WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustainable forest resources

  1. Forest Resource Management Plans: A Sustainability Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pile, Lauren S.; Watts, Christine M.; Straka, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Forest Resource Management Plans is the capstone course in many forestry and natural resource management curricula. The management plans are developed by senior forestry students. Early management plans courses were commonly technical exercises, often performed on contrived forest "tracts" on university-owned or other public lands, with a goal of…

  2. Accounting of forest resources in the framework of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Zamula

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, deforestation of territories and degradation of forest resources is a global problem as it leads to a climate change, soil degradation, the decline in natural reproduction of forest resources and to the disappearance of many valuable species of forest cultures. Due to the importance of the preservation of forest resources for environment it is necessary to revise the conceptual approach to the reflection of such resources both at the micro- and at the macroeconomic level. Preservation, rational use and reproduction of forest resources is one of the priorities of forestry development inUkraine. Accounting is a tool which allows to form the information about the condition and availability of forest resources. In this regard, we consider that the accounting information is an important tool for the preservation of forest assets and the reduction of anthropogenic impacts on these slowly recovering natural resources. The reflection of forest resources in accounting should be implemented on the basis of the rules defined in the P(S BU 30 called «Biological Assets» and IAS 41 called «Agriculture». In addition, we consider that while reflecting of forest resources in accounting it’s necessary to take into account the life cycle of the tree stand which consists of several stages where each one should be taken into account in the recognition of expenses on their reproduction. For the formation of analytical cuts of the costs of care for the forest resources and their protection is proposed to open the following 3 sub-accounts to the account 155 called «Expenses on the formation of forest resources»: the first is «Expenses on the landing of forest cultures», the second is «Expenses on care for forest resources» and the third one is «Expenses on the protection of forest resources». Sustainable forest management involves the reproduction of forest resources. One of the main criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of forest management

  3. Forest Management Challenges for Sustaining Water Resources in the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Earth has entered the Anthropocene epoch that is dominated by humans who demand unprecedented quantities of goods and services from forests. The science of forest hydrology and watershed management generated during the past century provides a basic understanding of relationships among forests and water and offers management principles that maximize the benefits of forests for people while sustaining watershed ecosystems. However, the rapid pace of changes in climate, disturbance regimes, invasive species, human population growth, and land use expected in the 21st century is likely to create substantial challenges for watershed management that may require new approaches, models, and best management practices. These challenges are likely to be complex and large scale, involving a combination of direct and indirect biophysical watershed responses, as well as socioeconomic impacts and feedbacks. We discuss the complex relationships between forests and water in a rapidly changing environment, examine the trade-offs and conflicts between water and other resources, and propose new management approaches for sustaining water resources in the Anthropocene.

  4. Opportunities to enhance contribution of model forests in the sustainable forest resources management (example from Yalova Model Forest).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiroğlu, Sultan; Özdemir, Mehmet; Özyürek, Ercan; Arslan, Avni

    2016-10-01

    Model forests are nongovernmental organizations at local, regional and international level which are mainly focused on reconciling the conflicts between the stakeholders. This is an innovative approach to organization, which has been receiving more and more attraction from increasing number of countries, which gradually increased the number of model forests for the last 25 years. If these organizations reach desired levels of structure, medium, impacts and assets their contribution in sustainable forest resources management will increase ipso facto. The very first model forest of Turkey was created in Yalova Province in 2010. Yalova Province has certain fundamental problems including but not limited to; population growth and unplanned urbanization caused by industrialization, uncontrolled increase in demand for fire wood and non-wooden products of forestry resources, questionable resource management decisions adopted in the past and low-income levels of the people especially those in the rural areas. The main objective of present case study is to analyze Yalova Model Forest (YMF) so as to determine the possible problems that may occur during implementation of sustainable management for forestry resources through a planning approach with multiple stakeholders. As a result of research, it has been revealed that YMF has certain significant structural, environmental and impact-related problems. In order to ensure continuity of YMF's contribution to sustainable forestry resources management, these problems need to be addressed promptly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sustaining Urban Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak; Mary Heather Noble

    2003-01-01

    The significance of the urban forest resource and the powerful forces for change in the urban environment make sustainability a critical issue in urban forest management. The diversity, connectedness, and dynamics of the urban forest establish the context for management that will determine the sustainability of forest structure, health, functions, and benefits. A...

  6. Forest management challenges for sustaining water resources in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; James M. Vose

    2016-01-01

    The Earth has entered the Anthropocene epoch that is dominated by humans who demand unprecedented quantities of goods and services from forests. The science of forest hydrology and watershed management generated during the past century provides a basic understanding of relationships among forests and water and offers management principles that maximize the benefits of...

  7. Resource demand estimates for sustainable forest management: Mngazana Mangrove Forest, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Traynor

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since democratization in 1994, South African forest policies have promoted sustainable forest management. However, implementation has been problematic due to limited information concerning forest product utilization. This paper investigates and quantifies timber use from the Mngazana Mangrove Forest. Eastern Cape Province. South Africa. Three local communities utilize stems of the mangrove species Rhizophora mucronata Lam. and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L. Lam. for building construction. There were two distinct building shapes, circular and rectangular. On average. 155 stems were used for circular buildings and 378 stems for rectangular buildings. Most buildings were constructed using mangroves as well as indigenous timber from coastal scarp forests. The proportion of mangrove stems in buildings varied from 0 to 95%. The annual demand for mangroves was estimated to be 18 400 stems. Due to the high annual demand, projected human population growth rates have a minor influence upon future demand values. For effective sustainable forest management, the standing stock at Mngazana should be restricted to the two mangrove species utilized for building construction, and a forest inventory performed so that demand for building can be compared to supply.

  8. Resource demand estimates for sustainable forest management: Mngazana Mangrove Forest, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Traynor

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Since democratization in 1994, South African forest policies have promoted sustainable forest management. However, implementation has been problematic due to limited information concerning forest product utilization. This paper investigates and quantifies timber use from the Mngazana Mangrove Forest. Eastern Cape Province. South Africa. Three local communities utilize stems of the mangrove species Rhizophora mucronata Lam. and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L. Lam. for building construction. There were two distinct building shapes, circular and rectangular. On average. 155 stems were used for circular buildings and 378 stems for rectangular buildings. Most buildings were constructed using mangroves as well as indigenous timber from coastal scarp forests. The proportion of mangrove stems in buildings varied from 0 to 95%. The annual demand for mangroves was estimated to be 18 400 stems. Due to the high annual demand, projected human population growth rates have a minor influence upon future demand values. For effective sustainable forest management, the standing stock at Mngazana should be restricted to the two mangrove species utilized for building construction, and a forest inventory performed so that demand for building can be compared to supply.

  9. Evolution of Sustainability in American Forest Resource Management Planning in the Context of the American Forest Management Textbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Straka

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available American forest resource management and planning goes back to the European roots of American Forestry. Timber management plans, documents based on forest regulation for timber production, were the foundation of American forestry. These types of management plans predominated until World War II. Multiple use forestry developed after World War II and issues like recreation, wildlife, water quality, and wilderness became more important. In the 1970’s harvest scheduling became part of the planning process, allowing for optimization of multiple goals. By 2001 social, environmental, and economic goals were integrated into the timber production process. American forestry experienced distinct historical periods of resource planning, ranging from classic sustained yield timber production, to multiple use-sustained yield, to sustainable human-forest systems. This article traces the historical changes in forest management planning philosophy using the forest management textbooks of the time. These textbooks provide insight into the thought process of the forestry profession as changes in the concept of sustainability occurred.

  10. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  11. Strategy for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Spanish Forest Genetic Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, P.; Diaz-Fernandez, P. M.; Iglesias, S.; Prada, A.; Garcia del Barrio, J. M.; Alba, N.; Alia, R.

    2009-07-01

    In the last decade, forestry policies in Spain have undergone changes needed to comply with the European and world directives on forest conservation. The elaboration of strategic plans has to take into account the State organization (Central and Autonomous Regional Governments share the responsibilities), resulting in agreed documents, effective at a national level and fulfilling the peculiarities and aspirations of each region. The most recent development has been the elaboration of a Strategy for Conservation and Sustainable Use of Forest Genetic Resources, which can be seen as a consequence of, among other factors, the implementation of the Spanish Strategy for Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity along with Spains participation in the European Forest Genetic Resources Programme. This document arose from the lack of approaches to the conservation of population diversity of forest species in the current policies, and as a means to promote and coordinate activities on conservation and use of genetic resources. The Strategy has been arranged through a participative process involving the Forest Administration, Research Centres and Universities. The document includes a definition of priorities and proposals of activities, which are mainly focused on optimising the efficiency of existing tools and infrastructures and on increasing synergy among different initiatives. Implementation of the Strategy is expected to occur through the development of National Action Plans. Finally, coordination mechanisms must be enhanced in order to maintain the levels of cooperation achieved during the elaboration process. (Author) 18 refs.

  12. Why sustain oak forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Wm. Smith

    2006-01-01

    A brief overview and some personal thoughts are offered that deal with the implications of our social and political systems on the long-term sustainability of our forest resources. The connection of the most recent climatic events, in a geologic-time context, to the development of present day oak dominated forests of the Eastern United States is discussed. The impacts...

  13. Livelihood Sustainability and Community Based Co-Management of Forest Resources in China: Changes and Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyun; Shivakoti, Ganesh; Zhu, Ting; Maddox, David

    2012-01-01

    Community-based co-management (CBCM) has been applied in some communities near natural reserves in China. This paper uses Gansu Baishuijiang National Natural Reserve in China as a case study for livelihood improvements under CBCM projects. We demonstrate change from 2006 to 2010 in five classes of livelihood capital (social, human, natural, physical and financial capitals), illustrating the effectiveness of CBCM projects. Specifically, there are increases in mean family income and improvements in forest conservation. However, some problems in the design and implementation of CBCM projects remain, including the complicated social and political relationship between government and community, social exclusion and uneven application of benefits within communities, and the lack of integration of indigenous cultures and traditional beliefs. Attention for special groups in community and improving the design of CBCM Projects. Study shows that under the cooperation of government, CBCM projects and local community residents, the harmonious development of sustainable livelihood improvement and forest resources conservation will be an important trend in the future.

  14. Potential Impact of Bioenergy Demand on the Sustainability of the Southern Forest Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Abt; Robert C. Abt

    2012-01-01

    The use of woody biomass for the production of domestic bioenergy to meet policy-driven demands could lead to significant changes in the forest resource. These impacts may be limited if woody biomass from forests is defined as only the residues from logging. Yet, if only residue is used, the contribution of woody biomass to a renewable energy portfolio will also be...

  15. Evolution of Sustainability in American Forest Resource Management Planning in the Context of the American Forest Management Textbook

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas J. Straka

    2009-01-01

    American forest resource management and planning goes back to the European roots of American Forestry. Timber management plans, documents based on forest regulation for timber production, were the foundation of American forestry. These types of management plans predominated until World War II. Multiple use forestry developed after World War II and issues like recreation, wildlife, water quality, and wilderness became more important. In the 1970’s harvest scheduling became part of the planning...

  16. THE INTERDEPENDENCE OF FOREST RESOURCES WITH THE NATIONAL ECONOMY AND THE NECESSITY TO ENSURE THEIR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion PLATON

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolutions of the human society in past thirty years prove the necessity of an intervention to ensure a sustainable development. One of the most important principle of sustainability consist in preservation of natural resources and development of those activities, that can assure a real evolution of human society for a long period of time. The approach of aspects regarding to the situation of land, freshwater, biodiversity, atmosphere or forests can explain the real situation of environment and could help the economists find the best strategies for economic development. This goal of this article is to analyze the stage of present forestry resources and provide the reason for economists to take into account the limits in consumptions of environmental goods.

  17. Evaluation of sustainable forest management of Iran's Zagros forests ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) means management of forest resources that consideration the needs of the current generation without risking ability of future generations to attain their needs. Evaluation of SFM needs to design a feedback information system to monitoring of forest resources. In this research ...

  18. Iowa's forest resources, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer; Pamela J. Jakes

    1980-01-01

    The second inventory of Iowa's forest resources shows big declines in commercial forest area and in growing-stock and sawtimber volumes between 1954 and 1974. Presented are text and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, stocking, future timber supply, timber use, forest management opportunities, and nontimber resources.

  19. Communicating forest sector sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, E.; Toppinen, Anne; Lähtinen, K.; Ranacher, L.; Werner, Andrea; Stern, Tobias; Kutnar, Andreja

    2016-01-01

    Communication is an important tool in maintaining legitimacy and acceptability of forest sector operations and activities, and expectations by the general public on the forest sector conduct in Europe are in general very high. Despite this, there is scarce research in crossnational context on how forest sector sustainability is communicated to the general public, and what development areas can be identified in terms of communication content. This study applies a qualitative content analysis i...

  20. Role of Institutions and Organizations for the Sustainable Management of Forest and Pasture as Common Property Resources in Nepal: An Overview of the Indigenous and Traditional Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laya Prasad Uprety

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This is an overview paper based on the contemporary literature available in the regime of forest and pasture as common property resources. The analysis has underscored the role of local institutions and organizations for the sustainable management of forest and pasture as common property resources. The paper concludes that farmers of Nepal have developed and used the organizational and institutional mechanisms for the sustained management of these resources by ensuring social equity. Understanding the ingredients of indigenous resource management systems can have a bearing on developing appropriate national policies aiming at ensuring the sustainability of the future programs of Nepal.Key Words: Institution, organization, indigenous, traditional, common property, sustainable, social equity, participation, etc.DOI = 10.3126/dsaj.v2i0.1357Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.2 pp.31-64

  1. Forest observational studies-an essential infrastructure for sustainable use of natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiuHai Zhao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution complements Forest Ecosystems’ Thematic Series on “Forest Observational Studies”. We provide essential clarification regarding the definition and purpose of long-term field studies, review some of the extensive literature and discuss different approaches to collecting field data. We also describe two newly established forest observational networks that serve to illustrate the scope and diversity of forest field studies. The first is a large-scale network of forest observational studies in prominent natural forest ecosystems in China. The second example demonstrates observational studies in mixed and uneven-aged pine-oak forests which are selectively managed by local communities in Mexico. We summarize the potential for analysing and modeling forest ecosystems within interdisciplinary projects and provide argumentation in favour of long-term institutional commitment to maintaining forest observational field studies.

  2. Interpreting Sustainability for Urban Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ordóñez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Incisive interpretations of urban-forest sustainability are important in furthering our understanding of how to sustain the myriad values associated with urban forests. Our analysis of earlier interpretations reveals conceptual gaps. These interpretations are attached to restrictive definitions of a sustainable urban forest and limited to a rather mechanical view of maintaining the biophysical structure of trees. The probing of three conceptual domains (urban forest concepts, sustainable development, and sustainable forest management leads to a broader interpretation of urban-forest sustainability as the process of sustaining urban forest values through time and across space. We propose that values—and not services, benefits, functions or goods—is a superior concept to refer to what is to be sustained in and by an urban forest.

  3. Forest tenure and sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.P. Siry; K. McGinley; F.W. Cubbage; P. Bettinger

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the principles and key literature related to forest tenure and sustainable forest management, and then examined the status of sustainable forestry and land ownership at the aggregate national level for major forested countries. The institutional design principles suggested by Ostrom are well accepted for applications to public, communal, and private lands....

  4. Minnesota's forest resources, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.D. Miles; D. Heinzen

    2007-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Minnesota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for...

  5. INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE MANGROVE FOREST MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Kusmana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forest as a renewable resource must be managed based on sustainable basis in which the benefits of ecological, economic and social from the forest have to equity concern in achieving the optimum forest products and services in fulfill the needs of recent generation without destruction of future generation needs and that does not undesirable effects on the physical and social environment. This Sustainable Forest Management (SFM practices needs the supporting of sustainability in the development of social, economic and environment (ecological sounds simultaneously, it should be run by the proper institutional and regulations. In operational scale, SFM need integration in terms of knowledge, technical, consultative of stakeholders, coordination among sectors and other stakeholders, and considerations of ecological inter-relationship in which mangroves as an integral part of both a coastal ecosystem and a watershed (catchment area. Some tools have been developed to measure the performent of SFM, such as initiated by ITTO at 1992 and followed by Ministry of Forestry of Indonesia (1993, CIFOR (1995, LEI (1999, FSC (1999, etc., however, the true nuance of SFM’s performance is not easy to be measured. 

  6. Forest resources of the Gila National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Shaw

    2008-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Gila National Forest 1994 inventory including...

  7. Forest resources of Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Rosson; William H. McWilliams; Paul D. Frey

    1988-01-01

    This report documents the findings of the fifth forest survey of Louisiana. Trend data on the forest resource are presented along with appropriate tables and figures. The appendix contains definitions of terms, a discussion of data reliability, a tree species list, and 22 standard statistical tables. Data are reported for January 1, 1984. Major highlights are listed...

  8. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF CAMEROON FORESTS RESOURCES: PROVIDING TIMBER WASTE TO THE POOR POPULATIONS AS ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Benjamin Noumo Foko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cameroon is covered by about 20 million hectares of forests. Timber exploitation is the second source of external income after petroleum. Besides, Cameroon’s forest has several other functions. Yet the threat to the very existence and survival of this forest is rapidly increasing due to overexploitation by logging companies and for firewood. Despite its usefulness, a substantial volume of the wood felled by timber exploiters is abandoned as waste to rot. This waste can be used as firewood by households even for building and making of furniture by small-scale users like carpenters if they had access to it. This paper encourages the use of timber waste as an alternative to kerosene, which has become very expensive and unaffordable due to the general rise in the price of petroleum products in recent years. The overexploitation of forests can therefore be limited by putting the waste timber into use. It will go along to reduce freshly cut wood which is usually cut illegally and uncontrollably and which is a major source of depletion of forest resources. This project, once achieved will forever last because it will always generate revenue to the groups involve in the collection and the distribution of forest waste which will make money from sales even if they were to sell cheaper since the major cost is transportation and the waste wood is also cheap to obtain from the logging companies or even costless since they have less interest in it.

  9. Nebraska's forest resources in 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Keith Moser; Gary J. Brand; Mark H. Hansen; William R. Lovett

    2005-01-01

    Reports results of the first three yearly panels (2001-2003) of the fourth inventory of Nebraska's forest resources. Includes information on forest area; volume; biomass; growth, removals, and mortality; and forest health.

  10. Forest resources of the Umatilla National Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn A. Christensen; Paul Dunham; David C. Powell; Bruce. Hiserote

    2007-01-01

    Current resource statistics for the Umatilla National Forest, based on two separate inventories conducted in 1993–96 and in 1997–2002, are presented in this report. Currently on the Umatilla National Forest, 89 percent of the land area is classified as forest land. The predominant forest type is grand fir (26 percent of forested acres) followed by the interior Douglas-...

  11. Forest Sustainability in China and Implications for a Telecoupled World

    OpenAIRE

    Jianguo Liu

    2014-01-01

    China's forest cover has been increasing in the past three decades, which is in sharp contrast to rapid declines in other natural resources. Understanding the mechanisms of forest recovery and their effects is essential for sustaining forests in China and elsewhere. Some studies suggest that imports of forest products have contributed to the increase in forest cover of China and the decline in forest cover of exporting countries. However, it is not clear whether other countries beyond the exp...

  12. Forest biomass sustainability and availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.E. Skog; John Stanturf

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides a synthesis of information on potential supply of forest biomass given needs for sustainable development of forestry. Sustainability includes maintenance of water supply, biodiversity, and carbon storage as well as timber products, community development, and recreation. Biomass removals can reduce fire hazard and insect and disease attack, restore...

  13. Forest resources of the Kootenai National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea M. Wilson; Patrick D. Miles

    2000-01-01

    THe Interior West Resource Inventory, Monitoring, and Evaluation (IWRIME) Program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station (formerly known as the Intermountain Research Station), as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, entered into a cooperative agreement with the Northern Region (Region 1) for the inventory of its...

  14. Ecological Sustainability of Birds in Boreal Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Niemi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available We review characteristics of birds in boreal forests in the context of their ecological sustainability under both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. We identify the underlying ecological factors associated with boreal bird populations and their variability, review the interactions between boreal bird populations and disturbance, and describe some tools on how boreal bird populations may be conserved in the future. The boreal system has historically been an area with extensive disturbance such as fire, insect outbreaks, and wind. In addition, the boreal system is vulnerable to global climate change as well as increasing pressure on forest and water resources. Current knowledge indicates that birds play an important role in boreal forests, and sustaining these populations affords many benefits to the health of boreal forests. Many issues must be approached with caution, including the lack of knowledge on our ability to mimic natural disturbance regimes with management, our lack of understanding on fragmentation due to logging activity, which is different from permanent conversion to other land uses such as agriculture or residential area, and our lack of knowledge on what controls variability in boreal bird populations or the linkage between bird population fluctuations and productivity. The essential role that birds can provide is to clarify important ecological concerns and variables that not only will help to sustain bird populations, but also will contribute to the long-term health of the boreal forest for all species, including humans.

  15. The ′Adat′ institution and the Management of Grand Forest ′Herman Yohannes′ in Indonesian Timor: The Role of Design Principles for Sustainable Management of Common Pool Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacko A van Ast

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Local success stories of sustainable forest management can inspire scientists and decision-makers. This article analyses the traditional ′Adat′ institution that plays a role in the management of Grand Forest Park ′Herman Yohannes′, in the Western part of Timor where the Adat forest management regulation has been formally restored. The original set of design principles for sustainable management of common pool resources of Elinor Ostrom (1990 has been used in this study as an analytical framework for understanding the role of the Adat institution in respect to the forest. In the park, the local community applies Adat for protection and management of the forest that has been its home for centuries. It appears that Ostrom′s design principles can be identified in the current Adat institution and play a role in the sustainable management of the forest. Although many other variables can lead to success or failure of institutions, the original (internal design principles are still valuable as a practical tool for building institutions that are - under certain conditions - able to sustain common pool resources. The findings confirm the importance of traditional institutions in successful forest management. The study recommends that decision-makers take into account existing traditional management systems that have shown long term functionality.

  16. The science of decisionmaking: applications for sustainable forest and grassland management in the National Forest System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Bruce G. Marcot; Frank R. Thompson; Steven McNulty; Larry A. Fisher; Michael C. Runge; David Cleaves; Monica Tomosy

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable management of national forests and grasslands within the National Forest System (NFS) often requires managers to make tough decisions under considerable uncertainty, complexity, and potential conflict. Resource decisionmakers must weigh a variety of risks, stressors, and challenges to sustainable management, including climate change, wildland fire, invasive...

  17. Forest resources and conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. McWilliams; Linda S. Heath; Gordon C. Reese; Thomas L. Schmidt

    2000-01-01

    The forests of the northern United States support a rich mix of floral and faunal communities that provide inestimable benefits to society. Today's forests face a range of biotic and abiotic stressors, not the least of which may be environmental change. This chapter reviews the compositional traits of presettlement forests and traces the major land use patterns...

  18. Does participatory forest management promote sustainable forest utilisation in Tanzania?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treue, Thorsten; Ngaga, Y.M.; Meilby, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, Participatory Forest Management (PFM) has become a dominant forest management strategy in Tanzania, covering more than 4.1 million hectares. Sustainable forest use and supply of wood products to local people are major aims of PFM. This paper assesses the sustainability...... of forest utilisation under PFM, using estimates of forest condition and extraction rates based on forest inventories and 480 household surveys from 12 forests; seven under Community Based Forest Management (CBFM), three under Joint Forest Management (JFM) and two under government management (non......-PFM). Extraction of products is intense in forests close to Dar es Salaam, regardless of management regime. Further from Dar es Salaam, harvesting levels in forests under PFM are, with one prominent exception, broadly sustainable. Using GIS data from 116 wards, it is shown that half of the PFM forests in Tanzania...

  19. A Quantitative Index of Forest Structural Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Cale

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest health is a complex concept including many ecosystem functions, interactions and values. We develop a quantitative system applicable to many forest types to assess tree mortality with respect to stable forest structure and composition. We quantify impacts of observed tree mortality on structure by comparison to baseline mortality, and then develop a system that distinguishes between structurally stable and unstable forests. An empirical multivariate index of structural sustainability and a threshold value (70.6 derived from 22 nontropical tree species’ datasets differentiated structurally sustainable from unsustainable diameter distributions. Twelve of 22 species populations were sustainable with a mean score of 33.2 (median = 27.6. Ten species populations were unsustainable with a mean score of 142.6 (median = 130.1. Among them, Fagus grandifolia, Pinus lambertiana, P. ponderosa, and Nothofagus solandri were attributable to known disturbances; whereas the unsustainability of Abies balsamea, Acer rubrum, Calocedrus decurrens, Picea engelmannii, P. rubens, and Prunus serotina populations were not. This approach provides the ecological framework for rational management decisions using routine inventory data to objectively: determine scope and direction of change in structure and composition, assess excessive or insufficient mortality, compare disturbance impacts in time and space, and prioritize management needs and allocation of scarce resources.

  20. Forest genetic resources to support global bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Orlović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A biobased economy implies sustainable and effective use of the biomass. This includes new products from forestry. The sustainable production, use, consumption and waste management of biomass all contribute to a bioeconomy (The European Bioeconomy in 2030. In the context of bioeconomy the conservation of forest genetic resources assumes a key significance in overcoming global challenges such as climate change. Forests are expected to play a key role in climate change mitigation, but they will only be able to fulfil that role if the trees themselves are able to survive and adapt to changing climate conditions. Genetic diversity provides the fundamental basis for the evolution of forest tree species and for their adaptation to change. The enormous range of goods and services provided by trees and forests is both a function of and testimony to the genetic variability contained within them.  Conserving forest  genetic  resources  is  therefore  vital, as  they  constitute  a  unique  and  irreplaceable resource for the future, including for sustainable economic growth and progress and environmental adaption (The State of the Worlds Forest Genetic Resources 2014.Previous research of population characteristics and the effects of natural and artificial selection on the genetic structure of populations contribute to the conservation and enhancement of the gene pool of the native tree species. The balance model of the population genetic structure reveals the new properties of the populations and requires further investigations, especially of the relations of subpopulations, half-sib families and organisms and the effect of variable factors of the environment, on the exchange of genetic material within natural and cultural populations.Being of national and international significance, these resources require intensive protection and enhancement in situ and ex situ. In this paper a general introduction is given to conservation of forest genetic

  1. Forest resources of the Forest resources of the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Rogers

    2008-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest...

  2. Forest resource trends in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson

    1994-01-01

    Even though forests occupy only 12% of the land area of Illinois, they play a valuable role in the health of the state's environment and that of its citizens. Many of these benefits have been reviewed in Forest Resources of Illinois: An Atlas and Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Trends (Iverson et al. 1989), and summarized in...

  3. National Report on Sustainable Forests--2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy Robertson; Peter Gaulke; Ruth McWilliams; Sarah LaPlante; Richard Guldin

    2011-01-01

    The United States is richly endowed with forests, and their care and conservation have been a national concern for more than a century. This report, the National Report on Sustainable Forests—2010, provides data and analysis aimed at addressing this concern by enhancing dialogue and decisions in pursuit of the goal of forest sustainability. The report relies on the...

  4. Western North Carolina report card on forest sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Fox; Bill Jackson; Sarah Jackson; Gary Kauffmann; Mary Carol Koester; Robert Mera; Terry Seyden; Charles Van Sickle; Sealy Chipley; Jim Fox; Jeff Hicks; Matt Hutchins; Karin Lichtenstein; Kelsie Nolan; Todd Pierce; Beth Porter

    2011-01-01

    Western North Carolina encompasses 4.8 million acres of highly valued temperate forests. To help address future management and conservation decisions surrounding these resources, the report card evaluates environmental, social, and economic conditions in recent decades across an 18 county area. The report card describes the status of indicators of forest sustainability...

  5. 76 FR 79151 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Committee Meeting will meet in Washington, DC on January 20, 2012... closed to the public. The Forest Resource Committee is authorized under the Food, Conservation, and...

  6. 78 FR 34035 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Coordinating Committee will meet via teleconference every month on... conference call will be posted to the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Web site, http://www.fs.fed.us...

  7. Forest inventory: role in accountability for sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd C. Irland

    2007-01-01

    Forest inventory can play several roles in accountability for sustainable forest management. A first dimension is accountability for national performance. The new field of Criteria and Indicators is an expression of this need. A more familiar role for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program is for assessment and...

  8. Participatory forest management for sustainable livelihoods in the Bale Mountains, Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfaye, Yemiru

    2011-01-01

    Preventing environmental degradation and alleviating poverty are the twin challenges of sustainable development. Participatory forest management (PFM) takes the challenge of preventing the degradation of forest resources while sustaining forest-based benefits to people's livelihoods. Yet, effective implementation of PFM requires a more profound understanding of the actual place of forest resources in the livelihoods of rural households and the role of forest-based activities in alleviating po...

  9. Sustainable polymers from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunqing; Romain, Charles; Williams, Charlotte K

    2016-12-14

    Renewable resources are used increasingly in the production of polymers. In particular, monomers such as carbon dioxide, terpenes, vegetable oils and carbohydrates can be used as feedstocks for the manufacture of a variety of sustainable materials and products, including elastomers, plastics, hydrogels, flexible electronics, resins, engineering polymers and composites. Efficient catalysis is required to produce monomers, to facilitate selective polymerizations and to enable recycling or upcycling of waste materials. There are opportunities to use such sustainable polymers in both high-value areas and in basic applications such as packaging. Life-cycle assessment can be used to quantify the environmental benefits of sustainable polymers.

  10. Sustainable polymers from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunqing; Romain, Charles; Williams, Charlotte K.

    2016-12-01

    Renewable resources are used increasingly in the production of polymers. In particular, monomers such as carbon dioxide, terpenes, vegetable oils and carbohydrates can be used as feedstocks for the manufacture of a variety of sustainable materials and products, including elastomers, plastics, hydrogels, flexible electronics, resins, engineering polymers and composites. Efficient catalysis is required to produce monomers, to facilitate selective polymerizations and to enable recycling or upcycling of waste materials. There are opportunities to use such sustainable polymers in both high-value areas and in basic applications such as packaging. Life-cycle assessment can be used to quantify the environmental benefits of sustainable polymers.

  11. A Special Issue of the Journal of Forestry—Tribal Forest Management: Innovations for Sustainable Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Dockry; Serra J. Hoagland

    2017-01-01

    Native American forests and tribal forest management practices have sustained indigenous communities, economies, and resources for millennia. These systems provide a wealth of knowledge and successful applications of long-term environmental stewardship and integrated, sustainable forest management. Tribal forestry has received an increasing amount of attention from...

  12. Carbon sequestration, biological diversity, and sustainable development: Integrated forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Michael A.; Meganck, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Tropical deforestation provides a significant contribution to anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration that may lead to global warming. Forestation and other forest management options to sequester CO2 in the tropical latitudes may fail unless they address local economic, social, environmental, and political needs of people in the developing world. Forest management is discussed in terms of three objectives: carbon sequestration, sustainable development, and biodiversity conservation. An integrated forest management strategy of land-use planning is proposed to achieve these objectives and is centered around: preservation of primary forest, intensified use of nontimber resources, agroforestry, and selective use of plantation forestry.

  13. Midcycle survey of Mississippi's forest resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Thomas; William H. McWilliams

    1985-01-01

    To provide current forest resource data, the Forest Inventory and Analysis Unit of the U.S. Forest Service Southern Forest Experiment Station has conducted interim surveys within the regular 10-year survey cycles. This report summarizes the findings of a midcycle survey of Mississippi forest resources. Field work for the survey was completed in 1983....

  14. 78 FR 73819 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Cancellation. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service was required to cancel the October 17-18, 2013 meeting of the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee due to the Government partial shutdown...

  15. 78 FR 57128 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Meeting will meet in Rosslyn, Virginia. The... effectively address the national priorities for non-industrial private forest land. The purpose of this...

  16. 78 FR 6806 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Committee Meeting will meet in Arlington, Va. The committee is...- industrial private forest land. The purpose of the meeting is discuss operational procedures for the...

  17. Forest resources of Mississippi’s national forests, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt

    2011-01-01

    This bulletin describes forest resource characteristics of Mississippi’s national forests, with emphasis on DeSoto National Forest, following the 2006 survey completed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program. Mississippi’s national forests comprise > 1 million acres of forest land, or about 7 percent of all forest...

  18. 78 FR 44519 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Office of the Secretary Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; Re-establishment of the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee and call for nominations. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture re-established the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee (Committee...

  19. Sustaining America's urban trees and forests: a Forests on the Edge report

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Paula B. Randler; Eric J. Greenfield; Sara J. Comas; Mary A. Carr; Ralph J. Alig

    2010-01-01

    Close to 80 percent of the U.S. population lives in urban areas and depends on the essential ecological, economic, and social benefits provided by urban trees and forests. However, the distribution of urban tree cover and the benefits of urban forests vary across the United States, as do the challenges of sustaining this important resource. As urban areas expand...

  20. Sustaining oak forests in eastern North America: regeneration and recruitment, the pillars of sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Oak cover types comprise half of the forestlands in the eastern United States. There is a great desire to sustain these highly valued forests. Unfortunately, reports of the successional replacement of oak are all too common, as they are throughout the world. Sustaining the oak resource requires the ability to both regenerate and recruit oak into the overstory as...

  1. Forest Resources of the United States, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad, tech. coord. Smith; Patrick D., data coord. Miles; Charles H., map coord. Perry; Scott A., Data CD coord. Pugh

    2009-01-01

    Forest resource statistics from the 2000 Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment were updated to provide current information on the Nation's forests. Resource tables present estimates of forest area, volume, mortality, growth, removals, and timber products output in various ways, such as by ownership, region, or State. Current resource data and trends are analyzed...

