WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustainable seas expedition

  1. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrén, T.; Barker Jorgensen, B.; Cotterill, C.; Green, S.; Slomp, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different settings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region with

  2. Rescuing biogeographic legacy data: The "Thor" Expedition, a historical oceanographic expedition to the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavraki, Dimitra; Fanini, Lucia; Tsompanou, Marilena; Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Nikolopoulou, Stamatina; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Plaitis, Wanda; Faulwetter, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the digitization of a series of historical datasets based οn the reports of the 1908-1910 Danish Oceanographical Expeditions to the Mediterranean and adjacent seas. All station and sampling metadata as well as biodiversity data regarding calcareous rhodophytes, pelagic polychaetes, and fish (families Engraulidae and Clupeidae) obtained during these expeditions were digitized within the activities of the LifeWatchGreece Research Ιnfrastructure project and presented in the present paper. The aim was to safeguard public data availability by using an open access infrastructure, and to prevent potential loss of valuable historical data on the Mediterranean marine biodiversity. The datasets digitized here cover 2,043 samples taken at 567 stations during a time period from 1904 to 1930 in the Mediterranean and adjacent seas. The samples resulted in 1,588 occurrence records of pelagic polychaetes, fish (Clupeiformes) and calcareous algae (Rhodophyta). In addition, basic environmental data (e.g. sea surface temperature, salinity) as well as meterological conditions are included for most sampling events. In addition to the description of the digitized datasets, a detailed description of the problems encountered during the digitization of this historical dataset and a discussion on the value of such data are provided.

  3. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrén, T; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Cotterill, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different set- tings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region...... with changing ice cover and major shifts in temperature, salinity, and biological communities. Using the Greatship Manisha as a European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) mission-specific platform, we recovered 1.6 km of core from nine sites of which four were additionally cored for microbiology...... degassing upon core recovery. The depth distributions of conservative sea water ions still reflected the transition at the end of the last glaciation from fresh-water clays to Holocene brackish mud. High-resolution sampling and analyses of interstitial water chemistry revealed the intensive mineralization...

  4. Sustainable Development and High Seas Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Spijkers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of the concept of sustainable development in the legal regime governing the exploitation of the natural resources of the oceans, particularly fisheries on the high seas. General documents on sustainable development and legal instruments on high seas fisheries are analyzed in order to see in which way they refer to each other and whether they provide a sufficiently comprehensive framework to ensure the sustainable management of fisheries in the high seas.

  5. Particle sizes of Pliocene and Pleistocene core sediments from IODP Expedition 323 in the Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data compilation includes the results of grain size analyses of core sediment collected by IODP during Expedition 323 in the Bering Sea. One dataset is included...

  6. Sustainable Seas Student Monitoring Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soave, K.; Emunah, M.; Hatfield, J.; Kiyasu, J.; Packard, E.; Ching, L.; Zhao, K.; Sanderson, L.; Turmon, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Sustainable Seas Student Monitoring Project at the Branson School in Ross, CA has monitored Duxbury Reef in Bolinas, CA since 2000, in cooperation with the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association and the Gulf of Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. Goals of this student-run project include: 1) To monitor the rocky intertidal habitat and develop a baseline database of invertebrates and algal density and abundance; 2) To contribute to the conservation of the rocky intertidal habitat through education of students and visitors about intertidal species; 3) To increase stewardship in the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary; and 4) To contribute abundance and population data on key algae and invertebrate species to the national database, LiMPETS (Long Term Monitoring Program & Experiential Training for Students). Each fall student volunteers complete an intensive training course on the natural history of intertidal invertebrates and algae, identification of key species, rocky intertidal monitoring techniques, and history of the sanctuary. Students identify and count key invertebrate and algae species along two permanent transects and, using randomly determined points, within two permanent 200 m2 areas, in fall, winter, and late spring. Using data from the previous years, we will compare population densities, seasonal abundance and long-term population trends of key algal and invertebrate species, including Tegula funebralis, three separate Anthopluera sea anemone species, and two rockweed species. Future analyses and investigations will include intertidal abiotic factors (including water temperature, pH and human foot-traffic) to enhance insights into the Duxbury Reef ecosystem, in particular, the high and mid-intertidal zones experiencing the greatest amount of human impacts.

  7. Studioantarctica: Embedding Art in a Geophysics Sea Ice Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Gabby; Stevens, Craig

    2017-04-01

    Here we report on a six year collaboration developing new modes of communication using the interconnections between art and science in the context of climate science. We use the polar regions as a context for the collaboration in part because it holds a special place in the imaginations of many people. Not only is it is a part of the planet likely to be never visited be the viewer but there is a growing understanding of the role the poles play in the planet's climate. Motivated by the potential for cross-disciplinary outcomes, an artist was embedded in a science expedition to the fast sea ice around Antarctica. Both the science and art focused on ice crystal formation. Most elements of the art process had three phases, pre, during and post - as with the science. The environment largely dominated the progress and evolution of ideas. The results were multi-material and multiscale and provide a way to entrain a wide range of audiences, while also making non-didactic connections around global climate - and producing art. This built on a continuum of approaches where we have evolved from consideration and debate about synergies in approach, through to cross-fertilisation of ideas, shared labour, trial remote controlling and finally shared field experimentation. Certainly this is ground-breaking in an academic sense, but beyond this, it is proving a powerful attractor in engaging primary school students. In a class room setting we describe our work and experiences, both separately and in combination, as well as our recent experiences seeking to bridge the disciplinary divide. We then ask the students to contribute to the process of creating science-inspired art. There are complementary perspectives on the evolving process, their associated communication strands and how this drives a suite of communication and education outcomes. The need to understand how these systems are changing as the human species modifies its planet is urgent. Science around the connection between

  8. IODP Expedition 317: Exploring the Record of Sea-Level Change off New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Blum

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Expedition 317 investigated the record of global sea-level change (eustasy within continental margin sedimentary sequences and how eustasy interacts with local forcing to produce preserved sedimentary architectures. The Canterbury Basin, on the eastern margin of the South Island of New Zealand, was selected to study these complex interactions because of high rates of Neogene sediment supply fromthe uplifting Southern Alps. This sediment input results in a high-frequency (~0.1–0.5 My periods record of depositional cyclicity that is modulated by the presence of strong ocean currents. The expedition recovered sediments as old as Eocene but focused on the sequence stratigraphy of the late Miocene to Recent, when global sea-level change was dominated by glacioeustasy. A transect of three sites was drilled on the continental shelf (Sites U1353, U1354, and U1351, plus one on the continental slope (Site U1352. The transectsamples the shallow-water environment most directly affected by relative sea-level change. Lithologic boundaries, provisionally correlative with seismic sequence boundaries, have been identified in cores from each site. Continental slope Site U1352 provides a record of ocean circulation and fronts during the last ~35 My. The early Oligocene (~30 MaMarshall Paraconformity was the deepest target ofExpedition 317 and is hypothesized to represent intensified current erosion or non-deposition associated with the initiation of thermohaline circulation in the region. Expedition 317 involved operational challenges for JOIDES Resolution, including shallow-water, continental-shelf drilling and deep penetrations. Despitethese challenges, Expedition 317 set a number of records for scientific ocean drilling penetration and water-depth.

  9. Amundsen Sea Mollusca from the BIOPEARL II expedition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Camille; Linse, Katrin; Griffiths, Huw; Barnes, David; Kaiser, Stefanie; Glover, Adrian; Sands, Chester; Strugnell, Jan; Enderlein, Peter; Geissler, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the epibenthic sledge (EBS) samples collected during the cruise BIOPEARL II / JR179 RRS James Clark Ross in the austral summer 2008. A total of 35 epibenthic sledge deployments have been performed at five locations in the Amundsen Sea at Pine Island Bay (PIB) and the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE) at depths ranging from 476 to 3501m. This presents a unique and important collection for the Antarctic benthic biodiversity assessment as the Amundsen Sea remains one of the least known regions in Antarctica. Indeed the work presented in this dataset is based on the first benthic samples collected with an EBS in the Amundsen Sea. However we assume that the data represented are an underestimation of the real fauna present in the Amundsen Sea. In total 9261 specimens belonging to 6 classes 55 families and 97 morphospecies were collected. The species richness per station varied between 6 and 43. Gastropoda were most species rich 50 species followed by Bivalvia (37), Aplacophora (5), Scaphopoda (3) and one from each of Polyplacophora and Monoplacophora.

  10. Amundsen Sea Mollusca from the BIOPEARL II expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Moreau

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the epibenthic sledge (EBS samples collected during the cruise BIOPEARL II / JR179 RRS James Clark Ross in the austral summer 2008. A total of 35 epibenthic sledge deployments have been performed at five locations in the Amundsen Sea at Pine Island Bay (PIB and the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE at depths ranging from 476 to 3501m. This presents a unique and important collection for the Antarctic benthic biodiversity assessment as the Amundsen Sea remains one of the least known regions in Antarctica. Indeed the work presented in this dataset is based on the first benthic samples collected with an EBS in the Amundsen Sea. However we assume that the data represented are an underestimation of the real fauna present in the Amundsen Sea. In total 9261 specimens belonging to 6 classes 55 families and 97 morphospecies were collected. The pecies richness per station varied between 6 and 43. Gastropoda were most species rich 50 species followed by Bivalvia (37, Aplacophora (5, Scaphopoda (3 and one from each of Polyplacophora and Monoplacophora.

  11. Sea ice thickness measurements collected during the LOMROG 2007 and 2009 expeditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René; Hanson, Susanne

    and 2009 we have collected a unique data set of late summer sea ice thickness, freeboard height and snow depth from the high Arctic Ocean during the time of the annual minimum sea ice extent. The data were collected by on-the-ground drilling and EM measurements. Here we give a brief overview of the data....... The processes involved in the declining sea ice are not fully understood. This is primarily due to a lack of knowledge of the variety and high spatial resolution of, e.g. snow depth, ice thickness and morphology, which are difficult or impossible to obtain remotely. During the LOMROG expeditions in 2007...... collection, as well as the results including the freeboard-to-sea-ice thickness conversion factor, which is used when interpreting freeboard heights measured by remote sensing....

  12. East Weddell Sea echinoids from the JR275 expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Saucède

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding the echinoids in this dataset is based on the Agassiz Trawl (AGT and epibenthic sledge (EBS samples collected during the British Antarctic Survey cruise JR275 on the RRS James Clark Ross in the austral summer 2012. A total of 56 (1 at the South Orkneys and 55 in the Eastern Weddell Sea Agassiz Trawl and 18 (2 at the South Orkneys and 16 in the Eastern Weddell Sea epibenthic sledge deployments were performed at depths ranging from ~280 to ~2060 m. This presents a unique collection for the Antarctic benthic biodiversity assessment of an important group of benthic invertebrates. In total 487 specimens belonging to six families, 15 genera, and 22 morphospecies were collected. The species richness per station varied between one and six. Total species richness represents 27% of the 82 echinoid species ever recorded in the Southern Ocean (David et al. 2005b, Pierrat et al. 2012, Saucède et al. 2014. The Cidaridae (sub-family Ctenocidarinae and Schizasteridae are the two most speciose families in the dataset. They comprise seven and nine species respectively. This is illustrative of the overall pattern of echinoid diversity in the Southern Ocean where 65% of Antarctic species belong to the families Schizasteridae and Cidaridae (Pierrat et al. 2012.

  13. Sustainable Seas Expedition Tracklines: Years 2000 and 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Pulley Ridge is a series of drowned barrier islands that extends almost 200 km in 60-100 m water depths. This drowned ridge is located on the Florida Platform in the...

  14. Sustainable Foods and Medicines Support Vitality, Sex and Longevity for a 100-Year Starship Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M. R.

    Extended space flight requires foods and medicines that sustain crew health and vitality. The health and therapeutic needs for the entire crew and their children for a 100-year space flight must be sustainable. The starship cannot depend on resupply or carry a large cargo of pharmaceuticals. Everything in the starship must be completely recyclable and reconstructable, including food, feed, textiles, building materials, pharmaceuticals, vaccines, and medicines. Smart microfarms will produce functional foods with superior nutrition and sensory attributes. These foods provide high-quality protein and nutralence (nutrient density), that avoids obesity, diabetes, and other Western diseases. The combination of functional foods, lifestyle actions, and medicines will support crew immunity, energy, vitality, sustained strong health, and longevity. Smart microfarms enable the production of fresh medicines in hours or days, eliminating the need for a large dispensary, which eliminates concern over drug shelf life. Smart microfarms are adaptable to the extreme growing area, resource, and environmental constraints associated with an extended starship expedition.

  15. IODP Expedition 323—Pliocene and Pleistocene Paleoceanographic Changes in the Bering Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alvarez Zarikian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution paleoceanography of the Plio-Pleistocene is important in understanding climate forcing mechanisms and the associated environmental changes. This is particularly true in high-latitude marginal seas such as the Bering Sea, which has been very sensitive to changes in global climate during interglacial and glacial or Milankovitch time scales. This is due to significant changes in water circulation, land-ocean interaction, and sea-ice formation. With theaim to reveal the climate and oceanographic history of the Bering Sea over the past 5 Ma, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 323 cored a total of 5741 meters of sediment (97.4% recovery at seven sites covering three different areas: Umnak Plateau, Bowers Ridge, and the Bering slope region. Four deep holes range from 600 m to 745 m spanning in age from 1.9 Ma to 5 Ma. The water depths (819 m to 3173 m allow characterization of past verticalwater mass distribution such as the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ. The results highlight three key points. (1 The first is an understanding of long-term evolution of surface-water mass distribution during the past 5 Ma including past sea-ice distribution and warm and less eutrophic subarctic Pacific water mass entry into the Bering Sea. (2 We characterized relatively stagnant intermediate water mass distribution imprinted as laminated sediment intervals that have beenubiquitously encountered. Today, the OMZ impinges upon the sediments at ~700–1600 m water depths. In the past, the OMZ appears to have occurred mainly during interglacial periods. Changes in low oxygen-tolerant benthic foraminiferal faunas clearly concur with this observation. (3 We also characterized significant changes between glacial episode of terrigenous sedimentary supply and interglacialepisode of diatom flux.

  16. Baltic Sea Maritime Spatial Planning for Sustainable Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten; Schrøder, Anne Lise

    2017-01-01

    in the marine and maritime sectors with great potential for innovation and economic growth. Holistic spatial planning systems supporting sustainable development have proved themselves in terrestrial planning and are also needed at sea. Due to this reason, the BONUS BASMATI project is based on the ecosystem...... services approach to assist in assessing sustainable solutions corresponding to policy goals....

  17. Modelling of Sea Ice Thermodynamics and Biogeochemistry during the N-ICE2015 Expedition in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A.; Duarte, P.; Mork Olsen, L.; Kauko, H.; Assmy, P.; Rösel, A.; Itkin, P.; Hudson, S. R.; Granskog, M. A.; Gerland, S.; Sundfjord, A.; Steen, H.; Jeffery, N.; Hunke, E. C.; Elliott, S.; Turner, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in the sea ice regime of the Arctic Ocean over the last decades from a thick perennial multiyear ice to a first year ice have been well documented. These changes in the sea ice regime will affect feedback mechanisms between the sea ice, atmosphere and ocean. Here we evaluate the performance of the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE), a state of the art sea ice model, to predict sea ice physical and biogeochemical properties at time scales of a few weeks. We also identify the most problematic prognostic variables and what is necessary to improve their forecast. The availability of a complete data set of forcing collected during the Norwegian Young sea Ice (N-ICE-2015) expedition north of Svalbard opens the possibility to properly test CICE. Oceanographic, atmospheric, sea ice, snow, and biological data were collected above, on, and below the ice using R/V Lance as the base for the ice camps that were drifting south towards the Fram Strait. Over six months, four different drifts took place, from the Nansen Basin, through the marginal ice zone, to the open ocean. Obtained results from the model show a good performance regarding ice thickness, salinity and temperature. Nutrients and sea ice algae are however not modelled as accurately. We hypothesize that improvements in biogeochemical modeling may be achieved by complementing brine drainage with a diffusion parameterization and biogeochemical modeling with the introduction of an explicit formulation to forecast chlorophyll and regulate photosynthetic efficiency.

  18. Gamma radiation-based astronomical timescale for the Maldives: Preliminary results from IODP Expedition 359, Maldives Monsoon and Sea Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagle, Angela; Wright, James; Kroon, Dick; Lanci, Luca; Betzler, Christian; Eberli, Gregor; Alvarez Zarikian, Carlos; 359 Scientists, Expedition

    2017-04-01

    Many of the attributes that characterize the modern ocean-atmosphere system developed during the Neogene. In the Indian Ocean, strengthening of the monsoon, development of the oxygen minimum zone, and spin up of the equatorial currents occurred during this interval. International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 359 drilled a series of eight sites across two transects in the Maldives archipelago, capturing records of carbonate platform and drift sedimentation through this critical time period. Sites U1467 (middle Miocene to present) and U1468 (Oligocene/Miocene boundary to middle Miocene) provide the opportunity to construct a complete Neogene record of sedimentation in the depositional center of the region, the Maldives Inner Sea. Downhole logging data provide continuous, in situ measurements of physical properties but are limited to the logged interval (typically only deeper than 100 meters below seafloor) and by borehole conditions; core data are higher resolution but limited by core recovery and quality. Integration of these two data sets is a powerful tool for interpreting the complete drilled interval collected during Expedition 359. Natural gamma radiation measured both in boreholes and on recovered sediments is the primary measurement used for core-log data integration. Spectral gamma radiation data from downhole logging reveals that the gamma radiation signal is dominated by uranium at all Expedition 359 sites, indicating that its variations and cycles are likely controlled by changes in organic matter. This study of gamma radiation cycles will contribute to expedition efforts to assemble an integrated cyclo-magneto-biostratigraphic age model, allowing for further refinement of the age assignments for the Maldivian events. Ultimately, a final age model for the Maldives drift sites can be integrated with the regional seismic stratigraphic framework to establish ages for a series of critical sequence boundaries, allowing for a detailed

  19. Investigation of environmental radioactivity in waste dumping areas of the far eastern seas. JAERI`s activities in the 1st Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expedition 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Hikaru; Matsunaga, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yabuuchi, Noriaki

    1996-10-01

    Large quantities of radioactive waste have been dumped in the Far Eastern Sea by the former USSR and Russia. In order to survey marine radioactive contamination in the Far Eastern Sea, the first Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expedition was conducted according to the governmental agreement. The joint expedition was conducted at the areas of the Russian radioactive waste dumping site from March 18 1994 to April 6, 1994. JAERI participated in this expedition according to the request from STA Japan, and conducted mainly on-board measurement of marine radioactivities. The results showed that the radionuclides concentrations in seawater and seabed sediment samples from the study site were not different from those in the western North Pacific. This report summarises JAERI`s activities in the expedition. Final report by Japanese-Korean-Russian government and IAEA is annexed. (author)

  20. Institutional Change, Sustainability and the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Schlüter

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a substantial institutional change is under way for marine and coastal resources. Sustainability plays a major role therein. At the time of writing, roughly 2.3% of the marine and coastal territory has been declared a Marine Protected Area (MPA. The Convention of Biological Diversity set a target to protect 10% of the global marine environment by 2020. This move toward enclosure signifies a substantial shift away from mainly open access to at least de jure marine protected areas. What drives institutional change towards MPAs; and what role does sustainability play in this change in governance? In reflecting on these questions, the paper’s aim is to begin a dialogue on how the social-ecological system (SES analytical framework developed by Elinor Ostrom and her collaborators engages differentially with marine and coastal systems. How institutional change takes place depends on the characteristics of the resources considered and the drivers of change for the particular resource. In order to characterize the marine and coastal realm we use the social-ecological system (SES framework of Elinor Ostrom. Douglas North’s theory of institutional change is used to classify the change observed. The marine realm has ambiguous system boundaries and often high resource mobility. Uncertainties about system properties and change are much higher than for terrestrial systems. Interdependencies among different ecosystems are high, necessitating multi-level governance. Institutional change in this sector occurs under strong institutional path dependencies and competing ideologies. All these features make it particularly relevant to think about institutional change, sustainability and the current process of MPA expansion.

  1. Vertical thermodynamic structure of the troposphere during the Norwegian young sea ICE expedition (N-ICE2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Markus; Maturilli, Marion; Graham, Robert M.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Rinke, Annette; Cohen, Lana; Kim, Joo-Hong; Park, Sang-Jong; Moon, Woosok; Granskog, Mats A.

    2017-10-01

    The Norwegian young sea ICE (N-ICE2015) expedition was designed to investigate the atmosphere-snow-ice-ocean interactions in the young and thin sea ice regime north of Svalbard. Radiosondes were launched twice daily during the expedition from January to June 2015. Here we use these upper air measurements to study the multiple cyclonic events observed during N-ICE2015 with respect to changes in the vertical thermodynamic structure, moisture content, and boundary layer characteristics. We provide statistics of temperature inversion characteristics, static stability, and boundary layer extent. During winter, when radiative cooling is most effective, we find the strongest impact of synoptic cyclones. Changes to thermodynamic characteristics of the boundary layer are associated with transitions between the radiatively "clear" and "opaque" atmospheric states. In spring, radiative fluxes warm the surface leading to lifted temperature inversions and a statically unstable boundary layer. Further, we compare the N-ICE2015 static stability distributions to corresponding profiles from ERA-Interim reanalysis, from the closest land station in the Arctic North Atlantic sector, Ny-Ålesund, and to soundings from the SHEBA expedition (1997/1998). We find similar stability characteristics for N-ICE2015 and SHEBA throughout the troposphere, despite differences in location, sea ice thickness, and snow cover. For Ny-Ålesund, we observe similar characteristics above 1000 m, while the topography and ice-free fjord surrounding Ny-Ålesund generate great differences below. The long-term radiosonde record (1993-2014) from Ny-Ålesund indicates that during the N-ICE2015 spring period, temperatures were close to the climatological mean, while the lowest 3000 m were 1-3°C warmer than the climatology during winter.

  2. Expedition agroparks : research by design into sustainable development and agriculture in network society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This book is the result of several years of expedition into the development of metropolitan FoodClusters. The authors fascination for the agricultural landscapes in and around metropolises led him to the conclusion that improving the efficiency of agriculture is the most effective way to safeguard

  3. Towards an improved understanding of Baltic Sea hypoxia during the Holocene: preliminary results from IODP Expedition 347

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomp, Caroline; Dijkstra, Nikki; Egger, Matthias; Gustafsson, Bo; Ash, Jeanine; Bauersachs, Thorsten; Hardisty, Dalton; Martin, Ellen; Riedinger, Natascha; Andren, Thomas; Barker Jorgensen, Bo

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is a restricted brackish-marine basin that is highly sensitive to changes in climate and anthropogenic activity. Due to its salinity stratification, the Baltic Sea is particularly vulnerable to hypoxia (oxygen concentrations Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), ca. 1-0.7 ka (Zillen et al., 2008; Jilbert and Slomp, 2013). While changes in salinity, temperature and the input and recycling of nutrients all may contribute to the development of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea, their relative importance in driving the hypoxia during the MCA and HTM is still incompletely understood. Here, we use porewater and sediment geochemical data obtained during the IODP Expedition 347: Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment (September 13 - November 1, 2013) to obtain further insight into the role of changes in salinity and phosphorus recycling during the HTM. We focus on three sites along the modern salinity gradient in the Baltic Sea, Sites M0059, M0063 and M0065. Our results indicate that bottom water salinity in the Baltic Proper was higher during the HTM than at present, confirming previous studies that increased salinity stratification may have contributed to the development of hypoxia during the HTM. We also discuss evidence for temporal changes and spatial differences in primary productivity and phosphorus burial and recycling in the Baltic Sea and their potential role in contributing to the development of hypoxia during the HTM and MCA. References: Jilbert, T., and Slomp, C.P. (2013). Rapid high-amplitude variability in Baltic Sea hypoxia during the Holocene. Geology 41, 1183-1186. doi: 10.1130/g34804.1. Zillén, L., Conley, D.J., Andrén, T., Andrén, E., and Björck, S. (2008). Past occurrences of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and the role of climate variability, environmental change and human impact. Earth-Science Reviews 91, 77-92. doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2008.10.001.

  4. City and the sea: maritime identity for urban sustainable regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Clemente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraordinary shape of cities by the sea is the result of the synthesis between urban culture and maritime culture – a synthesis that is full of charm and semantic values. The harmonious union of maritime culture and urban culture offers a different point of view – the one that Konvitz defined as “Urban maritime culture” (Konvitz, 1978 – for appreciating the coastal human settlements.Cities by the sea have been a really central theme in architectural and urban debate of last few decades. The suggestion behind the research is that to understand coastal and port cities we must move our point of view from the mainland on the sea – actually we must refer to maritime culture to understand urban culture in the city by the sea.The contribution describes the main research findings related to several studies that, since 2009, the Group "City and Architecture" in the National Research Council of Italy has carried out about the relationship between city and sea. The starting point is to consider the maritime interpretation of seaside cities as a relevant issue for an innovative research related to urban planning and design in coastal urban areas.The first phase of the research project has concerned with an original multidisciplinary methodology based on a mindful maritime re-interpretation of architectures and urban spaces and, more generally, of coastal urban areas. The second phase is aimed to refer the research results to real case studies with the broad involvement of multidisciplinary scholars, stakeholders and policy.The approach has permitted a review of the waterfront renewal processes – in ever greater numbers over the last fifty years – in a very different way. The objective is to define innovative methodologies and strategies for enhancing maritime identity as key tool for the urban sustainable regeneration of cities by the sea.

  5. A shape and compositional analysis of ice-rafted debris in cores from IODP Expedition 323 in the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadd, Kelsie; Foley, Kristen

    2016-03-01

    Sediment cores recovered during IODP Expedition 323 in the Bering Sea, northern Pacific, contained numerous ice-rafted debris (IRD) clasts up to 85 mm in length. The physical properties (including roundness and sphericity) of 136 clasts from the working half of the cores, a subsample of the total clast number, were analysed and their composition determined using standard petrographic techniques. After removal of pumice and possible fall-in derived material from the clast population, a total of 86 clasts from the original collection were considered to be IRD. While roundness and sphericity vary greatly in the clast population, the IRD are predominately discoid in shape with oblate/prolate indices typically between -5 and 5. There are four time periods over the approximately 4.5 Ma sample interval, 0.36-0.67 Ma, 0.82-1.06 Ma 1.54-1.77 Ma and >3.28 Ma, where there are no IRD in the sample set for sites of the Bering slope, suggesting that these times may have been ice-free. Most clasts show some rounding and are likely to have spent time on beaches with wave action. Wave action on beaches suggests periods of no ice or only seasonal sea-ice. The low roundness values of other clasts, however, suggest they underwent little working and, therefore, the presence of glaciers or more permanent sea-ice at times in those locations. The abundance of rounded and unfaceted clasts as IRD suggests a lack of large ice sheets in the area during cool periods. Clast composition of the IRD is divided into four broad groups, basalt and andesite, granite and metamorphic, sedimentary, and felsic volcanic. The granite and metamorphic and more mature sedimentary lithologies are most likely derived from the Alaskan continental margin, while the extrusive igneous clasts could be derived from a variety of volcanic sources surrounding the Bering Sea, both emergent now or emergent at times of lower sea level. There is only a poor correlation with IRD abundance and marine isotope stages (MIS) for

  6. EMODnet MedSea Checkpoint for sustainable Blue Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussat, Eric; Pinardi, Nadia; Manzella, Giuseppe; Blanc, Frederique

    2016-04-01

    The EMODNET checkpoint is a wide monitoring system assessment activity aiming to support the sustainable Blue Growth at the scale of the European Sea Basins by: 1) Clarifying the observation landscape of all compartments of the marine environment including Air, Water, Seabed, Biota and Human activities, pointing out to the existing programs, national, European and international 2) Evaluating fitness for use indicators that will show the accessibility and usability of observation and modeling data sets and their roles and synergies based upon selected applications by the European Marine Environment Strategy 3) Prioritizing the needs to optimize the overall monitoring Infrastructure (in situ and satellite data collection and assembling, data management and networking, modeling and forecasting, geo-infrastructure) and release recommendations for evolutions to better meet the application requirements in view of sustainable Blue Growth The assessment is designed for : - Institutional stakeholders for decision making on observation and monitoring systems - Data providers and producers to know how their data collected once for a given purpose could fit other user needs - End-users interested in a regional status and possible uses of existing monitoring data Selected end-user applications are of paramount importance for: (i) the blue economy sector (offshore industries, fisheries); (ii) marine environment variability and change (eutrophication, river inputs and ocean climate change impacts); (iii) emergency management (oil spills); and (iv) preservation of natural resources and biodiversity (Marine Protected Areas). End-user applications generate innovative products based on the existing observation landscape. The fitness for use assessment is made thanks to the comparison of the expected product specifications with the quality of the product derived from the selected data. This involves the development of checkpoint information and indicators based on Data quality and

  7. A Triple P review of the feasibility of sustainable offshore seaweed production in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van den S.W.K.; Stuiver, M.; Veenstra, F.A.; Bikker, P.; Lopez Contreras, A.M.; Palstra, A.P.; Broeze, J.; Jansen, H.M.; Jak, R.G.; Gerritsen, A.L.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Kals, J.; Blanco Garcia, A.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Duijn, van A.P.; Mulder, W.J.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the potential of seaweed, cultivated in the North Sea, as a sustainable and profitable resource for feed and non-food applications. Seawood production can take place as part of multi-use platforms at sea (MUPS). A review of the state-of-the-art in seaweed production and its

  8. The Wadden Sea Region: Towards a science for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabat, P.; Bazelmans, J.; Dijk, van J.; Hermans, P.; Oijen, van T.

    2012-01-01

    The Wadden Sea is one of the largest intertidal areas in the world and has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in recognition of its unique natural features. Major changes in the morphology and ecology of the Wadden Sea over the past millennium resulted from increasing anthropogenic

  9. The Wadden Sea region: towards a science for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazelmans, J.G.A.; Kabat, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Wadden Sea is one of the largest intertidal areas in the world and has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in recognition of its unique natural features. Major changes in the morphology and ecology of the Wadden Sea over the past millennium resulted from increasing anthropogenic

  10. The Wadden Sea Region : Towards a science for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabat, Pavel; Bazelmans, Jos; van Dijk, Jouke; Herman, Peter M. J.; van Oijen, Tim; Pejrup, Morten; Reise, Karsten; Speelman, Hessel; Wolff, Wim J.

    2012-01-01

    The Wadden Sea is one of the largest intertidal areas in the world and has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in recognition of its unique natural features. major changes in the morphology and ecology of the Wadden Sea over the past millennium resulted from increasing anthropogenic

  11. Results of NanTroSEIZE Expeditions Stages 1 & 2: Deep-sea Coring Operations on-board the Deep-sea Drilling Vessel Chikyu and Development of Coring Equipment for Stage 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinmoto, Y.; Wada, K.; Miyazaki, E.; Sanada, Y.; Sawada, I.; Yamao, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Nankai-Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) has carried out several drilling expeditions in the Kumano Basin off the Kii-Peninsula of Japan with the deep-sea scientific drilling vessel Chikyu. Core sampling runs were carried out during the expeditions using an advanced multiple wireline coring system which can continuously core into sections of undersea formations. The core recovery rate with the Rotary Core Barrel (RCB) system was rather low as compared with other methods such as the Hydraulic Piston Coring System (HPCS) and Extended Shoe Coring System (ESCS). Drilling conditions such as hole collapse and sea conditions such as high ship-heave motions need to be analyzed along with differences in lithology, formation hardness, water depth and coring depth in order to develop coring tools, such as the core barrel or core bit, that will yield the highest core recovery and quality. The core bit is especially important in good recovery of high quality cores, however, the PDC cutters were severely damaged during the NanTroSEIZE Stages 1 & 2 expeditions due to severe drilling conditions. In the Stage 1 (riserless coring) the average core recovery was rather low at 38 % with the RCB and many difficulties such as borehole collapse, stick-slip and stuck pipe occurred, causing the damage of several of the PDC cutters. In Stage 2, a new design for the core bit was deployed and core recovery was improved at 67 % for the riserless system and 85 % with the riser. However, due to harsh drilling conditions, the PDC core bit and all of the PDC cutters were completely worn down. Another original core bit was also deployed, however, core recovery performance was low even for plate boundary core samples. This study aims to identify the influence of the RCB system specifically on the recovery rates at each of the holes drilled in the NanTroSEIZE coring expeditions. The drilling parameters such as weight-on-bit, torque, rotary speed and flow rate, etc., were analyzed

  12. Using sea to mainstream sustainable development: Some lessons from Scottish practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Tony

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic environmental assessment (SEA is now a requirement for virtually all new Scottish public sector strategies, plans and programmes (SPPs, whether of a statutory or of a voluntary nature, which are deemed likely to have significant environmental effects. This major extension of the EU SEA Directive by the Scottish Government has been deliberately designed to mainstream sustainable development in Scottish policy formulation. The paper reviews current progress in this direction, raising some issues of principle and practice in the use of SEA before considering how SEA can be combined with environmental modeling techniques to deliver the challenging climate change targets adopted by Scottish public bodies. .

  13. How can maritime spatial planning contribute to sustainable Blue Growth in the Baltic Sea?

    OpenAIRE

    Tarvainen, Hanna; Tolvanen, Harri; Repka, Sari

    2015-01-01

    The sea and the coasts are drivers of Europe’s economy as many of the economic activities as well as large part of trade depend on the sea. At the European level there is strong political pressure to enhance the growth of maritime economy sectors. The European Union has developed the Integrated Maritime Policy to support the sustainable development of the seas and oceans. The aim is to reach a good environmental status of European seas by 2020. The value of this study is to provi...

  14. Sequencing at sea: challenges and experiences in Ion Torrent PGM sequencing during the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, Y.W.; Cuevas, D.A.; Silva, G.G.; Aguinaldo, K.; Dinsdale, E.A.; Haas, A.F.; Hatay, M.; Sanchez, S.E.; Wegley-Kelly, L.; Dutilh, B.E.; Harkins, T.T.; Lee, C.C.; Tom, W.; Sandin, S.A.; Smith, J.E.; Zgliczynski, B.; Vermeij, M.J.; Rohwer, F.; Edwards, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Genomics and metagenomics have revolutionized our understanding of marine microbial ecology and the importance of microbes in global geochemical cycles. However, the process of DNA sequencing has always been an abstract extension of the research expedition, completed once the samples were returned

  15. Sequencing at sea : challenges and experiences in Ion Torrent PGM sequencing during the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, Yan Wei; Cuevas, Daniel A; Silva, Genivaldo Gueiros Z; Aguinaldo, Kristen; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Haas, Andreas F; Hatay, Mark; Sanchez, Savannah E; Wegley-Kelly, Linda; Dutilh, Bas E; Harkins, Timothy T; Lee, Clarence C; Tom, Warren; Sandin, Stuart A; Smith, Jennifer E; Zgliczynski, Brian; Vermeij, Mark J A; Rohwer, Forest; Edwards, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Genomics and metagenomics have revolutionized our understanding of marine microbial ecology and the importance of microbes in global geochemical cycles. However, the process of DNA sequencing has always been an abstract extension of the research expedition, completed once the samples were returned

  16. Sustainability assessment: dressing up SEA - experiences from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, K

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability Assessment is a recent addition to the environmental assessment toolbox that is not currently applied in South Africa in any formal way. However, there appear to be remarkable similarities between what is commonly proposed...

  17. All at Sea: Sustaining livelihoods through maritime tourism in Croatia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to be an essential framework and toolkit for tourism development in the observed community. Despite evident ongoing challenges, maritime tourism activities provide a commercially viable way of life in this community. Keywords: Sustainable livelihoods, maritime tourism, seafaring community, entrepreneurship, Croatia.

  18. Climate-sensitive carbon cycling on the western Antarctic continental shelf: results from the Amundsen Sea Polynya International Research Expedition (ASPIRE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, P. L.; Sherrell, R. M.; Stammerjohn, S. E.

    2016-02-01

    The Amundsen Sea hosts the most productive polynya in all of coastal Antarctica, with its vibrant green waters exceeding 20 µg Chl a per liter. It is also one of the global regions most vulnerable to climate change, experiencing rapid losses in both sea ice cover and nearby ice sheets. During the Amundsen Sea Polynya International Research Expedition (ASPIRE) in austral summer 2010-11, we aimed to determine mechanisms driving the production and fate of this extraordinary algal bloom, with an eye towards predicting how this system will respond to further change. Here we summarize and synthesize results from the expedition, highlight results now being published in a special ASPIRE feature in the journal Elementa, and present an effort to balance the carbon budget for the region. We collected water column profiles for total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and nutrients, particulate and dissolved organic matter, chlorophyll a, macrozooplankton, and microbial biomass. We also measured primary and secondary production, community respiration rates, vertical particle flux and fecal pellet production and grazing. With observations arranged along a gradient of increasing integrated nitrate depletion, changes in DIC in the upper water column (ranging from 0.2 to 4.7 mol C m-2) and gas exchange are compared to nutrient and organic matter inventories to estimate export. Comparisons to short-term (days) drifting traps and a year-long moored sediment trap capturing the downward flux confirmed that a high fraction (up to 60%) of the net community production was exported to sub-euphotic depths during the early part of the bloom in this productive region. The ultimate fate of this carbon is also estimated. We discuss the importance of this carbon sequestration, particularly in light of changing climate conditions in this region, informed by ongoing data synthesis and modeling efforts (INSPIRE).

  19. [The natural resources of the expedition bay as a basis for the creation of the health resort centre at the coast of the Peter the Great Bay, the Sea of Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'chenko, V F; Badalov, N G; Derkacheva, L N

    2014-01-01

    The present article presents characteristics of the therapeutic and health promoting potential of the Expedition Bay, (part of the Peter the Great Bay, the Sea of Japan), known to be a deposit of therapeutic sea muds. The great variety of local therapeutic natural resources, viz. sea muds, sea weeds, friendly climate, beeches, etc., can be used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases. The Expedition Bay was designated as a local area of recreational and therapeutic value that can be used as a basis for the creation and further development of the multi-field health resort centre (or medical spa) that would attract patients from other regions of Russia and the surrounding countries. The future centre would provide medical services based in the first place on the classical methods of climatic and peloid therapy, thalassotherapy (heliotherapy, aeroionotherapy, bathing, marine algae therapy, etc.) as well as the modern balneotherapeutic and spa technologies, therapeutic tourism for the purpose of rehabilitation and health promotion.

  20. How deep-sea wood falls sustain chemosynthetic life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienhold, Christina; Pop Ristova, Petra; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Dittmar, Thorsten; Boetius, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Large organic food falls to the deep sea--such as whale carcasses and wood logs--are known to serve as stepping stones for the dispersal of highly adapted chemosynthetic organisms inhabiting hot vents and cold seeps. Here we investigated the biogeochemical and microbiological processes leading to the development of sulfidic niches by deploying wood colonization experiments at a depth of 1690 m in the Eastern Mediterranean for one year. Wood-boring bivalves of the genus Xylophaga played a key role in the degradation of the wood logs, facilitating the development of anoxic zones and anaerobic microbial processes such as sulfate reduction. Fauna and bacteria associated with the wood included types reported from other deep-sea habitats including chemosynthetic ecosystems, confirming the potential role of large organic food falls as biodiversity hot spots and stepping stones for vent and seep communities. Specific bacterial communities developed on and around the wood falls within one year and were distinct from freshly submerged wood and background sediments. These included sulfate-reducing and cellulolytic bacterial taxa, which are likely to play an important role in the utilization of wood by chemosynthetic life and other deep-sea animals.

  1. How deep-sea wood falls sustain chemosynthetic life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bienhold

    Full Text Available Large organic food falls to the deep sea--such as whale carcasses and wood logs--are known to serve as stepping stones for the dispersal of highly adapted chemosynthetic organisms inhabiting hot vents and cold seeps. Here we investigated the biogeochemical and microbiological processes leading to the development of sulfidic niches by deploying wood colonization experiments at a depth of 1690 m in the Eastern Mediterranean for one year. Wood-boring bivalves of the genus Xylophaga played a key role in the degradation of the wood logs, facilitating the development of anoxic zones and anaerobic microbial processes such as sulfate reduction. Fauna and bacteria associated with the wood included types reported from other deep-sea habitats including chemosynthetic ecosystems, confirming the potential role of large organic food falls as biodiversity hot spots and stepping stones for vent and seep communities. Specific bacterial communities developed on and around the wood falls within one year and were distinct from freshly submerged wood and background sediments. These included sulfate-reducing and cellulolytic bacterial taxa, which are likely to play an important role in the utilization of wood by chemosynthetic life and other deep-sea animals.

  2. How Deep-Sea Wood Falls Sustain Chemosynthetic Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienhold, Christina; Pop Ristova, Petra; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Dittmar, Thorsten; Boetius, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Large organic food falls to the deep sea – such as whale carcasses and wood logs – are known to serve as stepping stones for the dispersal of highly adapted chemosynthetic organisms inhabiting hot vents and cold seeps. Here we investigated the biogeochemical and microbiological processes leading to the development of sulfidic niches by deploying wood colonization experiments at a depth of 1690 m in the Eastern Mediterranean for one year. Wood-boring bivalves of the genus Xylophaga played a key role in the degradation of the wood logs, facilitating the development of anoxic zones and anaerobic microbial processes such as sulfate reduction. Fauna and bacteria associated with the wood included types reported from other deep-sea habitats including chemosynthetic ecosystems, confirming the potential role of large organic food falls as biodiversity hot spots and stepping stones for vent and seep communities. Specific bacterial communities developed on and around the wood falls within one year and were distinct from freshly submerged wood and background sediments. These included sulfate-reducing and cellulolytic bacterial taxa, which are likely to play an important role in the utilization of wood by chemosynthetic life and other deep-sea animals. PMID:23301092

  3. Sequencing at sea: challenges and experiences in Ion Torrent PGM sequencing during the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wei Lim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Genomics and metagenomics have revolutionized our understanding of marine microbial ecology and the importance of microbes in global geochemical cycles. However, the process of DNA sequencing has always been an abstract extension of the research expedition, completed once the samples were returned to the laboratory. During the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition, we started the first effort to bring next generation sequencing to some of the most remote locations on our planet. We successfully sequenced twenty six marine microbial genomes, and two marine microbial metagenomes using the Ion Torrent PGM platform on the Merchant Yacht Hanse Explorer. Onboard sequence assembly, annotation, and analysis enabled us to investigate the role of the microbes in the coral reef ecology of these islands and atolls. This analysis identified phosphonate as an important phosphorous source for microbes growing in the Line Islands and reinforced the importance of L-serine in marine microbial ecosystems. Sequencing in the field allowed us to propose hypotheses and conduct experiments and further sampling based on the sequences generated. By eliminating the delay between sampling and sequencing, we enhanced the productivity of the research expedition. By overcoming the hurdles associated with sequencing on a boat in the middle of the Pacific Ocean we proved the flexibility of the sequencing, annotation, and analysis pipelines.

  4. Sequencing at sea: challenges and experiences in Ion Torrent PGM sequencing during the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yan Wei; Cuevas, Daniel A; Silva, Genivaldo Gueiros Z; Aguinaldo, Kristen; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Haas, Andreas F; Hatay, Mark; Sanchez, Savannah E; Wegley-Kelly, Linda; Dutilh, Bas E; Harkins, Timothy T; Lee, Clarence C; Tom, Warren; Sandin, Stuart A; Smith, Jennifer E; Zgliczynski, Brian; Vermeij, Mark J A; Rohwer, Forest; Edwards, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Genomics and metagenomics have revolutionized our understanding of marine microbial ecology and the importance of microbes in global geochemical cycles. However, the process of DNA sequencing has always been an abstract extension of the research expedition, completed once the samples were returned to the laboratory. During the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition, we started the first effort to bring next generation sequencing to some of the most remote locations on our planet. We successfully sequenced twenty six marine microbial genomes, and two marine microbial metagenomes using the Ion Torrent PGM platform on the Merchant Yacht Hanse Explorer. Onboard sequence assembly, annotation, and analysis enabled us to investigate the role of the microbes in the coral reef ecology of these islands and atolls. This analysis identified phosphonate as an important phosphorous source for microbes growing in the Line Islands and reinforced the importance of L-serine in marine microbial ecosystems. Sequencing in the field allowed us to propose hypotheses and conduct experiments and further sampling based on the sequences generated. By eliminating the delay between sampling and sequencing, we enhanced the productivity of the research expedition. By overcoming the hurdles associated with sequencing on a boat in the middle of the Pacific Ocean we proved the flexibility of the sequencing, annotation, and analysis pipelines.

  5. Sustainable manure management in the Baltic Sea Region - results, cases and project recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Luostarinen, S; Hamelin, Lorie

    This magazine contains the major results, conclusions and recommendations of the project Baltic Forum for Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Manure Management (Baltic Manure) which via co-funding from Interreg Baltic Sea Region programme has been a Flagship project in the EU Strategy...

  6. Sediment classification using neural networks: An example from the site-U1344A of IODP Expedition 323 in the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Maheswar; Maiti, Saumen

    2016-03-01

    A novel approach based on the concept of Bayesian neural network (BNN) has been implemented for classifying sediment boundaries using downhole log data obtained during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 323 in the Bering Sea slope region. The Bayesian framework in conjunction with Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)/hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) learning paradigm has been applied to constrain the lithology boundaries using density, density porosity, gamma ray, sonic P-wave velocity and electrical resistivity at the Hole U1344A. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of our supervised classification methodology by comparing our findings with a conventional neural network and a Bayesian neural network optimized by scaled conjugate gradient method (SCG), and tested the robustness of the algorithm in the presence of red noise in the data. The Bayesian results based on the HMC algorithm (BNN.HMC) resolve detailed finer structures at certain depths in addition to main lithology such as silty clay, diatom clayey silt and sandy silt. Our method also recovers the lithology information from a depth ranging between 615 and 655 m Wireline log Matched depth below Sea Floor of no core recovery zone. Our analyses demonstrate that the BNN based approach renders robust means for the classification of complex lithology successions at the Hole U1344A, which could be very useful for other studies and understanding the oceanic crustal inhomogeneity and structural discontinuities.

  7. The Kara Sea Expedition of RV "Akademik Boris Petrov" 1997: first results of a joint Russian-German pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthiessen, J; Stepanets, O.V; Stein, R; Futterer, D.K; Galimov, E.M

    1999-01-01

    ... of the eastern and northern Kara Sea and continental slope into the open Arctic Ocean and to answer the various questions, a bilateral Russian-German multi-disciplinary programme has been defined...

  8. Biodiversity of the Deep-Sea Benthic Fauna in the Sangihe-Talaud Region, Indonesia: Observations from the INDEX-SATAL 2010 Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, S.; Munro, C.; Nganro, N.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Wirasantosa, S.; Sibert, E.; Hammond, S. R.; Bors, E.; Butterfield, D.; Holden, J. F.; Baker, E. T.; Sherrin, J.; Makarim, S.; Troa, R.; Shank, T. M.

