jose Salvany in 1804. The aim of this expedition was to take the smallpox vaccine, discovered by Jenner, to Spain's territories in the Americas and in the Far East. After several years of vaccination in modern day Puerto Rico, Cuba, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Mexico and the Philippines, the expedition returned to Europe. To this day, the Balmis and Salvany expedition remains a great example of international cooperation, and a landmark in the history of public health.

  7. ASTER Expedited L1B Registered Radiance at the Sensor V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Expedited ASTER Level-1B Registered Radiance at the Sensor data set is produced with the express purpose of providing ASTER Science Team members data of their...

  8. ASTER Expedited L1A Reconstructed Unprocessed Instrument Data V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASTER Expedited L1A Reconstructed Unprocessed Instrument Data is produced with the express purpose of providing the ASTER Science Team members and others, data...

  9. Expediting Clinician Adoption of Safety Practices: The UCSF Venous Access Patient Safety Interdisciplinary Education Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donaldson, Nancy E; Plank, Rosemary K; Williamson, Ann; Pearl, Jeffrey; Kellogg, Jerry; Ryder, Marcia

    2005-01-01

    ...) Venous Access Device (VAD) Patient Safety Interdisciplinary Education Project was to develop a 30-hour/one clinical academic unit VAD patient safety course with the aim of expediting clinician adoption of critical concepts...

  10. Effects of an Arctic Ocean Ski Traverse on the Protective Capabilities of Expedition Footwear

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Endrusick, Thomas; Frykman, Peter; O'Brien, Catherine; Giblo, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    A traverse of the Arctic Ocean during a 2000-km unsupported ski expedition provided an opportunity to assess the impact of an extreme cold environment on the protective capabilities of a specialized footwear system (FS...

  11. Evolution of biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus during 45~50 Ma revealed by sequential extraction analysis of IODP Expedition 302 cores from the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, S.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Takahashi, K.

    2012-12-01

    The modern Arctic Ocean plays crucial roles in controlling global climate system with the driving force of global thermohaline circulation through the formation of dense deep water and high albedo due to the presence of perennial sea-ice. However, the Arctic sea-ice has not always existed in the past. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 302 Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) has clarified that global warming (water temperature: ca. 14~16○C) during 48~49 Ma Azolla Event induced the loss of sea-ice and desalination of surface ocean, and that sea-ice formed again some million years later (45 Ma). In the Arctic Ocean, warming and cooling events repeated over and over (e.g., Brinkhuis et al., 2006; Moran et al., 2006; März et al., 2010). Large variations in the extent of thermohaline circulation through time often caused stagnation of seawater and appearance of anaerobic environment where hydrogen sulfide was produced by bacterial sulfate reduction. Ogawa et al. (2009) confirmed occurrence of framboidal pyrite in the ACEX sediments, and suggested that the Arctic Ocean at the time was anoxic, analogous to the modern Black Sea, mainly based on sulfur isotope analysis. To further clarify the variations in the nutrient status of the Arctic Ocean, we focus on the geochemical cycle of phosphorus. We performed sequential extraction analysis of sedimentary phosphorus in the ACEX sediments, using the method that we improvped based on the original SEDEX method by Ruttenberg (1992) and Schenau et al. (2000). In our method, phosphorus fractions are divided into five forms; (1) absorbed P, (2) Feoxide-P, (4) carbonate fluorapatite (CFAP) + CaCO3-P + hydroxylapatite (HAP), (4) detrital P, and (5) organic P. Schenau et al. (2000) divided the (3) fraction into non-biological CFAP and biological HAP and CaCO3-P. When the Arctic Ocean was closed and in its warming period, the water mass was most likely stratified and an anaerobic condition would have prevailed where

  12. Regional ocean-colour chlorophyll algorithms for the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Brewin, Robert J.W.

    2015-05-18

    The Red Sea is a semi-enclosed tropical marine ecosystem that stretches from the Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aqaba in the north, to the Gulf of Aden in the south. Despite its ecological and economic importance, its biological environment is relatively unexplored. Satellite ocean-colour estimates of chlorophyll concentration (an index of phytoplankton biomass) offer an observational platform to monitor the health of the Red Sea. However, little is known about the optical properties of the region. In this paper, we investigate the optical properties of the Red Sea in the context of satellite ocean-colour estimates of chlorophyll concentration. Making use of a new merged ocean-colour product, from the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative, and in situ data in the region, we test the performance of a series of ocean-colour chlorophyll algorithms. We find that standard algorithms systematically overestimate chlorophyll when compared with the in situ data. To investigate this bias we develop an ocean-colour model for the Red Sea, parameterised to data collected during the Tara Oceans expedition, that estimates remote-sensing reflectance as a function of chlorophyll concentration. We used the Red Sea model to tune the standard chlorophyll algorithms and the overestimation in chlorophyll originally observed was corrected. Results suggest that the overestimation was likely due to an excess of CDOM absorption per unit chlorophyll in the Red Sea when compared with average global conditions. However, we recognise that additional information is required to test the influence of other potential sources of the overestimation, such as aeolian dust, and we discuss uncertainties in the datasets used. We present a series of regional chlorophyll algorithms for the Red Sea, designed for a suite of ocean-colour sensors, that may be used for further testing.

  13. Dumping of radioactive waste and investigation of contamination in the Kara Sea. Results from 3 years of investigations (1992-1994) in the Kara Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, P [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway); Foeyn, L [Norsk Inst. for Vannforskning, Oslo (Norway); Nikitin, A I [SPA ` ` Typhoon` ` , Roshydromet (Russian Federation); and others

    1996-03-01

    The report summarises the results obtained from the joint Russian-Norwegian investigation concerning the consequences of dumping of radioactive waste in the Kara Sea. Three expeditions were undertaken to the Kara Sea and the present dumping sites for radioactive waste. Samples of water, sediments and biota were collected and analysed. An impact and risk assessment was performed, based on the information provided through the joint cooperation. Enhanced levels and artificially produced radionuclides in the sediments collected in the very close vicinity of almost all localised dumped objects, demonstrate that leakage occur. No contribution from dumped radioactive waste was observed in the open Kara Sea. Due to the potential for leakage from the dumped waste in the future and the presence of other potential sources in the area, a regular monitoring programme is highly recommended. 65 refs., 42 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. Dumping of radioactive waste and investigation of contamination in the Kara Sea. Results from 3 years of investigations (1992-1994) in the Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Foeyn, L.; Nikitin, A.I.

    1996-03-01

    The report summarises the results obtained from the joint Russian-Norwegian investigation concerning the consequences of dumping of radioactive waste in the Kara Sea. Three expeditions were undertaken to the Kara Sea and the present dumping sites for radioactive waste. Samples of water, sediments and biota were collected and analysed. An impact and risk assessment was performed, based on the information provided through the joint cooperation. Enhanced levels and artificially produced radionuclides in the sediments collected in the very close vicinity of almost all localised dumped objects, demonstrate that leakage occur. No contribution from dumped radioactive waste was observed in the open Kara Sea. Due to the potential for leakage from the dumped waste in the future and the presence of other potential sources in the area, a regular monitoring programme is highly recommended. 65 refs., 42 figs., 16 tabs

  15. Assessing sustainable remediation frameworks using sustainability principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridsdale, D Reanne; Noble, Bram F

    2016-12-15

    The remediation industry has grown exponentially in recent decades. International organizations of practitioners and remediation experts have developed several frameworks for integrating sustainability into remediation projects; however, there has been limited attention to how sustainability is approached and operationalized in sustainable remediation frameworks and practices - or whether sustainability plays any meaningful role at all in sustainable remediation. This paper examines how sustainability is represented in remediation frameworks and the guidance provided for practical application. Seven broad sustainability principles and review criteria are proposed and applied to a sample of six international remediation frameworks. Not all review criteria were equally satisfied and none of the frameworks fully met all criteria; however, the best performing frameworks were those identified as sustainability remediation frameworks. Intra-generational equity was addressed by all frameworks. Integrating social, economic and biophysical components beyond triple-bottom-line indicators was explicitly addressed only by the sustainable remediation frameworks. No frameworks provided principle- or rule-based guidance for dealing with trade-offs in sustainability decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Technology and sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Boersema, J.J.; Tellegen, E.; Cremers, A.

    2011-01-01

    In ten essays, this book addresses a broad range of issues related to the interplay of sustainability and technology. How do population growth and technology relate to sustainable development? Can globalization be reconciled with sustainable development? Is sustainability a subjective or an

  17. Sustainable consumption and marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the

  18. Microbial extremophiles from the 2008 Schirmacher Oasis Expedition: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Pikuta, Elena V.; Townsend, Alisa; Anthony, Joshua; Guisler, Melissa; McDaniel, Jasmine; Bej, Asim; Storrie-Lombardi, Michael

    2008-08-01

    Among the most interesting targets for Astrobiology research are the polar ice caps and the permafrost of Mars and the ice and liquid water bodies that may lie beneath the frozen crusts of comets, the icy moons of Jupiter (Europa, Io and Ganymede) and Saturn (Titan and Enceladus). The permanently ice-covered lakes of Antarctica, such as Lake Vostok and Lake Untersee, provide some of the best terrestrial analogues for these targets. The 2008 International Tawani Schirmacher Oasis/Lake Untersee Expeditions have been organized to conduct studies of novel microbial extremophiles and investigate the biodiversity of the glaciers and ice-covered lakes of Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. This paper describes the preliminary analysis of the anaerobic microbial extremophiles isolated from samples collected during the 2008 International Schirmacher Oasis Antarctica Reconnaissance Expedition. These samples showed great diversity of psychrophlic and psychrotolerant bacteria. Six new anaerobic strains have been isolated in pure cultures and partially characterized. Two of them (strains ARHSd-7G and ARHSd-9G) were isolated from a small tidal pool near the colony of African Penguins Spheniscus demersus. Strain ARHSd-7G was isolated on mineral anaerobic medium with 3 % NaCl, pH 7 and D-glucose, it has motile, vibrion shape cells, and is Gram variable. Strain ARHSd-9G grew on anaerobic, alkaline medium with pH 9 and 1 % NaCl at 3°C. The substrate was D-glucose supplemented with yeast extract (0.05 %). Cells of strain ARHSd-9G had morphology of straight or slightly curved elongated rods and demonstrated unusual optical effects under dark-field visible light microscopy. The cells were spore-forming and Gram positive. From the mat sample collected near Lake Zub, the new strain LZ-3 was isolated in pure culture at 3°C. Strain LZ-3 was anaerobic and grew on 0.5 % NaCl mineral medium with Dglucose as a substrate. The gram positive cells were spore-forming. They exhibited a

  19. Arctic Collaboration: Developing a Successful Researcher/Teacher Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotnicki, S.; Loranty, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    Are you a researcher working in the polar regions of the world or a K-12 science teacher who would like to be part of a field research expedition in the polar regions? Researchers and K-12 science teachers can apply for funding from PolarTREC, a program that pairs researchers and teachers to conduct field science in Antarctica and the Arctic. Our poster presentation will offer details of one such successful researcher/teacher partnership. During the summer of 2016, Science Teacher Stan Skotnicki (Cheektowaga Central Middle School in Buffalo, NY) was teamed up with Assistant Professor Mike Loranty (Colgate University) to study vegetation and ecosystem impacts on permafrost vulnerability. Stan joined Mike and his research team in Northeastern Siberia preparing field sites, collecting data, processing samples, discussing methods, and planning daily activities. In order to raise awareness and broaden the impact of the research being conducted, Stan communicated the science through a series of journals on the PolarTREC website with his students, staff, and members of the community. Additionally, Mike and Stan held a live webinar from Siberia discussing the content of the research, the nature of the fieldwork, and why it was important to travel so far for this information. This expedition allowed Stan to experience working with a field research team for an extended period of time. Mike benefited from having a team member dedicated to learning about and communicating project details that also provided valuable field assistance. Stan gets to bring his hands-on experience back to his classroom in Buffalo and Mike has the opportunity to share his research with a new and different audience, including presenting to students at Cheektowaga Central with the help of his undergraduate students. This model of collaboration provides a number of valuable benefits for both teachers and researchers. While the PolarTREC program provides necessary logistics and funding to conduct these

  20. Externality or sustainability economics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  1. Gender, culture, and astrophysical fieldwork: Elizabeth Campbell and the Lick Observatory-Crocker eclipse expeditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, A. S.-K.

    The article is organized as follows. It begins with an overview of women in nineteenth-century American science. It then describes the culture of mountaintop observatories and life on Mount Hamilton. Elizabeth Campbell's unique role in the Crocker-Lick expeditions drew upon her equally unique role in the observatory, and also on the meaning given to women's work in general on the mountain. The bulk of the article focuses on the Campbells and their expeditions to India in 1898, Spain in 1905, and the South Pacific in 1908. The third section compares the Lick Observatory expeditions to those conducted by David Todd of Amherst College. Todd's wife, Mabel Loomis Todd, went into the field several times with her husband, but her place in the field was radically different from Elizabeth Campbell's, a difference that can be ascribed to a combination of local culture and personality. Finally, it compares American expeditions to British expeditions of the period, to see what the absence of British women on expeditions can tell us about the way national scientific styles and cultures affected gender roles in science.

  2. ISS Expeditions 16 through 20: Chemical Analysis Results for Potable Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2-year span from Expedition 16 through Expedition 20, the chemical quality of the potable water onboard the International Space Station (ISS) was verified safe for crew consumption through the return and chemical analysis of archival water samples by the Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Reclaimed cabin humidity condensate and Russian ground-supplied water were the principal sources of potable water for Expeditions 16 through 18. During Expedition 18 the U.S. water processor assembly was delivered, installed, and tested during a 90-day checkout period. Beginning with Expedition 19, U.S. potable water recovered from a combined waste stream of humidity condensate and pretreated urine was also available for ISS crew use. A total of 74 potable water samples were collected using U.S. sampling hardware during Expeditions 16 through 20 and returned on both Shuttle and Soyuz vehicles. The results of JSC chemical analyses of these ISS potable water samples are presented in this paper. Eight potable water samples collected in flight with Russian hardware were also received for analysis, as well as 5 preflight samples of Rodnik potable water delivered to ISS on Russian Progress vehicles 28 to 34. Analytical results for these additional potable water samples are also reported and discussed.

  3. Engineering Sustainability: A Technical Approach to Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Marc A.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability is a critically important goal for human activity and development. Sustainability in the area of engineering is of great importance to any plans for overall sustainability given 1) the pervasiveness of engineering activities in societies, 2) their importance in economic development and living standards, and 3) the significant impacts that engineering processes and systems have had, and continue to have, on the environment. Many factors that need to be considered and appropriate...