  2. Perceptions of forest resource use and management in two village ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural communities in South Africa are similar to communities in other parts of the developing world in terms of their use and management of natural forest resources as a means of sustaining their livelihoods. Participatory surveys were conducted with communities living near a communal woodland and a State Forest in the ...

  3. Forests in the Light of Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable development assigns all the social and economic development methods and forms, whose fundament is firstly represented by the insurance of a balance between these socialeconomic systems and the elements of the natural capital. The most known definition of sustainable development is surely the one of the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED in the “Our common future” report, also known as the Brundtland Report: “sustainable development is the development that aims at satisfying the present need without compromising future generations‟ possibility to satisfy their own needs”. Sustainable development also aims at and tries to establish a theoretical frame in order to make decisions in all situations that include a human/environment report, whether it is about the environment, the economic or the social environment. Though sustainable development has initially been regarded as a solution to the ecological crisis determined by the huge industrial exploitation of resources and the continuous soil degradation of the environment and it has sought to preserve the quality of the environment, nowadays the concept has been extended to the living quality in its intricacy, involving the economic and social issue. Nowadays, the concern of sustainable development also represents a concern for right and country equality, not only for generations. Within the process, several international conventions have been adopted, which establish precise country requirements and strict implementation terms regarding climate changing, biodiversity preservation, protection of the forest fund and of the wet areas, access to environment quality information and others, that outline an international judicial space for the implementation of the sustainable development concepts.

  4. Reviewing efforts in global forest conservation for sustainable forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The world's forests are in crisis - facing greater threats than ever before; and there is need to document efforts made in protecting them for effective forest resources management. The paper compiled and assessed from 1996-1998 a maiden report of the efforts of a leading world forest conservation Organization - the World ...

  5. Sustainable Forest Management and Social-Ecological Systems: An Institutional Analysis of Caatinga, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattei Faggin, Joana; Behagel, J.H.; Arts, B.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) has globally gained support as a strategy to use and manage forest resources while maintaining forest ecosystem services. However, type, relevance, and utilisation of forest ecosystem services vary across eco-regions, countries, and policy implementation pathways.

  6. Criterion 7: Legal, institutional, and economic framework for forest conservation and sustainable management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    This criterion focuses on the social context of forests—the laws, policies, administrative rules, and social and economic institutions—that governs forest resource management and use. What society permits or restricts, encourages or discourages all influence the sustainability of forest resources. Criterion 7 captures this by turning attention to all the different...

  7. Sustainable Forest Management as a potential integrative approach in international public policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattei Faggin, Joana; Offermans, A.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation negatively affects the provision of environmental services, and
    consequently affects local populations’ livelihoods that depend on the use of forest
    resources
    . Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) aims to use forest resources in such a
    way as to provide environmental

  8. Natural resource accounting for the National Forests: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi Xu; Dennis P. Bradley; Pamela J. Jakes

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes the shortcomings of current natural resource accounting systems, outlines some of the features needed, and proposes an accounting framework that would help integrate economic and ecological factors. Such a system of forest resource accounting is urgently needed to achieve the sustainable goals of ecosystem management.

  9. Globalization and structural change in the U.S. forest sector: an evolving context for sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Ince; Albert Schuler; Henry Spelter; William Luppold

    2007-01-01

    This report examines economic implications for sustainable forest management of globalization and related structural changes in the forest sector of the United States. Globalization has accelerated structural change in the U.S. forest sector, favored survival of larger and more capital-intensive enterprises, and altered historical patterns of resource use.

  10. evaluation of the contributions of ikere forest reserve to sustainable

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    EVALUATION OF THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF IKERE FOREST RESERVE TO SUSTAINABLE. LIVELIHOOD OF ADJOINING ... Key words: Ikere forest reserve, forest products, sustainable livelihood, adjoining communities and. Ekiti State. INTRODUCTION ..... furniture; mortar and pestle, fire wood and charcoal. 10. Cocoa.

  11. Penobscot Experimental Forest: resources, administration, and mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan J. Kimball

    2014-01-01

    The Penobscot Experimental Forest (PEF) was established more than 60 years ago as a result of private forest landowners' interest in supporting forest research in Maine. In 1950, nine pulp and paper and land-holding companies pooled resources and purchased almost 4,000 acres of land in east-central Maine. The property was named the Penobscot Experimental Forest...

  12. Achieving resource sustainability and enhancing economic development through biomass utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy

    2005-01-01

    As the problems associated with sustaining and enhancing the world's forest and agricultural resources compete with the needs of a rapidly increasing and affluent population, the management of our land becomes a much more complex and important issue. One of the most important environmental features of wood and other woody-like fibers is that they are renewable and...

  13. Behind the sacred tree: local people and their natural resources sustain-ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Royyani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Local communities have their own means of maintaining their traditional know-ledge and sustaining the production system of natural resources by designating the resources as sacred. Without the state’s influence, local people have their own strategies to conserve the environment and resources, in ways which are more effective than those enforced by the state. A study done through interview, participatory observation, and ethnographic methods revealed that local people recognized two models of natural resources conservation. The first model is the designation of forests as sacred site, aiming at maintaining the sustainability of ecosystem and the second model refers to adoption of species as a sacred entity to sustain production system. Dynamic processes are operating in the sacredness of both forest and species. 

  14. Sustainable forest management in Poland – theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruk Hanna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The conception of sustainable development has been implemented into practice in numerous economic sectors, including forestry. Forest ecosystems are extremely important in the global ecological system, therefore maintenance and appropriate management of forest resources according to sustainable development principles have engaged a great deal of attention. The concept of sustainable forest management (SFM encompasses three dimensions: ecological, economic and social. A powerful tool to promote SFM are criteria and indicators. The aim of the article was evaluation of SFM in Poland, using one of the methods proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. According to data available, Polish forestry has a number of advantages: Poland has avoided the problem of deforestation, forest area has been permanently increasing, there has been observed improvement of forest health and vitality as well as a significant share of forests has carried out protective functions with no impact on timber production. Poland’s model of SFM is an adaptive process of balancing the ever-changing set of economic, environmental and social expectations. Such a complicated undertaking requires constant assessing and adjusting forest practices, in response to new circumstances, scientific advances and societal input

  15. 78 FR 37781 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting; Correction. SUMMARY: The Forest Service published a document in the Federal Register... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Maya Solomon, Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Program Coordinator, 202...

  16. Promoting Sustainable Forest Management Among Stakeholders in the Prince Albert Model Forest, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen T Hvenegaard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Model Forests are partnerships for shared decision-making to support social, environmental, and economic sustainability in forest management. Relationships among sustainable forest management partners are often strained, but the Prince Albert Model Forest (PAMF represents a process of effective stakeholder involvement, cooperative relationships, visionary planning, and regional landscape management. This article seeks to critically examine the history, drivers, accomplishments, and challenges associated with the PAMF. Four key phases are discussed, representing different funding levels, planning processes, research projects, and partners. Key drivers in the PAMF were funding, urgent issues, provincial responsibility, core of committed people, evolving governance, desire for a neutral organisation, role of protected areas, and potential for mutual benefits. The stakeholders involved in the Model Forest, including the forest industry and associated groups, protected areas, Aboriginal groups, local communities, governments, and research groups, were committed to the project, cooperated on many joint activities, provided significant staffing and financial resources, and gained many benefits to their own organisations. Challenges included declining funding, changing administrative structures, multiple partners, and rotating representatives. The PAMF process promoted consultative and integrated land resource management in the region, and demonstrated the positive results of cooperation between stakeholders interested in sustainable forest management.

  17. Sustainable forest management planning in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medarević Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The forest cover of Serbia occupies around 29% of its territory, which puts it among fairly well wooded countries in Europe. The forests of Serbia are characterized by both state and private forests, medium preservation status, i.e. 27% of area that is covered by insufficiently stocked stands. Coppice forests cover about 50% of the area, and private forests are additionally burdened by fragmented plots. Forest management planning in Serbia is older than 200 years (The Plan of Deliblato Sands Afforestation 1806. There are two basic assumptions that define forest management planning: sustainability and multifunctionality. Today, forest management planning in Serbia is regulated by the Law on forests and it has the characteristics of a system. The planning also has the characteristics of an integral, integrated and adaptive system. The latter is particularly important in terms of pronounced climatic changes. For the forests in protected objects of nature, there are also other types of plans that complement sector plans in forestry (e.g. management plans in protected areas.

  18. California's forest resources: Forest Inventory and Analysis, 2001–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn A. Christensen; Karen L. Waddell; Sharon M. Stanton; Olaf Kuegler

    2016-01-01

    This report highlights key findings from the most recent (2001–2010) data collected by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program across all forest land in California, updating previously published findings from data collected from 2001 through 2005 (Christensen et al. 2008). We summarize and interpret basic resource information such as forest area, ownership, volume,...

  19. Use of natural resources for sustainable roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This chapter reviews the relevant sustainability background and identifies areas that should be considered in relation to conserving non-renewable natural resources. Techniques that can contribute to reducing the use of non-renewable resources...

  20. Fragile Social Norms: (Un Sustainable Exploration of Forest Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decio Zylbersztajn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The exhaustion of natural resources is a central problem in the international agenda. The particular case of Amazon forest is at the top on the international environmental debate. Two related problems are keys to be considered in the discussion of sustainable development in this region. First the predatory use of the natural resources of the forest mainly timber and genetic resources. Second the recognition of the existence of a population of around 20 million inhabitants in the region defined as “Legal Amazon Area”, aiming the improvement on the living conditions, enhancement of income level and acceleration of development. How to match both objectives is a puzzle faced by the present generation.The region is populated by initiatives of international non-governmental-organizations, most of them carrying good intentions but lacking the necessary knowledge on local formal and informal institutions to find ways to reach sustainable development. The result is the accelerated process of natural resources depletion, and social disorganization. The case of the production of Brazilian Nuts stands as a corollary of the lack of an institutional structure of property rights that does not provide incentives for sustainable development. The opposite effect is being observed as a result of the fragility of observable institutional arrangements.The case provides the counterfactual for the analysis of Ostrom (1990; 2008, where she presents virtuous cases of sustainable exploration of natural resources, mostly based on informal but solid institutions.

  1. Forest crimes as a threat to sustainable forest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Özden

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available From ancient times to the present day, forest public relations has been an issue on the agenda. This relationship’s purpose was initially needed for shelter and nutrition; however today this process has changed with urbanization, overpopulation and understanding the new functions of forests. When land ownership became a tool of production, offenses occurred in order to convert forestlands to agricultural lands. So the vast majority of the world’s forests have been lost for this reason. Today, deforestation is occurring in tropical countries that are expecting to gain agricultural area. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between urbanization and the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of forest crimes, which are a major obstacle for sustainable forestry. Although forests cover about 27 % of Turkey’s territory, the forests are losing viability; the status of wood raw material per unit area and the total area of the country in the ratio of productive forests are becoming critical in Turkey. Turkey’s rugged terrain and factors such as human interventions, fires, deforestation for agriculture, illegal cuttings, or improper grazing reduce existing forests or cause deterioration of their structure. In the past, deforestation, as a result of human interventions in Turkey, was done by forest villagers who live in rural areas. The forest crimes depend on various socio-economic reasons and have many adverse effects on the sustainability of forest and forest existence. In developed countries, illegal interventions such as opening, grazing, cutting, occupation, use, settlement, or hunting crimes have been largely eliminated because of the absence of cadastral problems, the existence of more responsive people to protect the environment and forests and a rural population, which has a higher standard of living. In the last 20 years, there has been both a dramatic decrease in the population living in rural areas and a

  2. Urban forests for sustainable urban development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundara, Denny M.; Hartono, Djoko M.; Suganda, Emirhadi; Haeruman, S. Herman J.

    2017-11-01

    This paper explores the development of the urban forest in East Jakarta. By 2030 Jakarta area has a target of 30% green area covering 19,845 hectares, including urban forest covering an area of 4,631 hectares. In 2015, the city forest is only 646 hectares, while the city requires 3,985 hectares of new land Urban forest growth from year to year showed a marked decrease with increasing land area awoke to commercial functions, environmental conditions encourage the development of the city to become unsustainable. This research aims to support sustainable urban development and ecological balance through the revitalization of green areas and urban development. Analytical methods for urban forest area is calculated based on the amount of CO2 that comes from people, vehicles, and industrial. Urban spatial analysis based on satellite image data, using a GIS program is an analysis tool to determine the distribution and growth patterns of green areas. This paper uses a dynamic system model to simulate the conditions of the region against intervention to be performed on potential areas for development of urban forests. The result is a model urban forest area is integrated with a social and economic function to encourage the development of sustainable cities.

  3. Sustainable carbon uptake - important ecosystem service within sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorana Ostrogović Sever, Maša; Anić, Mislav; Paladinić, Elvis; Alberti, Giorgio; Marjanović, Hrvoje

    2016-04-01

    Even-aged forest management with natural regeneration under continuous cover (i.e. close to nature management) is considered to be sustainable regarding the yield, biodiversity and stability of forest ecosystems. Recently, in the context of climate change, there is a raising question of sustainable forest management regarding carbon uptake. Aim of this research was to explore whether current close to nature forest management approach in Croatia can be considered sustainable in terms of carbon uptake throughout the life-time of Pedunculate oak forest. In state-owned managed forest a chronosequence experiment was set up and carbon stocks in main ecosystem pools (live biomass, dead wood, litter and mineral soil layer), main carbon fluxes (net primary production, soil respiration (SR), decomposition) and net ecosystem productivity were estimated in eight stands of different age (5, 13, 38, 53, 68, 108, 138 and 168 years) based on field measurements and published data. Air and soil temperature and soil moisture were recorded on 7 automatic mini-meteorological stations and weekly SR measurements were used to parameterize SR model. Carbon balance was estimated at weekly scale for the growing season 2011 (there was no harvesting), as well as throughout the normal rotation period of 140 years (harvesting was included). Carbon stocks in different ecosystem pools change during a stand development. Carbon stocks in forest floor increase with stand age, while carbon stocks in dead wood are highest in young and older stands, and lowest in middle-aged, mature stands. Carbon stocks in mineral soil layer were found to be stable across chronosequence with no statistically significant age-dependent trend. Pedunculate Oak stand, assuming successful regeneration, becomes carbon sink very early in a development phase, between the age of 5 and 13 years, and remains carbon sink even after the age of 160 years. Greatest carbon sink was reached in the stand aged 53 years. Obtained results

  4. Managing Natural Resources for Sustainable Livelihoods: Uniting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    31 juil. 2003 ... Management of local resources has a greater chance of a sustainable outcome when there is partnership between local people and external agencies, and agendas relevant to their aspirations and circumstances. Managing Natural Resources for Sustainable Livelihoods analyses and extends this premise ...

  5. Culture and resource management: factors affecting forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjorie C. Falanruw

    1992-01-01

    Efforts to manage Pacific Island forest resources are more likely to succeed if they are based on an understanding of the cultural framework of land use activities. This paper explores the relationship between agricultural systems, population density, culture, and use of forest resources on the islands of Yap. Agricultural intensification is related to population...

  6. Monetization of forests' service functions for sustainable forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the concept of monetization and its importance in valuation of the forest's social and environmental service functions, vis--vis its sustainable management. Various monetization techniques are highlighted and discussed. Some of these include surrogate price and replacement costs or costs avoided, ...

  7. Visual Training for Sustainable Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aik, Chong-Tek; Tway, Duane C.

    2004-01-01

    It is increasingly important for timber companies to train managers in the principles and practices of sustainable forest management. One of the most effective ways to conduct such training is through use of visual training methods. This is partly because visual representations encode large amounts of information and help learners to grasp…

  8. Forest Leafy Vegetables Marketing and Sustainable Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leafy vegetables from forests are capable of generating income and employment for rural populations sustainably. Investigation of wild vegetable marketing was conducted in Rivers State, Nigeria with well-structured and pre-tested questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Net profit, Rate of return on ...

  9. Resource linkages and sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anouti, Yahya

    Historically, fossil fuel consumers in most developing hydrocarbon-rich countries have enjoyed retail prices at a discount from international benchmarks. Governments of these countries consider the subsidy transfer to be a means for sharing the wealth from their resource endowment. These subsidies create negative economic, environmental, and social distortions, which can only increase over time with a fast growing, young, and rich population. The pressure to phase out these subsidies has been mounting over the last years. At the same time, policy makers in resource-rich developing countries are keen to obtain the greatest benefits for their economies from the extraction of their exhaustible resources. To this end, they are deploying local content policies with the aim of increasing the economic linkages from extracting their resources. Against this background, this dissertation's three essays evaluate (1) the global impact of rationalizing transport fuel prices, (2) how resource-rich countries can achieve the objectives behind fuel subsidies more efficiently through direct cash transfers, and (3) the economic tradeoffs from deploying local content policies and the presence of an optimal path. We begin by reviewing the literature and building the case for rationalizing transport fuel prices to reflect their direct costs (production), indirect costs (road maintenance) and negative externalities (climate change, local pollutants, traffic accidents and congestion). To do so, we increase the scope of the economic literature by presenting an algorithm to evaluate the rationalized prices in different countries. Then, we apply this algorithm to quantify the rationalized prices across 123 countries in a partial equilibrium setting. Finally, we present the first comprehensive measure of the impact of rationalizing fuel prices on the global demand for gasoline and diesel, environmental emissions, government revenues, and consumers' welfare. By rationalizing transport fuel

  10. Integrating forest-based industry and forest resource modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson R; Rinaldi F; Räty M; Sallnäs O

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a modeling approach for the assessment of policy options within the forest-based bioeconomy. The feedback between the forestry dynamics model and the economic model of the global forest-based sector of the proposed framework is essential, not only for response analysis as to the development of forest resources and for a correct assessment of future harvesting potentials, but also for the assessment of the impact of different management regimes on wood-based product marke...

  11. Important Features of Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko V. Šolar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Every society, whether developed, developing or in a phase of renewal following governmental change, requires stable, adequate and secure supplies of natural resources. In the latter case, there could be significant need for construction materials for rebuilding infrastructure, industrial capacity, and housing. It is essential that these large-volume materials be provided in a rational manner that maximizes their societal contribution and minimizes environmental impacts. We describe an approach to resource management based on the principles of sustainable development. Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management offers a way of addressing the conflicting needs and interests of environmental, economic, and social systems. Sustainability is an ethics based concept that utilizes science and democratic processes to reach acceptable agreements and tradeoffs among interests, while acknowledging the fundamental importance of the environment and social goods. We discuss the features of sustainable aggregate resource management.

  12. Important features of Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar, Slavko V.; Shields, Deborah J.; Langer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Every society, whether developed, developing or in a phase of renewal following governmental change, requires stable, adequate and secure supplies of natural resources. In the latter case, there could be significant need for construction materials for rebuilding infrastructure, industrial capacity, and housing. It is essential that these large-volume materials be provided in a rational manner that maximizes their societal contribution and minimizes environmental impacts. We describe an approach to resource management based on the principles of sustainable developed. Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management offers a way of addressing the conflicting needs and interests of environmental, economic, and social systems. Sustainability is an ethics based concept that utilizes science and democratic processes to reach acceptable agreements and tradeoffs among interests, while acknowledging the fundamental importance of the environment and social goods. We discuss the features of sustainable aggregate resource management.

  13. Comparing Sustainable Forest Management Certifications Standards: A Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rawson. Clark

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To solve problems caused by conventional forest management, forest certification has emerged as a driver of sustainable forest management. Several sustainable forest management certification systems exist, including the Forest Stewardship Council and those endorsed by the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification, such as the Canadian Standards Association - Sustainable Forestry Management Standard CAN/CSA - Z809 and Sustainable Forestry Initiative. For consumers to use certified products to meet their own sustainability goals, they must have an understanding of the effectiveness of different certification systems. To understand the relative performance of three systems, we determined: (1 the criteria used to compare the Forest Stewardship Council, Canadian Standards Association - Sustainable Forestry Management, and Sustainable Forestry Initiative, (2 if consensus exists regarding their ability to achieve sustainability goals, and (3 what research gaps must be filled to improve our understanding of how forest certification systems affect sustainable forest management. We conducted a qualitative meta-analysis of 26 grey literature references (books, industry and nongovernmental organization publications and 9 primary literature references (articles in peer-reviewed academic journals that compared at least two of the aforementioned certification systems. The Forest Stewardship Council was the highest performer for ecological health and social sustainable forest management criteria. The Canadian Standards Association - Sustainable Forestry Management and Sustainable Forestry Initiative performed best under sustainable forest management criteria of forest productivity and economic longevity of a firm. Sixty-two percent of analyses were comparisons of the wording of certification system principles or criteria; 34% were surveys of foresters or consumers. An important caveat to these results is that only one comparison was based on

  14. Perceiving sustainable forest spaces: governance aspects of private and company owned forests in North-Karelia, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Albrecht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of improved environmental or sustainable aspects in forest management is often affiliated with the rise of market-driven governance systems, such as forest certification. In terms of forest resource peripheries, like North-Karelia, Finland, these are often attributed to environmental business and consumer demands from the green Central European markets. While acknowledging these aspects related to the supply chains of wood-based products, this study evaluates the actual perceptions about environmental forest governance and its spaces in the resource peripheries themselves. It displays the perceived changes and practices in forestry by comparing private and corporate ownership and their governance networks. This is accomplished by a qualitative, interview based case study of North Karelian and Finnish forestry actors. Transnational forest governance is hereby treated as a relational space, with forest certification systems as possible technologies used to achieve improved, sustainable forest management. Utilizing the North-Karelian forestry sector, the varying positionalities of actors and institutions within such a relational space shape the knowledge networks, perceptions and decision-making. The study evaluates how these local-global positionalities of actors and individuals shapes their understanding, and guide the direction of sustainable forest management in Finland while it (re-produces opposing regimes of practice. With the discourse on forest certification being twofold, a more complex picture emerges if aspects of even- versus uneven-aged forest management in Finland are integrated. Shaped by the actor’s positionalities and related knowledge networks, perceptions regarding the quality of forest management practices and technologies used to achieve sustainability differ and thereby shape governance processes. The green markets are not perceived as the main driving force and a strong governmental influence, particularly

  15. A preview of New Jersey's forest resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Barnard; Teresa M. Bowers

    1973-01-01

    The recently completed forest survey of New Jersey indicates that 54 percent of the land area has tree cover on it. Thirty-eight percent of the state is classified as commercial forest land. Total growing-stock volume has increased, although the softwood component of the resource has decreased in both cubic-foot volume and area occupied by the softwood types. Average...

  16. A socio-ecological assessment aiming at improved forest resource management and sustainable ecotourism development in the mangroves of Tanbi Wetland National Park, The Gambia, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Behara; Bhanderi, Preetika; Debry, Mélanie; Maniatis, Danae; Foré, Franka; Badgie, Dawda; Jammeh, Kawsu; Vanwing, Tom; Farcy, Christine; Koedam, Nico; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2012-07-01

    Although mangroves dominated by Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle are extending over 6000 ha in the Tanbi Wetland National Park (TWNP) (The Gambia), their importance for local populations (both peri-urban and urban) is not well documented. For the first time, this study evaluates the different mangrove resources in and around Banjul (i.e., timber, non-timber, edible, and ethnomedicinal products) and their utilization patterns, including the possibility of ecotourism development. The questionnaire-based results have indicated that more than 80% of peri-urban population rely on mangroves for timber and non-timber products and consider them as very important for their livelihoods. However, at the same time, urban households demonstrate limited knowledge on mangrove species and their ecological/economic benefits. Among others, fishing (including the oyster-Crassostrea cf. gasar collection) and tourism are the major income-generating activities found in the TWNP. The age-old practices of agriculture in some parts of the TWNP are due to scarcity of land available for agriculture, increased family size, and alternative sources of income. The recent focus on ecotourism (i.e., boardwalk construction inside the mangroves near Banjul city) received a positive response from the local stakeholders (i.e., users, government, and non-government organizations), with their appropriate roles in sharing the revenue, rights, and responsibilities of this project. Though the guidelines for conservation and management of the TWNP seem to be compatible, the harmony between local people and sustainable resource utilization should be ascertained.

  17. NATURAL RESOURCES AVAILABILITY IN A SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂTĂLINA BONCIU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the theoretical and practical approach of the economic life, appears more often the idea of sustainable economic development, of reconciliation between man and nature in attracting and using its resources without interfering in its natural movement and evolution. In this paper we are trying to bring to light the relation between the economic development and the mineral resources, in terms of achieving sustainable development. The place and role of natural factors in the market economy is revealed by bringing to the forefront a number of arguments that demonstrate their vital position in the sustainable growth and development.

  18. DIRECTIONS FOR EFFECTIVE USE OF FOREST RESOURCES IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Svyntukh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the article is determination and substantiation of directions of rational use of forest resources in Ukraine. Methodology of research. The theoretical and methodological basis of conducted research is the provision of economic theory, sustainable development, environmental economics and economics forest exploitation. The following methodological tools and techniques were used to achieve this goal: methods of analysis and synthesis (to identify problems of the relationship for using potential of forest resources with factors of influence on their reproduction, the studying essence of the term “forest resources”; monographic – to study the experience of forming rational use of forest resources and wood waste; systematic approach (in substantiating the use of instruments for regulation forest exploitation; scientific abstraction (in the study of capabilities to ensure the process of rational reproduction of forest resources; graphic (for visual images of some analytical observations. Results. Theoretical approach to forest regeneration as a major task in forest anagement, which includes the integrated use of all available organizational and technological measures to facilitate its natural regeneration has been formulated. It has been established the regularity of ensuring the efficient use of waste wood in places of billets, identified and systematized its forms for future use. The methodical approach to assess the effect of using wood waste for fuel production and related products during processing on the harmonization of economic and environmental interests in the area of forest exploitation has been formulated. Practical implications. The obtained results are the basis for solving practical problems of integrated management of forest resources in Ukraine, waste of forest felling in the places of timber harvesting and also for development of the system of measures to improve the ecological and economic mechanism of

  19. Environmental Impact Assessment in Sustainable Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this paper is to review the current level of understanding of environmental impact assessment of water resources development; to assess the major challenges to sustainable environmental systems from water resources development perspectives, and to identify major environmental issues that need to ...

  20. Managing Natural Resources for Sustainable Livelihoods: Uniting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2003-07-31

    Jul 31, 2003 ... Managing Natural Resources for Sustainable Livelihoods analyses and extends this premise to show unequivocally that the process of research for improving natural resource management must incorporate participatory and user-focused approaches, leading to development based on the needs and ...

  1. Towards proper cultural resource management for sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The place of proper management of cultural resources in the overall developmental process of a multi-ethnic and heterogeneous country like Nigeria cannot be underestimated. This study stresses the compelling need for proper harnessing and management of cultural resources in Nigeria for sustainable development.

  2. Forest Policy and Law for Sustainability within the Korean Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Sun Park

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, sustainable forest management (SFM has emerged as a paradigm of forest management on global, regional and national levels. In developing countries, avoiding deforestation is a preliminary step towards SFM. The Korean peninsula experienced severe deforestation and forest degradation after the Korean War (1950–1953. In the 1970s and 1980s, South Korea achieved forest restoration through the National Greening Program. In contrast, North Korea failed to restore forests in spite of continuous trials with forest restoration plans. In North Korea, deforestation has accelerated since the mid-1980s. Deforestation and forest degradation in North Korea threatens stability throughout the Korean peninsula. This study focuses on comparing the forest policy and laws of South Korea and North Korea and suggesting forest policy that promotes sustainability in the Korean peninsula. The research findings can provide developing countries with significant information on forest policy and laws to avoid deforestation and forest degradation and move towards sustainability.

  3. Sustainable Development of Mining Mineral Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Dubiński, Józef

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes mineral resources and the demand for them, taking into account the dynamics and global trends in the economy of raw materials. It presents the importance of mineral resources in the development of the world economy, and the importance of mineral resources that are critical for economic development. The main assumptions presented in this paper are the main assumptions that relate to the sustainable development of the mining sector, the ones that will significantly shape th...

  4. Conflicts in benefits from sustainable natural resource management: two diverse examples from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Hasan; Korkmaz, Mehmet; McGill, David W; Eker, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    Participatory approaches to natural resource management and development are widely accepted as effective instruments for achieving sustainable forest management (SFM) particularly in the developing countries. However, local people live within and adjacent to the forest resources and are dependent on the forest in terms of their livelihoods may prevent turning some decisions, intended as a component of sustainable forest management, into action. This situation arises from the lack of involvement by local stakeholders, a condition that is generally accepted as one of the most important instruments of sustainable forest management. Consequently forest and other natural resources have not been effectively protected from negative behaviours of local populations. In this study difficulties that have been faced in acquiring local participation and the importance of local participation for sustainable forest management are discussed using two case studies from Turkey. At acquiring of local participation is considered to important of local perceptions. If perceptions are negative, participation will not obtain. Thus, the study has focused on local perceptions. Field survey was carried out to collect necessary information for each case study. We conclude that decisions that will restrict the natural resource benefits for the local public, will lead to negative local perceptions of the project and lead to adverse behavior and negatively affect sustainable forest management efforts.

  5. An outlook for sustainable forest bioenergy production in the Lake States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis R. Becker; Kenneth Skog; Allison Hellman; Kathleen E. Halvorsen; Terry Mace

    2009-01-01

    The Lake States region of Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan offers significant potential for bioenergy production. We examine the sustainability of regional forest biomass use in the context of existing thermal heating, electricity, and biofuels production, projected resource needs over the next decade including existing forest product market demand, and impacts on...

  6. A toolkit modeling approach for sustainable forest management planning: achieving balance between science and local needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian R. Sturtevant; Andrew Fall; Daniel D. Kneeshaw; Neal P. P. Simon; Michael J. Papaik; Kati Berninger; Frederik Doyon; Don G. Morgan; Christian Messier

    2007-01-01

    To assist forest managers in balancing an increasing diversity of resource objectives, we developed a toolkit modeling approach for sustainable forest management (SFM). The approach inserts a meta-modeling strategy into a collaborative modeling framework grounded in adaptive management philosophy that facilitates participation among stakeholders, decision makers, and...

  7. California's forest resources. Preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This Preliminary Assessment was prepared in response to the California Forest Resources Assessment and Policy Act of 1977 (FRAPA). This Act was passed to improve the information base upon which State resource administrators formulate forest policy. The Act provides for this report and a full assessment by 1987 and at five year intervals thereafter. Information is presented under the following chapter titles: introduction to the forest resources assessment program; the forest area: a general description; classifications of the forest lands; the watersheds; forest lands and the air resource; fish and wildlife resources; the forested rangelands; the wilderness; forest lands as a recreation resource; the timber resource; wood energy; forest lands and the mineral, fossil fuels, and geothermal energy resources; mathematically modeling California's forest lands; vegetation mapping using remote sensing technology; important forest resources legislation; and, State and cooperative State/Federal forestry programs. Twelve indexes, a bibliography, and glossary are included. (JGB)

  8. Sustainable Biomass Resources for Biogas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup

    nature conservation, and grass from roadside verges. It was found that a significant potential of the investigated sustainable biomass resources are available in Denmark, but also on European level. In Europe, the energy potential in 2030 from animal manure, straw and surplus grass was projected to range...... from 39.3-66.9 Mtoe, depending on the availability of the residues. Grass from roadside verges and meadow habitats in Denmark represent two currently unutilised sources. If utilised in the Danish biogas sector, the results showed that the resources represent a net energy potential of 60,000 -122,000 GJ...... such biomasses in the biogas sector. Sustainability in the use of biomass feedstock for energy production is of key importance for a stable future food and energy supply, and for the functionality of the Earths ecosystems. A range of biomass resources were assessed in respect to sustainability, availability...

  9. Sustainable building and local resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Forlani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research comes from the deepest reasons of the crisis, in order to recognize in such reasons themselves the direction to come out, the new needs and the new challenges. The local resources (material and immaterial were reconsidered as patrimony, precious but limited, of each specific area to trace out a path of supportability able to rebuild new relations between project/production and environmental culture. The industrial production becomes a driving force for the economic renewal through an iterative cycle between research/science and economics aiming to smart building, meant as practice in evolution. This practise is careful to the local, environmental, cultural and economic situation, whose parameters are identity, energy, environment, mobility and economics that give back different scale answers.

  10. Using soil quality indicators for monitoring sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Burger; Garland Gray; D. Andrew Scott

    2010-01-01

    Most private and public forest land owners and managers are compelled to manage their forests sustainably, which means management that is economically viable,environmentally sound, and socially acceptable. To meet this mandate, the USDA Forest Service protects the productivity of our nation’s forest soils by monitoring and evaluating management activities to ensure...

  11. Forest Biomass Energy Resources in China: Quantity and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important renewable and sustainable energy sources, the forest biomass energy resource has always been the focus of attention of scholars and policy makers. However, its potential is still uncertain in China, especially with respect to its spatial distribution. In this paper, the quantity and distribution of Chinese forest biomass energy resources are explored based mainly on forestry statistics data rather than forest resource inventory data used by most previous studies. The results show that the forest biomass energy resource in China was 169 million tons in 2010, of which wood felling and bucking residue (WFBR,wood processing residue (WPR, bamboo processing residue, fuel wood and firewood used by farmers accounted for 38%, 37%, 6%, 4% and 15%, respectively. The highest resource was located in East China, accounting for nearly 39.0% of the national amount, followed by the Southwest and South China regions, which accounted for 17.4% and 16.3%, respectively. At the provincial scale, Shandong has the highest distribution, accounting for 11.9% of total resources, followed by Guangxi and Fujian accounting for 10.3% and 10.2%, respectively. The actual wood-processing residue (AWPR estimated from the actual production of different wood products (considering the wood transferred between regions showed apparent differences from the local wood processing residue (LWPR, which assumes that no wood has been transferredbetween regions. Due to the large contribution of WPR to total forestry bioenergy resources, the estimation of AWPR will provide a more accurate evaluation of the total amount and the spatial distribution of forest biomass energy resources in China.