    2010-12-01

    The benthic ecosystems found in the deep-sea promontories of Sangihe Talaud region were explored, between June and August 2010, using the ROV Little Hercules aboard the NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer. The Sangihe-Talaud region is part of the Coral Triangle (CT) an area known for harboring the most biodiverse shallow-water coral reefs in the world. Notwithstanding the significant research efforts that have been undertaken to catalog and protect the biodiversity of the CT prior this expedition, virtually nothing was known about the life inhabiting the deep sea. The high-resolution imagery obtained from the 27 ROV dives revealed remarkably high abundances and diversity of animal species, many of which appear to be novel. On hard bottom substrates, cold-water corals were the dominant sessile macrofauna, in terms of biomass, followed by glass sponges (Hexactinellida) and sea lilies (Crinoidea). The coral taxa observed in this area represent six large orders of cnidarians: antipatharians (black corals), scleractinians (stony corals), zoanthideans (gold corals), alcyonaceans (octocorals), pennatulaceans (sea pens), and anthoathecates (hydrocorals). Most sessile species, independently of their size class or taxonomic affiliation, harbor a wide variety of associated fauna. Brittle stars (Ophiuroidea), squat lobsters (Galatheoidea), shrimp (Caridea), amphipods (Amphipoda), anemones (Actinaria), zanthideans, barnacles (Cirripedia), hydroids (Hydrozoa) and worms (Polychaeta) are the animal groups most commonly found forming these associations. In contrast, soft bottom habitats were dominated by stalked sponges, sea pens, sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) and brittle stars. Other conspicuous fauna include fish, hermit crabs (Paguridae), urchins (Echinoidea) and octopuses (Cephalopoda). The abundance of habitats generated by the high number of geological and biological features and depth ranges present in the deep coral triangle (e.g., ridges, seamounts, island margins, plains, and rock

  9. [Expedition medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlagić, Lana

    2009-01-01

    Expedition and wildeness medicine is a term that combines rescue medicine, sport medicine as well as more specific branches as polar or high altitude medicine. It is being intensively studied both at the reaserch institutes and on expeditions. Ophtalmologists are concentrated on the reaserch of HARH (High Altitude Retinal Hemorrhage), neurologists on HACE reaserch (High Altitude Cerebral Edema), psychologists are developing tests to decsribe cognitive functions and many physicians are being trained to work in extreme enviroment. The result of all this effort are numerous new findings in pathophysiology and therapy of altitude illness, increased security on expedition and further development of expeditionism.

  10. Discoveries From the Cross-Disciplinary, Multi-Institutional South Seas Expedition from Hawaii to New Zealand and Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malahoff, A.; Wiltshire, J. C.; Smith, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    The Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory organised an international research team to explore the chemistry, geology, biology, hydrothermal venting processes, mineral deposition, and biodiversity of seamounts extending south from Hawaii to New Zealand, including the submarine volcanoes of the Tonga-Kermadec Island Arc. Research team members came from a Consortium comprising of principal investigators from the NOAA Pacific Marine Environment Lab and VENTS program, the Inst of Geological and Nuclear Sciences and the National Inst of Water and Atmospheric Research both of New Zealand, the Univ of Kiel in Germany, the Univ of Mississippi, Univ of Hawaii, the NOAA Marine Fisheries Service, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Univ of Oregon, Oregon State Univ, Stanford Univ, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Funding came from the member organizations of the Consortium and the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and National Undersea Research Program. The expedition left Hawaii on 18 March 2005 and returned on 05 August, aboard the R/V Ka`imikai-o-Kanaloa with the submersibles Pisces IV and Pisces V and the ROV RCV-150. Sixty-one science dives were executed during the eight legs of the expedition. Twelve active volcanoes in the Samoa to New Zealand legs, one in the Samoan hot spot chain and the flanks of five islands and atolls on the legs between Samoa and Hawaii were investigated. Hundreds of specimens of new and unusual marine life, corals and other benthic organisms, extremophile micro- and macro-organisms, water samples for chemical analysis, polymetallic sulfides and rock samples were collected during the expedition. Unusual processes were observed at the Kermadec submarine volcanoes, including the oozing of liquid sulphur onto the seafloor and profuse carbon dioxide venting into seawater. Extensive submarine hydrothermal venting, black smoker activity and extraordinary chimney formations were studied in the caldera of Brothers Volcano. In addition, extensive

  11. Expedition sol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland

    2006-01-01

    Tag på expedition sol rundt i museet. Er der nogen, der har taget en bid af solen? Hvorfor bliver der solformørkelse? Kan vi undvære Solen?......Tag på expedition sol rundt i museet. Er der nogen, der har taget en bid af solen? Hvorfor bliver der solformørkelse? Kan vi undvære Solen?...

  12. The Arctic Gakkel Vents (AGAVE) Expedition: Technology Development and the Search for Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Fields Under the Arctic Ice Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reves-Sohn, R. A.; Singh, H.; Humphris, S.; Shank, T.; Jakuba, M.; Kunz, C.; Murphy, C.; Willis, C.

    2007-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal fields on the Gakkel Ridge beneath the Arctic ice cap provide perhaps the best terrestrial analogue for volcanically-hosted chemosynthetic biological communities that may exist beneath the ice-covered ocean of Europa. In both cases the key enabling technologies are robotic (untethered) vehicles that can swim freely under the ice and the supporting hardware and software. The development of robotic technology for deep- sea research beneath ice-covered oceans thus has relevance to both polar oceanography and future astrobiological missions to Europa. These considerations motivated a technology development effort under the auspices of NASA's ASTEP program and NSF's Office of Polar Programs that culminated in the AGAVE expedition aboard the icebreaker Oden from July 1 - August 10, 2007. The scientific objective was to study hydrothermal processes on the Gakkel Ridge, which is a key target for global studies of deep-sea vent fields. We developed two new autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) for the project, and deployed them to search for vent fields beneath the ice. We conducted eight AUV missions (four to completion) during the 40-day long expedition, which also included ship-based bathymetric surveys, CTD/rosette water column surveys, and wireline photographic and sampling surveys of remote sections of the Gakkel Ridge. The AUV missions, which lasted 16 hours on average and achieved operational depths of 4200 meters, returned sensor data that showed clear evidence of hydrothermal venting, but for a combination of technical reasons and time constraints, the AUVs did not ultimately return images of deep-sea vent fields. Nevertheless we used our wireline system to obtain images and samples of extensive microbial mats that covered fresh volcanic surfaces on a newly discovered set of volcanoes. The microbes appear to be living in regions where reducing and slightly warm fluids are seeping through cracks in the fresh volcanic terrain. These discoveries

  13. Comparative study on deficiency of N-nutrient deduced from Beaufort and Laptev Sea expedition data (JWACS and NABOS cruises)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, N.; Murata, A.; Nitishinsky, M.; Timokhov, L.

    2004-12-01

    Arctic shelf and its vicinity are posted to be the most active area for denitrification in the world ocean. The recent stable nitrogen isotope study suggests that there is no appreciable evidence for denitrification in water column although there is substantial deficiency in nitrogen in water column. Nitrogen isotope study revealed that the water column deficiency is due to unidirectional nitrogen uptake by sediments, which is driven by sedimentary denitrification (T. Tanaka et al., Cont. Shelf Res., 2004). Nitrogen loss by dinitrification in the area was posted as large as 20 Tg-N/year, which corresponds 15-25 % of nitrogen loss in the world ocean, if entire shelf area in arctic and its vicinity is active in denirification. JWACS (Joint Western Arctic Climate Study) and NABOS (Nansen & Amundsen Basin Observational System) has been carried out hydrographic observation cruises by Japanese R/V Mirai, Canadian icebreakers and Russian icebreaker in the last 3 years to understand Arctic Ocean Response to the Climate Change and its feed back to the global climate system. Those cruises gave us unique opportunity to examine nutrient dynamics in surface stratified water layers, which the upmost response and affect climatic system in the Arctic, which include physical climate and biological response forcing physical climate system. In this study, N*=(NO3-+NO2--16PO4+2.9)x0.87 is estimated in Laptev Sea and Beaufort Sea. N* in Laptev Sea shows all positive values averaged at 3.8, indicating typical Atlantic surface layer signature. Whereas N* values in Canada Basin showed startling negative values as low as -13. The lowest value was found in the nutrient maximum subsurface layer with almost freezing water temperature (Cold Halocline Water). N* -phosphate diagram and N*-nitrate diagram revealed remarkably weak denitrification signature in Laptev Sea.

  14. Eutrophication, risk management and sustainability. The perceptions of different stakeholders in the northern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Cecilia

    2013-01-15

    The environmental condition of the Baltic Sea is not only of concern for natural scientists. The awareness of the deteriorating state of the ecosystem has become an issue of interdisciplinary interest, and the amount of organizations with the marine environment and ecosystem health on the agenda is large. To present holistic and sustainable solutions and results of the actions taken, an active cooperation between all stakeholder groups and levels are needed. How different stakeholders in the northern Baltic Sea perceive the structures and assessments of the eutrophication were analyzed by semi-structured interviews with 17 stakeholders representing authorities, scientists, NGOs and national interest organizations. The focus was the view of the governance structures, risk assessment, management and communication. There was an overall consensus that eutrophication is a serious problem. Still variations in the opinions both within and between the stakeholder groups were seen. The scientists were most divergent from the rest. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. IODP Expedition 310 Reconstructs Sea Level, Climatic, and Environmental Changes in the South Pacific during the Last Deglaciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasufumi Iryu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The timing and course of the last deglaciation (19,000–6,000 years BP are essential components for understanding the dynamics of large ice sheets (Lindstrom and MacAyeal, 1993 and their effects on Earth’s isostasy (Nakada and Lambeck, 1989; Lambeck, 1993; Peltier, 1994, as well as the complex relationship between freshwater fluxes to the ocean, thermohaline circulation, and, hence, global climate during the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene. Moreover, the lastdeglaciation is generally seen as a possible analogue for the environmental changes and increased sea level that Earth may experience because of the greenhouse effect, related thermal expansion of oceans, and the melting of polar ice sheets.

  16. Achieving maximum sustainable yield in mixed fisheries: a management approach for the North Sea demersal fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Vermard, Youen; Dolder, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    Achieving single species maximum sustainable yield (MSY) in complex and dynamic fisheries targeting multiple species (mixed fisheries) is challenging because achieving the objective for one species may mean missing the objective for another. The North Sea mixed fisheries are a representative....... An objective method is suggested that provides an optimal set of fishing mortality within the range, minimizing the risk of total allowable catch mismatches among stocks captured within mixed fisheries, and addressing explicitly the trade-offs between the most and least productive stocks....

  17. Investigation of carbon dioxide in the South Atlantic and northern Weddell Sea areas (WOCE Sections A-12 and A-21) during the METEOR expedition 11/5, January--March 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Breger, D.; Sutherland, S.C.

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of investigation the oceanographic expedition aboard the F/S METEOR in South Atlantic Ocean including the Drake Passage, the northern Weddell Sea and the eastern South Atlantic during the austral summer of January through March 1990. The total CO{sub 2} concentration in about 1300 seawater samples and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (pCO{sub 2}) in about 870 seawater samples collected at 77 stations were determined aboard the ship using a coulometer and equilibrator/gas chromatograph system. The temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrient salt data presented in this report were determined by other participants of the expedition including the members of the Oceanographic Data Facility of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Argentine Hydrographic Office and German institutions.

  18. Investigation of carbon dioxide in the South Atlantic and northern Weddell Sea areas (WOCE Sections A-12 and A-21) during the METEOR expedition 11/5, January--March 1990. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Breger, D.; Sutherland, S.C.

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of investigation the oceanographic expedition aboard the F/S METEOR in South Atlantic Ocean including the Drake Passage, the northern Weddell Sea and the eastern South Atlantic during the austral summer of January through March 1990. The total CO{sub 2} concentration in about 1300 seawater samples and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (pCO{sub 2}) in about 870 seawater samples collected at 77 stations were determined aboard the ship using a coulometer and equilibrator/gas chromatograph system. The temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrient salt data presented in this report were determined by other participants of the expedition including the members of the Oceanographic Data Facility of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Argentine Hydrographic Office and German institutions.

  19. Growth-promoting effects of sustained swimming in fingerlings of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Josefina; Moya, A; Millán-Cubillo, A; Vélez, E J; Capilla, E; Pérez-Sánchez, J; Gutiérrez, J; Fernández-Borrás, J

    2015-12-01

    Fish growth is strongly influenced by environmental and nutritional factors and changing culture conditions can help optimize it. The importance of early-life experience on the muscle phenotype later in life is well known. Here, we study the effects of 5 weeks of moderate and sustained swimming activity (5 BL s(-1)) in gilthead sea bream during early development. We analysed growth and body indexes, plasma IGF-I and GH levels, feed conversion, composition [proximate and isotopic ((15)N/(13)C)] and metabolic key enzymes (COX, CS, LDH, HOAD, HK, ALAT, ASAT) of white muscle. Moderate and continuous exercise in fingerlings of gilthead sea bream increased plasma IGF-I, whereas it reduced plasma GH. Under these conditions, growth rate improved without any modification to feed intake through an increase in muscle mass and a reduction in mesenteric fat deposits. There were no changes in the content and turnover of muscle proteins and lipid reserves. Glycogen stores were maintained, but glycogen turnover was higher in white muscle of exercised fish. A lower LDH/CS ratio demonstrated an improvement in the aerobic capacity of white muscle, while a reduction in the COX/CS ratio possibly indicated a functional adaptation of mitochondria to adjust to the tissue-specific energy demand and metabolic fuel availability in exercised fish. We discuss the synergistic effects of dietary nutrients and sustained exercise on the different mitochondrial responses.

  20. SeaHawk: an advanced CubeSat mission for sustained ocean colour monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, John M.; Jeffrey, Hazel; Gorter, Hessel; Anderson, Pamela; Clark, Craig; Holmes, Alan; Feldman, Gene C.; Patt, Frederick S.

    2016-10-01

    Sustained ocean color monitoring is vital to understanding the marine ecosystem. It has been identified as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV) and is a vital parameter in understanding long-term climate change. Furthermore, observations can be beneficial in observing oil spills, harmful algal blooms and the health of fisheries. Space-based remote sensing, through MERIS, SeaWiFS and MODIS instruments, have provided a means of observing the vast area covered by the ocean which would otherwise be impossible using ships alone. However, the large pixel size makes measurements of lakes, rivers, estuaries and coastal zones difficult. Furthermore, retirement of a number of widely used and relied upon ocean observation instruments, particularly MERIS and SeaWiFS, leaves a significant gap in ocean color observation opportunities This paper presents an overview of the SeaHawk mission, a collaborative effort between Clyde Space Ltd., the University of North Carolina Wilmington, Cloudland Instruments, and Goddard Spaceflight Center, funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. The goal of the project is to enhance the ability to observe ocean color in high temporal and spatial resolution through use of a low-cost, next-generation ocean color sensor flown aboard a CubeSat. The final product will be 530 times smaller (0.0034 vs 1.81m3) and 115 time less massive (3.4 vs 390.0kg) but with a ground resolution 10 times better whilst maintaining a signal/noise ratio 50% that of SeaWiFs. This paper will describe the objectives of the mission, outline the payload specification and the spacecraft platform to support it.

  1. Deep-sea trace fossil and benthic foraminiferal assemblages across glacial Terminations 1, 2 and 4 at the "Shackleton Site" (IODP Expedition 339, Site U1385)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.; Dorador, Javier; Grunert, Patrick; Hodell, David

    2015-10-01

    Numerous studies focused on the transitions between glacial and interglacial periods, the so-called terminations, due to the associated significant reorganizations of the ocean-atmosphere system. However, analyses combining macro- and micropaleontological information are near absent. In this research, an integrative study of trace fossils and benthic foraminiferal assemblages is conducted in order to improve the characterization of Terminations 1, 2 and 4, as revealing the response of the macro-and microbenthic habitats to the involved paleoenvironmental changes. For this purpose, selected cores from Site U1385 (IODP Expedition 339) located off the western Iberian Margin, have been studied. Changes in trace fossils and benthic foraminifera related to both long-term variations at the glacial/interglacial scale, and short-term millennial-scale climatic events. Food and oxygen availability have been identified as the main factors determining variations in the macro- and microbenthic community structure across glacial terminations in the context of changes in water mass distribution and productivity in the NE Atlantic. A deep-sea multi-tiered tracemaker community, consisting of biodeformational structures, Chondrites, ?Nereites, Palaeophycus, Planolites, Thalassinoides, and Zoophycos, suggest generally well-oxygenated bottom and pore-water conditions during interglacial as well as glacial intervals, with punctual decreases in oxygenation. Short-climatic events registered during Terminations 1, 2, and 4 induce a similar response of trace fossil and benthic foraminifera communities to the variable incidence of food and oxygen availability. Termination 1 shows a severe deterioration of oxic conditions and increasing food availability during the YD and HS 1, favoring appearance/dominance of Zoophycos, together with the lowest miliolid and the highest deep infaunal taxa abundances. Short-term climatic events (HS 11, IRE 10.1) associated with Terminations 2 and 4 are

  2. Sea-ice information co-management: Planning for sustainable multiple uses of ice-covered seas in a rapidly changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicken, H.; Lovecraft, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    A thinner, less extensive and more mobile summer sea-ice cover is a major element and driver of Arctic Ocean change. Declining summer sea ice presents Arctic stakeholders with substantial challenges and opportunities from the perspective of sustainable ocean use and derivation of sea-ice or ecosystem services. Sea-ice use by people and wildlife as well as its role as a major environmental hazard focuses the interests and concerns of indigenous hunters and Arctic coastal communities, resource managers and the maritime industry. In particular, rapid sea-ice change and intensifying offshore industrial activities have raised fundamental questions as to how best to plan for and manage multiple and increasingly overlapping ocean and sea ice uses. The western North American Arctic - a region that has seen some of the greatest changes in ice and ocean conditions in the past three decades anywhere in the North - is the focus of our study. Specifically, we examine the important role that relevant and actionable sea-ice information can play in allowing stakeholders to evaluate risks and reconcile overlapping and potentially competing interests. Our work in coastal Alaska suggests that important prerequisites to address such challenges are common values, complementary bodies of expertise (e.g., local or indigenous knowledge, engineering expertise, environmental science) and a forum for the implementation and evaluation of a sea-ice data and information framework. Alongside the International Polar Year 2007-08 and an associated boost in Arctic Ocean observation programs and platforms, there has been a movement towards new governance bodies that have these qualities and can play a central role in guiding the design and optimization of Arctic observing systems. To help further the development of such forums an evaluation of the density and spatial distribution of institutions, i.e., rule sets that govern ocean use, as well as the use of scenario planning and analysis can serve as

  3. Synthesis of knowledge on marine biodiversity in European Seas: from census to sustainable management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E; Coll, Marta; Danovaro, Roberto; Davidson, Keith; Ojaveer, Henn; Renaud, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    The recently completed European Census of Marine Life, conducted within the framework of the global Census of Marine Life programme (2000-2010), markedly enhanced our understanding of marine biodiversity in European Seas, its importance within ecological systems, and the implications for human use. Here we undertake a synthesis of present knowledge of biodiversity in European Seas and identify remaining challenges that prevent sustainable management of marine biodiversity in one of the most exploited continents of the globe. Our analysis demonstrates that changes in faunal standing stock with depth depends on the size of the fauna, with macrofaunal abundance only declining with increasing water depth below 1000 m, whilst there was no obvious decrease in meiofauna with increasing depth. Species richness was highly variable for both deep water macro- and meio- fauna along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. Nematode biodiversity decreased from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean whilst latitudinal related biodiversity patterns were similar for both faunal groups investigated, suggesting that the same environmental drivers were influencing the fauna. While climate change and habitat degradation are the most frequently implicated stressors affecting biodiversity throughout European Seas, quantitative understanding, both at individual and cumulative/synergistic level, of their influences are often lacking. Full identification and quantification of species, in even a single marine habitat, remains a distant goal, as we lack integrated data-sets to quantify these. While the importance of safeguarding marine biodiversity is recognised by policy makers, the lack of advanced understanding of species diversity and of a full survey of any single habitat raises huge challenges in quantifying change, and facilitating/prioritising habitat/ecosystem protection. Our study highlights a pressing requirement for more complete biodiversity surveys to be undertaken within

  4. Synthesis of Knowledge on Marine Biodiversity in European Seas: From Census to Sustainable Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.

    2013-01-01

    The recently completed European Census of Marine Life, conducted within the framework of the global Census of Marine Life programme (2000–2010), markedly enhanced our understanding of marine biodiversity in European Seas, its importance within ecological systems, and the implications for human use. Here we undertake a synthesis of present knowledge of biodiversity in European Seas and identify remaining challenges that prevent sustainable management of marine biodiversity in one of the most exploited continents of the globe. Our analysis demonstrates that changes in faunal standing stock with depth depends on the size of the fauna, with macrofaunal abundance only declining with increasing water depth below 1000 m, whilst there was no obvious decrease in meiofauna with increasing depth. Species richness was highly variable for both deep water macro- and meio- fauna along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. Nematode biodiversity decreased from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean whilst latitudinal related biodiversity patterns were similar for both faunal groups investigated, suggesting that the same environmental drivers were influencing the fauna. While climate change and habitat degradation are the most frequently implicated stressors affecting biodiversity throughout European Seas, quantitative understanding, both at individual and cumulative/synergistic level, of their influences are often lacking. Full identification and quantification of species, in even a single marine habitat, remains a distant goal, as we lack integrated data-sets to quantify these. While the importance of safeguarding marine biodiversity is recognised by policy makers, the lack of advanced understanding of species diversity and of a full survey of any single habitat raises huge challenges in quantifying change, and facilitating/prioritising habitat/ecosystem protection. Our study highlights a pressing requirement for more complete biodiversity surveys to be undertaken within

  5. Shipboard determination of radiocesium in seawater after the Fukushima accident: results from the 2011-2012 Russian expeditions to the Sea of Japan and western North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzaev, V; Nikitin, A; Sevastyanov, A; Artemiev, G; Bruk, G; Ivanov, S

    2014-09-01

    A total of 88 seawater samples were collected during two Russian research expeditions (April-May 2011 and August-September 2012) to the Sea of Japan, the Oyashio Current region near Kuril Islands and the Kuroshio-Oyashio transition area in the western North Pacific Ocean. The observations were made aboard the R/V Pavel Gordienko and Akademik Shokalsky in order to study the impact of the Fukushima accident on radioactive contamination of the marine environment. On the board of a ship, the water samples were passed through filters to retain particles with the size of >1 micron. Cesium was extracted from the large volumes (100-3000 L) of the filtrated water using a selective fiber chemisorbent impregnated with copper ferrocyanide. Measurements of (134)Cs and (137)Cs activities in 83 samples of sorbents and 21 samples of filters were performed in the ship-based laboratory with a semiconductor HP-Ge detector. The quantified activity concentrations of dissolved radiocesium ranged from 1 Bq m(-3) to 34 Bq m(-3) for (137)Cs and from 0.2 Bq m(-3) to 29 Bq m(-3) for (134)Cs. Activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (134)Cs were strongly correlated with each other (r = 0.993, n = 59). The (137)Cs/(134)Cs activities ratio in the Fukushima-derived radiocesium inventory for the study areas was deduced to be 0.99 ± 0.03 (on 15 March 2011) and the pre-Fukushima background level of (137)Cs in seawater was estimated as 1.3 ± 0.3 Bq m(-3). The lowest activities of both isotopes were determined in the western part of the Sea of Japan near the Russian coast, while the maximal levels were observed in the open Pacific Ocean, some 500-800 km offshore the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. Contamination with (134)Cs at a level of 0.3-2.6 Bq m(-3) was registered in seawater samples collected in 2011 near the Kuril Islands and Kamchatka in the Oyashio Current region. During the period from April-May 2011 to August-September 2012, activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (134)Cs in surface

  6. Advantages of combined application of SEA with ESIA in strategic planning for sustainable territorial development of tourism destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenković-Riznić Marina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas standard SEA (Strategic Environmental Assessment and EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment methodologies aim to assess the impacts of certain activities solely on environmental quality, new tendencies in spatial and environmental planning are directed towards the application of environmental social impact assessment (ESIA, which implies assessment of the impacts on the quality of life, as well as on natural and cultural heritage. In the ESIA procedure, identification and assessment of direct, indirect and cumulative effects of tourism-related and other different activities are of key importance. The paper presents two case studies of ecologically vulnerable tourism destinations to explore whether the application of SEA/ESIA to strategic planning helps control, minimize or avoid negative effects of tourism; in addition, the case studies are analysed to check the efficiency of SEA/ESIA as instruments for coordination between spatial and tourism planning for sustainable territorial development of tourism destinations. The results/findings of the analysed case studies show that the application of combined SEA and adapted ESIA methods contributes to better understanding of the specific problems related to sustainable territorial development of tourism destinations, and provides support to the planning options and solutions aimed at addressing these problems n a more ecologically and socially justifiable manner. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR36036: Sustainable development of the Danube area in Serbia i br. III47014: The Role and Implementation of the National Spatial Plan and Regional Development Documents in Renewal of Strategic Research, Thinking and Governance in Serbia

  7. Expedition surveys of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Russian Far Eastern coastal areas and in the North Western Pacific in connection with accident at the "Fukushima-1" NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Aleksandr; Shershakov, Vjacheslav

    2013-04-01

    In accordance with decision of the Russian Federation Federal Service on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (Roshydromet) on assessment of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Sea of Japan and in Kurile-Kamchatka region of the Pacific ocean, in connection with accident at the "Fukushima-1" NPP, two expedition surveys were conducted in the Sea of Japan and in the North-Western Pacific (in the area adjacent to Kurile Islands and in the Kuroshio current selected area (coordinates 36°00'-39°33' n., 146°33'-150°00' e.): first survey April - May 2011, second survey August-September 2012. Both surveys were conducted under the Russian Geographical Society patronage. The results of measurements of Cs-137, Cs-134, Sr-90, Pu-239,240 and H-3 concentrations in the sea water samples and I-131, Cs-137 and Cs-134 concentrations in atmospheric aerosol samples are presented and discussed. The data received allowed to conclude that the levels of contamination by products of accidental releases and discharges at "Fukushima-1" NPP observed in investigated water areas near the Russian Federation coast of the Sea of Japan and of the Kurile- Kamchatka region of the Pacific ocean have no hazard. However, these expedition surveys revealed large-scale contamination by Cs-137 and Cs-134 of water areas of the North-Western Pacific in the investigated region of the Kuroshio current. The Cs-137 concentration in sea water at a distance about 400 km from accidental NPP in April-May, 2011 reached 30 Bq/m3, which approximately 20 times exceed preaccidental level, and it was found that water mass till more than 100 m below the surface was contaminated. For correct estimation of current and potential consequences of the "Fukushima-1" accident for the Far-Eastern water areas a special study is reasonable to perform of transport with marine currents of products of accidental releases and discharges at "Fukushima-1" NPP.

  8. Joint Russian-Norwegian expedition to the dumping sites for radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in the Stepovogo fjord of the Kara sea, August - September 2012: investigations performed and main results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Aleksandr; Shershakov, Viacheslav; Valetova, Nailja; Petrenko, Galina; Katrich, Ivan; Fedorova, Anastasia [Research and Production Association ' Typhoon' , 249038, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); Kazennov, Alexey [National Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Lind, Bjorn; Gwynn, Justin; Rudjord, Anne Liv [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway); Heldal, Hilde Elise [Institute of Marine Research, Bergen (Norway); Blinova, Oxana; Osvath, Iolanda; Levy, Isabelle; Bartocci, Jean; Khanh Pham, Mai; Sam, Adam; Nies, Hartmut [IAEA-MEL (Monaco); Grishin, Denis [Krylov State Research Centre, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Salbu, Brit; Ole- Christian, Lind; Teien, Hans-Cristian [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway); Sidhu, Rajdeep Singh; Straalberg, Elisabeth [Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway); Logoyda, Igor [State Scientific Centre ' Yuzhmorgeologiya' , Gelendzhik (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Stepovogo fjord, located on the Eastern coast of Novaya Zemlya, is one of the most important former Soviet Union dumping sites for radioactive waste in the Kara Sea. In addition to some 2000 dumped containers with conventional radioactive wastes, the nuclear submarine K-27 was dumped in Stepovogo fjord with two reactors loaded with spent nuclear fuel (SNF).Joint Russian and Norwegian surveys of the marine environment in Stepovogo fjord were first conducted in 1993 and 1994. In accordance with the working plan of the Joint Russian-Norwegian Expert Group on the Investigation of Radioactive Contamination in the Northern Areas, a follow up expedition into the radioecological status of Stepovogo fjord was carried out in August and September of 2012 onboard the R.V. 'Ivan Petrov' of the Roshydromet Northern Department. Investigations carried out in Stepovogo fjord during the expedition included: Sonar surveys, ROV inspections and in situ gamma measurements of the dumped nuclear submarine K-27 and dumped containers with radioactive waste Sampling of seawater, bottom sediments and marine biota. Results of the analysis of marine environmental samples performed by Russia, Norway and the IAEA, are presented and discussed in the paper. Preliminary measurements on surface sediments and water samples showed that the level of {sup 137}Cs contamination was generally low. However, slightly enhanced levels of {sup 137}Cs were detected in bottom seawater and sediment collected in the area with dumped containers. Measurements taken around the dumped nuclear submarine K-27 did not indicate any leakage of radioactive substances from the submarine. A similar picture for the level of radioactive contamination in Stepovogo fjord was observed in the first joint Russian-Norwegian expedition in 1993-94. (authors)

  9. Variability of the intensity of the Tsushima Warm Current and bottom water ventilation in western North Pacific marginal seas during the Pleistocene: Preliminary results from IODP Expedition 346 (Sites U1427 and U1428) based on ostracod assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Zarikian, Carlos A.; Bassetti, Maria-Angela; Toucanne, Samuel; Sagawa, Takuya; Holbourn, Ann; Yasuhara, Moriaki; Tada, Ryuji; Murray, Richard W.

    2015-04-01

    IODP Expedition 346 drilled Sites U1427 and U1428 in ideal locations to monitor changes in (i) the intensity of the influx of the Tsushima Warm Current (TWC), and (ii) the intermediate bottom water ventilation from a few hundred thousand years to over a million years in the western North Pacific marginal seas. Site U1427 is located at 330 m water depth in the marginal sea bordered by the Eurasian continent, the Korean peninsula and the Japanese Islands. This semi-enclosed marginal sea has an average water depth of 1350 m and is connected with other marginal seas in the region by shallow, narrow straits. Site U1428 is located at 724 m in the East China Sea and this region is more influenced by continental freshwater runoff derived from the Yangtze River. Both sites are in the path of the TWC, a branch of the Kuroshio Current, the only warm current flowing into the marginal sea west of Japan. The TWC carries both water originating from the subtropical North Pacific and fresher runoff water derived from East China Sea continental shelf. The northerly flow of the TWC through the shallow Tsushima Strait is ultimately controlled by relative sea level variations over time. The Japan Sea Intermediate Water (JSIW), found below the TWC between 200 and 400-500 m water depth, corresponds to a vertical salinity minimum, and has relatively high oxygen concentration related to the deep-water convection in winter and linked to fresh water supply during winter monsoon intervals. Recent observations point to variations in the intensity of deep and intermediate water currents during glacials and interglacials, and millennial scale climate cycles, but the mechanisms of such variations are not fully known. Here we present preliminary results based on microfossil faunal (ostracods) and sedimentological (sortable silt) proxies that show variability in the intensity of bottom water circulation and environmental conditions during the Pleistocene. Ostracods (benthic microcrustaceans known

  10. Sustaining nutrient supply and carbon export in a seasonally-stratifying shelf sea through inconsistent production and remineralisation stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Matthew; Moore, Mark; Achterberg, Eric; Chowdhury, Mohammed; Griffiths, Alex; Hartman, Susan; Hopkins, Joanne; Hull, Tom; Kivimäe, Caroline; Sivyer, Dave; Smilenova, Angelina; Wihsgott, Juliane; Woodward, Malcolm

    2017-04-01

    Continental shelf seas support 15-20% of global primary productivity despite covering only about 5% of the Earth's ocean surface area. As a result, they may have a significant role in oceanic uptake and storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, through the 'continental shelf pump' mechanism. The northwest European continental shelf, in particular the Celtic Sea (50°N 8°W), was the target of extensive biogeochemical sampling from March 2014 to September 2015, as part of the UK Shelf Sea Biogeochemistry research programme (UK-SSB). Here, we use the UK-SSB carbonate chemistry and macronutrient measurements to investigate the biogeochemical seasonality in the temperate, seasonally-stratifying Celtic Sea. During the spring-summer, near-surface biological activity removed dissolved inorganic carbon and nutrients, some of which were then exported into the deeper layer. We calculated vertical inventories of these variables throughout 1.5 seasonal cycles and attempted to correct these for air-sea CO2 exchange, advection and denitrification, thus isolating the combined effect of net community production and remineralisation on the inorganic macronutrient inventories, and revealing fluctuating deviations from Redfield stoichiometry. Here, we discuss the capacity of these stoichiometric inconsistencies to sustain the Celtic Sea nutrient supply, and thus examine whether an effective continental shelf pump for CO2 could operate in this region.

  11. Menes caldera, a highly active site of brine seepage in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: "In situ" observations from the NAUTINIL expedition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huguen, C.; Foucher, J.-P.; Mascle, J.; Ondreas, H.; Thouement, M.; Gontharet, S.; Stadnitskaia, A.; Pierre, C; Bayon, G.; Loncke, L; Boetius, A.; Bouloubassi, I.; de Lange, G.; Caprais, J.-C.; Fouquet, Y.; Woodside, J.M.; Dupre, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the first "in situ" seafloor observations of fluid escape structures in a fault-controlled caldera-type depression of about 8 km diameter, named the Menes caldera, in the Eastern Mediterranean sea off Egypt (western province of the Nile Deep Sea Fan). A detailed analysis of seven

  12. Searching for Sustainability in Teacher Education and Educational Research: Experiences from the Baltic and Black Sea Circle Consortium for Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salite, Ilga

    2015-01-01

    The Baltic and Black Sea Circle Consortium for educational research (BBCC) was established at the beginning of the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005). BBCC has obtained its name in the "Third International Conference Sustainable Development, Culture, Education, in the University of Vechta" (Germany, 2005). The paper…

  13. 2010 Winter Olympics transportation legacies : steps towards sustainability in the GVRD and the Sea to Sky Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washbrook, K. [Better Environmentally Sound Transportation (BEST), Vancouver, BC (Canada). Impact of Olympics on Communities Coalition

    2003-06-01

    This paper outlines several broad actions that the Organizing Committee for the 2010 Winter Olympic games in Whistler, British Columbia could undertake to develop a leadership role in bringing sustainable, long term benefits to the regional transportation system. The Bid Corporation placed emphasis on the use of public and active transportation to move spectators during the two week event. The emphasis was on transportation demand management measures to mitigate traffic impacts on regional residents during the games. The Corporation also committed to use alternative fuel and zero emission technology to reduce air pollution. Currently, there is no long range strategic transportation plan for the Sea to Sky Corridor. The author emphasized that the Organizing Committee should work with other agencies to immediately implement permanent public transit and active transportation improvements with investment in active transport and public transit. Other actions that should be implemented include: investment in alternatives to private automobile travel to offset games-related emissions; committing to sustainable use of the Olympic Lane on the Sea to Sky Highway; endowing a sustainable transportation investment fund; promote research into the long term benefits associated with ferry and rail services; developing affordable housing in Whistler to reduce corridor commuting; and, investment in alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure to reduce public transit emissions. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 appendices.

  14. Should the Dead Sea Be Sustainable?: Investigating Environmental Issues Using a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Cheston Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Many students leave the environmental science classroom with misconceptions centered on the availability of natural resources such as water. This article presents a case study where students assume the roles of various stakeholders and articulate their position on whether or not to pipe water from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea. Additionally,…

  15. Benthic Biotic Response to Climate Changes over the Last 700,000 Years, the Sea of Japan: Ostracode Assemblages from Site U1427, IODP Expedition 346

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. H. M.; Yasuhara, M.; Iwatani, H.; Alvarez Zarikian, C. A.; Bassetti, M. A.; Sagawa, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Sea of Japan is a marginal sea, semi-enclosed by the Eurasian Continent, Korean Peninsula, Japanese Islands, and shallow straits (water depth influence of TWC. Here we present 700,000-year record of benthic biotic response to the paleoceanographic changes in the southern Sea of Japan based on ostracode assemblage reconstruction at IODP Site U1427. Five local extinction events were caused by extreme bottom conditions (mainly oxygen depletion) during the Ice Age Terminations I, II, IV, V, and VII. Primary and secondary ostracode assemblages were revealed by Q-mode k-means clustering, CABFAC factor analysis, and non-metric multidimensional scaling. The primary ostracode components, characterized by Krithe sawanensis and Cytheropteron hyalinosa, broadly reflect glacial/interglacial and high-latitude insolation cycles. In contrast, a faunal shift determined by the secondary faunal components was driven by the TWC enhancement at 300 ka.

  16. Framing the Arctic: Reconsidering Roald Amundsen’s Gjøa Expedition Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Høvik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1906 Roald Amundsen’s Gjøa Expedition returned to Norway after three years in the Arctic. The first to complete a Northwest Passage by sea, the expedition also brought back a substantial amount of ethnographic material concerning the Netsilik Inuit, with whom Amundsen and his crew had been in sustained contact during their stay on King William Island in Nunavut between 1903 and 1905. This material included a large number of photographs, forty-two of which were included as illustrations in his expedition narrative, titled Nordvest-passagen and first released in Norwegian in 1907. Focusing on a selection of published and unpublished photographs from Amundsen’s voyage and their interrelationships, this article examines the degree to which the Gjøa Expedition’s use of photography formed part of a planned project that intersected with anthropological concerns and practices of its time. My purpose is further to demonstrate that there is a discernible change in the representation of indigeneity that occurs when particular photographs were selected and then contextually reframed as illustrations in Nordvest-passagen. On the one hand, the extensive body of photographs taken in the field elaborates the close interaction between crew and Inuit recorded in Amundsen’s personal diary and published narrative, testifying to the existence of an active and dynamic contact zone. In this regard, the original photographs could arguably be read as a dialogic portrayal of the unique individuals Amundsen’s crew met while in the Arctic. On the other hand, a peculiar distancing seems to have taken place as the Gjøa Expedition’s photographs were selected and reproduced as illustrations for Amundsen’s expedition narrative. Likely connected to a desire to match his expedition narrative to existing scientific visual and literary conventions, this shift suggests Amundsen’s attempts through textual and visual means to deny the Netsilik Inuit

  17. A new Cumacea genus (Crustacea: Peracarida: Diastylidae) from the deep-sea expedition Diva-1 with RV ‘METEOR’ to the Angola Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mühlenhardt-Siegel, Ute

    2003-01-01

    A new deep-sea genus and species Divacuma tuerkayi n. gen., n. sp. of the family Diastylidae from the Angola Basin is described. The similarity between the new genus and Leptostylis/Leptostybides is mentioned, the most striking character of the new genus is the male having only one pair of pleopods.

  18. Crustose corallinaceous algae (Rhodophyta) of the New Zealand and United States scientific expedition to the Ross Sea, Balleny Islands, and Macquarie Ridge, 1965

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaneveld, Jacques S.; Sanford, Robert B.

    1980-01-01

    Fourteen taxa of crustose Corallinaceae are described from a collection of marine algae picked up in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic waters along a Ross Sea — Balleny Islands — Macquarie Island traject aboard the USS Glacier in 1965. Three of these taxa are newly described, i.e. Lithothamnium

  19. The use of amino acid indices for assessing organic matter quality and microbial abundance in deep-sea Antarctic sediments of IODP Expedition 318

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Stephanie A; Mills, Christopher T.; Mandernack, Kevin W

    2016-01-01

    The Adélie Basin, located offshore of the Wilkes Land margin, experiences unusually high sedimentation rates (~ 2 cm yr− 1) for the Antarctic coast. This study sought to compare depthwise changes in organic matter (OM) quantity and quality with changes in microbial biomass with depth at this high-deposition site and an offshore continental margin site. Sediments from both sites were collected during the International Ocean Drilling (IODP) Program Expedition 318. Viable microbial biomass was estimated from concentrations of bacterial-derived phospholipid fatty acids, while OM quality was assessed using four different amino acid degradation proxies. Concentrations of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) measured from the continental margin suggest an oligotrophic environment, with THAA concentrations representing only 2% of total organic carbon with relative proportions of non-protein amino acids β-alanine and γ-aminobutyric acid as high as 40%. In contrast, THAA concentrations from the near-shore Adélie Basin represent 40%–60% of total organic carbon. Concentrations of β-alanine and γ-aminobutyric acid were often below the detection limit and suggest that the OM of the basin as labile. DI values in surface sediments at the Adélie and margin sites were measured to be + 0.78 and − 0.76, reflecting labile and more recalcitrant OM, respectively. Greater DI values in deeper and more anoxic portions of both cores correlated positively with increased relative concentrations of phenylalanine plus tyrosine and may represent a change of redox conditions, rather than OM quality. This suggests that DI values calculated along chemical profiles should be interpreted with caution. THAA concentrations, the percentage of organic carbon (CAA%) and total nitrogen (NAA%) represented by amino acids at both sites demonstrated a significant positive correlation with bacterial abundance estimates. These data suggest that the selective degradation of amino acids, as

  20. The role of geodata and geotools in sustainable energy planning. The Interreg project 'North Sea Sustainable Energy Planning'; Die Bedeutung von Geodaten und Geowerkzeugen fuer eine nachhaltige Energieplanung. Das Interreg-Projekt 'North Sea Sustainable Energy Planning'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knies, Juergen [Jade Hochschule Wilhelmshaven/Oldenburg/Elsfleth, Oldenburg (DE). Inst. fuer Angewandte Photogrammetrie und Geoinformatik (IAPG)

    2012-07-01

    The Interreg IVB project 'North Sea Sustainable Energy Planning' is to promote the development of models for regional development in consideration of renewable energy sources and the implementation of measures for higher energy efficiency in consideration of regional and international boundary conditions. Geodata and geotools provide a basis for sustainable energy planning. The Institute of Applied Photogrammetry and Geoinformatics of Jade Hochschule University developed concepts and geotools to support decision-makers in this task. The concepts and tools are presented in this paper.

  1. The impact of subsidies on the ecological sustainability and future profits from North Sea fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymans, Johanna Jacomina; Mackinson, Steven; Sumaila, Ussif Rashid; Dyck, Andrew; Little, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of subsidies on the profitability and ecological stability of the North Sea fisheries over the past 20 years. It shows the negative impact that subsidies can have on both the biomass of important fish species and the possible profit from fisheries. The study includes subsidies in an ecosystem model of the North Sea and examines the possible effects of eliminating fishery subsidies. Hindcast analysis between 1991 and 2003 indicates that subsidies reduced the profitability of the fishery even though gross revenue might have been high for specific fisheries sectors. Simulations seeking to maximise the total revenue between 2004 and 2010 suggest that this can be achieved by increasing the effort of Nephrops trawlers, beam trawlers, and the pelagic trawl-and-seine fleet, while reducing the effort of demersal trawlers. Simulations show that ecological stability can be realised by reducing the effort of the beam trawlers, Nephrops trawlers, pelagic- and demersal trawl-and-seine fleets. This analysis also shows that when subsidies are included, effort will always be higher for all fleets, because it effectively reduces the cost of fishing. The study found that while removing subsidies might reduce the total catch and revenue, it increases the overall profitability of the fishery and the total biomass of commercially important species. For example, cod, haddock, herring and plaice biomass increased over the simulation when optimising for profit, and when optimising for ecological stability, the biomass for cod, plaice and sole also increased. When subsidies are eliminated, the study shows that rather than forcing those involved in the fishery into the red, fisheries become more profitable, despite a decrease in total revenue due to a loss of subsidies from the government.

  2. The Impact of Subsidies on the Ecological Sustainability and Future Profits from North Sea Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymans, Johanna Jacomina; Mackinson, Steven; Sumaila, Ussif Rashid; Dyck, Andrew; Little, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    Background This study examines the impact of subsidies on the profitability and ecological stability of the North Sea fisheries over the past 20 years. It shows the negative impact that subsidies can have on both the biomass of important fish species and the possible profit from fisheries. The study includes subsidies in an ecosystem model of the North Sea and examines the possible effects of eliminating fishery subsidies. Methodology/Principal Findings Hindcast analysis between 1991 and 2003 indicates that subsidies reduced the profitability of the fishery even though gross revenue might have been high for specific fisheries sectors. Simulations seeking to maximise the total revenue between 2004 and 2010 suggest that this can be achieved by increasing the effort of Nephrops trawlers, beam trawlers, and the pelagic trawl-and-seine fleet, while reducing the effort of demersal trawlers. Simulations show that ecological stability can be realised by reducing the effort of the beam trawlers, Nephrops trawlers, pelagic- and demersal trawl-and-seine fleets. This analysis also shows that when subsidies are included, effort will always be higher for all fleets, because it effectively reduces the cost of fishing. Conclusions/Significance The study found that while removing subsidies might reduce the total catch and revenue, it increases the overall profitability of the fishery and the total biomass of commercially important species. For example, cod, haddock, herring and plaice biomass increased over the simulation when optimising for profit, and when optimising for ecological stability, the biomass for cod, plaice and sole also increased. When subsidies are eliminated, the study shows that rather than forcing those involved in the fishery into the red, fisheries become more profitable, despite a decrease in total revenue due to a loss of subsidies from the government. PMID:21637848

  3. John Murray / MABAHISS expedition versus the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) in retrospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, A. A.; Morcos, S. A.

    In addition to its scientific achievements, the John Murray/Mabahiss Expedition was a unique experiment in technology transfer and it pioneered bilateral relations in the field of oceanography, at a time when the Law of the Sea was not even an embryonic concept. The Expedition will be remembered for its profound influence on the development of oceanography in Egypt, and subsequently in several Arab and African countries, as well as for its socio-economic impact in Egypt. The International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) was an elaborate exercise involving both the most sophisticated developments in oceanography of the day and the full complexity of international relations which necessitated the scientific, coordinating and supporting mechanisms of SCOR, IOC and Unesco combined. Each exercise separated by 25 years represented a significant event in the development of oceanography. Each was a natural product of the prevailing state of the art and the international climate. Oceanography had made a quantum jump in technology in the intervening quarter of a century, which had put the cost of deep sea oceanography quite beyond the financial capabilities of many developing countries, an important factor to bear in mind when comparing the impact of the John Murray/Mabahiss Expedition on Egypt with that of the IIOE, on the Indian Ocean countries.

  4. The Study on Eco-environmental Issue of Aral Sea from the Perspective of Sustainable Development of Silk Road Economic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hanyan

    2017-04-01

    The Aral Sea crisis is the most prominent environmental problem in building Silk Road and Economic Belt, which is mainly induced by extensive exploitation of land resources in Aral Sea basin since the middle of last century. The upstream part of Amu Darya River, as the main water source of Aral Sea, is almost entirely located in Tajikistan, thus, the development and utilization of Tajikistan water resources affect the whole Aral Sea basin. The author puts forward oriented-development of green energy under the overall framework of co-building Silk Road and Economic Belt, developing small hydro-power and dam-free hydro-power stations, standardized implementation of agricultural modernization in Central Asia, through high efficiency and water saving agriculture to achieve “returning water to sea”, to reverse drying trend of Aral Sea, to renovate ecological environment, resulting in simultaneous implementation of agricultural production and Aral Sea governance, simultaneous achievement of agricultural harvest and ecological environment improvement of Aral Sea basin. The article makes a scientific proof of reality and feasibility regarding the proposed methods. Green ecological environment and stable social environment will contribute to the sustainable development of Green Silk Road and Economic belt.…

  5. Two decades and counting: 24-years of sustained open ocean biogeochemical measurements in the Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, M. W.; Bates, N. R.; Johnson, R. J.; Knap, A. H.; Steinberg, D. K.; Carlson, C. A.