  4. Remote sensing of sea ice: advances during the DAMOCLES project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Heygster

    2012-12-01

    ASCAT (62.5 km grid spacing, with visible AVHRR observations (20 km, with the synthetic aperture radar sensor ASAR (10 km, and a multi-sensor product (62.5 km with improved angular resolution (Continuous Maximum Cross Correlation, CMCC method is presented. CMCC is also used to derive the sea ice deformation, important for formation of sea ice leads (diverging deformation and pressure ridges (converging. The indirect determination of sea ice thickness from altimeter freeboard data requires knowledge of the ice density and snow load on sea ice. The relation between freeboard and ice thickness is investigated based on the airborne Sever expeditions conducted between 1928 and 1993.

  5. Theory versus practice in Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobos, Víctor; Partidario, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Could the theory of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) be ahead of its time and decoupled from its practice? This paper evolved in search for this leading research question. Over the years the discourse on SEA experienced a gradual shift from the technocratic and rationalist thinking that supported its origin to more strategic approaches and integrated concepts, suggested since the mid 1990's. In this paper we share the results of our analysis of international thinking and practical experience with SEA. Results reveal that SEA practice changes very slowly when compared to advanced thinking supporting the noted shift. Current SEA practice shows to be still predominantly rooted in the logic of projects' environmental impact assessment (EIA). It is strongly bound to legal and regulatory requirements, and the motivation for its application persists being the delivery of environmental (or final) reports to meet legal obligations. Even though advanced SEA theoretical thinking claim its potential to help decisions to look forward, change mind-sets and the rationale of decision-making to meet sustainability challenges and enhance societal values, we note a weak relationship between the theoretical development of SEA and its practice. Why is this happening? Which factors explain this apparent inertia, resistance to change, in the SEA practice? Results appear to demonstrate the influence of assumptions, understandings, concepts, and beliefs in the use of SEA, which in turn suggest the political sensitivity of the instrument. - Highlights: • Theoretical thinking in SEA is ahead of its time. • SEA international practice reveals inertia to move out of project’ EIA comfort zone. • World current SEA practice show similar understandings of 30 years ago. • 100 world reports and survey of practitioners supported world review. • SEA great challenge is to change paradigms into new scientific complexity theories

  6. Theory versus practice in Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobos, Víctor, E-mail: vlobosg@gmail.com [CEG-IST, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Research Group on Strategic Approaches to Environment and Sustainability (SENSU), 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, San Crescente 551, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Partidario, Maria [CEG-IST, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Research Group on Strategic Approaches to Environment and Sustainability (SENSU), 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-09-15

    Could the theory of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) be ahead of its time and decoupled from its practice? This paper evolved in search for this leading research question. Over the years the discourse on SEA experienced a gradual shift from the technocratic and rationalist thinking that supported its origin to more strategic approaches and integrated concepts, suggested since the mid 1990's. In this paper we share the results of our analysis of international thinking and practical experience with SEA. Results reveal that SEA practice changes very slowly when compared to advanced thinking supporting the noted shift. Current SEA practice shows to be still predominantly rooted in the logic of projects' environmental impact assessment (EIA). It is strongly bound to legal and regulatory requirements, and the motivation for its application persists being the delivery of environmental (or final) reports to meet legal obligations. Even though advanced SEA theoretical thinking claim its potential to help decisions to look forward, change mind-sets and the rationale of decision-making to meet sustainability challenges and enhance societal values, we note a weak relationship between the theoretical development of SEA and its practice. Why is this happening? Which factors explain this apparent inertia, resistance to change, in the SEA practice? Results appear to demonstrate the influence of assumptions, understandings, concepts, and beliefs in the use of SEA, which in turn suggest the political sensitivity of the instrument. - Highlights: • Theoretical thinking in SEA is ahead of its time. • SEA international practice reveals inertia to move out of project’ EIA comfort zone. • World current SEA practice show similar understandings of 30 years ago. • 100 world reports and survey of practitioners supported world review. • SEA great challenge is to change paradigms into new scientific complexity theories.

  7. STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN URBANIZATION PROCESS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Xiu-zhen; SHANG Jin-cheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviewed the development of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in China, expounded its functions and regional characteristics, and discussed the targets of SEA in the process of urbanization,and the main assessment indicators, procedures, techniques and methodologies of SEA. It concluded that SEA could be improved by the following recommendations: incorporating SEA in decision-making process, selecting experimental units for SEA trial run, and developing strategic evaluation tools and techniques. SEA can provide appropriate and up-to-date information on the impact of human activity on environment in the process of urbanization, and develop a plan of action targeting implementation of intervention for the rehabilitation and preservation of the ecological stability of a city. Therefore, SEA can be a supporting tool for decision-making toward achieving sustainable development.

  8. Prospect of Sea Cucumber Culture in Indonesia as Potential Food Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Pangkey, Henneke; Lantu, Sartje; Manuand, Lusia; Mokolensang, JeffrieFredrik

    2012-01-01

    Sea cucumber is one of the sea treasures which has been used not only as luxury food for certain countries but also as medicines. Sea cucumber has become one of the most important products and it has high price in International market.For this reason, the exploitation of sea cucumber turns out to be excessive and disturbs its sustainability. Aquaculture is the best way to prevent this problem. The success of sea cucumber culture is very depend on seed availability and suitable food for larvae...

  9. Solar irradiance measurements from the Danish Galathea 3 expedition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bason, Frank [SolData Instruments, Silkeborg (Denmark)

    2008-07-01

    The Danish Galathea 3 Expedition completed an eight month journey of exploration and discovery on April 25th, 2007, having set sail from Copenhagen on August 11th, 2006. SolData Instruments was privileged to be selected to contribute an ''optics table'' with pyranometers, ultraviolet, lux, sky luminance, PAR and other optical radiation detectors. These instruments recorded data continuously during the 100.000 kilometer voyage of the Royal Danish Navy vessel Vaedderen. The voyage provided global solar irradiance and other data as far north as the Arctic Circle near Greenland and as far south as Antarctica. The data collected was analyzed to validate a solar irradiance model described in this paper. A unique opportunity was also provided to check the performance of SolData photovoltaic pyranometers against data from a Kipp-Zonen CMll instrument. In addition to optical radiation, ionizing radiation and atmospheric pressure were also measured, and some interesting aspects of these measurements will also be mentioned. (orig.)

  10. Sodium Dichromate Barrel Landfill expedited response action proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) prepare an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Landfill. The Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Site was used in 1945 for disposal of crushed barrels. The site location is the sole waste site within the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. The Waste Information Data System (WIDS 1992) assumes that the crushed barrels contained 1% residual sodium dichromate at burial time and that only buried crushed barrels are at the site. Burial depth is shallow since visual inspection finds numerous barrel debris on the surface. A non-time-critical ERA proposal includes preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA) section. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the ERA will present a final remediation of the 100-IU-4 operable unit

  11. Europa’s lost expedition a scientific novel

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This classically styled, chilling murder mystery about an expedition under the ice of Jupiter’s ocean moon Europa, backed up by the latest scientific findings on this icy satellite. The science fiction premise explores real possibilities of exploring other bodies in the Solar System, including probing their possible astrobiology. Now that the most recent world war has concluded on Earth, human explorers are returning to exploration, carrying out a full-court press to journey into the alien abyss using tele-operated biorobotics and human-tended submersibles. Nine scientists head out to Jupiter’s icy ocean-moon. But at Europa’s most remote outpost, one by one, the team members who shared the cruise out begin to die under suspicious circumstances. All was well until humans begin diving into Europa’s subsurface ocean. The deaths have all the symptoms of some sort of plague, despite Europa’s seemingly sterile environment. Besides providing thrills, a science section covers the very latest in undersea rob...

  12. Task-dependent cold stress during expeditions in Antarctic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Drew M; Pilcher, June J; Powell, Robert B

    2017-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the degree of body cooling, cold perception and physical discomfort during Antarctic tour excursions. Eight experienced expedition leaders across three Antarctic cruise voyages were monitored during occupational tasks: kayaking, snorkelling and zodiac outings. Subjective cold perception and discomfort were recorded using a thermal comfort assessment and skin temperature was recorded using a portable data logger. Indoor cabin temperature and outdoor temperature with wind velocity were used as measures of environmental stress. Physical activity level and clothing insulation were estimated using previous literature. Tour leaders experienced a 6°C (2°C wind chill) environment for an average of 6 hours each day. Leaders involved in kayaking reported feeling colder and more uncomfortable than other leaders, but zodiac leaders showed greater skin temperature cooling. Occupational experience did not predict body cooling or cold stress perception. These findings indicate that occupational cold stress varies by activity and measurement methodology. The current study effectively used objective and subjective measures of cold-stress to identify factors which can contribute to risk in the Antarctic tourism industry. Results suggest that the type of activity may moderate risk of hypothermia, but not discomfort, potentially putting individuals at risk for cognitive related mistakes and cold injuries.

  13. Demarcating Mobile Phone Interface Design Guidelines to Expedite Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Vera Renaud

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines are recommended as a tool for informing user interface design. Despite a proliferation of guidelines in the research literature, there is little evidence of their use in industry, nor their influence in academic literature. In this paper, we explore the research literature related to mobile phone design guidelines to find out why this should be so. We commenced by carrying out a scoping literature review of the mobile phone design guideline literature to gain insight into the maturity of the field. The question we wanted to explore was: “Are researchers building on each others’ guidelines, or is the research field still in the foundational stage?” We discovered a poorly structured field, with many researchers proposing new guidelines, but little incremental refinement of extant guidelines. It also became clear that the current reporting of guidelines did not explicitly communicate their multi-dimensionality or deployment context. This leaves designers without a clear way of discriminating between guidelines, and could contribute to the lack of deployment we observed. We conducted a thematic analysis of papers identified by means of a systematic literature review to identify a set of dimensions of mobile phone interface design guidelines. The final dimensions provide a mechanism for differentiating guidelines and expediting choice.

  14. Expedited action recommended for spent nuclear fuel at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illman, D.

    1994-01-01

    After six months of study, Westinghouse Hanford Co. has proposed an expedited strategy to deal with spent nuclear fuel stored in rapidly deteriorating basins at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington. The two-phase approach calls for radioactive fuel to be removed from the basins and placed in special canisters, transported by rail to a new vault to be constructed at Hanford,and held there until a processing facility is built. Then the fuel would be stabilized and returned to the vault for interim storage of up to 40 years. The plan calls for waste fuel and sludge to be removed by 2000. More than 2,100 metric tons of spent fuel--nearly 80% of DOE's total spent-fuel inventory nationwide--is housed at the Hanford site in the two obsolete concrete water basins, called K East and K West. A specific location for the storage and processing facilities has not yet been identified, and rounds of environmental impact statements remain to be completed. While a recommended path seems to have been identified, there are miles to go before this spent fuel finally sleeps

  15. Radiation measured for ISS-Expedition 12 with different dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, D.; Semones, E.; Gaza, R.; Johnson, S.; Zapp, N.; Weyland, M.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation in low Earth orbit (LEO) is mainly from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR), solar energetic particles and particles in South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). These particles' radiation impact to astronauts depends strongly on the particles' linear energy transfer (LET) and is dominated by high LET radiation. It is important to investigate the LET spectrum for the radiation field and the influence of radiation on astronauts. At present, the best active dosimeters used for all LET are the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and silicon detectors; the best passive dosimeters are thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) or optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) for low LET and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) for high LET. TEPC, CR-39 PNTDs, TLDs and OSLDs were used to investigate the radiation for space mission Expedition 12 (ISS-11S) in LEO. LET spectra and radiation quantities (fluence, absorbed dose, dose equivalent and quality factor) were measured for the mission with these different dosimeters. This paper introduces the operation principles for these dosimeters, describes the method to combine the results measured by CR-39 PNTDs and TLDs/OSLDs, presents the experimental LET spectra and the radiation quantities

  16. Seasonal variations in carbon biomass of bacteria, thraustochytrids and microzooplankton in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Raghukumar, S.; Gauns, M.; Madhupratap, M.

    sup(-1) d sup(-1) below 100 m. In the NAS, heterotrophic bacteria appear to playa significant role in sustaining microzooplankton and the so-called 'Arabian Sea mesozooplankton stable-biomass paradox' through microbial loop. Sizable quantities of Hbac...

  17. Sea level report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    Study of Cenozoic Era sea levels shows a continual lowering of sea level through the Tertiary Period. This overall drop in sea level accompanied the Pleistocene Epoch glacio-eustatic fluctuations. The considerable change of Pleistocene Epoch sea level is most directly attributable to the glacio-eustatic factor, with a time span of 10 5 years and an amplitude or range of approximately 200 m. The lowering of sea level since the end of the Cretaceous Period is attributed to subsidence and mid-ocean ridges. The maximum rate for sea level change is 4 cm/y. At present, mean sea level is rising at about 3 to 4 mm/y. Glacio-eustacy and tectono-eustacy are the parameters for predicting sea level changes in the next 1 my. Glacio-eustatic sea level changes may be projected on the basis of the Milankovitch Theory. Predictions about tectono-eustatic sea level changes, however, involve predictions about future tectonic activity and are therefore somewhat difficult to make. Coastal erosion and sedimentation are affected by changes in sea level. Erosion rates for soft sediments may be as much as 50 m/y. The maximum sedimentation accumulation rate is 20 m/100 y

  18. Sustainability in Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollin, Karin; Vej, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    How do companies integrate sustainability into their strategy and practices, and what factors explain their approach? In this paper a typology of sustainability strategies is presented as well as a conceptual framework relating sustainability at the company level to the functional level of market...... managers' mindsets, a framework addressing sustainability from four organisational learning schools was designed and followed......How do companies integrate sustainability into their strategy and practices, and what factors explain their approach? In this paper a typology of sustainability strategies is presented as well as a conceptual framework relating sustainability at the company level to the functional level...... of marketing. The central contribution of the typology is a strategic and managerial view on sustainability. Furthermore, the typology shows that sustainability in business is enacted from different areas of competences and fields in the literature (e.g. supply chain management, corporate branding, value...