  12. Sustainability assessment in forest management based on individual preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Susana; Martinez-Falero, Eugenio

    2018-01-15

    This paper presents a methodology to elicit the preferences of any individual in the assessment of sustainable forest management at the stand level. The elicitation procedure was based on the comparison of the sustainability of pairs of forest locations. A sustainability map of the whole territory was obtained according to the individual's preferences. Three forest sustainability indicators were pre-calculated for each point in a study area in a Scots pine forest in the National Park of Sierra de Guadarrama in the Madrid Region in Spain to obtain the best management plan with the sustainability map. We followed a participatory process involving fifty people to assess the sustainability of the forest management and the methodology. The results highlighted the demand for conservative forest management, the usefulness of the methodology for managers, and the importance and necessity of incorporating stakeholders into forestry decision-making processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Forest energy resources in the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttila, P. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)), e-mail: perttu.anttila@metla.fi; Verkerk, H. (European Forest Inst., Joensuu (Finland)), e-mail: hans.verkerk@efi.int

    2010-07-01

    Forest energy resources in the EU were estimated for 2010 and 2030. Firstly, the maximum, theoretical availability of forest biomass in the 27 EU member states was estimated using the large-scale European Forest Information SCENario model (EFISCEN). Secondly, multiple environmental, technical, and social constraints were defined and quantified that reduce the amount of biomass that can be extracted from forest for three mobilisation scenarios. Thirdly, the theoretical potential according to EFISCEN was combined with the constraints from the mobilisation scenarios to assess the realisable biomass potential from European forests. Fourth, the potential for energy was obtained by deducting a simple estimate of roundwood production from the total forest potential. The forest energy resources total to c. 310 million m3 (approx 610 TWh = 2,2 E J) in 2010. This is composed of about 180 million m3 of stemwood, 100 million m3 of residues, 10 million m3 of stumps and 10 million m3 of material from early thinnings. In 2030, the potential in the low and medium wood mobilisation scenarios will diminish (110 million m3 and 210 million m3, respectively), but increase in the high mobilisation scenario (380 million m3). (orig.)

  14. sustainable development of national energy resources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    Committee on International Law on Sustainable Development in 2003 and submitted its fifth and final report at .... and gas are shared natural resources, with a recent attempt by the ILC Special Rapporteur on Shared ..... the principles, and widely varying consequences of their application depending on the specific context.

  15. Managing Natural Resources for Sustainable Livelihoods : Uniting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Couverture du livre Managing Natural Resources for Sustainable Livelihoods : Uniting Science and Participation ... Il donne des idées afin que la recherche soit participative tout en restant rigoureuse et dans le domaine de la science biologique de haute qualité, en conservant différentes formes de participation et des ...

  16. Managing Natural Resources for Sustainable Livelihoods : Uniting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La gestion des ressources locales a plus de chance d'obtenir des résultats durables quand il existe un partenariat entre la population locale et les organismes externes, ainsi que des programmes répondant à leurs aspirations et aux circonstances dans lesquelles ils évoluent. Managing Natural Resources for Sustainable ...

  17. The Development of an Expert System for Decision Making in Forest Resources Managemant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Ilyana Mohd Zukki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are a repository of biodiversity which provides habitats for more than 50% of the earth’s plant and animal species, an important sink for carbon stores which provides many goods and ecosystem services and a critical contributor to livelihoods, mainly of the indigenous groups which are totally dependent on forests. Yet, forests are under pressure. Tropical forests are among the earth’s most threatened ecosystems, particularly threatened by human activities and climate change. Consequently, tropical forests are loosing capacity to provide basic goods and services that are essentials to human livelihood. Hence, every decision involving forest utilization should consider various criteria that are important for sustainable forest management. However, making decision about forest resources management often involves balancing conflicting, inadequate and incompatible values of many users and usage of a resource. One of the most fundamental and difficult task is the effective integration of environmental, economic and social values to achieve and maintain ecologically sustainable development. Therefore, an integrated technology such as an Analytical Hierarchy Process and expert systems is essential to be performed in making decision process for forest resources management because an AHP method is capable to capture both tangible and intangible criteria. This study places emphasis on the development of expert system for forest resources management to assist decision makers to select the best forest resources use based on Malaysian Criteria and Indicators [(MC&I2002].

  18. Proceedings from a workshop on Sustainable forest management in tropical forests of Guyana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, Mats [ed.] [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Silviculture; Maluenda, J. [ed.] [ORGUT Consulting AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    Guyana officials were certain that an efficient forest management could yield economic benefits to the country, while still allowing for the sustainability of its forest resources. Standards will be set in a Code of Practice (COP). Lectures, presented in the proceeding, were mixed with group discussions and finally the 26 participants gave their written view of `What has to be done in Guyana and by whom?`. Amerindians wanted their own foresters should be recruited to oversee the activities on their own land. Bushmilling need to be controlled but not banned. Monitoring timber products and control of hunting should be stricter. COP should set standards for the residual stand. Environmental Protection Agency wanted more research and training, with aim of self-monitoring capability for forest users. Forest Products Association recommended government to co-operate for refinement of: training, mapping of resources, harvesting plans, concession agreements, road building, and bushmilling. Forestry Commission wanted concession allocation procedures to be reviewed: zonation of chainsaw activities, protection of small-scale operators, management plans. COP should be revised and tested in practice. Suggestion about standards for residual stand should be considered. ORGUT Lecturers recommended a standard for residual stand, a vertical and horizontal spot density measure. Based on that the concession holder could harvest what, where and when be preferred and chose the most efficient technique

  19. The Contribution of Forests and Trees to Sustainable Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Hunter

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With the growing demands from a population expected to reach 9 billion people by 2050, it is unclear how our current global food system will meet future food needs. Ensuring that all people have access to adequate and nutritious food produced in an environmentally and socio-culturally sustainable manner is one of the greatest challenges of our time. “Sustainable diets” have been proposed as a multidimensional framework to address the need for nutritious and adequate food in the context of the many challenges facing the world today: reducing poverty and hunger, improving environmental health, enhancing human well-being and health, and strengthening local food networks, sustainable livelihoods and cultural heritage. This paper examines the contribution of forests and trees to sustainable diets, covering among others, nutritional, cultural, environmental and provisioning aspects. The literature reviewed highlight major opportunities to strengthen the contribution of forest and tree foods to sustainable diets. However, several constraints need to be removed. They relate to: cultural aspects, sustainable use of non-wood forest products, organization of forest food provisioning, limited knowledge of forest food composition, challenges in adapting management of forests and trees to account for forest foods, and in integrating forest biodiversity into complex landscapes managed for multiple benefits. Finally, the paper identifies research gaps and makes recommendations to enhance the contribution of forest foods to sustainable diets through increased awareness and better integration of information and knowledge on nutritious forest foods into national nutrition strategies and programs.

  20. Fostering sustainable operations in a natural resource management agency: insights from the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Winter; Shawn M. Burn

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable operations (SO; operating in an environmentally, economically, and socially sustainable manner) is consistent with the environmental stewardship mission of natural resource management organizations. This study sought to examine SO practices in the daily work lives of US Forest Service employees, including those primarily stationed in the office and in the...

  1. MAIN NATURAL RESOURCES SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion, SCURTU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the process of agricultural production we are using natural resources, human resources and capital. Responsible management of natural resources will allow the development of sustainable agriculture with the possibility of agricultural products to satisfy both quantitatively and qualitatively food requirements of the population. Natural resources that are irreplaceable in agricultural production are soil and water and now must be taken global measures for slowing and stopping global warming and climate change, which could jeopardize the attainment of agricultural production. In the paper reference is made to the quality of agricultural soils of Romania, the existence of water resources and measures to be taken to preserve soil fertility and combating drought.

  2. Research and development portfolio of the sustainability science team national sustainable operations USDA Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trista Patterson; David Nicholls; Jonathan Long

    2015-01-01

    The Sustainability Science Team (SST) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service Sustainable Operations Initiative is a 18-member virtual research and development team, located across five regions and four research stations of the USDA Forest Service. The team provides research, publication, systems analysis, and decision support to the Sustainable...

  3. A Sustainable European Union Own Resources System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieslukowski Maciej

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available From 1992, after the UN “Earth Summit” in Rio de Janeiro, sustainable development has become a priority of many countries and international organizations, including the European Union. After the crisis of 2008+ and the strong criticism of traditional economics, it also became a fundamental element of economic development in the XXI century. This new model is based on a solid and integrated economic, socio-cultural and ecological order. Such a development should be supported by suitable budgetary systems at each level of public government. The paper presents a conception of the sustainable EU own resources system and proposes the methodology of its evaluation.

  4. Early successional forest habitats and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Vose; Chelcy Ford

    2011-01-01

    Tree harvests that create early successional habitats have direct and indirect impacts on water resources in forests of the Central Hardwood Region. Streamflow increases substantially immediately after timber harvest, but increases decline as leaf area recovers and biomass aggrades. Post-harvest increases in stormflow of 10–20%, generally do not contribute to...

  5. Amazon Flooded Forest. Teacher Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Todd

    This teacher's resource guide was created to accompany the Amazon Flooded Forest exhibit at the Oregon Zoo. The enclosed lessons and activities are designed to extend into several aspects of daily curriculum including science, math, reading, writing, speaking, and geography. The materials are intended for use in grades 3-6 although most activities…

  6. Forest Genetic Resources Conservation and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukendt, FAO; Ukendt, DFSC; Ukendt, ICRAF

    FAO, IPGRI/SAFORGEN, DFSCand ICRAF have cooperated on the compilation of17 booklets on the state of Forest Genetic Resources for thecountries listed below. When ordering your book please remember to write the country required on the email. Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d\\Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gambia...

  7. Non-timber forest products: alternative multiple-uses for sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; Mary Predny

    2003-01-01

    Forests of the southern United States are the source of a great diversity of flora, much of which is gathered for non-timber forest products (NTFPs). These products are made from resources that grow under the forest canopy as trees, herbs, shrubs, vines, moss and even lichen. They occur naturally in forests or may be cultivated under the forest canopy or in...

  8. Study of Siberian forest genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Milyutin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest genetic resources are the aggregate of genofonds of native and cultivar populations of forest woody plants, valuable really or potential for specific territory (A brief dictionary… 2014. Forest genetic resources are studied in practice in most cases on example of forest-forming woody plants. It is necessary to consider of study of these resources in two positions: taxonomic and geographic. Forest forming coniferous species are studied best of all from the taxonomic point of view taking into account biodiversity. Genetic polymorphism is studied most in detail with such species as Pinus sylvestris, Pinus sibirica, Larix sibirica, Larix sukaczevii, Picea obovata, Abies sibirica. Populations of Larix gmelinii, Larix cajanderi, Picea ajanensis are studied considerable worse. Materials about genetic polymorphism of forest forming foliage species – representative of genera Betula and Populus are absent. Caryological polymorphism is studied sufficiently well in all Siberian conifer species. It should be noted especially attached to examination of this problem, that individuals with B-chromosome were discovered first by gymnosperms as an example Picea obovata. Discovery in Siberia of triploid asp deserve special attention. Geographic variability is shown most broadly in the investigations of Pinus sylvestris, Pinus sibirica, Larix sibirica. These investigations were conducted both in natural populations and in provenance trials. Such investigations of another conifer and foliage species either are shown by separate fragments or are absent at all Geographic variability is shown in a large measure in the operative forest seed sources regionalization. Numerous investigations directed to the analysis of morphological variability are conducted by all forest forming species in the first place by conifers. Questions of hereditary determination of either signs remain in this problem. Similar questions concern the variability of other signs

  9. Community Involvement and Perceptions on Land Use and Utilization Practices for Sustainable Forest Management in the Nandi Hills Forests, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanui, Julius Gordon; Chepkuto, Paul K.

    2015-01-01

    To ensure the existence of humankind and the sustainable utilization of the earth's resources, deliberate action needs to be channelled towards the conservation of the vital support systems of the entire Earth ecosystems. Forests in this case form quite a crucial part of this wider arrangement that if man does not deliberately conserve and…

  10. Community Based Forest Management as a Tool for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community-Based Forest Management (CBFM) in Cross River State (CRS) was investigated with a view to understanding its efficiency and effectiveness as a tool for sustainable forest management in the State. Four sets of questionnaire were administered to forestry officials; forest edge communities; timber ...

  11. Annual forest inventory: cornerstone of sustainability in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory A. Reams; Francis A. Roesch; Noel D. Cost

    1999-01-01

    With many competing uses and large regional shifts in forestland use, the sustainability of southern forests is being questioned. The new Southern Annual Forest Inventory System (SAFIS) is being implemented to address regional, State, and national questions regarding past, current, and projected changes in the southern forest. The annual inventory system will provide...

  12. The Sustainable Forestry Initiative of the American Forest & Paper Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Barneycastle

    2001-01-01

    The Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI)is a comprehensive program of forestry and conservation practices designed to ensure that future generations of Americans will have the same abundant forests that we enjoy today. The SFI was developed by the American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA),the national trade group that represents forest and paper companies....

  13. Sustainable use of phosphorus: a finite resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Roland W; Ulrich, Andrea E; Eilittä, Marjatta; Roy, Amit

    2013-09-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element of life and of the modern agricultural system. Today, science, policy, agro-industry and other stakeholder groups are increasingly concerned about the sustainable use of this resource, given the dissipative nature of phosphorus and difficulties in assessing, evaluating, and coping with phosphorus pollution in aquatic and terrestrial systems. We argue that predictions about a forthcoming peak, followed by a quick reduction (i.e., physical phosphate rock scarcity) are unreasoned and stress that access to phosphorus (economic scarcity) is already, and may increasingly become critical, in particular for smallholders farmers in different parts of the world. The paper elaborates on the design, development, goals and cutting-edge contributions of a global transdisciplinary process (i.e. mutual learning between science and society including multiple stakeholders) on the understanding of potential contributions and risks related to the current mode of using phosphorus on multiple scales (Global TraPs). While taking a global and comprehensive view on the whole phosphorus-supply chain, Global TraPs organizes and integrates multiple transdisciplinary case studies to better answer questions which inform sustainable future phosphorus use. Its major goals are to contribute to four issues central to sustainable resource management: i) long-term management of biogeochemical cycles, in particular the challenge of closing the phosphorus cycle, ii) achieving food security, iii) avoiding environmental pollution and iv) sustainability learning on a global level by transdisciplinary processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing sustainability using data from the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program of the United States Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; William H. McWilliams; Gregory A. Reams; Thomas L. Schmidt; Jennifer C. Jenkins; Katherine P. O' Neill; Patrick D. Miles; Gary J. Brand

    2004-01-01

    Forest sustainability has emerged as a crucial component of all current issues related to forest management. The seven Montreal Process Criteria are well accepted as categories of processes for evaluating forest management with respect to sustainability, and data collected.

  15. Are forest incomes sustainable? Firewood and timber extraction and productivity in community managed forests in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilby, Henrik; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Byg, Anja

    2014-01-01

    community managed forests in Nepal, using data from 240 permanent sample plots and a structured household survey conducted in 2006 and 2009 (n = 507 and 558, respectively). We find that analyses of sustainability need to recognize the complexity of forest stand utilization, and that there is considerable...... scope, by altering how existing local forest management rules are implemented, for increasing rural household forest incomes while keeping harvesting levels sustainable....

  16. Cooperative resources lead to sustainable competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vieira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze how organizational resources contribute to cooperatives achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. The theoretical approach of this study is the Resource Based View and VRIO model advocated by Barney and Hesterly (2007. The research was characterized as descriptive and quantitative, through data collection from secondary sources and a survey. The data collection tool was a questionnaire devised by Peacock, Sehnem and Hoffmann (2011. Data collection took place between the months of September 2014 and March 2015. The study sample was composed of a total of 215 cooperatives from across the country, divided into 13 segments. Secondary data was subjected to content analysis. The primary data was analyzed using statistical inference, namely: descriptive statistics, mean, Pearson correlation, Varimax rotation and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The main results showed that human resources are seen as important to achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. This research contributed to and enables new studies concerning the growth of cooperatives taking into account the use of internal resources.

  17. Sustained yield forestry in Sweden and Russia: how does it correspond to sustainable forest management policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakidze, Marine; Andersson, Kjell; Angelstam, Per; Armstrong, Glen W; Axelsson, Robert; Doyon, Frederik; Hermansson, Martin; Jacobsson, Jonas; Pautov, Yurij

    2013-03-01

    This paper analyzes how sustained yield (SY) forestry is defined and implemented in Sweden and Russia, two countries with different forest-industrial regimes. We first compare definitions of SY forestry in national legislation and policies. Then we study forest management planning in two large forest management units with respect to: delivered forest products and values, how the harvest level of timber is defined, where the harvest takes place, and what treatments are used to sustain desired forest products and values. In Sweden SY forestry is maximum yield based on high-input forest management, and in Russia it is forestry based on natural regeneration with minimum investments in silviculture. We conclude that how SY forestry contributes to SFM depends on the context. Finally, we discuss the consequences of SY forestry as performed in Sweden and Russia related to its ability to support diverse forest functions, as envisioned in sustainable forest management policy.

  18. Utilization and transfer of forest genetic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koskela, Jarkko; Vinceti, Barbara; Dvorak, William

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 200 years, genetic resources of forest trees have been increasingly transferred, within and outside of species’ native distribution ranges, for forestry and for research and development (R&D). Transferred germplasm has been deployed to grow trees for numerous purposes, ranging from...... the production of wood and non-wood products to the provision of ecosystem services such as the restoration of forests for biodiversity conservation. The oldest form of R&D, provenance trials, revealed early on that seed origin has a major influence on the performance of planted trees. International provenance....... Recent advances in forest genomics have increased the understanding of the genetic basis of different traits, but it is unlikely that molecular marker-assisted approaches will quickly replace traditional tree breeding methods. Furthermore, provenance trials and progeny tests are still needed...

  19. Chapter 3 - At the roadside: Forest resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce Stokes; Timothy G. Rials; Leonard R. Johnson; Karen L. Abt; Prakash Nepal; Kenneth E. Skog; Robert C. Abt; Lixia He; Burton C. English

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 3 assesses the availability of forest resources to the roadside. Not all woody feedstocks are discussed in this chapter. Logging residues and wholetree biomass are included. Other feedstock categories have been moved to chapter 5 or are redefined to be included in the whole-tree biomass category. New methodologies and data are used in the assessment to

  20. TOWARDS A LAW OF SUSTAINABLE FISCAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel BOSTAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our approach aims to raise the benchmarks intended, we believe, to print efficiency rules for public financial law which, by definition, governs the issue of budgetary resources. Knowing the mechanism of legal and tax and the use of this type of resource, given the current context, we introduce some approaches to the position of financial law located in the best connection with economics, and we consider key issues of this - crisis/ growth, sustainable development, strategies/ policies, state intervention tools etc. aiming to easier to put out various budgetary implications caused by certain processes/ phenomena in the real economy. Also, we bring some elements of analysis, comments and views coming to justify the importance of rights (set of rules and principles of major influence the financial and fiscal consolidation based in the extent possible, the development lasting nature. It is expected thus that such a law (fiscal consolidation based on sustainability can drive more speedily to create a stable tax system capable of generating sufficient budgetary resources in terms of efficiency and efficacy, ensuring cost reductions with unit budget and compliance taxpayers being, while flexible, simple, transparent and adaptable to national/ international changes.

  1. Sustainable exploitation and management of aquatic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Köster, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    DTU Aqua conducts research, provides advice,educates at university level and contributes toinnovation in sustainable exploitation andmanagement of aquatic resources. The vision of DTUAqua is to enable ecologically and economicallysustainable exploitation of aquatic resourcesapplying an integrated...... ecosystem approach whichutilizes synergies in natural and technical sciencedisciplines. DTU Aqua advises the Danish Ministry ofFood, Agriculture and Fisheries and other publicauthorities, the commercial fisheries, theaquaculture industry and international commissions.DTU Aqua deals with all types ofaquatic...... in the ocean and how these factors impact the living conditions formarine organisms. Population genetics aims at gaining knowledge on how to preserve and managebiodiversity sustainably. Individual biology deals with the biology of aquatic organisms and theirinteraction with other organisms...

  2. The Waswanipi Cree Model Forest: Demonstrating Aboriginal leadership in sustainable forest management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolly, A.

    1999-09-01

    Experiences of the Waswanipi Cree community in being partners in sustainable forest management are discussed. The Waswanipi Cree Model Forest was designated as such in 1997. Since then, it has come to be seen as a forum for the community to express its needs, goals and objectives for the future, and as the first opportunity for the Cree community to exercise leadership and decision-making authority related to land management issues. The Waswanipi land is situated on the southernmost tip of eastern James Bay. It extends to some 35,000 sq km, divided into 52 family hunting territories, called traplines. Each trapline has a designated custodian, who is responsible for ensuring that wildlife is harvested in a sustainable manner. Community life is organized around the traplines, although families will sometimes temporarily relocate close to paid employment opportunities. Nevertheless, the purpose of employment is always to return to the bush, with sufficient materials and supplies to last the hunting and trapping season. Prior to the designation of the Model Forest, the major problems have been the rate and extent of forestry activities on Cree land by outside timber companies, the absence of opportunities for the Cree to have a meaningful role in decisions that impacted their future and the difficulties of convincing government experts and forestry companies to allow the Cree to bring their experience-based knowledge to bear on forest resource management issues. The manner in which the new partnership resulting from the designation of the Model Forest is opening the way to better understanding, mitigation of the negative effects of forestry operations on traplines, mediation of conflicts between trappers and forestry companies with timber licences on Waswanipi land, are described as one of the major achievements of the Model Forest Program. The rate and extent of cutting continues to be a problem, however, there are signs of a growing understanding among the timber

  3. Making Forest Values Work: Enhancing Multi-Dimensional Perspectives towards Sustainable Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Blagojević

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Sustainability, sustainable development and sustainable forest management are terms that are commonly, and interchangeably used in the forest industry, however their meaning take on different connotations, relative to varying subject matter. The aim of this paper is to look at these terms in a more comprehensive way, relative to the current ideology of sustainability in forestry. Materials and Methods: This paper applies a literature review of the concepts of: i sustainable development; ii sustainable forest management; and iii economic and non-economic valuation. The concepts are viewed through a historical dimension of shifting paradigms, originating from production- to service-based forestry. Values are discussed through a review of general value theory and spatial, cultural and temporal differences in valuation. Along the evolution of these concepts, we discuss their applicability as frameworks to develop operational guidelines for forest management, relative to the multi-functionality of forests. Results and Conclusions: Potential discrepancies between the conceptual origins of sustainable development and sustainable forest management are highlighted, relative to how they have been interpreted and diffused as new perceptions on forest value for the human society. We infer the current paradigm may not reflect the various dimensions adequately as its implementation is likely to be more related to the distribution of power between stakeholders, rather than the value stakeholders’ place on the various forest attributes.

  4. Evolution of Forest Systems: the Role of Biogeochemical Cycles in Determining Sustainable Forestry Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner T. Flueck

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of natural resources such as forests leads to sustainable forest management (SFM. The key question is how to define and parametrize "sustainable use." Promoting forest use that conserves spatial characteristics of forest landscapes and the structure and composition of forest stands was proposed as a way of maintaining elements of biodiversity such as species richness and genetic variation. However, to establish the parameter space for sustainable forest use, it is essential to consider the nutrient requirements of forest systems, that is, plants and animals, the need for fertilizer application, and the effects on biogeochemical cycles, a cornerstone of biological evolution and, thus, biodiversity. The use of forest products is inevitably tied to exporting biomass from those ecosystems because products are used elsewhere, thus changing natural practically steady-state ecosystems to open ones. Continued biomass export results in soil acidification and nutrient removal. Among macronutrients, phosphorus takes a key position, but several others have been shown to be depleted in managed-forest systems. Micronutrients are more crucial for forest-dwelling animals, particularly those nutrients that are only essential to animals. Depletion of their reserves, selenium for instance, through biomass export will not affect plants, and initial subclinical effects on animals are difficult to detect. The generalized effect may be reflected in changing rates of recruitment or disease resistance, and thus ecosystem processes. Forest products and their export reduces soil-nutrient reserves, and slash burning and water runoff further add to cumulative losses of several minerals. Such impacts from forest products need to be addressed, particularly for mammals and their unique needs for several microelements. Biogeochemical cycles disturbed by exporting forest products will affect plants and animals and, therefore, ecosystems and their processes, and

  5. Forest resources of the United States, 2002: mapping the renewable resource planning act data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra M. Kurtz; Daniel J. Kaisershot; Dale D. Gormanson; Jeffery S. Wazenegger

    2009-01-01

    Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA), a national program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture conducts and maintains comprehensive inventories of the forest resources in the United States. The Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) of 1974 mandates a comprehensive assessment of past trends, current status, and the future potential...

  6. Depleting forest resources of Nigeria and its impact on climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... impacts on climate change are increasing. Measures for minimizing deforestation and managing climate change need to be developed urgently. This paper examined the deteriorating forest resources of Nigeria and its impact on climate change. Key words: Forest Resources, Deforestation, Forest Status, Climate Change ...

  7. The community resource management area mechanism: a strategy to manage African forest resources for REDD+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Rebecca A; Kyei, Andrew; Mason, John J

    2013-01-01

    Climate change poses a significant threat to Africa, and deforestation rates have increased in recent years. Mitigation initiatives such as REDD+ are widely considered as potentially efficient ways to generate emission reductions (or removals), conserve or sustainably manage forests, and bring benefits to communities, but effective implementation models are lacking. This paper presents the case of Ghana's Community Resource Management Area (CREMA) mechanism, an innovative natural resource governance and landscape-level planning tool that authorizes communities to manage their natural resources for economic and livelihood benefits. This paper argues that while the CREMA was originally developed to facilitate community-based wildlife management and habitat protection, it offers a promising community-based structure and process for managing African forest resources for REDD+. At a theoretical level, it conforms to the ecological, socio-cultural and economic factors that drive resource-users' decision process and practices. And from a practical mitigation standpoint, the CREMA has the potential to help solve many of the key challenges for REDD+ in Africa, including definition of boundaries, smallholder aggregation, free prior and informed consent, ensuring permanence, preventing leakage, clarifying land tenure and carbon rights, as well as enabling equitable benefit-sharing arrangements. Ultimately, CREMA's potential as a forest management and climate change mitigation strategy that generates livelihood benefits for smallholder farmers and forest users will depend upon the willingness of African governments to support the mechanism and give it full legislative backing, and the motivation of communities to adopt the CREMA and integrate democratic decision-making and planning with their traditional values and natural resource management systems.

  8. Adaptive genetic potential of coniferous forest tree species under climate change: implications for sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Georgeta; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Teodosiu, Maria; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Daia, Mihai; Mirancea, Ionel; Ivanov, Paula; Alin, Alexandru

    2017-04-01

    Mountain ecosystems are extremely vulnerable to climate change. The real potential for adaptation depends upon the existence of a wide genetic diversity in trees populations, upon the adaptive genetic variation, respectively. Genetic diversity offers the guarantee that forest species can survive, adapt and evolve under the influence of changing environmental conditions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the genetic diversity and adaptive genetic potential of two local species - Norway spruce and European silver fir - in the context of regional climate change. Based on data from a long-term provenance experiments network and climate variables spanning over more than 50 years, we have investigated the impact of climatic factors on growth performance and adaptation of tree species. Our results indicate that climatic and geographic factors significantly affect forest site productivity. Mean annual temperature and annual precipitation amount were found to be statistically significant explanatory variables. Combining the additive genetic model with the analysis of nuclear markers we obtained different images of the genetic structure of tree populations. As genetic indicators we used: gene frequencies, genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, genetic variance, plasticity. Spatial genetic analyses have allowed identifying the genetic centers holding high genetic diversity which will be valuable sources of gene able to buffer the negative effects of future climate change. Correlations between the marginal populations and in the optimal vegetation, between the level of genetic diversity and ecosystem stability, will allow the assessment of future risks arising from current genetic structure. Therefore, the strategies for sustainable forest management have to rely on the adaptive genetic variation and local adaptation of the valuable genetic resources. This work was realized within the framework of the project GENCLIM (Evaluating the adaptive potential of the main

  9. Food security and sustainable resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Dennis; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2015-07-01

    The projected growth in global food demand until mid-century will challenge our ability to continue recent increases in crop yield and will have a significant impact on natural resources. The water and land requirements of current agriculture are significantly less than global reserves but local shortages are common and have serious impacts on food security. Recent increases in global trade have mitigated some of the effects of spatial and temporal variability. However, trade has a limited impact on low-income populations who remain dependent on subsistence agriculture and local resources. Potential adverse environmental impacts of increased agricultural production include unsustainable depletion of water and soil resources, major changes in the global nitrogen and phosphorous cycles, human health problems related to excessive nutrient and pesticide use, and loss of habitats that contribute to agricultural productivity. Some typical case studies from China illustrate the connections between the need for increased food production and environmental stress. Sustainable options for decreasing food demand and for increasing production include reduction of food losses on both the producer and consumer ends, elimination of unsustainable practices such as prolonged groundwater overdraft, closing of yield gaps with controlled expansions of fertilizer application, increases in crop yield and pest resistance through advances in biotechnology, and moderate expansion of rain fed and irrigated cropland. Calculations based on reasonable assumptions suggest that such measures could meet the food needs of an increasing global population while protecting the environment.

  10. Drained forest land and mires with thick peat as resources for sustainable peat harvesting in Sweden; Dikad skogsmark och myr med djup torv som resurser foer uthaalligt torvbruk i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haanell, Bjoern

    2006-04-15

    The aims of this study were to (i) calculate the coverage and location of drained peatlands which from an environmental perspective are the most suitable for peat harvesting in Sweden, and (ii) to calculate the volumes of peat on drained and un-drained peatlands as a basis for an analysis of the potential for sustainable future peat harvesting in the country. Data were selected from the Swedish National Forest Inventory of Forests, more specifically from the National Forest Inventory 1993-1997 and 1998-2002, and from the Swedish Forest Soil Inventory 2003-2004. The area of productive forest land covered with peat thicker than 1 m comprises about 700,000 ha, half on drained and half on un-drained sites. Deep peat layers are especially common in the provinces of Smaaland and Vaesterbotten (southern and coastal parts, respectively). The area of non-productive mires with thick (> 1 m) peat cover encompasses ca 2.6 million ha. About 200,000 of these mires are drained. Half of the drained forest land with thick peat, about 180,000 ha, belongs to peatland sites greater than 10 ha which can be regarded as the minimum size for profitable peat harvesting. As for the drained non-productive mires, less than a quarter of the area has to be rejected as potential sites for harvesting because of being too small size. In total, about 180,000 ha of drained forest land and 165,000 ha of drained non-productive mires with thick peat can be regarded as the country's potential for peat harvesting. The emission of greenhouse gases is greater from highly productive than from low-productive drained peatlands. The dominant part of the drained forest land belongs to the three most productive site types. A change in the ongoing land use, from forestry to peat harvesting, should be least expensive immediately after final felling of a mature forest (and before the establishment of a new generation of trees). The stands on the drained productive forest land are fairly evenly distributed

  11. The role of communities in sustainable land and forest management: The case of Nyanga, Zvimba and Guruve districts of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Matsvange

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest benefit analysis is vital in ensuring sustainable community-based natural resources management. Forest depletion and degradation are key issues in rural Zimbabwe and strategies to enhance sustainable forest management are continually sought. This study was carried out to assess the impact of forests on communities from Nyanga, Guruve and Zvimba districts of Zimbabwe. It is based on a Big Lottery Fund project implemented by Progressio-UK and Environment Africa. Itfocuses on identifying replicable community forest and landmanagement strategies and the level of benefits accruing to the community. Analysis of change was based on the Income and Food Security and Forest benefits, which also constitutes the tools used during the research. The study confirms the high rate of deforestation and the increased realisation by communities to initiate practical measures aimed at protecting and sustaining forest and land resources from which they derive economic and social benefits. The results highlight the value of community structures (Farmer Field Schools and Environmental Action Groups as conduits for natural resource management. The interconnectivity among forests, agricultural systems and the integral role of people are recognised as key to climate change adaptation.Keywords: Forest benefits; sustainability,;livelihoods; farmer field schools

  12. Win-wins in NTFP market chains? How governance impacts the sustainability of livelihoods based on Congo Basin forest products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring the interrelationships between governance, poverty alleviation and sustainability impacts in the framework of market chains for non-timber forest products originating from the Congo Basin. The research focuses on how governance arrangements help or hinder access to forest resources and

  13. An integrated strategy for sustainable forest-energy-environment interactions in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbami, J-F K; Salami, A T; Siyanbola, W O

    2003-10-01

    The Nigerian forests have been subjected to unguarded exploitation over the years. Although there is overwhelming empirical evidence, which show that Nigeria's forest, may soon vanish, available statistics have shown its increasing importance in the energy sector. With increasing population come the attendant demands on the biotic environment through increased land clearing, deforestation, devegetation, decertification, with attendant soil erosion, flooding, sand dune formation, and changes in the micro-climate with consequent loss of biological productivity and associated socio-economic and socio-political problems in the country. There is therefore the need to adopt measures that will shift the attention of the Nigerian populace from the forest to satisfy their energy needs. However, such measures that will address the challenges confronting the forestry, forest-based energy systems and the environment should be consistent with the development needs, resources and priorities of the nation. Hence, for sustainable forest-energy-environment interactions, a holistic and integrated strategy that can be adopted to minimise the observed forest depletion must take cognisance of options from various land use practices, energy and forest sectors. The focus of this paper is on a strategy of options from both the energy and forest sectors. Based on the socio-economic, socio-political and environmental analyses of various options from the energy and forest sectors, the philosophy behind the mosaic approach to sustainable development has been considered in developing the proposed strategy. Policy measures to implement this strategy of options in the national development programs are also suggested.