    2013-09-01

    The Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) program has sampled the northwestern Sargasso Sea on a biweekly (January to April) to monthly basis since October 1988. The primary objective of the core BATS program continues to be an improved understanding of the time-variable processes and mechanisms that control the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and related elements in the surface ocean. With 24 years of measurements for most chemical, physical and biological variables, we have moved beyond descriptions of seasonal and interannual variability to examination of multi-year trends and potential controls, however there remain substantial gaps in our knowledge of the ecosystem mechanisms related to organic matter production, export and remineralization. While earlier BATS overviews have focused on describing seasonal and year-to-year variability, this overview provides new information on three long-standing biogeochemical questions in Sargasso Sea biogeochemistry. First, why is there a discrepancy between biological (i.e., sediment trap) and geochemical estimates of carbon export production? Winter storms and mesoscale eddies have now been clearly shown to contribute to annual nutrient budgets and carbon export production. Recent information on phytoplankton natural isotopic nitrogen composition, and data from profiling floats suggests that small phytoplankton are important contributors to new production in summer despite the apparent absence of a mechanism to entrain nitrate into the euphotic zone. These findings aid in closing the gap between these two different estimates of carbon export production. Second, what supports the seasonal drawdown of carbon dioxide in the absence of detectable nutrients? The zooplankton timeseries at BATS highlights the importance of zooplankton as a conduit for carbon removal due to grazing and vertical migration. Although increases in cellular elemental stoichiometry to values greater than the canonical Redfield Ratio, and the

  6. Oceanographic data collected during the Submarine Ring of Fire 2006 expedition aboard the R/V MELVILLE along the Mariana Arc in the Philippine Sea from April 18, 2006 - May 13, 2006 (NODC Accession 0010750)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multiple data types were collected during the Submarine Ring of Fire 2006 expedition sponsored by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration.

  7. A sustained +21 m sea-level highstand during MIS 11 (400 ka): direct fossil and sedimentary evidence from Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Storrs L.; Hearty, Paul J.

    2009-02-01

    A small, protected karstic feature exposed in a limestone quarry in Bermuda preserved abundant sedimentary and biogenic materials documenting a transgressive phase, still-stand, and regressive phase of a sea-level in excess of 21.3 m above present during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 (400 ka) as determined by U/Th dating and amino acid racemization. Cobbles and marine sediments deposited during the high-energy transgressive phase exhibit rim cements indicating a subsequent phreatic environment. This was succeeded stratigraphically by a still-stand deposition of fine calcareous lagoonal sediments containing bioclasts of red algae and benthic and planktonic foraminifera that was intensely burrowed by marine invertebrates, probably upogebiid shrimp, that could not be produced under any condition other than sustained marine submergence. Overlying this were pure carbonate beach sands of a low-energy regressive phase containing abundant remains of terrestrial and marine vertebrates and invertebrates. The considerable diversity of this fauna along with taphonomic evidence from seabird remains indicates deposition by high run-up waves over a minimum duration of months, if not years. The maximum duration has yet to be determined but probably did not exceed one or two thousand years. The most abundant snails in this fauna are two species indicative of brackish water and high-tide line showing that a Ghyben-Herzberg lens must have existed at > + 20 m. The nature of these sediments and fossil accumulation is incompatible with tsunami deposition and, given the absence of evidence for tectonic uplift of the Bermuda pedestal or platform, provide proof that sea-level during MIS 11 exceeded +20 m, a fact that has widespread ramifications for geologists, biogeographers, and human demographics along the world's coastlines.

  8. Monitoring and sustainable management of oil polluting wrecks and chemical munitions dump sites in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassellöv, Ida-Maja; Tengberg, Anders

    2017-04-01

    The Baltic Sea region contains a dark legacy of about 100 000 tons of dumped chemical warfare agents. As time passes the gun shells corrode and the risks of release of contaminants increase. A major goal of the EU-flagship project Daimon is to support governmental organisations with case-to-case adapted methods for sustainable management of dumped toxic munitions. At the Chalmers University of Technology, a partner of Daimon, a unique ISO 31000 adapted method was developed to provide decision support regarding potentially oilpolluting shipwrecks. The method is called VRAKA and is based on probability calculations. It includes site-specific information as well as expert knowledge. VRAKA is now being adapted to dumped chemical munitions. To estimate corrosion potential of gun shells and ship wrecks along with sediment re-suspension and transport multiparameter instruments are deployed at dump sites. Parameters measured include Currents, Salinity, Temperature, Oxygen, Depth, Waves and Suspended particles. These measurements have revealed how trawling at dump sites seems to have large implications in spreading toxic substances (Arsenic) over larger areas. This presentation will shortly describe the decision support model, the used instrumentation and discuss some of the obtain results.

  9. Expeditions and other exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1964-01-01

    Previous to the 4th UNESCO Expedition, Dr H. Sleumer of the Rijksherbarium made three trips together with Mr Tem Smitinand, first to Doi Chiengdao and Doi Suthep in the North (Aug. 15-21, 1963), then to the Khao Yai National Park in Central Siam (Aug. 28-29), then to Pha Nok Khao and Phu Krading

  10. Mapping the deep sea floor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    By the early 20th century, oceanographers intensified their efforts to map the deep sea. The great depth of the Philippine Trench was first observed by the German Planet Expedition in 1912. During World War II, the US naval vessel Cape Johnson used directional echo-sounding to obtain a depth of 10...... Trench in order to map its bathymetric features. The resulting maps are presented in this poster. Unlike many other contemporary developments in deep sea topography and cartography that were shaped by the Cold War, the Galathea maps of the Philippine Trench were intimately connected with the expedition......'s attempt to "wave the Danish flag". The expedition was the first scientific expedition to have on board a separate press section communicating its scientific results as well as Danish nationality to the wider public. In this poster, the Galathea maps of the Philippine Trench are placed within this context...

  11. A lunar polar expedition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Thomas

    This paper reviews issues related to a five-person expedition to the lunar north pole which primarily addresses site selection and the requirements for transportation, power, and life support. A one-year stay on the lunar surface is proposed based on available technology, and proposals are detailed for incorporating flight-proven systems, abort or rescue options, and the use of the base as the nucleus for subsequent operations. Specific details are given regarding lunar orbital data, the characteristics of the proposed base, power and consumables requirements, and equipment such as two-person lunar roving vehicles and space suits. During the expedition: (1) water is recycled; (2) Autolanders are used to deliver equipment; (3) two rovers are included in the mass budget; (4) the lunar surface is studied in detail. A polar lunar-base site offers the advantages of unobstructed astronomy, enhanced heat rejection, and the potential for reuse.

  12. Marine Conservation: Effective Communication is Critical to Engaging the Public and Decision Makers in Sustaining our Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, L. B.

    2006-12-01

    Scientists are most comfortable talking to other scientists. But if we hope our science will be used to drive good policy decisions at the state or federal level, we have to be willing to leave the comfortable cloisters of science and venture out into a world where people speak different languages and have different perspectives. Early in my career, I had the good fortune to be involved in two research programs that were focused on basic science, but also proved to be relevant to management and policy. The first project involved modeling the bioenergetics of growth in salmonid fishes. The second modeled the population dynamics of a threatened marine species, loggerhead sea turtle. Somewhat to my surprise, both papers led to major policy changes and the models were actively employed by managers within a year of two of publication. The question for me then became whether this could be done deliberately. Since then I have had the opportunity to communicate with a wide variety of people from congressmen, to school children, to the public, and among professionals across disciplinary boundaries. Communication skills are critical for scientists to become influential in the policy arena. We have to listen to all people involved in the policymaking process AND we have to be able to communicate effectively with them. This requires a deep understanding of the science and a willingness to work hard on communicating the science clearly, concisely, and compellingly. Scientists can work to develop their own skills, but professional training helps. This can come via shortcourses, mentorships, or full university courses. At Duke Marine Lab, we initiated graduate course in Professional Writing that focuses upon writing for different audiences, including commercial fishermen, retirees, teenagers, scientists in different fields, politicians, and managers. This course has been widely endorsed by our graduates as one of the most important courses they attended; interviews and job offers

  13. Insulin, IGF-I, and muscle MAPK pathway responses after sustained exercise and their contribution to growth and lipid metabolism regulation in gilthead sea bream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gurmaches, J; Cruz-Garcia, L; Ibarz, A; Fernández-Borrás, J; Blasco, J; Gutiérrez, J; Navarro, I

    2013-10-01

    Herein, we studied whether sustained exercise positively affects growth of gilthead sea bream by alterations in a) plasma concentrations of insulin and IGF-I, b) signaling pathways in muscle, or c) regulation of lipid metabolism. Specifically, we evaluated the effects of moderated swimming (1.5 body lengths per second; BL/s) on the circulating concentrations of insulin and IGF-I, morphometric parameters, and expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in gilthead sea bream (80-90 g BW). Exercise increased the specific growth rate (P growth and metabolic homeostasis during swimming. The observed decrease in plasma insulin concentrations (P = 0.016) could favor the mobilization of tissue reserves in exercised fish. In this sense, the increase in liver fatty acid content (P = 0.041) and the changes in expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors PPARα (P = 0.017) and PPARγ (P = 0.033) indicated a hepatic lipid mobilization. Concentration of glycogen in both white and red muscles was decreased (P = 0.021 and P = 0.017, respectively) in exercised (n = 12) relative to control (n = 12) gilthead sea bream, whereas concentrations of glucose (P = 0.016) and lactate (P = 0.0007) were decreased only in red muscle, indicating the use of these substrates. No changes in the glucose transporter and in lipoprotein lipase mRNA expression were found in any of the tissues studied. Exercised sea bream had decreased content of PPARβ mRNA in white and red muscle relative to control sea bream expression (P = 0.001 and P = 0.049, respectively). Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation was significantly down-regulated in both white and red muscles of exercised sea bream (P = 0.0374 and P = 0.0371, respectively). Tumor necrosis factor-α expression of white muscle was down-regulated in exercised gilthead sea bream (P = 0.045). Collectively, these results contribute to the knowledge base about hormonal regulation of growth and lipid metabolism in exercised gilthead

  14. Studies on Charges for Sea Area Utilization Management and Its Effect on the Sustainable Development of Marine Economy in Guangdong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijing Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine economy plays an important role in the growth of the global economy. With its continuous development in the past years, the driving roll of marine economy in China’s economy has become remarkable. It is of strategic significance for China’s economic sustainable development to strengthen the exploration of marine resources and promote the quality and profit of the marine economy. To explore sustainable marine resources, one important economic management method is to implement paid use system, specify marine resource property rights and collect Charges for Sea Area Utilization (CSAU. With the approval of the “Guangdong Marine Economic Experimental Zone Program”, Guangdong province targets the building of an economically strong marine province. The collection and rational expenditure of CSAU not only play a positive role in the rapid and sustainable development of the marine economy, but also offer financial guarantee and support for the building of an economically strong marine province. In this paper, the CSAU collection and expenditure in the past decade after the issuance of the Sea Area Use Management Law and the corresponding performance were evaluated and analyzed, and the problems in the CSAU collection and management were discussed. Furthermore, countermeasures were proposed to perfect the CSAU expenditure management policy, define the distribution proportion at all levels, optimize the expenditure structure, and strengthen the supervision and management mechanism. The results and conclusion of this paper could not only greatly promote the construction of marine economy, rational development and sustainable use of marine resources, but also provide a reference for other coastal provinces in China.

  15. Sustained hydrostatic pressure tolerance of the shallow water shrimp Palaemonetes varians at different temperatures: insights into the colonisation of the deep sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, Delphine; Brown, Alastair; Oliphant, Andrew; Mestre, Nélia C; Ravaux, Juliette; Shillito, Bruce; Thatje, Sven

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the tolerance of adult specimens of the shallow-water shrimp Palaemonetes varians to sustained high hydrostatic pressure (10 MPa) across its thermal tolerance window (from 5 to 27 °C) using both behavioural (survival and activity) and molecular (hsp70 gene expression) approaches. To our knowledge, this paper reports the longest elevated hydrostatic pressure exposures ever performed on a shallow-water marine organism. Behavioural analysis showed a 100% survival rate of P. varians after 7 days at 10 MPa and 5 or 10 °C, whilst cannibalism was observed at elevated temperature (27 °C), suggesting no impairment of specific dynamic action. A significant interaction of pressure and temperature was observed for both behavioural and molecular responses. Elevated pressure was found to exacerbate the effect of temperature on the behaviour of the animals by reducing activity at low temperature and by increasing activity at high temperature. In contrast, only high pressure combined with low temperature increased the expression of hsp70 genes. We suggest that the impressive tolerance of P. varians to sustained elevated pressure may reflect the physiological capability of an ancestral species to colonise the deep sea. Our results also support the hypothesis that deep-sea colonisation may have occurred during geological periods of time when the oceanic water column was warm and vertically homogenous. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 45 CFR 303.101 - Expedited processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expedited processes. 303.101 Section 303.101... STANDARDS FOR PROGRAM OPERATIONS § 303.101 Expedited processes. (a) Definition. Expedited processes means... intrastate cases, expedited processes as specified under this section to establish paternity and to establish...

  17. 12 CFR 347.118 - Expedited processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited processing. 347.118 Section 347.118... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.118 Expedited processing. (a) Expedited processing of branch applications. An... foreign country, after complying with the expedited processing requirements contained in § 303.182(b) and...

  18. A lunar polar expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-01-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  19. Development of scientifically base management towards a sustainable fishery of the common sea urchin, Paracentrotus Lividus, in Sardinia

    OpenAIRE

    Secci, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In recent years sea urchins have become a premium commodity in the world where both males and females of the species are harvested for their gonads, generally referred to as “roe” in the fishery and catering market. Fishing for sea urchins can be a very profitable business during the first 5 to 10 years operations on a new fishing ground. However, after that short period of time, wild populations decline due to the high efficiency and selectivity of the employed fishing techniques. In several...

  20. Modeling impacts of sea-level rise, oil price, and management strategy on the costs of sustaining Mississippi delta marshes with hydraulic dredging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegman, Adrian R H; Day, John W; D'Elia, Christopher F; Rutherford, Jeffrey S; Morris, James T; Roy, Eric D; Lane, Robert R; Dismukes, David E; Snyder, Brian F

    2018-03-15

    Over 25% of Mississippi River delta plain (MRDP) wetlands were lost over the past century. There is currently a major effort to restore the MRDP focused on a 50-year time horizon, a period during which the energy system and climate will change dramatically. We used a calibrated MRDP marsh elevation model to assess the costs of hydraulic dredging to sustain wetlands from 2016 to 2066 and 2016 to 2100 under a range of scenarios for sea level rise, energy price, and management regimes. We developed a subroutine to simulate dredging costs based on the price of crude oil and a project efficiency factor. Crude oil prices were projected using forecasts from global energy models. The costs to sustain marsh between 2016 and 2100 changed from $128,000/ha in the no change scenario to ~$1,010,000/ha in the worst-case scenario for sea level rise and energy price, an ~8-fold increase. Increasing suspended sediment concentrations, which is possible using managed river diversions, raised created marsh lifespan and decreased long term dredging costs. Created marsh lifespan changed nonlinearly with dredging fill elevation and suspended sediment level. Cost effectiveness of marsh creation and nourishment can be optimized by adjusting dredging fill elevation to the local sediment regime. Regardless of management scenario, sustaining the MRDP with hydraulic dredging suffered declining returns on investment due to the convergence of energy and climate trends. Marsh creation will likely become unaffordable in the mid to late 21st century, especially if river sediment diversions are not constructed before 2030. We recommend that environmental managers take into consideration coupled energy and climate scenarios for long-term risk assessments and adjust restoration goals accordingly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. ISS Expedition 33 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 33 from 07/2012-11/2012. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  2. ISS Expedition 37 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 37 from 05/2013-11/2013. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  3. ISS Expedition 01 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 01 from 10/2000-03/2001. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  4. ISS Expedition 23 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 23 from 12/2009-09/2010. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  5. ISS Expedition 24 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 24 from 04/2010-11/2010. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  6. ISS Expedition 09 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 09 from 04/2004-10/2004. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  7. ISS Expedition 11 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 11 from 04/2005-10/2005. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  8. ISS Expedition 06 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 06 from 11/2002-05/2003. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  9. ISS Expedition 16 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 16 from 10/2007-04/2008. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  10. ISS Expedition 28 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 28 from 04/2011-11/2011. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  11. ISS Expedition 03 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 03 from 08/2001-12/2001. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  12. ISS Expedition 10 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 10 from 10/2004-04/2005. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  13. ISS Expedition 07 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 07 from 04/2003-10/2003. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  14. ISS Expedition 39 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 39 from 11/2013-05/2014. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  15. ISS Expedition 08 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 08 from 10/2003-04/2004. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  16. ISS Expedition 15 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 15 from 04/2007-10/2007. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  17. ISS Expedition 12 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 12 from 10/2005-04/2006. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  18. ISS Expedition 05 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 05 from 06/2002-12/2002. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  19. ISS Expedition 04 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 04 from 12/2001-06/2002. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  20. ISS Expedition 42 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 42 from 09/2014-03/2015. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  1. ISS Expedition 38 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 38 from 09/2013-03/2014. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  2. ISS Expedition 43 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 43 from 11/2014-06/2015. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  3. ISS Expedition 19 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 19 from 03/2009-05/2009. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  4. ISS Expedition 14 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 14 from 09/2006-04/2007. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  5. ISS Expedition 36 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 36 from 03/2013-09/2013. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  6. ISS Expedition 34 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 34 from 12/2012-03/2013. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  7. The New Man and the Sea: Climate Change Perceptions and Sustainable Seafood Preferences of Florida Reef Anglers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Harper

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Florida Reef stakeholders have downplayed the role of anthropogenic climate change while recognizing the reef system’s degradation. With an emphasis on recreational anglers, a survey using contingent valuation methods investigated stakeholders’ attitudes about the Florida Reef, climate change, and willingness to pay for sustainable and local seafood. Angst expressed about acidification and other climate change effects represents a recent shift of opinion. Supermajorities were willing to pay premiums for sustainably harvested and especially local seafood. Regression analysis revealed trust in seafood labels, travel to coral reefs, political orientation, place of birth, and motorboat use as strong, direct predictors of shopping behavior, age and environmental concerns as moderately influential, and income and education as surprisingly poor predictors. Distrust of authority may motivate some stakeholders, but new attitudes about climate change and the high desirability of local seafood offer potential for renewed regional engagement and market-based incentives for sustainability.

  8. Deep sea drilling in the Arabian Sea: Constraining tectonic-monsoon interactions in South Asia (Report)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pandey, D.K.; Clift, P.D.; Kulhanek, D.K.; Andò, S.; Bendle, J.A; Bratenkov, S.; Griffith, E.M.; Gurumurthy, G.P.; Hahn, A; Iwai, M.; Khim, B.-K.; Kumar, A; Kumar, A; Liddy, H.M.; Lu., H.; Lyle, M.W.; Mishra, R.; Radhakrishna, T.; Routledge, C.M.; Saraswat, R.; Saxena, R.; Scardia, G.; Sharma, G.K.; Singh, A; Steinke, S.; Suzuki, K.; Tauxe, L.; Tiwari, M.; Xu, Z.; Yu, Z.

    Sea, offers a unique opportunity to investigate tectonic–climatic interactions and the net impact of these processes on weathering and erosion of the western Himalaya. During International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 355, two sites (U1456 and U...

  9. Hierarchy of factors exerting an impact on nutrient load of the Baltic Sea and sustainable management of its drainage basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiedrzyńska, Edyta; Jóźwik, Adam; Kiedrzyński, Marcin; Zalewski, Maciej

    2014-11-15

    The aim of the paper was to evaluate 23 catchment factors that determine total phosphorus and total nitrogen load to the Baltic Sea. Standard correlation analysis and clustering were used. Both phosphorus and nitrogen loads were found to be positively related to the number of pigs and the human population associated with wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) per km(2), while the number of cattle and agricultural area were found to influence nitrogen rather than phosphorus load, and the area of forests is negatively related to loads of both nutrients. Clustering indicates an overall north-south pattern in the spatial co-occurrence of socio-ecological factors, with some exceptions discussed in the paper. Positive steps in the Baltic Sea region have already been taken, but much remains to be done. The development of coherent response policies to reduce eutrophication in the Baltic Sea should be based on a comprehensive knowledge base, an appropriate information strategy and learning alliance platform in each drainage river catchments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Elements for a revision and notes on bionomy of the Cumacea (Crustacea: Peracarida) of the Weddell Sea (Antarctica). : Material collected by the Expedition ANTARKTIS-VIII/5 of R.V. “Polarstern” 1989/90

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrescu, I.; Wittmann, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    Among 26 species of Antarctic Cumacea sampled during the southern summer 1989/90 from benthic habitats in the Weddell Sea, four are described as new to science: Campylaspis ledoyeri spec. nov., Hemilamprops bacescui spec. nov., Paralamprops racovitzai spec. nov., and Leptostylis weddelli spec. nov.

  11. Between heaven and earth : the devil and the deep blue sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, W.J.M. van der

    Between Heaven and Earth, The Devil and the Deep Blue Sea interweaves the story of planet Earth and the narrative of a marine geological expedition in the Arabian Sea. While specifically investigating the changes of the monsoon during Late Quaternary times, the expedition discloses aspects of the

  12. The first microbiological contamination assessment by deep-sea drilling and coring by the D/V Chikyu at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (IODP Expedition 331

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori eYanagawa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 331 at the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the Mid-Okinawa Trough by the D/V Chikyu, we conducted microbiological contamination tests of the drilling and coring operations. The contamination from the drilling mud fluids was assessed using both perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT and fluorescent microsphere beads. PFT infiltration was detected from the periphery of almost all whole round cores. By contrast, fluorescent microspheres were not detected in hydrothermally active core samples, possibly due to thermal decomposition of the microspheres under high-temperature conditions. Microbial contamination from drilling mud fluids to the core interior subsamples was further characterized by molecular-based evaluation. The microbial 16S rRNA gene phylotype compositions in the drilling mud fluids were mainly composed of sequences of Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and not archaeal sequences. The phylotypes that displayed more than 97% similarity to the sequences obtained from the drilling mud fluids were defined as possible contaminants in this study and were detected as minor components of the bacterial phylotype compositions in 13 of 37 core samples. The degree of microbiological contamination was consistent with that determined by the PFT and/or microsphere assessments. This study suggests a constructive approach for evaluation and eliminating microbial contamination during riser-less drilling and coring operations by the D/V Chikyu.

  13. 21 CFR 1401.6 - Expedited process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expedited process. 1401.6 Section 1401.6 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.6 Expedited process. (a) Requests and appeals will be given expedited treatment whenever ONDCP determines either: (1...

  14. 7 CFR 1.9 - Expedited processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited processing. 1.9 Section 1.9 Agriculture... processing. (a) A requester may apply for expedited processing at the time of the initial request for records. Within ten calendar days of its receipt of a request for expedited processing, an agency shall decide...

  15. 21 CFR 20.44 - Expedited processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expedited processing. 20.44 Section 20.44 Food and... Procedures and Fees § 20.44 Expedited processing. (a) The Food and Drug Administration will provide expedited processing of a request for records when the requester demonstrates a compelling need, or in other cases as...

  16. 28 CFR 802.8 - Expedited processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited processing. 802.8 Section 802.8... DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Freedom of Information Act § 802.8 Expedited processing. (a) Requests and appeals will... basis. (b) If you seek expedited processing, you must submit a statement, certified to be true and...

  17. Silent film: The Carlsberg Foundation’s Oceanographic Expedition Round the World, 1928–30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Danish marine scientist, Johannes Schmidt was also a pioneer when it comes to popularizing deep-sea marine research through the use of mass media. When Schmidt headed the Carlsberg Foundation’s Oceanographical Expedition Round the World, 1928-1930, he brought along a film camera, documenting...

  18. Seaweeds of the Snellius-II Expedition. Chlorophyta: Caulerpales (except Caulerpa and Halimeda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppejans, E.; Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.

    1989-01-01

    In the present paper a survey is given of species belonging to the genera Avrainvillea, Chlorodesmis, Rhipilia, Rhipiliopsis, Tydemania, and Udotea collected during the Indonesian-Dutch Snellius- II Expedition (1984) in the Banda, Sawu and Flores Seas. The morphology and anatomy of these seaweeds

  19. Species of Caulerpa (Chlorophyceae) collected on the International Indian Ocean Expedition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, Wm. Randolph

    1967-01-01

    One of the major scientific efforts of the decade has been the International Indian Ocean Expedition of 1960—64, involving several institutions and ships and numerous scientists. With an oceanographic focus, not only physical and biological open sea oceanographic studies were carried on, but

  20. Benthic primary producers are key to sustain the Wadden Sea food web: stable carbon isotope analysis at landscape scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianen, M J A; Middelburg, J J; Holthuijsen, S J; Jouta, J; Compton, T J; van der Heide, T; Piersma, T; Sinninghe Damsté, J S; van der Veer, H W; Schouten, S; Olff, H

    2017-06-01

    Coastal food webs can be supported by local benthic or pelagic primary producers and by the import of organic matter. Distinguishing between these energy sources is essential for our understanding of ecosystem functioning. However, the relative contribution of these components to the food web at the landscape scale is often unclear, as many studies lack good taxonomic and spatial resolution across large areas. Here, using stable carbon isotopes, we report on the primary carbon sources for consumers and their spatial variability across one of the world's largest intertidal ecosystems (Dutch Wadden Sea; 1460 km2 intertidal surface area), at an exceptionally high taxonomic (178 species) and spatial resolution (9,165 samples from 839 locations). The absence of overlap in δ13 C values between consumers and terrestrial organic matter suggests that benthic and pelagic producers dominate carbon input into this food web. In combination with the consistent enrichment of benthic primary producers (δ13 C -16.3‰) relative to pelagic primary producers (δ13 C -18.8) across the landscape, this allowed the use of a two-food-source isotope-mixing model. This spatially resolved modelling revealed that benthic primary producers (microphytobenthos) are the most important energy source for the majority of consumers at higher trophic levels (worms, molluscs, crustaceans, fish, and birds), and thus to the whole food web. In addition, we found large spatial heterogeneity in the δ13 C values of benthic primary producers (δ13 C -19.2 to -11.5‰) and primary consumers (δ13 C -25.5 to -9.9‰), emphasizing the need for spatially explicit sampling of benthic and pelagic primary producers in coastal ecosystems. Our findings have important implications for our understanding of the functioning of ecological networks and for the management of coastal ecosystems. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  1. Sustainability Organic Agriculture and Livestock Production with Respect to European Union in Eastern Anatolia and East Black Sea Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecihi Aksakal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of farm households in Turkey and especially the Eastern Anatolia are still based on low-input semi subsistence agriculture and livestock production. Despite a slow decline in recent years, agriculture and livestock production remains a major employer in Turkey and it is a significant contributor to the country’s gross domestic product, GDP. Whist Turkey is one of the EU candidate countries, is self sufficient in food production and Turkish agriculture is poorly structured inefficient, with farming in the Eastern Anatolia being mainly subsistence farming. Yet, these traditional rural structures combined with poor access to low level of education and low level of off-farm unemployment problem makes the situation more complicated and unsustainable. The best way to promote sustainability, better and higher production of Eastern Anatolian and rural Turkey is to invest in the local people, villages through improved, continuing and effective agricultural and livestock programs in particular. Investment in human capital especially in the rural areas leads to more employment opportunities through entrepreneurship and innovation in organic agriculture and livestock production. A holistic approach to developing and improving supply chains could unlock the potential for sophisticated, state-of-the-art organic agriculture and livestock producers and businesses in the region to become EU and global players. Eastern Anatolian livestock producers and the farmers have the ambitions to take part in future progress because the region is naturally organic not by design but default. It is for sure that present potential of the region has not been fully determined and utilized. EU has greatly benefited from previous enlargements economically, politically and socially. When European Union (EU and Turkish Government relations considered and accession of Turkey to EU would be the logical consequence of the previous accessions. The screening on chapter 11

  2. Rhizon Sampling of Pore Waters on Scientific Drilling Expeditions: An Example from the IODP Expedition 302, Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzie Schnieders

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available For more than 35 years, interstitial water (IW samples have been collected from sediment recovered during marine scientific coring expeditions. Pioneering work of DSDP and ODP quickly demonstrated that pore water chemistry differed from that of overlying seawater and from one location to another for myriad reasons (Sayles and Manheim, 1975. Extraction and analysis of IW samples has now becomeroutine on deep-sea drilling cruises; the ensuing pore water profiles are being used to understand a range of processes, such as subsurface fluid flow (e.g., Brown et al., 2001; Saffer and Screaton, 2003, mineral diagenesis (e.g., Rudnicki et al., 2001; Malone et al., 2002, microbial reactions (e.g., Böttcher and Khim, 2004; D’Hondt et al., 2004, gas hydrate dissociation (e.g., Egeberg and Dickens, 1999; Tréhu et al., 2004, and glacial to interglacial changes in the composition of bottom water (e.g., Paul et al., 2001; Adkins and McIntyre, 2002.

  3. Expeditions to Komsomolets in 1993 and 1994; Tokt til Komsomolets i 1993 og 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolstad, A.K.

    1995-09-01

    The Russian nuclear submarine Komsomolets went down about 180 km southwest of the Bear Island in the Norwegian Sea on April 7, 1989. According to Russian information the submarine contains one nuclear reactor and two torpedoes with nuclear warheads. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority has taken part in the Russian expeditions to the accident site since 1991. This is a report from the expeditions in 1993 and 1994. It includes sampling, analysis and results obtained by the Norwegian part. 5 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Evaluating Tidal Marsh Sustainability in the Face of Sea-Level Rise: A Hybrid Modeling Approach Applied to San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stralberg, Diana; Brennan, Matthew; Callaway, John C.; Wood, Julian K.; Schile, Lisa M.; Jongsomjit, Dennis; Kelly, Maggi; Parker, V. Thomas; Crooks, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Background Tidal marshes will be threatened by increasing rates of sea-level rise (SLR) over the next century. Managers seek guidance on whether existing and restored marshes will be resilient under a range of potential future conditions, and on prioritizing marsh restoration and conservation activities. Methodology Building upon established models, we developed a hybrid approach that involves a mechanistic treatment of marsh accretion dynamics and incorporates spatial variation at a scale relevant for conservation and restoration decision-making. We applied this model to San Francisco Bay, using best-available elevation data and estimates of sediment supply and organic matter accumulation developed for 15 Bay subregions. Accretion models were run over 100 years for 70 combinations of starting elevation, mineral sediment, organic matter, and SLR assumptions. Results were applied spatially to evaluate eight Bay-wide climate change scenarios. Principal Findings Model results indicated that under a high rate of SLR (1.65 m/century), short-term restoration of diked subtidal baylands to mid marsh elevations (−0.2 m MHHW) could be achieved over the next century with sediment concentrations greater than 200 mg/L. However, suspended sediment concentrations greater than 300 mg/L would be required for 100-year mid marsh sustainability (i.e., no elevation loss). Organic matter accumulation had minimal impacts on this threshold. Bay-wide projections of marsh habitat area varied substantially, depending primarily on SLR and sediment assumptions. Across all scenarios, however, the model projected a shift in the mix of intertidal habitats, with a loss of high marsh and gains in low marsh and mudflats. Conclusions/Significance Results suggest a bleak prognosis for long-term natural tidal marsh sustainability under a high-SLR scenario. To minimize marsh loss, we recommend conserving adjacent uplands for marsh migration, redistributing dredged sediment to raise elevations, and

  5. Medical Operational Challenges in the Expedition 16 Landing and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, S.; Johnston, S. L.; Ilcus, L. S.; Shevchenko, V.

    2009-01-01

    On April 19, 2008 the crew of Expedition 16 left the International Space Station and returned to earth via their Soyuz TMA-11 capsule after 192 days on orbit. Their capsule experienced the second consecutive and third ballistic reentry in the last 10 TMA recoveries and landed approximately 260 miles (420 km) from the prime landing site. Issues: The purpose of this presentation will be to describe, not only the typical medical operational challenges faced by Flight Surgeons recovering a long duration crew from space, but also address the unique challenges that existed with the Expedition 16 landing and crew recovery. Nominal Soyuz recovery challenges include remote recovery sites with crew exposures to sleep shifting and fatigue, dehydration, hypothermia and hyperthermia, and rotational, sustained, and impact g-forces. These environmental factors coupled with the patho-physiologic neuro-vestibular and orthostatic intolerance changes that occur secondary to the crews reintroduction into the earth s gravity field will be detailed. Additional challenges that were unique to this expedition included a ballistic reentry with higher g-loads, the presence of fire outside of the capsule on landing, a contingency medical event of a ground support personnel, and loss of communications with the crew just prior to landing and during recovery operations. Conclusions: In spite of these unique challenges the Russian Search and Rescue Forces and Medical Support personnel along with U.S. Medical Support performed well together. Possible improvements in training and coordination will be discussed.

  6. 31 CFR 10.82 - Expedited suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited suspension. 10.82 Section... INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.82 Expedited suspension. (a... suspension. A suspension under this section will commence on the date that written notice of the suspension...

  7. Book Review Expedition Field Techniques: Small Mammals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review. Expedition Field Techniques: Small. Mammals (excluding bats) Second Edition. A. Barnett and J. Dutton. Published and distributed 1995 by the Expedition Advisory. Cenlre, Royal Geographic Society, 1 Kensington Gore,. London, SW7 2AR. 126 pages. Price: £8.50 (softcover). ISBN 0-907649-68-8.

  8. Geologic implications of gas hydrates in the offshore of India: results of the National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Boswell, Ray; Cochran, J.R.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Lall, Malcolm; Mazumdar, Aninda; Ramana, Mangipudi Venkata; Ramprasad, Tammisetti; Riedel, Michael; Sain, Kalachand; Sathe, Arun Vasant; Vishwanath, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 (NGHP-01) is designed to study the occurrence of gas hydrate along the passive continental margin of the Indian Peninsula and in the Andaman convergent margin, with special emphasis on understanding the geologic and geochemical controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate in these two diverse settings. The NGHP-01 expedition established the presence of gas hydrates in the Krishna-Godavari and Mahanadi Basins, and the Andaman Sea. The expedition discovered in the Krishna-Godavari Basin one of the thickest gas hydrate accumulations ever documented, in the Andaman Sea one of the thickest and deepest gas hydrate stability zones in the world, and established the existence of a fully developed gas hydrate petroleum system in all three basins.

  9. Antarctic Porifera database from the Spanish benthic expeditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Rios

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The information about the sponges in this dataset is derived from the samples collected during five Spanish Antarctic expeditions: Bentart 94, Bentart 95, Gebrap 96, Ciemar 99/00 and Bentart 2003. Samples were collected in the Antarctic Peninsula and Bellingshausen Sea at depths ranging from 4 to 2044 m using va­rious sampling gears.The Antarctic Porifera database from the Spanish benthic expeditions is unique as it provides in­formation for an under-explored region of the Southern Ocean (Bellingshausen Sea. It fills an information gap on Antarctic deep-sea sponges, for which there were previously very few data.This phylum is an important part of the Antarctic biota and plays a key role in the structure of the Antarctic marine benthic community due to its considerable diversity and predominance in different areas. It is often a dominant component of Southern Ocean benthic communities.The quality of the data was controlled very thoroughly with GPS systems onboard the R/V Hesperides and by checking the data against the World Porifera Database (which is part of the World Register of Marine Species, WoRMS. The data are therefore fit for completing checklists, inclusion in biodivers­ity pattern analysis and niche modelling. The authors can be contacted if any additional information is needed before carrying out detailed biodiversity or biogeographic studies.The dataset currently contains 767 occurrence data items that have been checked for systematic reliability. This database is not yet complete and the collection is growing. Specimens are stored in the author’s collection at the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO in the city of Gijón (Spain. The data are available in GBIF.

  10. A short note on the cephalopods sampled in the Angola Basin during the DIVA I-expedition

    OpenAIRE

    Piatkowski, Uwe; Diekmann, Rabea

    2005-01-01

    Five cephalopods, all belonging to different species, were identified from deep-sea trawl samples conducted during the DIVA 1-expedition of RV “Meteor” in the Angola Basin in July 2000. These were the teuthoid squids Bathyteuthis abyssicola, Brachioteuthis riisei, Mastigoteuthis atlantica, Galiteuthis armata, and the finned deep-sea octopus Grimpoteuthis wuelkeri. The present study contributes information on size, morphometry, biology and distribution of the species form this unique cephalopo...

  11. Kinetics of Ce and Nd scavenging in Black Sea waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijf, Johan; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Millero, Frank J.

    1994-01-01

    Mixing experiments were performed during Leg 5 of the 1988 Black Sea Expedition in order to learn more about the mechanism and kinetics of rare earth element (REE) scavenging at the oxic-anoxic interface of anoxic basins and, more specifically, in the suboxic zone of the Black Sea. Water from the

  12. 29 CFR 1404.20 - Proper use of expedited arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proper use of expedited arbitration. 1404.20 Section 1404... ARBITRATION SERVICES Expedited Arbitration § 1404.20 Proper use of expedited arbitration. (a) FMCS reserves the right to cease honoring request for Expedited Arbitration if a pattern of misuse of this becomes...

  13. Embark students on geosciences expeditions, across the oceans …

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Marion; Darrieu, Michele; Pointu, Agnes; Maruejol, Patricia; Cooper, Sharon

    2017-04-01

    As teachers we can live and share a fabulous experience of science and research on the scientific drilling vessels and platforms of IODP-ECORD and JAMSTEC consortiums. ECORD offered us the opportunity to embark on the IODP 359, 360 and 362 expeditions as Education Officers. Our task was to communicate about science with the general public and students from 7 to 25 years-old. In this presentation, we will focus on the 360 expedition, South West Indian Ridge-lower crust and Moho. We explain the three steps of the "teacher at sea" experience from the very first idea to the real pedagogical work during and after the expedition. -Apply, get ready and leave… for two months: From the difficulties you may encounter to the most efficient ways to prepare the pedagogical tasks. -Work, live onboard and get back: We will describe the main activities of the Education officers among the Science party and the way all this can become a highly changing-life experience. -Use data, share and inspire: We will detail some strategies we used to catch the attention of the students. They could participate to "live" science and have a better idea of the job of researcher. Now, we have to inspire others teachers to use our data and pedagogical documents, or to get the opportunity to embark ! What gets out of these crossed experiences is that the quality of the human relationships, and the way the students can get closer to the scientists during the interactions, are the keys to motivate students and give them a new vision of the scientific research.

  14. Ship Track for Deep Sea Medicines 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the Ronald H. Brown during the "Deep Sea Medicines 2003: Exploring the Gulf of Mexico" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  15. Ship Track for Mountains in the Sea 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the R/V Atlantis during the "Mountains in the Sea 2003" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of...

  16. Ship Sensor Observations for Mountains in the Sea 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the R/V Atlantis during the "Mountains in the Sea 2003" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and...

  17. Ship Sensor Observations for Deep Sea Medicines 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown during the "Deep Sea Medicines 2003: Exploration of the Gulf of Mexico" expedition...

  18. The Inaugural SHALDRIL Expedition to the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Wise,

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In 1994, a group of scientists began discussing a number of important scientific questions that could be addressed by drilling a series of short cores on the Antarctic continental shelf. The group adopted the name SHALDRIL, for SHALlow DRILling, and soon learned that the technology for high-quality sampling of the upper few hundred metersof the stratigraphic column was still lacking.After more than a decade of discussion and several years of detailed planning, SHALDRIL sailed from Punta Arenas, Chile, in March 2005. The objectives of this first SHALDRIL cruise are to demonstrate the feasibility of drilling from an icebreaker platform into the Antarctic continental shelf and to obtain cores from three different sedimentary sequences that previously have not been sampled.The principal objective of SHALDRIL originally was to monitor technological developments in shallow drilling from conventional icebreaking research vessels. In 2000, the SHALDRIL steering committee learned about new and improved drilling systems that can core through gravelly glacial deposits in water depths of several hundred meters and to subbottom depths of a few hundred meters(SHALDRIL Steering Committee, 2001. These systems can be operated from the icebreaking research vessel Nathaniel B. Palmer (Fig. 1; thus, the long-term project has now entered the next phase of testing this proven drilling technology aboard a U. S. Antarctic Program vessel.

  19. ISS Expedition 21/22 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 21/22 from 10/2009-03/2010. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  20. Educational expeditions - et norsk perspektiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Horgen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe topic of this article is the Norwegian concept of “friluftsliv” (outdoor life, used as a pedagogical tool to support personal growth. While supporting personal growth appears to be a central pedagogical strategy within Anglo-American and British youth expeditions and adventure programming, this does not appear to be case in the Norwegian outdoor tradition. My research question is: Do Norwegian Outdoor Education students experience a learning outcome related to personal growth, and to their abilities as leaders/mentors, during ski expeditions? I have collected data through a three-year period, after three ski expeditions with Outdoor Education students from an outdoor bachelor-programme at Telemark University College.The students have given written answers to questions regarding personal growth in which several informants’ express thoughts about experiences related to “self” and “identity”. They reflect upon experiences related to “mastering” and “performing”, to acceptance of their own strengths and weaknesses, and about developing self-confidence. They also reflect upon learning outcomes related to interpersonal relations and abilities, self-control, communication and caregiving. The informants have experienced, as leaders/mentors, that it is important to be able to, to “read” situations, to make good assessments of the situations, and to make good decisions related to the situations. As a follow up to this, the informants highlight the importance of being aware of each individual in the group, the importance of encouragement, being positive and caregiving. This study has shown that ski expeditions in “a Norwegian tradition” may have a potential when it comes to encouraging reflections related to personal growth and leadership abilities. Hopefully this study can contribute to increased awareness of the pedagogical potential, for personal growth, within the Norwegian concept of

  1. After-effects of a high altitude expedition on blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böning, D; Maassen, N; Jochum, F; Steinacker, J; Halder, A; Thomas, A; Schmidt, W; Noé, G; Kubanek, B

    1997-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate blood alterations caused by altitude acclimatization which last more than few days after return and might play a role for exercise performance at sea level. Measurements were performed in 12 mountaineers before, during and either 7/8 or 11/12 days after a Himalaya expedition (26-29 days at 4900 to 7600 m altitude). [Erythropoietin] rose only temporarily at altitude (max. +11 +/- 1 [SE] mu/ml serum). After return hemoglobin mass (initially 881 +/- 44 g, CO-Hb method) was increased by 14% (p training, partly in the Alps, and the stay in the Himalaya influenced O2-affinity for a prolonged time. The adaptations might reduce the loss of physical performance capacity at altitude and be part of altitude training effects.

  2. An Assessment of Environmental Drivers Responsible for the Emergence of Mixotrophy in the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goes, J. I.; Gomes, H. R.; Al-Azri, A.; Al-Hashmi, K.

    2016-02-01

    In the last decade and half, the northern Arabian Sea (AS) has witnessed a radical shift in the composition of winter phytoplankton blooms. Diatoms typical of the winter monsoon and favoured by nutrient-enriched waters from convective mixing have been replaced by thick and widespread blooms of, a large, green dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans (Noctiluca). Unlike the exclusively heterotrophic red Noctiluca found in temperate waters, the green species of Noctiluca from the Arabian Sea is a mixotroph. It harbors hundreds of green, free-swimming cells of the symbiont Pedinomonas noctilucae within the central vacuole of its cytoplasm, and can sustain itself either through carbon fixation by its endosymbionts or via ingestion of exogenous prey. Data collected by us aboard Indian research vessels in the Arabian Sea suggest that these recent outbreaks of green Noctiluca blooms are being caused by the spread of hypoxic waters into the euphotic zone and possibly exacerbated by warming and enhanced stratification of the water column as well as greater nutrient inputs via aerosols and land runoff. Noctiluca is not a preferred food for micro- and mesozooplankton. It uses inorganic nutrients and grazes on other phytoplankton. Thus, it competes with both its prey and predators for resources, posing special challenges for ecosystem modeling studies. The emergence of this mixotroph as the major plankton player in the ecosystem will require a revision of our earlier understanding of the Arabian Sea food web dynamics and allied biogeochemistry gained from the Joint Global Flux Studies (JGOFS) expeditions of the 1990s.