  19. The First D/V Chikyu IODP Operations: Successful Logging and Coring During NanTroSEIZE Stage 1 Expeditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moe Kyaw Thu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE is a multi-expedition IODP drilling project aimed at drilling, coring, logging, and instrumenting the seismogenic zone of an active subduction margin , in a region thought to generate megathrust earthquakes of magnitude >8.0 on the moment-magnitude scale (Tobin and Kinoshita, 2006. The Nankai Trough, offshore of the Kii Peninsula, Honshu, Japan (Fig. 1 was chosen as the location for thisproject based on a number of scientific drilling proposals to IODP. These reviewed existing drilling data in the region, the long-term historical and recent record of great earthquakes, the social and societal relevance of the area, and the accessibility of the seismogenic zone to present drilling technology. The first stage of this multi-stage project was intended to accomplish a broad characterization of the shallow geology, geophysics, physical properties, heat flow, and fluid flow in a transect across the downgoing Philippine Sea Plate, the toe of the Nankai accretionary prism, the megasplay fault zone region on the continental slope, and the Kumano Basin that lies between the accretionary prism and the KiiPeninsula, on the continental shelf (Fig. 2.

  20. The activities of the 42nd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-42 wintering team 2001-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Motoyoshi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The 42nd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-42 wintering team has conducted the Vth five-year JARE program during the period of February 1st 2001 to January 31st 2002, in which 40 members were engaged in the various scientific activities and maintenance of Syowa Station. The major observation programs of JARE-42 were as follows : Upper Atmo-spheric Physics-observations using Fabry-Perot imager, sodium Lidar and HFMF radar; Atmospheric Sciences and Glaciology-aerosols and air sampling, and shallow ice core drilling; Geophysics-superconducting gravity measurement, geodetic VLBI observations, and natural earthquake monitoring; Biology and Medicine-photosynthesis under sea water, populations census of penguins, and physiological and psychological adaptation to Antarctic environment, etc. In addition, satellite data receiving from ERS-2 and NOAA were also performed by using multi-purpose antenna at Syowa Station. Field activities included air sampling by using an aircraft, biological and geophysical observations, and reconnaissance survey for a possible aircraft runway around Syowa Station. Three inland traverse parties were organized, in which fuel transportation, maintenance of Dome Fuji Station, and various glaciological and geophysical observations were performed. A great efforts were made to maintain the facilities at Syowa Station by logistic personnel including mechanical engineers, radio operators, chefs, medical doctors, aircraft pilots and an engineer, an environmental engineer, a carpenter, a field assistant, a cinematographer, a satellite engineer, and an administrative officer. They were also involved in the support of field activities.

  1. Activity report of the 50th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-50 wintering party in 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Kadokura

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The 50th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-50 wintering party, consisting of 28 members, has conducted the third year program of the 7th four-year plan of JARE. JARE-50 took over the management of Syowa Station from JARE-49 on January 29, 2009 and handed over it to JARE-51 on February 1, 2010. Scientific observations carried out by JARE-50 were divided into the following five categories: 1. Steady Continuous Observations; 2. Long-term Monitoring; 3. Interdisciplinary Focused Projects; 4. Specific-Purpose Project on medical research; and 5. Preparatory Research for the future planned large atmospheric radar. There were many blizzards during the wintering, which required great efforts to clear snow. Sea ice conditions were stable, and almost all the planned outdoor operations were successfully performed. Various trainings and activities for safety management were carried out throughout the wintering, along with public outreach activities using the satellite communication network. Other items of note include photographing the Polar Mesospheric Cloud, voting in the Lower House election, the early arrival of five members of JARE-51 in November, and a visit by the Australian inspection team in January.

  2. Sustainable Table | Welcome to Sustainable Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Seafood Industrial Agriculture Industrial Livestock Production Antibiotics Hormones rBGH Animal , safeguarding animal welfare and supporting local communities. Questions to Ask Asking questions is the best way Livestock Husbandry Sustainable Crop Production Innovative Agriculture New Farmers Organic Agriculture Local

  3. What Can Expeditions Do for Students … and for Science? An Investigation into the Impact of University of Glasgow Exploration Society Expeditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Lynsey R.; Downie, J. Roger; Muir, Martin; White, Stewart A.

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of field courses for biological science students are well established, but field courses also have limitations: they are generally too brief to allow significant research and they are staff-designed and led, limiting the development of student autonomy. In contrast, the value of student-organised field expeditions has been little…

  4. Education for sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2009-01-01

     An introduction to the idea of sustainable development (SD) and education for sustainable development (ESD) with reference to the international Decade for Education for Sustainable Development . The chapter includes a focus on conflicting interests between present and future generations related ...... to the use of natural resources and other matters, and how that kind of issues can be dealt with in education as ESD....... An introduction to the idea of sustainable development (SD) and education for sustainable development (ESD) with reference to the international Decade for Education for Sustainable Development . The chapter includes a focus on conflicting interests between present and future generations related...

  5. Salish Sea Genetics - Salish Sea genetic inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Salish Sea comprises most of the Puget Sound water area. Marine species are generally assemblages of discrete populations occupying various ecological niches....

  6. Smart Sustainable Islands VS Smart Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, D. N.; Moussas, V. C.; Murgante, B.; Daverona, A. C.; Stratakis, P.; Vlissidis, N.; Kavadias, A.; Economou, D.; Santimpantakis, K.; Karathanasis, B.; Kyriakopoulou, V.; Gadolou, E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper has several aims: a) the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms "smart sustainable cities" and "smart sustainable islands" b) the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors) which concern the insular municipalities c) the creation of an island's smartification and sustainability index d) the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e) the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  7. IAEA-MEL's contribution to the investigation of the Kara Sea dumping sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osvath, I.; Ballestra, S.; Baxter, M.S.; Gastaud, J.; Hamilton, T.; Harms, I.; Liong Wee Kwong, L.; Parsi, P.; Povinec, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    Since 1992 the International Atomic Energy Agency's Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) has participated in the international programmes devoted to assessment of the environmental and radiological consequences of actual and potential releases of radionuclides to the Arctic Seas. Upon invitation from the Russian and Norwegian authorities IAEA-MEL has collaborated in the Scientific work of the international expert groups on board five investigatory cruises to the Kara and Barents Seas and to the site of the sunken Komsomolets submarine. In-situ underwater γ-spectrometric measurements and laboratory-based analytical work on samples collected during these expeditions have been carried out. IAEA-MEL activities also include organisation of intercomparison exercises for radionuclides in sediment, seawater and biota from the Barents and Kara Seas, provision of a global marine radioactivity database facility including a comprehensive Arctic section, radiometric methodological developments, modelling of radionuclide dispersal on local, regional and global scales and dose assessment. 8 refs., 3 figs

  8. Copper, zinc, molybdenum and uranium distribution in bottom sediments of the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhorov, V.A.; Sovga, E.E.; Solov'eva, L.B.; Oguslavskij, P.G.; Babinets, A.E.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Geologicheskikh Nauk)

    1983-01-01

    The results of investigations of bottom sediments of the Black Sea by four expeditions aboard scientific ships ''Academician Vernadsky'', ''Michael Lomonosov'', ''Academician Vavilov'' in 1972-1978, are presented. 70 columns of bottom sediments are studied, about 200 samples are analyzed for Cu, Zn, Mo and U using chemical methods with photometric ending. Charts of Cu, Zn, Mo and U distribution in modern, ancient Black Sea and neoeuxenic sediments of the basin are prepared. Preferable uranium concentration in modern sediments, copper and molybdenum - in sapropelic muds of ancient Black Sea sediments and zinc - in neoeuxenic layers, is shown. Uranium geochemical behaviour is determined by physico-chemical regime of the basin, the presence of restoring situation which promotes the formation of uranium sorption-active forms in the upper layer of modern sediments. Neither sapropelite (organic matter), nor the peculiarities of lithological composition of sediments affect uranium behaviour

  9. 76 FR 53381 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ..., the plan was required to include: (1) The number, age, and sex of southern sea otters proposed to be... status of the species under the ESA and determinations under section 7 of the ESA. The purposes of the... a self- sustaining southern sea otter population (experimental population) that would provide a...

  10. IODP Expedition 338: Riser and Riserless Drilling Along the NanTroSEIZE Transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, M.; Moore, G. F.; Dugan, B.; Kanagawa, K.; Toczko, S.

    2013-12-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 338 provided new constraints on the Kumano Basin sediments, the accretionary prism inner wedge, the seaward extension of the megasplay fault, the architecture and mechanics of landslides, and the alteration of oceanic basement of the incoming Philippine Sea plate. This was accomplished through riser and riserless drilling, logging while drilling (LWD), and cuttings and core analysis. Cuttings and LWD analyses at Hole C0002F reveal two lithologic units in the prism inner wedge which are separated by a prominent fault zone at ~1640 mbsf. Mud-gases from the inner prism show high concentrations at the top of the wedge that decrease, but become more thermogenic, with depth. These data are from the previously unaccessed deeper part of the Nankai accretionary prism. Riserless coring at Site C0002 provided data across the gas hydrate zone of the Kumano Basin, across the Kumano Basin-accretionary prism unconformity, and in the uppermost accretionary prism. Within the Kumano basin section, gas and porewater geochemistry documents microbial methane gas in hydrates that are disseminated in sandy layers. Multiple penetrations of the Kumano Basin-accretionary prism boundary and 3D seismic data show that the boundary is erosive and complex. LWD (Site C0018) and coring and LWD (Site C0021) augment existing data to better understand submarine landslide dynamics and mass-transport deposit (MTD) emplacement processes. Previous coring at Site C0018 identified six MTDs, but only two MTD intervals were detected in resistivity images that show high angle, randomly oriented bedding. Site C0021, located more proximal to the MTD source, provides constraint on MTD variability. Correlation across the sites reveals a thick MTD with an erosional base characterized by a shear zone in muddy sediments vs. a translational basal surface within coarse volcaniclastic sand in the proximal and distal/lateral areas, respectively. LWD data and cores from

  11. North Slope (Wahluke Slope) expedited response action cleanup plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this action is to mitigate any threat to public health and the environment from hazards on the North Slope and meet the expedited response action (ERA) objective of cleanup to a degree requiring no further action. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-I-3 Operable Unit. A No Action record of decision (ROD) may be issued after remediation completion. The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns or administers approximately 140 mi{sup 2} (about 90,000 acres) of land north and east of the Columbia River (referred to as the North Slope) that is part of the Hanford Site. The North Slope, also commonly known as the Wahluke Slope, was not used for plutonium production or support facilities; it was used for military air defense of the Hanford Site and vicinity. The North Slope contained seven antiaircraft gun emplacements and three Nike-Ajax missile positions. These military positions were vacated in 1960--1961 as the defense requirements at Hanford changed. They were demolished in 1974. Prior to government control in 1943, the North Slope was homesteaded. Since the initiation of this ERA in the summer of 1992, DOE signed the modified Hanford Federal Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) with the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in which a milestone was set to complete remediation activities and a draft closeout report by October 1994. Remediation activities will make the North Slope area available for future non-DOE uses. Thirty-nine sites have undergone limited characterization to determine if significant environmental hazards exist. This plan documents the results of that characterization and evaluates the potential remediation alternatives.

  12. N-Springs expedited response action performance evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.B.

    1996-07-01

    Groundwater in the 100-NR-2 Operable Unit (OU) has been contaminated with various radionuclides, metals, and ionic constituents because of waste water disposal practices and spills associated with I 00-N Reactor operations. Of primary concern are the presence of high levels of strontium-90 in the groundwater and the discharge of 90 Sr contaminated groundwater to the nearby Columbia River through historic river bank seeps known as 'N-Springs'. In accordance with the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), remediation alternatives are currently being evaluated to address the hazardous substances and constituents in the soil and groundwater at the 100-NR-1/100-NR-2 OUs. Because of concern regarding the release of 90 Sr to the river, the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued an action memorandum on September 23, 1994, to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), to take immediate actions consisting of a combination of a groundwater pump-and-treat system and a sheet pile barrier wall at N-Springs. By letter, dated March 23, 1995, Ecology and EPA agreed that a sheet pile construction test in December 1994 showed that the installation of the jointed hinge sheet pile wall could not be achieved in the manner specified. Ecology and EPA directed RL to proceed with the installation of the Expedited Response Action (ERA) pump-and-treat system and to (1) continue assessing accurately the flux of strontium to the river, (2) further characterize geologic and hydrologic conditions, and (3) assess design and installation alternatives related to modified barriers and expected performance

  13. North Slope (Wahluke Slope) expedited response action cleanup plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this action is to mitigate any threat to public health and the environment from hazards on the North Slope and meet the expedited response action (ERA) objective of cleanup to a degree requiring no further action. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-I-3 Operable Unit. A No Action record of decision (ROD) may be issued after remediation completion. The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns or administers approximately 140 mi 2 (about 90,000 acres) of land north and east of the Columbia River (referred to as the North Slope) that is part of the Hanford Site. The North Slope, also commonly known as the Wahluke Slope, was not used for plutonium production or support facilities; it was used for military air defense of the Hanford Site and vicinity. The North Slope contained seven antiaircraft gun emplacements and three Nike-Ajax missile positions. These military positions were vacated in 1960--1961 as the defense requirements at Hanford changed. They were demolished in 1974. Prior to government control in 1943, the North Slope was homesteaded. Since the initiation of this ERA in the summer of 1992, DOE signed the modified Hanford Federal Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) with the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in which a milestone was set to complete remediation activities and a draft closeout report by October 1994. Remediation activities will make the North Slope area available for future non-DOE uses. Thirty-nine sites have undergone limited characterization to determine if significant environmental hazards exist. This plan documents the results of that characterization and evaluates the potential remediation alternatives

  14. Handbook of sustainable engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kun-Mo

    2013-01-01

    "The efficient utilization of energy, sustainable use of natural resources, and large-scale adoption of sustainable technologies is the key to a sustainable future. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering provides tools that will help us achieve these goals". Nobel Prize Winner Dr. R.K. Pauchauri, Chairman, UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change As global society confronts the challenges of diminishing resources, ecological degradation, and climate change, engineers play a crucial role designing and building technologies and products that fulfil our needs for utility and sustainability. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering equips readers with the context and the best practices derived from both academic research and practical examples of successful implementations of sustainable technical solutions. The handbook’s content revolves around the two themes, new ways of thinking and new business models, including sustainable production, products, service systems and consumption while addressing key asse...

  15. Sustainable Water Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources for state and local environmental and public health officials, and water, infrastructure and utility professionals to learn about sustainable water infrastructure, sustainable water and energy practices, and their role.