  14. Forest crimes as a threat to sustainable forest management

    OpenAIRE

    S. Özden; Ayan, S.

    2016-01-01

    From ancient times to the present day, forest public relations has been an issue on the agenda. This relationship’s purpose was initially needed for shelter and nutrition; however today this process has changed with urbanization, overpopulation and understanding the new functions of forests. When land ownership became a tool of production, offenses occurred in order to convert forestlands to agricultural lands. So the vast majority of the world’s forests have been lost for this reason. Today,...

  15. Urban forests and sustainable livelihoods in port Harcourt City, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depletion of the ozone layer has been a great challenge to sustainable livelihood all over the world. Efforts are now made to check global warming that poses a great threat to the environment. Port Harcourt being a highly industrialized city is characterized by environmental pollution. Roles of urban forests in sustainable ...

  16. Conference Summary Report from ENS`95. Sustainable Resource Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdgate, M. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    This publication gives a survey of the ENS`95 conference held in Stavanger (Norway). The publication presents a conference summary and lists of papers for each of the main themes covering sustainable energy production and consumption (challenges and opportunities), international trade and sustainable development, sustainable resource management and economic development in the northern circumpolar region together with sustainable forestry and food production

  17. ORGEST: Regional guidelines and silvicultural models for sustainable forest management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piqué, Míriam; Vericat, Pau; Beltrán, Mario

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study: To develop regional guidelines for sustainable forest management. Area of the study: Forests of Catalonia (NE Spain). Material and methods: The process of developing the forest management guidelines (FMG) started by establishing a thorough classification of forest types at stand level. This classification hinges on two attributes: tree species composition and site quality based on ecological variables, which together determine potential productivity. From there, the management guidelines establish certain objectives and silvicultural models for each forest type. The forest type classifications, like the silvicultural models, were produced using both existing and newly-built growth models based on data from the National Forest Inventory (NFI) and expert knowledge. The effort involved over 20 expert working groups in order to better integrate the expertise and vision of different sectorial agents. Main results: The FMG consist in quantitative silvicultural models that include typical silvicultural variables, technical descriptions of treatments and codes of good practice. Guidelines now cover almost all forest types in Catalonia (spanning up to 90% of the Catalan forest area). Different silvicultural models have been developed for pure and mixed stands, different site quality classes (2–3 classes per species), and even- and multi-aged stands. Research highlights: FMG: i) orient the management of private and public forests, (ii) provide a technical scaffold for efficient allocation/investment of public subsidies in forest management, and (iii) bridge forest planning instruments at regional (strategic-tactical) and stand (operational) level.

  18. How will the changing industrial forest landscape affect forest sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; Craig Loehle

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale divestiture of commercial forestlands is occurring in the United States. Furthermore, increasing demand for cellulose for bioenergy may modify forest management practices widely enough to impact the spatial characteristics of forested landscapes. We used the HARVEST timber harvest simulator to investigate the potential consequences of divestiture and...

  19. Non-timber forest products in sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; A.L. Hammett; Philip A. Araman

    2001-01-01

    The forests of Southern United States are the source of many non-timber forest products (NTFPs). The collection, trade and use of these products have been important to rural economies since Europeans settled in this country. At the same time the plants from which these products originate are crucial to healthy ecosystems. Over the last decade, the market demand and the...

  20. Major forest types and the evolution of sustainable forestry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Limin; Wang, Yue; Su, Dongkai; Zhou, Li; Yu, Dapao; Lewis, Bernard J; Qi, Lin

    2011-12-01

    In this article, we introduce China's major forest types and discuss the historical development of forest management in China, including actions taken over the last decade toward achieving SMF. Major challenges are identified, and a strategy for SFM implementation in China is presented. China's forests consist of a wide variety of types with distinctive distributional patterns shaped by complex topography and multiple climate regimes. How to manage this wide array of forest resources has challenged forest managers and policy-makers since the founding of the country. Excessive exploitation of China's forest resources from the 1950s to the late 1990s contributed to environmental problems and calamities, such as floods, soil erosion, and desertification. At the start of the new millennium, the Chinese government decided to shift its emphasis from timber production towards the achievement of sustainable forest management (SFM). With a series of endeavors such as the implementation of the "Six Key Forestry Projects" and the reform of forest tenure policies, and the adoption of a classification system for China's forests, a beginning has been made at reversing the trend of environmental degradation that occurred throughout the latter half of the last century. At the same time, huge challenges remain to be tackled for the development of forestry in China.

  1. Role of Forest Resources to Local Livelihoods: The Case of East Mau Forest Ecosystem, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Langat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forests in Kenya are threatened by unsustainable uses and conversion to alternative land uses. In spite of the consequences of forest degradation and biodiversity loss and reliance of communities on forests livelihoods, there is little empirical data on the role of forest resources in livelihoods of the local communities. Socioeconomic, demographic, and forest use data were obtained by interviewing 367 households. Forest product market survey was undertaken to determine prices of various forest products for valuation of forest use. Forest income was significant to households contributing 33% of total household income. Fuel wood contributed 50%, food (27%, construction material (18%, and fodder, and thatching material 5% to household forest income. Absolute forest income and relative forest income (% were not significantly different across study locations and between ethnic groups. However, absolute forest income and relative forest income (% were significantly different among wealth classes. Poor households were more dependent on forests resources. However, in absolute terms, the rich households derived higher forest income. These results provide valuable information on the role of forest resources to livelihoods and could be applied in developing forest conservation policies for enhanced ecosystem services and livelihoods.

  2. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL FORESTS IN PANTANAL REGION, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Póvoa de Mattos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pantanal region in Brazil has an area of 140,000 km², with approximately 30 % of natural forests distributed as deciduous, semideciduous, and forested savannas. The subregion of Nhecolandia represents 19 % of this area. There is constant concern about the sustainability of these forested areas, as there is a constant demand for wood for farm maintenance, mainly for making fence poles. The objective of this article is to indicate sustainable forest management practices in the Pantanal region of Nhecolandia. The methodology of this novel approach consisted of the recovery and organization of the available information to calculate the sustainable allowable cut per hectare, considering: cutting cycle, wood stock, periodic annual increment (PAI in percentage of volume from the commercial or interesting species and the stand structure. For forested savannas, the diameter at breast height (DBH of 529 trees per hectare were estimated as follows: 28 % with a DBH lower than 10 cm, 36 % from 10 to 20 cm, 21 % from 20 to 30 cm, 10 % from 30 to 40 cm and only 4 % greater than 40 cm. The estimated total volume per hectare was 84.2 m³ and the estimated basal area was 18.6 m². The forested areas of the Pantanal region present potential for sustainable use. However, due to regional characteristics and the lack of available information, an enhancement in research is recommended to establish a basic management guide to ensure its perpetuation for future generations.

  3. Sustainable utilisation of forest biomass for energy - Possibilities and problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stupak, I.; Asikainen, A.; Jonsell, M.

    2007-01-01

    The substitution of biomass for fossil fuels in energy consumption is a measure to mitigate global warming, as well as having other advantages. Political action plans for increased use exist at both European and national levels. This paper briefly reviews the contents of recommendations. guidelines....... and other synthesis publications on Sustainable use of forest biomass for energy. Topics are listed and an overview of advantages. disadvantages, and trade-offs between them is given, from the viewpoint of society in general and the forestry or the Nordic and Baltic countries, the paper also identifies...... the extent to which wood for energy is and energy sectors in particular. F included in forest legislation and forest certification standards under the "Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification" (PEFC) and the "Forest Stewardship Council" (FSC) schemes. Energy and forest policies at EU...

  4. California's forest resources, 2001-2005: five-year Forest Inventory and Analysis Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn A. Christensen; Sally J. Campbell; Jeremy S. Fried

    2008-01-01

    This report highlights key findings from the most recent (2001-2005) data collected by the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program across all forest land in California. We summarize and interpret basic resource information such as forest area, ownership, volume, biomass, and carbon stocks; structure and function topics such as biodiversity, forest age, dead wood, and...

  5. Co-benefits of sustainable forest management in biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo Imai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sustainable forest management (SFM, which has been recently introduced to tropical natural production forests, is beneficial in maintaining timber resources, but information about the co-benefits for biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration is currently lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We estimated the diversity of medium to large-bodied forest-dwelling vertebrates using a heat-sensor camera trapping system and the amount of above-ground, fine-roots, and soil organic carbon by a combination of ground surveys and aerial-imagery interpretations. This research was undertaken both in SFM applied as well as conventionally logged production forests in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Our carbon estimation revealed that the application of SFM resulted in a net gain of 54 Mg C ha(-1 on a landscape scale. Overall vertebrate diversity was greater in the SFM applied forest than in the conventionally logged forest. Specifically, several vertebrate species (6 out of recorded 36 species showed higher frequency in the SFM applied forest than in the conventionally logged forest. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The application of SFM to degraded natural production forests could result in greater diversity and abundance of vertebrate species as well as increasing carbon storage in the tropical rain forest ecosystems.

  6. Climate change adaptation and sustainable forest management in the boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, A.E.E.

    2008-07-01

    Recent interest in sustainable forest management planning coincides with increased public awareness of climate change. This thesis examined how strategic forestry plans for the Champagne and Aishihik First Nations Traditional Territory in the Yukon are incorporating climate change. A climate-driven, large-scale spruce bark beetle disturbance in the area has been driving forest management planning. However, climate change considerations have not been directly addressed in the planning process. This study identified 24 adaptation options for implementing in forest development areas to achieve regional goals of forest management across three scenarios of climate change. In addition, the performance of alternative strategies to re-establish forests was assessed. Management policies and practices that adapt to climate change were identified and a typology was proposed for classifying sustainable forest management plans according to how they address and manage climate change risks. The plans incorporate best management practices for sustainable forest management that are consistent with climate adaptation responses. A structured decision making (SDM) approach showed that forestry planning processes have yet to come to terms with the risks that climate change may pose to the ability of forest managers to achieve the stated goals and objectives of sustainable forest management plans.

  7. Forest resources of the Hoosier National Forest, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoper W. Woodall; Judith A. Perez; Thomas R. Thake

    2007-01-01

    The first annual inventory of the Hoosier National Forest reports more than 200,000 forest land acres dominated by oaks, maples, and hickories with annual growth exceeding annual mortality by a factor of seven. When compared to forests in the rest of Indiana, the Hoosier's forests are on average older, have greater biomass per acre, and possess a greater...

  8. Timber resource statistics for the Sacramento resource area of California. Forest Service resource bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the Scacramento Resource Area of California, which includes Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Glenn, Lake, Napa, Nevada, Placer, Plumas, Sacramento, Sierra, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided data from regional inventories of the Eldorado, Lassen, Mendocino, Plumas, Shasta-Trinity, Tahoe, and Toiyabe National Forests and the Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Estimates of periodic change of timberland area and timber volume are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  9. Timber resource statistics for the central coast resource area of California. Forest Service resource bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the Central Coast Resource Area of California, which includes Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Monterey, San Benito, San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, and Ventura Counties. Data were collected as part of a state-wide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The national Forest System provided data from regional inventories of the Los Padres National Forest. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Estimates of period change of timberland area and timber volume are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  10. Timber resource statistics for the north coast resource area of California, 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1996-09-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the North Coast Resource Area of California, which includes Del Norte, Humboldt, Mendocino, and Sonoma Counties. Data were collected by the Pacific Northwest Research Station as part of a State wide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided data from regional inventories of North Coast National Forests. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Estimates of periodic change of volume and area on timber land are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  11. Scenario analysis for sustainable development of Chongming Island: water resources sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiong; Wu, Yanqing; Wu, Jun; Lu, Jian; Wilson, P Chris

    2012-11-15

    With the socioeconomic and urban development of Chongming Island (the largest alluvial island in the world), water demand is rapidly growing. To make adjustments to the water utilization structure of each industry, allocate limited water resources, and increase local water use efficiency, this study performed a scenario analysis for the water sustainability of Chongming Island. Four different scenarios were performed to assess the water resource availability by 2020. The growth rate for water demand will be much higher than that of water supply under a serious situation prediction. The water supply growth volume will be 2.22 × 10(8)m(3) from 2010 to 2020 under Scenario I and Scenario II while the corresponding water demand growth volume will be 2.74 × 10(8)m(3) and 2.64 × 10(8)m(3), respectively. There will be a rapid growth in water use benefit under both high and low development modes. The water use benefit will be about 50 CNY/m(3) under Scenarios I and II in 2020. The production structure will need to be adjusted for sustainable utilization of water resources. Sewage drainage but not the forest and grass coverage rate will be a major obstacle to future development and environmental quality. According to a multi-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, Scenario II is finally deemed to be the most desirable plan, suggesting that the policy of rapid socioeconomic development and better environmental protection may achieve the most sustainable development of Chongming Island in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Balancing the Relationship Between Protection and Sustainable Management in Canada′s Boreal Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Carlson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection and sustainable forest management are related but unique, with protection focusing on minimising risk to ecosystems and sustainable management emphasising economic development. Given these distinct roles, a defining characteristic of the relationship between the two approaches is their relative abundance and distribution. The relationship is currently imbalanced, with only 12% of Canada allocated to protection, indicating that ecological values have historically been traded off in favour of resource production. The intactness of Canada′s boreal forest provides an opportunity for a more holistic approach that conserves its globally significant environmental attributes while also supporting resource production. The Boreal Forest Conservation Framework proposes a balanced relationship that allocates land approximately equally between protection and sustainable management. It is a framework that has been endorsed by industry, Aboriginal, and conservation organisations, and is supported by conservation science. Recent commitments to comprehensive land-use planning at regional scales are consistent with the collaborative approach promoted by the Boreal Forest Conservation Framework, and suggest that conservation objectives are likely to receive increased attention in Canada′s boreal region relative to recent history. Ensuring that land-use planning is proactive and balanced will be essential to forging a cooperative relationship between sustainable management and protection in the region.

  13. Application of Network Analysis for Development and Promotion of Sustainable Tourism in Public Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brach Michał

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of sustainable tourism within valuable natural areas has been extensively discussed ever since the emergence of sustainable development philosophy in the 1990s. In view of growing public interest in nature recreation and tourism development, the importance of addressing this subject matter has hitherto increased significantly. The main objective of the present paper was to offer a tool for supporting development and promotion of sustainable tourism in Poland’s forests managed by the State Forests - National Forest Holding. GIS technology, and specific tools for network analysis were used in the project. During task realization, only free and open software sources were used. The work was performed based on the example of the Forest District Żołędowo (Regional Directorate of State Forests in Toruń, Poland with the use of District’s spatial data resources. A web application was created to present information about tourist attractions and infrastructure on an interactive map with tools for route planning. As a result, there has been developed the web mapping application which provides general access to tourism related information and enables planning touristic routes by pre-specified criteria. Implemented routing algorithms can help traffic management and further protection of the areas vulnerable to anthropogenic pressures. The system created not only promotes attractive tourist sites but also, supports targeting tourist traffic, and accordingly - adds to the progress of sustainable tourism

  14. Optimal conservation resource allocation under variable economic and ecological time discounting rates in boreal forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Montesino Pouzols, Federico; Mönkkönen, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    an optimal resource allocation by accounting for budget size and habitat availability of indicator species in different forest types. We also accounted for the perspective adopted towards sustainability, modeled via temporal preference and economic and ecological time discounting. Controversially, we found...

  15. A preview of West Virginia's forest resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Barnard; Teresa M. Bowers

    1977-01-01

    Forest land occupies 75 percent of the total land area of West Virginia. Sixty percent of the forest land is classified in the oak-hickory forest type and only 6 percent in all the softwood forest types. Since 1961, growing-stock volume increased 24 percent. Yellow-poplar increased 39 percent in volume and is now the prevalent species in the State.

  16. Simulating the cumulative effects of multiple forest management strategies on landscape measures of forest sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; David E. Lytle; Randy Swaty; Craig Loehle

    2007-01-01

    While the cumulative effects of the actions of multiple owners have long been recognized as critically relevant to efforts to maintain sustainable forests at the landscape scale, few studies have addressed these effects. We used the HARVEST timber harvest simulator to predict the cumulative effects of four owner groups (two paper companies, a state forest and non-...

  17. Local institutions for sustaining wetland resources and community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prioritizing community livelihoods without understanding the impact of local institutions on wetland resources may only aggravate impoverishment. However, prioritizing sustainable wetland resource use may lead to short-term impoverishment with positive long-term effect on both community livelihood and sustainable ...

  18. A Review of Forest Resources and Forest Biodiversity Evaluation System in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jinzhuo Wu; Wenshu Lin; Xuanyi Peng; Weiguo Liu

    2013-01-01

    China is a country rich in diverse forest ecosystems due to the large span of the country, complex topography, and multiple climate regimes. In this paper, the basic information of forest resources in China was briefly introduced and the current state in the measurements of forest biodiversity and the establishment of forest biodiversity index systems in related studies were reviewed. The results showed that a lot of studies on forest biodiversity have been conducted mostly at landscape or st...

  19. SUSTAINING CARBON SINK POTENTIALS IN TROPICAL FOREST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    protect water, soil, and biodiversity, deforestation continues at an alarming rate. ... percent in the soil. In all forests, tropical, temperate and boreal together, approximately 31 percent of the carbon is stored in the biomass and 69 percent in the soil. ... global warming could cause an increase in heterotrophic respiration and the.

  20. Rural aquaculture as a sustainable alternative for forest conservation in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, José; Manzo-Delgado, Lilia L; Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2014-06-01

    Forest conservation plays a significant role in environmental sustainability. In Mexico only 8.48 million ha of forest are used for conservation of biodiversity. Payment for Environmental Services in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, one of the most important national protected areas, contributes to the conservation of these forests. In the Reserve, production of rainbow trout has been important for the rural communities who need to conserve the forest cover in order to maintain the hibernation cycle of the butterfly. Aquaculture is a highly productive activity for these protected areas, since it harnesses the existing water resources. In this study, changes from 1999 to 2012 in vegetation and land-use cover in the El Lindero basin within the Reserve were evaluated in order to determine the conservation status and to consider the feasibility of aquaculture as a means of sustainable development at community level. Evaluation involved stereoscopic interpretation of digital aerial photographs from 1999 to 2012 at 1:10,000 scale, comparative analysis by orthocorrected mosaics and restitution on the mosaics. Between 1999 and 2012, forested land recovered by 28.57 ha (2.70%) at the expense of non-forested areas, although forest degradation was 3.59%. Forest density increased by 16.87%. In the 46 ha outside the Reserve, deforestation spread by 0.26%, and land use change was 0.11%. The trend towards change in forest cover is closely related to conservation programmes, particularly payment for not extracting timber, reforestation campaigns and surveillance, whose effects have been exploited for the development of rural aquaculture; this is a new way to improve the socio-economic status of the population, to avoid logging and to achieve environmental sustainability in the Reserve. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Ecological risk assessment of forest resource in northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinda; Liu, Jingshuang; Zhang, Xuelin; Yan, Denghua

    2003-06-01

    Based on the theory and methods of regional eco-risk assessment (REA), the eco-risk of forest resources in northeast China is evaluated. The stresses resulting in the eco-risk of forest resources are physical, chemical, biological and social stresses. The weighed coefficient is 0.30, 0.22, 0.11 and 0.37, respectively. In 93 forest bureaus of this area, 64.4% bureaus are in slight risk, 21.2% in mid-risk, 13.3% in high risk and 1.1% in very high risk. This is in corresponding with the skew normal distribution. The eco-risk of forest resources in northeast China is closely related to the locality of the resources. The risk becomes more and more serious from east to west. The risk management and restoration of the forest resource must be strengthened.

  2. Working woods: A case study of sustainable forest management on Vermont family forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal F. Maker; Rene H. Germain; Nathaniel M. Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Families own 35% of US forestland and 67% of Vermont forestland. Sustainable management of their woodlots could provide social and economic benefits for generations. We examined sustainable forest management across four counties in Vermont by evaluating the use of silvicultural practices and best management practices on 59 recently harvested, family-owned properties...

  3. Outlook for the development of European forest resources; a study prepared for the European Forest Sector Outlook Study (EFSOS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelhaas, M.J.; Brusselen, van J.; Pussinen, A.; Pesonen, E.; Schuck, A.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Sasse, V.

    2006-01-01

    This Outlook for the Development of European Forest Resources provides the methodologies, data, scenarios, and results of the outlook on the European forest resources from 2000 to 2040. The aim of this forest resource study was to analyse the impacts on the European forest resources under the level

  4. Sustainable forest management and gender equality. Women and forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, T

    1997-01-01

    This article focuses on deforestation and women's participation in environmental development. Deforestation substantially contributes to accelerated changes in global climates and robs the world of irreplaceable biodiversity. Approximately 100 million hectares of forests have been lost throughout the world since 1950, with the world losing up to 20.4 million hectares of tropical forests annually. Moreover, women's participation in environmental development is currently impeded by many factors such as problems of land tenure and ownership. In order to have a balance between greater productivity and environmental protection, policymakers should ensure that agricultural and forestry extension services are designed incorporating a balanced gender perspective, including women's full participation in decision-making fora, and building upon their knowledge of community concerns. This article further cited examples of women's participation in several countries and identified eight steps to incorporate women in project design.

  5. Forest Resources of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast: Problems and Prospects of Rational Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bebia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available More than 70 % of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast (CBSC forests grow in mountainous conditions of the Colchis phytogeographical province and perform primary environmental functions. In these forests for a long period of time excessively intense logging has been in practice, which caused serious damage to their health. The main issues of forestry here are the introduction of effective methods of harvesting, using rational technology in logging operations, restoring native forest types at past logging sites, increasing the productivity and sustainability of forests on the bioecological biogeocenotical level, and preserving the riparian-protective role of forests. In the article, the author analyzes the results of many years of research in forests of the CBSC, that consider the question of condition of forests, peculiarity the multifunctional values and priority direction forestry in them. The author also considers the basic conformity of structure and com-position of forest stands, and presents evidence about the natural renewal of logging sites in fir and beech forests. It has been established that high intensity selective logging more than 50 % canopy cover and bringing the stand after logging 0.5 and below leads to degradation of forests, except for the possibility of natural regeneration felling areas for over 70 years. The study substantiates the effectiveness of selective forms of forest management in the uneven-aged stands and the importance of a multi-purpose and sustainable use of forest resources. The study emphasizes the need for a rational technology of logging operations and silvicultural demands strict compliance with the development of cutting areas and suggests ways to improve the productivity of forests, using introduced valuable tree species. For example, Sequoia sempervirens Endl. in the plantings of forest monocultures on the Abkhazian Research Forest Experimental Station (Ochamchira at age of 50 years forms a valuable timber of

  6. A preview of Kentucky's forest resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Barnard; Teresa M. Bowers

    1977-01-01

    Forty-eight percent of the total land area of Kentucky is forest. Sixty-three percent of this forest land is the oak-hickory forest type and 47 percent of the forest area supports sawtimber stands. There has been a 23-percent increase in the volume of growing stock and a 24-percent increase in the volume of sawtimber since the 1963 inventory. Total volume of growing...

  7. Lifelong Learning and Sustainable Managed Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgaard, Gunde

    In forestry, as in other fields, technological advances have resulted in significant changes in work practices and skill requirements. Vocational training and improvement of forestry workers' skills through lifelong learning can help achieve sustainability in forestry. The objectives of lifelong learning are to integrate people into working life…

  8. Natural Resources Accounting and Sustainable Development: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gold

    2012-07-26

    Jul 26, 2012 ... far cannot be described as sustainable because the various developmental processes have misused or over ... Accounting for sustainability incorporates the equity aspect of the paradigm of eco-justice. This approach firmly ..... Restaurant at Stockholm University. Environmental Management,. Vol.52.

  9. Discourses on sustainable forest management and effects of Natura 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferranti, Francesca; Vericat, Pau; Koning, de Jessica

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed discourses influencing the meaning of Sustainable Forest Management in Catalonia (Spain) and the effects of the European Natura 2000 policy on these discourses. It focused on the Montseny area and on the Administration and Practitioner stakeholder groups. Based on literature

  10. Engaging African American landowners in sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Schelhas; Sarah Hitchner; Cassandra Johnson Gaither; Rory Fraser; Viniece Jennings; Amadou Diop

    2016-01-01

    The Sustainable Forestry and African American Land Retention Program is a comprehensive effort to address the long-standing problem of underparticipation of African Americans in forest management. We conducted rapid appraisal baseline research for pilot projects in this program in three Southern states using a carefully selected purposive sample to enhance our...

  11. An institutional evaluation of sustainable forest management in Flanders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gossum, Van P.; Arts, B.; Wulf, de R.; Verheyen, K.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the existing Flemish institutional framework of sustainable forest management (SFM). The evaluation was performed using criteria and indicators that were based on the four-dimensional structure (discourse, rules, power and actors) of the policy arrangement

  12. Federated States of Micronesia's forest resources, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph A. Donnegan; Sarah L. Butler; Olaf Kuegler; Bruce A. Hiserote

    2011-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis program collected, analyzed, and summarized field data on 73 forested field plots on the islands of Kosrae, Chuuk, Pohnpei, and Yap in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Estimates of forest area, tree stem volume and biomass, the numbers of trees, tree damages, and the distribution of tree sizes were summarized for this...

  13. A preview of New Hampshire's forest resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Barnard; Teresa M. Bowers

    1974-01-01

    Forest continues to be the dominant land use in New Hampshire. Three inventories of the State between 1948 and 1973 show little change in the total forest area but significant shifts in forest type and stand size. Average volume per acre has increased to over 1,400 cubic feet and 2,785 board feet. Growth continues to exceed removals.

  14. Mountain Forests and Sustainable Development: The Potential for Achieving the United Nations' 2030 Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Gratzer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing numerous and severe environmental, social, and economic challenges. To address these, in September 2015 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the resolution Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The United Nations' 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs and their 169 targets are ambitious, broadly encompassing, and indivisible. They are intended to guide nations and communities toward attaining healthy and peaceful livelihoods free of poverty and hunger. Collectively the goals envision sound and safe environments, where global threats like climate change are successfully combated through both mitigation and adaptation. Agenda 2030 envisages sustainable production patterns with inclusive, effective economies and institutions. It is of specific relevance to mountain communities, where the population is predominantly rural and half of the rural inhabitants experience food insecurity and are often highly dependent on forest resources. Mountain forests also contribute to human welfare well beyond the local community: through functions such as climate and hydrological services provided at regional and global scales, and harvested commodities traded at multiple economic scales. In this introductory essay we argue that sustainable forest management in mountain areas disproportionately contributes to achieving the SDGs. We discuss (1 the potential of mountain forests to help achieve SDGs in mountainous regions and beyond, (2 the potential of the SDGs to help solve severe socioeconomic and ecological problems in forested mountain areas, and (3 challenges and opportunities associated with implementing the SDGs. We base our argumentation also on the 8 papers presented in this Focus Issue of Mountain Research and Development. Together, they establish a clear connection between sustainable use and protection of mountain forests and vital ecosystem services upon which many regions depend. We

  15. 36 CFR 223.219 - Sustainable harvest of special forest products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... making their sustainability determination and establishing monitoring time frames consistent with... on International Trade in Endangered Species may be authorized. (c) Monitoring of established harvest... Forest Service shall monitor the effects of harvesting on the sustainability of special forest products...

  16. Brand Awareness towards Sustaining Earth's Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Seema

    2015-04-01

    School Children are the torchbearers of information, development and awareness in the country. They are the custodians of the future, thus it is important to educate them on this sensitive issue for a secured future for them. They are not rigid in their thoughts and are open to ideas and willing to listen, which gives us an opportunity to sensitize them about the growing issues that will shape their future So my projects with students every year revolves around an impactful contribution in reaching out and building awareness about preserving the environment and incorporating the practices of reuse, reduce and recycle in our daily lives. Under this project I conduct various workshops on recycling waste, debates on the environmental challenges with regular focus on inculcating cleaner habits amongst children ensuring an attitude change which will help create a socially responsible society. The community is enlightened on the importance of being responsible towards own household waste and conservation of the planet by conducting workshops across various residential societies in Pune. The idea is to encourage the young students and teachers to practice the 4Rs - Refuse, Reuse, Reduce and Recycle - in our daily lives. Through workshops, film screening, simulation exercises, competitions and students exchange programs the children are sensitized about waste management and importance of recycling to make them aware of the need to 'Protect What's Good' - which is the environment. And my project provides students a strong platform to voice their concerns about the need to practice sustainable lifestyles. The workshops are ruled by hands-on activities which give students a clear understanding. The activities include- film screening, competitions and debates, smart mobs in malls and public areas, cycle rallies, street plays, paper bag selling, cleanliness drives, collection drives for recyclables and most recently I have started with a new project which is known as social

  17. Timber resource statistics for all forest land, except national forests, in eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1989-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1987 timber resource inventory of all forest land, except National Forests, in the 17 counties (Baker, Crook, Deschutes, Gilliam, Grant, Harney, Jefferson, Klamath, Lake, Malheur, Morrow, Sherman, Umatilla, Union, Wallowa, Wasco, and Wheeler Counties) in eastern Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and...

  18. Estimation of forest resources from a country wide laser scanning survey and national forest inventory data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Schumacher, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Airborne laser scanning may provide a means for assessing local forest biomass resources. In this study, national forest inventory (NFI) data was used as reference data for modeling forest basal area, volume, aboveground biomass, and total biomass from laser scanning data obtained in a countrywide...

  19. Washington’s forest resources, 2002–2006: five-year Forest Inventory and Analysis report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally Campbell; Karen Waddell; Andrew. Gray

    2010-01-01

    This report highlights key findings from the most recent (2002-2006) data collected by the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program across all ownerships in Washington. We present basic resource information such as forest area, land use change, ownership, volume, biomass, and carbon sequestration; structure and function topics such as biodiversity, older forests, dead...

  20. Rational use of the forest indirect utilization — the key to sustainable development of forest ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    L.I. Saharnatska

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the ecological and economic characteristics of the utilization, protection and restoration of the collateral products of forest management. A number of measures aimed at sustainable and long-term utilization and reproduction based on environmental requirements has been analyzed. Role of the collateral products of forest use in the context of sustainable development of forest ecosystems has been highlighted

  1. Assessing the Sustainability of Agricultural and Urban Forests in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy Robertson; Andy. Mason

    2016-01-01

    The Forest Service, an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), published the National Report on Sustainable Forests-2010 (USDA Forest Service 2011) (hereafter, National Report) several years ago and will be releasing a subsequent version of the report in 2017. Based on the Montreal Process Criteria and Indicators for Forest Sustainability, the National...

  2. Managed Sustainable Development Classification Of Resources And Goods amp Services Calculating Sustainable Growth Rate And The Sustainable Development Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Saxena

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Macro-level manmade problems can often be best solved by understanding and manipulating the economics behind it. The world today is facing genuine problems of scarcity of resources and environmental amp ecological issues in view of intergenerational equity. The paper proposes a new approach of identification and classification of i Resources and ii Goods and services in the context of sustainable development. Every economy has ambitious economic growth aspirations which are often found conflicting with the commitments on natural resource conservation and climate change obligations. The proposed methodology is a reconciliation of the aspired economic growth of a region and the conservation of the resources and nature. The paper employs contribution of different types of goods and services in the gross domestic product GDP of a region to analyze sustainability of development. The important parameters that the paper establishes are Sustainability Ratio R Sustainable Growth Rate SG and the Sustainable Development Index SI. These parameters can be used to compare the sustainable development level of different regions. Ensuring natural resource and environmental sustainability will eventually ensure economic sustainability. The paper considers resource depletion concerns as well as the environmental pollutants biological risks carbon footprint warhead proliferation et cetera thereby ensuring all round sustainability from survival to economic end. The sustainability analysis is done for long periods such as 50 years 100 years et cetera. The index shows how sustainable the development of an economy is and how sustainability it is growing. The presently much revered GDP growth numbers are directionless it does not tell the type of growth an economy essentially has. The direction should be sustainability which the paper stresses upon. An illustration of sustainability analysis of India is also done. Such indices can help identifying sustainably developing

  3. Experts’ Perceptions of the Effects of Forest Biomass Harvesting on Sustainability in the Alpine Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Grilli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: In the EU political agenda, the use of forest biomass for energy has grown rapidly and significantly, in order to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions and reduce the energy dependence on fossil fuels of European member countries. The target of the EU climate and energy package is to raise the share of renewable energy consumption produced from renewable resources to 20% in 2020 (Directive 2009/28/EC. With regards to biomass energy, the supply of forest wood biomass is expected to rise by 45% (reference period: 2006-2020, in response to increasing demand for renewable sources. The increase of forest biomass supply could have both positive and negative effects on several forest ecosystem services (ESs and local development. These effects should be assessed in a proper manner and taken into account when formulating management strategies. The aim of the paper is to assess the environmental, economic and social sustainability of forest biomass harvesting for energy, using the Figure of Merit (FoM approach. Materials and Methods: Sustainability was assessed through a set of four indicators: two focused on experts’ opinions regarding the effects of forest biomass harvesting and the other two focused on the cost-benefit analysis (potential energy obtained and costs for wood chips. The research was developed through four case studies located in the Alpine Region. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered face-to-face to 32 selected experts. The perceived effects of forest biomass harvesting for energy on ESs and local development were evaluated by experts using a 5-point Likert scale (from “quite negative effect” to “quite positive effect”. Results: All experts agree that forest biomass harvesting has a positive effect on forest products provision and local economic development (employment of local workforce, local entrepreneurship and market diversification, while the effects on other ESs are controversial (e

  4. Non-timber forest products enterprises in the south: perceived distribution and implications for sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Chamberlain; M. Predny

    2003-01-01

    Forests of the southern United States are the source of a great diversity of flora, much of which is gathered to produce non-timber forest products (NTFPs). These products are made from resources that grow under the forest canopy as trees, herbs, shrubs, vines, moss and even lichen. They occur naturally in forests or may be cultivated under the forest canopy or in...