  3. Antarctic Starfish (Echinodermata, Asteroidea) from the ANDEEP3 expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, Bruno; Jangoux, Michel; Wilmes, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This dataset includes information on sea stars collected during the ANDEEP3 expedition, which took place in 2005. The expedition focused on deep-sea stations in the Powell Basin and Weddell Sea. Sea stars were collected using an Agassiz trawl (3m, mesh-size 500µm), deployed in 16 stations during the ANTXXII/3 (ANDEEP3, PS72) expedition of the RV Polarstern. Sampling depth ranged from 1047 to 4931m. Trawling distance ranged from 731 to 3841m. The sampling area ranges from -41°S to -71°S (latitude) and from 0 to -65°W (longitude). A complete list of stations is available from the PANGAEA data system (http://www.pangaea.de/PHP/CruiseReports.php?b=Polarstern), including a cruise report (http://epic-reports.awi.de/3694/1/PE_72.pdf). The dataset includes 50 records, with individual counts ranging from 1-10, reaching a total of 132 specimens. The andeep3-Asteroidea is a unique dataset as it covers an under-explored region of the Southern Ocean, and that very little information was available regarding Antarctic deep-sea starfish. Before this study, most of the information available focused on starfish from shallower depths than 1000m. This dataset allowed to make unique observations, such as the fact that some species were only present at very high depths (Hymenaster crucifer, Hymenaster pellucidus, Hymenaster praecoquis, Psilaster charcoti, Freyella attenuata, Freyastera tuberculata, Styrachaster chuni and Vemaster sudatlanticus were all found below -3770m), while others displayed remarkable eurybathy, with very high depths amplitudes (Bathybiaster loripes (4842m), Lysasterias adeliae (4832m), Lophaster stellans (4752m), Cheiraster planeta (4708m), Eremicaster crassus (4626m), Lophaster gaini (4560m) and Ctenodiscus australis (4489m)). Even if the number of records is relatively small, the data bring many new insights on the taxonomic, bathymetric and geographic distributions of Southern starfish, covering a very large sampling zone. The dataset also brings

  4. Antarctic Starfish (Echinodermata, Asteroidea from the ANDEEP3 expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Danis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This dataset includes information on sea stars collected during the ANDEEP3 expedition, which took place in 2005. The expedition focused on deep-sea stations in the Powell Basin and Weddell Sea.Sea stars were collected using an Agassiz trawl (3m, mesh-size 500µm, deployed in 16 stations during the ANTXXII/3 (ANDEEP3, PS72 expedition of the RV Polarstern. Sampling depth ranged from 1047 to 4931m. Trawling distance ranged from 731 to 3841m. The sampling area ranges from -41°S to -71°S (latitude and from 0 to -65°W (longitude. A complete list of stations is available from the PANGAEA data system (http://www.pangaea.de/PHP/CruiseReports.php?b=Polarstern, including a cruise report (http://epic-reports.awi.de/3694/1/PE_72.pdf.The dataset includes 50 records, with individual counts ranging from 1-10, reaching a total of 132 specimens.The andeep3-Asteroidea is a unique dataset as it covers an under-explored region of the Southern Ocean, and that very little information was available regarding Antarctic deep-sea starfish. Before this study, most of the information available focused on starfish from shallower depths than 1000m. This dataset allowed to make unique observations, such as the fact that some species were only present at very high depths (Hymenaster crucifer, Hymenaster pellucidus, Hymenaster praecoquis, Psilaster charcoti, Freyella attenuata, Freyastera tuberculata, Styrachaster chuni and Vemaster sudatlanticus were all found below -3770m, while others displayed remarkable eurybathy, with very high depths amplitudes (Bathybiaster loripes (4842m, Lysasterias adeliae (4832m, Lophaster stellans (4752m, Cheiraster planeta (4708m, Eremicaster crassus (4626m, Lophaster gaini (4560m and Ctenodiscus australis (4489m.Even if the number of records is relatively small, the data bring many new insights on the taxonomic, bathymetric and geographic distributions of Southern starfish, covering a very large sampling zone. The dataset also brings to light

  5. Antarctic Starfish (Echinodermata, Asteroidea) from the ANDEEP3 expedition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, Bruno; Jangoux, Michel; Wilmes, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This dataset includes information on sea stars collected during the ANDEEP3 expedition, which took place in 2005. The expedition focused on deep-sea stations in the Powell Basin and Weddell Sea.Sea stars were collected using an Agassiz trawl (3m, mesh-size 500µm), deployed in 16 stations during the ANTXXII/3 (ANDEEP3, PS72) expedition of the RV Polarstern. Sampling depth ranged from 1047 to 4931m. Trawling distance ranged from 731 to 3841m. The sampling area ranges from -41°S to -71°S (latitude) and from 0 to -65°W (longitude). A complete list of stations is available from the PANGAEA data system (http://www.pangaea.de/PHP/CruiseReports.php?b=Polarstern), including a cruise report (http://epic-reports.awi.de/3694/1/PE_72.pdf).The dataset includes 50 records, with individual counts ranging from 1-10, reaching a total of 132 specimens.The andeep3-Asteroidea is a unique dataset as it covers an under-explored region of the Southern Ocean, and that very little information was available regarding Antarctic deep-sea starfish. Before this study, most of the information available focused on starfish from shallower depths than 1000m. This dataset allowed to make unique observations, such as the fact that some species were only present at very high depths (Hymenaster crucifer, Hymenaster pellucidus, Hymenaster praecoquis, Psilaster charcoti, Freyella attenuata, Freyastera tuberculata, Styrachaster chuni and Vemaster sudatlanticus were all found below -3770m), while others displayed remarkable eurybathy, with very high depths amplitudes (Bathybiaster loripes (4842m), Lysasterias adeliae (4832m), Lophaster stellans (4752m), Cheiraster planeta (4708m), Eremicaster crassus (4626m), Lophaster gaini (4560m) and Ctenodiscus australis (4489m)).Even if the number of records is relatively small, the data bring many new insights on the taxonomic, bathymetric and geographic distributions of Southern starfish, covering a very large sampling zone. The dataset also brings to light six

  6. Starvation Resulting From Inadequate Dietary Planning for a 50-Day Rowing Expedition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Hamish A B; Dennison, Nicholas C; Quayle, Jonathan; Preston, Tom

    2017-09-01

    Meeting the energy demands of prolonged arduous expeditions and endurance sport may be a significant barrier to success. Expedition rowing is associated with high levels of body-mass loss, reflecting the challenge of meeting energy expenditure in this exacting environment. To use the doubly labeled water (DLW) technique to calculate the total energy expenditure (TEE) and body-composition changes of two 28-y-old healthy male athletes during a 50-d continuous and unsupported row around Great Britain. A measured dose of DLW was taken at the start of 2 separate study periods (days 5-19 and 34-48) followed by sequential urine collection, which was analyzed on return to land. Mean TEE was 15.3 MJ/d: athlete 1, 16.4 MJ/d; athlete 2, 14.9 MJ/d. Athlete 1 lost 11.2 kg and athlete 2 lost 14.9 kg of body mass during the row. Average energy provision was 19.1 MJ per 24-h ration pack. These results highlight the difficulty of maintaining energy balance during expedition rowing. A starvation state was observed despite dietary provision in excess of estimated energy expenditure, indicating that nutritional strategy rather than caloric availability was at fault. The authors recommend that future expeditions prioritize thorough testing and the individualization of rations to ensure that they are both palatable and practical during the weeks to months at sea.

  7. Overfishing Drivers and Opportunities for Recovery in Small-Scale Fisheries of the Midriff Islands Region, Gulf of California, Mexico: the Roles of Land and Sea Institutions in Fisheries Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cinti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Institutions play an important role in shaping individual incentives in complex social-ecological systems, by encouraging or discouraging resource overuse. In the Gulf of California, Mexico, there is widespread evidence of declines in small-scale fishery stocks, largely attributed to policy failures. We investigated formal and informal rules-in-use regulating access and resource use by small-scale fishers in the two most important fishing communities of the Midriff Islands region in the Gulf of California, which share several target species and fishing grounds. The Midriff Islands region is a highly productive area where sustainable use of fisheries resources has been elusive. Our study aimed to inform policy by providing information on how management and conservation policies perform in this unique environment. In addition, we contrast attributes of the enabling conditions for sustainability on the commons in an effort to better understand why these communities, albeit showing several contrasting attributes of the above conditions, have not developed sustainable fishing practices. We take a novel, comprehensive institutional approach that includes formal and informal institutions, incorporating links between land (i.e., communal land rights and sea institutions (i.e., fisheries and conservation policies and their effects on stewardship of fishery resources, a theme that is practically unaddressed in the literature. Insufficient government support in provision of secure rights, enforcement and sanctioning, and recognition and incorporation of local arrangements and capacities for management arose as important needs to address in both cases. We highlight the critical role of higher levels of governance, that when disconnected from local practices, realities, and needs, can be a major impediment to achieving sustainability in small-scale fisheries, even in cases where several facilitating conditions are met.

  8. NanTroSEIZE Stage 1 Expeditions 314, 315, and 316: First Drilling Program of the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Masago

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expeditions 314, 315, and 316 were carried out as a unified program of drilling collectively known as Stage 1 of the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment, or NanTroSEIZE, the first multi-stage complex drilling project in IODP and the most ambitious effort in scientific ocean drilling to date (Tobin and Kinoshita, 2006b; Kinoshita et al., 2006. The first of four planned operational stages, the Stage 1 expeditions were conducted aboard the new riser-capable drilling vessel Chikyu from September 2007 to February 2008, and were Chikyu’s inaugural IODP expeditions. Seventy-one scientists from twelve countries took part in the three expeditions as shipboard participants, and thirty-three holes in total were drilled at eight sites, to as much as 1400 meters below the sea floor (Table 1, Fig. 1.

  9. Expedition Two crew arrives at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Astronaut James Voss (right) stands with astronaut John Young on the tarmac at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility. Voss is flying on mission STS-102, launching March 8, as part of the Expedition Two crew going to the International Space Station. Young made his fifth flight as Spacecraft Commander of STS-1, the first flight of the Space Shuttle, April 12-14, 1981. His sixth and final flight was as Spacecraft Commander of STS-9, the first Spacelab mission, Nov. 28-Dec. 8, 1983. The other members of the Expedition Two crew are Susan Helms and Yury Usachev. STS-102 will be Helms' and Voss's fifth Shuttle flight, and Usachev's second. They will be replacing the Expedition One crew (Bill Shepherd, Yuri Gidzenko and Sergei Krikalev), who will return to Earth March 20 on Discovery along with the STS-102 crew.

  10. Greenland Expeditions by Alfred Wegener - A photographic window to past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, M.; Tschürtz, S.; Kirchengast, G.; Kranzelbinder, H.; Prügger, B.; Krause, R. A.; Kalliokoski, M.; Thórhallsdóttir, E.

    2012-04-01

    On several expeditions to Greenland, Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) took pictures on glass plates from landscapes and glaciers, the expedition equipment, the people and animals taking part on the expeditions as well as physical phenomena as dust storm, clouds or spherical light phenomena. Chronologically the plates show the Danmark Expedition 1906-1908, the crossing of Greenland expedition with stop in Iceland 1912-1913, and the German Greenland Expedition 1929-1930. Until the tragic end of the expedition in 1930, Wegener was professor at the University of Graz, and such a stock of about 300 glass plates stayed there. The aim of our work is to digitize all plates for further studies. We present a first selection of Wegener's Greenland expedition pictures. For those made at Iceland in 1912 we will present a comparison of the past with pictures from the same viewing point made in 2011.

  11. Carbonate Chemistry of the Weddell Sea from 10/9/1981 - 11/25/1981 (NODC Accession 0000121)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Carbonate data for the Weddell sea are provided from both surface samples taken along the cruise track of the US-USSR Weddell Polynya Expedition (WEPOLEX-81) and...

  12. Expedition Three Crew Onboard Photograph of Sunset

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The setting sun and the thin blue airglow line at Earth's horizon was captured by the International Space Station's (ISS) Expedition Three crewmembers with a digital camera. Some of the Station's components are silhouetted in the foreground. The crew was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery STS-105 mission, on August 10, 2001, replacing the Expedition Two crew. After marning the orbiting ISS for 128 consecutive days, the three returned to Earth on December 17, 2001, aboard the STS-108 mission Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour.

  13. Mastery of the sea uses in the outlook of sustainable development in France and in its overseas territories; Maitrise des usages de la mer dans l'optique du developpement durable en metropole et outre-mer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    France disposes of the second widest maritime zone in the world which represents numerous halieutic, energetic and mineral resources. However, the knowledge about these resources remains in general insufficient to allow its responsible exploitation in the respect of ecosystems biodiversity, or to allow an economically profitable exploitation because the existing technologies remain emerging. Moreover, most of the ocean exploitation is localized in the coastal area (up to few tens of km from the coast). This fragile area is threatened by an increasing number of activities which superadd to the traditional ones (fishing, navigation, tourism). Thus, the sustainable management of these coastal areas is an important challenge that France has to take up. This document stresses on the need for a better knowledge of the marine environment (situation of the halieutic resources, study of oceanic circulation, physiology of species, inventory of sea bottom and underground resources, mapping of accessible energy resources, evolution of climates, drift of pollutions, study of renewable sea energies (wind, heat, wave, tide, currents)) and for an integrated management of the coastal areas (recommendations, mapping, development of wind power systems, exploitation of marine granulates, aquaculture). (J.S.)

  14. MITAS-2009 Expedition, U.S. Beaufort Shelf and Slope—Lithostratigraphy Data Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K.; Johnson, J.E.; Phillips, S.C.; Smith, J.; Reed, A.; Disenhof, C.; Presley, J.

    2012-09-17

    The volume of methane released through the Arctic Ocean to the atmosphere and its potential role in the global climate cycle have increasingly become the focus of studies seeking to understand the source and origin of this methane. In 2009, an international, multi-disciplinary science party aboard the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Polar Sea successfully completed a trans-U.S. Beaufort Shelf expedition aimed at understanding the sources and volumes of methane across this region. Following more than a year of preliminary cruise planning and a thorough site evaluation, the Methane in the Arctic Shelf/Slope (MITAS) expedition departed from the waters off the coast of Barrow, Alaska in September 2009. The expedition was organized with an international shipboard science team consisting of 33 scientists with the breadth of expertise necessary to meet the expedition goals. NETL researchers led the expedition’s initial core processing and lithostratigraphic evaluations, which are the focus of this report. This data report is focused on the lithostratigraphic datasets from the recovered vibra cores and piston cores. Operational information about the piston and vibra cores such as date acquired, core name, total length, water depth, and geographic location is provided. Once recovered, gas samples were immediately collected from cores. In addition, each core was run through the Geotek multi-sensor core logger for magnetic susceptibility, P-wave velocity, resistivity, and gamma-density measurements (Rose et al., 2010). After the samples and measurements were completed, the cores were split into working and archive halves. Visual core descriptions of the archive half was completed for each core. Samples for shipboard smear slides, coarse fractions, and XRD analyses were collected, as well as corresponding samples for post-cruise grain size analysis from the working half of each core. Line scan images of the split core surfaces were collected post-expedition. The methods used to

  15. 20 CFR 404.926 - Agreement in expedited appeals process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations, Administrative Review Process, and Reopening of Determinations and Decisions Expedited Appeals Process § 404.926 Agreement in expedited appeals process. If you meet... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agreement in expedited appeals process. 404...

  16. 7 CFR 1703.112 - Expedited telecommunications loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited telecommunications loans 1703.112 Section... § 1703.112 Expedited telecommunications loans RUS will expedite consideration and determination of an application submitted by an RUS telecommunications borrower for a loan under the Act or an advance of such...

  17. LIFE iSEAS: Knowledge-Based Innovative Solutions to Enhance Adding-Value Mechanisms towards Healthy and Sustainable EU Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Isaac Perez-Martin

    2014-01-01

    Fishery Discards are one of the most important topics in fisheries management. Nowadays, there is a social agreement that perceives discards as very negative and that solutions have to be implemented in order to avoid the purposeless waste of these valuable biomass. It is a fact that any fishing operation has an unavoidable percentage of discards, from long-liners (2-10%) to trawlers (up to 90%). Sustainability is therefore a basic premise for the economic and social future of European fishe...

  18. Using the Expedition Leader Style Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Maurice L.; Phipps, Cynthia A.

    The Expedition Leader Style Analysis (ELSA) is an inventory designed to measure leadership style adaptability and effectiveness in terms of the situational leadership model. Situational leadership arose from the Experiential Leadership Education model, which is used in business and management, by replacing management jargon and phrases with…

  19. 49 CFR 385.105 - Expedited action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.105 Expedited action. (a) A Mexico-domiciled... driver who tests positive for controlled substances or alcohol or who refuses to submit to required controlled substances or alcohol tests. (6) Operating within the United States a motor vehicle that is not...

  20. Expedition medicine: A southern African perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the death of a celebrity and lack of helicopter rescue during the night on. Mount Kilimanjaro illustrates a pervasive lack of understanding of the local rescue capabilities in that area. The expedition medic must be au fait with available facilities on the ground, and help potential participants to understand the risks in relation to ...

  1. Expedition: Yellowstone! A Cooperative School Outreach Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Golia, Jack; And Others

    Designed to help upper elementary school teachers prepare for a class expedition to Yellowstone National Park, this workbook presents environmental learning activities that are also useful in schools too distant for an actual visit. Either way, the workbook aims to develop student appreciation of Yellowstone, the life in it, and the park's value…

  2. Strategies and Procedures for Expediting Election Petitions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    Strategies and Procedures for Expediting Election Petitions and Appeals. 323. In order to achieve expeditious resolution of electoral disputes, various attempts have been made using the rules of court to fast track election petitions. The most significant of all is the Practice Direction issued by the then president of the. Court of ...

  3. Raman Spectroscopy: an essential tool for future IODP expeditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andò, Sergio; Garzanti, Eduardo; Kulhanek, Denise K.

    2016-04-01

    , P., Garzanti, E., 2011. Raman counting: a new method to determine provenance of silt. Rend. Fis. Acc. Lincei, 22: 327-347. Andò, S., Garzanti, E., 2014. Raman spectroscopy in heavy-mineral studies. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 386 (1), 395-412. Blatt, H., (1985). Provenance studies and mudrocks. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 55 (1), 69-75. Borromeo, L., Zimmermann, U., Andò, S., Coletti, G., Bersani, D., Basso, D., Gentile, P., Garzanti, E., 2015. Raman Spectroscopy as a tool for magnesium estimation in Mg-calcite. Periodico di Mineralogia , ECMS, 35-36. France-Lanord, C., Spiess, V., Klaus, A., and the Expedition 354 Scientists, 2015. IODP, Exp. 354, Preliminary Report: Bengal Fan, Neogene and late Paleogene record of Himalayan orogeny and climate: a transect across the Middle Bengal Fan. Pandey, D.K., Clift, P.D., Kulhanek, D.K. and the Expedition 355 Scientists, 2015. IODP, Exp. 355, Preliminary Report: Arabian Sea Monsoon, Deep sea drilling in the Arabian Sea: constraining tectonic-monsoon interactions in South Asia.

  4. Nuclear installations in the baltic sea region and the stake holders cooperation: a crucial step towards energy security, environmental sustainability and political stability in the region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, M.; Mandere, N.; Olsson, L. [Lund Univ., Centre for Sustainability Studies (LUCSUS) (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    Radiation hazards are trans-boundary. The prevention of accidents must be managed locally. But the awareness, preparedness, and the responsibilities in the case of emergencies must be managed at the local and regional level, and must rely on close interaction between the local and regional levels. The Baltic Sea Region contains over 40 nuclear reactors contributing to energy security, but also posing a potential threat to human, environmental, and political security. The aim of this paper is to integrate the four fields of security: health, environment, energy, and political by analysing awareness, preparedness responsibility and decision making related to nuclear installations. With increasing political, economical, cultural and physical (in term of energy infrastructure) integration, the region needs to take a comprehensive approach to create adequate structure for managing risks and thereby promote security. (authors)

  5. Sea Basing Logistiek

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    flexibiliteit, dynamiek en configureerbaarheid afhankelijk van de missie behoefte is wat hen aanspreekt: ’Joint Sea Base is a frame of mind, not a...en dat tijdens de sustain fase selectief gelost kan worden, is bet van belang orn voorafgaand aan de close fase stil te staan bij de manier waarop

  6. Oligocene-Miocene Transition in the North Atlantic Interrupted by Warming: New Records from the Newfoundland Margin, IODP Expedition 342

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.; Liebrand, D.; van Peer, T. E.; Bohaty, S. M.; Friedrich, O.; Bornemann, A.; Blum, P.; Wilson, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    The beginning and end of the Oligocene epoch were marked by major Antarctic glaciation events. While the Eocene-Oligocene transition is known to have initiated sustained major ice sheets on Antarctica, the intensification of glaciation associated with the Oligocene-Miocene Transition (OMT) 23 Ma appears to have been ephemeral. The inference of rapid growth and then retreat of large Antarctic ice sheets on orbital time scales is difficult to reconcile with the strong hysteresis seen in the results of numerical ice sheet model experiments and the modest variability seen in published records of atmospheric CO2. A number of benthic foraminiferal proxy records have been generated at orbital resolution across the OMT, but high-resolution sea-surface records are sparse, particularly in the mid to high latitudes of the northern hemisphere, with none yet produced in the Atlantic Ocean. IODP Site 1406 (40°N, 3799 m water depth, Expedition 342: Newfoundland Sediment Drifts) recovered an interval spanning the OMT in the North Atlantic. We present planktic foraminiferal stable isotope data from this interval (23.5-22.5 Ma) with an average sample spacing of 2 kyrs. Our high-fidelity sea surface record benefits from exceptional `glassy' preservation of clay-hosted foraminifera. Variability in our record shows prominent 100 kyr eccentricity pacing (cycle amplitude typically >1.0 ‰ in δ18O and >0.6‰ in δ13C) and a strong precessional influence. Intriguingly, while the rise in δ18O associated with the OMT is fairly smooth in benthic records, our planktic data show that after over two-thirds of the total 1.6‰ rise in δ18O had already taken place, a 50 kyr recovery to pre-OMT δ18O values occured, preceeding a rapid transition to the OMT δ18O maximum. Our results demonstrate for the first time the North Atlantic sea surface response to OMT events. The structure in our new planktic stable isotope record differs markedly from that seen in published benthic records

  7. The Second International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Greg; Hood, Raleigh

    2015-04-01

    The International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) was one of the greatest international, interdisciplinary oceanographic research efforts of all time. Planning for the IIOE began in 1959 and the project officially continued through 1965, with forty-six research vessels participating under fourteen different flags. The IIOE motivated an unprecedented number of hydrographic surveys (and repeat surveys) over the course of the expedition covering the entire Indian Ocean basin. And it was an interdisciplinary endeavor that embraced physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, meteorology, marine biology, marine geology and geophysics. The end of 2015 will mark the 50th Anniversary of the completion of the IIOE. SCOR and the IOC are working to stimulate a new phase of coordinated international research focused on the Indian Ocean for a 5-year period beginning in late 2015 and continuing through 2020. The goal is to help to organize ongoing research and stimulate new initiatives in the 2015-2020 time frame as part of a larger expedition. Several International programs that have research ongoing or planned in the Indian Ocean during this time period and many countries are planning cruises in this time frame as well. These programs and national cruises will serve as a core for the new Indian Ocean research focus, which has been dubbed "IIOE-2." The overarching goal of the IIOE-2 is to advance our understanding of interactions between geological, oceanic and atmospheric processes that give rise to the complex physical dynamics of the Indian Ocean region, and to determine how those dynamics affect climate, extreme events, marine biogeochemical cycles, ecosystems and human populations. This understanding is required to predict the impacts of climate change, pollution, and increased fish harvesting on the Indian Ocean and its nations, as well as the influence of the Indian Ocean on other components of the Earth System. New understanding is also fundamental to policy makers for

  8. SMOS Sea Surface Salinity Validation in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yongzheng; Li, Xiaoming; Dong, Qing

    2013-01-01

    In November 2009, the European Space Agency (ESA) launched the first soil moisture and ocean salinity (SMOS) satellite, which represented the first use of spaceborne remote sensing tools to probe global sea surface salinity (SSS). The SMOS satellite carries a microwave imaging radiometer with aperture synthesis (MIRAS) for detection in the microwave L-band as the only payload. The MIRAS instrument is expected to provide a global SSS distribution with a spatial resolution of approximately 100 km and an accuracy of 0.1-0.2 practical salinity units (psu). The South China Sea is semi-enclosed, and the sea conditions are relatively complex. The suitability of ESA SMOS salinity products for the South China Sea has not been validated. Therefore, using SSS data measured during an expedition in the South China Sea, which was sponsored by China Natural Science Foundation and conducted in the fall of 2011, this paper validated the SSS products released by ESA, which were retrieved using three sea surface roughness models. To analyze the effect of the spatial resolution on the weekly average SMOS SSS distribution, the weekly average salinity data were averaged to reduce the spatial resolution to 0.25 ° x 0.25°. These average data were then compared to the measured data, followed by an analysis of the error variation. In addition, the effects of the orbital track (ascending or descending) on the SSS retrieval were analyzed.

  9. IODP Expeditions 303 and 306 Monitor Miocene- Quaternary Climate in the North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alvarez-Zarikian

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The IODP Expeditions 303 and 306 drilling sites were chosen for two reasons: (1 to capture Miocene-Quaternary millennial-scale climate variability in sensitive regions at the mouth of the Labrador Sea and in the North Atlantic icerafted debris (IRD belt (Ruddiman et al., 1977, and (2 to provide the sedimentary and paleomagnetic attributes, including adequate sedimentation rates, for constructinghigh-resolution isotopic and magnetic stratigraphies.High accumulation rates, reaching 20 cm ky-1, permit the study of millennial-scale variations in climate and in the Earth's magnetic fi eld over the past several million years, when the amplitude and frequency of climate variability changed substantially. Shipboard logging and scanning data (magnetic susceptibility and remanence, density, natural gamma radiation, digital images and color refl ectance and post-expedition x-ray fl uorescence (XRF scanning datahave revealed that the sediment cores recovered on Expeditions 303 and 306 contain detailed histories of millennial-scale climate and geomagnetic fi eld variability throughout the late Miocene to Quaternary epochs. The climate proxies will be integrated with paleomagnetic data to place the records of millennial-scale climate change into a high resolution stratigraphy based on oxygen isotope andrelative paleomagnetic intensity (RPI. The paleomagnetic record of polarity reversals, excursions and RPI in these cores is central to the construction of the stratigraphic template and will provide detailed documentation of geomagnetic fi eld behavior.

  10. Expedition Two crew inspects airlock in SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Inside the air lock in the Space Station Processing Facility, the Expedition Two crew look at equipment. Seen from left are cosmonaut Yury Usachev, a technician, and astronauts Susan Helms and James Voss. At far right is astronaut John Young, who flew on mission STS-1. Usachev, Helms and Voss will be flying on mission STS-102, launching March 8. The air lock will be carried to the Station during their tenure in space. STS-102 will be Helms' and Voss's fifth Shuttle flight, and Usachev's second. They will be replacing the Expedition One crew (Bill Shepherd, Yuri Gidzenko and Sergei Krikalev), who will return to Earth March 20 on Discovery along with the STS-102 crew.

  11. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Jon C; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A; Steffensen, John F

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3) there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (U sus) and minimum cost of transport (COTmin); and (4) variation in U sus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (U opt; i.e., the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance traveled). Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg(-1). Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between U crit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced U crit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between U sus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between U sus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high U sus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between U sus and U opt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming

  12. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Jon C.; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; Ucrit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3) there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (Usus) and minimum cost of transport (COTmin); and (4) variation in Usus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (Uopt; i.e., the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance traveled). Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg−1. Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between Ucrit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced Ucrit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between Usus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between Usus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high Usus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between Usus and Uopt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming economy and

  13. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Christian Svendsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata, both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: 1 gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e. burst-assisted swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC; 2 variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; Ucrit correlates with metabolic scope (MS or anaerobic capacity (i.e. maximum EPOC; 3 there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (Usus and minimum cost of transport (COTmin; and 4 variation in Usus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (Uopt; i.e. the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance travelled. Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e. EPOC increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg-1. Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis, a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between Ucrit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced Ucrit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between Usus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between Usus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high Usus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between Usus and Uopt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming economy and optimum

  14. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mavis Dora

    2012-01-01

    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  15. Oceanographic data collected during the HB1204 (Deep-Sea Corals and Benthic Habitats in Northeast Deepwater Canyons) expedition on NOAA Ship Henry Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean between 2012-07-03 to 2012-07-18 (NCEI Accession 0097966)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A multi-disciplinary team of scientists on the Henry Bigelow HB1204 mission surveyed and ground-truthed known or suspected deep-sea coral habitats associated with...

  16. MaNIDA: Integration of marine expedition information, data and publications: Data Portal of German Marine Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppe, Roland; Scientific MaNIDA-Team

    2013-04-01

    The Marine Network for Integrated Data Access (MaNIDA) aims to build a sustainable e-infrastructure to support discovery and re-use of marine data from distinct data providers in Germany (see related abstracts in session ESSI 1.2). In order to provide users integrated access and retrieval of expedition or cruise metadata, data, services and publications as well as relationships among the various objects, we are developing (web) applications based on state of the art technologies: the Data Portal of German Marine Research. Since the German network of distributed content providers have distinct objectives and mandates for storing digital objects (e.g. long-term data preservation, near real time data, publication repositories), we have to cope with heterogeneous metadata in terms of syntax and semantic, data types and formats as well as access solutions. We have defined a set of core metadata elements which are common to our content providers and therefore useful for discovery and building relationships among objects. Existing catalogues for various types of vocabularies are being used to assure the mapping to community-wide used terms. We distinguish between expedition metadata and continuously harvestable metadata objects from distinct data providers. • Existing expedition metadata from distinct sources is integrated and validated in order to create an expedition metadata catalogue which is used as authoritative source for expedition-related content. The web application allows browsing by e.g. research vessel and date, exploring expeditions and research gaps by tracklines and viewing expedition details (begin/end, ports, platforms, chief scientists, events, etc.). Also expedition-related objects from harvesting are dynamically associated with expedition information and presented to the user. Hence we will provide web services to detailed expedition information. • Other harvestable content is separated into four categories: archived data and data products, near

  17. Spatial Distribution of Methanesulphonic Acid in the Arctic Aerosol Collected during the Chinese Arctic Research Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipei Ye

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Methanesulphonic acid (MSA, mainly derived from marine biogenic emissions has been frequently used to estimate the marine biogenic contribution. However, there are few reports on MSA over the Arctic Ocean, especially the central Arctic Ocean. Here, we analyzed MSA in aerosol samples collected over the ocean and seas during the Chinese Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE 2012 using ion chromatography. The aerosol MSA concentrations over the Arctic Ocean varied considerably and ranged from non-detectable (ND to 229 ng/m3, with an average of 27 ± 54 ng/m3 (median: 10 ng/m3. We found the distribution of aerosol MSA exhibited an obvious regional variation, which was affected by biotic and abiotic factors. High values were generally observed in the Norwegian Sea; this phenomenon was attributed to high rates of phytoplankton primary productivity and dimethylsulfide (DMS fluxes in this region. Concentrations over the pack ice region in the central Arctic Ocean were generally lower than over the open waters at the ice edge in the Chukchi Sea. This difference was the mainly caused by sea ice. In addition, we found that higher MSA concentrations were associated with warmer sea surface temperature (SST.

  18. Behavioral Issues Associated With Long Duration Space Expeditions: Review and Analysis of Astronaut Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struster, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Personal journals maintained by NASA astronauts during six-month expeditions onboard the International Space Station were analyzed to obtain information concerning a wide range of behavioral and human factors issues. Astronauts wrote most about their work, followed by outside communications (with mission control, family, and friends), adjustment to the conditions, interactions with crew mates, recreation/leisure, equipment (installation, maintenance), events (launches, docking, hurricanes, etc.), organization/management, sleep, and food. The study found evidence of a decline in morale during the third quarters of the missions and identified key factors that contribute to sustained adjustment and optimal performance during long-duration space expeditions. Astronauts reported that they benefited personally from writing in their journals because it helped maintain perspective on their work and relations with others. Responses to questions asked before, during, and after the expeditions show that living and working onboard the ISS is not as difficult as the astronauts anticipate before starting their six-month tours of duty. Recommendations include application of study results and continuation of the experiment to obtain additional data as crew size increases and operations evolve.

  19. Sound-scattering layers of the Black Sea based on ADCP observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A. N.; Lemeshko, E. M.; Fedorov, S. V.

    2017-09-01

    The paper discusses the results of expeditions to the northwestern part of the Black Sea carried out in 2004-2008. Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) with an operating frequency of 150 and 300 kHz were used as the echo sounders. The characteristic scales of the spatial variability of sound scattering in the Black Sea were determined; the revealed peculiarities are interpreted. The characteristics of a deep soundscattering layer in the Black Sea are given.

  20. Biological results of the Snellius expedition. XXIV. Pelagic Tunicates of the Snellius expedition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tokioka, T.

    1974-01-01

    Eleven samples of pelagic tunicates were found in the material collected during the Snellius Expedition 1929-30. In these, seven species, viz., two pyrosomas and five salpas, are included. In addition, a few old specimens of another species of Pyrosoma were found in the collection of the Leiden

  1. In situ phytoplankton distributions in the Amundsen Sea Polynya measured by autonomous gliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Schofield

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Amundsen Sea Polynya is characterized by large phytoplankton blooms, which makes this region disproportionately important relative to its size for the biogeochemistry of the Southern Ocean. In situ data on phytoplankton are limited, which is problematic given recent reports of sustained change in the Amundsen Sea. During two field expeditions to the Amundsen Sea during austral summer 2010–2011 and 2014, we collected physical and bio-optical data from ships and autonomous underwater gliders. Gliders documented large phytoplankton blooms associated with Antarctic Surface Waters with low salinity surface water and shallow upper mixed layers (< 50 m. High biomass was not always associated with a specific water mass, suggesting the importance of upper mixed depth and light in influencing phytoplankton biomass. Spectral optical backscatter and ship pigment data suggested that the composition of phytoplankton was spatially heterogeneous, with the large blooms dominated by Phaeocystis and non-bloom waters dominated by diatoms. Phytoplankton growth rates estimated from field data (≤ 0.10 day−1 were at the lower end of the range measured during ship-based incubations, reflecting both in situ nutrient and light limitations. In the bloom waters, phytoplankton biomass was high throughout the 50-m thick upper mixed layer. Those biomass levels, along with the presence of colored dissolved organic matter and detritus, resulted in a euphotic zone that was often < 10 m deep. The net result was that the majority of phytoplankton were light-limited, suggesting that mixing rates within the upper mixed layer were critical to determining the overall productivity; however, regional productivity will ultimately be controlled by water column stability and the depth of the upper mixed layer, which may be enhanced with continued ice melt in the Amundsen Sea Polynya.

  2. Sustainable agriculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lichtfouse, Eric

    2009-01-01

    ... : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 Part I CLIMATE CHANGE Soils and Sustainable Agriculture: A Review : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Rattan Lal 15 Soils and Food Sufficiency...

  3. Student Experiences: the 2013 Cascadia Initiative Expedition Team's Apply to Sail Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, H.; Hooft, E. E.; Fattaruso, L.

    2013-12-01

    During the summer of 2013, the Cascadia Initiative Expedition Team led six oceanographic expeditions to recover and redeploy ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) across the Cascadia subduction zone and Juan de Fuca plate. The Cascadia Initiative (CI) is an onshore/offshore seismic and geodetic experiment to study questions ranging from megathrust earthquakes to volcanic arc structure to the formation, deformation and hydration of the Juan de Fuca and Gorda plates with the overarching goal of understanding the entire subduction zone system. The Cascadia Initiative Expedition Team is a team of scientists charged with leading the oceanographic expeditions to deploy and recover CI OBSs and developing the associated Education and Outreach effort. Students and early career scientists were encouraged to apply to join the cruises via the Cascadia Initiative Expedition Team's Apply to Sail Program. The goal of this call for open participation was to help expand the user base of OBS data by providing opportunities for students and scientists to directly experience at-sea acquisition of OBS data. Participants were required to have a strong interest in learning field techniques, be willing to work long hours at sea assisting in OBS deployment, recovery and preliminary data processing and have an interest in working with the data collected. In total, there were 51 applicants to the Apply to Sail Program from the US and 4 other countries; 21 graduate students as well as a few undergraduate students, postdocs and young scientists from the US and Canada were chosen to join the crew. The cruises lasted from 6 to 14 days in length. OBS retrievals comprised the three first legs, of which the first two were aboard the Research Vessel Oceanus. During each of the retrievals, multiple acoustic signals were sent while the vessel completed a semi-circle around the OBS to accurately determine its position, a final signal was sent to drop the seismometer's anchor, and finally the ship and crew

  4. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  5. 8 CFR 235.3 - Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal. 235.3 Section 235.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.3 Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal. (a) Detention...

  6. 12 CFR 229.55 - Expedited recredit for banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited recredit for banks. 229.55 Section 229.55 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE... Expedited recredit for banks. (a) Circumstances giving rise to a claim. A bank that has an indemnity claim...

  7. Earth Expeditions: Telling the stories of eight NASA field campaigns by focusing on the human side of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, S.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Earth Right Now communication team kicked off an ambitious multimedia campaign in March 2016 to tell the stories of eight major field campaigns studying regions of critical change from the land, sea and air. Earth Expeditions focused on the human side of science, with live reporting from the field, behind-the-scenes images and videos, and extended storytelling over a six-month period. We reported from Greenland to Namibia, from the eastern United States to the South Pacific. Expedition scientists explored ice sheets, air quality, coral reefs, boreal forests, marine ecosystems and greenhouse gases. All the while the campaign communications team was generating everything from blog posts and social media shareables, to Facebook Live events and a NASA TV series. We also participated in community outreach events and pursued traditional media opportunities. A massive undertaking, we will share lessons learned, best practices for social media and some of our favorite moments when science communication touched our audience's lives.

  8. Social interaction and pain: An arctic expedition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Per; Heathcote, Lauren C; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie

    2017-11-08

    Complex human behaviour can only be understood within its social environment. However, disentangling the causal links between individual outcomes and social network position is empirically challenging. We present a research design in a closed real-world setting with high-resolution temporal data to understand this interplay within a fundamental human experience - physical pain. Study participants completed an isolated 3-week hiking expedition in the Arctic Circle during which they were subject to the same variation in environmental conditions and only interacted amongst themselves. Adolescents provided daily ratings of pain and social interaction partners. Using longitudinal network models, we analyze the interplay between social network position and the experience of pain. Specifically, we test whether experiencing pain is linked to decreasing popularity (increasing isolation), whether adolescents prefer to interact with others experiencing similar pain (homophily), and whether participants are increasingly likely to report similar pain as their interaction partners (contagion). We find that reporting pain is associated with decreasing popularity - interestingly, this effect holds for males only. Further exploratory analyses suggest this is at least partly driven by males withdrawing from contact with females when in pain, enhancing our understanding of pain and masculinity. Contrary to recent experimental and clinical studies, we found no evidence of pain homophily or contagion in the expedition group. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Technical procedures for aeromagnetic surveys in Antarctica during the Italian expeditions (1988-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Damaske

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available For most of Antarctica, the geophysical data now available are those of aeromagnetic surveys performed there from 1950 to 1960. Until 1984, the inaccurate positioning and insufficient monitoring of geomagnetic time variations allowed the investigation of the geomagnetic residual field only along profiles. The Ganovex IV aeromagnetic survey, performed by BGR-USGS over the Ross Sea and the Northern Victoria Land, and the geophysical investigations of BAS on the Southern Antarctic peninsula and the Ronne ice shelf region corresponds to the recent advancement of these techniques in Antarctica. The first experiments of aeromagnetic measurements, during the Italian expeditions in Antarctica were made during the 1988-1989 field season. Some geomagnetic helicopter borne profiles were accomplished with a Proton Precession Magnetometer (PPM in the Terra Nova Bay-Gerlache Inlet area. In the 1989-1990 ItaliAntartide expedition some profiles were flown over the suture between the Wilson and Bower terranes, in Northern Victoria Land. During the 1991-1992 expedition, in cooperation with researchers of BGR (Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe of Hannover, the GITARA I (German ITalian Aeromagnetic Rescarch Antarctica program, as part of the LIRA (Litospheric Investigation in the Ross Sea Area project, was carried out. The investigated area lies between the latitudes 74°18' S and 75°18' S and the longitudes 160°30' E and 164°30'E and it corresponds to a portion of the North Victoria Land, located between the Eisenhower Range and the, DrygaIski Ice Tongue. The survey was made with a Cesium vapour magnetometer. The positioning system was of the “Range-Range” type, it consisted of three transmitters (beacons, installed inside the investigated area and located with GPS measurements. The line spacing was 4.4 km, with tie lines every 22 km. The survey covered an area of 6500 km2 . Four PPM base stations for the determination of the time variation

  10. Strategic Mobility 21 Joint Sea Based Logistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mallon, Lawrence G

    2008-01-01

    ...-be requirements. The objective of the SM2l-JDDSP sea based logistics architecture is to support the timely distribution of the right classes of supply in sufficient quantities to allow sustained joint combat operations...

  11. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...

  12. Organic iodine in Antarctic sea ice: A comparison between winter in the Weddell Sea and summer in the Amundsen Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granfors, Anna; Ahnoff, Martin; Mills, Matthew M.; Abrahamsson, Katarina

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have recognized sea ice as a source of reactive iodine to the Antarctic boundary layer. Volatile iodinated compounds (iodocarbons) are released from sea ice, and they have been suggested to contribute to the formation of iodine oxide (IO), which takes part in tropospheric ozone destruction in the polar spring. We measured iodocarbons (CH3I, CH2ClI, CH2BrI, and CH2I2) in sea ice, snow, brine, and air during two expeditions to Antarctica, OSO 10/11 to the Amundsen Sea during austral summer and ANT XXIX/6 to the Weddell Sea in austral winter. These are the first reported measurements of iodocarbons from the Antarctic winter. Iodocarbons were enriched in sea ice in relation to seawater in both summer and winter. During summer, the positive relationship to chlorophyll a biomass indicated a biological origin. We suggest that CH3I is formed biotically in sea ice during both summer and winter. For CH2ClI, CH2BrI, and CH2I2, an additional abiotic source at the snow/ice interface in winter is suggested. Elevated air concentrations of CH3I and CH2ClI during winter indicate that they are enriched in lower troposphere and may take part in the formation of IO at polar sunrise.

  13. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  14. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  15. Mathematics in narratives of Geodetic expeditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrall, Mary

    2006-12-01

    In eighteenth-century France, geodesy (the measure of the earth's shape) became an arena where mathematics and narrative intersected productively. Mathematics played a crucial role not only in the measurements and analysis necessary to geodesy but also in the narrative accounts that presented the results of elaborate and expensive expeditions to the reading public. When they returned to France to write these accounts after their travels, mathematician-observers developed a variety of ways to display numbers and mathematical arguments and techniques. The numbers, equations, and diagrams they produced could not be separated from the story of their acquisition. Reading these accounts for the interplay of these two aspects--the mathematical and the narrative--shows how travelers articulated the intellectual and physical difficulties of their work to enhance the value of their results for specialist and lay readers alike.

  16. Linking downhole logging data with geology and drilling /coring operations - Example from Chicxulub Expedition 364.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofi, Johanna; Smith, Dave; Delahunty, Chris; Le Ber, Erwan; Mellet, Claire; Brun, Laurent; Henry, Gilles; Paris, Jehanne

    2017-04-01

    Expedition 364 was a joint IODP/ICDP mission specific platform expedition to explore the Chicxulub impact crater buried below the Yucatán continental shelf. In April and May 2016, our Expedition drilled a single borehole at Site M0077A into the crater's peak ring. It allowed recovering 303 excellent quality cores from 505.7 to 1334.7 meters below sea floor and acquiring more than 5.8 km of high resolution open hole logs. Downhole logs are rapidly collected, continuous with depth, and measured in situ; these data are classically interpreted in terms of stratigraphy, lithology, porosity, fluid content, geochemical composition and structure of the formation drilled. Downhole logs also allow assessing borehole quality (eg. shape and trajectory), and can provide assistance for decision support during drilling operations. In this work, Expedition 364 downhole logs are used to improve our understanding of the drilling/coring operation history. Differentiating between natural geological features and borehole artifacts are also critical for data quality assessment. The set of downhole geophysical tools used during Expedition 364 was constrained by the scientific objectives, drilling/coring technique, hole conditions and temperature at the drill site. Wireline logging data were acquired with slimline tools in three logging phases at intervals 0-503, 506-699 and 700-1334 mbsf. Logs were recorded either with standalone logging tools or, for the first time in IODP, with stackable slimline tools. Log data included total gamma radiation, sonic velocity, acoustic and optical borehole images, resistivity, conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, caliper and borehole fluid parameters. The majority of measurements were performed in open borehole conditions. During the drilling operations some problems were encountered directly linked to the geology of the drilled formation. For example, two zones of mud circulation losses correlate in depth with the presence of karst cavities or open

  17. Increasing Shore-based Participation of Scientists & Students in Telepresence-enabled Nautilus Expeditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K. L. C.; Raineault, N.; Carey, S.; Eberli, G. P.; John, B. E.; Cheadle, M. J.; German, C. R.; Mirmalek, Z.; Pallant, A.

    2016-02-01

    As the US oceanographic research fleet shrinks, reducing seagoing opportunities for scientists and students, remote participation in cruises via telepresence will become increasingly vital. The Nautilus Exploration Program is improving the experience of shoreside participants through the development of new tools and methodologies for connecting them to expeditions in real time increasing accessibility to oceanographic cruises. The Scientist Ashore Program is a network of scientists around the world who participate in Exploration Vessel Nautilus expeditions from their own labs or homes. We have developed a suite of collaboration tools to allow scientists to view video and data in real time, as well as to communicate with ship-based and other shore-based participants to enable remote participation in cruises. Post-cruise, scientists and students may access digital data and biological and geological samples from our partner shore-based repositories: the University of Rhode Island Inner Space Center, Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology, and URI Marine Geological Samples Lab. We present examples of successful shore-based participation by scientists and students in Nautilus expeditions. In 2013, Drs. Cheadle and John stood watch 24/7 with ten undergraduate and graduate students at the University of Wyoming, recording geologic features and samples, during a cruise to the Cayman Rise. The Straits of Florida & Great Bahama Bank cruise was co-led by Dr. Eberli at the University of Miami in 2014, greatly complementing existing data. That same year, the ISC hosted four early career scientists and their twelve undergraduate students who led dives from shore in collaboration with Dr. Carey, Lead Scientist at sea on the Kick'em Jenny Volcano & the Barbados Mud Volcanoes cruise. In 2015, 12 Scientists Ashore worked in collaboration with the ship-based team on the exploration of Galapagos National Park, and more than 20 are working with OET on post-cruise data & sample analysis.

  18. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...

  19. Sustaining dairy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villarreal Herrera, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    Dairy in Europe has undergone many changes in the last few years—the abolition of milk production quotas being a fundamental one. This study explores these changes in relation to the sustained social and environmental viability of the sector and how dairy processors' sustainability

  20. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    . Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...... campus performance....

  1. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...

  2. Sustainable Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadwell, Louise; Dillon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Green schools have moved into a new era that focuses on building a culture of sustainability in every aspect of learning in schools. In the early stages of sustainability education, the focus was on recycling and turning off the lights. Now, students and adults together are moving into the areas of advocacy and action that are based on a deep…

  3. The Twelfth Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica: Events and achievements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    The twelfth Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica comprising 56 members coming from different scientific organisations/institutions and the logistic contingent from three wings of defense services was flagged off by Shri Ravi Naik, Honourable...

  4. Biological results of the Snellius expedition : XXIX. Echinodermata, Asteroidea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jangoux, M.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-eight species of starfish were collected during the Snellius Expedition (19291930). The collection contains seven rare or uncommon species, i.e., Astropecten novaeguineae, A. sumbawanus, Celerina heffernani, Fromia eusticha, Disasterina abnormalis, Nepanthia briareus and Echinaster

  5. Field Science Ethnography: Methods For Systematic Observation on an Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Haughton-Mars expedition is a multidisciplinary project, exploring an impact crater in an extreme environment to determine how people might live and work on Mars. The expedition seeks to understand and field test Mars facilities, crew roles, operations, and computer tools. I combine an ethnographic approach to establish a baseline understanding of how scientists prefer to live and work when relatively unemcumbered, with a participatory design approach of experimenting with procedures and tools in the context of use. This paper focuses on field methods for systematically recording and analyzing the expedition's activities. Systematic photography and time-lapse video are combined with concept mapping to organize and present information. This hybrid approach is generally applicable to the study of modern field expeditions having a dozen or more multidisciplinary participants, spread over a large terrain during multiple field seasons.

  6. Density of pack-ice seals and penguins in the western Weddell Sea in relation to ice thickness and ocean depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florentino De Souza Silva, A.P.; Haas, C.; Franeker, van J.A.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2008-01-01

    Aerial band transect censuses were carried out parallel with ice thickness profiling surveys in the pack ice of the western Weddell Sea during the ISPOL (Ice Station POLarstern) expedition of R.V. Polarstern from November 2004 to January 2005. Three regions were surveyed: the deep sea of the Weddell

  7. The Xanthophyceae and Chlorophyceae of the Western Ross Sea, Victoria Land, Antarctica and Macquarie Island collected under the direction of Prof. Dr. J. S. Zaneveld (1963—1967)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, H.P.; Zaneveld, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    During the austral summer seasons of 1963-1964 and 1964-1965, and during the austral winter season of 1967 Prof. Dr. J.S. Zaneveld made collection expeditions to the western Ross Sea. In 1965 collections were also made from the U.S.C.G. icebreaker ‘Glacier’, around the western Ross Sea and around

  8. Problems in the Optimization of Manned Interplanetary Expeditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiforenko, B. N.; Vasil'Ev, I. Yu.