  16. Sustainable development. First part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, U.; Lanzavecchia, G.; Berrini, M; Zambrini, M.; Bologna, G.; Carraro, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Mastino, G.; Federico, A.; Gaudioso, D.; Luise, A.; Mauro, F.; Padovani, L.; Federico, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes a collective effort and represents the second edition of: Environment, energy, economy: a sustainable future. In this work are reported various interventions on sustainable development problem [it

  17. Sustainable Public Bids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil César Costa de Paula

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will discuss the issue of sustainability in public procurement, given that the government in Brazil is constituted as a great promoter of economic development and needs to adapt its acquisitions worldwide sustainability agenda.

  18. Neighbourhood facilities for sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available . In this paper these are referred to as ‘Neighbourhood Facilities for Sustainability’. Neighbourhood Facilities for Sustainability (NFS) are initiatives undertaken by individuals and communities to build local sustainable systems which not only improve...

  19. FORUM: Is Ecotourism Sustainable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall

    1997-07-01

    / It is legitimate to ask whether and in what form tourism might contribute to sustainable development. This is not the same as sustainable tourism which, as a single-sector approach to development, may overlook important linkages with other sectors. If tourism is to contribute to sustainable development, then it must be economically viable, ecologically sensitive and culturally appropriate. Ecotourism is often advocated as being a sustainable form of tourism but imprecision in terminology clouds basic issues and there are strong economic, ecological, and cultural reasons for believing that, even in its purest forms, ecotourism is likely to present substantial challenges to destination areas, particularly if it competes for scarce resources and displaces existing uses and users. Sustainable tourism and ecotourism are not synonyms, many forms of ecotourism may not be sustainable, and if ecotourism is to contribute to sustainable development, then careful planning and management will be required.KEY WORDS: Ecotourism; Sustainable development; Development; Tourism

  20. Contemporary Arctic Sea Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    During recent decades, the Arctic region has warmed at a rate about twice the rest of the globe. Sea ice melting is increasing and the Greenland ice sheet is losing mass at an accelerated rate. Arctic warming, decrease in the sea ice cover and fresh water input to the Arctic ocean may eventually impact the Arctic sea level. In this presentation, we review our current knowledge of contemporary Arctic sea level changes. Until the beginning of the 1990s, Arctic sea level variations were essentially deduced from tide gauges located along the Russian and Norwegian coastlines. Since then, high inclination satellite altimetry missions have allowed measuring sea level over a large portion of the Arctic Ocean (up to 80 degree north). Measuring sea level in the Arctic by satellite altimetry is challenging because the presence of sea ice cover limits the full capacity of this technique. However adapted processing of raw altimetric measurements significantly increases the number of valid data, hence the data coverage, from which regional sea level variations can be extracted. Over the altimetry era, positive trend patterns are observed over the Beaufort Gyre and along the east coast of Greenland, while negative trends are reported along the Siberian shelf. On average over the Arctic region covered by satellite altimetry, the rate of sea level rise since 1992 is slightly less than the global mea sea level rate (of about 3 mm per year). On the other hand, the interannual variability is quite significant. Space gravimetry data from the GRACE mission and ocean reanalyses provide information on the mass and steric contributions to sea level, hence on the sea level budget. Budget studies show that regional sea level trends over the Beaufort Gyre and along the eastern coast of Greenland, are essentially due to salinity changes. However, in terms of regional average, the net steric component contributes little to the observed sea level trend. The sea level budget in the Arctic

  1. Arctic Sea Level Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde

    Reconstruction of historical Arctic sea level is very difficult due to the limited coverage and quality of tide gauge and altimetry data in the area. This thesis addresses many of these issues, and discusses strategies to help achieve a stable and plausible reconstruction of Arctic sea level from...... 1950 to today.The primary record of historical sea level, on the order of several decades to a few centuries, is tide gauges. Tide gauge records from around the world are collected in the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) database, and includes data along the Arctic coasts. A reasonable...... amount of data is available along the Norwegian and Russian coasts since 1950, and most published research on Arctic sea level extends cautiously from these areas. Very little tide gauge data is available elsewhere in the Arctic, and records of a length of several decades,as generally recommended for sea...

  2. Sustainability Statement and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nine resources that focus on environmental education and sustainability. These include: (1) "Sustainability Statement and Policy," Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2009, which is available at http://office.sustainability.dal.ca/Governance; (2) "Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate…

  3. The sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of the sustainable development week (june 2003), Actu Environnement published a complete document on the sustainable development to inform the public, recall the main steps of this notion (Rio conference and the following conferences) and the possible employments. It presents also the main organizations acting in the sustainable development domain. (A.L.B.)

  4. Toward sustainable logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soysal, Mehmet; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M.

    2017-01-01

    The fast evolution of sustainability leads to the development of a new fast-growing concept called sustainable logistics management. This research addresses recent business trends and challenges in logistics and their implications for sustainable logistics management. Additionally, we discuss policy

  5. ORNL Annual Sustainability Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nichols, Teresa A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-02-01

    As described in this report, we have made substantial progress across the 25 roadmaps of the Sustainable Campus Initiative. The report also outlines our plans to continue integrating sustainable practices into the planning, execution, and evaluation of all ORNL activities. We appreciate your interest in our journey to sustainability, and we welcome your comments, questions, and suggestions.

  6. Toward sustainable logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soysal, Mehmet; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M.

    2018-01-01

    The fast evolution of sustainability leads to the development of a new fast-growing concept called sustainable logistics management. This research addresses recent business trends and challenges in logistics and their implications for sustainable logistics management. Additionally, we discuss policy

  7. Sustainable Learning Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Luis E.; Esquer, Javier; Munguia, Nora E.; Moure-Eraso, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to debate how companies may better become a sustainable learning organization by offering the most used and insightful concepts of sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: Through literature review, learning organization and sustainability perspectives are explored and compared. Findings: Learning…

  8. Sustainability Annual Report 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  9. Sustainability Annual Report 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  10. Sustainability Annual Report 2017

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  11. Sustainability Annual Report 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  12. Sustainability Annual Report 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  13. Sustainability Annual Report 2015

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  14. Sustainability Annual Report 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  15. sustainable management of nigeria's oil wealth: legal challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    link that may exist between oil resource and economic development, there is the .... examine the impact of revenue allocation on the sustainable management of ... Nigeria, the biggest oil exporter with the largest natural gas reserves in. Africa24 and ..... Issues' (PhD dissertation, the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law Institute,.

  16. Sustainable Water Management under Climate Change in Small ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sustainable Water Management under Climate Change in Small Island States of the Caribbean. In the Caribbean islands, climate change is affecting freshwater availability and other ecosystem services in complex ways. For example, freshwater supply is diminished by droughts and affected by saline intrusion due to sea ...

  17. [The real philanthropic expedition of the smallpox vaccine: monarchy and modernity in 1803].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigau-Pérez, José G

    2004-09-01

    Smallpox resulted in the death of 30 % of those who acquired it, so the preventive method discovered by Edward Jenner (London, 1798) spread very quickly. At the request in 1803 of Carlos IV, king of Spain, his government evaluated offers to carry smallpox vaccine to the colonies. The selected proposal, by doctor Francisco Xavier de Balmis, sought to take the lymph to America and Asia in a chain of arm to arm vaccination of foundlings. The Expedition set sail from Corunna on November 30, 1803, stopped in the Canary Isles, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela and after Caracas (1804) split in two groups. Balmis led some members of the Expedition to Cuba and Mexico. For the trip to the Philippines, in 1805, parents lent their children in exchange for economic compensation and the promise that the boys would be returned home. The Expedition returned to Mexico in August, 1807, but Balmis separately took vaccine to China and returned to Spain. Another contingent of the Expedition, under vice-director José Salvany, took vaccine to what we know as Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. His assistant Manuel Grajales reached the Chilean Patagonia in 1811. This article also comments on three principal themes - the institutional management of the scientific project, the conflicts that characterized its course, and the children's experience. The Vaccine Expedition was a brave and humanitarian endeavor, but also an extraordinary sanitary and administrative success. It was not until the twentieth century that a global eradication campaign eliminated smallpox in the world.

  18. The Knowledge-based Sustainable Management for Europe's Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutniczak, Barbara; Münch, Angela

    2012-01-01

    in a multispecies fishery. The starting point of the estimation is therefore the disentanglement of the total cost into the incremental separate cost, i.e. costs of each joint product between spill-off point and the point of sale. For the purpose of the project, the incremental separate cost are defined as variable......Deliverable 4.4 aims to calculate the value added (VA) for fishing activities within the European Union . The VA is defined here as cash operating profit (inflation adjusted income from landings) minus cost of the fishery activities (e.g. fuel, maintenance, repairs). Hence, in contrast...... fishing cost less labor expenses per unit (kilogram) of each joint product (harvest of particular specie) in multiproduct industry (multispecies fishery)....

  19. SEA and planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoeglehner, G.; Brown, A.L.; Kørnøv, Lone

    2009-01-01

    , and the relationship of the SEA to the planning activity itself. This paper focuses on the influence that planners have in these implementation processes, postulating the hypothesis that these are key players in achieving effectiveness in SEA. Based upon implementation theory and empirical experience, the paper......As the field of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has matured, the focus has moved from the development of legislation, guidelines and methodologies towards improving the effectiveness of SEA. Measuring and of course achieving effectiveness is both complex and challenging. This paper...

  20. Activities of the summer party of the 31st Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition in 1989–1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Sano

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The 31st Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE consisted of 55 members, of which the 30 members of the wintering party at Syowa Station were led by Y. NAITO, 8 members of the wintering party at Asuka Station by K. SHIRAISHI and 17 members of the summer party by M. SANO. In addition, two Chinese scientists and two Belgian scientists participated. The icebreaker SHIRASE, leaving Tokyo on 14 November 1989,after calling at Fremantle, Western Australia, arrived at Breid Bay on 17 December. The helicopter and surface transportation of 173t of cago including two AS-350 helicopters, 8 wintering members and 14 members of the summer SΦr Rondane Mountains expedition from the ship to Asuka Station were completed by 30 December. The ship reached Syowa Station on 14 January 1990,it needed 15 days to approach Syowa Station because the pack ice and first ice in Lutzow-Holm Bay were very thick and heavy compared with a normal year. Unloading of 624t of the cargo, and the summer operations including field research work, relief of the observation team, and construction and renewal of some facilities were completedby 31 January 1990. The SHIRASE left Syowa Station 1 February and arrived again at Breid Bay on 7 February, and picked up the field party and two AS-350 helicopters. On the way from Breid Bay to Sydney, Australia, the ship stopped over at Amundsen Bay for field work between 12-19 February 1990. The SHIRASE arrived at Sydney on 20 March 1990. Members of the summer party of JARE-31 and the wintering party of JARE-30 returned to Narita by air on 28 March 1990. The SHIRASE arrived at Tokyo on 13 April 1990. The following scientific activities were carried out during the summer operations of JARE-31 : a geological, biological and geodetic observations by helicopter in the SΦr Rondane Mountains region; b biological and oceanographic observations in the Syowa Station area; c an oversnow traverse for unmanned meteorology and upper atmosphere physics observations

  1. Development of interdisciplinary model of microplastics transport and transformation in the Baltic sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaev, Andrei; Chubarenko, Irina; Mizyuk, Artem; Zobkov, Mikhail; Esiukova, Elena; Isachenko, Igor; Stepanova, Natalya

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, anthropogenic pressure from the coastal areas comes up in many aspects of marine environment changes, decreasing the aesthetics of the underwater world, threatening the sustainability of marine ecosystems and influencing the quality of human life. Microplastics are pervasive throughout the marine environment, are ingested by many marine organisms, and enter a food chain that includes humans. A certain fraction of microplastics in marine environment results from breakdown of larger items in numerous tiny fragments due to mechanical forces and photochemical processes, as well as from other degradation sources. Microplastics can absorb high levels of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and other toxins. Deep-sea sediments are a likely, but yet unquantified, sink for microplastics (Cole et al., 2011). Since the MARBLE ('MicroplAstics Research in the BaLtic Environment') project started, three expeditions and multiple on-shore field experiments have been conducted in the South-Eastern Baltic. The samples were collected from the surface, deep water layers and bottom sediments. The samples were processed and physical parameters of the microparticles were established. In parallel, laboratory experiments under controllable conditions over the particles of regular shapes were conducted in order to test the empirical formulas for the sinking velocity. PLEX ('PLastics EXplorer') -- a device for efficiently collecting microparticles in marine environment -- was developed, built and tested. An attempt was made to quantify some geometrical properties of particles, to compare their surface areas, fouling rates, sinking velocities, and finally provide some estimates for the main spatial and temporal scales, describing the behaviour of the particles of different densities and shapes in the Baltic Sea (Chubarenko et al., 2016). An original 3D model of Microplastics dynamics is under development now. Its aim is to provide a robust numerical predictive tool to study pathways

  2. Public participation in and learning through SEA in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Heidi, E-mail: heidi.mwalker@yahoo.ca [Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, 303-70 Dysart Road, Winnipeg R3T 2M6 (Canada); Sinclair, A. John, E-mail: john.sinclair@ad.umanitoba.ca [Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, 303-70 Dysart Road, Winnipeg R3T 2M6 (Canada); Spaling, Harry, E-mail: harry.spaling@kingsu.ca [Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, The King' s University College, 9125-50 Street, Edmonton, Alberta T6B 2H3 (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    Meaningful public engagement is a challenging, but promising, feature of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) due to its potential for integrating sustainability principles into policies, plans and programs in developing countries such as Kenya. This research examined two selected SEA case studies to identify the extent of participation, learning outcomes attributable to participation, and if any learning outcomes led to social action for sustainability at the community level. Strengths across the two cases were the inclusion of marginalized populations and consideration of socio-economic concerns. Consistent weaknesses included inadequate notice, document inaccessibility, lack of feedback and communication, and late analysis of alternatives. Despite some learning conditions being unfulfilled, examples of instrumental, communicative, and transformative learning were identified through a focus group and semi-structured interviews with community participants and public officials. Some of these learning outcomes led to individual and social actions that contribute to sustainability. -- Highlights: • The strengths and weaknesses of Kenyan SEA public participation processes were identified. • Multiple deficiencies in the SEA process likely frustrate meaningful public engagement. • Participant learning was observed despite process weaknesses. • Participant learning can lead to action for sustainability at the community level.