  5. Sustainable Biofuels from Forests: Woody Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin H. White

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of woody biomass feedstocks for bioenergy and bioproducts involves multiple sources of material that together create year round supplies. The main sources of woody biomass include residues from wood manufacturing industries, low value trees including logging slash in forests that are currently underutilized and dedicated short-rotation woody crops. Conceptually a ton of woody biomass feedstocks can replace a barrel of oil as the wood is processed (refined through a biorefinery. As oil is refined only part of the barrel is used for liquid fuel, e.g., gasoline, while much of the carbon in oil is refined into higher value chemical products-carbon in woody biomass can be refined into the same value-added products.

  6. Ansab Resource Centre: A Sustainable way for Resource Generation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    ANSAB), an. IDRC partner, headquartered in ... funding but also explore more sustainable and 'independent' sources of fund generation. .... and informal discussion forums at ANSAB including the coffee shop, restaurant, lunch gatherings, and ...

  7. US Forest Service experimental forests and ranges: an untapped resource for social science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Charnley; Lee K. Cerveny

    2011-01-01

    For a century, US Forest Service experimental forests and ranges (EFRs) have been a resource for scientists conducting long-term research relating to forestry and range management social science research has been limited, despite the history of occupation and current use of these sites for activities ranging from resource extraction and recreation to public education....

  8. A preview of Vermont's forest resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Barnard; Teresa M. Bowers

    1974-01-01

    Forest land occupies 75 percent of the total land area in Vermont. Nearly one-half of this forest land is the beech-birch-maple forest type. The inventory data show volume increasing but at a lower rate than in neighboring states. This is due to large losses from cull and mortality. Total growing-stock volume is now 4.7 billion cubic feet.

  9. Sustainable Forest Management in a Mediterranean region: social preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroto, C.; Segura, M.; Ginestar, C.; Uriol, J.; Segura, B.

    2013-07-01

    Aim of study: There is a lack of empirical research that deals with sustainable forest management in Mediterranean regions, among the most vulnerable ecosystems. The main purpose of this work is to define the strategic criteria and objectives for sustainable forest management and aggregate the preferences of stake holders in a Mediterranean region, using AHP and Goal Programming. Area of study: Valencian Community (Spain). Material and Methods: Firstly, we identified forest stake holders and structured a decision hierarchy. Then a workshop was carried out to test and validate the proposed criteria and objectives, as well as a survey to determine social preferences. Secondly, another survey was conducted amongst experts to prioritize action plans. Main results: Stake holders preferences gave the greatest importance to the environmental criteria (hydrological regulation and erosion, climate change mitigation and biodiversity) with an average weight of 40%. Social criteria (employment, recreational activities and landscape) had a weight of 38% and 22% the economic criteria case (wood, hunting and fishing, livestock, renewable energies, rural tourism and mining). The results showed that new products and services such as tourism, renewable energies, landscape, hydrological regulation and erosion control, biodiversity or climate change mitigation are very relevant objectives. We also prioritized action plans comparing them with the distribution of the administration budget. Research highlights: The environmental and social criteria are much more important than the economic ones in the regional planning of the Mediterranean forest, regardless of the method used to aggregate the social preferences and if the forest is public or private. (Author)

  10. Sustainable Aquatic Resource Management Initiative | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Governance of aquatic resources continues to be a major problem in most parts of the world. More than 50 million people are highly dependent on aquatic resources that continue to be degraded and governed in an unsustainable way. In the last few years, IDRC has funded a number of projects in Asia, Latin America and ...

  11. Sustainable supply chain management through enterprise resource planning (ERP): a model of sustainable computing

    OpenAIRE

    Broto Rauth Bhardwaj

    2015-01-01

    Green supply chain management (GSCM) is a driver of sustainable strategy. This topic is becoming increasingly important for both academia and industry. With the increasing demand for reducing carbon foot prints, there is a need to study the drivers of sustainable development. There is also need for developing the sustainability model. Using resource based theory (RBT) the present model for sustainable strategy has been developed. On the basis of data collected, the key drivers of sustainabili...

  12. Watershed Application of the Sustainable Installations Regional Resource Assessment Tool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jenicek, Elizabeth M; Fournier, Donald F; Downs, Natalie R; Boesdorfer, Brad

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers recognizes the need for a system-wide approach to ecosystem management in its efforts to provide environmental sustainability in the stewardship of the Nation's water resources...

  13. Assessing Water and Carbon Footprints for Sustainable Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The key points of this presentation are: (1) Water footprint and carbon footprint as two sustainability attributes in adaptations to climate and socioeconomic changes, (2) Necessary to evaluate carbon and water footprints relative to constraints in resource capacity, (3) Critical...

  14. Sustainable Exploitation of Natural Resources and National Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Constantinescu

    2015-01-01

    ... to a country’s national security and long term development. The aim of this article is to outline the links and interactions between the availability of natural resources, their sustainable exploitation...

  15. Sustainable development of water resources, water supply and environmental sanitation.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Austin, LM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available , Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2006 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES, WATER SUPPLY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION Operational safety of urine diversion toilets in Durban, South Africa L M Austin, South Africa There are approximately 50 000...

  16. Resource Conservation and a Sustainable Las Vegas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piechota, Thomas C. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-05-15

    This research project developed educational, research, and outreach activities that addressed the challenges of Las Vegas as related to a secure energy supply through conservation, clean and adequate water supply, economic growth and diversification, air quality, and the best use of land, and usable public places. This was part of the UNLV Urban Sustainability Initiative (USI) that responded to a community and state need where a unifying vision of sustainability was developed in a cost-effective manner that promoted formal working partnerships between government, community groups, and industry.

  17. A preview of Ohio's forest resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Barnard; Teresa M. Bowers

    1969-01-01

    The recent Forest Survey reveals that there has been a 933,000-acre increase in commercial forest land, a 32-percent increase in the cubic-foot volume of growing stock, a 30-percent increase in the board-foot volume of sawtimber, and an excess of net growth over removal since the 1952 inventory.

  18. Marketing a national forest: the resource manager's dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard A. Clonts; Jeffrey R. Hibbert

    1995-01-01

    National Forests throughout the United States are facing critical management decisions regarding optimal resource use amidst strong countervailing pressures for access. Visitors to Talladega National Forest in Alabama were surveyed to develop appropriate marketing strategies. Cluster analysis showed that separate homogeneous user groups exist. This information was...

  19. Tracking forest resource condition through Permanent sample plots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents efforts by Tanzania Forestry Research Institute (TAFORI) to establish Permanent Sample Plots (PSPs) as a means of setting baseline information on forest resources condition and eventual assessment of the impact of decentralization policy for Bukombe- Mbogwe Local Authority Forest Reserve ...

  20. Resource management as a key factor for sustainable urban planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agudelo Vera, C.M.; Mels, A.R.; Keesman, K.J.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Due to fast urbanization and increasing living standards, the environmental sustainability of our global society becomes more and more questionable. In this historical review we investigate the role of resources management (RM) and urban planning (UP) and propose ways for integration in sustainable

  1. Local wisdom of Ngata Toro community in utilizing forest resources as a learning source of biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliana, Sriyati, Siti; Sanjaya, Yayan

    2017-08-01

    Indonesian society is a pluralistic society with different cultures and local potencies that exist in each region. Some of local community still adherethe tradition from generation to generation in managing natural resources wisely. The application of the values of local wisdom is necessary to teach back to student to be more respect the culture and local potentials in the region. There are many ways developing student character by exploring local wisdom and implementing them as a learning resources. This study aims at revealing the values of local wisdom Ngata Toro indigenous people of Central Sulawesi Province in managing forest as a source of learning biology. This research was conducted by in-depth interviews, participant non-observation, documentation studies, and field notes. The data were analyzed with triangulation techniques by using a qualitative interaction analysis that is data collection, data reduction, and data display. Ngata Toro local community manage forest by dividing the forest into several zones, those arewana ngkiki, wana, pangale, pahawa pongko, oma, and balingkea accompanied by rules in the management of result-based forest conservation and sustainable utilization. By identifying the purpose of zonation and regulation of the forest, such values as the value of environmental conservation, balance value, sustainable value, and the value of mutual cooperation. These values are implemented as a biological learning resource which derived from the competences standard of analyze the utilization and conservation of the environment.

  2. Optimal conservation resource allocation under variable economic and ecological time discounting rates in boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Pouzols, Federico Montesino; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Kotiaho, Janne S; Strandman, Harri; Moilanen, Atte

    2016-09-15

    Resource allocation to multiple alternative conservation actions is a complex task. A common trade-off occurs between protection of smaller, expensive, high-quality areas versus larger, cheaper, partially degraded areas. We investigate optimal allocation into three actions in boreal forest: current standard forest management rules, setting aside of mature stands, or setting aside of clear-cuts. We first estimated how habitat availability for focal indicator species and economic returns from timber harvesting develop through time as a function of forest type and action chosen. We then developed an optimal resource allocation by accounting for budget size and habitat availability of indicator species in different forest types. We also accounted for the perspective adopted towards sustainability, modeled via temporal preference and economic and ecological time discounting. Controversially, we found that in boreal forest set-aside followed by protection of clear-cuts can become a winning cost-effective strategy when accounting for habitat requirements of multiple species, long planning horizon, and limited budget. It is particularly effective when adopting a long-term sustainability perspective, and accounting for present revenues from timber harvesting. The present analysis assesses the cost-effective conditions to allocate resources into an inexpensive conservation strategy that nevertheless has potential to produce high ecological values in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Natural Resources, Multinational Enterprises and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Daniel; Hobdari, Bersant; Oh, Chang Hoon

    2018-01-01

    to international business. We identify two broad areas: the theory of FDI and the MNE, and the link between MNEs and sustainable development. We survey the relevant literature, much of it from outside IB, and identify a rich menu of research opportunities for IB scholars, many of which are addressed in the papers...

  4. Sustainable operability: keeping complex resources alive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windhouwer, M.; Dimitriadis, A.; Witt, A.; Rehm, G.; Schmidt, T.; Choukri, K.; Burnard, L.

    2008-01-01

    The data contained in a typological database are difficult or impossible to use on their own. Sustainability must include not only preservation of the data, but also of the interface designed to present them—or a reasonable substitute. The Typological Database System project (TDS), which originated

  5. Human resource management for sustainable microfinance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microfinancing in Nigeria has developed from the traditional informal groups through direct government intervention to domination by private sector owned and managed institutions. Despite its long history, the sector has not witnessed the existence of sustainable institutions. This prompted the Obasanjo regime to adopt a ...

  6. What Is a Sustainable Level of Timber Consumption in the EU: Toward Global and EU Benchmarks for Sustainable Forest Use

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meghan O’Brien; Stefan Bringezu

    2017-01-01

    .... The question is, how much timber is available for the EU to sustainably harvest and import, in particular considering sustainable forest management practices, a safe operating space for land-system...

  7. 25 CFR 163.11 - Forest management planning and sustained yield management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forest management planning and sustained yield management... GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.11 Forest management planning and... forest management plan shall be prepared and revised as needed for all Indian forest lands. Such...

  8. human resource management for sustainable microfinance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    2005) to explain in simple terms the human resource ... institutions themselves and ineffective supervision and control of operators by the regulatory authorities. It is therefore ... aspect of the problems of microfinancing in. Nigeria. Specifically, the ...

  9. Forest Maintenance Practices and Wood Energy Alternatives to Increase Uses of Forest Resources in a Local Initiative in Nishiwaga, Iwate, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Hayashi; Daisuke Sawauchi; Daisuke Kunii

    2017-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of wood energy use under underutilized conditions of wood resources: the impact on promotion of forest maintenance practices (FMPs), user costs, and local economies, using the case of a local initiative in Nishiwaga, Iwate, Japan. We conducted two main analyses: resource and economic assessment. For resource assessment, we investigate whether wood supply from FMP residue is sufficient to sustainably satisfy new demand created by a local initiative in Nishiwaga, ...

  10. The implications of new forest tenure reforms and forestry property markets for sustainable forest management and forest certification in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Innes, John L

    2013-11-15

    This study examines issues existing in the southern collective forests in China, particularly prior to the implementation of new forest tenure reforms, such as continued illegal logging and timber theft, inadequate availability of finance and inconsistent forest-related policies. Such problems are believed to be hindering the adoption of sustainable forest management (SFM) and forest certification by forest farmers in China. Two strategies were introduced by the Chinese government with the purpose of addressing these issues, namely forest tenure reforms and their associated supporting mechanism, forestry property markets. Through two case studies in southern China, we investigated the effectiveness of the two strategies as well as their implications for the adoption of SFM and forest certification. The two cases were Yong'an in Fujian province and Tonggu in Jiangxi province. Personal interviews with open-ended questions were conducted with small-scale forest farmers who had already benefited from the two strategies as well as market officers working for the two selected forestry property markets. The study identified eight issues constraining the potential adoption of SFM and certification in China, including limited finance, poorly developed infrastructure and transport systems, insecure forest tenures, inconsistent forest policies, low levels of awareness, illegal forest management practices, lack of local cooperative organizations, and inadequate knowledge and technical transfer. We found that the new forest tenure reforms and forestry property markets had generally fulfilled their original objectives and had the capacity to assist in addressing many of the issues facing forests prior to the reforms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sustainability assessment of regional water resources under the DPSIR framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shikun; Wang, Yubao; Liu, Jing; Cai, Huanjie; Wu, Pute; Geng, Qingling; Xu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Fresh water is a scarce and critical resource in both natural and socioeconomic systems. Increasing populations combined with an increasing demand for water resources have led to water shortages worldwide. Current water management strategies may not be sustainable, and comprehensive action should be taken to minimize the water budget deficit. Sustainable water resources management is essential because it ensures the integration of social, economic, and environmental issues into all stages of water resources management. This paper establishes the indicators to evaluate the sustainability of water utilization based on the Drive-Pressure-Status-Impact-Response (DPSIR) model. Based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method, a comprehensive assessment of changes to the sustainability of the water resource system in the city of Bayannur was conducted using these indicators. The results indicate that there is an increase in the driving force of local water consumption due to changes in society, economic development, and the consumption structure of residents. The pressure on the water system increased, whereas the status of the water resources continued to decrease over the study period due to the increasing drive indicators. The local government adopted a series of response measures to relieve the decreasing water resources and alleviate the negative effects of the increasing driver in demand. The response measures improved the efficiency of water usage to a large extent, but the large-scale expansion in demands brought a rebounding effect, known as ;Jevons paradox; At the same time, the increasing emissions of industrial and agriculture pollutants brought huge pressures to the regional water resources environment, which caused a decrease in the sustainability of regional water resources. Changing medium and short-term factors, such as regional economic pattern, technological levels, and water utilization practices, can contribute to the sustainable utilization of

  12. 75 FR 58348 - Revision of the Shoshone National Forest Land and Resource Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Forest Service Revision of the Shoshone National Forest Land and Resource Management Plan AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Intent to revise the Shoshone National Forest Land and Resource... on revising the 1986 Shoshone National Forest Land and Resource Management Plan have occurred over...

  13. Sustainable water resources management of Prokletije region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana M Stevovic

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is the upgrading of classic economic analyses of optimal concept selection of small hydro development. Techno-economic small hydro system needs to be environmentally friendly and socially acceptable solution. Environmental and social parameters are quantified by Delphi method. They are results of Environmental and Social impact assessment study of the project. Environmental and social parameters are incorporated in the techno-economic analyses for the optimal sustainable concept of small hydro development, by Elektra method, as possible multi attributive operational research model. System of small hydro power plants optimization for Prokletije streams catchments area is case study where the developed model is tested and proofed. Economic cost and total investment of fifteen possible small hydro power plants has been upgraded with quantified environmental and social parameters and analyzed in the function of sustainable economic development of Prokletije region.

  14. Uniting forest and livelihood outcomes? Analyzing external actor interventions in sustainable livelihoods in a community forest management context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Barnes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available External actor interventions in community forest management (CFM attempt to support communities with developing forest institutions and/or improving their livelihoods portfolio. Common pool resource (CPR scholars argue that forest institutions are required to prevent overharvesting of the forest resource stock (appropriation dilemma, and to encourage investment in its maintenance (provision dilemma. The sustainable livelihoods approach (SLA has been widely used to analyse the influence of interventions on rural livelihoods portfolios. As interventions in CFM span the academic divide between CPR and SLA literatures, analysis of such interventions through either a CPR or SLA lens risks overlooking intervention activities, significant outcomes of the intervention, and the interplay between these outcomes. We propose here an analytical framework which combines CPR and SLA insights and ascertain its applicability by analysing interventions in a forest dependent community in Andhra Pradesh, India. We developed multiple indicators to measure the community’s ability to deal with appropriation and provision dilemmas, and their livelihoods portfolio. Using data from forest plots, household questionnaires, focus group meetings and interviews, we analysed the intervention approaches, activities and outcomes. Our results show that a community’s ability to deal with appropriation and provision dilemmas both affects, and is affected by its livelihoods portfolio. These intricate and dynamic interplays strongly influence the direct and indirect outcomes of intervention activities. Incorporating the synergy between the CPR and SLA perspectives in our analytical framework led us to a much more nuanced understanding of intervention approaches, activities and outcomes than would have otherwise been gained from a single perspective framework.

  15. Ranch business planning and resource monitoring for rangeland sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristie A. Maczko; John A. Tanaka; Michael Smith; Cindy Garretson-Weibel; Stanley F. Hamilton; John E. Mitchell; Gene Fults; Charles Stanley; Dick Loper; Larry D. Bryant; J. K. (Rooter) Brite

    2012-01-01

    Aligning a rancher's business plan goals with the capability of the ranch's rangeland resources improves the viability and sustainability of family ranches. Strategically monitoring the condition of soil, water, vegetation, wildlife, livestock production, and economics helps inform business plan goals. Business planning and resource monitoring help keep...

  16. Sustainable Management of Natural Resources for Socio-Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper studies sustainable management of natural resources for socio economic development in Imo state. This it does with the aim to determine the extent to which the exploration and exploitation of natural resources has affected the ecological and environmental conditions of the area. The research also tends to ...

  17. The Carbon Cycle: Teaching Youth about Natural Resource Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, William A.

    2015-01-01

    The carbon cycle was used as a conceptual construct for organizing the curriculum for a youth summer camp on natural resource use and sustainability. Several studies have indicated the importance of non-traditional youth education settings for science education and understanding responsible natural resource use. The Sixth Grade Forestry Tour, a…

  18. Urban Harvest Approach (UHA): Towards sustainable resource management in cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agudelo Vera, C.M.; Mels, A.R.; Keesman, K.J.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Our current cities are highly dependent on their hinterlands or other cities for their essential resources. Moreover, accelerating urbanization, increasing scarcity of resources and climate change force us to re-think and redesign urban systems. A paradigm shift towards sustainable consumption is

  19. Forest biomass and wood waste resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Skog; P. Lebow; D.. Dykstra; P.. Miles; B.J. Stokes; R.D. Perlack; M. Buford; J. Barbour; D. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides estimates of forest biomass and wood waste quantities, as well as roadside costs (i.e., supply curves) for each county in the contiguous United States. Roadside price is the price a buyer pays for wood chips at a roadside in the forest, at a processing mill location in the case of mill residue, or at a landfill for urban wood wastes prior to any...

  20. Human resource management in the construction industry – Sustainability competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renard Yung Jhien Siew

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available While environmental sustainability has been the subject of much debate in the last decade, it was not until recently that attention started to shift towards human resource management as an enabler for sustainability.  Yet, this is still a relatively under researched area.  Much is still unknown about the role of an individual worker in contributing towards sustainable development.  This paper addresses the gap by proposing a framework to measure sustainability competencies of employees within the construction industry sector.  As part of the framework, four proficiency levels together with relevant descriptions are defined for a total of eight sustainability competencies.  Suggested proficiency levels are then mapped to main construction related jobs based on the framework.  An example is also given to illustrate the manner in which competencies should be assessed.  This framework is original and of practical use to construction managers and human resource practitioners.

  1. Legal, Institutional, and Economic Indicators of Forest Conservation and Sustainable Management: Review of Information Available for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul V. Ellefson; Calder M. Hibbard; Michael A. Kilgore; James E. Granskog

    2005-01-01

    This review looks at the Nation’s legal, institutional, and economic capacity to promote forest conservation and sustainable resource management. It focuses on 20 indicators of Criterion Seven of the so-called Montreal Process and involves an extensive search and synthesis of information from a variety of sources. It identifies ways to fill information gaps and improve...

  2. 77 FR 64310 - Shoshone National Forest, WY, Revised Land and Resource Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Shoshone National Forest, WY, Revised Land and Resource Management Plan AGENCY: Forest... the Shoshone National Forest Land Management Plan Revision Draft Environmental Impact Statement. The...

  3. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Geography and Environmental Management. Imo State University, Owerri. Abstract .... The dictionary of Geography (Monkhouse, 1976), defines resource as anything that provides .... observed in New Zealand where about 16 lives were lost in a collapsed mine field and in. Chile where about 33 people were ...

  4. Sustainable Aquatic Resource Management Initiative | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Increasing numbers of stakeholders are recognizing the need for changes in the way aquatic ecosystems are governed. ... for Resource Management and Environmental Studies (CERMES), University of the West Indies, on the application of new thinking (resilience, Complex Adaptive Systems theory) to coastal practices.

  5. Human resource management for sustainable microfinance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper analyzes some of the provisions of the Microfinance Policy, Regulatory and Supervisory Framework for Nigeria (2005) to explain in simple terms the human resource implications of some of the roles stipulated for key stakeholders of the microfinance institutions. The paper discovers that some of the factors that ...

  6. Characterizing Stand Structure and Growth of Natural Beech Forests for the Development of Sustainable Forest Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghalandarayeshi, Shaaban

    forests in northern Iran lack such scientific foundation. The objective of the present study is to assist in this process by characterizing growth and stand structure of oriental beech for a range of growing conditions in northern Iran and to provide useful insight for application in sustainable...

  7. Forest owner representation of forest management and perception of resource efficiency: a structural equation modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Ficko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Underuse of nonindustrial private forests in developed countries has been interpreted mostly as a consequence of the prevailing noncommodity objectives of their owners. Recent empirical studies have indicated a correlation between the harvesting behavior of forest owners and the specific conceptualization of appropriate forest management described as "nonintervention" or "hands-off" management. We aimed to fill the huge gap in knowledge of social representations of forest management in Europe and are the first to be so rigorous in eliciting forest owner representations in Europe. We conducted 3099 telephone interviews with randomly selected forest owners in Slovenia, asking them whether they thought they managed their forest efficiently, what the possible reasons for underuse were, and what they understood by forest management. Building on social representations theory and applying a series of structural equation models, we tested the existence of three latent constructs of forest management and estimated whether and how much these constructs correlated to the perception of resource efficiency. Forest owners conceptualized forest management as a mixture of maintenance and ecosystem-centered and economics-centered management. None of the representations had a strong association with the perception of resource efficiency, nor could it be considered a factor preventing forest owners from cutting more. The underuse of wood resources was mostly because of biophysical constraints in the environment and not a deep-seated philosophical objection to harvesting. The difference between our findings and other empirical studies is primarily explained by historical differences in forestland ownership in different parts of Europe and the United States, the rising number of nonresidential owners, alternative lifestyle, and environmental protectionism, but also as a consequence of our high methodological rigor in testing the relationships between the constructs

  8. Indicators and tools for assessing sustainability impacts of the forest bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaakko Karvonen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable use of renewable resources has become an important issue worldwide in the move towards a less fossil-fuel-intensive future. Mainstream method for fulfilling this aim is to increase the share of renewable energy and materials to substitute fossil fuels and to become fully independent from fossil fuels over the long-term. However, the environmental sustainability of this endeavor has been questioned. In addition, economic and social sustainability issues are also much debated topics in this particular context. Forest resources are often thought to contribute partially to achieving a so-called “carbon-neutral society”. In this review, we discuss sustainability issues of using forest biomass. We present several sustainability indicators for ecological, economic and social dimensions and discuss the issues in applying them in sustainability impact assessments (SIAs. We also present a number of tools and methods previously used in conducting SIAs. We approach our study from the perspective of the Finnish forestry; in addition, various aspects regarding the application of SIAs in a broader context are also presented. One of the key conclusions of the study is that although sufficient data are available to measure many indicators accurately, the impacts may be very difficult to assess (e.g. impact of greenhouse gases on biodiversity for conducting a holistic SIA. Furthermore, some indicators, such as “biodiversity”, are difficult to quantify in the first place. Therefore, a mix of different methods, such as Multi-criteria Assessment, Life-cycle Assessment or Cost-Benefit Analysis, as well as different approaches (e.g. thresholds and strong/weak sustainability are needed in aggregating the results of the impacts. SIAs are important in supporting and improving the acceptability of decision-making, but a certain degree of uncertainty will always have to be tolerated.

  9. An outlook for sustainable forest bioenergy production in the Lake States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Dennis R. [University of Minnesota, Department of Forest Resources, 1530 Cleveland Ave. N, St. Paul, MN 55117 (United States); Skog, Kenneth [Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States); Hellman, Allison; Mace, Terry [State of Wisconsin, Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI (United States); Halvorsen, Kathleen E. [Michigan Technological Institute, Houghton, MI (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The Lake States region of Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan offers significant potential for bioenergy production. We examine the sustainability of regional forest biomass use in the context of existing thermal heating, electricity, and biofuels production, projected resource needs over the next decade including existing forest product market demand, and impacts on price and feasibility. Assuming USD36 per dry tonne at roadside, 4.1 million dry tonnes of forest biomass could be available region-wide. However, less is likely available due to localized environmental and forest cover type constraints, and landowner willingness to harvest timber. Total projected demand of 5.7 million dry tonnes, based on current and announced industry capacity, exceeds estimates of biomass availability, which suggests that anticipated growth in the forest-based bioeconomy may be constrained. Attaining projected demand will likely require a combination of higher cost feedstocks, integration of energy and non-energy uses, and careful management to meet environmental constraints. State distinctions in biomass harvest guidelines and the propensity for third-party forest certification will be critical in providing environmental safeguards. The cumulative effect of policy initiatives on biomass competition are discussed in the context of an emerging Lake States bioeconomy. (author)

  10. Sustainable Forest Management in a Mediterranean region: Social preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Maroto Álvarez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: There is a lack of empirical research that deals with sustainable forest management in Mediterranean regions, among the most vulnerable ecosystems. The main purpose of this work is to define the strategic criteria and objectives for sustainable forest management and aggregate the preferences of stakeholders in a Mediterranean region, using AHP and Goal Programming.Area of study: Valencian Community (Spain.Material and Methods: Firstly, we identified forest stakeholders and structured a decision hierarchy. Then a workshop was carried out to test and validate the proposed criteria and objectives, as well as a survey to determine social preferences. Secondly, another survey was conducted amongst experts to prioritize action plans.Main results: Stakeholders’ preferences gave the greatest importance to the environmental criteria (hydrological regulation and erosion, climate change mitigation and biodiversity with an average weight of 40%.  Social criteria (employment, recreational activities and landscape had a weight of 38% and 22% the economic criteria case (wood, hunting and fishing, livestock, renewable energies, rural tourism and mining. The results showed that new products and services such as tourism, renewable energies, landscape, hydrological regulation and erosion control, biodiversity or climate change mitigation are very relevant objectives. We also prioritized action plans comparing them with the distribution of the administration budget.Research highlights: The environmental and social criteria are much more important than the economic ones in the regional planning of the Mediterranean forest, regardless of the method used to aggregate the social preferences and if the forest is public or private.Key words: Multiple Criteria Decision Making; Goal Programming; Analytic Hierarchy Process; Preferences Aggregation.

  11. Summary estimates of forest resources on unreserved lands of the Ketchikan inventory unit, Tongass National Forest, southeast Alaska, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    2001-01-01

    Summary estimates are presented of forest resource area, timber volume, and growth and mortality of timber on unreserved national forest land in the Ketchikan inventory unit of the Tongass National Forest. Pacific Northwest Research Station, Forest Inventory and Analysis crews collected inventory data from 1995 to 1998. Productive forest land area (timberland) was...

  12. Summary estimates of forest resources on unreserved lands of the Chatham inventory unit, Tongass National Forest, southeast Alaska, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    2001-01-01

    Summary estimates are presented of forest resource area, timber volume, and growth and mortality of timber on unreserved national forest land in the Chatham inventory unit of the Tongass National Forest. Pacific Northwest Research Station, Forest Inventory and Analysis crews collected inventory data from 1995 to 2000. Productive forest land area (timberland) was...

  13. Summary estimates of forest resources on unreserved lands of the Stikine inventory unit, Tongass National Forest, southeast Alaska, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    2001-01-01

    Summary estimates are presented of forest resource area, timber volume, and growth and mortality of timber on unreserved national forest land in the Stikine inventory unit of the Tongass National Forest. Pacific Northwest Research Station, Forest Inventory and Analysis, crews collected inventory data from 1995 to 1998. Productive forest land area (timberland) was...

  14. Towards an ecologically sustainable energy production based on forest biomass - Forest fertilisation with nutrient rich organic waste matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roegaard, Pia-Maria; Aakerback, Nina; Sahlen, Kenneth; Sundell, Markus [Swedish Polytechnic, Vasa (Finland)

    2006-07-15

    The project is a collaboration between Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Forest Sciences in Umeaa, Swedish Polytechnic, Finland in Vaasa and the Finnish Forest Research Institute in Kannus. Today there are pronounced goals within the EU that lead towards an ecologically sustainable community and there is also a global goal to decrease net carbon dioxide emissions. These goals involve among other things efforts to increase the use of renewable biofuel as energy source. This will result in an enlarged demand for biomass for energy production. Therefore, the forest resources in the Nordic countries will be required for energy production to a far greater extent in the future. One way to meet this increased tree biomass demand is to increase forest tree growth through supply of nutrients, of which nitrogen is the most important. Organic nutrient rich waste matter from the society, such as sewage sludge and mink and fox manure compost from fur farms might be used as forest fertilizer. This would result in increased supply of renewable tree biomass, decreased net carbon dioxide emissions, increased forest ecosystem carbon sequestration, decreased methane emissions from sewage sludge landfill and decreased society costs for sludge landfill or incineration. Therefore, the purpose of this project is to develop methods for forest fertilisation with nutrient rich organic waste matter from municipal wastewater, sludge and manure from mink and fox farms. The project may be divided into three main parts. The first part is the chemical composition of the fertiliser with the objective to increase the nitrogen content in sludge-based fertilisers and in compost of mink and fox manure. The second part involves the technique and logistics for forest fertilisation i.e., to develop application equipment that may be integrated in existing forest technical systems. The third part consists of field fertilisation investigations and an environmental impact assessment

  15. 77 FR 260 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 to advise the Secretary of Agriculture on priorities... fish and wildlife agency. An owner of nonindustrial private forest land. Two conservation organization representatives. A representative from an Indian Tribe. A representative from a State Technical Committee...

  16. Assessment of the sustainability of a water resource system expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rødding; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2001-01-01

    for the water resources system, comprising all important water users within the catchment. Measures to meet the growing water demand in the catchment are discussed. Six scenarios including both supply and demand oriented solutions are identified, modelled and compared in tenus of the sustainability criteria....... Based on initial experience the method was modified leading to more credible results. A problem with assessing sustainability using risk criteria is a favouring of supply-oriented solutions, in particular when aspects not directly related to demand and availability of water are excluded.......A sustainability assessment method involving risk criteria related to reliability, resilience and vulnerability, has been applied to quantify the relative sustainability of possible expansions of a water resources system in the KwaZulu-Natal province South Africa. A river basin model has been setup...

  17. Measuring biodiversity and sustainable management in forests and agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Nigel; Baldock, David; Nasi, Robert; Stolton, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Most of the world's biodiversity will continue to exist outside protected areas and there are also managed lands within many protected areas. In the assessment of millennium targets, there is therefore a need for indicators to measure biodiversity and suitability of habitats for biodiversity both across the whole landscape/seascape and in specific managed habitats. The two predominant land uses in many inhabited areas are forestry and agriculture and these are examined. Many national-level criteria and indicator systems already exist that attempt to assess biodiversity in forests and the impacts of forest management, but there is generally less experience in measuring these values in agricultural landscapes. Existing systems are reviewed, both for their usefulness in providing indicators and to assess the extent to which they have been applied. This preliminary gap analysis is used in the development of a set of indicators suitable for measuring progress towards the conservation of biodiversity in managed forests and agriculture. The paper concludes with a draft set of indicators for discussion, with suggestions including proportion of land under sustainable management, amount of produce from such land, area of natural or high quality semi-natural land within landscapes under sustainable management and key indicator species. PMID:15814357

  18. Incorporating permaculture and strategic management for sustainable ecological resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Faiza; Lodhi, Suleman A; Khan, Safdar Shah; Sarwar, Farhana

    2016-09-01

    Utilization of natural assets to the best efficient level without changing natural balance has become a critical issue for researchers as awareness on climate change takes central position in global debate. Conventional sustainable resource management systems are based on neoclassical economic approach that ignores the nature's pattern and therefore are not actually capable of sustainable management of resources. Environmentalists are lately advocating incorporation of Permaculture as holistic approach based on ethics, equitable interaction with eco-systems to obtain sustainability. The paper integrates philosophy of permaculture with strategic management frameworks to develop a pragmatic tool for policy development. The policy design tool augments management tasks by integrating recording of natural assets, monitoring of key performance indicators and integration of sectorial policies in real time, bringing out policy as a truly live document. The tool enhances the edifice process, balancing short term viewpoints and long term development to secure renewability of natural resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sustainability Investigation of Resource-Based Cities in Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengpeng Lu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Improving the sustainability of traditional resource-based cities in China has been a core issue and policy-priority for Chinese government to establish long-term ecological civilization, particularly for northeastern China which is recognized as a typical agglomeration area of resources cities. In this study, we establish a three-layer index system consisting of a comprehensive layer, systemic layer, and variable layer, and including 22 indicators which are grouped into economic, social and environmental subsystems. After that, the TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution method was applied to measure and rank the sustainability of the selected 15 typical resource-based cities in northeast China, and then a GIS (Geographical Information System technique based on the software of SuperMap was applied to map the sustainability in terms of the spatial effects among these cities. The results reveal that a unilateral improvement of a subsystem did not mean an improvement or contribution to whole system. In detail, during the past 15 years from 2000 to 2015, the comprehensive sustainability of resource-based cities in Northeastern China shows a declining trend in the mass, and the sustainability of the economic subsystem shows increase; the sustainability of the social system remains stable, while the environmental subsystem shows decrease. These situations might result from policy interventions during the past 15 years, therefore, promoting the sustainability of resource-based cities needs a historical approach, which should focus on the coordinated development of its economic, social, and environmental subsystems.