    Within the scope of the unified variation problem the authors discuss the optimization of parameters, choosing flight trajectories and optimal flight control as well as control of life support systems in spacecraft in manned interplanetary expeditions. They examine the efficiency of ejecting the life support systems waste by jets from high-thrust rocket engines as compared to partial waste regeneration. They confirm the possibility of manned expeditions to Mars before efficient life support systems based on biological regeneration are developed.

  9. The Arctic Ocean Then and Now: Preliminary Hydrographic Data from the 2015 US GEOTRACES Arctic Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, J. H.; Kadko, D. C.; Smethie, W. M., Jr.; Becker, S. M.; Barna, A.; Cummiskey, J.; Gum, J.; Miller, M. T.; Schatzman, C.

    2016-02-01

    The US GEOTRACES Arctic Expedition on USCGC Healy, August-October 2015, offers the opportunity to compare high-quality, full water column temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and nutrient data from the Canadian sector of the Arctic Ocean with data from the 1994 Makarov Basin crossing from CCGS Louis S. St-Laurent (working with USCGC Polar Sea) and the 2005 Canada Basin transect from Icebreaker Oden (working with the Healy). Supplementary 2015 cruise funding for full-depth profiles for the US Global Ocean Carbon and Repeat Hydrography program and deployment of XCTDs and XBTs are being used to improve lateral resolution along the GEOTRACES track. This will allow identification of mesoscale features (e.g. eddies), improving interpretation of hydrographic and chemical data. The GEOTRACES track overlaps with those of the two previous cruises, thus, in addition to presenting the new hydrographic data, we will show and discuss the differences over the 10- and 20-year intervals between the cruises.

  10. Biofuels and Sustainable Development: An Executive Session on the Grand Challenges of the Sustainability Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Henry [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Clark, William C. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Devereaux, Charan [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2008-05-20

    This report is the result of the second in a series of intense workshops and study sessions on Grand Challenges of the Sustainability Transition, organized by the Sustainability Science Program at Harvard University, hosted by Venice International University, and supported by the Italian Ministry of Environment, Land and Sea.

  11. Saba Bank research expedition 2011 - Progress Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van I.J.M.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2013-01-01

    The Saba Bank is a large submerged carbonate platform of approximately 2,200 km2 in the Caribbean Sea which lies partially within the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Netherlands and partially within the territorial waters of Saba and St. Eustatius. The Saba Bank research program aims to obtain

  12. Saba Bank research expedition 2013 - Progress Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van I.J.M.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    The Saba Bank is the largest submerged carbonate platform of 2,200 km2 in the Caribbean Sea, which lies partially within the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Netherlands and partially within the territorial waters of Saba and St. Eustatius. The Saba Bank houses an expansive coral reef ecosystem with a

  13. Studies on thermophysical properties at New Jersey Shallow Shelf (IODP Expedition 313)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, A.; Pechnig, R.; Inwood, J.; LOFI, J.; Bosch, F. P.; Clauser, C.

    2011-12-01

    The IODP drilling expedition 313 New Jersey Shallow Shelf was proposed for obtaining deep sub-seafloor samples and downhole logging measurements in the crucial inner shelf region.The inner to central shelf off-shore New Jersey is an ideal location for studying the history of sea-level changes and its relationship to sequence stratigraphy and onshore/offshore groundwater flows. The region features rapid depositional rates, tectonic stability, and well-preserved, cosmopolitan age control fossils suitable for characterizing the sediments of this margin throughout the time interval of interest. Past sea-level rise and fall is documented in sedimentary layers deposited during Earth's history. In addition, the inner shelf is characterised by relatively fresh pore water intervals alternating vertically with saltier intervals (Mountain et al., 2010). Therefore, three boreholes were drilled in the so-called New Jersey/Mid-Atlantic transect during IODP Expedition 313 New Jersey Shallow Shelf. Numerous questions have arisen concerning the age and origin of the brackish waters recovered offshore at depth. Here we present an analysis of thermophysical properties to be used as input parameters in constructing numerical models for future groundwater flow simulations. Our study is based mainly on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements for inferring porosity and permeability, and thermal conductivity. We performed NMR measurements on samples from boreholes M0027A, M0028A and M0029A and thermal conductivity measurements on the whole round cores prior to the Onshore Party. These results are compared with data from alternative laboratory measurements and with petrophysical properties inferred from downhole logging data.

  14. World as The Biggest Clasroom. Travel as The Best Lesson. Independent Scientific School Expeditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksik, Ireneusz; Lorek, Grzegorz; Dacy-Ignatiuk, Katarzyna

    2013-04-01

    We are a group of teachers from Poland who think that classroom lessons are not enough for our pupils to understand the world. We had a dream to take our students and show them the most beautiful places and phenomena on the Earth. But how to do it? Though today's travelling is so easy as never before, there are still some problems for young Poles - not only funding but also philosophy of travelling. It looks that we found a solution a few years ago - why not to organise quite independent school scientific expeditions? Without travel agencies and agents we can reduce costs of travelling 2-3 times! And we did it! We buy cheap flight tickets, fly to our destination and then... we must manage with all problems ourselves. We sleep in tents or budget hostels, use local means of transport and eat food from cheap markets or street eating places. Our motto is: "To see as much as possible for the minimum money". There are many more advantages - we decide where to go and how much time we spend in one area, we can change our route in every moment if something appears worth seeing. Our small groups are very mobile, sometimes local people invite us to visit their houses (like in Iran or Morocco). Expeditions allow students to watch, feel, touch, taste and smell phenomena, places and organisms which they could only read about in a classroom and to understand people from other cultures and religions. The list of nature and culture jewels that we have already seen is still growing - sands and oasis of Sahara, snow peaks of Himalayas, salt waters of Caspian Sea in Iran, geysers, volcanoes and glaciers of Iceland, the biggest sea birds colonies and whales in the North Atlantic, ancient cities - Fez, Marrakesh, Esfahan, Varanasi and Yazd.

  15. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  16. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs......” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resources. While growth has delivered benefits, however, it has done so unequally and unsustainably. This thesis focuses...... on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...

  17. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  18. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  19. Sustainable responsibilities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2015-01-01

    This working paper analyzes the conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development in EU policies on CSR. The notion of corporate responsibility has until recently been limited to economical and legal responsibilities. Based on this narrow conception of corporate responsibility.......e. a combination of destruction and construction, this chapter will deconstruct conceptions of responsibility for sustainable development in these EU documents on CSR. A deconstructive conceptual analysis involves destructing dominant interpretations of a text and allowing for constructions of alternative...... such as sustainability actually means, but on what the concept says and does not say. A deconstructive analysis of EU policies on CSR, then, pinpoints that such policies are sites of conceptual struggles. This kind of analysis is suitable for studying conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development...

  20. Agriculture: Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  1. Lithuanian Cluster of Sea Economics – Instrument of Sustainable Regional Development Lietuvos jūrų ūkio klasteris – darnios regiono plėtros instrumentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Grublienė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The article analyses problems of cluster’s formation in Lithuania. The reasons why clusters in Lithuania are evolving slowly are described in this article. Also cluster’s development process in a logical sequence is submitted. The article accented that the Lithuanian cluster’s policy principles should assess the specific Lithuanian conditions, the positive foreign experience and strategic objectives of competitiveness.Lithuanian status of fisheries sector is estimated. Also the main problems in this sector are named: complexity of management, decreasing of fishing quota, shorter season of cod fishing, economic problems. The article made assumptions that the clustering process should ensure more sustainable development of the sector, a new operational quality creating the ability to compete at lower prices and innovation. Also it was emphasized that clustering processes should assess such factors as: sector’s culture, competitive opportunities and sustainable development of the region.During formation of this cluster it is recommended to assess the fisheries sector as the component of Lithuanian maritime economy. Lithuanian maritime cluster should be developed allowing for common features inherent in clusters, assessing sustainable development principles of the sector. In this way Lithuanian maritime cluster combines not only the fisheries sector but also the activities characterized by Lithuanian maritime economy.

    Keywords: cluster, sea economics, regional development, fisheries sector.

    Sustainable finance

    OpenAIRE

    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence Sustainable Business Administration & Management Accounting, Financial Leadership and what is the importance of CSR in the financial sector

  2. The German-Tanzanian Tendaguru Expedition 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-D. Heinrich

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The celebrated fossil locality of Tendaguru (Tanzania, East Africa has been well known for its unique Late Jurassic dinosaur assemblages since the early decades of the 20th century. Recently, within the scope of the German-Tanzanian Tendaguru project, an expedition returned to Tendaguru with the aim of collecting microvertebrates, micro- and macroinvertebrates, plant fossils and new sedimentological and stratigraphical data. Applying a multidisciplinary research approach, the data collected were used to address various controversial issues regarding the Tendaguru Beds. These include their exact age, depositional environments and reconstructions of the palaeoecosystems in which the dinosaurs lived. Field work resulted in a new standard section for the Tendaguru Beds. Preliminary biostratigraphic results, based on ammonites, charophytes and palynomorphs, support a Late Kimmeridgian age for the Nerinea Bed, an early Tithonian age for the Trigonia smeei Bed, and an Early Cretaceous (possibly Valanginian to Hauterivian age for the Trigonia schwarzi Bed. Facies analysis of the Tendaguru Beds indicates environments ranging from storm- and tide-influenced, siliciclastic coastal barrier systems, ooid sand bar complexes and backbarrier tidal flats to sabkha-like coastal plains with brackish lakes and pools. Sedimentological indicators of palaeoclimate and palynological data point to a subtropical to tropical climate with pronounced dry seasons. In concert with sedimentological data, quantitative palaeoecological analysis of macroinvertebrates helped to finetune understanding of environmental factors such as substrate conditions, salinity, sedimentation rate and water depth. Along with abundant microvertebrate remains and fragments of fusain and cuticles, these new data have considerably improved our knowledge of the fauna and flora found in the Tendaguru Beds, and provide a solid basis for developing a better understanding of the Late Jurassic and Early

  3. Sodium dichromate expedited response action assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) perform an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill. The ERA lead regulatory agency is Ecology and EPA is the support agency. The ERA was categorized as non-time-critical, which required preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA). The EE/CA was included in the ERA proposal. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the removal action may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. This ERA process started in March 1992. The ERA proposal went through a parallel review process with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE Richland Operations (RL), EPA, Ecology, and a 30-day public comment period. Ecology and EPA issued an Action Agreement Memorandum in March 1993 (Appendix A). The memorandum directed excavation of all anomalies and disposal of the collected materials at the Hanford Site Central Landfill. Primary field activities were completed by the end of April 1993. Final waste disposal of a minor quantity of hazardous waste was completed in July 1993.

  4. N Springs expedited response action proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Since signing the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in 1989, the parties to the agreement have recognized the need to modify the approach to conducting investigations, studies, and cleanup actions at Hanford. To implement this approach, the parties have jointly developed the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy. The strategy defines a non-time-critical expedited response action (ERA) as a response action ``needed to abate a threat to human health or welfare or the environment where sufficient time exists for formal planning prior to initiation of response. In accordance with the past-practice strategy, DOE proposes to conduct an ERA at the N Springs, located in the Hanford 100 N Area, to substantially reduce the strontium-90 transport into the river through the groundwater pathway. The purpose of this ERA proposal is to provide sufficient information to select a preferred alternative at N Springs. The nature of an ERA requires that alternatives developed for the ERA be field ready; therefore, all the technologies proposed for the ERA should be capable of addressing the circumstances at N Springs. A comparison of these alternatives is made based on protectiveness, cost, technical feasibility, and institutional considerations to arrive at a preferred alternative. Following the selection of an alternative, a design phase will be conducted; the design phase will include a detailed look at design parameters, performance specifications, and costs of the selected alternative. Testing will be conducted as required to generate design data.

  5. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda STEG

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses possible contributions of psychologists to sustainable transportation. It is argued that in order to reach sustainable transportation, among others, behaviour changes of individual car users are needed. As transport policies will be more effective if they target important antecedents of travel behaviour, first, factors influencing such behaviour are discussed. It is argued that car use is very attractive and sometimes even necessary for many different reasons. This implies that a combination of policies is called for, each targeting different factors that support car use and hinder the use of more sustainable modes of transport. Next, the paper elaborates on policy strategies that may be employed to achieve sustainable transportation by changing car use. Increasing the attractiveness of sustainable transport modes by means of pull measures seems not sufficient to reduce the level of car use. Besides, car use should be made less attractive by means of push measures to force drivers to reconsider their travel behaviour. The acceptability of such policies may be increased by clearly communicating the aim of these policies, and the expected positive consequences (e.g., less congestion, improved environmental quality. Moreover, possible negative effects for individual freedom may be compensated by implementing additional policies aimed at facilitating the use of sustainable transport modes.

  6. Bothid larvae (Pleuronectiformes - Pisces) of the Gulf of Thailand and South China Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.

    of Thailand and South China Sea formed the material for this presentation. The Naga Expedition organised by the United States of America during 1959-61 was a co- operative venture of the Government of the United States of America, Thailand and South...

  7. Distribution and seasonal abundance of carangid larvae in the Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peter, K.J.; Balachandran, T.

    Carangid larvae were recorded from 8.8% of the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) stations in the Arabian Sea and 13.2% in the Bay of Bengal. Their total contribution was 1.1% of the total larvae collected. The highest number of larvae...

  8. Indicators for the 'Convention on biodiversity 2010'. Exploration of the usefulness of the Marine Trophic Index (MTI) as an indicator for sustainability of marine fisheries in the Dutch part of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fey-Hofstede, F.E.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2007-01-01

    The Marine Trophic Index (MTI) is proposed by the CBD as an indicator for sustainable fisheries and ecosystem integrity. This report explores the usefulness of the Marine Trophic Index (MTI) as an indicator for sustainable fisheries and ecosystem integrity for the Dutch situation

  9. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  10. Thin ice and storms: Sea ice deformation from buoy arrays deployed during N-ICE2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Polona; Spreen, Gunnar; Cheng, Bin; Doble, Martin; Girard-Ardhuin, Fanny; Haapala, Jari; Hughes, Nick; Kaleschke, Lars; Nicolaus, Marcel; Wilkinson, Jeremy

    2017-06-01

    Arctic sea ice has displayed significant thinning as well as an increase in drift speed in recent years. Taken together this suggests an associated rise in sea ice deformation rate. A winter and spring expedition to the sea ice covered region north of Svalbard-the Norwegian young sea ICE2015 expedition (N-ICE2015)—gave an opportunity to deploy extensive buoy arrays and to monitor the deformation of the first-year and second-year ice now common in the majority of the Arctic Basin. During the 5 month long expedition, the ice cover underwent several strong deformation events, including a powerful storm in early February that damaged the ice cover irreversibly. The values of total deformation measured during N-ICE2015 exceed previously measured values in the Arctic Basin at similar scales: At 100 km scale, N-ICE2015 values averaged above 0.1 d-1, compared to rates of 0.08 d-1 or less for previous buoy arrays. The exponent of the power law between the deformation length scale and total deformation developed over the season from 0.37 to 0.54 with an abrupt increase immediately after the early February storm, indicating a weakened ice cover with more free drift of the sea ice floes. Our results point to a general increase in deformation associated with the younger and thinner Arctic sea ice and to a potentially destructive role of winter storms.

  11. Past and present Aral Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhovniy, Viktor; Stulina, Galina; Eshchanov, Odylbek

    2013-04-01

    organized in 2005-2009 sixth expeditions for complex remote sensing and ground investigations Aral Sea former bottom that were complemented in 2010 -2011 by two expeditions with GFZ. As a result, the landscape, soils and environment mapping was done with determination of ecologically unstable zones and assessment total change of lands situation compared with the pre-independence time. Moreover - methodic of monitoring water, environment and hydro geological indicators on the all deltas area was elaborated, organized its testing and combined with remote sensing data on Amudarya delta for 2009-2012. It permits to SIC ICWC to organize systematic permanent (decadal) monitoring and recording of size, volume and level of water in Aral Sea. Since the beginning of regular observations over the Aral Sea level, 2 periods can be emphasized: 1. Conditionally natural period - 1911-1960 - characterized by a relatively stable hydrological regime, with fluctuations in the level around 53 m and the range of inter-annual fluctuations at no more than 1 m., when the sea received annually about a half of the run-off in the Syrdarya and Amudarya Rivers, i.e. 50-60 km3/yr. 2. Intensive anthropogenic impact period - since the 1960s, a vast extension of irrigable land was carried out in Central Asia that resulted in intensive diversion of river run-off. Since then, the sea level has been falling steadily, causing a dramatic reduction in the water surface area, a decrease in water volume and depths, great changes in shoreline configuration and an expansion of the desert areas adjacent to the Aral Sea. From 1960-1985, when the sea was an integral water body, slight lowering in the sea level took place until the 1970s, when the sea-level decreased with the mean level lowering 1 m. The desiccation process accelerated visibly from the mid 1970s. In 1975-1980, the level decreased by 0.65 m a year on average. Moreover, the level dropped greatly, when the run-off of the Amudarya did not reach the Aral Sea

  12. Roundtabling Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The willingness of public authority to delegate social and environmental regulation to the private sector has varied from sector to sector, but has often led to the establishment of ‘voluntary’ standards and certifications on sustainability. Many of these have taken the form of ‘stewardship...... councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity......-specific sustainability situations into a form that not only ‘hears more voices’ (as in ‘multi-stakeholder’), but also portrays to give them equal standing at the table of negotiations (roundtable), thus raising higher expectations on accountability, transparency and inclusiveness. In this article, I examine to what...

  13. Sustainability Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichnothe, Heinz

    2017-03-17

    The long-term substitution of fossil resources can only be achieved through a bio-based economy, with biorefineries and bio-based products playing a major role. However, it is important to assess the implications of the transition to a bio-based economy. Life cycle-based sustainability assessment is probably the most suitable approach to quantify impacts and to identify trade-offs at multiple levels. The extended utilisation of biomass can cause land use change and affect food security of the most vulnerable people throughout the world. Although this is mainly a political issue and governments should be responsible, the responsibility is shifted to companies producing biofuels and other bio-based products. Organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass are considered to be the preferred feedstock for the production of bio-based products. However, it is unlikely that a bio-based economy can rely only on organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass.It is crucial to identify potential problems related to socio-economic and environmental issues. Currently there are many approaches to the sustainability of bio-based products, both quantitative and qualitative. However, results of different calculation methods are not necessarily comparable and can cause confusion among decision-makers, stakeholders and the public.Hence, a harmonised, globally agreed approach would be the best solution to secure sustainable biomass/biofuels/bio-based chemicals production and trade, and to avoid indirect effects (e.g. indirect land use change). However, there is still a long way to go.Generally, the selection of suitable indicators that serve the purpose of sustainability assessment is very context-specific. Therefore, it is recommended to use a flexible and modular approach that can be adapted to various purposes. A conceptual model for the selection of sustainability indicators is provided that facilitates identifying suitable sustainability indicators based on relevance and significance in a

  14. Sustainable Soesterkwartier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahams, H.; Goosen, H.; Jong, de F.; Sickmann, J.; Prins, D.

    2010-01-01

    The municipality of Amersfoort wants to construct an endurable and sustainable eco-town in the Soesterkwartier neighbourhood, by taking future climate change into account. The impact of climate change at the location of the proposed eco-town was studied by a literature review.

  15. Sustainable agriculture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New farming techniques, better food security. Since 1970, IDRC-supported research has introduced sustainable agricultural practices to farmers and communities across the devel- oping world. The result: higher productivity, less poverty, greater food security, and a healthier environment. Opportunities grow on trees in ...

  16. Sustainable Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsegai Berhane Ghebretekle

    Abstract. This article examines the concept of sustainable development after the Post-. 2015 Paris Climate Change Agreement with particular emphasis on Ethiopia. Various African countries are vulnerable to climate change, as is evidenced by recent droughts. Ethiopia is selected as a case study in light of its pace in.

  17. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  18. Architecture Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich

    2013-01-01

    Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The

  19. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. It The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  1. Exergy sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

    2006-05-01

    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  2. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  3. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Margreet F. Boersma-de Jong

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence

  4. Lessons from Previous Expeditions for the Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuster, J.

    Anecdotal comparisons frequently are made between expeditions of the past and future space missions. From an engineering perspective, the differences between future and past expeditions are considerable. Spacecraft are far more complex than sailing ships, and one of the factors that drives the complexity is the requirement to support the crew in the hostile environment of space. The technological differences are significant, but from a behavioral perspective, are the differences really that great between confinement in a small wooden ship locked in the polar ice cap and confinement in a small high-technology ship hurtling through interplanetary space? The psychological differences probably are few. This paper discusses some of the most salient behavioral and technical lessons from previous expeditions that can be applied to facilitate the human explora- tion of Mars.

  5. Ship Sensor Observations for Expedition to the Deep Slope 2007 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown during the "Expedition to the Deep Slope 2007" expedition sponsored by the...

  6. Dive Activities for Expedition to the Deep Slope 2006 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information about dive activities were recorded by personnel during the "Expedition to the Deep Slope 2006" expedition, May 7 through June 2, 2006. Additional...

  7. Dive Activities for Expedition to the Deep Slope 2007 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information about dive activities were recorded by personnel during the "Expedition to the Deep Slope 2007" expedition, June 4 through July 6, 2007. Additional...

  8. 77 FR 12724 - International Postal Service-Global Expedited Package Services (GEPS) Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Part 20 International Postal Service--Global Expedited Package Services (GEPS) Contracts AGENCY: Postal... change for the international competitive product Global Expedited Package Services (GEPS) Contracts. The... States Postal Service, International Mail Manual (IMM ) to incorporate a change concerning the...

  9. Iron in sea ice: Review and new insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lannuzel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The discovery that melting sea ice can fertilize iron (Fe-depleted polar waters has recently fostered trace metal research efforts in sea ice. The aim of this review is to summarize and synthesize the current understanding of Fe biogeochemistry in sea ice. To do so, we compiled available data on particulate, dissolved, and total dissolvable Fe (PFe, DFe and TDFe, respectively from sea-ice studies from both polar regions and from sub-Arctic and northern Hemisphere temperate areas. Data analysis focused on a circum-Antarctic Fe dataset derived from 61 ice cores collected during 10 field expeditions carried out between 1997 and 2012 in the Southern Ocean. Our key findings are that 1 concentrations of all forms of Fe (PFe, DFe, TDFe are at least a magnitude larger in fast ice and pack ice than in typical Antarctic surface waters; 2 DFe, PFe and TDFe behave differently when plotted against sea-ice salinity, suggesting that their distributions in sea ice are driven by distinct, spatially and temporally decoupled processes; 3 DFe is actively extracted from seawater into growing sea ice; 4 fast ice generally has more Fe-bearing particles, a finding supported by the significant negative correlation observed between both PFe and TDFe concentrations in sea ice and water depth; 5 the Fe pool in sea ice is coupled to biota, as indicated by the positive correlations of PFe and TDFe with chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon; and 6 the vast majority of DFe appears to be adsorbed onto something in sea ice. This review also addresses the role of sea ice as a reservoir of Fe and its role in seeding seasonally ice-covered waters. We discuss the pivotal role of organic ligands in controlling DFe concentrations in sea ice and highlight the uncertainties that remain regarding the mechanisms of Fe incorporation in sea ice.

  10. Iceberg drift modelling in the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasenkova, Irina; Gusev, Anatoly; Fomin, Vladimir; Diansky, Nikolay; Korshenko, Evgeniya; Marchenko, Aleksey

    2017-04-01

    Iceberg drift model is developed in the N.N.Zubov State Oceanographic Institute (SOI) of the Roshydromet. The model is forced by atmospheric reanalysis data from the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and by ocean and sea ice data from the Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model (INMOM). The iceberg drift model is validated using observations of iceberg drift trajectory obtained during the annual expedition of RV Lance in the beginning of May 2009 in the Barents Sea. Field data collected in this expedition are also used for the modelling of iceberg drift. Verification tests with hindcast data from selected atmospheric and oceanic models and data from field studies were carried out to compare model predictions with field observations. Two different approaches are used to simulate iceberg drift. The first approach is a variation of wind and water drag coefficients in order to simulate the observed iceberg drift trajectory. High uncertainties in environmental driving forces and in iceberg shape and mass resulted in using ensemble forecast technique, which is the second approach to simulate the iceberg trajectory. The presented iceberg drift model shows a good capability of reproducing the observed iceberg drift.

  11. Deglacial sea level history of the East Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.; O'Regan, Matt; Pearce, Christof; Gemery, Laura; Toomey, Michael; Semiletov, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Deglacial (12.8–10.7 ka) sea level history on the East Siberian continental shelf and upper continental slope was reconstructed using new geophysical records and sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition. The focus of this study is two cores from Herald Canyon, piston core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1 (4-PC1) and multicore SWERUS-L2-4-MC1 (4-MC1), and a gravity core from an East Siberian Sea transect, SWERUS-L2-20-GC1 (20-GC1). Cores 4-PC1 and 20-GC were taken at 120 and 115 m of modern water depth, respectively, only a few meters above the global last glacial maximum (LGM;  ∼  24 kiloannum or ka) minimum sea level of  ∼  125–130 meters below sea level (m b.s.l.). Using calibrated radiocarbon ages mainly on molluscs for chronology and the ecology of benthic foraminifera and ostracode species to estimate paleodepths, the data reveal a dominance of river-proximal species during the early part of the Younger Dryas event (YD, Greenland Stadial GS-1) followed by a rise in river-intermediate species in the late Younger Dryas or the early Holocene (Preboreal) period. A rapid relative sea level rise beginning at roughly 11.4 to 10.8 ka ( ∼  400 cm of core depth) is indicated by a sharp faunal change and unconformity or condensed zone of sedimentation. Regional sea level at this time was about 108 m b.s.l. at the 4-PC1 site and 102 m b.s.l. at 20-GC1. Regional sea level near the end of the YD was up to 42–47 m lower than predicted by geophysical models corrected for glacio-isostatic adjustment. This discrepancy could be explained by delayed isostatic adjustment caused by a greater volume and/or geographical extent of glacial-age land ice and/or ice shelves in the western Arctic Ocean and adjacent Siberian land areas.

  12. Deglacial sea level history of the East Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.; O'Regan, Matt; Pearce, Christof; Gemery, Laura; Toomey, Michael; Semiletov, Igor; Jakobsson, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Deglacial (12.8-10.7 ka) sea level history on the East Siberian continental shelf and upper continental slope was reconstructed using new geophysical records and sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition. The focus of this study is two cores from Herald Canyon, piston core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1 (4-PC1) and multicore SWERUS-L2-4-MC1 (4-MC1), and a gravity core from an East Siberian Sea transect, SWERUS-L2-20-GC1 (20-GC1). Cores 4-PC1 and 20-GC were taken at 120 and 115 m of modern water depth, respectively, only a few meters above the global last glacial maximum (LGM; ˜ 24 kiloannum or ka) minimum sea level of ˜ 125-130 meters below sea level (m b.s.l.). Using calibrated radiocarbon ages mainly on molluscs for chronology and the ecology of benthic foraminifera and ostracode species to estimate paleodepths, the data reveal a dominance of river-proximal species during the early part of the Younger Dryas event (YD, Greenland Stadial GS-1) followed by a rise in river-intermediate species in the late Younger Dryas or the early Holocene (Preboreal) period. A rapid relative sea level rise beginning at roughly 11.4 to 10.8 ka ( ˜ 400 cm of core depth) is indicated by a sharp faunal change and unconformity or condensed zone of sedimentation. Regional sea level at this time was about 108 m b.s.l. at the 4-PC1 site and 102 m b.s.l. at 20-GC1. Regional sea level near the end of the YD was up to 42-47 m lower than predicted by geophysical models corrected for glacio-isostatic adjustment. This discrepancy could be explained by delayed isostatic adjustment caused by a greater volume and/or geographical extent of glacial-age land ice and/or ice shelves in the western Arctic Ocean and adjacent Siberian land areas.

  13. Deglacial sea level history of the East Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Cronin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Deglacial (12.8–10.7 ka sea level history on the East Siberian continental shelf and upper continental slope was reconstructed using new geophysical records and sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition. The focus of this study is two cores from Herald Canyon, piston core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1 (4-PC1 and multicore SWERUS-L2-4-MC1 (4-MC1, and a gravity core from an East Siberian Sea transect, SWERUS-L2-20-GC1 (20-GC1. Cores 4-PC1 and 20-GC were taken at 120 and 115 m of modern water depth, respectively, only a few meters above the global last glacial maximum (LGM;  ∼  24 kiloannum or ka minimum sea level of  ∼  125–130 meters below sea level (m b.s.l.. Using calibrated radiocarbon ages mainly on molluscs for chronology and the ecology of benthic foraminifera and ostracode species to estimate paleodepths, the data reveal a dominance of river-proximal species during the early part of the Younger Dryas event (YD, Greenland Stadial GS-1 followed by a rise in river-intermediate species in the late Younger Dryas or the early Holocene (Preboreal period. A rapid relative sea level rise beginning at roughly 11.4 to 10.8 ka ( ∼  400 cm of core depth is indicated by a sharp faunal change and unconformity or condensed zone of sedimentation. Regional sea level at this time was about 108 m b.s.l. at the 4-PC1 site and 102 m b.s.l. at 20-GC1. Regional sea level near the end of the YD was up to 42–47 m lower than predicted by geophysical models corrected for glacio-isostatic adjustment. This discrepancy could be explained by delayed isostatic adjustment caused by a greater volume and/or geographical extent of glacial-age land ice and/or ice shelves in the western Arctic Ocean and adjacent Siberian land areas.

  14. Going with the Floe? An Analysis of the Epic Expeditions of Fridtjof Nansen and Sir Ernest Shackleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S.; Tremblay, B.; Fowler, C.

    2007-12-01

    One hundred years ago, the heroic age of polar exploration was underway. At first glance the Arctic-based Fridtjof Nansen and Antarctic-based Sir Ernest Shackleton, and their most famous expeditions, are literally poles apart. But the expeditions wound up having much in common, including the fact that their fates were largely dependent on their drift trajectory in the sea ice pack and, in Shackleton's case, the wind and ocean currents. These are natural forces, outside the control of the expedition leaders. Were Nansen and Shackleton lucky that the ice and ocean delivered them and their crew to locations from which they could return? Or were their fates more or less inevitable, within the normal range of natural conditions? While we cannot reconstruct the wind and ocean patterns that actually existed 100 years ago to answer this question, we looked at variability over the past three decades to explore potential alternate fates of these expeditions. Our analysis indicates that Nansen and Shackleton were both lucky and unlucky in the natural conditions that they encountered during their expeditions. Most years since 1979, Nansen would have gotten much closer to the North Pole - his goal -- than his ship did in 1895, so he was unlucky in that respect. On the other hand, he was lucky with the relatively short drift duration of his ship in the Arctic pack ice. Shackleton was also lucky in the rapid pace of drift within the pack. The fact that his trajectory was so far to the west might have been a factor in the crushing and sinking of his ship, but it did allow him to land most of his men on Elephant Island while he went for help. Shackleton's heroic, and harrowing, boat journey to South Georgia turned out to be helped by prevailing conditions: it was within the likely ocean drift trajectory from Elephant Island. Analyses such as these, including "Nansen's Luck" by Roger Colony, and "The Coldest March" by Susan Solomon, help set history and profiles of leadership within

  15. 12 CFR 1202.10 - Will FHFA expedite my request or appeal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will FHFA expedite my request or appeal? 1202... FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 1202.10 Will FHFA expedite my request or appeal? (a) Applications for... application must be in writing. FHFA will grant expedited processing, and give the request or appeal priority...

  16. 20 CFR 404.925 - How to request expedited appeals process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations, Administrative Review Process, and Reopening of Determinations and Decisions Expedited Appeals Process § 404.925 How to request expedited appeals process. (a) Time... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How to request expedited appeals process. 404...

  17. SUSTAINABLE CORPORATE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORU CÎRNU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the image of the international business environment has changed significantly. Studies conducted by UNCTAD shows that corporate phenomenon developments in the world economy is growing. Without claiming to present an exhaustive topic so vast we tried to capture some "facets" of sustainable development from the perspective of multinational corporations, given the expansion of these economic entities and strengthening their power in the global economy. We present more negative aspects of the actions of multinational corporations in terms of sustainable development, it is very important to know both sides of the coin, which will not only help transnational giants including release. Based on issues such as corporate social responsibility, environmental pollution and workers' rights, we sought to counter official statements. The conclusion is that these economic entities are real forces that can not be ignored in today's world and the obvious problem of sustainable development can not be addressed independently of the phenomenon, context we also identified some possible solutions to conflict of corporations and essence of the concept of sustainable development.

  18. PERSPECTIVE: The tripping points of sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Alan D.

    2009-12-01

    , according to Titus et al, is for communities to develop a common vision about which lands will be protected and which lands will yield to the rising sea, similar to the way land use plans identify commercial, residential, agricultural, and conservation lands. The supplementary material in their paper (as well as a related web site suggested by the peer review process of this journal) provides maps that depict the likelihood of shore protection based on existing land use data and the assessment of the local governments. Such maps, they suggest, might be used as a starting point to promote dialogue within communities about which lands should be protected and which lands are allowed to become submerged. A second tripping point relates to conflict between existing environmental laws and their collective ability to respond to the impacts of global warming. For example, property owners are automatically issued permits for construction of hard shore-protection structures (e.g. bulkheads and revetments) without an assessment of their environmental impact. Normally, under the Clean Water Act, the impact of each permit is assessed separately, but there is a special expedited process for activities with no cumulative impact. The Corps of Engineers concluded that shore protection does not have a cumulative impact, and that might be true if shore erosion was rare and stable shores the general rule. But once we recognize that the sea level is rising, then shore erosion becomes the general rule and a cumulative impact is likely. Under the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA), cumulative impacts have been defined as `the impacts of an activity ``added to other past present and reasonably future actions'' regardless of who takes the other actions'. If the NEPA were actually evoked, it would considerably delay permit approvals and substantially impact the Corps of Engineers' process for issuing permits. The potential impact of sea level rise clearly requires a holistic approach to

  19. Central Arctic Ocean paleoceanography from  ∼50 ka to present, on the basis of ostracode faunal assemblages from the SWERUS 2014 expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemery, Laura; Cronin, Thomas M.; Poirier, Robert K.; Pearce, Christof; Barrientos, Natalia; O'Regan, Matt; Johansson, Carina; Koshurnikov, Andrey; Jakobsson, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Late Quaternary paleoceanographic changes at the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean, were reconstructed from a multicore and gravity core recovered during the 2014 SWERUS-C3 Expedition. Ostracode assemblages dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) indicate changing sea-ice conditions and warm Atlantic Water (AW)inflow to the Arctic Ocean from ∼50 ka to present. Key taxa used as environmental indicators include Acetabulastoma arcticum (perennial sea ice), Polycopes pp. (variable sea-ice margins, high surface productivity), Krithe hunti (Arctic Ocean deep water), and Rabilimis mirabilis (water mass change/AW inflow). Results indicate periodic seasonally sea-ice-free conditions during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 (∼57-29 ka), rapid deglacial changes in water mass conditions (15-11 ka), seasonally sea-ice-free conditions during the early Holocene (∼10-7 ka) and perennial sea ice during the late Holocene. Comparisons with faunal records from other cores from the Mendeleev and Lomonosov ridges suggest generally similar patterns, although sea-ice cover during the Last Glacial Maximum may have been less extensive at the new Lomonosov Ridge core site (∼85.15° N, 152° E) than farther north and towards Greenland. The new data provide evidence for abrupt, large-scale shifts in ostracode species depth and geographical distributions during rapid climatic transitions.

  20. Central Arctic Ocean paleoceanography from ˜ 50 ka to present, on the basis of ostracode faunal assemblages from the SWERUS 2014 expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemery, Laura; Cronin, Thomas M.; Poirier, Robert K.; Pearce, Christof; Barrientos, Natalia; O'Regan, Matt; Johansson, Carina; Koshurnikov, Andrey; Jakobsson, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Late Quaternary paleoceanographic changes at the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean, were reconstructed from a multicore and gravity core recovered during the 2014 SWERUS-C3 Expedition. Ostracode assemblages dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) indicate changing sea-ice conditions and warm Atlantic Water (AW) inflow to the Arctic Ocean from ˜ 50 ka to present. Key taxa used as environmental indicators include Acetabulastoma arcticum (perennial sea ice), Polycope spp. (variable sea-ice margins, high surface productivity), Krithe hunti (Arctic Ocean deep water), and Rabilimis mirabilis (water mass change/AW inflow). Results indicate periodic seasonally sea-ice-free conditions during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 ( ˜ 57-29 ka), rapid deglacial changes in water mass conditions (15-11 ka), seasonally sea-ice-free conditions during the early Holocene ( ˜ 10-7 ka) and perennial sea ice during the late Holocene. Comparisons with faunal records from other cores from the Mendeleev and Lomonosov ridges suggest generally similar patterns, although sea-ice cover during the Last Glacial Maximum may have been less extensive at the new Lomonosov Ridge core site ( ˜ 85.15° N, 152° E) than farther north and towards Greenland. The new data provide evidence for abrupt, large-scale shifts in ostracode species depth and geographical distributions during rapid climatic transitions.

  1. Central Arctic Ocean paleoceanography from  ∼  50 ka to present, on the basis of ostracode faunal assemblages from the SWERUS 2014 expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gemery

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Late Quaternary paleoceanographic changes at the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean, were reconstructed from a multicore and gravity core recovered during the 2014 SWERUS-C3 Expedition. Ostracode assemblages dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS indicate changing sea-ice conditions and warm Atlantic Water (AW inflow to the Arctic Ocean from  ∼  50 ka to present. Key taxa used as environmental indicators include Acetabulastoma arcticum (perennial sea ice, Polycope spp. (variable sea-ice margins, high surface productivity, Krithe hunti (Arctic Ocean deep water, and Rabilimis mirabilis (water mass change/AW inflow. Results indicate periodic seasonally sea-ice-free conditions during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 3 ( ∼  57–29 ka, rapid deglacial changes in water mass conditions (15–11 ka, seasonally sea-ice-free conditions during the early Holocene ( ∼  10–7 ka and perennial sea ice during the late Holocene. Comparisons with faunal records from other cores from the Mendeleev and Lomonosov ridges suggest generally similar patterns, although sea-ice cover during the Last Glacial Maximum may have been less extensive at the new Lomonosov Ridge core site ( ∼  85.15° N, 152° E than farther north and towards Greenland. The new data provide evidence for abrupt, large-scale shifts in ostracode species depth and geographical distributions during rapid climatic transitions.

  2. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...... biophysical, distributional and economic conditions for high consumption in rich countries and then zooms in on the coevolution of provision systems and consumption, and how consumption is shaped by practices and projects in everyday life. Furthermore, the paper discusses whether and how transition...

  3. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems that ...... that need urgent action. The built environment is an obvious area to put effort into because of the large and cost-effective energy saving potential and potential for Renewable Energy-based supply systems for buildings.......The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  4. Grain Size Analyses of Neogene-Quaternary Sediments from the Arctic Coring Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, K.; Lado-Insua, T.; O'Regan, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) recovered the first Cenozoic sediment sequence from the central Arctic Ocean. Results from this expedition indicate that perennial sea ice may have formed in the Arctic at or before the early mid-Miocene. Sea ice formation is an important process in the global climate system, affecting directly the Earth's albedo and indirectly the Meridional Overturning Circulation. The deep Arctic Ocean receives sediment primarily from ice-rafted debris and turbidity currents. Suspension freezing on the shallow continental shelves of the Arctic has generally been considered the major process trapping sediment within sea ice. Sea ice motion is largely driven by wind. The anticyclonic Beaufort Gyre transports sea ice over the Amerasia Basin, while the Transpolar Drift transports it across the Eurasian Basin. The Transpolar Drift is divided into a Siberian and Polar branch, both branches cross the position of the ACEX drilling sites on the Lomonosov Ridge. Grain size analyses of ACEX sediments were obtained with a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 laser diffraction particle sizing system. Preliminary analyses indicate pulses with a higher percentage of sand between 3.64 Ma ago until the end of the Gelasian (1.8 Ma). The percent sand remained relatively low during the Cenozoic with the exception of two major increases of sand occurring ~6.2 and 9.2 Ma ago and a smaller peak ~8.2 Ma ago. These intervals also show less sorting and lower values for skewness and kurtosis. Increases in the percentage of sand and less sorting at this latitude relate to ice rafted debris, indicating an increase in sea-ice melting during these periods. A Principal Components Analysis and a Maximum Correlation Factor Analysis agree on a correlation between different grain sizes that would divide the grain size in two major distributions (63 to 250 μm portion to represent glacial ice. Based on our data we hypothesize that when sediments exhibit a bimodal distribution with relatively

  5. 8 CFR 1235.3 - Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal. 1235.3 Section 1235.3 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 1235.3 Inadmissible aliens...

  6. ISS Potable Water Quality for Expeditions 26 through 30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2012-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Expeditions 26-30 spanned a 16-month period beginning in November of 2010 wherein the final 3 flights of the Space Shuttle program finished ISS construction and delivered supplies to support the post-shuttle era of station operations. Expedition crews relied on several sources of potable water during this period, including water recovered from urine distillate and humidity condensate by the U.S. water processor, water regenerated from humidity condensate by the Russian water recovery system, and Russian ground-supplied potable water. Potable water samples collected during Expeditions 26-30 were returned on Shuttle flights STS-133 (ULF5), STS-134 (ULF6), and STS-135 (ULF7), as well as Soyuz flights 24-27. The chemical quality of the ISS potable water supplies continued to be verified by the Johnson Space Center s Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) via analyses of returned water samples. This paper presents the chemical analysis results for water samples returned from Expeditions 26-30 and discusses their compliance with ISS potable water standards. The presence or absence of dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) is specifically addressed, since DMSD was identified as the primary cause of the temporary rise and fall in total organic carbon of the U.S. product water that occurred in the summer of 2010.

  7. Zoological results of the Dutch Scientific Expedition to Central Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1898-01-01

    In a paper dated April 1897 (Notes from the Leyden Museum, 1897, p. 25) Dr. Büttikofer stated that the work of the expedition was still being continued in Borneo, Dr. Nieuwenhuis having once more started for the Upper-Mahakkam with a staff of collectors, and that, according to the latest news he

  8. Jean-Baptiste Charcot, the French Antarctic expedition and scurvy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Afonso Ghizoni Teive

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During the second expedition to the South Pole, Commander Jean-Baptiste Charcot and some members of the crew of “Pourquoi Pas?” developed symptoms suggestive of scurvy. The clinical picture was totally reversed after dietary changes.

  9. Strategies and Procedures for Expediting Election Petitions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Justice delayed, they say, is justice denied. Delay in the dispensation of electoral disputes in Nigeria has become an albatross to the Nigerian nation. It has become a sour point in our electoral process. In this article, the writer meticulously looked at the various strategies and procedures for expediting election petitions and ...

  10. Recognizing and Developing Adaptive Expertise within Outdoor and Expedition Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, Mark; Fazey, Ioan; Fazey, John

    2007-01-01

    Adaptive expertise, an individual's ability to perform flexibly and innovatively in novel and unstructured situations, could have particular relevance for expedition and outdoor leaders. This element may be recognized in leadership practitioners who are able to act more effectively when problem-solving in complex, ambiguous and unpredictable…

  11. Joint pricing and inventory replenishment decisions with returns and expediting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Stuart X.

    2012-01-01

    We study a single-item periodic-review model for the joint pricing and inventory replenishment problem with returns and expediting. Demand in consecutive periods are independent random variables and their distributions are price sensitive. At the end of each period, after the demand is realized, a

  12. 8 CFR 287.10 - Expedited internal review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Immigration and Customs Enforcement, 425 I Street NW., Washington, DC, 20536. (c) Expedited processing of... Section 287.10 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS FIELD... enforcement activities. Alleged violations of the standards for enforcement activities established in...

  13. PSSD - Planning System for Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    PSSD - Planning System for Sustainable Development - is a part of the Baltic Sea Region's INTERREG II C program. The current report describes some theories, methods and tools developed under the PSSD project. First, the theoretical foundation of the project is described. Secondly, the role...... of indicators in sustainable development is discussed and a Web-based indicator generator is described. Thirdly, we describe a number of methods and tools, which support planning for sustainable development. Finally, some technical interface tools - especially a Web-based interface to the methods and tools...

  14. SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY FOR SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rizzuto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Foundry Alfe Chem is an industrial reality working in the field of lubrication and chemical auxiliaries for industrial processes, which falls within the framework of the emerging and increasingly important «green chemistry». The goal of the company is to develop products that are more environmentally friendly by using raw materials from renewable sources; specifically, Foundry Alfe Chem has a program of self-sustainability that contemplates, for the foreseeable future, the direct production of renewable raw materials. The company has developed a new dedicated product line, Olitema, whose purpose is to offer highly technological solutions with complete environmental sustainability. In this context, Foundry Alfe CHEM has created a new product which represents a breakthrough in the class of HFC hydraulic fluids: Ecosafe Plus is a biodegradable fire-resistant hydraulic fluid with high engineering and technological performances, high environmental sustainability and the best security guarantees in workplaces. Its formulation is glycols-free, and it allows for easier disposal of the exhausted fluid, compared to a traditional water/ glycol-based HFC hydraulic fluid. For what concern the technological properties, Ecosafe Plus has been tested by accredited laboratories with tribological trials (4 Ball wear test ASTM D 4172, Ball on disc test ASTM 6425, Brugger test DIN 51347, Vickers test ASTM D 2882, with elastomer compatibility test (ASTM D 471 and biodegradability test (OECD 310 F.

  15. Sustainable rural learning ecologies- a prolegomenon traversing transcendence of discursive notions of sustainability, social justice, development and food sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipane Hlalele

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes, through traversing contested notions of sustainability, social justice, development and food sovereignty, to discourses around creation of sustainable rural learning ecologies. There has always been at least in the realm of scientific discourse, an attempt to dissociate the natural or physical environment from the social and human environment. This trend did not only affect the two spheres of existence only. It is further imbued and spawned fragmented and pervasive terminology, practices and human thought. Drawing from the ‘creating sustainable rural learning ecologies’ research project that commenced in 2011, I challenge and contest the use of such discourses and argue for the transcendence of such. This would, in my opinion, create space for harmonious and fluid co-existence between nature and humanity, such that the contribution of learning practices exudes and expedites sustainability in rural ecologies.

  16. Workshops with expedition trips organized by the Central Botanical Gardens of NAS of Belarus - an effective instrument of international cooperation between botanical gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiridovich Elena Vladimirovna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available NASB Central Botanical Garden (CBG in 2013-2016 made by the lead agency, the organizer of four international scientific workshops with with expedition trips "Strategies and methods of botanical gardens for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity of the natural flora" (Minsk, protected nature areas (PNAs of the Republic of Belarus, which was attended by representatives of leading botanical gardens of the US, Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Poland and Lithuania. During the scientific seminars discussions and expeditions at 2013-2015 the overall goal of joint work - addressing the conservation of biodiversity of flora and strengthening the role of scientific support for optimal implementation of the Global Strategy Plant Conservation (GSPC were defined, as well as specific joint projects are elaborated.