  3. Public participation in and learning through SEA in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Heidi; Sinclair, A. John; Spaling, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Meaningful public engagement is a challenging, but promising, feature of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) due to its potential for integrating sustainability principles into policies, plans and programs in developing countries such as Kenya. This research examined two selected SEA case studies to identify the extent of participation, learning outcomes attributable to participation, and if any learning outcomes led to social action for sustainability at the community level. Strengths across the two cases were the inclusion of marginalized populations and consideration of socio-economic concerns. Consistent weaknesses included inadequate notice, document inaccessibility, lack of feedback and communication, and late analysis of alternatives. Despite some learning conditions being unfulfilled, examples of instrumental, communicative, and transformative learning were identified through a focus group and semi-structured interviews with community participants and public officials. Some of these learning outcomes led to individual and social actions that contribute to sustainability. -- Highlights: • The strengths and weaknesses of Kenyan SEA public participation processes were identified. • Multiple deficiencies in the SEA process likely frustrate meaningful public engagement. • Participant learning was observed despite process weaknesses. • Participant learning can lead to action for sustainability at the community level

  4. Eddy energy sources and flux in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Peng; Subramanian, Aneesh C.; Kartadikaria, Aditya R.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    the basin and by pumping the nutrient-enriched subsurface water to sustain the primary production. Previous observations and modeling work suggest that the Red Sea is rich of eddy activities. In this study, the eddy energy sources and sinks have been studied

  5. The maximum significant wave height in the Southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouws, E.; Tolman, H.L.; Holthuijsen, L.H.; Eldeberky, Y.; Booij, N.; Ferier, P.

    1995-01-01

    The maximum possible wave conditions along the Dutch coast, which seem to be dominated by the limited water depth, have been estimated in the present study with numerical simulations. Discussions with meteorologists suggest that the maximum possible sustained wind speed in North Sea conditions is

  6. Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traverso, Marzia; Finkbeiner, Matthias; Jørgensen, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    One method to assess the sustainability performance of products is life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), which assesses product performance considering the environmental,economic, and social dimensions of the life cycle. The results of LCSA can be used to compare different products...... of sustainability is the communicability of the results by means of a graphical representation (a cartogram), characterized by a suitable chromatic scale and ranking score. The integration of LCSA and the dashboard of sustainability into a so-called Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard (LCSD) is described here...

  7. LCA and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltesen, Andreas; Bjørn, Anders

    2018-01-01

    LCA is often presented as a sustainability assessment tool. This chapter analyses the relationship between LCA and sustainability. This is done by first outlining the history of the sustainability concept, which gained momentum with the Brundtland Commission’s report ‘Our Common Future report...... is then demonstrated, and the strategy of LCA to achieving environmental protection, namely to guide the reduction of environmental impacts per delivery of a function, is explained. The attempt to broaden the scope of LCA, beyond environmental protection, by so-called life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA......) is outlined. Finally, the limitations of LCA in guiding a sustainable development are discussed....

  8. Using expert opinion surveys to rank threats to endangered species: a case study with sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlan, C Josh; Wingfield, Dana K; Crowder, Larry B; Wilcox, Chris

    2010-12-01

    Little is known about how specific anthropogenic hazards affect the biology of organisms. Quantifying the effect of regional hazards is particularly challenging for species such as sea turtles because they are migratory, difficult to study, long lived, and face multiple anthropogenic threats. Expert elicitation, a technique used to synthesize opinions of experts while assessing uncertainty around those views, has been in use for several decades in the social science and risk assessment sectors. We conducted an internet-based survey to quantify expert opinion on the relative magnitude of anthropogenic hazards to sea turtle populations at the regional level. Fisheries bycatch and coastal development were most often ranked as the top hazards to sea turtle species in a geographic region. Nest predation and direct take followed as the second and third greatest threats, respectively. Survey results suggest most experts believe sea turtles are threatened by multiple factors, including substantial at-sea threats such as fisheries bycatch. Resources invested by the sea turtle community, however, appear biased toward terrestrial-based impacts. Results from the survey are useful for conservation planning because they provide estimates of relative impacts of hazards on sea turtles and a measure of consensus on the magnitude of those impacts among researchers and practitioners. Our survey results also revealed patterns of expert bias, which we controlled for in our analysis. Respondents with no experience with respect to a sea turtle species tended to rank hazards affecting that sea turtle species higher than respondents with experience. A more-striking pattern was with hazard-based expertise: the more experience a respondent had with a specific hazard, the higher the respondent scored the impact of that hazard on sea turtle populations. Bias-controlled expert opinion surveys focused on threatened species and their hazards can help guide and expedite species recovery plans.

  9. Geography, sustainability and the concept of glocalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Theodoor Verstappen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability focuses on the question whether our planet can sustain the present and future global human impact. The related environmental issues and particularly global changes, such as increasing temperatures, rising sea level, deforestation and deteriorating biodiversity, have become a key subject in earth science research. The social and economic components of sustainability, however, get less scientific attention and are often ignored in political and religious circles. Emphasis is on the symptoms of the issue rather than on coping strategies. Are the growing population numbers and social discrepancies compatible with sustainability and is the free market economy of our consumption society compatible with the ecological limits of growth, social balance and human aspirations? Sustainable development is a realistic concept only if its economic aspects are shouldered by social and environmental considerations and if regional and local diversity is respected. The globalization required today thus should be coupled with decentralized glocalization. In this interdisciplinary field of regional differentiation geography can make important contributions. Earth observation from satellites and data handling using geoinformation systems are essential tools.

  10. Pleistocene to Miocene Calcareous Nannofossil Biostratigraphy from IODP Expedition 334 Hole U1381A and Expedition 352 Hole U1439A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, M.; Scientists, I. E.; Avery, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Samples for this study were collected from drill cores taken during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expeditions 334 and 352 at Sites U1381 and U1439, respectively. Both of these expeditions were focused around subduction zones and, therefore, had priorities to determine time frames for the initiation of subduction. There are two main objectives for this study, the first being to age-date Pleistocene to Miocene sediments from the western offshore continental margin of Costa Rica (IODP Expedition 334) via calcareous nannofossils. The second objective is to age-date the Miocene sediments from the fore-arc of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana system, east of Japan (IODP Expedition 352), using calcareous nannofossils. Shore-based analysis allows for high-resolution study to determine exact biostratigraphic zonations. These zonations reflect specific time frames based on the occurrence or non-occurrence of certain nannofossil species. Once these zonations are determined, scientists can use the data to identify the initiation of seismic processes that often occur in these regions. Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy has now provided zonations for the samples taken from IODP Expedition 334 cores. Samples from core 6R are assigned to the Pleistocene nannofossil Zone NN19 due to the presence ofPseudoemiliania lacunosa and the absence of Emiliania huxleyi. Using the zonal scheme by de Kaenel (1999), this can further be broken down into Event 18 due to the presence of Gephyrocapsa oceanica larger than 4 μm but less than 5 μm, the presence of Calcidiscus macintyrei smaller than 11 μm, and the absence ofGephyrocapsa caribbeanica larger than 4 μm. De Kaenel (1999) has assigned this event datum an age of 1.718 Ma using orbital time scales and oxygen isotope data. Below these samples, an extensive hiatus ranges from the Pleistocene to the early Miocene. Samples from cores 7R through 10R are assigned to nannofossil zone NN5; however, it is impossible to constrain the top of

  11. Fur and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else; Csaba, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of deeper luxury, which insists that 'real' luxury should involve sustainable practices in the production and consumption of luxury goods. It traces historical and recent developments in the field of fur, to understand the implications, uncertainties and ambiguities...... of luxury’s confrontation with sustainability. Considering fur in relation to future standards for luxury products, we raise questions about moral problematisation and justification of luxury in terms of sustainability. We first examine the encounter of luxury with sustainability and explain...... the significance of the notion of ‘deeper luxury’. After taking stock of the impact of sustainability on luxury and various directions in which sustainable luxury is evolving, we discuss concepts of sustainable development in relation to the history of moral problematisation of luxury. This leads to the case...

  12. Sustainability index for Taipei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-J.; Huang Chingming

    2007-01-01

    Sustainability indicators are an effective means of determining whether a city is moving towards sustainable development (SD). After considering the characteristics of Taipei, Taiwan, discussions with experts, scholars and government departments and an exhaustive literature review, this study selected 51 sustainability indicators corresponding to the socio-economic characteristic of Taipei City. Such indicators should be regarded as a basis for assessing SD in Taipei City. The 51 indicators are classified into economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions. Furthermore, statistical data is adopted to identify the trend of SD from 1994 to 2004. Moreover, the sustainability index is calculated for the four dimensions and for Taipei as a whole. Analysis results demonstrate that social and environmental indicators are moving towards SD, while economic and institutional dimensions are performing relatively poorly. However, since 2002, the economic sustainability index has gradually moved towards SD. Overall, the Taipei sustainability index indicates a gradual trend towards sustainable development during the past 11 years

  13. Sustainability and Entrepreneurial Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.; Anderson, Alistair

    Abstract Objectives - This paper explores how entrepreneurial action can lead to environmental sustainability. It builds on the assumption that the creation of sustainble practices is one of the most important challenges facing the global society, and that entrepreneurial action is a vital......: resource oriented sustainable entrepreneurial action.  Approach - The paper uses a case study approach to build deeper theoretical knowledge of environmentally sustainable entrepreneurship.  Results - The paper identifies and analyses a distinct form of sustainable entrepreneurship -  resource oriented...... entrepreneurship - which uses bricolage in various ways to create sustainable solutions. Implications and value - The concept of resource oriented sustainable entrepreneurship contributes to the theoretical understanding of how entrepreneurial action can support sustainability, Furthermore the case study has...

  14. Present status of marine environmental radioactivity survey in the sea of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, H.

    1994-01-01

    Science and Technology Agency has been conducting some Marine Environmental Radioactivity Surveys around Japan in cooperation with the relevant organizations (Maritime Safety Agency, Japan Meteorological Agency, Fishery Agency, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Japan Chemical Analysis Center and Marine Ecology Research Institute). Several artificial radionuclides have been detected but the main origin is supposed to be fall-out. The level trend of marine environmental radioactivity has no anomalies excepting the effect of Chernobyl Accident. The data summarized here are as follows. 1. Marine Environmental Survey of Fisheries near the Nuclear Power Stations, 2. Past Data of Marine Environmental Radioactivity around Japan (Apr. 1982 - Mar. 1991), 3. Marine Environmental Survey of the Sea of Japan (spring, 1993), 4. Marine Environmental Survey of the Sea of Japan (autumn, 1993). In addition, JAPAN-KOREA-RUSSIA JOINT EXPEDITION in the Sea of Japan will start in the middle of March. We are expecting to get valuable data through the EXPEDITION. (J.P.N.)

  15. Sustainable development from A to Z

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Euzen, Agathe; Gaill, Francoise; Eymard, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    This document proposes a presentation and the table of content of a book written by a large panel of researchers in economy, physics, agronomy, ecology, urban planning, demography, climate, geography, and so on, to describe, understand, and imagine the various tools aimed at the sustainable development of societies in the future. The contributions recall the origin of the concept of sustainable development, and discuss its political dimension, the evolution of the metropolitan space at the era of globalization, the issues of climate and energy, the relationship between environment and animal development, ethic aspects. They propose different perspectives on the environment (vulnerability, time scales, climate and ecosystems, water cycle issues, atmospheric chemistry, sea level rise, soils, wet lands, modelling of biodiversity, examples of sea biodiversity). They discuss the issue of new 'biomes' (city, urban forms, sustainable urban planning, urban ecology, urban mobility, urban growth, rural areas, and anthropogenic pressure on the coasts). They address societal aspects: demographic growth, access to basic services, sharing of resources, fishing and farming, GMOs and agriculture, food issues, energy transition, ways of life related to globalization, so on). They discuss the impacts of human activities on the environment: floods, dry and heat periods, air quality and health, ecological risks, marine sound pollution, consumption and wastes, pollutions, underground disposal, adaptation to climate change. A last part presents new research approaches

  16. On the Turn of Two Millennia (60 Years of the Mari Archaeological Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitin Valeriy V.,

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the 60th Anniversary of the Mari Archaeological Expedition and summarizes the two decades of its studies (1996-2016 into the early cultures of the Mari region, starting from the era of the original settlement (Mesolithic, through the Neolithic-Eneolithic, Bronze Age, Early Iron Age and up to the Middle Ages. The expedition studied stations and settlements of primitive cultures, as well as unfortified and fortified settlements and necropolises. Special studies focused on formation and development of the early Mari culture, as well as the material and spiritual culture of the medieval Mari. The expedition continues its survey exploration in order to identify new archaeological sites. During the reported period, twelve monographs were published and three monographs prepared based on the expedition’s materials.

  17. An Exploration of Canadian Identity in Recent Literary Narratives of the Franklin Expeditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Kennedy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sir John Franklin’s three expeditions to the high Arctic in 1819, 1825, and 1845 have become the stuff of Canadian legend, enshrined in history books, songs, short stories, novels, and web sites. Franklin set out in 1845 to discover the Northwest Passage with the most advanced technology the British Empire could muster, and disappeared forever. Many rescue explorations found only scant evidence of the Expedition, and the mystery was finally solved only recently. This paper will explore four recent fictional works on Franklin’s expeditions, Stan Rogers’ song “Northwest Passage”, Margaret Atwood’s short story “The Age of Lead”, Rudy Wiebe’s A Discovery of Strangers, and John Wilson’s North with Franklin: the Lost Journals of James Fitzjames, to see how Franklin’s ghost has haunted the hopes and values of nineteenth-century, as well as modern, Canada.

  18. Not Just About the Science: Cold War Politics and the International Indian Ocean Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, K.

    2016-12-01

    The International Indian Ocean Expedition broke ground for a series of multi-national oceanographic expeditions starting in the late 1950s. In and of itself, it would have been historically significant—like the International Geophysical Year (1957-58)—for pulling together the international scientific community during the Cold War. However, US support for this and follow-on Indian Ocean expeditions were not just about the science; they were also about diplomacy, specifically efforts to bring non-aligned India into the US political orbit and out of the clutches of its Cold War enemy, the Soviet Union. This paper examines the behind-the-scenes efforts at the highest reaches of the US government to extract international political gain out of a large-scale scientific effort.