  20. Significant increase in ecosystem C can be achieved with sustainable forest management in subtropical plantation forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500-2500 trees ha⁻¹. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir--Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr⁻¹, offsetting 1.9% of China's annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber products

  1. Significant increase in ecosystem C can be achieved with sustainable forest management in subtropical plantation forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Wei

    Full Text Available Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500-2500 trees ha⁻¹. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir--Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr⁻¹, offsetting 1.9% of China's annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production

  2. Sustainable Livelihood Approach For Assessing Household Adoption To Eviction Mau Forest Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadeya Akundabweni Juniour

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that there is a challenge in protecting both natural resources and livelihoods simultaneously. However little is known when considering the number of livelihoods strategies affected by the effect of conservation methods. This paper seeks to investigate the outcome of sustainable livelihood diversification by considering the number of strategies affected by eviction on households neighboring the boundaries of the Mau forest in Kenya. It is well understood that double sustainability is achieved when environmental protection of biodiversity is attained and the livelihood of households affected focuses on a pro-poor strategy at the same time. The study employs the Negative Binomial Regression and ANOVA to estimate the effect of being a victim of eviction on the number of alternative livelihood strategies. The results indicate a significant difference in diversification between households that were victims of eviction from non victims. Significantly evicted households dominantly engage in low income earning agricultural activities. The findings suggest that evicted households diversify but depend on forests and agricultural activities as a coping mechanism towards eviction. This information is important to policy makers in assisting to achieve double sustainability by looking at forest eviction conversation and household livelihood adoption needs.

  3. Consequences of More Intensive Forestry for the Sustainable Management of Forest Soils and Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ring

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Additions of nutrients, faster growing tree varieties, more intense harvest practices, and a changing climate all have the potential to increase forest production in Sweden, thereby mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration and fossil fuel substitution. However, the effects of management strategies for increased biomass production on soil resources and water quality at landscape scales are inadequately understood. Key knowledge gaps also remain regarding the sustainability of shorter rotation periods and more intensive biomass harvests. This includes effects of fertilization on the long-term weathering and supply of base cations and the consequences of changing mineral availability for future forest production. Furthermore, because soils and surface waters are closely connected, management efforts in the terrestrial landscape will potentially have consequences for water quality and the ecology of streams, rivers, and lakes. Here, we review and discuss some of the most pertinent questions related to how increased forest biomass production in Sweden could affect soils and surface waters, and how contemporary forestry goals can be met while minimizing the loss of other ecosystem services. We suggest that the development of management plans to promote the sustainable use of soil resources and water quality, while maximizing biomass production, will require a holistic ecosystem approach that is placed within a broader landscape perspective.

  4. Forest communities in the third millennium: linking research, business, and policy toward a sustainable non-timber forest product sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iain Davidson-Hunt; Luc C. Duchesne; John C., eds. Zasada

    2001-01-01

    Contains a wide variety of papers given at the first international conference on non-timber forest products (NTFP) in cold temperate and boreal forests. Focuses on many facets of NTFPs: economics, society, biology, resource management, business development, and others.

  5. Workshop on Functional Aspects of Regeneration of the Boreal Forest in the Context of Sustainable Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian Messier; John Zasada; David Greene

    1999-01-01

    The three review papers presented in this issue of the Canadian Journal of Forest Research follow a 1-day workshop that was held in Montreal in early January 1997 entitled Functional Aspects of Regeneration In the Boreal Forest in the Context of Sustainable Forest Management. This workshop was held as part of the regeneration working group of Canada...

  6. Forest Science and forest policy in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East: Building Bridges to a sustainable future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Guldin; Niels Elers Koch; John A. Parrotta; Christian Gamborg; Bo J. Thorsen

    2004-01-01

    Making forest policies that help bridge from the current situation to a sustainable future requires sound scientific information. Too often, scientific information is available, yet policy makers do not use it. At a workshop in Denmark, attendees reviewed case studies where forest science influenced forest policies and identified six major reasons for success. Three...

  7. Assessing the US Urban Forest Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Mary H. Noble; Susan M. Sisinni; John F. Dwyer

    2001-01-01

    Urban areas in the conterminous United States doubled in size between 1969 and 1994, and currently cover 3.5 percent of the total land area and contain more than 75 percent of the US population. Urban areas contain approximately 3.8 billion trees with an average tree canopy cover of 27 percent. The extent and variation of urban forests across the 48 states are explored...

  8. Implications Of Fuelwood Demandon Sustainable Forest Conservation Of The Sub-Sahara Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogbon Odunwole

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Forests contribute immensely to economic and social development through formal trade in timber environmental services non- timber forest products safety net spiritual and aesthetic value. Wood is a key source of energy that has been used for millennia for cooking boiling water lighting and heating. Today about 2.5billion people depend on biomass energy for cooking and heating with 87 of this energy being provided by wood. In sub-Saharan African more than 90 of the population relies on wood fire that is firewood and charcoal as their primary source of domestic energy. Over 80 of urban householders and small industries use charcoal and firewood as their source of energy. Despite their numerous importance Africas forest continue to decline rapidly due to increase in agricultural practices into forest lands population growth and urbanization increased poverty high dependence on natural resources for subsistence and income through forest. The study centred on the implications of fuel wood demand on forest conservation in sub-Sahara Africa - a regional focus on Akure metropolitan area Ondo State. The specific objectives of the paper were to identify firewood consumption pattern in Akure metropolitan area and factors responsible for increased fuelwood demand in the study area. The paper adopted direct observation oral interview and 0.05 of the study area as sample size for the study. The study observed lack of adequate alternative poor implementation and enforcement of government regulation on forestry poverty and poor awareness on the menace of forest depletion among others. The paper posited provision of alternative fuel with subsidy regular awareness campaign proper monitoring implementation and enforcement of forest regulations with a view to achieving sustainable conservation.

  9. Mineral resource appraisal of the Salmon National Forest, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rick; Close, Terry; McHugh, Ed

    1998-01-01

    The Salmon National Forest administers 1,776,994 net acres of mountainous terrain located in east-central Idaho. Most of the Forest is in Lemhi County; only a small portion falls within Idaho and Valley Counties. Approximately 426,114 acres of the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness extends into the western part of the Forest and mineral entry is severely restricted. Because of its location within the Salmon River drainage, the Forest also is subject to numerous issues surrounding restoration of anadromous fish runs. Mineral production from the Salmon National Forest began during 1866 when placer gold was discovered in Leesburg Basin. Hardrock mining quickly spread throughout the Forest and many deposits containing a wide range of commodities were discovered and developed. Although early records are sketchy, production is estimated to include 940,000 ounces gold, 654,000 ounces silver, 61.9 million pounds copper, 8.9 million pounds lead, 13.9 million pounds cobalt, 208,000 pounds zinc, and 37,000 tons fluorite mill feed. Mineral resources are large, diverse, and occur in many deposit types including exhalative, stockwork, disseminated, vein, replacement, sedimentary, skarn, breccia pipe, porphyry, and placer. The largest cobalt resource in the United States occurs in the Blackbird Mining District. Other resources include gold, silver, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphate, manganese, iron, fluorite, uranium, thorium, rare earth oxides, and barite.

  10. Waste prevention for sustainable resource and waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, Shin-Ichi; Yano, Junya; Hirai, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    a sustainable society. 3R and resource management policies, including waste prevention, will play a crucial role. Approaches using material/substance flow analyses have become sophisticated enough to describe the fate of resources and/or hazardous substances based on human activity and the environment....... Persistent organic pollutants and hazardous compounds should also be taken into account in the situation where recycling activities are globally widespread for the promotion of a material-cycling society....

  11. Models of sustainable use of alder (Alnus acuminate Kunth hillside area in forest mist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco-Agudo Edilberto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Timber extractions non planned affect negatively in the reduction of forest cover, proper management and planned with minor extractions preserve the natural production allow for longer and sustainable forms a stand to benefit local populations and the same ecosystem. In the basin of Acero Marca has two stands Alnus acuminata that they are extracted continuously. With the purpose of planning the extraction of timber resourses were constructed and evaluated matrix models sustainable harvest of this species on the basis of structures of age. For this, two old structures we worked following a dendrochronological analysis and demographic model of the forestall mass, from making local information by transectos Gentry. According to the demographic model, the potential regression evidences significant differences (p 1 and could be the most appropriate for a planned extraction becoming sustainable over time. The second structure of age proved extremely sensitive to any change. To use the matrix models is not a simple path of going over. In spite of the results, the matrix models joined to ample experience of the observer would be able to present proposals of sustainable handling of the forestal resources.

  12. Multi-dimensional sustainability framework to evaluate forest and wood energy production; Moniulotteinen kestaevyyden arviointikehikko puuenergian tuotannolle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leskinen, P.; Kaehkoenen, T.; Laehtinen, K.; Pasanen, K.; Pitkaenen, S.; Sironen, S.; Myllyviita, T.; Sikanen, L.; Asikainen, A.

    2012-02-15

    The future economy will be more and more dependent on the sustainable use of natural resources, at least if the views on the importance and possibilities of the bioeconomy are realized in practice. The sustainability of the use of natural resources has previously been studied from the perspective of ecological sustainability in particular. Social sustainability has also been examined in several studies. On the other hand, economic sustainability is a prerequisite for developing business activities. As defining and framing of cultural sustainability is challenging, up to now it has only been discussed to some extent, although the importance of cultural sustainability has not been understated. When developing the sustainability of the use of natural resources, all the above-mentioned dimensions of sustainability are present in parallel and they need to be acknowledged in decision-making. The starting point of this study is that natural resources need to be used sustainably and that different options for utilizing natural resources need to be compared from the sustainability perspective, without giving higher priority to any sustainability dimension compared to others beforehand. In this study four production chains based on energy use of forest biomass were examined: (1) local district heating based on forest chips, (2) combined heat and power with wood and peat, (3) wood pellet production from by-products of the wood product industry, and (4) biodiesel production based on wood and peat. The indicators for different sustainability dimensions in the studied production chains were determined through expert interviews and the indicator values were determined through literature review and interviews. The mathematical examination of sustainability was based on multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) so that a computational tool suitable for the calculations was developed. In total, 20 - 40 indicators were defined for each sustainability dimension; out of these, five to

  13. Regulating the Sustainability of Forest Management in the Americas: Cross-Country Comparisons of Forest Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Monges Zalazar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on theoretical underpinnings and an empirical review of forest laws and regulations of selected countries throughout the Americas, we examine key components of natural forest management and how they are addressed in the legal frameworks of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay, and the U.S. We consider forest policy directives in terms of legislative, planning, operational, environmental/ecological, social, and economic aspects and classify them by the type of policy obligation: (1 non-discretionary laws or rules; or (2 discretionary, voluntary directives; and, further, by the type of policy approach: (1 a specific technology or practice required or recommended; (2 a process or system requirement or recommendation; or (3 a performance or outcome based requirement or recommendation. Protection of at-risk species and riparian buffers are required in all countries and include specific prescriptions in most; forest management planning and secure, legal land title or tenancy are commonly required; and mandatory processes to protect soil and water quality are customary. Less common requirements include forest monitoring and social and economic aspects, and, when in place, they are usually voluntary. Implications for improved policies to achieve sustainable forest management (SFM are discussed.

  14. Assessing the resources and mitigation potential of European forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenauer, Hubert; Neumann, Mathias; Moreno, Adam; Running, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Today 40 % of the European land area is covered with forests managed for the provision of ecosystem services including timber production. Forests store large amounts of carbon and are the main resource for the growing demand of a bio-based economy. They are also a major source for biodiversity. Thus a consistent pan-European gridded data set on the state of forest resources is essential for researchers, policy makers and conservationists to study and understand the European forests for the global carbon cycle independent of political boundaries. The purpose of this study is to use existing European data to develop a consistent pan-European data set for Net Primary Production (NPP), live tree carbon per hectare, volume per hectare, mean tree height and mean tree age by integrating remotely sensed satellite data and harmonized NFI data from 13 different European countries. We provide new NPP estimates using the MOD17 algorithm by collating a newly down-scaled daily climate dataset across Europe. By consolidating these two independent productivity data sources (top down satellite versus bottom up terrestrial forest NFI data) for assessing forest resources in Europe, we are able to detect and quantify forest management impacts. We produce a pan-European map for each of the five key variables on a 0.133° grid representing the time period 2000-2010. The results show distinct differences in the carbon storage of European forests due to biophysical limits and regional historic drivers in forest management, which directly affect the carbon mitigation option of European forests. We use this data to assess the state of forest resources across Europe showing that mountainous regions have the highest carbon and volume per hectare values, central Europe has the tallest mean tree heights and Austria and Northern Scandinavia have the oldest mean tree ages. Cross-validation of the data indicates that the error varies by forest characteristic but shows negligible biases for all. We

  15. The spatial and temporal analysis of forest resources and institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweik, Charles M.

    This study addresses a central puzzle facing the Human Dimensions of Global Change research community: How can we understand the influence of environmental policies on human behavior when little or no information is available on the condition of forest resources? This dissertation capitalizes on new research tools, methods and approaches to overcome the "no information about the resource" problem. Specifically, I combine (1) forest mensuration techniques, (2) Global Positioning Systems, (3) Geographic Information Systems (GIS), (4) spatial statistics, (5) remote sensing, and (6) institutional analysis to analyze forest vegetation patterns. I provide explanation of these patterns by considering the incentive structures driving human decision-making and activity and do this through two studies in very different empirical settings. Both studies apply applicable theory related to human behavior and action. Both examine the incentive structures individuals face as they undertake daily activities related to forest resources. The first study, set in East Chitwan, Nepal, identifies spatial patterns in georeferenced forest inventory data and links these to patterns predicted by optimal foraging subject to institutional constraints. The second study compares forest management in one state and one national forest in Indiana, U.S.A. In this effort, I identify spatio-temporal patterns in the forest vegetation captured by a time series of Landsat multispectral images. The combination of natural forest regrowth and property manager actions in response to incentives and constraints explain these patterns. Substantively, both studies identify change in forest resources associated with combinations of the physical, human community and institutional "landscapes" in their regions. In both cases, geographic attributes of institutions (e.g., laws, rules) are found to influence the type and location of human actions. Methodologically, the two studies provide examples of how to control

  16. Natural Resources Management for Sustainable Food Security in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Natural Resources Management for Sustainable Food Security in the Sahel. The agricultural and pastoral production deficit combined with the general rise in food prices has increased food insecurity in the Sahel. In order to guarantee their food security, rural populations adopt agricultural techniques aimed at maximizing ...

  17. Participatory GIS for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Participatory GIS for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources and Food Security in Africa. African countries need adequate data as a basis for formulating and implementing systematic and coherent food security policies and strategies. These countries have national information systems with geospatial information on ...

  18. Characterizing the sustainable problem in an exhaustible resource model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitra, T.; Asheim, G.; Buchholz, W.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    We provide a general condition under which consumption can be sustained indefinitely bounded away from zero in the continuous time Dasgupta-Heal-Solow-Stiglitz model, by letting augmentable capital substitute for a non-renewable resource. The assumptions made on the production function are mild,

  19. Sustainable management of a natural threatened resource: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable management of a natural threatened resource: The case study of Vepris heterophylla (engl.) ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... The quantitative inventory supported this community view: the species had a low density (28.8 individuals/ha) and a weak size class distribution with ...

  20. Sustainability of water resources development in the Komadugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainability of water resources development in the Komadugu Yobe River basin of Nigeria. ... Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology ... Results show that about 2,619 million cubic meters (MCM) of surface water is available annually upstream of Wudil (HS 1), 658 MCM is available between Wudil and ...

  1. Resource management as a key factor for sustainable urban planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Vera, Claudia M; Mels, Adriaan R; Keesman, Karel J; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2011-10-01

    Due to fast urbanization and increasing living standards, the environmental sustainability of our global society becomes more and more questionable. In this historical review we investigate the role of resources management (RM) and urban planning (UP) and propose ways for integration in sustainable development (SD). RM follows the principle of circular causation, and we reflect on to what extent RM has been an element for urban planning. Since the existence of the first settlements, a close relationship between RM, urbanization and technological development has been present. RM followed the demand for urban resources like water, energy, and food. In history, RM has been fostered by innovation and technology developments and has driven population growth and urbanization. Recent massive resource demand, especially in relation to energy and material flows, has altered natural ecosystems and has resulted in environmental degradation. UP has developed separately in response to different questions. UP followed the demand for improved living conditions, often associated to safety, good manufacturing and trading conditions and appropriate sanitation and waste management. In history UP has been a developing research area, especially since the industrial era and the related strong urbanization at the end of the 18th century. UP responded to new emerging problems in urban areas and became increasingly complex. Nowadays, UP has to address many objectives that are often conflicting, including, the urban sustainability. Our current urban un-sustainability is rooted in massive resource consumption and waste production beyond natural limits, and the absence of flows from waste to resources. Therefore, sustainable urban development requires integration of RM into UP. We propose new ways to this integration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The application of forest sustainable management framework and community participation adjacent to Doi Laung wildlife sanctuary, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khonkaen Piyapit

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the data for monitoring forest conditions and forest resource management by a local community adjacent to the Doi Laung Wildlife Sanctuary, Huaimai Sub-district, Song District, Phrae Province, Thailand. This study uses quantitative forest surveys, interviews, discussions, and descriptions of the historical context of public participation in forest management including a detailed assessment of field conditions. The findings of a forest resources inventory show that (1 from the three sampled areas, Doi Laung Wildlife Sanctuary has highest richness, followed by village #16 and #14, and (2 Huaikhon #16 implied the process of framework to maintain a healthy condition and response to community needs with collective management. The conceptual model assessment that links key group indicators and drivers is presented based on previously developed assessment models. The framework focuses on the best way to provide forest management, forest fire prevention, and firefighting as well as monitoring of Check-dam construction and other activities that support the recovery of the forest community. This paper demonstrates the general of an environmental assessment framework to applying organize environmental information to facilitate policy decision making for the sustainable development.

  3. Timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and southern resource areas of California. Forest Service resource bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1997-05-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and Southern Resource Areas of California. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided data from regional inventories of some areas. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Estimates of periodic change of timberland area and timber volume are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  4. Natural Resources and Forest Ecology. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

    This program guide identifies primary considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a natural resources and forest ecology program. Program content is presented first. A curriculum framework specifies the exact course title, course number, levels of instruction, major course content, laboratory activities, special notes, major…

  5. Forest Resource Management Plans--A Landowner-Oriented Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a teaching approach that uses actual landowners and their forest lands to create real world management planning experiences for senior forestry students. Using land currently managed by natural resource professionals allows the instructor to compare student plans with professionally prepared plans. (MDH)

  6. Tree species Diversity in the Department of Forest Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trees, which are important for the sustenance of life and the health of our planet, are disappearing at an alarming rate. Consequently, the need for actions to develop effective strategies to conserve them is receiving considerable attention worldwide. Forest genetic resources are fast becoming depleted in most natural ...

  7. Forest resource projection tools at the European level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelhaas, M.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Verkerk, P.J.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Packalen, Tuula; Sallnäs, O.; Pilli, Roberto; Grassi, J.; Forsell, Nicklas; Frank, S.; Gusti, Mykola; Havlik, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Many countries have developed their own systems for projecting forest resources and wood availability. Although studies using these tools are helpful for developing national policies, they do not provide a consistent assessment for larger regions such as the European Union or Europe as a whole.

  8. Conservation of forest resources by rural farmers in Anambra State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevailing conservation practice in the study area were enforcement of law against bush burning ( X = 4.3), legislation against indiscriminate felling of trees ( X =4.1) and restrictions on some areas ( X =4.0). Various forest resources available in the area included: timber (95%) and Bush meat (98.3%). The roles of local ...

  9. Using Multi Criteria Evaluation in Forest resource conservation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The model structure is aimed at understanding the critical vulnerable factors that threatens the survival of forest resources to deforestation, and draws on data from the Forestry Commission, CERSGIS and the Ghana Statistical Service. This paper incorporates multiple criteria and rank risk factors. In the end spatial maps are ...

  10. ...Toward complete use of eastern Oregon's forest resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney

    1963-01-01

    Eastern Oregon's economy is definitely timber oriented. Few other segments of its economy have contributed as much to its development or promise more for future growth. The greatest opportunity for expansion through use of its forest resources lies in the direction of greater product diversification and product refinement.

  11. Group Inequality and Environmental Sustainability: Insights from Bangladesh and Kenyan Forest Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufar Matin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper contributes to understanding the interactions of environmental and social dimensions of sustainability in situations of acute group inequalities. Using case studies of Mount Elgon in Kenya and Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh it shows the importance of ethnicity based inequalities in defining sustainability outcomes. The paper explores, first, the mechanisms through which dominant ethnic groups are able to exert influence on resource management at the expense of less powerful groups; and second, the consequences of ethnic inequalities for resource uses within ostensibly democratic systems. It combines information from social and political history with remote sensing data to explore causes, processes and patterns behind spatial trends in the study of forests. The paper concludes that efficacy of national democracy and its institutions in achieving positive environmental outcomes depends on the power relations among social groups, particularly in historically contested contexts. Further, environmental and social dimensions of sustainability cannot be treated separately and the issue of equity among groups, ethnic or otherwise, needs to be recognised in policies for sustainable development. The study points out the need for further research into integrating socio-political history with spatial data to better understand social and spatial distribution of policy impacts.

  12. ToSIA-A tool for sustainability impact assessment of forest-wood-chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindner, M.; Suominen, T.; Palosuo, T.; Garcia-Gonzalo, J.; Verweij, P.J.F.M.; Zudin, S.; Päivinen, R.

    2010-01-01

    Within the forest sector, the sustainability concept has evolved from a narrow focus on sustainable wood production to a much broader evaluation of environmental, social, and economic sustainability for whole value chains. A new software tool – ToSIA – has been developed for assessing sustainability

  13. A Sustainable Tourism Paradigm: Opportunities and Limits for Forest Landscape Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Rizio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The promotion of sustainable tourism models has been widely debated; many pages have been devoted to the attempt to provide the subject with a strong theoretical base and coherent structure. This said, it is still the case that, although such frameworks are crucial for the development of appropriate planning and policy instruments, their actual implementation continue to be fraught with difficulties. These problems are exacerbated when sustainable tourism entails development opportunities which require the support of the local community and the management of natural resources which are typically common goods. Under these circumstances, new management structures, which can both satisfy the needs of the local community and ensure the appropriate stewardship of the natural resources, must be created. Management solutions are not always easy to define and often need to be considered within a general framework, based on which individual cases are then formulated. This study analyses the connections between models of sustainable tourism and natural resource management considering the forest landscape case. This relationship is first examined from a theoretical perspective and then within a case study, in order to highlight the dual approach—both general and within a specific context.

  14. Practices and perceptions on water resource sustainability in ecovillages

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura Leite, Flavia Brunale Vilela; Bertolo, Lídia Sanches; Santos, Rozely Ferreira

    2016-08-01

    In many areas of the world, groups of people have attempted to create urban landscapes that follow the principles of environmental sustainability. To this end, groups have devised alternative models, such as ecovillages, where low-impact handling is used and a way of life different from that of large population centers is adopted. Although these villages exist, their efficiency in the conservation of natural resources has not been effectively evaluated. This study evaluated the practices used by two Brazilian ecovillages to conserve water resources to assess whether this new concept of living is indeed successful in meeting sustainability goals. We selected 25 indicators of water sustainability, and using the compromise programming method, we quantified the distance between those landscapes self-referenced as sustainable and an ideal hypothetical scenario. We also interpreted the communities perceptions using the distance between the current situations and the envisioned scenario. We concluded that both ecovillage are far from technically ideal scenario, but the communities have a strong sense of their limitations in implementing water resources conservation. The communities attributed this fact primarily to deficiencies in the shared management.

  15. LEVERAGING SUSTAINABILITY AS BUDGETARY RESOURCES THROUGH FINANCIAL LAW INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONEL BOSTAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Through this approach we intend on actually achieving glances on basic legal norms in the field of taxation - Tax Code and the Fiscal Procedure Code - in terms of their potential to confer sustainability of public financial resources. Therefore, after playing some considerations regarding the sustainability of fiscal resources, highlighting the relationship taxation - development, we stop on the first reunification tax laws in the context of the market economy in Romania (2003, marked by the adoption of the Tax Code - by law - and legislating procedure by governmental tax legislation, then the desire circumscribed debate issues of sustainability of public finances. By placing our focus on massive renewal of the provisions of the tax code, which took place in 2015, and treat problems related to sustainability, prudence, predictability and efficiency - as imperative contained in the Fiscal Responsibility Law. Creating the premises to ensure predictability of the tax system and the continuation of conduct necessary fiscal consolidation sustainable, by rewriting the Tax Code and re-systematization of rules of Fiscal Procedure are prominently presented in this paper (Part Two, to finally reveal the economic impact of rewriting Codes the tax area.

  16. Forest management in India. Local versus state control of forest resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilk, J.

    1997-12-31

    Degradation and substantial losses to India`s forests have prompted a change in existing forestry management strategy. The new approach includes recognition of local participation in forestry management schemes but state control over most decisions is still dominant. Seen in terms of a common property resource system, India`s forests lack many of the factors usually considered inherent to successful management programs. Though India`s latest Forest Act affords more local involvement in forestry management, there continues to be an apparent lack of rights for local management groups over decision-making and the resource itself. Can this system enable the required balance between state and local management of India`s forests? 24 refs, 1 tab

  17. Use and management of the natural resources of the Colombian Amazon rain forest: a biological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Yaneth Landínez Torres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the main features associated with biological use practices and management of forest resources in the Colombian Amazon. The theoretical cut proposal contrasts biological level, the forms of appropriation of forest resources in indigenous and urban contexts depending on the importance that such activity involves the establishment of management strategies biodiversity in Colombia. In this way, provides an integrative perspective that will address conflict situations considering environmental factors not only biological but cultural in various scenarios , to give sustenance to the decisions made and provide a reasonable treatment that enables the implementation of environmental regulation mechanisms in especially in areas such as strategic biological Colombian Amazon. Finally, reflect on the importance of facilitating the functional analysis of the connections and interrelationships of ecosystem components, including human communities, sketching involving both biological and social guidelines for sustainable use of biodiversity.

  18. Sustainability Learning in Natural Resource Use and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. David Tàbara

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We contribute to the normative discussion on sustainability learning and provide a theoretical integrative framework intended to underlie the main components and interrelations of what learning is required for social learning to become sustainability learning. We demonstrate how this framework has been operationalized in a participatory modeling interface to support processes of natural resource integrated assessment and management. The key modeling components of our view are: structure (S, energy and resources (E, information and knowledge (I, social-ecological change (C, and the size, thresholds, and connections of different social-ecological systems. Our approach attempts to overcome many of the cultural dualisms that exist in the way social and ecological systems are perceived and affect many of the most common definitions of sustainability. Our approach also emphasizes the issue of limits within a total social-ecological system and takes a multiscale, agent-based perspective. Sustainability learning is different from social learning insofar as not all of the outcomes of social learning processes necessarily improve what we consider as essential for the long-term sustainability of social-ecological systems, namely, the co-adaptive systemic capacity of agents to anticipate and deal with the unintended, undesired, and irreversible negative effects of development. Hence, the main difference of sustainability learning from social learning is the content of what is learned and the criteria used to assess such content; these are necessarily related to increasing the capacity of agents to manage, in an integrative and organic way, the total social-ecological system of which they form a part. The concept of sustainability learning and the SEIC social-ecological framework can be useful to assess and communicate the effectiveness of multiple agents to halt or reverse the destructive trends affecting the life-support systems upon which all humans

  19. Ecosystemic forest management approach to ensure forest sustainability and socio-economic development of forest dependent communities: Evidence from Southeast Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mbairamadji

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Forests provide a full spectrum of goods and services that contribute to the socio-economic development of forest dependent communities. In tropical countries, the diversity of stakeholders depending on forests with their divergent interests and expectations, make sustainable forest management (SFM difficult to achieve. Although several studies advocate the decentralization of forest management and public participation as important processes for SFM, little has been done to demonstrate how these processes could contribute to forest sustainability and socioeconomic development of forest dependent communities. Moreover, almost no seminal paper has demonstrated how to integrate the ecological, economical and social issues of forest management, which have nevertheless been recognized as essential for sustainable forest management. This study develops an ecosystemic forest management approach based on “Stakeholder-Resource-Usage-Institution” dynamics as an appropriate framework for ensuring forest sustainability and socio-economic development. This approach is supported with lessons drawn on the limitations and pitfalls of the traditional forest management approach in Southeast Cameroon.Les forêts fournissent toute une gamme de biens et de services qui contribuent au développement socio-économique des communautés dépendantes de la forêt. Dans les régions tropicales, la diversité des parties prenantes qui dépendent des forêts rend la gestion durable des forêts difficile du fait d’attentes et d’intérêts divergents. Bien que plusieurs études estiment la décentralisation de la gestion des forêts et la participation publique comme importantes pour la gestion durable des forêts, peu d’initiatives ont été prises pour démontrer la manière dont ces actions pourraient contribuer à la durabilité de la forêt et au développement socio-économique des communautés dépendant de la forêt. En outre, aucun article majeur n’a d

  20. Governance of urban transitions: towards sustainable resource efficient urban infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swilling, Mark; Hajer, Maarten

    2017-12-01

    The transition to sustainable resource efficient cities calls for new governance arrangements. The awareness that the doubling of the global urban population will result in unsustainable levels of demand for natural resources requires changes in the existing socio-technical systems. Domestic material consumption could go up from 40 billion tons in 2010, to 89 billion tons by 2050. While there are a number of socio-technical alternatives that could result in significant improvements in the resource efficiency of urban systems in developed and developing countries (specifically bus-rapid transit, district energy systems and green buildings), we need to rethink the urban governance arrangements to get to this alternative pathway. We note modes of urban governance have changed over the past century as economic and urban development paradigms have shifted at the national and global levels. This time round we identify cities as leading actors in the transition to more sustainable modes of production and consumption as articulated in the Sustainable Development Goals. This has resulted in a surge of urban experimentation across all world regions, both North and South. Building on this empirically observable trend we suggest this can also be seen as a building block of a new urban governance paradigm. An ‘entrepreneurial urban governance’ is proposed that envisages an active and goal-setting role for the state, but in ways that allows broader coalitions of urban ‘agents of change’ to emerge. This entrepreneurial urban governance fosters and promotes experimentation rather than suppressing the myriad of such initiatives across the globe, and connects to global city networks for systemic learning between cities. Experimentation needs to result in a contextually appropriate balance between economic, social, technological and sustainable development. A full and detailed elaboration of the arguments and sources for this article can be found in chapter 6 of Swilling M et

  1. The efficient and sustainable use of environmental resource systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlagh, R.

    1999-02-01

    The two main questions in this study are: (1) how to represent environmental resources within a dynamic, competitive economy, and (2) how to specify environmental policies that guarantee the efficient and sustainable use of these resources, and do not require day-to-day intervention. This study is organized as follows. In Chapter 2, both types of dynamic economies (dynastic and overlapping generations or OLG) are formally specified, and existence of equilibrium is proven. In particular, attention is paid to the consequences of including exhaustible resources with amenity values. It is shown that the equilibrium paths exhibit the specific features of path-dependence. This property implies that present policies have non-diminishing effects on future welfare, and points once more to the urgency of policy interventions. Chapter 3 focuses on efficiency aspects and on the capacity of environmental resources to produce an indefinite stream of valuable services. The chapter also introduces ALICE, an applied model that has a single environmental resource that possesses three specific characteristics: the resource has non-negligible amenity value and is therefore valuable, it is exhaustible, but, if no extraction takes place, the resource produces an indefinite stream of valuable services (the amenity value). An example is provided of strictly conservationist policies that create inefficiencies, and it is shown that efficiency is restored if property rights over the resource are given to the present generation, a policy known as grandfathering. However, it is also shown that, compared to the strictly conservationist policy, grandfathering improves welfare of the present generation while reducing it for future generations. Indeed, an unsustainable equilibrium path cannot be ruled out. Next, parameters are chosen such that the numerical outcomes of the stylized model become comparable with those of existing integrated assessment models that include climate change. The

  2. Timber resource statistics for the north interior resource area of California. Forest Service research bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the North Interior Resource Area of California, which includes Lassen, Modoc, Shasta, Siskiyou, and Trinity Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided data from regional inventories of the Lassen, Mendocino, Modoc, Six Rivers, Plumas, Shasta-Trinity, Rogue River, and Toiyabe National Forests. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality , and harvest. Estimates of periodic change of timberland area and timber volume are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  3. 76 FR 41195 - National Forests In Mississippi, Tombigbee and Holly Springs Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Forest Resources, Tulley Auditorium, Thompson Hall, 775 Stone Blvd., Mississippi State, MS, 39762-9690... Forest Service National Forests In Mississippi, Tombigbee and Holly Springs Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Tombigbee and Holly Springs...