  17. Sustainable Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telles, Pedro; Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    and within it how sustainable requirements have increased the level of compliance required, particularly regulatory compliance. Compliance was already present in previous EU public procurement frameworks, but its extent on Directive 2014/24/EU leads the authors to consider the current legal framework...... as subject to substantial regulatory compliance obligations external to the process of procurement. In short, procurement has been transformed in a way to enforce regulatory obligations that are not intrinsic to the process of buying. This leads to the conclusion that questions such as the cost and trade...

  18. The Construction of Shared Knowledge in an Internet-based Shared Environment for Expeditions (iExpeditions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minjuan; Laffey, James; Poole, Melissa J.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates how participants (39 teenagers and 10 college-age online mentors) interacted and constructed shared knowledge of concepts, goals, tasks, procedures, and solutions when solving a real-world problem in an Internet-mediated project-based learning environment (iExpeditions). The main focus of the study was on how different patterns of…

  19. Sustainable Mobility for Tourists at the Dutch Coastal Islands (Waddeneilanden)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sminia, O.; Vogtländer, J.G.; Brezet, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    The European Coastal Islands around the North sea, are joined together in a project that stimulates sustainable development. Within this 'Cradle-to-Cradle Islands' project, some islands were selected as breading grounds for potentially sustainable projects. One of these projects was the development

  20. Sustainable consumption and marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the

  1. The expedition ARCTIC `96 of RV `Polarstern` (ARK XII) with the Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS). Cruise report; Die Expedition ARCTIC `96 des FS `Polarstern` (ARK XII) mit der Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS). Fahrtbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augstein, E.

    1997-11-01

    The multinational expedition ARCTIC `96 was carried out jointly by two ships, the German RV POLARSTERN and the Swedish RV ODEN. The research programme was developed by scientists from British, Canadian, Finish, German, Irish, Norwegian, Russian, Swedish and US American research institutions and universities. The physical programme on POLARSTERN was primarily designed to foster the Arctic Climte System Study (ACSYS) in the framework of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). Investigations during the recent years have provided substantial evidence that the Arctic Ocean and the adjacent shelf seas play a significant role in the thermohaline oceanic circulation and may therefore have a distinct influence on global climate. Consequently the main ACSYS goals are concerned with studies of the governing oceanic, atmospheric and hydrological processes in the entire Arctic region. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Expedition ARCTIC `96 wurde von zwei Forschungsschiffen, der deutschen POLARSTERN und der schwedischen ODEN unter Beteiligung von Wissenschaftlern und Technikern aus Deutschland, Finnland, Grossbritannien, Irland, Kanada, Norwegen, Russland, Schweden und den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika durchgefuehrt. Die physikalischen Projekte auf der POLARSTERN dienten ueberwiegend der Unterstuetzung der Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS) des Weltklimaforschungsprogramms, die auf die Erforschung der vorherrschenden ozeanischen, atmosphaerischen, kryosphaerischen und hydrologischen Prozesse der Arktisregion ausgerichtet ist. (orig.)

  2. Geomagnetic Excursions recorded from a sediment core from the Great Barrier Reef, IODP Expedition 325, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, J. K.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Jovane, L.

    2010-12-01

    At the end of the Expedition 325, “Great Barrier Reef Environmental Changes” (GBREC), of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, a core 40 m long collected fine sediments from seaward of Noggin Reef, Queensland, Australia. Initial uranium-thorium and radiocarbon measurements give relative ages of ~10 to ~30 ka. The main aim of the expedition was an investigation of the magnitude and nature of sea-level changes in relation to the Last Glacial Maximum. Paleoenvironmental analyses will study the sea-level changes in relation to the glacial-interglacial phases. Recent modeling of the geodynamo and studies of the geomagnetic field show that the inner core imposes a physical constraint on fluid motions in the outer core. As a result, this complex vortex could provoke anomalies in the geomagnetic configuration that might also include complete and “aborted” reversals of the geomagnetic field. These “aborted” reversals can last for a few thousand years, and are called excursions. We present preliminary measurements of the magnetic susceptibility and NRM of U-channels and of discrete samples from Exp. 325 hole M0058A drilled in April 2010 in front of Noggin Reef in a water depth of 172 m. The magnetic susceptibility shows two zones of high susceptibility with respect to the rest of the base values. The first zone is located between 8.63 and 14.80 mbsf and the second one is located from ¬27.00 to 32.60 mbsf with a maximum value of 277.78 x 10-8 m3/kg. Natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and stepwise a.f. demagnetization have been measured for the 40 m long U-channels and for high-resolution 1-cc discrete samples. Some anomalies of the inclination of the NRM at 17-18 and 23-24 mbsf are related to increased intensity of NRM, but there is no variation in the magnetic susceptibility for these intervals. Alternating field (a.f.) stepwise demagnetization shows that these features are recognizable along the demagnetization steps, showing a consistent Characteristic

  3. Distributional records of Ross Sea (Antarctica) Tanaidacea from museum samples stored in the collections of the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA) and the New Zealand National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA)

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Piazza; Magdalena Blazewicz-Paszkowycz; Claudio Ghiglione; Maria Chiara Alvaro; Kareen Schnabel; Stefano Schiaparelli

    2014-01-01

    Here we present distributional records for Tanaidacea specimens collected during several Antarctic expeditions to the Ross Sea: the Italian PNRA expeditions (“V”, 1989/1990; “XI”, 1995/1996; “XIV”, 1998/1999; “XIX”, 2003/2004; “XXV”, 2009/2010) and the New Zealand historical (New Zealand Oceanographic Institute, NZOI, 1958-1961) and recent (“TAN0402 BIOROSS” voyage, 2004 and “TAN0802 IPY-CAML Oceans Survey 20/20” voyage, 2008) expeditions. Tanaidaceans were obtained from bottom samples collec...

  4. Report on the behalf of the Finance, General Economy and Budgetary Control Commission on the Finance bill for 2011 (n. 2824), appendix N. 13: ecology, sustainable development and land planning, hazard prevention, management and steering of ecology, energy, sustainable development, land planning and sea policies; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Finances, de L'economie Generale et du Controle Budgetaire sur le projet de loi de finances pour 2011 (n. 2824), annexe N. 13 ecologie, developpement et amenagement durables prevention des risques conduite et pilotage des politiques de l'ecologie, de l'energie, du developpement durable et de la mer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This report comments the grants awarded to two programmes, the first one concerning the prevention of hazards, and the second concerning the management and steering of ecology, energy, sustainable development, land planning and sea policies. These two programmes are emblematic of the French government's action and ambition in the field of sustainable development and ecology. For the first one, the report comments the evolution of grants, their objectives and performance indicators. Then it addresses its various aspects: prevention of technological hazards and pollutions, prevention of natural and hydraulic hazards, nuclear safety, after-mine management. For the second programme, the report gives an assessment of the ministry reorganization, and comments the means requested for 2011

  5. Palaeobathymetric Interpretations using Foraminiferal Data from the North-west Continental Shelf off Western Australia, IODP Expedition 356

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, B. L.; Renema, W.; Auer, G.; Groeneveld, J.; Gallagher, S. J.; Fulthorpe, C.; Bogus, K.; Expedition 356 Scientists, I.

    2016-12-01

    In 2015, Integrated Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 356 drilled along the passive margin off the West Australian coast to investigate the history of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) and its integral role in the development of global thermohaline circulation and climate. Throughout the expedition, a suite of foraminiferal analyses were employed to assess stratigraphy and benthic environments. Planktic foraminifera were primarily used for biostratigraphy and an incredibly diverse benthic fauna ( 260 species) yielded information regarding palaeobathymetric settings and variable conditions at the sediment-water interface. Benthic foraminiferal biofacies are particularly sensitive to changes in environmental conditions and have rapid turnover making them ideal proxies for monitoring physical and chemical changes in marine environments. When these data are combined with a multi-proxy approach incorporating lithostratigraphic and other microfossil data, a robust understanding of past environments can be realised. Stretching from the Northern Carnarvon Basin north to the Roebuck Basin, several distinct biofacies were isolated at sites U1461-U1464 that reveal an array of marine settings and events that span from the Miocene through to the Pleistocene. These features include water depths ranging from Miocene shallows (including larger benthic foraminifera) to Pliocene bathyal depths ( 1000 m), the occurrence of key indicator species for both the Leeuwin Current and the West Pacific Warm Pool (Asterorotalia and Pseudorotalia), and episodes of downslope sediment transport. Here we present the main isolated biofacies, their associated lithofacies and their implications for reconstructing fluctuating sea-level, thermohaline circulation and sediment transport in a changing marine landscape.

  6. Virtual Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.

  7. Sustainability; Sustentabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter analyses the production chain of ethanol, considering the impacts on the quality of the air, water supplies, soil occupation and biodiversity, and the efforts for the soil preservation. It is pointed out the activities of the production cycle and use of bio ethanol due to great uncertainties as far the environmental impacts is concerning and that will deserve more attention in future evaluations. At same time, the chapter highlights another activities where the present acknowledge is sufficient to assure the control and/or prediction of consequences of the desired intervention on the environment media to accommodate the sugar and ethanol production expansion. The consideration is not conservative but to promote the sustainable development.

  8. Sustainability Science Needs Sustainable Data!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    Sustainability science (SS) is an 'emerging field of research dealing with the interactions between natural and social systems, and with how those interactions affect the challenge of sustainability: meeting the needs of present and future generations while substantially reducing poverty and conserving the planet's life support systems' (Kates, 2011; Clark, 2007). Bettencourt & Kaur (2011) identified more than 20,000 scientific papers published on SS topics since the 1980s with more than 35,000 distinct authors. They estimated that the field is currently growing exponentially, with the number of authors doubling approximately every 8 years. These scholars are undoubtedly using and generating a vast quantity and variety of data and information for both SS research and applications. Unfortunately we know little about what data the SS community is actually using, and whether or not the data that SS scholars generate are being preserved for future use. Moreover, since much SS research is conducted by cross-disciplinary, multi-institutional teams, often scattered around the world, there could well be increased risks of data loss, reduced data quality, inadequate documentation, and poor long-term access and usability. Capabilities and processes therefore need to be established today to support continual, reliable, and efficient preservation of and access to SS data in the future, especially so that they can be reused in conjunction with future data and for new studies not conceived in the original data collection activities. Today's long-term data stewardship challenges include establishing sustainable data governance to facilitate continuing management, selecting data to ensure that limited resources are focused on high priority SS data holdings, securing sufficient rights to allow unforeseen uses, and preparing data to enable use by future communities whose specific research and information needs are not yet known. Adopting sustainable models for archival

  9. Evaluation of the ecological state of the Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk using the DNase test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzorova, N. I.; Rasskazov, V. A.

    2009-12-01

    A study of the state of the Russian coastal marine ecosystems of the Sea of Japan (the Tumen River mouth) and the Sea of Okhotsk (the eastern shelf of Sakhalin Island and the Sakhalin Gulf) and Kraternya Bight (Yankich Island, Kuril Islands) was carried out during the 29th expedition of the R/V Akademik Oparin. A highly sensitive express analysis using the DNase of the Strongylocentrotus intermedius sea urchin was utilized in order to evaluate the quality of the natural marine water of the areas experiencing different degrees of anthropogenic impact. The marine water quality was evaluated according to the degree of the DNase inhibition in the samples. The presence of ecological stress was shown at the aforementioned sites excluding Kraternya Bight. The method allows the fast (1 hour) analysis of the pollution of marine areas and, coupled with data on the hydrological, hydrochemical, and microbiological studies of water samples, provides the possibility to make an ecological forecast.

  10. Detachment Faulting, Serpentinization, Fluids and Life: Preliminary Results of IODP Expedition 357 (Atlantis Massif, MAR 30°N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruh-Green, G. L.; Orcutt, B.; Green, S.; Cotterill, C.

    2016-12-01

    We present an overview of IODP Expedition 357, which successfully used two seabed rock drills to core 17 shallow holes at 9 sites across Atlantis Massif (Mid-Atlantic Ridge 30°N). A major goal of this expedition is to investigate serpentinization processes and microbial activity in the shallow subsurface of highly altered ultramafic and mafic sequences that have been uplifted to the seafloor along a major detachment fault zone. More than 57 m of core were recovered, with borehole penetration ranging from 1.3 to 16.4 meters below seafloor, and core recovery as high as 75% of total penetration. The cores show highly heterogeneous rock type, bulk rock chemistry and alteration that reflect multiple phases of magmatism and fluid-rock interaction within the detachment fault zone. In cores along an E-W transect of the southern wall, recovered mantle peridotites are locally intruded by gabbroic and doleritic dikes and veins. The proportion of mafic rocks are volumetrically less than the amount of mafic rocks recovered previously in the central dome at IODP Site U1309, suggesting a lower degree of melt infiltration into mantle peridotite at the ridge-transform intersection. New technologies were developed and successfully applied for the first time: (1) an in-situ sensor package and water sampling system on each seabed drill measured real-time variations in dissolved methane, oxygen, pH, oxidation reduction potential, temperature, and conductivity during drilling and took water samples after drilling; (2) a borehole plug system to seal the boreholes was successfully deployed at two sites to allow access for future sampling; and (3) delivery of chemical tracers into the drilling fluids for contamination testing. We will provide an overview of the drilling strategy and preliminary results of Expedition 357, and highlight the role of serpentinization in sustaining microbial communities in a region of active serpentinization and low temperature hydrothermal alteration.

  11. Expedition 8 Crew Interviews: C. Michael Foale - CDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    C. Michael Foale, Commander of the Expedition 8 crew to the International Space Station (ISS), answers interview questions in this video. The questions cover: 1) The goals of the Expedition; 2) How his Mir experience prepared him for long-duration spaceflight; 3) The reaction the Columbia accident where he was training in Star City, Russia; 4) Why the rewards of spaceflight are worth the risks; 5) Why he wanted to become an astronaut; 6) His career path; 7) His influences; 8) His path of study; 9) His responsibilities on a mission; 10) What a Soyuz capsule is like; 11) What the oncoming and offgoing ISS crews will do together; 12) How the ISS science mission will be advanced during his stay; 13) Training and plans for extravehicular activity (EVA); 14) Return to Flight of Shuttle; 15) What is needed to make his mission a success; 16) The most valuable contribution of the ISS.

  12. Geothermal policy development program: expediting the local geothermal permitting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    For a number of years, concerns have been raised about the length of time and the complexity involved in obtaining required permits in order to develop the geothermal resource at the Geysers. Perhaps the most important factor is jurisdiction. At the Geysers, all three levels of government - local, state, and federal - exercise significant authority over various aspects of geothermal development. In addition, several agencies within each governmental level play an active role in the permitting process. The present study is concerned primarily with the local permitting process, and the ways in which this process could be expedited. This report begins by looking at the local role in the overall permitting process, and then reviews the findings and conclusions that have been reached in other studies of the problem. This is followed by a case study evaluation of recent permitting experience in the four Geysers-Calistoga KGRA counties, and the report concludes by outlining several approaches to expediting the local permitting process.

  13. Report of 2012 expedition to St. Matthew and other Bering Sea Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Due to broad interest in the region across a variety of disciplines, a team of scientists from a wide range of fields was invited to accompany AMNWR staff to the St....

  14. Sustainable Scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2008-12-31

    Scientists are front and center in quantifying and solving environmental problems. Yet, as a spate of recent news articles in scientific journals point out, much can be done to enhance sustainability within the scientific enterprise itself, particularly by trimming the energy use associated with research facilities and the equipment therein (i,ii,iii, iv). Sponsors of research unwittingly spend on the order of $10 billion each year on energy in the U.S. alone, and the underlying inefficiencies drain funds from the research enterprise while causing 80 MT CO2-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions (see Box). These are significant sums considering the opportunity costs in terms of the amount of additional research that could be funded and emissions that could be reduced if the underlying energy was used more efficiently. By following commercially proven best practices in facility design and operation, scientists--and the sponsors of science--can cost-effectively halve these costs, while doing their part to put society on alow-carbon diet.

  15. Early scientific expeditions and local encounters: new perspectives on Carsten Niebuhr and 'The Arabian Journey'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    scholarly expeditions and voyages from the eighteenth and early nineteenth century, placing the Danish expedition in a broad context of early scientific expeditions. This was a time when the coastlines of continents, except in the Pacific and the Polar regions, were reasonably well known. Yet scientific...... and longer encounters with local populations. Most studies in this volume focus on expeditions that involved contacts between local people and travelling European scientists and scholars. Others examine the scholarly questions which the scientific expeditions and travellers were sent out to solve and how......, the papers in these proceedings paint a varied picture of eighteenth and early nineteenth century scientific expeditions and scholarly travel. In the eighteenth century the considerate and careful approach of Niebuhr and Forsskål in their dealing with local people was new or at least not so common...

  16. Rapid early-Holocene deglaciation in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Perry; Stone, John; Cowdery, Seth G.; Hall, Brenda; Conway, Howard; Bromley, Gordon

    2017-08-01

    Deglaciation of the Ross Sea following the last ice age provides an important opportunity to examine the stability of marine ice sheets and their susceptibility to changing environmental conditions. Insufficient chronology for Ross Sea deglaciation has helped sustain (i) the theory that this region contributed significantly to Meltwater Pulse 1A (MWP-1A) and (ii) the idea that Ross Sea grounding-line retreat occurred in a "swinging gate" pattern hinged north of Roosevelt Island. We present deglaciation records from southern Transantarctic Mountain glaciers, which delivered ice to the central Ross Sea. Abrupt thinning of these glaciers 9-8 kyr B.P. coincided with deglaciation of the Scott Coast, ˜800 km to the north, and ended with the Ross Sea grounding line near Shackleton Glacier. This deglaciation removed grounded ice from most of the central and western Ross Sea in less than 2 kyr. The Ross Sea Sector neither contributed nor responded significantly to MWP-1A.

  17. Sustainable agriculture - selected papers

    OpenAIRE

    Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.

  18. Activities of the summer operation of the 52nd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-52 in 2010–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yamanouchi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the activities of the 52nd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-52 during the 2010-2011 austral summer. JARE-52, as the first year of the"VIIIth JARE 6-year program", carried out various research projects and logistical plans. Basic observations, composed of routine observations and monitoring observations, were continued as part of long-term observations, and a newly established prioritized research program"Global Warming Investigated from the Antarctic"was started, comprising three sub-targets:"Global Environmental Changes from the Antarctic Middle and Upper Atmosphere","Responses of Southern Ocean Ecosystems in Global Warming"and"Current and Future Global Environment seen from Glacial-Interglacial Cycles". Ten projects of the ordinary research observations program, including astronomy in Antarctica, were also carried out. The largest tasks of the expedition were the setting of the large atmospheric MST/IS radar (PANSY and the construction of a building for harnessing natural energy and providing garage space. The main summer activities involved the transportation of materials, the maintenance of facilities at Syowa Station, and observations from on board the icebreaker RV Shirase and in the field, including an inland trip to Dome Fuji Station. Given the extensive sea ice in Lutzow-Holm Bay following the 51st expedition, we expected difficult conditions during the 2010-2011 season and possibly challenges to overcome in accomplishing the entire program. Our predictions proved to be accurate, as we encountered thick fast ice covered by a thick snow layer, and severe ice conditions in the pack ice area with folded ice. The weather conditions were relatively calm in December but challenging in January, with long periods of strong wind, snowfall, and blowing snow, as well as record low sunshine hours. Despite the conditions, we managed to accomplish most of the large-scale construction projects and observations that

  19. Sustainable NREL - Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-01

    NREL's Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015 reports on sustainability plans for the lab for the year 2015 based on Executive Order Goals and provides the status on planned actions cited in the FY 2014 report.

  20. Mammals of the Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information on sea mammals, including definitions and characteristics of cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians. Contains descriptions of the teaching activities "Whale Music,""Draw A Whale to Scale,""Adopt a Sea Mammal," and "Sea Mammal Sleuths." (TW)

  1. Sustainability in Transport Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Greve, Carsten

    Contribution to session J: Joint University Sustainability Initiatives. This session will provide an inspiring overview of interdisciplinary research and teaching activities on sustainability bridging DTU, KU, and CBS, and introduce the joint collaboration Copenhagen Sustainability Initiative (COSI...

  2. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  3. Deep sea study takes a new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robigou, Véronique; Ballard, Robert D.

    The rapidly evolving technology of remotely operated vehicles (ROV) is revolutionizing the exploration and study of deepwater environments. In 1991, the JASON/MEDEA ROV system exhibited its high-resolution imaging capabilities in the rugged hydrothermal environment of the Endeavour Segment, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge [Delaney et al., 1991; Sempéré et al., 1991]. In 1992, the Canadian Remotely Operated Platform for Ocean Science (ROPOS) successfully sampled hydrothermal vents along the Juan de Fuca Ridge and recovered data from an Ocean Drilling Program borehole in Middle Valley, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge [Embley and Franklin, 1993]. In 1993, a 21-day expedition to the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California, Mexico, went a step further, combining ROV and manned-submersible assets to maximize the effectiveness of both vehicles for scientific use and ultimately demonstrating a completely new approach to deep-sea research.

  4. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable technologies

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to deal with the innovative technologies in the field of textiles and clothing sustainability. It details a number of sustainable and innovative technologies and highlights their implications in the clothing sector. There are currently various measures to achieve sustainability in the textiles and the clothing industry, including innovations in the manufacturing stage, which is the crux of this book.

  5. Generic Hurricane Extreme Seas State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof; Skourup, Jesper; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Extreme sea states, which the IEC 61400-3 (2008) standard requires for the ultimate limit state (ULS) analysis of offshore wind turbines are derived to establish the design basis for the conceptual layout of deep water floating offshore wind turbine foundations in hurricane affected areas...... data is required for a type specific conceptual design. ULS conditions for different return periods are developed, which can subsequently be applied in siteindependent analysis and conceptual design. Recordings provided by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), of hurricanes along...... for hurricane generates seas by Young (1998, 2003, and 2006), requiring maximum wind speeds, forward velocity and radius to maximum wind speed. An averaged radius to maximum sustained wind speeds, according to Hsu et al. (1998) and averaged forward speed of cyclonic storms are applied in the initial state...

  6. The influence of ship movements on the energy expenditure of fishermen. A study during a North Sea Voyage in calm weather

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breidahl, Tomas; Christensen, Michael; Johansen, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    recorded once an hour in four days. Estimation of energy expenditure were done with a body monitoring system (SenseWear Pro 3) carried as an armband placed on the right upper arm. Measurements of sea movements were obtained by a gyroscope placed in the vessels wheelhouse during fishing expeditions...

  7. Sea Level Acceleration in the China Seas

    OpenAIRE

    Yongcun Cheng; Tal Ezer; Hamlington, Benjamin D.

    2016-01-01

    While global mean sea level rise (SLR) and acceleration (SLA) are indicators of climate change and are informative regarding the current state of the climate, assessments of regional and local SLR are essential for policy makers responding to, and preparing for, changes in sea level. In this work, three acceleration detection techniques are used to demonstrate the robust SLA in the China Seas. Interannual to multidecadal sea level variations (periods >2 years), which are mainly related to ...

  8. Downhole Logging Measurements from IODP Expedition 313: an Overview and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inwood, J.; Lofi, J.; Scienceparty, E.

    2009-12-01

    Downhole geophysical measurements and images allow the characterization of the lithology and physical properties of the subsurface, thus making a powerful contribution to the evaluation of facies and sediment composition and to the recognition of key surfaces in siliciclastic successions. The mission-specific IODP Expedition 313 (May-July 2009) cored and logged sequences deposited on the New Jersey continental margin during the post-Eocene ice-house world. One of the aims of the Expedition is to evaluate sequence stratigraphic facies models that predict depositional environments, sediment compositions, and stratal geometries in response to sea-level change. 5800 m of wireline logging data were collected in three boreholes drilled to a composite total of 2062 m; here we present an overview of these data. Continuous through-pipe spectral gamma ray logs were acquired in each borehole and repeated in open hole intervals for calibration. Magnetic susceptibility, resistivity, sonic and acoustic image logs were obtained in open hole at key intervals and/or where borehole conditions allowed. Due to space limitations on the offshore platform, Exp313 cores were not split. Samples from core catchers, whole-round multi-sensor track measurements, vertical seismic profiles and these logging data comprise the full data set at the time of this writing. Preliminary analysis shows lateral and vertical changes in the physical properties of the sediments that enable us to distinguish depositional intervals at several scales (cms - tens of meters). Medium to high resolution acoustic images of the borehole walls reveal sedimentary characteristics even within intervals of low core recovery, and provide an accurate core-depth positioning of some key surfaces. Likewise, the continuous spectral gamma logs allow assessment of lithologies in intervals with incomplete core recovery, and show great promise of providing excellent log-core-seismic correlations once the cores are split and fully

  9. Decadal to millennial-scale variability in sea ice, primary productivity, and Pacific-Water inflow in the Chukchi/East Siberian Sea area (Arctic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; Matthiessen, Jens; Méheust, Marie; Nam, Seung-il; Niessen, Frank; Schade, Inka; Schreck, Michael; Wassmuth, Saskia; Xiao, Xiaotong

    2014-05-01

    Sea-ice is an essential component of the global climate system and, especially, the Polar Oceans. An alarming decrease in term of sea-ice concentration, thickness and duration, has been observed in the Arctic Ocean and its marginal seas over the last 30 years. Thus, understanding the processes controlling modern sea-ice variability and reconstructing paleo-sea-ice extent and variability in polar regions have become of great interest for the international scientific community during the last years. Here, we present new proxy records determined in sediment cores from the East Siberian Sea (RV Polarstern Expedition ARK-XXIII/3 in 2008; Core PS72/350) and from the Chukchi Sea (RV Araon Expedition ARA2B in 2011; Core ARA2B-1A, -1B). These records, including organic-geochemical bulk parameters, specific biomarkers (IP25 and sterols; PIP25; for recent reviews see Stein et al., 2012; Belt and Müller, 2013), biogenic opal, mineralogical data as well as high-resolution XRF scanning data, give new insight into the short-term (decadal-, centennial- to millennial-scale) variability in sea-ice, primary productivity and Pacific-Water inflow during Holocene times. Maximum concentrations of phytoplankton biomarkers and biogenic opal were determined between 8.5 and 4 kyrs. BP, suggesting enhanced primary productivity triggered by increased inflow of nutrient-rich Pacific Water (and/or an increased nutrient input due to an ice-edge position). Short-lived peak values in productivity might be related to strong pulses of Pacific-Water input during this time period (cf., Ortiz et al., 2009). A seasonal sea-ice cover was present in the Chukchi Sea throughout the last 10 kyrs. During the last 3-4 kyrs. BP, the sea-ice cover significantly extended. References Belt, S.T. and Müller, J., 2013. The Arctic sea ice biomarker IP25: a review of current understanding, recommendations for future research and applications in palaeo sea ice reconstructions. Quaternary Science Review 73, 9-25. Ortiz

  10. Report on the Fulmarus Glacialis-Expedition Bear Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van J.A.; Luttik, R.

    1981-01-01

    Bear Island, in Norwegian called and in Dutch ‘Bereneiland’, is situated in the Barents Sea at 74°25' N and 19°00' E. The island is rather isolated: about 450 km to the south the most nearby land is the Norwegian Nordkapp and to the north about 230 km of sea must be crossed before reaching the the

  11. Ozone Hole Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (Pre-Flight)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The first segment of this video gives an overview of the Ozone Hole Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition, an international effort using balloon payloads, ground based instruments, and airborne instruments to study ozone depletion and the hole in the ozone over Antarctica which occurs every spring. False color imagery taken from NASA's Nimbus 7 satellite which documents daily changes in ozone is also shown. The second segment of this video shows actual take-off and flight footage of the two aircraft used in the experiment: the DC-8 Flying Laboratory and the high flying ER-2.

  12. Community College's CAN do Research A Decade of Eclipse Expeditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saken, Jon M.

    2006-12-01

    Gale force winds, ravenous Tsetse flies and duct-tape equipment repairs. Now that's science! This talk will describe the triumphs and disasters over almost a decade of world-wide astronomical expeditions involving community college students, faculty and K-12 teachers chasing one of nature's most spectacular shows a total solar eclipse. The impact of this kind of field science on the participants and the wider community, along with other lessons learned along the way, will also be discussed, as we present ideas to encourage others to join in the fun.

  13. Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology Facility Expedites Manufacturing Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology facility (CoMET) at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) paves the way for innovative wind turbine components and accelerated manufacturing. Available for use by industry partners and university researchers, the 10,000-square-foot facility expands NREL's composite manufacturing research capabilities by enabling researchers to design, prototype, and test composite wind turbine blades and other components -- and then manufacture them onsite. Designed to work in conjunction with NREL's design, analysis, and structural testing capabilities, the CoMET facility expedites manufacturing innovation.

  14. Approaches to defining deltaic sustainability in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John W.; Agboola, Julius; Chen, Zhongyuan; D'Elia, Christopher; Forbes, Donald L.; Giosan, Liviu; Kemp, Paul; Kuenzer, Claudia; Lane, Robert R.; Ramachandran, Ramesh; Syvitski, James; Yañez-Arancibia, Alejandro

    2016-12-01

    Deltas are among the most productive and economically important of global ecosystems but unfortunately they are also among the most threatened by human activities. Here we discuss deltas and human impact, several approaches to defining deltaic sustainability and present a ranking of sustainability. Delta sustainability must be considered within the context of global biophysical and socioeconomic constraints that include thermodynamic limitations, scale and embeddedness, and constraints at the level of the biosphere/geosphere. The development, functioning, and sustainability of deltas are the result of external and internal inputs of energy and materials, such as sediments and nutrients, that include delta lobe development, channel switching, crevasse formation, river floods, storms and associated waves and storm surges, and tides and other ocean currents. Modern deltas developed over the past several thousand years with relatively stable global mean sea level, predictable material inputs from drainage basins and the sea, and as extremely open systems. Human activity has changed these conditions to make deltas less sustainable, in that they are unable to persist through time structurally or functionally. Deltaic sustainability can be considered from geomorphic, ecological, and economic perspectives, with functional processes at these three levels being highly interactive. Changes in this functioning can lead to either enhanced or diminished sustainability, but most changes have been detrimental. There is a growing understanding that the trajectories of global environmental change and cost of energy will make achieving delta sustainability more challenging and limit options for management. Several delta types are identified in terms of sustainability including those in arid regions, those with high and low energy-intensive management systems, deltas below sea level, tropical deltas, and Arctic deltas. Representative deltas are ranked on a sustainability range

  15. Non-Dive Activities for Expedition to the Deep Slope 2006 - Office of Ocean Exploration and Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Non-dive activities reported to the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research for the "Expedition to the Deep Slope 2006" expedition, May 7 through June 2, 2006....

  16. Les algues sont-elles une ressource marine à exploiter pour développer durablement l’espace caribéen ? Can algae be a sea resource to be exploited to have a sustainable development of Caribbean?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Litzler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available L’algue est une ressource marine peu étudiée par la géographie ; elle offre pourtant des potentialités de développement économique. Les macro-algues cultivées à des fins alimentaires sont une alternative à la pêche. Les micro-algues constituent une biomasse valorisable : molécule pharmaceutique, Oméga 3 et biocarburants. De ces différents usages naît la question suivante : les algues sont-elles une ressource marine à exploiter pour développer durablement les territoires de la zone intertropicale ? Nous présenterons tout d’abord l’algoculture à l’échelle mondiale en soulignant le faible poids de cette activité dans le bassin caribéen. Puis nous montrerons que l’algoculture s’inscrit dans un processus de développement durable en assurant un revenu à des communautés rurales (Petites Antilles. Enfin, dans une approche comparative (États-Unis, nous verrons que l’espace caribéen est une région de projets et d’aménagements durables qui a des atouts pour développer l’algoculture : exposition solaire, hautes températures, proximité de la recherche américaine.Algae as sea resource have not been largely explored in Geography, yet it offers the potential for economic development. Macro-algae are cultivated for food purposes and they can substitute for fishing. Micro-algae can be valued as biomass: “nutraceutics”, Omega 3, biofuel. These various utilizations raise a question: are algae a key to a sustainable development in intertropical islands? We shall present Algaculture on a global scale, while emphasizing its low importance in the Caribbean. Then we shall show how algaculture can be part of a process of sustainable development by providing revenue to rural communities (Lesser Antilles. Finally, in a comparative approach (with the US, we shall see that the Caribbean Region has a number of assets for algaculture that make it suitable for sustainable projects and infrastructures: solar exposure

  17. Assessing sustainable remediation frameworks using sustainability principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridsdale, D Reanne; Noble, Bram F

    2016-12-15

    The remediation industry has grown exponentially in recent decades. International organizations of practitioners and remediation experts have developed several frameworks for integrating sustainability into remediation projects; however, there has been limited attention to how sustainability is approached and operationalized in sustainable remediation frameworks and practices - or whether sustainability plays any meaningful role at all in sustainable remediation. This paper examines how sustainability is represented in remediation frameworks and the guidance provided for practical application. Seven broad sustainability principles and review criteria are proposed and applied to a sample of six international remediation frameworks. Not all review criteria were equally satisfied and none of the frameworks fully met all criteria; however, the best performing frameworks were those identified as sustainability remediation frameworks. Intra-generational equity was addressed by all frameworks. Integrating social, economic and biophysical components beyond triple-bottom-line indicators was explicitly addressed only by the sustainable remediation frameworks. No frameworks provided principle- or rule-based guidance for dealing with trade-offs in sustainability decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Organizing for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William M.; Hamburger, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    A successful campus sustainability effort catalyzes broad engagement of the campus community and integration of sustainability principles into the academic and operational components of campus life. Although many universities have embraced sustainability as a new core value, others have been more sluggish in adopting sustainability principles to…

  19. Technology and sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Boersema, J.J.; Tellegen, E.; Cremers, A.

    2011-01-01

    In ten essays, this book addresses a broad range of issues related to the interplay of sustainability and technology. How do population growth and technology relate to sustainable development? Can globalization be reconciled with sustainable development? Is sustainability a subjective or an

  20. Results of the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition to Ambon . Part 1. General Account and List of Stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strack, H.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report gives a general account of the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition to Ambon (Moluccas, Indonesia) held in 1990. The primary objective of the expedition was to collect marine invertebrates on the localities mentioned by Rumphius (1627-1702) in his book "D'Amboinsche Rariteitkamer" (1705).

  1. The Indigo V Indian Ocean Expedition: a prototype for citizen microbial oceanography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauro, Frederico; Senstius, Svend Jacob; Cullen, Jay

    2014-01-01

    sample acquisition. The ultimate goal of the Indigo V Expedition is to create a working blue-print for ’citizen microbial oceanography’.We will present the preliminary outcomes of the first Indigo V expedition, from Capetown to Singapore, highlighting the challenges and opportunities of such endeavours....

  2. Zoological results of the Dutch Scientific Expedition to Central-Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidth de Jeude, van Th.W.

    1905-01-01

    The following pages contain an enumeration of the lizards collected in Borneo by the Dutch Borneo-Expedition, of which expedition Mr. J. Büttikofer was the zoologist, and also of the lizards collected by Dr. A. W. Nieuwenhuis during his travels in the interior of this island. The collections made

  3. Zoological results of the Dutch New Guinea expedition, 1939. No. 51) The Birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, G.C.A.

    1953-01-01

    The present paper is the report on a collection of birds brought together during the expedition of the "Koninklijk Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap" to the Wissel Lake area in 1939. The zoologist of this expedition Prof. Dr. H. Boschma collected with the assistance of two mantris of the

  4. 42 CFR 422.572 - Timeframes and notice requirements for expedited organization determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Organization Determinations and Appeals § 422.572 Timeframes and notice requirements for expedited organization... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Timeframes and notice requirements for expedited organization determinations. 422.572 Section 422.572 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES...

  5. 42 CFR 423.572 - Timeframes and notice requirements for expedited coverage determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and notice requirements for expedited coverage determinations. (a) Timeframe for determination and... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Timeframes and notice requirements for expedited coverage determinations. 423.572 Section 423.572 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES...

  6. 75 FR 17453 - International Product Change-Global Reseller Expedited Package Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE International Product Change--Global Reseller Expedited Package Contracts AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice... Global Reseller Expedited Package Contracts to the Competitive Products List pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642...

  7. 78 FR 33452 - International Product Change-Global Reseller Expedited Package Contracts 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE International Product Change--Global Reseller Expedited Package Contracts 2 AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice... Commission to add Global Reseller Expedited Package Contracts 2 to the Competitive Products List. DATES...

  8. Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from Indonesia collected by the Siboga (1899-1900) and Snellius II expeditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguado, M.T.; San Martín, G.; ten Hove, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty seven samples of syllids (Annelida: Polychaeta) from Indonesia collected during the Siboga Expedition (1899-1900) and five during the Snellius II Expedition (1984) have been examined. Material from several other museums and Institutions has also been included. Unpublished identifications of

  9. 75 FR 26343 - Request for Expedited Certification and Type Approval of Amtrak Advanced Civil Speed Enforcement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Request for Expedited Certification and Type Approval of Amtrak Advanced... for expedited certification and type approval of the Amtrak ACSES. ACSES has been deployed on the... party seeking certification and type approval of ACSES, the regulatory provisions involved, the nature...

  10. Potato germplasm collecting expedition to Mexico in 1997 : taxonomy and new germplasm resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spooner, D.M.; Rivera-Pena, A.; Berg, van den R.G.; Schueler, K.

    2000-01-01

    Wild potato (Solanum sect. Petota) germplasm has been collected in Mexico on nine major expeditions, as determined by 20 collections or more from each expedition currently at the United States potato genebank, the National Research Support Program-6 (NRSP-6). These have resulted in 609 accessions

  11. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming...

  12. Sustainable Investment. Literature Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weda, J.; Kerste, M.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-08-15

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), or sustainability at the company level, entails incorporating ecological (environmental stakeholders) and social aspects (stakeholders other than shareholders and environmental stakeholders) when doing business. Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) concerns sustainability at the investment, fund or portfolio level and involves screening the sustainability of companies before investing in them. This report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on 'sustainable investment', amongst others addressing the economic rationale for CSR and SRI. This report is part of a set of SEO-reports on finance and sustainability. The other reports deal with: Financing the Transition to Sustainable Energy; Carbon Trading; Innovations in financing environmental and social sustainability.

  13. Early scientific expeditions and local encounters: new perspectives on Carsten Niebuhr and 'The Arabian Journey'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    scholarly expeditions and voyages from the eighteenth and early nineteenth century, placing the Danish expedition in a broad context of early scientific expeditions. This was a time when the coastlines of continents, except in the Pacific and the Polar regions, were reasonably well known. Yet scientific...... knowledge about natural history and detailed geography of the interior of the continents other than Europe, as well as scholarly understanding of foreign cultures, both ancient and contemporary, was still limited. Increasing focus on land-based travels in the eighteenth century and onwards meant more...... and longer encounters with local populations. Most studies in this volume focus on expeditions that involved contacts between local people and travelling European scientists and scholars. Others examine the scholarly questions which the scientific expeditions and travellers were sent out to solve and how...

  14. Polar poisons: did Botulism doom the Franklin expedition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, B Zane

    2003-01-01

    In 1845 the Franklin expedition left London with 2 ships and 134 men on board in an attempt to find the route through the Northwest Passage. The ships were built with state-of-the-art technology for their day, but provisioned with supplies from the lowest bidder. After taking on fresh provisions in the Whalefish Islands, off the coast of Greenland, the entire crew was never heard from again. Graves found on remote Beechey Island indicate that three able-bodied seamen died during the first winter. A note written on a ship's log, later found in a cairn, indicate that the expedition's leader, Sir John Franklin, died during the second winter entrapped on the ice, by which time 24 men had also perished. The remaining crew failed in their attempt to walk out of the Arctic by an overland route. In 1981 Owen Beattie, from the University of Alberta, exhumed the remains of the sailors from the three graves on Beechey Island. Elevated lead levels were found in all three sailors. While lead poisoning has been a leading theory of the cause of the crew's deaths, blamed on the crudely tinned provisions the ships carried with them from England, chronic lead exposure may only have weakened the crew, not necessarily killed them. One of three exhumed sailors also had in his intestine the spores of an unspecified Clostridium species. The theory put forth by this article is that Botulism, type E, which is endemic in the Arctic, may have been responsible for their deaths.

  15. Expedition 8 Crew Interviews: Alexander Y. Kaleri - FE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Russian cosmonaut Alexander Y. Kaleri, Flight Engineer on Expedition 8 to the International Space Station (ISS), answers interview questions on this video, either himself or with the help of an interpreter. The questions cover: 1) The goal of the expedition; 2) The place in history of Mir; 3) The reaction to the loss of Columbia in Houston; 4) Why the rewards of spaceflight are worth the risks; 5) Why he decided to become a cosmonaut; 6) His memory of Yuri Gagarin's first flight; 7) What happens on a Soyuz capsule during launch and flight; 8) Are Soyuz maneuvers automatic or manual; 8) How the ISS science mission will be advanced during his stay; 9) The responsibilities of a Flight Engineer onboard the ISS; 10) Extravehicular activity (EVA) plans at that time; 11) The Shuttle Return to Flight and his preference for a Shuttle or Soyuz landing; 12) Why the last Soyuz landing was too rough; 13) The most valueable contribution of the ISS program.

  16. 21 CFR 56.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... categories of research that may be reviewed by the IRB through an expedited review procedure. The list will... uses an expedited review procedure shall adopt a method for keeping all members advised of research... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of...

  17. 49 CFR 11.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor... an expedited review procedure shall adopt a method for keeping all members advised of research... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of...

  18. Science at the ends of the Earth: astrobiology field expeditions as outreach tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Linda

    martian meteorite, evidence of past and perhaps even present liquid water on Mars, the likelihood of a liquid water ocean on Europa, the possibility of liquid water beneath the surface of Titan, observations of a growing number of extrasolar planets, and identification of new forms of microbial life in an ever-widening range of extreme Earth environments. Consequently, in the 21st century the pace of robotic planetary exploration is speeding up and scientific and public attention is increasingly focusing on astrobiology research, especially the search for signs of life on Mars and in other environments in our solar system. NASA's ASTEP program is sponsoring field campaigns to test science strategies and robotic technologies that could be useful in conducting astrobiological investigations in planetary environments, focusing on Mars and Europa. Public interest in astrobiology research is substantial, and advances in the field are rapid. Thus the NASA Astrobiology Program encourages Principal Investigators to incorporate communication, education, and public outreach initiatives in their research plans. NASA ASTEP projects provide especially good opportunities for communication, education, and outreach. The work of ASTEP projects takes place in remote terrestrial environments, places typically inaccessible to "civilians": the Norwegian protectorate of Svalbard, above the Arctic Circle; the far-northern reaches of the Arctic Ocean; the dry valleys of Antarctica; deep-sea hydrothermal vent systems and other unmapped underwater environments. ASTEP projects involve human researchers working with robotic adjuncts. ASTEP teams often combine include senior and student researchers. Some have even included "embedded" journalists and public affairs officers. ASTEP expeditions typically unfold in visually interesting, sometimes stunning, physical environments. ASTEP expeditions are virtually always intensive learning experiences for their researchers, and thus they provide good

  19. The Governance of Multi-Use Platforms at Sea for Energy Production and Aquaculture: Challenges for Policy Makers in European Seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, Marian; Soma, Katrine; Koundouri, Phoebe; Burg, Van Den Sander; Gerritsen, Alwin; Rockmann, C.

    2016-01-01

    European seas are encountering an upsurge in competing marine activities and infrastructures. Traditional exploitation such as fisheries, tourism, transportation, and oil production are accompanied by new sustainable economic activities such as offshore windfarms, aquaculture, and tidal and wave

  20. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    How can action research further new research orientations towards sustainability? This book, empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating on urban sustainability, answers this question...... by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming...

  1. A deep sea community at the Kebrit brine pool in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Vestheim, Hege

    2015-02-26

    Approximately 25 deep sea brine pools occur along the mid axis of the Red Sea. These hypersaline, anoxic, and acidic environments have previously been reported to host diverse microbial communities. We visited the Kebrit brine pool in April 2013 and found macrofauna present just above the brine–seawater interface (~1465 m). In particular, inactive sulfur chimneys had associated epifauna of sea anemones, sabellid type polychaetes, and hydroids, and infauna consisting of capitellid polychaetes, gastropods of the genus Laeviphitus (fam. Elachisinidae), and top snails of the family Cocculinidae. The deep Red Sea generally is regarded as extremely poor in benthos. We hypothesize that the periphery along the Kebrit holds increased biomass and biodiversity that are sustained by prokaryotes associated with the brine pool or co-occurring seeps.

  2. Norwegian North Polar Expedition 1893-1896: Oceanographic Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains water depth, temperature, specific gravity, salinity, and density measurements from the North Polar Basin and the Barents Sea, gathered by...

  3. Sustaining Rural Communities through Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikerd, John

    A 5-year collaborative project between Missouri, Michigan State, and Nebraska Universities to provide new opportunities for rural community self-development through sustainable agriculture had mixed results. This happened because community members did not understand the principles of sustainability, and because the extension education system was…

  4. The deep-sea under global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Snelgrove, Paul V R

    2017-06-05

    The deep ocean encompasses 95% of the oceans' volume and is the largest and least explored biome of Earth's Biosphere. New life forms are continuously being discovered. The physiological mechanisms allowing organisms to adapt to extreme conditions of the deep ocean (high pressures, from very low to very high temperatures, food shortage, lack of solar light) are still largely unknown. Some deep-sea species have very long life-spans, whereas others can tolerate toxic compounds at high concentrations; these characteristics offer an opportunity to explore the specialized biochemical and physiological mechanisms associated with these responses. Widespread symbiotic relationships play fundamental roles in driving host functions, nutrition, health, and evolution. Deep-sea organisms communicate and interact through sound emissions, chemical signals and bioluminescence. Several giants of the oceans hunt exclusively at depth, and new studies reveal a tight connection between processes in the shallow water and some deep-sea species. Limited biological knowledge of the deep-sea limits our capacity to predict future response of deep-sea organisms subject to increasing human pressure and changing global environmental conditions. Molecular tools, sensor-tagged animals, in situ and laboratory experiments, and new technologies can enable unprecedented advancement of deep-sea biology, and facilitate the sustainable management of deep ocean use under global change. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Wood-destroying soft rot fungi in the historic expedition huts of Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Robert A; Held, Benjamin W; Jurgens, Joel A; McNew, Douglas L; Harrington, Thomas C; Duncan, Shona M; Farrell, Roberta L

    2004-03-01

    Three expedition huts in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica, built between 1901 and 1911 by Robert F. Scott and Ernest Shackleton, sheltered and stored the supplies for up to 48 men for 3 years during their explorations and scientific investigation in the South Pole region. The huts, built with wood taken to Antarctica by the early explorers, have deteriorated over the past decades. Although Antarctica has one of the coldest and driest environments on earth, microbes have colonized the wood and limited decay has occurred. Some wood in contact with the ground contained distinct microscopic cavities within secondary cell walls caused by soft rot fungi. Cadophora spp. could be cultured from decayed wood and other woods sampled from the huts and artifacts and were commonly associated with the soft rot attack. By using internal transcribed spacer sequences of ribosomal DNA and morphological characteristics, several species of Cadophora were identified, including C. malorum, C. luteo-olivacea, and C. fastigiata. Several previously undescribed Cadophora spp. also were found. At the Cape Evans and Cape Royds huts, Cadophora spp. commonly were isolated from wood in contact with the ground but were not always associated with soft rot decay. Pure cultures of Cadophora used in laboratory decay studies caused dark staining of all woods tested and extensive soft rot in Betula and Populus wood. The presence of Cadophora species, but only limited decay, suggests there is no immediate threat to the structural integrity of the huts. These fungi, however, are widely found in wood from the historic huts and have the capacity to cause extensive soft rot if conditions that are more conducive to decay become common.