  19. A 100-YEAR ANNIVERSARY OF THE RUSSIAN GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY EXPEDITION TO KAMCHATKA (1908–1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kotlyakov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For three centuries, the main task of geography in Russia was gathering information about the geographical features of the country. The unique image of the Russian Geographical Society (RGS is largely due to its expeditionary activities. The RGS Kamchatka Complex Expedition of 1908-1910 was to explore and examine the flora and fauna of the Kamchatka peninsula, mainly in the area of volcanoes. The expedition to Kamchatka played a significant role in promoting science in the Russian Far East. Important scientific and public institutions were founded in this region as a result of this endeavor. Two institutions directly associated with the expedition are the Kamchatka branch of the RGS and the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. These institutions are important members of the Russian scientific community and are well known around the world.

  20. Early Science Results from the Williams College Eclipse Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Person, Michael J.; Dantowitz, Ron; Lockwood, Christian A.; Nagle-McNaughton, Tim; Meadors, Erin N.; Perez, Cielo C.; Marti, Connor J.; Yu, Ross; Rosseau, Brendan; Daly, Declan M.; Ide, Charles A.; Davis, Allen B.; Lu, Muzhou; Sliski, David; Seiradakis, John; Voulgaris, Aris; Rusin, Vojtech; Peñaloza-Murillo, Marcos A.; Roman, Michael; Seaton, Daniel B.; Steele, Amy; Lee, Duane M.; Freeman, Marcus J.

    2018-01-01

    We describe our first cut of data reduction on a wide variety of observations of the solar corona and of the effect of the penumbra and umbra on the terrestrial atmosphere, carried out from our eclipse site on the campus of Willamette University in Salem, Oregon. Our team of faculty, undergraduate students, graduate students, and other colleagues observed the eclipse, taking images and spectra with a variety of sensors and telescopes. Equipment included frame-transfer cameras observing at 3 Hz in 0.3 nm filters at the coronal green and red lines to measure the power spectrum of oscillations in coronal loops or elsewhere in the lower corona; 3 spectrographs; a variety of telescopes and telephotos for white-light imaging; a double Lyot system tuned at Fe XIV 530.3 nm (FWHM 0.4 nm) and Fe X 637.4 nm (FWHM 0.5 nm); and a weather station to record changes in the terrestrial atmosphere. We are comparing our observations with predictions based on the previous mapping of the photospheric magnetic field, and preparing wide-field complete coronal imaging incorporating NOAA/NASA GOES-16 SUVI and NRL/NASA/LASCO for the corona outside our own images (which extend, given the completely clear skies we had, at least 4 solar radii), and NASA SDO/AIA and NOAA/NASA GOES-16 SUVI for the solar disk. One of our early composites appeared as Astronomy Picture of the Day for September 27: https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap170927.htmlOur expedition was supported in large part by grants from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society and from the Solar Terrestrial Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division of the National Science Foundation, with additional student support from the STP/AGS of NSF, the NASA Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium, the Sigma Xi honorary scientific society, the Clare Booth Luce Foundation studentship and the Freeman Foote Expeditionary Fund at Williams College, other Williams College funds, and U. Pennsylvania funds.

  1. Health and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjӕrgård, Bente; Land, Birgit; Bransholm Pedersen, Kirsten

    2014-09-01

    In the present article, we explore how sustainable development strategies and health promotion strategies can be bridged. The concept of the 'duality of structure' is taken as our starting point for understanding the linkages between health promotion and sustainable development, and for uncovering the structural properties or conditions which either enable or constrain sustainable public health initiatives. We argue that strategies towards health promotion are not sufficiently integrated with strategies for sustainable development, and thus political strategies aimed at solving health problems or sustainability problems may cause new, undesired and unforeseen environmental or health problems. First, we explore how the relation between health and sustainability is articulated in international policy documents. Next, we develop a model for understanding the relation between health promotion and sustainability. Third, we use examples from agriculture and food production to illustrate that health and sustainability are mutually enabling and constraining. We conclude that while the renewed focus on food security and food inequalities has brought the health and sustainability dimensions of the food system onto the political agenda, the conceptualization of duality between health and sustainability could be a new platform for a critical and theoretical stance towards the market-oriented food system strategy. Thinking along the lines of duality means that the integration of health promotion strategies and sustainable development strategies cannot be based on an approach to integration in which either health or sustainability is given precedence over the other. From a duality perspective, integration means conceiving sustainability from a health perspective and health from a sustainability perspective. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The role of SEA in integrating and balancing high policy objectives in European cohesion funding programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiricka, Alexandra; Pröbstl, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Funding programmes for European cohesion policy are a crucial tool to support the sustainability goals of the European Union and national policies of its member states. All these funding programmes require a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to enhance sustainable development. This article compares five first SEA applications at cohesion policy level to discuss challenges, limitations and benefits of this instrument. In order to support the SEA-process a “Handbook on SEA for Cohesion Policy 2007–13” (GRDP 2006) was developed. The paper examines the special requirements and challenges at the programme level given the special conditions for stakeholder involvement, integration of SEA in the programme development process and strategies to cope with uncertainties to ensure real compatibility with policy goals. Using action research and in-depth interviews with SEA planners and programme managers enabled us to analyse the suitability of the methodology proposed by the handbook. The results show that some recommendations of the handbook should be changed in order to increase the transparency and to enhance the standard and comparability of the SEA-documents. Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals at the EU and national policy levels. Its particular strengths emerged as the process makes uncertainties visible and leads to possible redefinitions while maintaining actual policy goals. - Highlights: ► Comparing five case studies of first applications of SEA at cohesion policy level. ► Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals. ► The study makes uncertainties visible and shows how SEA could lead to possible redefinitions.

  3. IODP Expedition 360: Analyzing the Media Coverage of a High Profile Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, L.; Martinez, A. O.; Burgio, M.; Zhang, J.; Expedition 360 Scientists, I.

    2016-12-01

    During Expedition 360 of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP), the JOIDES Resolution drilled 789 meters of lower crustal gabbro in the Southwest Indian Ocean. This hole began a multi-expedition project with the goal of one day drilling across the crust-mantle boundary for the first time. This simplified narrative of the research objectives struck a chord with media and the project received worldwide coverage in the form of over 50 stories with a total audience in the millions. This expedition is presented as a case study in science communication. A four-member education and outreach team onboard the ship acted as the point of contact for interested reporters. Major outlets that ran stories include the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, British Broadcasting Corporation, Boston Globe, Daily Express, Fox News, Nature, Smithsonian, and Chinese based Xinhua News Agency who sailed a reporter on the ship for the duration of the expedition. The majority of stories published provided accurate and favourable coverage of the project; however, a few contained critical errors and cast the expedition in a less positive light. Public reaction varied greatly depending on the article. Positive themes include interest in the scientific outcomes and encouragement of human exploration. Negative themes include the project being an inefficient use of money and a perceived risk of the drilling triggering an earthquake or volcano. Through a review of published articles and online comments, the successes and challenges faced by Expedition 360 are identified. Despite minimal preparation for media relations, the team successfully maintained a public profile while working in one of the most remote locations on Earth. Interviews were facilitated and videos, articles, and podcasts were produced onboard the ship. A simple, catchy narrative resulted in a large volume of coverage; however, this simplicity also formed the root of a number of misconceptions and issues of public concern.

  4. Sea surface temperatures and salinities from platforms in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and the South China Sea (Nan Hai) from 1896-1950 (NODC Accession 0000506)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface temperatures and salinities were collected in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and South China Sea (Nan Hai)...

  5. Dilemmas in SEA application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    Dilemmas in SEA Application: The DK Energy SectorIvar Lyhne - lyhne@plan.aau.dk. Based on three years of collaborative research, this paper outlines dilemmas in the application of SEA in the strategic development of the Danish energy sector. The dilemmas are based on concrete examples from practice...

  6. REGIONAL COOPERATION IN THE BLACK SEA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia GAVUIK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Topicality. The Black Sea region is situated in a very important geopolitical manner. Consequently, a large-scale regional collaboration becomes possible within the Black Sea zone and countries get appropriate conditions to launch their activity in this context. Aim: The body of the article is going to analyze the BSEC as one of the most successful regional organizations in the Black Sea area. The paper aims to provide an overview of the regional players’ activity in the framework of the BSEC which are involved in sustaining and strengthening of this organization and also in continuing the reform process in it, developing in the same time relations of cooperation with the EU and other regional initiatives. Methods. This article embraces a row of different scientific methods of data analysis, predictive analytics, historical and statistical overview, descriptive method, case study etc. Results. The countries from the Black Sea basin are the most vulnerable to potential risks and shocks due to the instability of the region. This requires the interstate cooperation in the Black Sea area with no tradition in this field several decades ago. In the same time, countries like Turkey, Romania or Russia aspire to play the role of the regional leader, which can cause regional rivalries. With the help of the regional cooperation and the BSEC in particular, regional countries could learn how to work together for the common benefit. The creation of stable markets, interconnected and transparent regional organizations and initiatives would largely contribute to the security and stability of the Black Sea region.

  7. Global change expedition : nutrient, chlorophyll-A and primary productivity data, NOAA ship Mt. Mitchell, 14 July-6 September 1988 (NODC Accession 9000186)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chlorophyll data from NOAA's Global Change Expedition in July-September 1988 was submitted by Dr. D.W. Frazel of RSMAS (University of Miami). The expedition was...

  8. Global change expedition : nutrient, chlorophyll-A and primary productivity data, NOAA ship Mt. Mitchell, 14 July-6 September 1988 (NODC Accession 9000187)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nutrient data from NOAA'S Global Change Expedition in July-September 1988 was submitted by Dr. Dennis W. Frazel of RSMAS (University of Miami). The expedition was...

  9. Temperature and salinity profile data from CTD casts from the icebreaker ODEN during the Lomonosov Ridge off Greenland (LOMROG) expedition in 2007 (NODC Accession 0093533)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CTD data were taken during the expedition "Lomonosov Ridge off Greenland" (LOMROG) in summer 2007 with the Swedish icebreaker Oden. The LOMROG expedition...

  10. 21 CFR 1.383 - What expedited procedures apply when FDA initiates a seizure action against a detained perishable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What expedited procedures apply when FDA initiates a seizure action against a detained perishable food? 1.383 Section 1.383 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption General Provisions § 1.383 What expedited...

  11. 40 CFR 26.1110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain....1110 Section 26.1110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF... Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1110 Expedited review procedures for certain...

  12. Early scientific expeditions and local encounters: new perspectives on Carsten Niebuhr and 'The Arabian Journey'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    observations were brought back to Europe and communicated both to other scholars and to the general reading public. The contrasts between the “gentleman travellers” or the authors of entertaining travelogues and the scholarly approach of the Danish expedition are also apparent in several accounts. Together...... instructions given to the travellers, many of the most surprising, innovating or lasting results of the expeditions were achieved either due to casual events or in cases where the travellers did not strictly follow the research plans outlined for them, but improvised and grasped unpredicted opportunities...

  13. Indicators and SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    Abstract: Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation. Indicators can be seen as part of the implementation...... and if the information requirement for different target groups is not addressed. Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation...... process helping to understand, communicate and, integrate important environmental issues in planning and decision-making. On the other hand, use of indicators can also limit SEA effectiveness, if the ones chosen are biased or limited, if the aggregation gives incorrect interpretation...

  14. Orbital-scale denitrification changes in the Eastern Arabian Sea during the last 800 kyrs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Khim, Boo-Keun; Ikehara, Minoru; Lee, Jongmin

    2018-05-04

    Denitrification in the Arabian Sea is closely related to the monsoon-induced upwelling and subsequent phytoplankton production in the surface water. The δ 15 N values of bulk sediments collected at Site U1456 of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355 reveal the orbital-scale denitrification history in response to the Indian Monsoon. Age reconstruction based on the correlation of planktonic foraminifera (Globigerinoides ruber) δ 18 O values with the LR04 stack together with the shipboard biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic data assigns the study interval to be 1.2 Ma. Comparison of δ 15 N values during the last 800 kyrs between Site U1456 (Eastern Arabian Sea) and Site 722B (Western Arabian Sea) showed that δ 15 N values were high during interglacial periods, indicating intensified denitrification, while the opposite was observed during glacial periods. Taking 6‰ as the empirical threshold of denitrification, the Eastern Arabian Sea has experienced a persistent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) to maintain strong denitrification whereas the Western Arabian Sea has undergone OMZ breakdown during some glacial periods. The results of this study also suggests that five principal oceanographic conditions were changed in response to the Indian Monsoon following the interglacial and glacial cycles, which controls the degree of denitrification in the Arabian Sea.

  15. Neurotoxin localization to ectodermal gland cells uncovers an alternative mechanism of venom delivery in sea anemones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Yehu; Genikhovich, Grigory; Gordon, Dalia; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Zenkert, Claudia; Ozbek, Suat; Technau, Ulrich; Gurevitz, Michael

    2012-04-07

    Jellyfish, hydras, corals and sea anemones (phylum Cnidaria) are known for their venomous stinging cells, nematocytes, used for prey and defence. Here we show, however, that the potent Type I neurotoxin of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, Nv1, is confined to ectodermal gland cells rather than nematocytes. We demonstrate massive Nv1 secretion upon encounter with a crustacean prey. Concomitant discharge of nematocysts probably pierces the prey, expediting toxin penetration. Toxin efficiency in sea water is further demonstrated by the rapid paralysis of fish or crustacean larvae upon application of recombinant Nv1 into their medium. Analysis of other anemone species reveals that in Anthopleura elegantissima, Type I neurotoxins also appear in gland cells, whereas in the common species Anemonia viridis, Type I toxins are localized to both nematocytes and ectodermal gland cells. The nematocyte-based and gland cell-based envenomation mechanisms may reflect substantial differences in the ecology and feeding habits of sea anemone species. Overall, the immunolocalization of neurotoxins to gland cells changes the common view in the literature that sea anemone neurotoxins are produced and delivered only by stinging nematocytes, and raises the possibility that this toxin-secretion mechanism is an ancestral evolutionary state of the venom delivery machinery in sea anemones.