  4. 76 FR 41196 - National Forests in Mississippi, Tombigbee and Holly Springs Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Forest Resources, Tulley Auditorium, Thompson Hall, 775 Stone Blvd., Mississippi State, MS 39762-9690... Forest Service National Forests in Mississippi, Tombigbee and Holly Springs Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Tombigbee and Holly Springs...

  5. 76 FR 54196 - Public Meeting, Cherokee National Forest Secure Rural Schools Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Forest Service Public Meeting, Cherokee National Forest Secure Rural Schools Resource Advisory Committee... Schools and Community Self Determination Act of 2000 (Pub. L. 106-393), [as reauthorized as part of Pub. L..., Forest Service, Cherokee National Forest Secure Rural Schools Resource Advisory Committee will meet as...

  6. Why do forest products become less available?A pan-tropical comparison of drivers of forest-resource degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans-Neumann, Kathleen; Gerstner, Katharina; Geijzendorffer, Ilse R.; Herold, Martin; Seppelt, Ralf; Wunder, Sven

    2016-12-01

    Forest products provide an important source of income and wellbeing for rural smallholder communities across the tropics. Although tropical forest products frequently become over-exploited, only few studies explicitly address the dynamics of degradation in response to socio-economic drivers. Our study addresses this gap by analyzing the factors driving changes in tropical forest products in the perception of rural smallholder communities. Using the poverty and environment network global dataset, we studied recently perceived trends of forest product availability considering firewood, charcoal, timber, food, medicine, forage and other forest products. We looked at a pan-tropical sample of 233 villages with forest access. Our results show that 90% of the villages experienced declining availability of forest resources over the last five years according to the informants. Timber and fuelwood together with forest foods were featured as the most strongly affected, though with marked differences across continents. In contrast, availability of at least one main forest product was perceived to increase in only 39% of the villages. Furthermore, the growing local use of forest resources is seen as the main culprit for the decline. In villages with both growing forest resource use and immigration—vividly illustrating demographic pressures—the strongest forest resources degradation was observed. Conversely, villages with little or no population growth and a decreased use of forest resources were most likely to see significant forest-resource increases. Further, villages are less likely to perceive resource declines when local communities own a significant share of forest area. Our results thus suggest that perceived resource declines have only exceptionally triggered adaptations in local resource-use and management patterns that would effectively deal with scarcity. Hence, at the margin this supports neo-Malthusian over neo-Boserupian explanations of local resource

  7. Multi-Stakeholder Collaboration in Russian and Swedish Model Forest Initiatives: Adaptive Governance Toward Sustainable Forest Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Elbakidze

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Building the adaptive capacity of interlinked social and ecological systems is assumed to improve implementation of sustainable forest management (SFM policies. One mechanism is collaborative learning by continuous evaluation, communication, and transdisciplinary knowledge production. The Model Forest (MF concept, developed in Canada, is intended to encourage all dimensions of sustainable development through collaboration among stakeholders of forest resources in a geographical area. Because the MF approach encompasses both social and ecological systems, it can be seen as a process aimed at improving adaptive capacity to deal with uncertainty and change. We analyzed multi-stakeholder approaches used in four MF initiatives representing social-ecological systems with different governance legacies and economic histories in the northwest of the Russian Federation (Komi MF and Pskov MF and in Sweden (Vilhelmina MF and the Foundation Säfsen Forests in the Bergslagen region. To describe the motivations behind development of the initiative and the governance systems, we used qualitative open-ended interviews and analyzed reports and official documents. The initial driving forces for establishing new local governance arrangements were different in all four cases. All MFs were characterized by multi-level and multi-sector collaboration. However, the distribution of power among stakeholders ranged from clearly top down in the Russian Federation to largely bottom up in Sweden. All MF initiatives shared three main challenges: (a to develop governance arrangements that include representative actors and stakeholders, (b to combine top-down and bottom-up approaches to governance, and (c to coordinate different sectors' modes of landscape governance. We conclude that, in principle, the MF concept is a promising approach to multi-stakeholder collaboration. However, to understand the local and regional dimensions of sustainability, and the level of adaptability

  8. The sustainable utilization of human resources in global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2010-01-01

    This empirical paper investigates the challenges global product development faces in regard to a sustainable utilization of resources through case studies and interviews in six Danish multinational corporations. Findings revealed 3 key challenges, which relates to increased rework in product...... development and production, overlapping work and a lack of utilization of knowledge and information at the supplier or subsidiary. The authors suggest the use of strategic simulation in order to gain greater transparency in the global network and thus utilize resources better. Strategic simulation...

  9. Waste prevention for sustainable resource and waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, Shin-Ichi; Yano, Junya; Hirai, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    a sustainable society. 3R and resource management policies, including waste prevention, will play a crucial role. Approaches using material/substance flow analyses have become sophisticated enough to describe the fate of resources and/or hazardous substances based on human activity and the environment......, including the final sink. Life-cycle assessment has also been developed to evaluate waste prevention activities. Regarding target products for waste prevention, food loss is one of the waste fractions with the highest priority because its countermeasures have significant upstream and downstream effects...

  10. How to access and exploit natural resources sustainably: petroleum biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Angela; Andrade, Luiza; Velenturf, Anne; Christgen, Beate; Gray, Neil D; Head, Ian M

    2017-09-01

    As we transition from fossil fuel reliance to a new energy future, innovative microbial biotechnologies may offer new routes to maximize recovery from conventional and unconventional energy assets; as well as contributing to reduced emission pathways and new technologies for carbon capture and utilization. Here we discuss the role of microbiology in petroleum biotechnologies in relation to addressing UN Sustainable Development Goal 12 (ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns), with a focus on microbially-mediated energy recovery from unconventionals (heavy oil to methane), shale gas and fracking, bioelectrochemical systems for the production of electricity from fossil fuel resources, and innovations in synthetic biology. Furthermore, using wastes to support a more sustainable approach to fossil fuel extraction processes is considered as we undertake the move towards a more circular global economy. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Engineering solutions for sustainability materials and resources II

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Brajendra; Anderson, Dayan; Sarver, Emily; Neelameggham, Neale

    2016-01-01

    With impending and burgeoning societal issues affecting both developed and emerging nations, the global engineering community has a responsibility and an opportunity to truly make a difference and contribute. The papers in this collection address what materials and resources are integral to meeting basic societal sustainability needs in critical areas of energy, transportation, housing, and recycling. Contributions focus on the engineering answers for cost-effective, sustainable pathways; the strategies for effective use of engineering solutions; and the role of the global engineering community. Authors share perspectives on the major engineering challenges that face our world today; identify, discuss, and prioritize engineering solution needs; and establish how these fit into developing global-demand pressures for materials and human resources.

  12. Multi-Sensor Monitoring And Assessment Of Forest Resources: Supporting A Forest Observation System For Seiberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttich, Christian; Eberle, Jonas; Schmullius, Christiane; Bartalev, Sergey; Emelyanov, Kirill; Korets, Mikhail; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

    2013-12-01

    Above ground biomass - one of the considered Essential Biodiversity and Climate Variables (ECV, EBV) - is an important structural parameter describing the state and dynamics of the Boreal zone. More than 50 % of the Russian forest inventory has been updated more than 25 years ago. The consequence is that most of the existing forest inventory is obsolete. Moreover, human and environmental forest disturbances continuously affect changing forest cover and biomass levels. The magnitude and extent of ongoing environmental pressures (e.g. forest fragmentation and the impact of global climate change) and the loss rates of particular habitat types is not known so far. The ZAPÁS project and the Siberian Earth System Science Cluster (SIB- ESS-C) are aiming to provide standardized and validated forest resource geo-information products. In- situ and multi-agency satellite data are analysed in the framework of the EU-Russia Space Dialogue. At local scales biomass and forest cover change maps are generated and validated with up-to-date forest inventory data. At regional scales a synergy map of land cover and biomass information is developed to be used to improve a full terrestrial carbon accounting for Central Siberia.

  13. Translating Sustainable Forest Management from the global to the domestic sphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattei Faggin, Joana; Behagel, J.H.

    2017-01-01

    In the context of fragmented global forest governance, Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) has gained force as a strategy to improve forest conditions and livelihood outcomes. Accordingly, SFM related ideas and norms are translated across different environmental domains, levels of governance, and

  14. Strategic Planning for Sustainable Forests: The Plan Drives the Budgets Which Drive Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Brouha; Elisabeth Grinspoon

    2006-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service is among the pioneers incorporating the Montreal Process criteria and indicators into its programs. Among its initial efforts is the adaptation of a criteria and indicators framework for its national strategic plan, which is the primary instrument for setting the course to achieve the Forest Service mission of sustaining the nation’s forests and...

  15. The Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project: inception, objectives, and progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared Verner; Mark T. Smith

    2002-01-01

    The Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project, a formal administrative study involving extensive and intensive collaboration between Forest Service managers and researchers, is a response to changes in the agency’s orientation in favor of ecosystem approaches and to recent concern over issues associated with maintenance of late successional forest attributes...

  16. Natural Resources Management for Sustainable Food Security in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Natural Resources Management for Sustainable Food Security in the Sahel. The agricultural and ... agricoles au Sahel. Au cours des vingt dernières années, plusieurs innovations visant à améliorer les rendements des cultures vivrières ont été développées dans les centres de recherche agronomique d'Afrique de l.

  17. Can Joint Forest Management Programme Sustain Rural Life: A Livelihood Analysis from Community-based Forest Management Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Nimai

    2009-01-01

    This empirical study assesses the impact of community-based initiative under gender sensitive joint forest management (JFM) programme on sustainable rural livelihoods (SRL) across the socio-economic groups of forest fringe community based on JFM and non-JFM villages. The study suggests that strong livelihood sustainability criteria within the SRL framework meets for all marginal landholding and landless categories of households, which live below poverty line and that are almost dependent on f...

  18. Allochthonous vs. autochthonous energy resources for aquatic insects in cloud forest streams, Veracruz, Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pavel García; Rodolfo Novelo-Gutiérrez; Gabriela Vázquez; Alonso Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Background. Recent tropical studies question the assumption that forested headwater streams rely on allochthonous resources as their main energy source, suggesting that autochthonous resources are more important. Goals...

  19. Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.

    2013-12-01

    As the anthropogenic footprint increases on Earth, the wise use, maintenance, and protection of freshwater resources will be a key element in the sustainability of development. Borne from efforts to promote sustainable development of water resources is Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which promotes efficiency of water resources, equity in water allocation across different social and economic groups, and environmental sustainability. Methodologies supporting IWRM implementation have largely focused on the overall process, but have had limited attention on the evaluation methods for ecologic, economic, and social conditions (the sustainability criterion). Thus, assessment frameworks are needed to support the analysis of water resources and evaluation of sustainable solutions in the IWRM process. To address this need, the River Basin Analysis Framework (RBAF) provides a structure for understanding water related issues and testing the sustainability of proposed solutions in river basins. The RBAF merges three approaches: the UN GEO 4 DPSIR approach, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach, and the principles of sustainable development. Merging these approaches enables users to understand the spatiotemporal interactions between the hydrologic and ecologic systems, evaluate the impacts of disturbances (drivers, pressures) on the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) and constituents of human well-being (HWB), and identify and employ analytical methods and indicators in the assessments. The RBAF is comprised of a conceptual component (RBAF-C) and an analytical component (RBAF-A). For each disturbance type, the RBAF-C shows the potential directional change in the hydrologic cycle (peak flows, seasonality, etc.), EGS (drinking water supply, water purification, recreational opportunities, etc.), and HWB (safety, health, access to a basic materials), thus allowing users insight into potential impacts as well as providing technical guidance on the methods and

  20. A Forest Tent Caterpillar Outbreak Increased Resource Levels and Seedling Growth in a Northern Hardwood Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danaë M A Rozendaal

    Full Text Available In closed-canopy forests, gap formation and closure are thought to be major drivers of forest dynamics. Crown defoliation by insects, however, may also influence understory resource levels and thus forest dynamics. We evaluate the effect of a forest tent caterpillar outbreak on understory light availability, soil nutrient levels and tree seedling height growth in six sites with contrasting levels of canopy defoliation in a hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. We compared resource levels and seedling growth of six hardwood species before, during and in the three years after the outbreak (2008-2012. Canopy openness increased strongly during the forest tent caterpillar outbreak in the four moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites. Total inorganic soil nitrogen concentrations increased in response to the outbreak in moderately and severely defoliated sites. The increase in total inorganic soil nitrogen was driven by a strong increase in soil nitrate, and tended to become stronger with increasing site defoliation. Seedling height growth increased for all species in the moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites, either during the outbreak year or in the year after the outbreak. Growth increases did not become stronger with increasing site defoliation, but were strongest in a moderately defoliated site with high soil nutrient levels. Growth increases tended to be strongest for the shade intolerant species Fraxinus americana and Prunus serotina, and the shade tolerant species Ostrya virginiana. The strong growth response of F. americana and P. serotina suggests that recurring forest tent caterpillar outbreaks may facilitate the persistence of shade intolerant species in the understory in the absence of canopy gaps. Overall, our results suggest that recurrent canopy defoliation resulting from cyclical forest insect outbreaks may be an additional driver of dynamics in

  1. Artemisia: Active and Interactive Monitoring of the Forests in Protected Areas Aimed at the Sustainable Management of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia Cirillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To pursue the usage of forests resources in the processes of economic and social development it is determining that the principles of natural heritage protection join in a concept of progress, based on evolution and technological innovation; the realization of innovative investigation and representation tools turns out to be useful to ease the integration of forests’ resources in shared development processes aimed at enhancing the cooperation of local actors, and to ease the territory’s sustainable growth and the development of the natural heritage. The integrated management of the actions aimed at protecting and easing the ecologic and recreative functioning of forests, which are increasingly exposed to pressures caused by several catastrophic factors, requires the tuning of modelling and active monitoring systems of the forests based on social networks and volunteering for the processes of data updating.

  2. 75 FR 81561 - Huron-Manistee National Forests, Michigan, Land and Resource Management Plan Supplemental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... Forest Service Huron-Manistee National Forests, Michigan, Land and Resource Management Plan Supplemental... Environmental Impact Statement prepared for the Huron-Manistee Land and Resource Management Plan Revision of... Management'', then ``Forest Land and Resource Management Plan''. Individuals who use telecommunication...

  3. Global climate change mitigation and sustainable forest management--The challenge of monitoring and verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, Willy R.

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, sustainable forest management is discussed within the historical and theoretical framework of the sustainable development debate. The various criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management put forth by different institutions are critically explored. Specific types of climate change mitigation policies/projects in the forest sector are identified and examined in the light of the general criteria for sustainable forest management. Areas of compatibility and contradiction between the climate mitigation objectives and the minimum criteria for sustainable forest management are identified and discussed. Emphasis is put on the problems of monitoring and verifying carbon benefits associated with such projects given their impacts on pre-existing policy objectives on sustainable forest management. The implications of such policy interactions on assignment of carbon credits from forest projects under Joint Implementation/Activities Implemented Jointly initiatives are discussed. The paper concludes that a comprehensive monitoring and verification regime must include an impact assessment on the criteria covered under other agreements such as the Biodiversity and/or Desertification Conventions. The actual carbon credit assigned to a specific project should at least take into account the negative impacts on the criteria for sustainable forest management. The value of the impacts and/or the procedure to evaluate them need to be established by interested parties such as the Councils of the respective Conventions.

  4. Remote sensing applications to support sustainable natural resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Charles Kenneth

    The original design of this dissertation project was relatively simple and straightforward. It was intended to produce one single, dynamic, classification and mapping system for existing vegetation that could rely on commonly available inventory and remote sensing data. This classification and mapping system was intended to provide the analytical basis for resource planning and management. The problems encountered during the first phase of the original design transformed this project into an extensive analysis of the nature of these problems and a decade-long remote sensing applications development endeavor. What evolved from this applications development process is a portion of what has become a "system of systems" to inform and support natural resource management. This dissertation presents the progression of work that sequentially developed a suite of remote sensing applications designed to address different aspects of the problems encountered with the original project. These remote sensing applications feature different resource issues, and resource components and are presented in separate chapters. Chapter one provides an introduction and description of the project evolution and chapter six provides a summary of the work and concluding discussion. Chapters two through five describe remote sensing applications that represent related, yet independent studies that are presented essentially as previously published. Chapter two evaluates different approaches to classifying and mapping fire severity using multi-temporal Landsat TM data. The recommended method currently represents the analytical basis for fire severity data produced by the USDA Forest Service and the US Geological Survey. Chapter three also uses multi-temporal Landsat data and compares quantitative, remote-sensing-based change detection methods for forest management related canopy change. The recommended method has been widely applied for a variety of forest health and disaster response applications

  5. Resource Demand Growth and Sustainability Due to Increased World Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Balatsky

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at continuing the discussion on sustainability and attempts to forecast the impossibility of the expanding consumption worldwide due to the planet’s limited resources. As the population of China, India and other developing countries continue to increase, they would also require more natural and financial resources to sustain their growth. We coarsely estimate the volumes of these resources (energy, food, freshwater and the gross domestic product (GDP that would need to be achieved to bring the population of India and China to the current levels of consumption in the United States. We also provide estimations for potentially needed immediate growth of the world resource consumption to meet this equality requirement. Given the tight historical correlation between GDP and energy consumption, the needed increase of GDP per capita in the developing world to the levels of the U.S. would deplete explored fossil fuel reserves in less than two decades. These estimates predict that the world economy would need to find a development model where growth would be achieved without heavy dependence on fossil fuels.

  6. Integrated water resources modelling for assessing sustainable water governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoulikaris, Charalampos; Ganoulis, Jacques; Tsoukalas, Ioannis; Makropoulos, Christos; Gkatzogianni, Eleni; Michas, Spyros

    2015-04-01

    Climatic variations and resulting future uncertainties, increasing anthropogenic pressures, changes in political boundaries, ineffective or dysfunctional governance of natural resources and environmental degradation are some of the most fundamental challenges with which worldwide initiatives fostering the "think globally, act locally" concept are concerned. Different initiatives target the protection of the environment through sustainable development; Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Transboundary Water Resources Management (TWRM) in the case of internationally shared waters are frameworks that have gained wide political acceptance at international level and form part of water resources management planning and implementation on a global scale. Both concepts contribute in promoting economic efficiency, social equity and environmental sustainability. Inspired by these holistic management approaches, the present work describes an effort that uses integrated water resources modelling for the development of an integrated, coherent and flexible water governance tool. This work in which a sequence of computer based models and tools are linked together, aims at the evaluation of the sustainable operation of projects generating renewable energy from water as well as the sustainability of agricultural demands and environmental security in terms of environmental flow under various climatic and operational conditions. More specifically, catchment hydrological modelling is coupled with dams' simulation models and thereafter with models dedicated to water resources management and planning,while the bridging of models is conducted through geographic information systems and custom programming tools. For the case of Mesta/Nestos river basin different priority rules in the dams' operational schedule (e.g. priority given to power production as opposed to irrigation needs and vice versa), as well as different irrigation demands, e.g. current water demands as opposed to

  7. Conservation of forest resources by rural farmers in Anambra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. MADUKWE

    Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) http://www.ajol.info/index.php/jae. 177 http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jae.v18i2.18. Conservation of forest resources by rural farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria. Onwubuya E.A*, Ogbonna O.I and Ezeobiora O.C. Department of Agricultural Extension,. Faculty of Agriculture, University of ...

  8. Strategies for sustainable management of renewable resources during environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindkvist, Emilie; Ekeberg, Örjan; Norberg, Jon

    2017-03-15

    As a consequence of global environmental change, management strategies that can deal with unexpected change in resource dynamics are becoming increasingly important. In this paper we undertake a novel approach to studying resource growth problems using a computational form of adaptive management to find optimal strategies for prevalent natural resource management dilemmas. We scrutinize adaptive management, or learning-by-doing, to better understand how to simultaneously manage and learn about a system when its dynamics are unknown. We study important trade-offs in decision-making with respect to choosing optimal actions (harvest efforts) for sustainable management during change. This is operationalized through an artificially intelligent model where we analyze how different trends and fluctuations in growth rates of a renewable resource affect the performance of different management strategies. Our results show that the optimal strategy for managing resources with declining growth is capable of managing resources with fluctuating or increasing growth at a negligible cost, creating in a management strategy that is both efficient and robust towards future unknown changes. To obtain this strategy, adaptive management should strive for: high learning rates to new knowledge, high valuation of future outcomes and modest exploration around what is perceived as the optimal action. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Learning for sustainability: participatory resource management in Cambodian fishing villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschke, Melissa; Sinclair, A John

    2009-01-01

    Considerable attention is now being given to the role and importance of education and learning implications of participatory resource and environmental governance. The contention is that such learning has the potential to transform behaviour, and in the case of resource management, may help change current patterns in resource use towards a more sustainable social-ecological system. Our purpose is to establish the opportunities for learning afforded to those participating in local level resource management committees in two Cambodian fishing communities and consider the learning outcomes from such opportunities. Our approach was qualitative and used a case study design. The findings establish a wide range of committee resource management activities that resulted in both instrumental (e.g., learning about administrative procedures) and communicative (e.g., insights into the need to conserve mangroves) learning. It was revealed that such learning can lead to changes in behaviour at the community level (e.g., managing local waste). Our findings also indicated a number of motivators and enablers of learning such as opportunities for dialogue, leadership and the presence of declining resources.

  10. Intellectual property management and commercialisation of forest genetic resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Verryn, SD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available and commercialisation of forest genetic resources. S.D.Verryn1 1Natural Resources and the Environment, Pretoria, South Africa The CSIR Tree Improvement Research Group has an approximately 50 year old eucalypt and pine species breeding research program.... The CSIR has also monitored the genetic gains of various clones and seed sources, and has, for instance, recorded an increase of approximately 15% per generation in pure species breeding and much larger increases in clonal hybrid releases (e.g. 30...

  11. COLLABORATIVE (PARTNERSHIP AS A FORM OF "RESTORATIVE JUSTICE" IN CONFLICT RESOLUTION FOREST RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Surono

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Conflict management of forest resources among communities around forest areas often occur in various regions, particularly in some national parks and forest management as Perhutani in Java and Inhutani outside Java. These conflicts indicate the forest resources management has not effectively made a positive impact in improving communities welfare around forest areas. Although the provisions of Article 3 in conjunction with Article 68 of Law No. 41 of 1999 on Forestry, provide the basis for communities around the forest rights of forest areas, but in reality there are still people around forest areas that do not enjoy such rights and it is this which often leads to conflicts in the management of forest resources. In the event of conflict, the solution can be done collaboratively (partnership which is one form of restorative justice is an alternative dispute resolution (ADR. Keywords: collaborative, conflict, restorative justice, forest resources.

  12. Effect of Corrupt Behavior of the Forestry Bureaucrats on the Forest Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsono Soedomo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 This article show that corrupt bureaucrats do not always result in a negative effect on the forest sustainability. Even under a certain condition, a corrupt behavior may result in a positive effect on the forest sustainability. An inappropriate policy is more important a cause of the forest sustainability than a corrupt behavior. Therefore, fixing this structural mistake needs to be prioritized in combating the forest destruction, for this structural mistake is the real primary cause of the forest destruction in Indonesia. Fixing this structural mistake is much more effective in combating the forest destruction than finding honest bureaucrats. Keywords:     Birokrat, Distortionary, Nondistortionary, Kelestarian, Korup. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  13. Monitoring and information reporting for sustainable forest management: a regional comparison of forestry stakeholder perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Gordon M; Innes, John L; Kozak, Robert A

    2007-09-01

    Since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) [1992, Agenda 21: programme of action for sustainable development. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), 3-14 June 1992. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 294pp.], the management of information has become central to the management of forest resources. In the cases of North America and Europe, similar issues have been challenging policy makers as they determine the information suitable for monitoring progress towards sustainable forest management (SFM). Using an 'online' survey, this research explored multiple stakeholder perspectives on monitoring and information reporting for SFM in different jurisdictions. The research was based on the premise that an analysis of the variation in stakeholder observations across a range of SFM 'issue areas' could provide valuable insight into the perceived need for SFM-related monitoring and information reporting in the regions of Europe, Canada and the USA. Despite the traditional limitations associated with exploratory survey research, the results indicate a demand for more information on SFM-related issues. The results also highlight the degree to which the perceptions of a sample of stakeholders can differ between Europe, USA and Canada. While these results cannot be generalized beyond the present study, they do suggest that further studies are needed to understand stakeholder perspectives on forestry-related monitoring and information reporting in different jurisdictions.

  14. Hydrological principles for sustainable management of forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irena F. Creed; Gabor Z. Sass; Jim M. Buttle; Julia A. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Forested landscapes around the world are changing as a result of human activities, including forest management, fire suppression, mountaintop mining, conversion of natural forests to plantations, and climate change (Brockerhoff et al., 2008; Cyr et al., 2009; Johnston et al., 2010; Miller et al., 2009; Kelly et al., 2010; Palmer et al., 2010). Forests...

  15. Planning and implementing forest operations to achieve sustainable forests: Proceedings of papers presented at the joint meeting of the Council on Forest Engineering and International Union of Forest Research Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Blinn; Michael A. Thompson

    1996-01-01

    Contains a variety of papers presented at the joint meeting of the Council on Forest Engineering and International Union of Forest Research Organizations Subject Group S3.04 and that support the meeting theme "Planning and Implementing Forest Operations to Achieve Sustainable Forests."

  16. THE IMPORTANCE OF FOREST AND LANDSCAPE RESOURCE FOR COMMUNITY AROUND GUNUNG LUMUT PROTECTED FOREST, EAST KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murniati Murniati

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The forest of Gunung  Lumut  in Pasir District,  East Kalimantan was designated  for a protection  forest in 1983. It is surrounded  by 15 villages  and one settlement  lies inside it. Communities in those villages are dependent upon the landscape and forest resources mainly for non timber forest products. This study was focused on the perception of the communities on the importance of the landscape and forests. The study was conducted in two settlements, located  in and outside  (near  the protection  forest,  namely  Rantau  Layung  Village  and Mului  Sub-Village.  Data collection  was undertaken through  general field observations, key- informant personal  interviews and focus group  discussions.  In Rantau  Layung, the most important land  type  was rice  field, whereas  in Mului  was forest.  There  were  13 and 14 use categories  of landscape  resources  in Rantau  Layung  and Mului,  respectively, such as food, medicine,  constructions and source of income.  People in Rantau  Layung  and Mului ranked  plants  to be more  important than  animals.  People  also considered  products  from wild  resources  to be more  important than  those from cultivated  and purchased  sources. Communities living  in both  settlements  considered  the future  uses of forests to be the most important as compared to those of the present and past. They  suggested that sungkai (Peronema canescens and telien (Eusideroxylon zwageri to be the most important plants while payau  (Cervus unicolor and telaus (Muntiacus muntjak to be the most important animals. People used the wildlife mainly for food and source of income. They also identified important and potential  resources for economic  development in the area, i.e. ecotourism  and hydro- power for electric  generator.

  17. Research gap analysis for application of biotechnology to sustaining US forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Whetten; R. Kellison

    2010-01-01

    The expanding human population of the world is placing greater demand on forest resources, both natural forests and plantations. Both types of forests are being adversely affected in North America as well as in other parts of the world, due to the globalization of trade and to climate change and associated changes in pest and disease incidence. Biotechnology may help...

  18. Sustainability analysis of groundwater resources in a coastal aquifer, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Rich, Kendall; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2008-03-01

    Fort Morgan Peninsula is an attached portion of a dynamic barrier complex in the northern Gulf of Mexico and is a large tourist area that brings in a significant amount of revenue for Alabama. Many of the hotels and tourist attractions depend on the groundwater as their water supply. The over-withdrawal of groundwater and saltwater intrustion will have a negative impact on the ecology, tourism and economy if groundwater resources are not properly monitored and managed. In this study a calibrated groundwater flow model was used to analyze the sustainability of groundwater resources at Fort Morgan Peninsula. Detailed flow budgets were prepared to check the various components of inflow and outflow under different water use and climatic conditions. The results indicated the locations where groundwater was over-pumped and subjected to saltwater intrusion, or will be subjected to saltwater intrusion under a range of projected water use and climatic conditions.

  19. Natural resource workshop: Public/private partnership for sustainable use of natural resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    As part of an effort to shape Federal policy for environmentally sound, sustainable economic development, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy sponsored a workshop in Boise, Idaho on February 1--2, 1995. The Boise Idaho workshop focused on the sustainable use of natural resources, a topic of considerable interest in Idaho. The workshop gave representatives from industry, academia, research, the public, and local and state government an opportunity to provide input to lawmakers and policymakers for establishing a National Environmental Technology Strategy to be issued by Earth Day, 1995.

  20. Forest Adaptation Resources: climate change tools and approaches for land managers, 2nd edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Swanston; Maria K. Janowiak; Leslie A. Brandt; Patricia R. Butler; Stephen D. Handler; P. Danielle Shannon; Abigail Derby Lewis; Kimberly Hall; Robert T. Fahey; Lydia Scott; Angela Kerber; Jason W. Miesbauer; Lindsay. Darling

    2016-01-01

    Forests across the United States are expected to undergo numerous changes in response to the changing climate. This second edition of the Forest Adaptation Resources provides a collection of resources designed to help forest managers incorporate climate change considerations into management and devise adaptation tactics. It was developed as part of the Climate Change...

  1. EUFORGEN as an instrument for the conservation of European forest genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de S.M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Following the Ministerial Conference for the Protection of Forest in Europe, held in Strasbourg in 1990, and more specifically its Resolution No. 2 concerning the conservation of forest genetic resources EUFORGEN (European Forest Genetic Resources Programme) was established. EUFORGEN is a

  2. Dynamical resource nexus assessments: from accounting to sustainability approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmoral, Gloria; Yan, Xiaoyu

    2017-04-01

    Continued economic development and population growth result in increasing pressures on natural resources, from local to international levels, for meeting societal demands on water, energy and food. To date there are a few tools that link models to identify the relationships and to account for flows of water, energy and food. However, these tools in general can offer only a static view often at national level and with annual temporal resolution. Moreover, they can only account flows but cannot consider the required amounts and conditions of the natural capital that supplies and maintains these flows. With the emerging nexus thinking, our research is currently focused on promoting dynamical environmental analyses beyond the conventional silo mentalities. Our study aims to show new advancements in existing tools (e.g., dynamical life cycle assessment) and develop novel environmental indicators relevant for the resource nexus assessment. We aim to provide a step forward when sustainability conditions and resilience thresholds are aligned with flows under production (e.g., food, water and energy), process level under analysis (e.g., local production, transport, manufacturing, final consumption, reuse, disposal) and existing biophysical local conditions. This approach would help to embrace and better characterise the spatiotemporal dynamics, complexity and existing links between and within the natural and societal systems, which are crucial to evaluate and promote more environmentally sustainable economic activities.

  3. Roadmap for sustainable water resources in southwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    The management of water resources in arid and semiarid areas has long been a challenge, from ancient Mesopotamia to the modern southwestern United States. As our understanding of the hydrological and climatological cycles has improved, and our ability to manipulate the hydrologic cycle has increased, so too have the challenges associated with managing a limited natural resource for a growing population. Modern civilization has made remarkable progress in water management in the past few centuries. Burgeoning cities now survive in desert regions, relying on a mix of simple and complex technologies and management systems to bring adequate water and remove wastewater. These systems have permitted agricultural production and urban concentrations to expand in regions previously thought to have inadequate moisture. However, evidence is also mounting that our current management and use of water is unsustainable. Physical, economic, and ecological limits constrain the development of new supplies and additional water withdrawals, even in regions not previously thought vulnerable to water constraints. New kinds of limits are forcing water managers and policy makers to rethink previous assumptions about population, technology, regional planning, and forms of development. In addition, new threats, especially the challenges posed by climatic changes, are now apparent. Sustainably managing and using water in arid and semiarid regions such as the southwestern United States will require new thinking about water in an interdisciplinary and integrated way. The good news is that a wide range of options suggest a roadmap for sustainable water management and use in the coming decades. PMID:21149725

  4. Resource use, dependence and vulnerability: community-resource linkages on Alaska's Tongass National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.T. Mekbeb; R.J. Lilieholm; D.J. Blahna; L.E. Kruger

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how rural communities use and depend upon local natural resources is a critical factor in developing policies to sustain the long-term viability of human and natural systems. Such “community-resource” linkages are particularly important in Alaska, where rural communities – many of them comprised of indigenous Alaskan Natives – are highly dependent upon...

  5. Integrating sustainable biofuels and byproducts into forest industry supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Hensen; Maureen Essen; Nathaniel Anderson; Larry Peters; April Kimmerly

    2016-01-01

    Forest biomass is a promising feedstock for the production of bioenergy, biofuels, and bioproducts because it is renewable and widely available as a byproduct of forest management. Its harvest and use also has the potential to positively impact rural communities, especially those negatively impacted by upheaval in the forest sector.

  6. Recommendations for sustainable development of non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gina H. Mohammed

    2001-01-01

    Non-timber forest products--or NTFPs--are considered here to be botanical products harvested or originating from forest-based species, but excluding primary timber products, industrial boards and composites, and paper products. A recent study of non-timber forest products in Ontario, Canada, identified at least 50 types of NTFPs and hundreds of specific products used...

  7. "Keeping it Living": applications and relevance of traditional plant management in British Columbia to sustainable harvesting of non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy J. Turner

    2001-01-01

    There has been increasing concern about sustainability in harvesting and marketing of non-timber forest products in North America. This paper examines traditional approaches and practices for use of plant resources by Aboriginal peoples and discusses their applications in a contemporary context. Philosophies and attitudes of caring and respect are embodied in many...