  6. Persistent organic pollutants in biota samples collected during the Ymer-80 expedition to the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Kylin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available During the 1980 expedition to the Arctic with the icebreaker Ymer, a number of vertebrate species were sampled for determination of persistent organic pollutants. Samples of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus, n=34, glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus, n=8, common eider (Somateria mollissima, n=10, Brünnich's guillemot (Uria lomvia, n=9, ringed seal (Pusa hispida, n=2 and polar bear (Ursus maritimus, n=2 were collected. With the exception of Brünnich's guillemot, there was a marked contamination difference of birds from western as compared to eastern/northern Svalbard. Samples in the west contained a larger number of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners and also polychlorinated terphenyls, indicating local sources. Brünnich's guillemots had similar pollutant concentrations in the west and east/north; possibly younger birds were sampled in the west. In Arctic char, pollutant profiles from lake Linnévatn (n=5, the lake closest to the main economic activities in Svalbard, were similar to profiles in Arctic char from the Shetland Islands (n=5, but differed from lakes to the north and east in Svalbard (n=30. Arctic char samples had higher concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs than the marine species of birds and mammals, possibly due to accumulation via snowmelt. Compared to the Baltic Sea, comparable species collected in Svalbard had lower concentrations of PCB and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, but similar concentrations indicating long-range transport of hexachlorobenzene, HCHs and cyclodiene pesticides. In samples collected in Svalbard in 1971, the concentrations of PCB and DDT in Brünnich's guillemot (n=7, glaucous gull (n=2 and polar bear (n=2 were similar to the concentrations found in 1980.

  7. Coastal seas as resource for Blue Growth - SmartSea project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilainen, Aarno; Alvi, Kimmo; Boman, Anton; Hämäläinen, Jyrki; Kaskela, Anu; Rantataro, Jyrki; Vallius, Henry; Virtasalo, Joonas

    2017-04-01

    Blue growth is a long term strategy of the European Union (EU) to enhance the sustainable growth of the maritime sector. Our surrounding seas have been drivers for the European economy for a long time, but still they have great potential for further exploiting of natural resources and economic growth. Especially if the growth can be achieved in an environmentally sustainable way, benefits are obvious. It has been estimated that improvement of the state of the Baltic Sea would until 2030 create 900 000 jobs in the whole Baltic Sea area, mainly in Blue Tech, tourism, real estate and building businesses (Dahlgren et al. 2015). However, coastal seas already experience multiple stressors like off-shore construction, pollution, eutrophication, shipping, over-fishing, and climate change. In order to obtain sustainable Blue Growth, it is necessary to localize and assess the current maritime activities, estimate their growth potential, and investigate their present and future effects on each other and on the marine environment. The purpose of the SmartSea project is to support the growth of commercial marine activities in the Gulf of Bothnia region, in the northern Baltic Sea. The Gulf of Bothnia is an essential resource in terms of fish farming and wind power, for example, and it is also possible to make use of the geological resources of the gulf. Moreover, the rapid growth of the commercial marine activities and the consequences of the climate change may lead to conflicts between the different activities and harm the marine ecosystem of the Gulf of Bothnia. The SmartSea project aims to identify these risks and find solutions for the sustainable use of the sea. SmartSea project is funded by the Strategic Research Council of Academy of Finland, grant No: 292 985. The project will last for six years (2015-2020) and its funding totals nearly 8 million euros. The project involves close to 40 researchers from eight different institutions: the Finnish Meteorological Institute

  8. Sustainable Marketing : The Importance of Being a Sustainable Business

    OpenAIRE

    Reutlinger, Janina

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with sustainable marketing, as well as the necessity for more sustainability. The purpose of this thesis was to determine the importance of sustainable marketing for companies. The theoretical part is divided into sustainability and sustainable marketing. Sustainability covers current issues and sustainable development, which form a background for a better understanding of sustainable marketing. Sustainable marketing includes a definition of the concept, as well as susta...

  9. Observational facts of sustained departure plateau vortexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuhua; Gao, Wenliang; Peng, Jun; Xiao, Yuhua

    2014-02-01

    By using the twice-daily atmospheric observation data from 1998 to 2012, station rainfall data, Tropical Rainfall Measure Mission (TRMM) data, as well as the plateau vortex and shear line year book, characteristics of the sustained departure plateau vortexes (SDPVs) are analyzed. Some new useful observational facts and understanding are obtained about the SDPV activities. The following results are obtained. (1) The active period of SDPVs is from June to August, most in July, unlike that of the unsustained departure plateau vortexes (UDPVs), which have same occurrence frequencies in the three summer months. (2) The SDPVs, generated mainly in the Qumalai neighborhood and situated in a sheared surrounding, move eastward or northeastward, while the UDPVs are mainly led by the upper-level trough, and move eastward or southeastward. (3) The SDPVs influence wide areas of China, even far to the Korean Peninsula, Japan, and Vietnam. (4) The SDPVs change their intensities and properties on the way to the east. Most of them become stronger and produce downpour or sustained regional rainstorms to the south of Yellow River. (5) The longer the SDPV sustains, the more baroclinity it has. (6) When an SDPV moves into the sea, its central pressure descends and rainfall increases in all probability. (7) An SDPV might spin over the bend of the Yellow River when there exists a tropical cyclone in the East China Sea. It could also move oppositely to a landed tropical low pressure originated from the sea to the east of Taiwan or from the South China Sea.

  10. Okeanos Explorer 2014 Gulf of Mexico Expedition: engaging and connecting with diverse and geographically dispersed audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. W.; Elliott, K.; Lobecker, E.; McKenna, L.; Haynes, S.; Crum, E.; Gorell, F.

    2014-12-01

    From February to May 2014, NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer conducted a telepresence-enabled ocean exploration expedition addressing NOAA and National deepwater priorities in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. The community-driven expedition connected diverse and geographically dispersed audiences including scientists from industry, academia, and government, and educators, students, and the general public. Expedition planning included input from the ocean science and management community, and was executed with more than 70 scientists and students from 14 U.S. states participating from shore in real time. Training the next generation permeated operations: a mapping internship program trained undergraduate and graduate students; an ROV mentorship program trained young engineers to design, build and operate the system; and undergraduate through doctoral students around the country collaborated with expedition scientists via telepresence. Online coverage of the expedition included background materials, daily updates, and mission logs that received more than 100,000 visits by the public. Live video feeds of operations received more than 700,000 views online. Additionally, professional development workshops hosted in multiple locations throughout the spring introduced educators to the Okeanos Explorer Educational Materials Collection and the live expedition, and taught them how to use the website and education resources in their classrooms. Social media furthered the reach of the expedition to new audiences, garnered thousands of new followers and provided another medium for real-time interactions with the general public. Outreach continued through live interactions with museums and aquariums, Exploration Command Center tours, outreach conducted by partners, and media coverage in more than 190 outlets in the U.S. and Europe. Ship tours were conducted when the ship came in to port to engage local scientists, ocean managers, and educators. After the expedition, data and products were

  11. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    Analysing processes of social learning this work addresses how action research can further new research orientations towards sustainability. Empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating...... on urban sustainability the need to move towards sustainability at societal level is conceptualised as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By understanding sustainability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously to renew itself without...... eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming to provide local citizens...

  12. Handbook of sustainable engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kun-Mo

    2013-01-01

    "The efficient utilization of energy, sustainable use of natural resources, and large-scale adoption of sustainable technologies is the key to a sustainable future. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering provides tools that will help us achieve these goals". Nobel Prize Winner Dr. R.K. Pauchauri, Chairman, UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change As global society confronts the challenges of diminishing resources, ecological degradation, and climate change, engineers play a crucial role designing and building technologies and products that fulfil our needs for utility and sustainability. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering equips readers with the context and the best practices derived from both academic research and practical examples of successful implementations of sustainable technical solutions. The handbook’s content revolves around the two themes, new ways of thinking and new business models, including sustainable production, products, service systems and consumption while addressing key asse...

  13. FORUM: Is Ecotourism Sustainable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall

    1997-07-01

    / It is legitimate to ask whether and in what form tourism might contribute to sustainable development. This is not the same as sustainable tourism which, as a single-sector approach to development, may overlook important linkages with other sectors. If tourism is to contribute to sustainable development, then it must be economically viable, ecologically sensitive and culturally appropriate. Ecotourism is often advocated as being a sustainable form of tourism but imprecision in terminology clouds basic issues and there are strong economic, ecological, and cultural reasons for believing that, even in its purest forms, ecotourism is likely to present substantial challenges to destination areas, particularly if it competes for scarce resources and displaces existing uses and users. Sustainable tourism and ecotourism are not synonyms, many forms of ecotourism may not be sustainable, and if ecotourism is to contribute to sustainable development, then careful planning and management will be required.KEY WORDS: Ecotourism; Sustainable development; Development; Tourism

  14. Livestock biodiversity and sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, I.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable development equally includes environmental protection including biodiversity, economic growth and social equity, both within and between generations. The paper first reviews different aspects related to the sustainable use of livestock biodiversity and property regimes that influence

  15. Sustainable Public Bids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil César Costa de Paula

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will discuss the issue of sustainability in public procurement, given that the government in Brazil is constituted as a great promoter of economic development and needs to adapt its acquisitions worldwide sustainability agenda.

  16. Physiologic adaptation changes of the "Bering Bridge" expedition participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidaraliyev, A A; Maximov, A L; Mala, T

    1993-04-01

    Cardiorespiratory measurements were repeatedly performed on indigenous and Caucasian Soviet and American male team members of the Bering Bridge expedition which covered approximately 1280 km over a 61 day period. Significant baseline differences in cardiorespiratory functions at rest and during submaximal cycle ergometer exercise were noted between racial groups. Indigenous members had significantly lower mean vital lung capacity and oxygen consumption levels during submaximal exercise, but a greater systolic blood pressure response to exercise. The energy cost during submaximal work decreased during the trek in both groups, but was marked in the Caucasians, suggesting that the indigenous subjects were better adapted at baseline to the Arctic environment. Overall, there was stabilization of functional responses in four of seven parameters studied, although differences between racial groups remained the same.

  17. ISS Expedition 1 Crew Interviews: Sergei K. Krikalev

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Live footage of a preflight interview with Flight Engineer Sergei K. Krikalev is seen. The interview addresses many different questions including why Krikalev became a cosmonaut, the events that led to his interest, the transition from being an engineer to being selected as a Russian cosmonaut. Other interesting information that this one-on-one interview discusses are the main goals of the first Expedition Crew, their scheduled docking with the International Space Station (ISS), making the ISS ready for human inhabitance, and all the specifics that will make his living arrangements difficult. Krikalev mentions his responsibilities during the much-anticipated two-day flight to the ISS, as well as the possibility of his space-walk. Krikalev also discusses the crew's first tasks upon entrance including other scheduled tasks for the first week, docking from cargo ships, and spacecraft delivering equipment or performing Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA). He explains his opinion of the implications of having human beings in space.

  18. Expedited Demolition Notification for 2nd Quarter CY 2012 Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, Catherine L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    The National Nuclear Security Administration and Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS) (collectively the Permittees) are informing the New Mexico Environment Department Hazardous Waste Bureau (NMED-HWB) of the need to expedite the demolition of structures summarized in the enclosures. These structures have been identified to receive funding and be demolished prior to the 3rd Quarter Demolition Notification (June 30, 2012). This letter is a follow up to the email that was sent to the NMED-HWB on April 17, 2012. The enclosures attached to this letter satisfy the reporting requirements as outlined in Section 1.17 of the LANL Hazardous Facility Waste Permit (Permit). Demolition of buildings that appear on this list will not occur until 30 days after NMED has received this notification.

  19. Expediting the transfer of evidence into practice: building clinical partnerships*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Tamara; Gagnon, Anita J.

    2000-01-01

    A librarian/clinician partnership was fostered in one hospital through the formation of the Evidence-based Practice Committee, with an ulterior goal of facilitating the transfer of evidence into practice. The paper will describe barriers to evidence-based practice and outline the committee's strategies for overcoming these barriers, including the development and promotion of a Web-based guide to evidence-based practice specifically designed for clinicians (health professionals). Educational strategies for use of the Web-based guide will also be addressed. Advantages of this partnership are that the skills of librarians in meeting the needs of clinicians are maximized. The evidence-based practice skills of clinicians are honed and librarians make a valuable contribution to the knowledgebase of the clinical staff. The knowledge acquired through the partnership by both clinicians and librarians will increase the sophistication of the dialogue between the two groups and in turn will expedite the transfer of evidence into practice. PMID:10928710

  20. The Paran\\'a Ra'anga expedition

    CERN Document Server

    Gangui, Alejandro; Vena, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Paran\\'a Ra'anga (the image of Paran\\'a, in Guaran\\'i) is the name of a cultural and scientific expedition that traveled the rivers: R\\'io de la Plata, Paran\\'a and Paraguay, from Buenos Aires to Asunci\\'on, during March 2010. The project brought together some forty scientists and artists from three countries in a slow and enriching cruise, putting in active contact actors from different backgrounds and disciplines -which usually run separately- in the framework of an unusual space-time experience. The project recovers the historical tradition of the trip as an instrument of knowledge and collaboration between the arts and sciences, necessary to build new ways of seeing and understanding the river and its banks. This article reports on the motivations of this project and its projection.

  1. Expedited partner treatment for sexually transmitted infections: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Patricia; Hogben, Matthew

    2011-04-01

    To date, seven randomized trials have evaluated the efficacy of expedited partner treatment (EPT). These trials have included heterosexual men and women and examine EPT for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea, and Trichomonas vaginalis. These studies demonstrated either superiority for percentage of partners being treated, for a reduction in repeat infections, or cost benefit for EPT compared to the standard partner referral method and reported no adverse events. In the United States, although the number of states where EPT is legal continues to grow, adoption of EPT remains low. Provider concerns about liability and payment issues continue to be a barrier to implementation of EPT. More translational research is needed to improve adoption by the players involved: index patients, partners, providers, and payers.

  2. Food on the Edge: The future of food is a sustainable future

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He emphasised the importance of teaching the next generation that the sea is an invaluable resource that can supply the future needs of the world if managed sustainably, but that currently, ten nations control the world's fisheries. One man who is very familiar with the oceans is Roderick. Sloan, a sea urchin diver based in ...

  3. Indicators for environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    . In this study, we reviewed indicators applied in life cycle assessment (LCA), planetary boundary framework (PB), and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) developed under United Nation. The aim is to 1) identify their applications and relevant decision context; 2) Review their indicators and categorize them......Decision making on sustainable consumption and production requires scientifically based information on sustainability. Different environmental sustainability targets exist for specific decision problems. To observe how well these targets are met, relevant environmental indicators are needed...

  4. Dumping of radioactive waste and investigation of contamination in the Kara Sea. Results from 3 years of investigations (1992-1994) in the Kara Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, P. [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway); Foeyn, L. [Norsk Inst. for Vannforskning, Oslo (Norway); Nikitin, A.I. [SPA ``Typhoon``, Roshydromet (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    The report summarises the results obtained from the joint Russian-Norwegian investigation concerning the consequences of dumping of radioactive waste in the Kara Sea. Three expeditions were undertaken to the Kara Sea and the present dumping sites for radioactive waste. Samples of water, sediments and biota were collected and analysed. An impact and risk assessment was performed, based on the information provided through the joint cooperation. Enhanced levels and artificially produced radionuclides in the sediments collected in the very close vicinity of almost all localised dumped objects, demonstrate that leakage occur. No contribution from dumped radioactive waste was observed in the open Kara Sea. Due to the potential for leakage from the dumped waste in the future and the presence of other potential sources in the area, a regular monitoring programme is highly recommended. 65 refs., 42 figs., 16 tabs.

  5. Regional ocean-colour chlorophyll algorithms for the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Brewin, Robert J.W.

    2015-05-18

    The Red Sea is a semi-enclosed tropical marine ecosystem that stretches from the Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aqaba in the north, to the Gulf of Aden in the south. Despite its ecological and economic importance, its biological environment is relatively unexplored. Satellite ocean-colour estimates of chlorophyll concentration (an index of phytoplankton biomass) offer an observational platform to monitor the health of the Red Sea. However, little is known about the optical properties of the region. In this paper, we investigate the optical properties of the Red Sea in the context of satellite ocean-colour estimates of chlorophyll concentration. Making use of a new merged ocean-colour product, from the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative, and in situ data in the region, we test the performance of a series of ocean-colour chlorophyll algorithms. We find that standard algorithms systematically overestimate chlorophyll when compared with the in situ data. To investigate this bias we develop an ocean-colour model for the Red Sea, parameterised to data collected during the Tara Oceans expedition, that estimates remote-sensing reflectance as a function of chlorophyll concentration. We used the Red Sea model to tune the standard chlorophyll algorithms and the overestimation in chlorophyll originally observed was corrected. Results suggest that the overestimation was likely due to an excess of CDOM absorption per unit chlorophyll in the Red Sea when compared with average global conditions. However, we recognise that additional information is required to test the influence of other potential sources of the overestimation, such as aeolian dust, and we discuss uncertainties in the datasets used. We present a series of regional chlorophyll algorithms for the Red Sea, designed for a suite of ocean-colour sensors, that may be used for further testing.

  6. Sea Turtle Interaction Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea Turtle Interaction Report is a report sent out in pdf format to authorized individuals that summarizes sea turtle interactions in the longline fishery. The...

  7. Sea Lion Diet Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions pup and breed at four of the nine Channel Islands in southern California. Since 1981, SWFSC MMTD has been conducting a diet study of sea lions...

  8. Effect of a high-altitude expedition to a Himalayan peak (Pumori, 7,161 m) on plasma and erythrocyte antioxidant profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, José; Ascensão, António; Marques, Franklim; Soares, José M C; Ferreira, Rita; Neuparth, Maria J; Duarte, José A

    2005-03-01

    The effects of a high-altitude exposure were studied in six mountaineers who spent 3 weeks at an altitude range between 5,250 and 7,161 m after 1 week in an acclimatization trek (2,800-5,250 m). Blood drawn from the antecubital vein was collected at sea level 1 day before and 1 day after the expedition to analyse some haematological variables [haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Htc) and red blood cell (RBC) count], erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (Gr)] and membrane fatty acid profile [mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), saturated fatty acids (SFA), trans fatty acids (TRANS)]. Moreover, total antioxidant status (TAS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), thiol protein groups (SH), SOD, GPx and Gr were measured in plasma. High-altitude exposure induced polycythaemia, with significant increases in RBC count (5.26%), Hb concentration (4.83%) and Htc (6.26%). Furthermore, a significant increase in plasma TBARS, SOD and Gr was observed after the expedition, whereas SH, TAS and GPx decreased. Erythrocyte glutathione-cycle-related antioxidant enzyme activity was upregulated, whereas SOD activity was maintained after the expedition. In addition, despite the unchanged (MUFA+PUFA)/SFA ratio, the membrane erythrocyte fatty acid content showed a significant increase in PUFAs and a decrease in TRANS, suggesting enhanced membrane fluidity. In conclusion, it seems that high-altitude exposure, besides quantitative variations in RBC expression, induced plasma oxidative stress and damage, and significant changes in erythrocyte components, namely in antioxidant enzyme activity and membrane fatty acid profile that might modify RBC functionality.

  9. Sustainable Learning Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Luis E.; Esquer, Javier; Munguia, Nora E.; Moure-Eraso, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to debate how companies may better become a sustainable learning organization by offering the most used and insightful concepts of sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: Through literature review, learning organization and sustainability perspectives are explored and compared. Findings: Learning…

  10. Measuring Educational Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvanathan, Rani G.

    2013-01-01

    There are many definitions that are attributable to the meaning of sustainability. Sustainability can be viewed as long-lasting, effective result of a project, venture, action, or investment without consuming additional future resources. Because of the wide nature of its applicability, a universal measure of sustainability is hard to come by. This…

  11. ORNL Annual Sustainability Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nichols, Teresa A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-02-01

    As described in this report, we have made substantial progress across the 25 roadmaps of the Sustainable Campus Initiative. The report also outlines our plans to continue integrating sustainable practices into the planning, execution, and evaluation of all ORNL activities. We appreciate your interest in our journey to sustainability, and we welcome your comments, questions, and suggestions.

  12. Toward sustainable logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soysal, Mehmet; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M.

    2017-01-01

    The fast evolution of sustainability leads to the development of a new fast-growing concept called sustainable logistics management. This research addresses recent business trends and challenges in logistics and their implications for sustainable logistics management. Additionally, we discuss policy

  13. LCA and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltesen, Andreas; Bjørn, Anders

    2017-01-01

    LCA is often presented as a sustainability assessment tool. This chapter analyses the relationship between LCA and sustainability. This is done by first outlining the history of the sustainability concept, which gained momentum with the Brundtland Commission’s report ‘Our Common Future report ’ i...

  14. Lean maturity, lean sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Matthiesen, Rikke; Nielsen, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Although lean is rapidly growing in popularity, its implementation is far from problem free and companies may experience difficulties sustaining long term success. In this paper, it is suggested that sustainable lean requires attention to both performance improvement and capability development...... that support lean capability development and consequently, lean sustainability....

  15. Food sustainability: diverging interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiking, H.; de Boer, J.

    2004-01-01

    The concept of sustainability in general and food sustainability, in particular, entails many aspects and many interpretations. During a conference on food sustainability a broad, multidisciplinary picture was painted and many key issues were dealt with, from ecology, economy and society. In

  16. Transferring Education for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Umer Farooque, T. K.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability stands for sustaining the past, meeting needs of the present without compromising the ability to meet future needs. It should meet the individual and social needs, present and future needs local and global needs. A sustainable education that meets this requirements surely be a transferable education; an education that transfers from…

  17. Sustainability: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormsley, W. E.

    1990-01-01

    This article introduces a group of six papers on sustainability of programs for visually handicapped persons in developing countries. Sustainability is discussed from an anthropological perspective, noting the importance of a social soundness analysis and a social impact assessment, enemies of sustainability, and the need for broad local input in…

  18. Sustainability in logistics practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans-Heinrich Glöckner; Reinder Pieters; Stef Weijers

    2009-01-01

    This conceptual paper wants to emphasis the use of the concept of sustainability within logistics and especially transportation. While working on a new tool to help companies develop sustainable European networks, we discovered that we want to use a specific concept of sustainability: People, planet

  19. Recruitment in a changing environment: the 2000s North Sea herring recruitment failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Payne, M.R.; Hatfield, E.M.C.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Falkenhaug, T.; Roeckmann, C.

    2009-01-01

    Environmentally induced change appears to be impacting the recruitment of North Sea herring (Clupea harengus). Despite simultaneously having a large adult population, historically low exploitation, and Marine Stewardship Council accreditation (implying sustainability), there have been an

  20. Sea level change

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Church, J.A.; Clark, P.U.; Cazenave, A.; Gregory, J.M.; Jevrejeva, S.; Levermann, A.; Merrifield, M.A.; Milne, G.A.; Nerem, R.S.; Nunn, P.D.; Payne, A.J.; Pfeffer, W.T.; Stammer, D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    .................................. 1143 13.1.4 Models Used to Interpret Past and Project Future Changes in Sea Level .............................................. 1144 13.2 Past Sea Level Change ................................................. 1145 13.2.1 The Geological Record....6.5 Regional Relative Sea Level Changes ...................... 1194 13.6.6 Uncertainties and Sensitivity to Ocean/Climate Model Formulations and Parameterizations ............ 1197 13.7 Projections of 21st Century Sea Level Extremes and Waves...

  1. IODP Expedition 302, Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX: A First Look at the Cenozoic Paleoceanography of the Central Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    the IODP Expedition 302 Scientists

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The behavior and inf luence of the A rct ic Oceanthroughout the course of the global Cenozoic climateevolution have been virtually unknown. Only the uppermostfew meters of the Arctic’s sediment record, representingHolocene and late Pleistocene times, have been retrievedfrom ridges through a limited number of short piston,gravity, and box cores. Even less of the thick sedimentsequences, ~6 km in the Canada Basin and ~3 km in theNansen Basin(Grantz et al., 1990; Jokat et al., 1995, restingon the Arctic Ocean’s abyssal plains, have been cored.Prior to the Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX, informationon Neogene or Paleogene conditions in the central Arcticwas limited to a 1.6-m interval in a 3.6-m-long T-3 gravitycore raised from the Alpha Ridge (Clark, 1974, providingthe sole evidence for marine conditions no older than themiddle Eocene in the central Arctic (Bukry, 1984.

  2. The North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; Westley, K.; Erkens, G.; Hijma, M.P.; Weerts, H.J.T.

    Chapter 7 in the 'SPLASHCOS Taphonomy book', on the landscape-archaeological inventory of the North Sea as a regional sea (covering British, Dutch, Belgian, German and Danish sectors of the southern and central North Sea). Abstract: This chapter gives a general overview of knowledge regarding the

  3. Oceanography of marginal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.

    The North Indian Ocean consists of three marginal seas; The Persian Gulf and the Red Sea in the west and the Andaman Sea in the east. Oceanographic features of these semi-enclosed basins have been discussed in this article. While circulation...

  4. Theory versus practice in Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobos, Víctor, E-mail: vlobosg@gmail.com [CEG-IST, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Research Group on Strategic Approaches to Environment and Sustainability (SENSU), 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, San Crescente 551, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Partidario, Maria [CEG-IST, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Research Group on Strategic Approaches to Environment and Sustainability (SENSU), 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-09-15

    Could the theory of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) be ahead of its time and decoupled from its practice? This paper evolved in search for this leading research question. Over the years the discourse on SEA experienced a gradual shift from the technocratic and rationalist thinking that supported its origin to more strategic approaches and integrated concepts, suggested since the mid 1990's. In this paper we share the results of our analysis of international thinking and practical experience with SEA. Results reveal that SEA practice changes very slowly when compared to advanced thinking supporting the noted shift. Current SEA practice shows to be still predominantly rooted in the logic of projects' environmental impact assessment (EIA). It is strongly bound to legal and regulatory requirements, and the motivation for its application persists being the delivery of environmental (or final) reports to meet legal obligations. Even though advanced SEA theoretical thinking claim its potential to help decisions to look forward, change mind-sets and the rationale of decision-making to meet sustainability challenges and enhance societal values, we note a weak relationship between the theoretical development of SEA and its practice. Why is this happening? Which factors explain this apparent inertia, resistance to change, in the SEA practice? Results appear to demonstrate the influence of assumptions, understandings, concepts, and beliefs in the use of SEA, which in turn suggest the political sensitivity of the instrument. - Highlights: • Theoretical thinking in SEA is ahead of its time. • SEA international practice reveals inertia to move out of project’ EIA comfort zone. • World current SEA practice show similar understandings of 30 years ago. • 100 world reports and survey of practitioners supported world review. • SEA great challenge is to change paradigms into new scientific complexity theories.

  5. LCA and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltesen, Andreas; Bjørn, Anders

    2017-01-01

    LCA is often presented as a sustainability assessment tool. This chapter analyses the relationship between LCA and sustainability. This is done by first outlining the history of the sustainability concept, which gained momentum with the Brundtland Commission’s report ‘Our Common Future report...... is then demonstrated, and the strategy of LCA to achieving environmental protection, namely to guide the reduction of environmental impacts per delivery of a function, is explained. The attempt to broaden the scope of LCA, beyond environmental protection, by so-called life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA......) is outlined. Finally, the limitations of LCA in guiding a sustainable development are discussed....

  6. Mass transport in reverse electrodialysis for sustainable energy generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dlugolecki, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a promising and potentially attractive technology for the generation of sustainable energy from the mixing of salt and fresh water. It uses the free energy of mixing two solutions of different salinity (e.g. river and sea water) to generate power. In RED, a

  7. Sustainable Water Management under Climate Change in Small ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sustainable Water Management under Climate Change in Small Island States of the Caribbean. In the Caribbean islands, climate change is affecting freshwater availability and other ecosystem services in complex ways. For example, freshwater supply is diminished by droughts and affected by saline intrusion due to sea ...

  8. Remote sensing of sea ice: advances during the DAMOCLES project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Heygster

    2012-12-01

    ASCAT (62.5 km grid spacing, with visible AVHRR observations (20 km, with the synthetic aperture radar sensor ASAR (10 km, and a multi-sensor product (62.5 km with improved angular resolution (Continuous Maximum Cross Correlation, CMCC method is presented. CMCC is also used to derive the sea ice deformation, important for formation of sea ice leads (diverging deformation and pressure ridges (converging. The indirect determination of sea ice thickness from altimeter freeboard data requires knowledge of the ice density and snow load on sea ice. The relation between freeboard and ice thickness is investigated based on the airborne Sever expeditions conducted between 1928 and 1993.

  9. From sustainable buildings to sustainable business

    OpenAIRE

    Mia Andelin

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) Sustainable Buildings & Climate Initiative reports that buildings are responsible for more than 40 percent of global energy use and over one third of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The construction and real estate sector has the potential to play a significant role in the response to climate change. During the latest years the increase in attention to sustainability and green building by planners, developers, and investors has been remarka...

  10. THE LEGAL REGULATION ON MARINE STRATEGY. CASE STUDY: THE BLACK SEA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Mari-Isabella STAN

    2013-01-01

    Marine environmental degradation became apparent in European waters, particularly in the Black Sea, so it is opportune a coherent policy, coordinated and comprehensive for protection, improvement and sustainable use of degraded seas in Europe. Problems and threats to the sustainability of the marine environment resulting from the use of marine waters (eg: climate change, resource exploitation activities such as oil and gas, pollution by introducing dangerous substance from shipping, oil spill...

  11. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming...... to provide local citizens with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, this book shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia......How can action research further new research orientations towards sustainability? This book, empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating on urban sustainability, answers this question...

  12. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    to provide local citizens with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, this book shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming......How can action research further new research orientations towards sustainability? This book, empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating on urban sustainability, answers this question...

  13. Sustainability in Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollin, Karin; Vej, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    How do companies integrate sustainability into their strategy and practices, and what factors explain their approach? In this paper a typology of sustainability strategies is presented as well as a conceptual framework relating sustainability at the company level to the functional level...... of marketing. The central contribution of the typology is a strategic and managerial view on sustainability. Furthermore, the typology shows that sustainability in business is enacted from different areas of competences and fields in the literature (e.g. supply chain management, corporate branding, value...... creation, product innovation and business model innovation). The empirical basis for the typology is an exploratory study of managers' mindsets about sustainability as strategy. Ten top managers involved with integrating sustainability within their companies have been interviewed. In order to reveal...

  14. Fur and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else; Csaba, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of deeper luxury, which insists that 'real' luxury should involve sustainable practices in the production and consumption of luxury goods. It traces historical and recent developments in the field of fur, to understand the implications, uncertainties and ambiguities...... of luxury’s confrontation with sustainability. Considering fur in relation to future standards for luxury products, we raise questions about moral problematisation and justification of luxury in terms of sustainability. We first examine the encounter of luxury with sustainability and explain...... the significance of the notion of ‘deeper luxury’. After taking stock of the impact of sustainability on luxury and various directions in which sustainable luxury is evolving, we discuss concepts of sustainable development in relation to the history of moral problematisation of luxury. This leads to the case...

  15. Health and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjӕrgård, Bente; Land, Birgit; Bransholm Pedersen, Kirsten

    2014-09-01

    In the present article, we explore how sustainable development strategies and health promotion strategies can be bridged. The concept of the 'duality of structure' is taken as our starting point for understanding the linkages between health promotion and sustainable development, and for uncovering the structural properties or conditions which either enable or constrain sustainable public health initiatives. We argue that strategies towards health promotion are not sufficiently integrated with strategies for sustainable development, and thus political strategies aimed at solving health problems or sustainability problems may cause new, undesired and unforeseen environmental or health problems. First, we explore how the relation between health and sustainability is articulated in international policy documents. Next, we develop a model for understanding the relation between health promotion and sustainability. Third, we use examples from agriculture and food production to illustrate that health and sustainability are mutually enabling and constraining. We conclude that while the renewed focus on food security and food inequalities has brought the health and sustainability dimensions of the food system onto the political agenda, the conceptualization of duality between health and sustainability could be a new platform for a critical and theoretical stance towards the market-oriented food system strategy. Thinking along the lines of duality means that the integration of health promotion strategies and sustainable development strategies cannot be based on an approach to integration in which either health or sustainability is given precedence over the other. From a duality perspective, integration means conceiving sustainability from a health perspective and health from a sustainability perspective. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Effects of an Arctic Ocean Ski Traverse on the Protective Capabilities of Expedition Footwear

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Endrusick, Thomas; Frykman, Peter; O'Brien, Catherine; Giblo, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    A traverse of the Arctic Ocean during a 2000-km unsupported ski expedition provided an opportunity to assess the impact of an extreme cold environment on the protective capabilities of a specialized footwear system (FS...

  17. ASTER Expedited L1A Reconstructed Unprocessed Instrument Data V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASTER Expedited L1A Reconstructed Unprocessed Instrument Data is produced with the express purpose of providing the ASTER Science Team members and others, data...

  18. ASTER Expedited L1B Registered Radiance at the Sensor V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Expedited ASTER Level-1B Registered Radiance at the Sensor data set is produced with the express purpose of providing ASTER Science Team members data of their...

  19. Australian solar eclipse expeditions: the voyage to Cape York in 1871

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomb, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Techniques such as photography and spectroscopy only became available to study solar eclipses in the 1860s. The first subsequent total eclipse of the Sun to be visible from Australia was one in December 1871 that was visible from far north Queensland. Initiated by the Royal Society of Victoria, astronomers in Melbourne and Sydney cooperated to organise the Australian Eclipse Expedition aboard the steamship Governor Blackall to a suitable observing location. Though on the day of the eclipse clouds prevented viewing, this was an important expedition that was complex to organise and involved dealings with colonial Governments and with relatively large sums of money that Australian scientists had not previously experienced. With a newspaper reporter as part of the expedition along with two photographers the expedition was well recorded and provides a clear insight into the activities of late nineteenth century astronomers and other scientists.

  20. Expediting Clinician Adoption of Safety Practices: The UCSF Venous Access Patient Safety Interdisciplinary Education Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donaldson, Nancy E; Plank, Rosemary K; Williamson, Ann; Pearl, Jeffrey; Kellogg, Jerry; Ryder, Marcia

    2005-01-01

    ...) Venous Access Device (VAD) Patient Safety Interdisciplinary Education Project was to develop a 30-hour/one clinical academic unit VAD patient safety course with the aim of expediting clinician adoption of critical concepts...

  1. Geography, sustainability and the concept of glocalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Theodoor Verstappen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability focuses on the question whether our planet can sustain the present and future global human impact. The related environmental issues and particularly global changes, such as increasing temperatures, rising sea level, deforestation and deteriorating biodiversity, have become a key subject in earth science research. The social and economic components of sustainability, however, get less scientific attention and are often ignored in political and religious circles. Emphasis is on the symptoms of the issue rather than on coping strategies. Are the growing population numbers and social discrepancies compatible with sustainability and is the free market economy of our consumption society compatible with the ecological limits of growth, social balance and human aspirations? Sustainable development is a realistic concept only if its economic aspects are shouldered by social and environmental considerations and if regional and local diversity is respected. The globalization required today thus should be coupled with decentralized glocalization. In this interdisciplinary field of regional differentiation geography can make important contributions. Earth observation from satellites and data handling using geoinformation systems are essential tools.

  2. Investigating the role of virtual reality in geography via Google Expeditions

    OpenAIRE

    Tilling, Steve; Tudor, Ana-Despina; Kitchen, Becky; Minocha, Shailey

    2017-01-01

    This workshop-session explored the use of Google Expeditions (GEs), virtual reality-based field trips, to support and encourage outdoor fieldwork and facilitate visualisation of processes and locations. Participants had the opportunity to trial GEs and were invited to discuss and evaluate the outcomes (particularly the educator’s perspective) of a project investigating the role of virtual reality in geography education.\\ud \\ud We first showed several Expeditions to the educators, such as Rio ...

  3. Gender, culture, and astrophysical fieldwork: Elizabeth Campbell and the Lick Observatory-Crocker eclipse expeditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, A. S.-K.

    The article is organized as follows. It begins with an overview of women in nineteenth-century American science. It then describes the culture of mountaintop observatories and life on Mount Hamilton. Elizabeth Campbell's unique role in the Crocker-Lick expeditions drew upon her equally unique role in the observatory, and also on the meaning given to women's work in general on the mountain. The bulk of the article focuses on the Campbells and their expeditions to India in 1898, Spain in 1905, and the South Pacific in 1908. The third section compares the Lick Observatory expeditions to those conducted by David Todd of Amherst College. Todd's wife, Mabel Loomis Todd, went into the field several times with her husband, but her place in the field was radically different from Elizabeth Campbell's, a difference that can be ascribed to a combination of local culture and personality. Finally, it compares American expeditions to British expeditions of the period, to see what the absence of British women on expeditions can tell us about the way national scientific styles and cultures affected gender roles in science.

  4. The expedition to Peru and Chile (1777-1788): inventory of scientific production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, A G; Rodríguez Nozal, R

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide an inventory of the scientific corpus produced by the Spanish members of the Expedition to Peru and Chile (1777-1788). This material is divided into six large sections. The first section covers the different versions of the diary of the journey taken by the Expedition. The second section covers the drafts and workbooks used by the Expedition members for the writing of "Flora Peruviana et Chilensis," the manuscripts and published editions of this work, the materials used in the preparation of both the "Prodromus" and the "Systema Vegetabilium," the contributions of the assistants on the Expedition and some monographs of taxonomic interest. The third section is dedicated to quinological studies and other pharmacological works undertaken by Hipólito Ruiz López and José Pavón Jiménez. The fourth section includes the writings concerning Ruiz's dispute with Antonio José Cavanilles. The fifth section contains texts which set forth the botanical thought of the members of the Expedition. The sixth and final section includes the Expedition members' writings on various subjects, from anthropology and ethnography to others of a purely historical nature.

  5. [What is sustainability science?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Guo; Guo, Xiao-Chuan; Yang, Jie; Qian, Gui-Xia; Niu, Jian-Ming; Liang, Cun-Zhu; Zhang, Qing; Li, Ang

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability is the theme of our time and also the grandest challenge to humanity. Since the 1970s, the term, sustainable development, has frequently appeared in the scientific literature, governmental documents, media promotions for public goods, and commercial advertisements. However, the science that provides the theoretical foundation and practical guidance for sustainable development--sustainability science--only began to emerge in the beginning of the 21st century. Nevertheless, the field has rapidly developed in depth and expanded in scope during the past decade, with its core concepts and research methods coalescing. China, as the most populous country in the world and home to the philosophical root of sustainability science-the unity of man and nature, is obligated to take upon the challenge of our time, to facilitate global sustainability while pursuing the Chinese Dream, and to play a leading role in the development of sustainability science. Toward this grandiose goal, this paper presents the first Chinese introduction to sustainability science, which discusses its basic concepts, research questions, and future directions. Sustainability science is the study of the dynamic relationship between humans and the environment, particularly focusing on the vulnerability, robustness, resilience, and stability of the coupled human-environment system. It is a transdisciplinary science that integrates natural sciences with humanities and social sciences. It hinges on the environment-economy-society nexus, and merges basic and applied research. The key components of sustainability often change with time, place, and culture, and thus sustainability science needs to emphasize multi-scale studies in space and time, with emphasis on landscapes and regions over a horizon of 50 to 100 years. It needs to focus on the relationship between ecosystem services and human well-being, as influenced by biodiversity and ecosystem processes as well as climate change, land use

  6. Historical landmarks and second cruises researches AS UkSSR (NAS UKRAINE in the tropical Atlantic and its implications for further development the oceans and seas geology in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovka S.N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the I-th Ukrainian SSR researchers (NAS sea expedition (XII flight VAT «Mikhail Lomonosov» in the tropical Atlantic. Briefly describe the development of marine geology at different periods of its existence: in the days of the USSR and Ukraine. Made a historic section of the development of scientific areas and schools, geological dynasties, the development of hardware and methods, improving the methods of research in the sea, providing swimming facilities maritime expeditions (surface and submarine fleet and displayed in terms of the further development of the geology of the oceans and seas in Ukraine. attempt in the 50th anniversary of the end of the first Ukrainian official for marine geologists USSR Academy of Sciences (NAS of Ukraine expedition, which took place during the twelfth flight NDS "Mikhail Lomonosov" in the tropical Atlantic, recreate the historical course of events that led to this sea expedition and recall the scientific community on the official start investigations bottom waters of the oceans Ukrainian researchers. It is shown that the knowledge of Ukrainian researchers waters of the oceans using conventional methods and techniques that have been in service in Oceanology of the USSR, but in addition, they have developed methodological and instrumental principles of nuclear-physical methods of geological studies of sediments waters (apparatus and methods for determining water-physical properties of sediments and pore waters hydrochemistry study and created and improved methods. According its history, the geology of the oceans and seas experienced its heyday in the USSR. The current phase of the complex, ambiguous and has a different assessment scientists. Some estimate it as a naval expeditions stagnation and decline of theoretical research. Other developing the idea of rethinking the strategic approach to the development of this field of science in our country, synthesis of theoretical and practical

  7. decolonising sustainability: subverting and appropriating

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    magnitude for environmental education. We can speak of sustainable development, sustainable economies, sustainable democracy, a sustainable world order, and sustainable modes of health maintenance, but when we turn to spiritual matters we are faced with the black hole of green· politics: what constitutes sustainable.

  8. The Knowledge-based Sustainable Management for Europe's Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutniczak, Barbara; Münch, Angela

    2012-01-01

    in a multispecies fishery. The starting point of the estimation is therefore the disentanglement of the total cost into the incremental separate cost, i.e. costs of each joint product between spill-off point and the point of sale. For the purpose of the project, the incremental separate cost are defined as variable...

  9. Arctic Collaboration: Developing a Successful Researcher/Teacher Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotnicki, S.; Loranty, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    Are you a researcher working in the polar regions of the world or a K-12 science teacher who would like to be part of a field research expedition in the polar regions? Researchers and K-12 science teachers can apply for funding from PolarTREC, a program that pairs researchers and teachers to conduct field science in Antarctica and the Arctic. Our poster presentation will offer details of one such successful researcher/teacher partnership. During the summer of 2016, Science Teacher Stan Skotnicki (Cheektowaga Central Middle School in Buffalo, NY) was teamed up with Assistant Professor Mike Loranty (Colgate University) to study vegetation and ecosystem impacts on permafrost vulnerability. Stan joined Mike and his research team in Northeastern Siberia preparing field sites, collecting data, processing samples, discussing methods, and planning daily activities. In order to raise awareness and broaden the impact of the research being conducted, Stan communicated the science through a series of journals on the PolarTREC website with his students, staff, and members of the community. Additionally, Mike and Stan held a live webinar from Siberia discussing the content of the research, the nature of the fieldwork, and why it was important to travel so far for this information. This expedition allowed Stan to experience working with a field research team for an extended period of time. Mike benefited from having a team member dedicated to learning about and communicating project details that also provided valuable field assistance. Stan gets to bring his hands-on experience back to his classroom in Buffalo and Mike has the opportunity to share his research with a new and different audience, including presenting to students at Cheektowaga Central with the help of his undergraduate students. This model of collaboration provides a number of valuable benefits for both teachers and researchers. While the PolarTREC program provides necessary logistics and funding to conduct these

  10. Sea urchin spine arthritis of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takuro; Soma, Tamotsu; Gaman, Keiko; Usui, Masamichi; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2008-03-01

    Although rare, hand injury caused by puncture with the sea urchin spine can result in serious complications. To emphasize its clinical significance, this article describes a group of patients who sustained chronic granulomatous arthritis induced by puncture with sea urchin spine (designated sea urchin spine arthritis). Five patients who developed sea urchin spine arthritis of the hand after puncture with sea urchin spine were treated at our hospitals. All lesions involved the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint (4 index fingers and 1 middle finger). Patients experienced pain, swelling, and discomfort around the site of puncture immediately after the injury. These initial symptoms subsided within a few days, and secondary symptoms including fusiform swelling, limited motion, and mild pain of the PIP joint appeared from 1 to 2 months later. Laboratory tests of inflammation and blood cell counts were negative. Plain radiographs showed soft tissue swelling and osteolysis but no visible spine. Thorough synovectomy of the PIP joint was performed, and the granulation tissue around the joint was also removed. No microorganism was identified from tissue culture or polymerase chain reaction in any of the 5 patients. At a mean follow-up of 21 months, 2 patients exhibited essentially normal active motion of the affected PIP joint, whereas the remaining 3 patients had diminished range of motion. Diagnosis of sea urchin spine arthritis can be made by history of sea urchin spine injury, a symptom-free period before the development of synovitis, and the absence of laboratory test abnormalities. Neither antibiotics nor nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents are effective. Undertaken early enough, thorough synovectomy might avoid complications and obtain favorable results. Therapeutic IV.

  11. SMART SUSTAINABLE ISLANDS VS SMART SUSTAINABLE CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Pantazis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper has several aims: a the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms “smart sustainable cities” and “smart sustainable islands” b the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors which concern the insular municipalities c the creation of an island’s smartification and sustainability index d the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  12. Iron oxide reduction in methane-rich deep Baltic Sea sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egger, Matthias; Hagens, Mathilde; Sapart

    2017-01-01

    /L transition. Our results reveal a complex interplay between production, oxidation and transport of methane showing that besides organoclastic Fe reduction, oxidation of downward migrating methane with Fe oxides may also explain the elevated concentrations of dissolved ferrous Fe in deep Baltic Sea sediments......, that AOM may also be coupled to the reduction of iron (Fe) oxides. In the Baltic Sea, the post-glacial transition from the Ancylus freshwater phase to the Littorina brackish/marine phase (A/L-transition) around 9–7kyrBP (before present), resulted in the accumulation of organic-rich brackish...... water retrieved from three sites that were drilled during the IODP Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment Expedition 347 with multicomponent diagenetic modeling to study the possible role of Fe-mediated AOM as a mechanism for the apparent Fe oxide reduction in the methane-bearing lake deposits below the A...

  13. When Pasteurian Science Went to Sea: The Birth of Marine Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Antony; Dücker, Erik

    2017-04-05

    In the late nineteenth century, French naturalists were global leaders in microbial research. Louis Pasteur advanced sterilization techniques and demonstrated that dust particles in the air could contaminate a putrefiable liquid. Pasteur's discoveries prompted a new research program for the naturalists of the Talisman and Travailleur expeditions: to recover uncontaminated water and mud samples from the deep sea. French naturalists Adrien Certes and Paul Regnard both independently conducted experiments to address the question of whether microorganisms inhabited the oceans and whether organic material in the deep sea was subject to decomposition. The experiments of Certes and Regnard have largely been omitted from histories of microbiology and marine science. However, an examination of their work is crucial for understanding the context in which marine microbiology first developed. At the end of the nineteenth century, marine microbiology emerged from the disciplinary melding of terrestrial microbial ecology, experimental physiology, and the then-nascent field of deep-sea biology.