  16. Ventilation of the deep Greenland and Norwegian seas: evidence from krypton-85, tritium, carbon-14 and argon-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smethie, W.M. Jr.; Ostlund, H.G.; Loosli, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    On leg 5 of the TTO expedition, the distributions of 85 Kr, tritium, 14 C, 39 Ar, temperature, salinity, oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrients were measured in the Greenland and Norwegian seas. These observations support previous observations that Greenland Sea Deep Water is formed by a deep convective process within the Greenland gyre. They also support AAGAARD et al.'s (1985, Journal of Geophysical Research, 90, 4833-4846) new hypothesis that Norwegian Sea Deep Water forms from a mixture of Greenland Sea Deep Water and Eurasian Basin Deep Water. Volume transports estimated from the distributions of 85 Kr, tritium, 14 C and 39 Ar range from 0.53 to 0.74 Sv for exchange between the surface and deep Greenland Sea and from 0.9 to 1.47 Sv for exchange between the deep Greenland and deep Norwegian Seas. The residence time of water and the deep Greenland Sea with respect to exchange with surface water ranges from 24 to 34 years reported by PETERSON and ROOTH (1976, Deep-Sea Research, 23, 273-283) and 35-42 years reported by BULLISTER and WEISS (1983, Science, 221, 265-268). The residence time of water in the deep Norwegian Sea with respect to exchange with the deep Greenland Sea ranges from 19 to 30 years compared to 97-107 years reported by PETERSON and ROOTH (1976) and 10-28 years reported by BULLISTER and WEISS (1983). The oxygen consumption rate was estimated to be at most 1.04 μM kg -1 y -1 for the deep Greenland Sea and to be between 0.47 and 0.79 μM kg -1 y -1 for the deep Norwegian Sea. (author)

  17. Phosphorus burial and diagenesis in the central Bering Sea (Bowers Ridge, IODP Site U1341): Perspectives on the marine P cycle

    OpenAIRE

    März, C; Poulton, SW; Wagner, T; Schnetger, B; Brumsack, H-J

    2014-01-01

    To reconstruct the cycling of reactive phosphorus (P) in the Bering Sea, a P speciation record covering the last ~4Ma was generated from sediments recovered during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 323 at Site U1341 (Bowers Ridge). A chemical extraction procedure distinguishing between different operationally defined P fractions provides new insight into reactive P input, burial and diagenetic transformations. Reactive P mass accumulation rates (MARs) are ~20-110μmol/cm/ka, ...

  18. Definite records of Sperm Whale Physeter catodon (Linnaeus, Spinner Dolphin Stenella longirostris (Gray and Bottlenose Dolphin Tursiops truncatus (Montagu (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla in the Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pande

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Definite records of five Sperm Whales Physeter catodon (Liinaeus, 58 Spinner Dolphins Stenella longirostris (Gray and 12 Bottlenose Dolphins Tursiops truncatus (Montagu in the Arabian Sea, encountered during Ela Foundation’s Pelagic Birds Survey and ornithological expedition to Lakshadweep Archipelago from 12 to 16 March 2006, are presented along with notes on behaviour, key identification features, four photographs and the conservation status of each species.

  19. SMART SUSTAINABLE ISLANDS VS SMART SUSTAINABLE CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Pantazis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper has several aims: a the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms “smart sustainable cities” and “smart sustainable islands” b the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors which concern the insular municipalities c the creation of an island’s smartification and sustainability index d the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  20. Dissolved and particulate trace metal micronutrients under the McMurdo Sound seasonal sea ice: basal sea ice communities as a capacitor for iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Abigail E.; Moran, Dawn M.; Allen, Andrew E.; Saito, Mak A.

    2013-01-01

    Dissolved and particulate metal concentrations are reported from three sites beneath and at the base of the McMurdo Sound seasonal sea ice in the Ross Sea of Antarctica. This dataset provided insight into Co and Mn biogeochemistry, supporting a previous hypothesis for water column mixing occurring faster than scavenging. Three observations support this: first, Mn-containing particles with Mn/Al ratios in excess of the sediment were present in the water column, implying the presence of bacterial Mn-oxidation processes. Second, dissolved and labile Co were uniform with depth beneath the sea ice after the winter season. Third, dissolved Co:PO3−4 ratios were consistent with previously observed Ross Sea stoichiometry, implying that over-winter scavenging was slow relative to mixing. Abundant dissolved Fe and Mn were consistent with a winter reserve concept, and particulate Al, Fe, Mn, and Co covaried, implying that these metals behaved similarly. Elevated particulate metals were observed in proximity to the nearby Islands, with particulate Fe/Al ratios similar to that of nearby sediment, consistent with a sediment resuspension source. Dissolved and particulate metals were elevated at the shallowest depths (particularly Fe) with elevated particulate P/Al and Fe/Al ratios in excess of sediments, demonstrating a sea ice biomass source. The sea ice biomass was extremely dense (chl a >9500 μg/L) and contained high abundances of particulate metals with elevated metal/Al ratios. A hypothesis for seasonal accumulation of bioactive metals at the base of the McMurdo Sound sea ice by the basal algal community is presented, analogous to a capacitor that accumulates iron during the spring and early summer. The release and transport of particulate metals accumulated at the base of the sea ice by sloughing is discussed as a potentially important mechanism in providing iron nutrition during polynya phytoplankton bloom formation and could be examined in future oceanographic

  1. Application of two-barrier model of radioactive agent transport in sea water for analyzing artificial radionuclide release from containers with radioactive waste dumped in Kara Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishin, Denis S.; Laykin, Andrey I.; Kuchin, Nickolay L.; Platovskikh, Yuri A. [Krylov State Research Center, Saint Petersburg, 44 Moskovskoe shosse, 196158 (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Modeling of artificial radionuclide transport in sea water is crucial for prognosis of radioecological situation in regions where dumping of radioactive waste had been made and/or accidents with nuclear submarines had taken place. Distribution of artificial radionuclides in bottom sediments can be a detector of radionuclide release from dumped or sunk objects to marine environment. Proper model can determine the dependence between radionuclide distribution in sediments and radionuclide release. Following report describes two-barrier model of radioactive agent transport in sea water. It was tested on data from 1994 - 2013 expeditions to Novaya Zemlya bays, where regular dumping of solid radioactive waste was practiced by the former USSR from the early 1960's until 1990. Two-barrier model agrees with experimental data and allows more accurate determination of time and intensity of artificial radionuclide release from dumped containers. (authors)

  2. Sea water desalination using nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisan, S.

    2003-01-01

    The paper first underlines the water shortage problem today and in the years to come when, around the time horizon 2020, two-thirds of the total world population would be without access to potable water. Desalination of sea-water (and, to a limited extent, that of brackish water) is shown to be an attractive solution. In this context, sea-water desalination by nuclear energy appears to be not only technically feasible and safe but also economically very attractive and a sustainable solution. Thus, compared to conventional fossil energy based sources, desalination costs by nuclear options could be 30 to 60% lower. The nuclear options are therefore expected to satisfy the fundamental water needs and electricity demands of human beings without in any way producing large amounts of greenhouse gases which any desalination strategy, based on the employment of fossil fuels, cannot fail to avoid. (author)

  3. Responding to the Sea Empress oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, D.R.P.; Law, R.J.; Kelly, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) is a government department which has responsibility in England and in Wales (acting on behalf of the Secretary of State for Wales) for controlling deposits in the sea, including approving the use of dispersants in oil spill response. MAFF also has responsibility in relation to the management of sustainable commercial fish and shellfish fisheries. Following the grounding of the tanker Sea Empress on 15 February 1996, over 72,000 tonnes of crude oil and bunker fuel was lost. This paper summarises the involvement of MAFF staff in the response phase, and in the subsequent assessment of the environmental impact of the oil spill and the associated clean up operations on commercial fisheries. After two and a half years of environmental monitoring and complementary research, it is concluded that the oil spill has had an insignificant impact on these fisheries beyond their closure during the incident response phase. Suggestions for further work are discussed. (author)

  4. Health and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Birgit; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Kjærgård, Bente

    2014-01-01

    In the present article, we explore how sustainable development strategies and health promotion strategies can be bridged. The concept of the ‘duality of structure’ is taken as our starting point for understanding the linkages between health promotion and sustainable development, and for uncovering...... the structural properties or conditions which either enable or constrain sustainable public health initiatives. We argue that strategies towards health promotion are not sufficiently integrated with strategies for sustainable development, and thus political strategies aimed at solving health problems...... or sustainability problems may cause new, undesired and unforeseen environmental or health problems. First, we explore how the relation between health and sustainability is articulated in international policy documents. Next, we develop a model for understanding the relation between health promotion...

  5. ICT innovations for sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Aebischer, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    ICT Innovations for Sustainability is an investigation of how information and communication technology can contribute to sustainable development. It presents clear definitions of sustainability, suggesting conceptual frameworks for the positive and negative effects of ICT on sustainable development. It reviews methods of assessing the direct and indirect impact of ICT systems on energy and materials demand, and examines the results of such assessments. In addition, it investigates ICT-based approaches to supporting sustainable patterns of production and consumption, analyzing them at various levels of abstraction – from end-user devices, Internet infrastructure, user behavior, and social practices to macro-economic indicators.   Combining approaches from Computer Science, Information Systems, Human-Computer Interaction, Economics, and Environmental Sciences, the book presents a new, holistic perspective on ICT for Sustainability (ICT4S). It is an indispensable resource for anyone working in the area of ICT...

  6. Engineering students' sustainability approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S.

    2014-05-01

    Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The empirical base of the article is a nation-wide, web-based survey sent to all newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark commencing their education in the fall term 2010. The response rate was 46%. The survey focused on a variety of different aspects of what can be conceived as sustainability. By means of cluster analysis, three engineering student approaches to sustainability are identified and described. The article provides knowledge on the different prerequisites of engineering students in relation to the role of sustainability in engineering. This information is important input to educators trying to target new engineering students and contribute to the provision of engineers equipped to meet sustainability challenges.

  7. Sustainable Concrete Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing concern over global warming and significant ecological changes requires sustainable development in all fields of science and technology. Concrete not only consumes huge amount of energy and natural sources, but also emits large amount of CO2, mainly due to the production of cement. It is evident that such large amount of concrete production has put significant impact on the energy, resource, environment, and ecology of the society. Hence, how to develop the concrete technology in a sustainable way has become a significant issue. In this paper, some of Korean researches for sustainable development of concrete are presented. These are sustainable strengthening for deteriorated concrete structure, sustainable reinforcement of new concrete structure, sustainable concrete using recycled aggregate and supplementary cementing materials and finally application of each technique to precast concrete.

  8. Sustainable Housing Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Gert Michael

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Housing Design. Integrating technical and housing quality aspects of sustainable architecture in civil engineering education. Summary An integrated design approach to sustainable architecture is outlined that combines concerns for zero energy building, good indoor climate and adequate...... phases. The outcome shows that integrated design further solutions where sustainable urban forms of settlement can be highly energy efficient while also attractive from a user perspective. Key words: Sustainable architecture, integrated design, zero-energy-housing, dense urban living. 1. Introduction...... When designing sustainable housing, energy optimization and satisfactory indoor climates are central issues that need to be incorporated from early design phases if to reach a coherent design. It might also be argued that the energy consumption of contemporary buildings only plays a rela-tively minor...

  9. Is Mass Customization Sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    Mass customizers are like other companies currently experiencing an increasing customer demand for environmentally sustainable products as well as an increasingly strict legislation regarding environmental sustainability. This paper addresses the issue whether the concepts mass customization...... and sustainability are fundamentally compatible by asking the question: can a mass customized product be sustainable? Several factors could indicate that mass customized products are less sustainable than standardized products; however other factors suggest the opposite. This paper explores these factors during...... three life cycle phases for a product: Production, Use and End of Life. It is concluded that there is not an unambiguous causal relationship between mass customization and sustainability; however several factors unique to mass customized products are essential to consider during product and process...

  10. Motivations Behind Sustainable Purchasing

    OpenAIRE

    Vörösmarty, Gyöngyi; Dobos, Imre; Tátrai, Tünde

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability issues in purchasing are receiving greater attention. Literature is rapidly growing, with several research programs being initiated to investigate the topic. This study presents the results of a research project which aims to reveal and structure the motivating forces leading companies to make efforts in sustainability purchasing and the means used to attain achievements in some fields of sustainability. Results presented in the literature are scattered in terms of ...

  11. Monitor Sustainable Netherlands 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    The Monitor provides an image of the sustainability of the Dutch society. It shows which areas are successful and what the 'concerns for tomorrow' are from the point of view of sustainability. An analysis is conducted of how the Netherlands are doing in the fields of climate change, biodiversity, health, knowledge, graying and social cohesion. These and many other topics are discussed in this monitor by means of a number of sustainability indicators and detail analyses [mk]. [nl

  12. Monitor Sustainable Netherlands 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    The Monitor provides an image of the sustainability of the Dutch society. It shows which areas are successful and what the 'concerns for tomorrow' are from the point of view of sustainability. An analysis is conducted of how the Netherlands are doing in the fields of climate change, biodiversity, health, knowledge, graying and social cohesion. These and many other topics are discussed in this monitor by means of a number of sustainability indicators and detail analyses [mk] [nl

  13. Managing Supplier Sustainability Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Harilainen, Hanna-Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Supply chains are increasingly global, often reaching to developing regions. The media pressure brand owners to be responsible, but a product is only as sustainable as the practices of all the companies involved in manufacturing it are. It’s not enough that the brand owner acts responsibly; sustainable practices have to reach component and raw material suppliers upstream. Image risk has often been recognized as reason for investing in sustainability. In the supply chain context, supplier m...

  14. Sustainability and Organizational Change

    OpenAIRE

    Sitnikov, Catălina

    2012-01-01

    The relevant and, above all, remarkable feature of sustainability is due to its "duality": on the one hand, it is an indispensable element within the companies even if, on the other hand, it increases the costs of many activities and processes. Facing the challenge of sustainability will determine and create, in the coming years, emerging organizational forms. If ten years ago, many managers clearly expressed their doubts regarding the financial feasibility of sustainability, today, they admi...

  15. Towards a Sustainable Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Patuel Chust, Pascual

    2014-01-01

    The growing awareness of the importance of ecology in the last decades has led many architects to rethink their construction proposals to make them more respectful of the environment and sustainability. The present article analyzes the legislation, conferences and international declarations (Earth Summit, Declaration of Interdependence for a Sustainable Future, Introduction to Sustainable Design) that have advocated the practice of a more ecological architecture. Also examined ...