  14. Salish Sea Genetics - Salish Sea genetic inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Salish Sea comprises most of the Puget Sound water area. Marine species are generally assemblages of discrete populations occupying various ecological niches....

  15. Timing and Estimates of Plio-Pleistocene Sea-Level Highstands from the Republic of South Africa (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearty, Paul; Raymo, Maureen; Sandstrom, Michael; Rovere, Alessio; O'Leary, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The rapid rise in atmospheric CO2 exceeding 400 ppmv is driving an urgent need to better understand past sea level, ice sheet dynamics, and climate change associated with past warmer geological intervals. The LR04 record reveals sustained intervals during the Pliocene (5.6-2.6 Ma) when δ18O exceeded the present levels, indicating a possible decrease in the volume of polar ice sheets. Other shorter intervals of likely decreased ice volume occur during Pleistocene interglacials including MIS 5e, 11, 31, and 37.Here we focus on the middle Pliocene warm period (MPWP; 3.3 to 2.9 Ma), an interval during which Earth experienced CO2 levels around 400 ppmv (Fedorov et al., 2013). The intra-plate coastal margin of western South Africa, a region of relative tectonic stability and relative insensitivity to uncertainty in mantle viscosity as is effects corrections for glacial isostatic adjustment, is a promising region for deriving estimates of eustatic sea level (ESL; thus ice volumes) at the end of the MPWP (Rovere et al., 2014). During a field expedition covering several thousand kilometres along coastlines of western and southern coasts of RSA, we documented the stratigraphy, geomorphology, and geochronology of Pliocene and Pleistocene shorelines with differential GPS providing decimeter scale accuracy to stratigraphic contacts and sea-level indicators. From about twenty sites, precise elevations (as yet uncorrected for GIA) of multiple sea stands were recorded. Strontium isotopes were used to date the shell material from many of the marine sites, but only three sites yielded reliable age data that passed screening criteria for diagenesis. The oldest shoreline evidence, from Cliffs Point on the west coast near the Olifants River, is observed at 34.9 ±0.2 m asl and yields an age 4.70 ± 0.20 Ma; a younger shoreline from the southern coast Bredasdorp site is observed at >24.0 ± 1.5 m asl and yields ages from 3.00 ± 0.45 to 3.55 ± 0.31 Ma, the interval of the MPWP. . A

  16. Sustainable Building Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    Energy-savings in the existing building stock have becomes a main goal in national and international policies. Often focus is on building-renovations, whereas the potential of sustainable building operation to a large extent has been neglected. Nevertheless, international research as well...... as practical experiences from Danish housing estates indicates that there are large potentials for energy savings by focusing on the operation of the buildings. We suggest that in order to achieve sustainability in the existing housing, renovation and operations should be seen as integrated parts...... and that sustainable building operation can pave the way for sustainable building renovation. This paper discusses the use of sustainability building operation in Danish housing estates: Which tools, methods and technologies is being used, where are the barriers and where are the potentials? We define sustainable...

  17. Health and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Birgit; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Kjærgård, Bente

    2014-01-01

    In the present article, we explore how sustainable development strategies and health promotion strategies can be bridged. The concept of the ‘duality of structure’ is taken as our starting point for understanding the linkages between health promotion and sustainable development, and for uncovering...... the structural properties or conditions which either enable or constrain sustainable public health initiatives. We argue that strategies towards health promotion are not sufficiently integrated with strategies for sustainable development, and thus political strategies aimed at solving health problems...... or sustainability problems may cause new, undesired and unforeseen environmental or health problems. First, we explore how the relation between health and sustainability is articulated in international policy documents. Next, we develop a model for understanding the relation between health promotion...

  18. Sustainability and Entrepreneurial Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.; Anderson, Alistair

    Abstract Objectives - This paper explores how entrepreneurial action can lead to environmental sustainability. It builds on the assumption that the creation of sustainble practices is one of the most important challenges facing the global society, and that entrepreneurial action is a vital...... instrument in the pursuit of sustainability.  Prior Work - Extant literature identifies two main approaches to sustainable entrepreneurship. (i) traditional exploitation of environmentally relevant opportunities and (ii) institutional entrepreneurship creating opportunities. We identify a novel form......: resource oriented sustainable entrepreneurial action.  Approach - The paper uses a case study approach to build deeper theoretical knowledge of environmentally sustainable entrepreneurship.  Results - The paper identifies and analyses a distinct form of sustainable entrepreneurship -  resource oriented...

  19. At Home with Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    2018-01-01

    of default rules in subconscious decision-making, this research finds that, ultimately, awareness drives the demand necessary for the creation of sustainable consumption. Whereas direct appeal to individuals has a disappointing level of influence on sustainability choices, it is understood that green......-fuel-based energy. To act otherwise requires additional effort and is less likely. Motivated by a need to understand how defaults might bridge standards and sustainable consumption, I investigate how organizational processes potentially lead from standardized green default rules to individual awareness that can...... spread and facilitate sustainable consumption. This paper examines the Active House sustainable building demonstrations in Europe in order to understand how (1) communications and market creation and (2) responsible, user-centered experimentation are organized to move from defaults to sustainable...

  20. ICT innovations for sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Aebischer, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    ICT Innovations for Sustainability is an investigation of how information and communication technology can contribute to sustainable development. It presents clear definitions of sustainability, suggesting conceptual frameworks for the positive and negative effects of ICT on sustainable development. It reviews methods of assessing the direct and indirect impact of ICT systems on energy and materials demand, and examines the results of such assessments. In addition, it investigates ICT-based approaches to supporting sustainable patterns of production and consumption, analyzing them at various levels of abstraction – from end-user devices, Internet infrastructure, user behavior, and social practices to macro-economic indicators.   Combining approaches from Computer Science, Information Systems, Human-Computer Interaction, Economics, and Environmental Sciences, the book presents a new, holistic perspective on ICT for Sustainability (ICT4S). It is an indispensable resource for anyone working in the area of ICT...

  1. Sustainability and substitutability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Eli P; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-02-01

    Developing a quantitative science of sustainability requires bridging mathematical concepts from fields contributing to sustainability science. The concept of substitutability is central to sustainability but is defined differently by different fields. Specifically, economics tends to define substitutability as a marginal concept while fields such as ecology tend to focus on limiting behaviors. We explain how to reconcile these different views. We develop a model where investments can be made in knowledge to increase the elasticity of substitution. We explore the set of sustainable and optimal trajectories for natural capital extraction and built and knowledge capital accumulation. Investments in substitutability through knowledge stock accumulation affect the value of natural capital. Results suggest that investing in the knowledge stock, which can enhance substitutability, is critical to desirable sustainable outcomes. This result is robust even when natural capital is not managed optimally. This leads us to conclude that investments in the knowledge stock are of first order importance for sustainability.

  2. Sustainable Concrete Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing concern over global warming and significant ecological changes requires sustainable development in all fields of science and technology. Concrete not only consumes huge amount of energy and natural sources, but also emits large amount of CO2, mainly due to the production of cement. It is evident that such large amount of concrete production has put significant impact on the energy, resource, environment, and ecology of the society. Hence, how to develop the concrete technology in a sustainable way has become a significant issue. In this paper, some of Korean researches for sustainable development of concrete are presented. These are sustainable strengthening for deteriorated concrete structure, sustainable reinforcement of new concrete structure, sustainable concrete using recycled aggregate and supplementary cementing materials and finally application of each technique to precast concrete.

  3. Sustainable fashion: New approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Niinimäki, Kirsi

    2013-01-01

    This publication is intended to be used as a source of inspiration for designers and companies, and all stakeholders whose interest lies in the area of sustainable fashion. While the strategies for sustainability are complex and approaches are many, this publication presents only a few ways to approach sustainable fashion. I hope the publication offers inspiration on how to make positive change in current practices and how to effect new mindsets, creating transformative fashion. Theoretica...

  4. Education for sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2009-01-01

     An introduction to the idea of sustainable development (SD) and education for sustainable development (ESD) with reference to the international Decade for Education for Sustainable Development . The chapter includes a focus on conflicting interests between present and future generations related...... to the use of natural resources and other matters, and how that kind of issues can be dealt with in education as ESD....

  5. A highly sustainable house

    OpenAIRE

    Cordero, Raúl; Mercader-Moyano, Pilar (Coordinador)

    2017-01-01

    A sustainable house is capable of generating and self-sustaining energy by itself to function autonomously, that is to say, without depending on external supply networks. That is possible by supplying the internal energy consumption through renewable energy. This work describes and analyzes the construction of a sustainable house in Paute, Ecuador. The goal of this house was to achieve selfsustainability in several aspects such as construction techniques, creative and functi...

  6. Sustainability Assessment Circle

    OpenAIRE

    Schlör, H.; Hake, J.-Fr.

    2015-01-01

    Since the nineteen seventies, science and society have been discussing the worldwide ecological, economic, and social problems caused by industrialization and globalization. Sustainable development is perceived as a strategy for coping with these problems. The Rio +20 conference in 2012 confirmed the sustainability concept and introduced the green economy and the life cycle sustainable assessment as its implementation and operationalization strategy and tool.In the following, we will demonstr...

  7. The First D/V Chikyu IODP Operations: Successful Logging and Coring During NanTroSEIZE Stage 1 Expeditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moe Kyaw Thu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE is a multi-expedition IODP drilling project aimed at drilling, coring, logging, and instrumenting the seismogenic zone of an active subduction margin , in a region thought to generate megathrust earthquakes of magnitude >8.0 on the moment-magnitude scale (Tobin and Kinoshita, 2006. The Nankai Trough, offshore of the Kii Peninsula, Honshu, Japan (Fig. 1 was chosen as the location for thisproject based on a number of scientific drilling proposals to IODP. These reviewed existing drilling data in the region, the long-term historical and recent record of great earthquakes, the social and societal relevance of the area, and the accessibility of the seismogenic zone to present drilling technology. The first stage of this multi-stage project was intended to accomplish a broad characterization of the shallow geology, geophysics, physical properties, heat flow, and fluid flow in a transect across the downgoing Philippine Sea Plate, the toe of the Nankai accretionary prism, the megasplay fault zone region on the continental slope, and the Kumano Basin that lies between the accretionary prism and the KiiPeninsula, on the continental shelf (Fig. 2.

  8. Sustainability assessment and complementarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Alrøe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessments bring together different perspectives that pertain to sustainability to produce overall assessments, and a wealth of approaches and tools have been developed in the past decades. However, two major problems remain. The problem of integration concerns the surplus of possibilities for integration; different tools produce different assessments. The problem of implementation concerns the barrier between assessment and transformation; assessments do not lead to the expected changes in practice. We aim to analyze issues of complementarity in sustainability assessment and transformation as a key to better handling the problems of integration and implementation. Based on a generalization of Niels Bohr's complementarity from quantum mechanics, we have identified two forms of complementarity in sustainability assessment, observer stance complementarity and value complementarity. Unlike many other problems of sustainability assessment, complementarity is of a fundamental character connected to the very conditions for observation. Therefore, complementarity cannot be overcome methodologically, only handled better or worse. Science is essential to the societal goal of sustainability, but these issues of complementarity impede the constructive role of science in the transition to more sustainable structures and practices in food systems. The agencies of sustainability assessment and transformation need to be acutely aware of the importance of different perspectives and values and the complementarities that may be connected to these differences. An improved understanding of complementarity can help to better recognize and handle issues of complementarity. These deliberations have relevance not only for sustainability assessment, but more generally for transdisciplinary research on wicked problems.

  9. Predicting Sustainable Work Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    2013-01-01

    . Employee characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work condition are included in the extended model. A survey was handed out to 654 employees in Chinese factories. This research contributes by demonstrating how employee- characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work...... condition influence their sustainable work behavior. A new definition of sustainable work behavior is proposed.......Sustainable work behavior is an important issue for operations managers – it has implications for most outcomes of OM. This research explores the antecedents of sustainable work behavior. It revisits and extends the sociotechnical model developed by Brown et al. (2000) on predicting safe behavior...

  10. Sustainability needs the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Nancy; van der Pluijm, Ben

    2012-10-01

    Science, Innovation, and Partnerships for Sustainable Solutions: A National Academies Symposium; Washington, D. C., 16-18 May 2012 It is no longer disputed that humanity has drastically changed the face of the planet and its life-support systems. The sustainability challenge is to meet people's needs today and in the future while sustaining life-support systems. This grand challenge demands a new scientific approach: use-inspired, solution-driven research that consciously links scientific research to societal decision-making and action. Sustainability science may help fulfill that need if it can engage communities of expertise across a wide range of disciplines and sectors, including the geosciences.

  11. Sustainable wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Zhongming; Xuemin

    2013-01-01

    This brief focuses on network planning and resource allocation by jointly considering cost and energy sustainability in wireless networks with sustainable energy. The characteristics of green energy and investigating existing energy-efficient green approaches for wireless networks with sustainable energy is covered in the first part of this brief. The book then addresses the random availability and capacity of the energy supply. The authors explore how to maximize the energy sustainability of the network and minimize the failure probability that the mesh access points (APs) could deplete their

  12. Sustainable Management of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information to organizations to help them implement sustainable food management, including joining the Food Recovery Challenge. To provide education and information to communities and concerned citizens.

  13. Spectroscopic studies of terrestrial impact materials: Preparation for Popigai expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evdokimova, N. A.; Rodin, A. V.; Masaitis, V. L.; Timofeev, I. S.; Roste, O. Z.; Korablev, O. I.; Dolnikov, G. G.

    2011-10-01

    Terrestrial craters give us an excellent opportunity of direct analisys as opposed to craters out of the E arth. However, on the Earth there are only few sites where traces of strong impacts event could be studied in the fi eld. The traces of ancient impacts are better preserved in the frozen subsoil at subpolar latitudes. One of such sites is Popigai crater, located in subpolar Siberia, Russia, presumably caused by a giant impactor 35 Ma ago. This astrobleme gives a good chance to observe in situ the asteroid crater, impact materials and other consequenses of great energy deposition. T he crater was thoroughly studied during last few decades due to impact diamond inventories associated with it [1]. However a number of problems remain unresolved and wait for further studies: the physics and chemistry of impactites and impact breccias; mineral components with metamorphic rocks affected by great shock and impactites; material ejecta; structural forms invoked by crater formation; problems of remote sensing studies and problems related to comparative planetology. In the framework o f Europlanet program, we plan the expedition to Popigai site scheduled to 2012.

  14. Antibacterial Compounds from Marine Vibrionaceae Isolated on a Global Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lone Gram

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available On a global research expedition, over 500 bacterial strains inhibitory towards pathogenic bacteria were isolated. Three hundred of the antibacterial strains were assigned to the Vibrionaceae family. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the phylogeny and bioactivity of five Vibrionaceae strains with pronounced antibacterial activity. These were identified as Vibrio coralliilyticus (two strains, V. neptunius (two strains, and Photobacterium halotolerans (one strain on the basis of housekeeping gene sequences. The two related V. coralliilyticus and V. neptunius strains were isolated from distant oceanic regions. Chemotyping by LC-UV/MS underlined genetic relationships by showing highly similar metabolite profiles for each of the two V. coralliilyticus and V. neptunius strains, respectively, but a unique profile for P. halotolerans. Bioassay-guided fractionation identified two known antibiotics as being responsible for the antibacterial activity; andrimid (from V. coralliilyticus and holomycin (from P. halotolerans. Despite the isolation of already known antibiotics, our findings show that marine Vibrionaceae are a resource of antibacterial compounds and may have potential for future natural product discovery.

  15. Expeditions to Drill Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Millard F.

    2005-04-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), an international collaboration of Earth, ocean, and life scientists that began in 2003, offers scientists worldwide unprecedented opportunities to address a vast array of scientific problems in all submarine settings. Recently, the scientific advisory structure of the proposal-driven IODP scheduled drilling expeditions, targeting critical scientific problems in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific Ocean, for 2005 and early 2006 (Figure 1, Table 1). The IODP, which is co-led by Japan and the United States, with strong contributions from the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) and China, is guided by an initial science plan, ``Earth, Oceans, and Life'' (www.iodp.org). For the first time, through the IODP, scientists have at their disposal both a riser (drilling vessel which has a metal tube surrounding the drill pipe that enables the return of drilling fluid and cuttings to the drill ship; the ``riser'' is attached to a ``blow-out preventer'' or shut-off device at the seafloor) and riserless drilling vessel (which lacks a riser pipe and blow-out preventer), as well as mission-specific capabilities such as drilling barges and jack-up rigs for shallow-water and Arctic drilling.

  16. Europa’s lost expedition a scientific novel

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This classically styled, chilling murder mystery about an expedition under the ice of Jupiter’s ocean moon Europa, backed up by the latest scientific findings on this icy satellite. The science fiction premise explores real possibilities of exploring other bodies in the Solar System, including probing their possible astrobiology. Now that the most recent world war has concluded on Earth, human explorers are returning to exploration, carrying out a full-court press to journey into the alien abyss using tele-operated biorobotics and human-tended submersibles. Nine scientists head out to Jupiter’s icy ocean-moon. But at Europa’s most remote outpost, one by one, the team members who shared the cruise out begin to die under suspicious circumstances. All was well until humans begin diving into Europa’s subsurface ocean. The deaths have all the symptoms of some sort of plague, despite Europa’s seemingly sterile environment. Besides providing thrills, a science section covers the very latest in undersea rob...

  17. Exploration of the Black, Aegean, and Mediterranean Seas Aboard E/V Nautilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K. L.; Ballard, R. D.; Brennan, M. L.; Raineault, N. A.; Shank, T. M.; Mayer, L. A.; Roman, C.; Mitchell, G. A.; Coleman, D. F.

    2012-12-01

    In the summer of 2012, the Exploration Vessel (E/V) Nautilus undertook a two-month expedition to the Black, Aegean, and Mediterranean Seas. The primary goal of the Nautilus is to create a focus of international leadership for the development and integration of leading-edge technologies, educational programs, field operations, and public outreach programs for ocean exploration, in partnership with the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration, National Geographic Society, Office of Naval Research, and corporate partners. To do so, the program uses a complement of deep submergence vehicle systems and telepresence technologies to engage scientists, educators and the public, both at sea and ashore, allowing them to become integral members of the on-board exploration team. When discoveries are made, experts ashore are notified and brought aboard virtually within a short period of time to help guide shipboard response before the ship moves on. The 2012 expedition is comprised of four areas of interest. Extensive sidescan mapping took place off the Turkish coasts of the southern Black Sea and eastern Aegean Sea, and was followed by remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives on targets of archaeological, geological, and biological interest. In the Black Sea, additional work was done on the porewater chemistry of the sediments in the oxic, suboxic, and anoxic zones. Nautilus returned to the Anaximander Seamounts, including Kazan, Amserdam, Thessaloniki, and Athina, to further explore active and formerly active seep sites located in 2010. Finally, based on biological and geological discoveries made on Eratosthenes Seamount in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, we returned to further study chemosynthetic vent communities and tectonic processes.;

  18. Interim Heavy Airlift: Sea Base Processing of Logistics Gliders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thoms, Keith H

    2007-01-01

    ...) concept first proposed in NSWCDD/TR 06/52. The iHL concept proposes that existing aircraft "snatch pickup" a logistics glider from a Sea base helipad, flight deck, or nearby littoral water surface for aerial sustainment of the tactically...

  19. Diurnal variations of serum erythropoietin at sea level and altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, T; Poulsen, T D; Fogh-Andersen, N

    1996-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the diurnal variations of serum-erythropoietin concentration (serum-EPO) observed in normoxia also exist in hypoxia. The study also attempted to investigate the regulation of EPO production during sustained hypoxia. Nine subjects were investigated at sea leve...

  20. Airborne gravity survey of Lincoln Sea and Wandel Sea, north Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Forsberg, René; Keller, K.

    2000-01-01

    In June 1998 National Survey and Cadastre Denmark (KMS) carried out an airborne gravity survey over the Polar Sea to the north of Greenland. A Twin Otter from Greenlandair, equipped with autopilot and additional fuel tanks, was employed for the survey. A modified marine LaCoste & Romberg gravimeter...... and geodetic GPS receivers operating in differential mode made up the basic scientific instrumentation used to monitor the gravity field variations. A laser altimeter and a low cost inertial measurement unit consisting of three gyros and three accelerometers were included to sustain the postprocessing...... of the GPS data. The presentation will focus on the integration and validation of the system, including comparison with marine and ice gravity measurements. Gravity results from Lincoln Sea and Wandel Sea between latitude 82 N and 85 N, covering the shelf region and the continental slope and rise...

  1. Development of interdisciplinary model of microplastics transport and transformation in the Baltic sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaev, Andrei; Chubarenko, Irina; Mizyuk, Artem; Zobkov, Mikhail; Esiukova, Elena; Isachenko, Igor; Stepanova, Natalya

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, anthropogenic pressure from the coastal areas comes up in many aspects of marine environment changes, decreasing the aesthetics of the underwater world, threatening the sustainability of marine ecosystems and influencing the quality of human life. Microplastics are pervasive throughout the marine environment, are ingested by many marine organisms, and enter a food chain that includes humans. A certain fraction of microplastics in marine environment results from breakdown of larger items in numerous tiny fragments due to mechanical forces and photochemical processes, as well as from other degradation sources. Microplastics can absorb high levels of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and other toxins. Deep-sea sediments are a likely, but yet unquantified, sink for microplastics (Cole et al., 2011). Since the MARBLE ('MicroplAstics Research in the BaLtic Environment') project started, three expeditions and multiple on-shore field experiments have been conducted in the South-Eastern Baltic. The samples were collected from the surface, deep water layers and bottom sediments. The samples were processed and physical parameters of the microparticles were established. In parallel, laboratory experiments under controllable conditions over the particles of regular shapes were conducted in order to test the empirical formulas for the sinking velocity. PLEX ('PLastics EXplorer') -- a device for efficiently collecting microparticles in marine environment -- was developed, built and tested. An attempt was made to quantify some geometrical properties of particles, to compare their surface areas, fouling rates, sinking velocities, and finally provide some estimates for the main spatial and temporal scales, describing the behaviour of the particles of different densities and shapes in the Baltic Sea (Chubarenko et al., 2016). An original 3D model of Microplastics dynamics is under development now. Its aim is to provide a robust numerical predictive tool to study pathways

  2. Expedition 308 synthesis: overpressure, consolidation, and slope stability on the continental slope of the Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Flemings, P. B.; John, C.; Behrmann, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 308 quantified the coupling between sedimentation, consolidation, overpressure, fluid flow, and slope instability in continental margin settings. We summarize and synthesize peer-reviewed hydrogeologic studies published since the end of Expedition 308 that focus on Expedition 308 sites drilled in Ursa Basin: Sites U1322, U1323, and U1324. There is a rich stratigraphic complexity in the Ursa Basin, deepwater Gulf of Mexico. The ...

  3. Waves in the seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    of component waves of various periods and heights. This is the most commonly used theory for practical applications like design of ships, oil rigs and coastal structures such as jetties, ports, and sea walls. This theory also provides sufficient intellectual... of wind waves in the sea is a wide and interesting field with ap- plications in marine exploration ac- tivities, underwater pipe laying, pol- lution control, ports and shipping in- volving billions of dollars worth of transactions. Not all sea waves look...

  4. Lead in Sea Otters

    OpenAIRE

    Simth D.R.; Flegal A.R.; Estes J.A:

    1991-01-01

    As yet there is no direct evidence that environmental pollutants affect sea otter populations. However, this may be from lack of looking. The first steps in these investigations are to measure levels of potential environmental contaminants in sea otters, determine whether these levels vary among populations, and compare the findings with those from other mustelids/otters for which there is a known or suspected impact. Our approach is to compare measurements between Alaska, where sea otter pop...

  5. Sampling and Chemical Analysis of Potable Water for ISS Expeditions 12 and 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E. II; Plumlee, Deborah K.; Schultz, John R.

    2007-01-01

    The crews of Expeditions 12 and 13 aboard the International Space Station (ISS) continued to rely on potable water from two different sources, regenerated humidity condensate and Russian ground-supplied water. The Space Shuttle launched twice during the 12- months spanning both expeditions and docked with the ISS for delivery of hardware and supplies. However, no Shuttle potable water was transferred to the station during either of these missions. The chemical quality of the ISS onboard potable water supplies was verified by performing ground analyses of archival water samples at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL). Since no Shuttle flights launched during Expedition 12 and there was restricted return volume on the Russian Soyuz vehicle, only one chemical archive potable water sample was collected with U.S. hardware and returned during Expedition 12. This sample was collected in March 2006 and returned on Soyuz 11. The number and sensitivity of the chemical analyses performed on this sample were limited due to low sample volume. Shuttle flights STS-121 (ULF1.1) and STS-115 (12A) docked with the ISS in July and September of 2006, respectively. These flights returned to Earth with eight chemical archive potable water samples that were collected with U.S. hardware during Expedition 13. The average collected volume increased for these samples, allowing full chemical characterization to be performed. This paper presents a discussion of the results from chemical analyses performed on Expeditions 12 and 13 archive potable water samples. In addition to the results from the U.S. samples analyzed, results from pre-flight samples of Russian potable water delivered to the ISS on Progress vehicles and in-flight samples collected with Russian hardware during Expeditions 12 and 13 and analyzed at JSC are also discussed.

  6. Sustaining Education for Sustainability in Turbulent Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory A.; Stevenson, Robert B.

    2017-01-01

    A study of two schools in northern Australia demonstrated the impact on Education for Sustainability (EfS) initiatives of a disruptive policy environment set in motion by neoliberal reforms focused on standards, accountability, and international competitiveness. In one of the schools, a culture characterized by trust and an emphasis on cultivating…

  7. SEA in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Audouin, M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available advocated by SEACAM (Audouin et al, 2003). Some examples of processes broadly reflecting the principles of SEA are provided in Box 9.1. These examples show that SEA tends to be undertaken as part of other processes, such as integrated land-use planning... Development Challenge Rural Development Programme, SEA for the central Namib Uranium Rush and SEA of the Karas Land Use Plan. References Audouin, M., Govender, K. and Ramasar, V. (2003) Guidelines for the Strategic Environmental Assessment, prepared...

  8. SEA and planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoeglehner, G.; Brown, A.L.; Kørnøv, Lone

    2009-01-01

    As the field of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has matured, the focus has moved from the development of legislation, guidelines and methodologies towards improving the effectiveness of SEA. Measuring and of course achieving effectiveness is both complex and challenging. This paper......, and the relationship of the SEA to the planning activity itself. This paper focuses on the influence that planners have in these implementation processes, postulating the hypothesis that these are key players in achieving effectiveness in SEA. Based upon implementation theory and empirical experience, the paper...

  9. Sustainability in Software Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfram, N.J.E.; Lago, P.; Osborne, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The intersection between software engineering research and issues related to sustainability and green IT has been the subject of increasing attention. In spite of that, we observe that sustainability is still not clearly defined, or understood, in the field of software engineering. This lack of

  10. Engineering Students' Sustainability Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S.

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The…

  11. Education for Sustainable development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unit-based sustainability assessment tool (USAT) was administered at Masinde Muliro University of. Science and Technology (MMUST), Kenya, between January and March 2012. The assessment focused on establishing to what extent the University integrated sustainability concerns into its core functions of teaching ...

  12. Sustainable consumption and happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOne of the reasons for promoting sustainable consumption is that it may give rise to greater happiness for a greater number, at least in the long run. In this paper I explore the strength of that moral account. I take stock of the assumed effects of sustainable consumption on happiness

  13. Thermodynamics and sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Rene

    1997-01-01

    It is the objective of this thesis to demonstrate exergy analysis as a powerful instrument to obtain sustainable development. An important aspect of sustainable development is the minimisation of irreversibilities caused by the use of non-renewables. In order to limit the scope of this thesis

  14. Implementing Sustainable Institutional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Joseph; Johnson, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has found that few institutions of higher education implemented the necessary strategies to make their campuses sustainable (Thompson and Green 2005). Ironically, universities are the segment of society with the most access to the intellectual capital needed to provide sound sustainable practices and measurements. Having top…

  15. Sustainable Consumption and Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOne of the reasons for promoting sustainable consumption is that it may give rise to greater happiness for a greater number, at least in the long run. In this paper I explore the strength of that moral account. I take stock of the assumed effects of sustainable consumption on happiness

  16. Aesthetics of sustainable architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Hill, G.; Sauerbruch, M.; Hutton, L.; Knowles, R.; Bothwell, K.; Brennan, J.; Jauslin, D.; Holzheu, H.; AlSayyad, N.; Arboleda, G.; Bharne, V.; Røstvik, H.; Kuma, K.; Sunikka-Blank, M.; Glaser, M.; Pero, E.; Sjkonsberg, M.; Teuffel, P.; Mangone, G.; Finocchiaro, L.; Hestnes, A.; Briggs, D.; Frampton, K.; Lee, S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to reveal, explore and further the debate on the aesthetic potentials of sustainable architecture and its practice. This book opens a new area of scholarship and discourse in the design and production of sustainable architecture, one that is based in aesthetics. The

  17. Sustainability: Cultural Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-10

    Action for Sustainable Change. New York: American Management Association, 1999. Fullan , Michael . Leadership & Sustainability: System Thinkers...institutional Army. iii ACKNOWLEGMENTS I thank my project advisors, Mr. Michael Cain, Director, US Army Environmental Policy Institute and Mr...U.S. Army Environmental Policy Institute. Interview by author, date, Arlington, VA. 30 Michaels , Ed. “The War for Talent.” Interview by

  18. Leading Sustainability in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Katie

    2016-01-01

    What is the role of schools, and more specifically school leadership, in the transition to a sustainable future for humankind? What different forms of leadership are needed to enable this role? The challenges are huge and complex and for those of us engaged in promoting sustainability learning, it is clear that the issue has never been more…

  19. Sustainability at BPA 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-01

    BPA’s Sustainability Action Plan is grounded in our commitment to environmental stewardship and Executive Order 13514 that calls on the federal agencies to “lead by example” by setting a 2020 greenhouse gas emissions target, increasing energy efficiency; reducing fleet petroleum consumption; conserving water; reducing waste; supporting sustainable communities; and leveraging federal purchasing power to promoting environmentally responsible products and technologies.

  20. Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Keijzers, G.; Wempe, J.F.D.B. (Johan)

    2008-01-01

    Today, only a limited number of entrepreneurs and managers are facing up to the relevance of sustainability issues and the ways in which these may affect their own businesses. Even fewer entrepreneurs and managers see sustainability as a potential source of profit. These are the findings resulting from research carried out by Nyenrode Business Universiteit among well over 500 entrepreneurs and managers.

  1. Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzers, G. (Gerard); Wempe, J.F.D.B. (Johan)

    2008-01-01

    Today, only a limited number of entrepreneurs and managers are facing up to the relevance of sustainability issues and the ways in which these may affect their own businesses. Even fewer entrepreneurs and managers see sustainability as a potential source of profit. These are the findings resulting

  2. Sustaining Urban Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak; Mary Heather Noble

    2003-01-01

    The significance of the urban forest resource and the powerful forces for change in the urban environment make sustainability a critical issue in urban forest management. The diversity, connectedness, and dynamics of the urban forest establish the context for management that will determine the sustainability of forest structure, health, functions, and benefits. A...

  3. Sustainability and uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    The widely used concept of sustainability is seldom precisely defined, and its clarification involves making up one's mind about a range of difficult questions. One line of research (bottom-up) takes sustaining a system over time as its starting point and then infers prescriptions from...... this requirement. Another line (top-down) takes an economical interpretation of the Brundtland Commission's suggestion that the present generation's needsatisfaction should not compromise the need-satisfaction of future generations as its starting point. It then measures sustainability at the level of society...... a clarified ethical goal, disagreements can arise. At present we do not know what substitutions will be possible in the future. This uncertainty clearly affects the prescriptions that follow from the measure of sustainability. Consequently, decisions about how to make future agriculture sustainable...

  4. Sustainable nuclear energy dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afgan Naim H.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development implies the need for the emerging potential energy sources which are not producing adverse effect to the environment. In this respect nuclear energy has gained the complimentary favor to be considered as the potential energy source without degradation of the environment. The sustainability evaluation of the nuclear energy systems has required the special attention to the criteria for the assessment of nuclear energy system before we can make firm justification of the sustainability of nuclear energy systems. In order to demonstrate the sustainability assessment of nuclear energy system this exercise has been devoted to the potential options of nuclear energy development, namely: short term option, medium term option, long term option and classical thermal system option. Criteria with following indicators are introduced in this analysis: nuclear indicator, economic indicator, environment indicator, social indicator... The Sustainability Index is used as the merit for the priority assessment among options under consideration.

  5. System Innovation for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    System Innovation for Sustainability 2 focuses on change towards sustainable personal mobility based on implemented cases analysed from a system perspective. It examines what changes can be made to help us reduce our need for mobility, or start to make use of more sustainable mobility systems...... in order to provide sustainable solutions to our current ‘lock-in’ problems. Three major problem areas are considered (the ‘three Cs’): carbon emissions (and the growing contribution of mobility to the climate change crisis), congestion, and casualties. And each strategy proposed addresses one or more...... such as governments, manufacturers and consumers to intervene in the complex system to promote sustainable mobility. It concludes with a reflection on problems, trends and action needed. The ‘System Innovation for Sustainability’ series is the fruit of the first major international research network on SCP...

  6. Sustainability Marketing Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollin, Karin; Bech Christensen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Corporate sustainability is an important strategy and value orientation for marketing, but scarce research addresses the organizational drivers and barriers to including it in companies’ marketing strategies and processes. The purpose of this study is to determine levels of commitment to corporate...... sustainability in marketing, processes associated with sustainability marketing commitment, drivers of sustainability marketing at the functional level of marketing, and its organizational context. Using survey data from 269 managers in marketing, covering a broad range of industries in Sweden and Denmark, we...... took a structural modelling approach to examine construct relationships, mediation, and moderation effects. Overall, the findings show that marketing capabilities associated with the innovation of new products, services, and business models constitute a strong driver to leverage sustainability...

  7. Sustainable Housing Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Gert Michael

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Housing Design. Integrating technical and housing quality aspects of sustainable architecture in civil engineering education. Summary An integrated design approach to sustainable architecture is outlined that combines concerns for zero energy building, good indoor climate and adequate...... constructions, private and public outdoor space, housing, urban and architectural quality. The educational framework, curriculum and inte-grated design methods are preconditions for optimizing a design process where technical criteria, functional concerns and housing quality are addressed from the initial...... phases. The outcome shows that integrated design further solutions where sustainable urban forms of settlement can be highly energy efficient while also attractive from a user perspective. Key words: Sustainable architecture, integrated design, zero-energy-housing, dense urban living. 1. Introduction...

  8. Sustainable built environments

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable design is a collective process whereby the built environment achieves unprecedented levels of ecological balance through new and retrofit construction, with the goal of long-term viability and humanization of architecture. Focusing on the environmental context, sustainable design merges the natural, minimum resource conditioning solutions of the past (daylight, solar heat, and natural ventilation) with the innovative technologies of the present.  The desired result is an integrated “intelligent” system that supports individual control with expert negotiation for resource consciousness. International experts in the field address the fundamental questions of sustainable design and landscape management: How should the sustainability of landscapes and buildings be evaluated? Which targets have to be set and which thresholds should not be exceeded? What forms of planning and governance structures exist and to what extent do they further the goals of sustainability?  Gathering 30 peer-reviewed ent...

  9. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  10. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  11. Ice shelves in the Pleistocene Arctic Ocean inferred from glaciogenic deep-sea bedforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, L; Edwards, M H; Coakley, B J; Jakobsson, M

    2001-03-22

    It has been proposed that during Pleistocene glaciations, an ice cap of 1 kilometre or greater thickness covered the Arctic Ocean. This notion contrasts with the prevailing view that the Arctic Ocean was covered only by perennial sea ice with scattered icebergs. Detailed mapping of the ocean floor is the best means to resolve this issue. Although sea-floor imagery has been used to reconstruct the glacial history of the Antarctic shelf, little data have been collected in the Arctic Ocean because of operational constraints. The use of a geophysical mapping system during the submarine SCICEX expedition in 1999 provided the opportunity to perform such an investigation over a large portion of the Arctic Ocean. Here we analyse backscatter images and sub-bottom profiler records obtained during this expedition from depths as great as 1 kilometre. These records show multiple bedforms indicative of glacial scouring and moulding of sea floor, combined with large-scale erosion of submarine ridge crests. These distinct glaciogenic features demonstrate that immense, Antarctic-type ice shelves up to 1 kilometre thick and hundreds of kilometres long existed in the Arctic Ocean during Pleistocene glaciations.

  12. Population genetic structure of the mantis shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria (Crustacea: Squillidae) in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Li, Xinzheng

    2017-09-01

    The mantis shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria is an ecologically and economically important species in the Western Pacific. In present study, the population genetic structure of Oratosquilla oratoria from the Yellow Sea and East China Sea was examined with mitochondrial DNA control region sequences. In total, 394 samples were collected from 18 locations and 102 haplotypes were obtained. For the Yellow Sea, the overall nucleotide diversity and haplotype diversity were 0.006 9 and 0.946 8, respectively; while across all the East China Sea locations, the overall nucleotide diversity and haplotype diversity were 0.027 94 and 0.979 0, respectively. The results of AMOVA and pairwise F ST (0.145 2, P <0.001) revealed moderate differentiation between the Yellow Sea and East China Sea populations of O. oratoria. However, neither the neighbor-joining tree nor haplotype network showed clades with geographic pattern, which indicated considerable gene flow was existed between the Yellow Sea and East China Sea, and supporting the high larval dispersal ability in this species. Mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests suggested that O. oratoria has undergone population expansion event, and the Pleistocene glacial cycles might have an impact on the historical demography of O. oratoria. The genetic information obtained in this study can provide useful information for sustainable improvements for capture fisheries management strategies.

  13. Pelagic sea snakes dehydrate at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Sheehy, Coleman M; Brischoux, François; Grech, Alana

    2014-05-07

    Secondarily marine vertebrates are thought to live independently of fresh water. Here, we demonstrate a paradigm shift for the widely distributed pelagic sea snake, Hydrophis (Pelamis) platurus, which dehydrates at sea and spends a significant part of its life in a dehydrated state corresponding to seasonal drought. Snakes that are captured following prolonged periods without rainfall have lower body water content, lower body condition and increased tendencies to drink fresh water than do snakes that are captured following seasonal periods of high rainfall. These animals do not drink seawater and must rehydrate by drinking from a freshwater lens that forms on the ocean surface during heavy precipitation. The new data based on field studies indicate unequivocally that this marine vertebrate dehydrates at sea where individuals may live in a dehydrated state for possibly six to seven months at a time. This information provides new insights for understanding water requirements of sea snakes, reasons for recent declines and extinctions of sea snakes and more accurate prediction for how changing patterns of precipitation might affect these and other secondarily marine vertebrates living in tropical oceans.

  14. Pelagic sea snakes dehydrate at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B.; Sheehy, Coleman M.; Brischoux, François; Grech, Alana

    2014-01-01

    Secondarily marine vertebrates are thought to live independently of fresh water. Here, we demonstrate a paradigm shift for the widely distributed pelagic sea snake, Hydrophis (Pelamis) platurus, which dehydrates at sea and spends a significant part of its life in a dehydrated state corresponding to seasonal drought. Snakes that are captured following prolonged periods without rainfall have lower body water content, lower body condition and increased tendencies to drink fresh water than do snakes that are captured following seasonal periods of high rainfall. These animals do not drink seawater and must rehydrate by drinking from a freshwater lens that forms on the ocean surface during heavy precipitation. The new data based on field studies indicate unequivocally that this marine vertebrate dehydrates at sea where individuals may live in a dehydrated state for possibly six to seven months at a time. This information provides new insights for understanding water requirements of sea snakes, reasons for recent declines and extinctions of sea snakes and more accurate prediction for how changing patterns of precipitation might affect these and other secondarily marine vertebrates living in tropical oceans. PMID:24648228

  15. North Slope (Wahluke Slope) expedited response action cleanup plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this action is to mitigate any threat to public health and the environment from hazards on the North Slope and meet the expedited response action (ERA) objective of cleanup to a degree requiring no further action. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-I-3 Operable Unit. A No Action record of decision (ROD) may be issued after remediation completion. The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns or administers approximately 140 mi{sup 2} (about 90,000 acres) of land north and east of the Columbia River (referred to as the North Slope) that is part of the Hanford Site. The North Slope, also commonly known as the Wahluke Slope, was not used for plutonium production or support facilities; it was used for military air defense of the Hanford Site and vicinity. The North Slope contained seven antiaircraft gun emplacements and three Nike-Ajax missile positions. These military positions were vacated in 1960--1961 as the defense requirements at Hanford changed. They were demolished in 1974. Prior to government control in 1943, the North Slope was homesteaded. Since the initiation of this ERA in the summer of 1992, DOE signed the modified Hanford Federal Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) with the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in which a milestone was set to complete remediation activities and a draft closeout report by October 1994. Remediation activities will make the North Slope area available for future non-DOE uses. Thirty-nine sites have undergone limited characterization to determine if significant environmental hazards exist. This plan documents the results of that characterization and evaluates the potential remediation alternatives.

  16. REGIONAL COOPERATION IN THE BLACK SEA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia GAVUIK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Topicality. The Black Sea region is situated in a very important geopolitical manner. Consequently, a large-scale regional collaboration becomes possible within the Black Sea zone and countries get appropriate conditions to launch their activity in this context. Aim: The body of the article is going to analyze the BSEC as one of the most successful regional organizations in the Black Sea area. The paper aims to provide an overview of the regional players’ activity in the framework of the BSEC which are involved in sustaining and strengthening of this organization and also in continuing the reform process in it, developing in the same time relations of cooperation with the EU and other regional initiatives. Methods. This article embraces a row of different scientific methods of data analysis, predictive analytics, historical and statistical overview, descriptive method, case study etc. Results. The countries from the Black Sea basin are the most vulnerable to potential risks and shocks due to the instability of the region. This requires the interstate cooperation in the Black Sea area with no tradition in this field several decades ago. In the same time, countries like Turkey, Romania or Russia aspire to play the role of the regional leader, which can cause regional rivalries. With the help of the regional cooperation and the BSEC in particular, regional countries could learn how to work together for the common benefit. The creation of stable markets, interconnected and transparent regional organizations and initiatives would largely contribute to the security and stability of the Black Sea region.

  17. Unprecedented low twentieth century winter sea ice extent in the Western Nordic Seas since A.D. 1200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias Fauria, M. [University of Calgary, Biogeoscience Institute, Calgary, AB (Canada); University of Helsinki, Department of Geology, Helsinki (Finland); Finnish Forest Institute, Rovaniemi Research Station, Rovaniemi (Finland); University of Barcelona, Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Barcelona (Spain); Grinsted, A. [University of Copenhagen, Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); University of Lapland, Arctic Centre, Rovaniemi (Finland); Helama, S.; Eronen, M. [University of Helsinki, Department of Geology, Helsinki (Finland); Moore, J. [University of Copenhagen, Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); University of Oulu, Thule Institute, Oulu (Finland); Beijing Normal University, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing (China); Timonen, M. [Finnish Forest Institute, Rovaniemi Research Station, Rovaniemi (Finland); Martma, T. [Tallinn University of Technology, Institute of Geology, Tallinn (Estonia); Isaksson, E. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Polar Environmental Centre, Tromsoe (Norway)

    2010-05-15

    We reconstructed decadal to centennial variability of maximum sea ice extent in the Western Nordic Seas for A.D. 1200-1997 using a combination of a regional tree-ring chronology from the timberline area in Fennoscandia and {delta}{sup 18}O from the Lomonosovfonna ice core in Svalbard. The reconstruction successfully explained 59% of the variance in sea ice extent based on the calibration period 1864-1997. The significance of the reconstruction statistics (reduction of error, coefficient of efficiency) is computed for the first time against a realistic noise background. The twentieth century sustained the lowest sea ice extent values since A.D. 1200: low sea ice extent also occurred before (mid-seventeenth and mid-eighteenth centuries, early fifteenth and late thirteenth centuries), but these periods were in no case as persistent as in the twentieth century. Largest sea ice extent values occurred from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries, during the Little Ice Age (LIA), with relatively smaller sea ice-covered area during the sixteenth century. Moderate sea ice extent occurred during thirteenth-fifteenth centuries. Reconstructed sea ice extent variability is dominated by decadal oscillations, frequently associated with decadal components of the North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO), and multi-decadal lower frequency oscillations operating at {proportional_to}50-120 year. Sea ice extent and NAO showed a non-stationary relationship during the observational period. The present low sea ice extent is unique over the last 800 years, and results from a decline started in late-nineteenth century after the LIA. (orig.)

  18. [The real philanthropic expedition of the smallpox vaccine: monarchy and modernity in 1803].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigau-Pérez, José G

    2004-09-01

    Smallpox resulted in the death of 30 % of those who acquired it, so the preventive method discovered by Edward Jenner (London, 1798) spread very quickly. At the request in 1803 of Carlos IV, king of Spain, his government evaluated offers to carry smallpox vaccine to the colonies. The selected proposal, by doctor Francisco Xavier de Balmis, sought to take the lymph to America and Asia in a chain of arm to arm vaccination of foundlings. The Expedition set sail from Corunna on November 30, 1803, stopped in the Canary Isles, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela and after Caracas (1804) split in two groups. Balmis led some members of the Expedition to Cuba and Mexico. For the trip to the Philippines, in 1805, parents lent their children in exchange for economic compensation and the promise that the boys would be returned home. The Expedition returned to Mexico in August, 1807, but Balmis separately took vaccine to China and returned to Spain. Another contingent of the Expedition, under vice-director José Salvany, took vaccine to what we know as Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. His assistant Manuel Grajales reached the Chilean Patagonia in 1811. This article also comments on three principal themes - the institutional management of the scientific project, the conflicts that characterized its course, and the children's experience. The Vaccine Expedition was a brave and humanitarian endeavor, but also an extraordinary sanitary and administrative success. It was not until the twentieth century that a global eradication campaign eliminated smallpox in the world.

  19. Revisiting J.M. Gilliss' astronomical expedition to Chile in 1849‒1852

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Germán Hidalgo

    2017-08-01

    Between 1849 and 1852 the U.S. astronomer J.M. Gilliss led an expedition to Santiago, Chile, aimed at improving the accepted value for the solar parallax. Although this particular research project was not a success, the astronomers did make other useful astronomical contributions, and the expedition was the catalyst that led directly to the founding of the Chilean National Observatory. Meanwhile, Gilliss later went on to achieve further prominence as Superintendent of the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C. The results of the Chilean expedition were published by Gilliss in a six-volume work titled The U.S. Naval Astronomical Expedition to the Southern Hemisphere during the Years 1849-50-51-52 that was issued over a 40-year period. In Volume I (published in 1855) Gilliss presented a 'warts-and-all' account of Chile, its politics and its people, which at the time—and subsequently—created considerable controversy. In this paper, after briefly reviewing Gilliss' Southern Hemisphere expedition we focus on the extensive non-astronomical narrative that Gilliss presents in this first volume.

  20. Sea surface temperatures and salinities from platforms in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and the South China Sea (Nan Hai) from 1896-1950 (NODC Accession 0000506)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface temperatures and salinities were collected in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and South China Sea (Nan Hai)...