  16. New Observations of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water Intrusion into the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, A.; Abualnaja, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The three-layer exchange flow between the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean during summer is characterized by a thick, northward intrusion of relatively cold, low-salinity and low in dissolved oxygen (Water (GAIW), sandwiched between two thin layers of outflow water. The flux of GAIW into the Red Sea is important in the heat, freshwater and nutrient budgets of the Red Sea, but the structure and pathways of the intrusion are not well-known due to a paucity of hydrographic and direct velocity observations. A research cruise was executed at the eastern side of the Red Sea during September-October 2011 to conduct the first large-scale survey of the intrusion. This mission is part of a series of expeditions in the Red Sea designed to investigate the seasonal Red Sea circulation. Surprisingly, the GAIW intrusion was observed to stretch nearly the entire length of the Red Sea (~1500 km) as a narrow eastern boundary current with subsurface velocity maximum of 0.1-0.3 m/s in the depth range 50-100 m. The intruding layer is weakly stratified compared to the background, possibly an indication of strong vertical mixing as it flows through the strait. Some GAIW was observed to enter deep channels in a coral reef bank (Farasan Banks) located in the southeastern Red Sea, and to enter the Red Sea interior, the latter possibly due to interactions between the boundary current and mesoscale eddies. The pathways and erosion of the GAIW intrusion will likely have major implications for the spatial distribution of biological productivity.

  17. Improving Arctic Sea Ice Observations and Data Access to Support Advances in Sea Ice Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    The economic and strategic importance of the Arctic region is becoming apparent. One of the most striking and widely publicized changes underway is the declining sea ice cover. Since sea ice is a key component of the climate system, its ongoing loss has serious, and wide-ranging, socio-economic implications. Increasing year-to-year variability in the geographic location, concentration, and thickness of the Arctic ice cover will pose both challenges and opportunities. The sea ice research community must be engaged in sustained Arctic Observing Network (AON) initiatives so as to deliver fit-for-purpose remote sensing data products to a variety of stakeholders including Arctic communities, the weather forecasting and climate modeling communities, industry, local, regional and national governments, and policy makers. An example of engagement is the work currently underway to improve research collaborations between scientists engaged in obtaining and assessing sea ice observational data and those conducting numerical modeling studies and forecasting ice conditions. As part of the US AON, in collaboration with the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC), we are developing a strategic framework within which observers and modelers can work towards the common goal of improved sea ice forecasting. Here, we focus on sea ice thickness, a key varaible of the Arctic ice cover. We describe multi-sensor, and blended, sea ice thickness data products under development that can be leveraged to improve model initialization and validation, as well as support data assimilation exercises. We will also present the new PolarWatch initiative (polarwatch.noaa.gov) and discuss efforts to advance access to remote sensing satellite observations and improve communication with Arctic stakeholders, so as to deliver data products that best address societal needs.

  18. Sustainable Management of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information to organizations to help them implement sustainable food management, including joining the Food Recovery Challenge. To provide education and information to communities and concerned citizens.

  19. Sustainable wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Zhongming; Xuemin

    2013-01-01

    This brief focuses on network planning and resource allocation by jointly considering cost and energy sustainability in wireless networks with sustainable energy. The characteristics of green energy and investigating existing energy-efficient green approaches for wireless networks with sustainable energy is covered in the first part of this brief. The book then addresses the random availability and capacity of the energy supply. The authors explore how to maximize the energy sustainability of the network and minimize the failure probability that the mesh access points (APs) could deplete their

  20. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    on urban sustainability the need to move towards sustainability at societal level is conceptualised as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By understanding sustainability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously to renew itself without...... with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, the work shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia, where aspects...

  1. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to provide local citizens with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, this book shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia...

  2. Adapting to Rising Sea Level: A Florida Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Randall W.

    2009-07-01

    Global climate change and concomitant rising sea level will have a profound impact on Florida's coastal and marine systems. Sea-level rise will increase erosion of beaches, cause saltwater intrusion into water supplies, inundate coastal marshes and other important habitats, and make coastal property more vulnerable to erosion and flooding. Yet most coastal areas are currently managed under the premise that sea-level rise is not significant and the shorelines are static or can be fixed in place by engineering structures. The new reality of sea-level rise and extreme weather due to climate change requires a new style of planning and management to protect resources and reduce risk to humans. Scientists must: (1) assess existing coastal vulnerability to address short term management issues and (2) model future landscape change and develop sustainable plans to address long term planning and management issues. Furthermore, this information must be effectively transferred to planners, managers, and elected officials to ensure their decisions are based upon the best available information. While there is still some uncertainty regarding the details of rising sea level and climate change, development decisions are being made today which commit public and private investment in real estate and associated infrastructure. With a design life of 30 yrs to 75 yrs or more, many of these investments are on a collision course with rising sea level and the resulting impacts will be significant. In the near term, the utilization of engineering structures may be required, but these are not sustainable and must ultimately yield to "managed withdrawal" programs if higher sea-level elevations or rates of rise are forthcoming. As an initial step towards successful adaptation, coastal management and planning documents (i.e., comprehensive plans) must be revised to include reference to climate change and rising sea-level.

  3. Caspian sea: petroleum challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Caspian sea is one of the world areas the most promising in terms of investments and petroleum development. This study presents the petroleum challenges generated by this hydrocarbons reserve. The first part discusses the juridical status (sea or lake), the petroleum and the gas reserves, the ecosystem and the today environment (fishing and caviar), the geostrategic situation and the transport of gas and oil. It provides also a chronology from 1729 to 2005, a selection of Internet sites, books and reports on the subject and identity sheets of the countries around the Caspian sea. (A.L.B.)

  4. Radionuclides in the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-07-01

    Water covers a little more than two-thirds of the earth's surface. What is thrown into the sea from a ship may be washed up on a shore thousands of miles away; wastes discharged into the seas or into rivers flowing into them can affect marine life and possibly also the health of man. The study, prevention and control of pollution of the seas and oceans by radionuclides introduced as by-products of man's use of nuclear energy is thus of global interest. (author)

  5. Leaving School — learning at SEA: Regular high school education alongside polar research, not only during IPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, S.

    2006-12-01

    Against the background of unsatisfactory results from the international OECD study PISA (Program for International Student Assessment), Germany is facing a period of intense school reforms. Looking back at a tradition of school culture with too few changes during the last century, quick and radical renewal of the school system is rather unlikely. Furthermore students are increasingly turning away from natural sciences. The AWI aims at providing impulses for major changes in the schooling system and is offering solid science education not only for university students but also for a much younger audience. All efforts towards this goal are interconnected within the project SEA (Science & Education @ the AWI). Fife years ago the AWI started HIGHSEA (High school of SEA). Each year 22 high school students (grade 11) are admitted to HIGHSEA spending their last three years of school not at school but at the institute. Four subjects (biology as a major, chemistry, math and English as accessory subjects) are combined and taught fully integrated. Students leave their schools for two days each week to study, work and explore all necessary topics at the AWI. All of the curricular necessities of the four subjects are being met. After rearrangement of the temporal sequencing conceptual formulation of four major questions around AWI-topics was possible. Students are taught by teachers of the cooperating schools as well as by scientists of the AWI. Close links and intense cooperation between all three groups are the basis of fundamental changes in teaching and learning climate. For each group of students we organize a short research expedition: in August 2005 we worked in the high Arctic, in January and February 2006 we performed measurements at two eastern Atlantic seamounts. Even if the amount of data coming from these expeditions is comparatively small they still contribute to ongoing research projects of the oceanographic department. The first two groups of students finished

  6. Improved Chlorophyll-a Algorithm for the Satellite Ocean Color Data in the Northern Bering Sea and Southern Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Heon; Ryu, Jongseong; Park, Jung-woo; Lee, Dabin; Kwon, Jae-Il; Zhao, Jingping; Son, SeungHyun

    2018-03-01

    The Bering and Chukchi seas are an important conduit to the Arctic Ocean and are reported to be one of the most productive regions in the world's oceans in terms of high primary productivity that sustains large numbers of fishes, marine mammals, and sea birds as well as benthic animals. Climate-induced changes in primary production and production at higher trophic levels also have been observed in the northern Bering and Chukchi seas. Satellite ocean color observations could enable the monitoring of relatively long term patterns in chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations that would serve as an indicator of phytoplankton biomass. The performance of existing global and regional Chl-a algorithms for satellite ocean color data was investigated in the northeastern Bering Sea and southern Chukchi Sea using in situ optical measurements from the Healy 2007 cruise. The model-derived Chl-a data using the previous Chl-a algorithms present striking uncertainties regarding Chl-a concentrations-for example, overestimation in lower Chl-a concentrations or systematic overestimation in the northeastern Bering Sea and southern Chukchi Sea. Accordingly, a simple two band ratio (R rs(443)/R rs(555)) algorithm of Chl-a for the satellite ocean color data was devised for the northeastern Bering Sea and southern Chukchi Sea. The MODIS-derived Chl-a data from July 2002 to December 2014 were produced using the new Chl-a algorithm to investigate the seasonal and interannual variations of Chl-a in the northern Bering Sea and the southern Chukchi Sea. The seasonal distribution of Chl-a shows that the highest (spring bloom) Chl-a concentrations are in May and the lowest are in July in the overall area. Chl-a concentrations relatively decreased in June, particularly in the open ocean waters of the Bering Sea. The Chl-a concentrations start to increase again in August and become quite high in September. In October, Chl-a concentrations decreased in the western area of the Study area and the Alaskan

  7. 78 FR 34989 - Sodium Hexametaphosphate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited First...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited First Sunset Review of the Antidumping.... SUMMARY: On February 1, 2013, the Department of Commerce (the ``Department'') initiated the first five-year (``sunset'') review of the antidumping duty order on sodium hexametaphosphate from the People's...

  8. Marine palaemonoid shrimps of the Netherlands Seychelles Expedition 1992-1993

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, C.H.J.M.

    1994-01-01

    An account is given of the palaemonoid shrimps collected during an expedition with R/V Tyro to the Seychelles. A total of 59 species is recorded of which two are new to science: Conchodytes pteriae and Jocaste platysoma. 25 species were not previously recorded from the Seychelles. A checklist of

  9. 77 FR 59377 - Solid Agricultural Grade Ammonium Nitrate from Ukraine: Final Results of the Expedited Second...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... Ammonium Nitrate from Ukraine: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Review of the Antidumping Duty... duty order on solid agricultural grade ammonium nitrate from Ukraine. The Department has conducted an... revocation of the antidumping duty order would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of dumping at...

  10. 20 CFR 405.710 - How to request an expedited appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 405.710 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS FOR ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Expedited Appeals Process for Constitutional Issues § 405.710 How to... process, you must request it— (1) No later than 60 days after the date you receive notice of the Federal...

  11. The Malaysian heritage anscientific expedition: Endau-Rompin, 1985-1986

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiew, Ruth

    1989-01-01

    The Malayan Nature Society (MNS), a non-governmental organisation with about 3,000 members, has since its formation in 1940 always had a strong emphasis on conservation. The Society’s objective in mounting this expedition, a mammoth undertaking for any Society as it included raising funds to a tune

  12. 47 CFR 69.119 - Basic service element expedited approval process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic service element expedited approval process. 69.119 Section 69.119 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Computation of Charges § 69.119 Basic service element...

  13. Professional organisation profile: a sub-Faculty of expedition medicine for Australasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Peter A; Shaw, Marc T M

    2010-05-01

    A review of the recent foundation by The Australasian College of Tropical Medicine of the Sub-Faculty of Expedition Medicine is presented. Information is given on aims, professional grades of membership, and the various activities of the Sub-Faculty, including publications and scientific meetings. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Missing Link Expeditions; or how the Peking Man wasn't found

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    to China as ‘the palaeontological Garden of Eden’. The United States made their bid through a large-scale operation popularly known as ‘The Missing Link Expeditions’. The aim was to use all modern technologies available. Hopes were high and the leader of the expedition, Roy Chapman Andrews, estimated...

  15. The "Black Ships" and "Sakoku": Commodore Matthew C. Perry's Expedition to Japan. Asian Studies Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelston, Ted

    This curriculum guide presents the components of a U.S. history course examining the causes and immediate effects of the opening of Japan to American trade and diplomacy by Commodore Matthew C. Perry's 1853-1854 Japanese expedition. The first part of the guide introduces the goals of the course. Next, the student objectives of the course are…

  16. The effect of expedited rotator cuff surgery in injured workers: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmjou, Helen; Lincoln, Sandra; Boljanovic, Dragana; Gallay, Stephen; Henry, Patrick; Richards, Robin R; Holtby, Richard

    2017-07-01

    Expediting rotator cuff surgery is expected to facilitate recovery and return to work in injured workers. This case-control study examined the effect of expedited rotator cuff surgery on recovery and work status in injured workers. Injured workers who had undergone an expedited rotator cuff surgery funded by parallel-pay insurance (study group) were compared with workers who had used the public health insurance (control group) while adjusting for sex, age, severity of pathology, and follow-up period. Disability was measured by the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) Standardized Assessment Form score. The percentage of patients who exceeded the minimal clinically important difference of 17 points in the ASES was calculated. The study group waited less time to have surgery than the control group (P workers who underwent expedited rotator cuff surgery reported less disability and had a more successful return to work after surgery than injured workers who waited longer for specialist assessment and surgery within the public health system. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 77 FR 43492 - Expedited Vocational Assessment Under the Sequential Evaluation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ..., or visit our Internet site, Social Security Online, at http://www.socialsecurity.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Parts 404 and 416 [Docket No. SSA-2010-0060] RIN 0960-AH26 Expedited Vocational Assessment Under the Sequential Evaluation Process AGENCY: Social Security...

  18. The Foraminifera of the Saba Bank Expedition, 1972 (Cicar Cruises 34, 35)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofker, J.

    1980-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Bottom samples obtained by means of a Van Veen grab during the 1972 Saba Bank Expedition (CICAR cruises 34 and 35) appeared to comprise many samples with Foraminifera. This material was kindly put at my disposal by Dr. D. van Harten of the Geological Institute of the University of

  19. Results of the CERPOLEX/Mammuthus expeditions on the Taimyr peninsula, Arctic Siberia, Russian federation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, D; Tikhonov, A; van der Plicht, J; Kahlke, RD; Debruyne, R; van Geel, B; van Reenen, G; Pals, JP; de Marliave, C; Reumer, JWF; Kahlke, Ralf-Dietrich; Pals, Jan Peter; Reumer, Jelle W.F.

    During a series of expeditions organized by CERPOLEX/Mammuthus to the Taimyr region in northern Siberia several mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) carcasses were discovered and subsequently excavated and studied. The oldest specimen is the Arilakh Mammoth (ca. 55,800 BP). Much younger are the Jarkov

  20. 21 CFR 1316.92 - Petition for expedited release in an administrative forfeiture action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for expedited release shall establish the following: (1) The owner has a valid, good faith interest in..., which would be subject to seizure for administrative forfeiture for a violation of law involving... in the property, which shall be supported by title documentation, bills of sale, contracts, mortgages...