  8. Sustainable forest management of Natura 2000 sites: a case study from a private forest in the Romanian Southern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Walentowski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity and forest management are analyzed for a 500 ha privately owned forest within the Natura 2000 area “ROSCI0122 Muntii Fagaras”. Habitat types and indicator species are identified to measure environmental quality. Working towards an integrated approach to conservation, a range of options that will result in sustainable forest management are then considered. For beech forests light heterogeneity emerges as a crucial management target to ensure tree species richness and structural diversity as a basis for saving indicator species such as Morimus funereus, Cucujus cinnaberinus, Bolitophagus reticulatus and Xestobium austriacum. For spruce forests thinning over a broad range of diameters and maintenance of veteran trees would provide habitats for indicator species such asOlisthaerus substriatus. The populations of a number of bird species would be increased by strip-harvesting slopes: species such as Tetrao urogallus, Bonasia bonasia and Ficedula parva prefer forest margins. Steep slopes, and the areas around springs and watercourses, as well as rock faces, should remain unmanaged. Future management should start with a grid-based inventory to create an objective database of forest structure and life. An example is presented for high-elevation spruce forest. The inventory should quantify the variations in diameter, height and volume of trees per unit area. Such data would allow the advanced planning of forest operations. We discuss a wide range of administrative and organizational changes; changes that are needed for the sustainable forest management of the vast close-to-natural forests of the Muntii Fagaras, the maintenance of the Nardusgrasslands and the protection of wetland vegetation around springs and streams in this Natura 2000-area. 

  9. Managing forest ecosystems to conserve fungus diversity and sustain wild mushroom harvests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Pilz; R. Molina

    1996-01-01

    Ecosystem management is the dominant paradigm for managing the forests of the Pacific Northwest. It integrates biological, ecological, geophysical, and silvicultural information to develop adaptive management practices that conserve biological diversity and maintain ecosystem functioning while meeting human needs for the sustainable production of forest products. Fungi...

  10. Sustainable harvesting of non-timber forest products based on ecological and economic criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Barrios, J.C.; Anten, N.P.R.; Martinez-Ramos, M.

    2014-01-01

    Harvesting of highly valuable non-timber forest products (NTFPs) has been considered a win-win strategy where local people profit while conserving forest biodiversity and ecosystem services. Nevertheless the sustainability of NTFP harvesting has been debated as the nature of NTFPs, harvesting

  11. Integrating concerns about wood production and sustainable forest management in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Haynes

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) in the United States is strongly influenced by U.S. forest products markets and the numerous management decisions made by individual landowners and managers. These decisions are influenced by a mix of market incentives and regulatory actions reducing predictability in assessing progress towards SFM and causing...

  12. Native ectomycorrhizal fungi of limber and whitebark pine: Necessary for forest sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathy L. Cripps; Robert K. Antibus

    2011-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are an important component of northern coniferous forests, including those of Pinus flexilis (limber pine) and P. albicaulis (whitebark pine) which are being decimated by white pine blister rust and mountain pine beetles. Ectomycorrhizal fungi are known to promote seedling establishment, tree health, and may play a role in forest sustainability....

  13. Expanding site productivity research to sustain non-timber forest functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; James A. Burger; Barbara Crane

    2006-01-01

    Southern forests produce multiple products and services including timber, wildlife habitat, species bio- and genetic divenity, water quality and control, waste remediation, recreation, and carbon sequestration. All of these benefits must be produced in a sustainable manner to meet today's societal needs without compromising future needs. A forest site is...

  14. Sustainable harvesting of non-timber forest products based on ecological and economic criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Barrios, J.C.; Anten, N.P.R.; Martinez-Ramos, M.

    2015-01-01

    1. Harvesting of highly valuable non-timber forest products (NTFPs) has been considered a win-win strategy where local people profit while conserving forest biodiversity ecosystem services. Nevertheless the sustainability of NTFP harvesting has been debated as the nature of NTFPs harvesting regimes

  15. Experts’ Analysis of the Quality and Usability of SILVANET Software for Informing Sustainable Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Eugenio Martínez-Falero

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is important today to take account of the opinions of both experts and stakeholders in the sustainable management of forests. SILVANET (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain is a software package that offers a useful methodology for assessing the preferences of individuals or groups, and applying them to the design of a sustainable forest management plan. The program starts by identifying the personal preferences of the evaluators based on information provided individually when comparing and selecting sustainability options from a series of site pairs. The evaluator is given information on certain sustainability indicators obtained in the area to be assessed. The scope of the evaluator’s knowledge of sustainable forest management and the consistency of his/her decisions is assessed, and he/she is then included in a group of people with similar systems of preferences to encourage interaction between evaluators in the same group. The preferences are characterized by matrices that encode individual assessments, the maximization of their utility and the analysis of past decisions. Finally, by identifying preferences, we are able to design the forest management system that maximizes the concept of sustainability for each individual or group of individuals. In this paper, we present the results of its application to mono-specific conifer forest stands, although it can be adapted to other forest types. The forestry management experts classify its usability as good, although non-expert users give it a lower rating.

  16. Current Status and Problems in Certification of Sustainable Forest Management in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingzhu; Xie, Dongming; Wang, Danyin; Deng, Hongbing

    2011-12-01

    Forest certification is a mechanism involving the regulation of trade of forest products in order to protect forest resources and improve forest management. Although China had a late start in adopting this process, the country has made good progress in recent years. As of July 31, 2009, 17 forest management enterprises and more than one million hectares of forests in China have been certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). Several major factors affect forest certification in China. The first set is institutional in nature. Forest management in China is based on centralized national plans and therefore lacks flexibility. A second factor is public awareness. The importance and value of forest certification are not widely understood and thus consumers do not make informed choices regarding certified forest products. The third major factor is the cost of certification. Together these factors have constrained the development of China's forest certification efforts. However, the process does have great potential. According to preliminary calculations, if 50% of China's commercial forests were certified, the economic cost of forest certification would range from US0.66-86.63 million while the economic benefits for the forestry business sector could exceed US150 million. With continuing progress in forest management practices and the development of international trade in forest products, it becomes important to improve the forest certification process in China. This can be achieved by improving the forest management system, constructing and perfecting market access mechanisms for certificated forest products, and increasing public awareness of environmental protection, forest certification, and their interrelationship.

  17. Current status and problems in certification of sustainable forest management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingzhu; Xie, Dongming; Wang, Danyin; Deng, Hongbing

    2011-12-01

    Forest certification is a mechanism involving the regulation of trade of forest products in order to protect forest resources and improve forest management. Although China had a late start in adopting this process, the country has made good progress in recent years. As of July 31, 2009, 17 forest management enterprises and more than one million hectares of forests in China have been certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). Several major factors affect forest certification in China. The first set is institutional in nature. Forest management in China is based on centralized national plans and therefore lacks flexibility. A second factor is public awareness. The importance and value of forest certification are not widely understood and thus consumers do not make informed choices regarding certified forest products. The third major factor is the cost of certification. Together these factors have constrained the development of China's forest certification efforts. However, the process does have great potential. According to preliminary calculations, if 50% of China's commercial forests were certified, the economic cost of forest certification would range from US$0.66-86.63 million while the economic benefits for the forestry business sector could exceed US$150 million. With continuing progress in forest management practices and the development of international trade in forest products, it becomes important to improve the forest certification process in China. This can be achieved by improving the forest management system, constructing and perfecting market access mechanisms for certificated forest products, and increasing public awareness of environmental protection, forest certification, and their interrelationship.

  18. Managing for multiple resources under climate change: national forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Linda A; Blate, Geoffrey M; McNulty, Steven G; Millar, Constance I; Moser, Susanne; Neilson, Ronald P; Peterson, David L

    2009-12-01

    This study explores potential adaptation approaches in planning and management that the United States Forest Service might adopt to help achieve its goals and objectives in the face of climate change. Availability of information, vulnerability of ecological and socio-economic systems, and uncertainties associated with climate change, as well as the interacting non-climatic changes, influence selection of the adaptation approach. Resource assessments are opportunities to develop strategic information that could be used to identify and link adaptation strategies across planning levels. Within a National Forest, planning must incorporate the opportunity to identify vulnerabilities to climate change as well as incorporate approaches that allow management adjustments as the effects of climate change become apparent. The nature of environmental variability, the inevitability of novelty and surprise, and the range of management objectives and situations across the National Forest System implies that no single approach will fit all situations. A toolbox of management options would include practices focused on forestalling climate change effects by building resistance and resilience into current ecosystems, and on managing for change by enabling plants, animals, and ecosystems to adapt to climate change. Better and more widespread implementation of already known practices that reduce the impact of existing stressors represents an important "no regrets" strategy. These management opportunities will require agency consideration of its adaptive capacity, and ways to overcome potential barriers to these adaptation options.

  19. Regional forest resource assessment in an ecological framework: the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor A. Rudis

    1998-01-01

    Information about forest resources grouped by ecologically homogeneous area can be used to discern relationships between those resources and ecological processes. The author used forest resource data from 0.4-ha plots, and data on population and land area (by county), together with a global-to-local hierarchical framework of land areas with similar ecological potential...

  20. Primary forests are irreplaceable for sustaining tropical biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Luke; Lee, Tien Ming; Koh, Lian Pin; Brook, Barry W; Gardner, Toby A; Barlow, Jos; Peres, Carlos A; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Laurance, William F; Lovejoy, Thomas E; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2011-09-14

    Human-driven land-use changes increasingly threaten biodiversity, particularly in tropical forests where both species diversity and human pressures on natural environments are high. The rapid conversion of tropical forests for agriculture, timber production and other uses has generated vast, human-dominated landscapes with potentially dire consequences for tropical biodiversity. Today, few truly undisturbed tropical forests exist, whereas those degraded by repeated logging and fires, as well as secondary and plantation forests, are rapidly expanding. Here we provide a global assessment of the impact of disturbance and land conversion on biodiversity in tropical forests using a meta-analysis of 138 studies. We analysed 2,220 pairwise comparisons of biodiversity values in primary forests (with little or no human disturbance) and disturbed forests. We found that biodiversity values were substantially lower in degraded forests, but that this varied considerably by geographic region, taxonomic group, ecological metric and disturbance type. Even after partly accounting for confounding colonization and succession effects due to the composition of surrounding habitats, isolation and time since disturbance, we find that most forms of forest degradation have an overwhelmingly detrimental effect on tropical biodiversity. Our results clearly indicate that when it comes to maintaining tropical biodiversity, there is no substitute for primary forests.

  1. Assessing forest resources in Denmark using wall-to-wall remote sensing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Johannes

    Forests act as a multifunctional, natural, renewable resource, and thus play an important role for many different stakeholders. They are not only providers of wood resources, but also fulfil functions such as providing a buffer from noise, habitat for fauna, contributing to air and water quality...... to regional, private owners or the local forest administrators may collect information about their forests by sampling or complete enumeration. This information is usually used for forest management decisions, but is unsuited for assessment of regional forest resources. On a regional to countrywide scale......, the thesis extends the application of remote sensing methods to estimate important variables with relevance to water catchment management....

  2. Management arrangements of the Chaprote forest and their implications for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, S; Durr-e-nayab

    1991-01-01

    The terms of access to the resources of the Chaprote forest in the Nagar valley of Northern Pakistan are discussed. The Nagar valley became part of the Federally Administered Areas of Pakistan in 1972. The regime was undergoing political transformation and this resulted in continuous changes in the local requirements, allocation, and access to natural resources. This work examines the concerns of environmentalists, among other issues, in relation to the conservation of finite natural resources and maintaining a symbiosis between regeneration and depletion of renewable natural resources. Subjects covered include: rights to the forest, forest management under government jurisdiction, indigenous systems of forest management, and the effectiveness of management systems compared to local management systems. A comparison is made between communal forestry and commercial forestry with consideration for effective management of the Chaprote forest being the central idea.

  3. A review on water pricing problem for sustainable water resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hek, Tan Kim; Ramli, Mohammad Fadzli; Iryanto

    2017-05-01

    A report that presented at the World Forum II at The Hague in March 2000, said that it would be water crisis around the world and some countries will be lack of water in 2025, as a result of global studies. Inefficient using of water and considering water as free goods which means it can be used as much as we want without any lost. Thus, it causes wasteful consumption and low public awareness in using water without effort to preserve and conserve the water resources. In addition, the excessive exploitation of ground water for industrial facilities also leads to declining of available freshwater. Therefore, this paper reviews some problems arise all over the world regarding to improper and improving management, policies and methods to determine the optimum model of freshwater price in order to avoid its wasteful thus ensuring its sustainability. In this paper, we also proposed a preliminary model of water pricing represents a case of Medan, North Sumatera, Indonesia.

  4. Sustainable forest management of Natura 2000 sites: a case study from a private forest in the Romanian Southern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Walentowski

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity and forest management are analyzed for a 500 haprivately owned forest within the Natura 2000 area “ROSCI0122 MunţiiFăgăraş”. Habitat types and indicator species are identified to measure environmental quality. Working towards an integrated approach to conservation, a range of options that will result in sustainable forest management are then considered. For beech forests light heterogeneity emerges as a crucial management target to ensure tree species richness and structural diversity as a basis for saving indicator species such as Morimus funereus, Cucujus cinnaberinus,Bolitophagus reticulatus and Xestobium austriacum. For spruceforests thinning over a broad range of diameters and maintenance of veteran trees would provide habitats for indicator species such as Olisthaerus substriatus. The populations of a number of bird species would be increased by strip-harvesting slopes: species such as Tetrao urogallus, Bonasia bonasia and Ficedula parva prefer forest margins. Steep slopes, and the areas around springs and watercourses, as well as rock faces, should remain unmanaged. Future management should start with a grid-based inventory to create an objective database of forest structure and life. An example is presented for high-elevation spruce forest. The inventory should quantify the variations in diameter, height and volume of trees per unit area. Such data would allowthe advanced planning of forest operations. We discuss a wide range ofadministrative and organizational changes; changes that are needed for the sustainable forest management of the vast close-to-natural forests of the Munţii Făgăraş, the maintenance of the Nardus grasslands and the protection of wetland vegetation around springs and streams in this Natura 2000-area.

  5. The effect of resource based view on sustainable capability advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Jafari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, it is important to achieve and to sustain an organization’s competitive advantage in complex environments. This paper evaluates different concepts that have led to such benefits. The study sheds light on resource based view (RBV and its role to reach sustainable competitive advantage (SCA within banking industry of Iran. A valid research instrument was utilized to conduct a survey of 150 top- and middle-level managers from Mellat bank of Iran. With a response rate of 81.3 percent, 122 questionnaires were returned while a number of valid and usable questionnaires were 101. In order to determine validity of questionnaire, the content validity and Cronbach's alpha were used to determine the reliability of the questionnaire (RBV questionnaire 0.934, SCA questionnaire 0.843. The study utilized structural equation modelling, and a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and they tested the integrated model of MKM and SCA. Statistical support was found for the hypothesized relationships. Moreover it has been shown that RBV had the greatest effect on the market centered SCA, while it had the least influence on the financial centered. The findings offer valuable insights on the generalizability of MKM in a research setting. Structural equation modeling has been implemented and the study also used freedman test to rank the factors and the results show that communication was the most important factor (4.41, followed by process (4.03, knowledge implementation (2.79, decision making (2.54 and human resources (1.22 was the last important factor.

  6. Nonregenerative natural resources in a sustainable system of energy supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Alex M; Hamacher, Thomas

    2012-03-12

    Following the lead of the European Union in introducing binding measures to promote the use of regenerative energy forms, it is not unreasonable to assume that the global demand for combustible raw materials for energy generation will be reduced considerably in the second half of this century. This will not only have a favourable effect on the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere, but will also help preserve fossil fuels-important as raw materials in the chemical industry-for future generations. Nevertheless, associated with the concomitant massive shift to regenerative energy forms, there will be a strong demand for other exhaustible raw materials, in particular metals, some of which are already regarded as scarce. After reviewing the debate on mineral depletion between "cornucopians" and "pessimists", we discuss the meaning of mineral "scarcity", particularly in the geochemical sense, and mineral "exhaustion". The expected drastic increase in demand for mineral resources caused by demographic and societal pressures, that is, due to the increase in in-use stock, is emphasised. Whilst not discussing the issue of "strong" versus "weak" sustainability in detail, we conclude that regenerative energy systems-like nearly all resource-consuming systems in our society-do not necessarily satisfy generally accepted sustainability criteria. In this regard, we discuss some current examples, namely, lithium and cobalt for batteries, rare earth-based permanent magnets for wind turbines, cadmium and tellurium for solar cells and copper for electrical power distribution. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Sustainable Development Strategy for Russian Mineral Resources Extracting Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsenko, Elena; Ezdina, Natalya; Prilepskaya, Angelina; Pivnyk, Kirill

    2017-11-01

    The immaturity of strategic and conceptual documents in the sphere of sustainable development of the Russian economy had a negative impact on long-term strategic forecasting of its neo-industrialization. At the present stage, the problems of overcoming the mineral and raw material dependence, the negative structural shift of the Russian economy, the acceleration of the rates of economic growth, the reduction of technological gap from the developed countries become strategically in demand. The modern structure of the Russian economy, developed within the framework of the proposed market model, does not generate a sustainable type of development. It became obvious that in conditions of the market processes' entropy, without neo-industrial changes, the reconstruction of industry on a new convergence-technological basis and without increasing the share of high technology production the instability of macroeconomic system, the risks of environmental and economic security of Russia are growing. Therefore, today we need a transition from forming one industry development strategy to the national one that will take into account both the social and economic and environmental challenges facing Russia as a mineral resources extracting country.

  8. Modeling multiple resource limitation in tropical dry forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvigy, D.; Xu, X.; Zarakas, C.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) are characterized by a long dry season when little rain falls. At the same time, many neotropical soils are highly weathered and relatively nutrient poor. Because TDFs are often subject to both water and nutrient constraints, the question of how they will respond to environmental perturbations is both complex and highly interesting. Models, our basic tools for projecting ecosystem responses to global change, can be used to address this question. However, few models have been specifically parameterized for TDFs. Here, we present a new version of the Ecosystem Demography 2 (ED2) model that includes a new parameterization of TDFs. In particular, we focus on the model's framework for representing limitation by multiple resources (carbon, water, nitrogen, and phosphorus). Plant functional types are represented in terms of a dichotomy between "acquisitive" and "conservative" resource acquisition strategies. Depending on their resource acquisition strategy and basic stoichiometry, plants can dynamically adjust their allocation to organs (leaves, stem, roots), symbionts (e.g. N2-fixing bacteria), and mycorrhizal fungi. Several case studies are used to investigate how resource acquisition strategies affect ecosystem responses to environmental perturbations. Results are described in terms of the basic setting (e.g., rich vs. poor soils; longer vs. shorter dry season), and well as the type and magnitude of environmental perturbation (e.g., changes in precipitation or temperature; changes in nitrogen deposition). Implications for ecosystem structure and functioning are discussed.

  9. Mobilization of biomass for energy from boreal forests in Finland & Russia under present sustainable forest management certification and new sustainability requirements for solid biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, R.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Ranta, T.; Heinimö, J.; Gerasimov, Y.Y.; Karjalainen, T.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Forest biomass is one of the main contributors to the EU's renewable energy target of 20% gross final energy consumption in 2020 (Renewable Energy Directive). Following the RED, new sustainability principles are launched by the European energy sector, such as the Initiative Wood Pellet Buyers (IWPB

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INDICATORS OBTAINED BY CORINELAND COVER METHODOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABLE USE OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaviša Popović

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Serbian Environmental Protection Agency followed international and national indicators to do monitoring of forested landscape area for the period 1990-2000. Based on the data obtained by Corine Land Cover methodology following the indicators like Forest area, Forested landscape, Forest land and Forest and semi natural area, analysis was done. The forested landscape indicators analysis helped trends monitoring during the period from 1990 - 2000 year. Dynamic of forested area changes could have direct impact on the practical implementation of indicators. Indicator Forest area can be used in planning sustainable use of forests. Recorded growth rates value in 2000year, compared to the 1990th is 0.296%. Indicator Forested landscape increase for 0.186% till 2000 year, while the indicator Forested Land recorded value growth rate of 0.193%. Changes in rates of those indicators can be used in the future for “emission trading”. The smallest increment of rate change of 0.1% was recorded in indicator Forests and semi natural area. Information given by this indicator can be used for monitoring habitats in high mountain areas.

  11. The sustainable management and protection of forests: analysis of the current position globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer-Smith, Peter; Carnus, Jean-Michel

    2008-06-01

    The loss of forest area globally due to change of land use, the importance of forests in the conservation of biodiversity and in carbon and other biogeochemical cycles, together with the threat to forests from pollution and from the impacts of climate change, place forestry policy and practice at the center of global environmental and sustainability strategy. Forests provide important economic, environmental, social, and cultural benefits, so that in forestry, as in other areas of environmental policy and management, there are tensions between economic development and environmental protection. In this article we review the current information on global forest cover and condition, examine the international processes that relate to forest protection and to sustainable forest management, and look at the main forest certification schemes. We consider the link between the international processes and certification schemes and also their combined effectiveness. We conclude that in some regions of the world neither mechanism is achieving forest protection, while in others local or regional implementation is occurring and is having a significant impact. Choice of certification scheme and implementation of management standards are often influenced by a consideration of the associated costs, and there are some major issues over the monitoring of agreed actions and of the criteria and indicators of sustainability. There are currently a number of initiatives seeking to improve the operation of the international forestry framework (e.g., The Montreal Process, the Ministerial Convention of the Protection of Forests in Europe and European Union actions in Europe, the African Timber Organisation and International Tropical Timber Organisation initiative for African tropical forest, and the development of a worldwide voluntary agreement on forestry in the United Nations Forum on Forests). We suggest that there is a need to improve the connections between scientific understanding

  12. Sustainable Human Presence on the Moon using In Situ Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLemore, Carol A.; Fikes, John C.; McCarley, Kevin S.; Darby, Charles A.; Curreri, Peter A.; Kennedy, James P.; Good, James E.; Gilley, Scott D.

    2008-01-01

    New capabilities, technologies and infrastructure must be developed to enable a sustained human presence on the moon and beyond. The key to having this permanent presence is the utilization of in situ resources. To this end, NASA is investigating how in situ resources can be utilized to improve mission success by reducing up-mass, improving safety, reducing risk, and bringing down costs for the overall mission. To ensure that this capability is available when needed, technology development is required now. NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is supporting this endeavor, along with other NASA centers, by exploring how lunar regolith can be mined for uses such as construction, life support, propulsion, power, and fabrication. Efforts at MSFC include development of lunar regolith simulant for hardware testing and development, extraction of oxygen and other materials from the lunar regolith, production of parts and tools on the moon from local materials or from provisioned feedstocks, and capabilities to show that produced parts are "ready for use". This paper discusses the lunar regolith, how the regolith is being replicated in the development of simulants and possible uses of the regolith.

  13. Sustainable Use and Management of Indigenous Plant Resources: A Case of Mantheding Community in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejabaledi A. Rankoana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous plant resources provide rural communities with non-timber forest products that provide energy, food, shelter and medicine. Indigenous plant users in the rural communities have developed selective management methods to sustain plant resources. The most common management methods are restrictions on the cutting of green plants, harvesting of some species during certain seasons, exclusive harvesting of the leaves of certain species and collection of lateral roots from medicinal plant species. The present study examined the use and management strategies developed by members of Mantheding community to sustain indigenous plant resources. The study results are derived from 100 structured interviews and transect walks with key-informants. Multiple uses of indigenous plants are observed. The plants are sources of medicine, food, fodder and fuel. Sustainable management of indigenous plants is accomplished through harvesting practices, seed propagation and control of plant use by the local chief. These management strategies may be referred to as in situ management methods in which the fruits, leaves, roots, bulbs, stem, bark and wood are harvested in their habitats and direct conservation methods are applied to sustain the resources.

  14. Using Case Studies to Teach Interdisciplinary Water Resource Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, C. H.; Tillotson, K.

    2012-12-01

    Teaching about water resources and often emphasizes the biophysical sciences to understand highly complex hydrologic, ecologic and engineering systems, yet most impediments to improving management emerge from social processes. Challenges to more sustainable management often result from trade-offs among stakeholders (e.g., ecosystem services, energy, municipal use, and agriculture) and occur while allocating resources to competing goals of economic development, social equity, and efficient governance. Competing interests operating across multiple scales can increase tensions and prevent collaborative resolution of resource management problems. Here we discuss using specific, place-based cases to teach the interdisciplinary context of water management. Using a case approach allows instructors to first explore the geologic and hydrologic setting of a specific problem to let students understand where water comes from, then how it is used by people and ecosystems, and finally what conflicts arise from mismatches between water quality, quantity, timing, human demand, and ecosystem needs. The case approach helps students focus on specific problem to understand how the landscape influences water availability, without needing to first learn everything about the relevant fields. We look at geology, hydrology and climate in specific watersheds before addressing the human and ecosystem aspects of the broader, integrated system. This gives students the context to understand what limits water availability and how a water budget constrains possible solutions to sustainability problems. It also mimics the approach we have taken in research addressing these problems. In an example case the Spokane Coeur D'Alene basin, spanning the border between SE Washington and NW Idaho, includes a sole source aquifer system with high exchange between surface water and a highly conductive aquifer. The Spokane River does not meet water quality standards and is likely to face climate driven shifts

  15. Sustainable management of the Nigerian forests for poverty alleviation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian forests have played very important roles in the economy of the nation. Forestry was a major contributor to the foreign exchange earnings of Nigeria which assisted in various developmental projects in the country. Nigeria has a land area of 99.3 million hectares of which about 10% are estimated as forest when ...

  16. Challenges and Prospects for Sustainable Forest Management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vegetation, has become a serious problem in Ethiopia. At present, natural forests cover a tiny fraction of the country's total area and these are found in small patches mainly in the southern and southwestern parts. Such a patch of forest is found in ...

  17. evaluation of the contributions of ikere forest reserve to sustainable

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    The use of forest products in the recent times has involved provision of employment opportunity, provision of food and provision of health care delivery for the rural people. This study examined contributions of Ikere forest reserve to adjoining communities in Ekiti-State. Ninety pre-tested questionnaire were administered to ...

  18. 76 FR 59156 - Notice of Availability of the Proposed Ironwood Forest National Monument Resource Management Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Resource Management Plan/Final EIS AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management. ACTION: Notice of Availability... Proposed Resource Management Plan (RMP)/Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Ironwood Forest... Proposed RMP/Final EIS include air resources, biological resources, cultural resources, fire management...

  19. National workshop on forest productivity & technology: cooperative research to support a sustainable & competitive future - progress and strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric D. Vance

    2010-01-01

    The Agenda 2020 Program is a partnership among government agencies, the forest products industry, and academia to develop technology capable of enhancing forest productivity, sustaining environmental values, increasing energy efficiency, and improving the economic competitiveness of the United States forest sector. In November 2006, the USDA Forest Service, in...

  20. Trade-offs between ecosystem services and alternative pathways toward sustainability in a tropical dry forest region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mora

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of strategies aimed at sustainable resource management requires an understanding of the trade-offs between the ecosystem services at stake, to determine appropriate ways in which to navigate them. We assess trade-offs between forage production for cattle ranching and the maintenance of carbon stocks or tree diversity in a Mexican tropical dry forest. Trade-offs between pairs of services were assessed by identifying their efficiency frontiers at both site and landscape scales. We also estimated service outcomes under current and hypothetical land-management conditions. We found stark trade-offs between fodder and carbon stocks and between fodder and tree species richness at the site scale. At the landscape scale, the efficiency frontier was concave, with a much less pronounced trade-off in the fodder-species richness case. Our estimates of current service supply levels showed a reduction of 18-21% for C stock and 41-43% for fodder biomass, relative to the maximum feasible values along the efficiency frontier. Choice of the optimum management strategy to reduce such inefficiency depended on deforestation level: secondary forest regeneration was most suitable when deforestation is low, whereas increased fodder productivity in the pastures is best when deforestation is high. Pasture enrichment with forage trees and secondary forest growth are potential management alternatives for achieving sustainability given the range of enabling ecological factors and to balance ecological and social sustainability given the requirements and preferences of local stakeholders. Given that analogous trade-offs are found across the tropics, this work contributes to reconciling tropical forest maintenance and its use for sustainable rural livelihoods.

  1. Cadastre (forest maps) and spatial land uses planning, strategic tool for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosos, Vasileios C.

    2014-08-01

    The rise in the living standards of the Greeks created, especially since 1970, along with other needs and the need for second or holiday home since 1990 after finding the first house on the outskirts of large urban centers. Trying to find land for the creation of new resorts or new type of permanent residences (maisonettes with or without garden, depending on the financial position of each) had the painful consequence of wasteful and uncontrolled use of land, without a program, without the fundamental rules of land planning and the final creation was usually unsightly buildings. The costs were to pay as usually the forest rural lands. The national spatial planning of land use requires that we know the existing land uses in this country, and based on that we can design and decide their land uses on the future in a rational way. On final practical level, this planning leads to mark the boundaries of specific areas of land that are permitted and may change uses. For this reason, one of the most valuable "tools" of that final marking the boundaries is also the forest maps. The paper aims the investigation to determine the modern views on the issues of Cadastre and Land Management with an ulterior view to placing the bases for creating a building plan of an immediate completion of forest maps. Sustainable development as a term denoting a policy of continued economic and social development that does not involve the destruction of the environment and natural resources, but rather guarantees their rational viability.

  2. Exploring canopy structure and function as a potential mechanism of sustain carbon sequestration in aging forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotis, A. T.; Curtis, P.; Ricart, R.

    2013-12-01

    The notion that old-growth forests reach carbon neutrality has recently been challenged, but the mechanisms responsible for continued productivity have remained elusive. Increases in canopy structural complexity, defined by high horizontal and vertical variability in leaf distribution (rugosity), has been proposed as a mechanism for sustained high rates of above ground net primary production (ANPPw) in forests up to ~170 years by enhancing light use efficiency (LUE) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). However, a detailed understanding of how rugosity affects resource distribution within and among trees leading to greater LUE and NUE is not known. We propose that leaves in high rugosity plots receive greater photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) than leaves in low rugosity plots, causing shifts from shade- to sun- adapted leaves into deeper portions of the canopy, which is thought to increase the photosynthetic capacity of individuals and lead to higher carbon assimilation in forests. The goal of this research was to: 1) quantify different canopy structural characteristics using a portable canopy LiDAR (PCL) and; 2) assess how these structural characteristics affect resource distribution and subsequent changes in leaf morphological, physiological and biochemical traits in three broadleaf species (e.g., Acer rubrum, Quercus rubra and Fagus grandifolia) and one conifer species (e.g., Pinus strobus) at different levels in the canopy in plots with similar leaf are index (LAI) but highly contrasting rugosity levels. We found that gap fraction had a strong positive correlation with rugosity. High rugosity plots had a bimodal distribution of LAI that was concentrated at the top and bottom of the canopy with an open midstory (between 10-50% of total canopy height) whereas low rugosity plots had a more even distribution of leaves. Leaf mass per area (LMA) of all broadleaved species had a strong positive correlation with cumulative gap fraction (P. strobus had a relatively

  3. A Toolkit Modeling Approach for Sustainable Forest Management Planning: Achieving Balance between Science and Local Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Sturtevant

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available To assist forest managers in balancing an increasing diversity of resource objectives, we developed a toolkit modeling approach for sustainable forest management (SFM. The approach inserts a meta-modeling strategy into a collaborative modeling framework grounded in adaptive management philosophy that facilitates participation among stakeholders, decision makers, and local domain experts in the meta-model building process. The modeling team works iteratively with each of these groups to define essential questions, identify data resources, and then determine whether available tools can be applied or adapted, or whether new tools can be rapidly created to fit the need. The desired goal of the process is a linked series of domain-specific models (tools that balances generalized "top-down" models (i.e., scientific models developed without input from the local system with case-specific customized "bottom-up" models that are driven primarily by local needs. Information flow between models is organized according to vertical (i.e., between scale and horizontal (i.e., within scale dimensions. We illustrate our approach within a 2.1 million hectare forest planning district in central Labrador, a forested landscape where social and ecological values receive a higher priority than economic values. However, the focus of this paper is on the process of how SFM modeling tools and concepts can be rapidly assembled and applied in new locations, balancing efficient transfer of science with adaptation to local needs. We use the Labrador case study to illustrate strengths and challenges uniquely associated with a meta-modeling approach to integrated modeling as it fits within the broader collaborative modeling framework. Principle advantages of the approach include the scientific rigor introduced by peer-reviewed models, combined with the adaptability of meta-modeling. A key challenge is the limited transparency of scientific models to different participatory groups

  4. On the decline of ground lichen forests in the Swedish boreal landscape: Implications for reindeer husbandry and sustainable forest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, Per; Cory, Neil; Svensson, Johan; Hedenås, Henrik; Jougda, Leif; Borchert, Nanna

    2016-05-01

    Lichens are a bottleneck resource for circumpolar populations of reindeer, and as such, for reindeer husbandry as an indigenous Sami land-use tradition in northern Sweden. This study uses ground lichen data and forest information collected within the Swedish National Forest Inventory since 1953, on the scale of northern Sweden. We found a 71 % decline in the area of lichen-abundant forests over the last 60 years. A decline was observed in all regions and age classes and especially coincided with a decrease of >60 year old, open pine forests, which was the primary explanatory factor in our model. The effects of reindeer numbers were inconclusive in explaining the decrease in lichen-abundant forest. The role that forestry has played in causing this decline can be debated, but forestry can have a significant role in reversing the trend and improving ground lichen conditions.

  5. Diversification of the resources of the Parisian water network : contribution to sustainable management of water resources

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Bich-Thuy

    2017-01-01

    At the scale of a city, a sustainable water management raises questions about the links between uses and resources: what water quality is needed for what purpose? The Parisian context is a favourable ground for conducting such type of reflection thanks to the existence of a non-potable water network (RENP) dating from the late nineteenth century. The network is currently supplied by summarily filtrated water from the Seine river (20%) and the canal de l’Ourcql (80%). It is mainly used for mun...

  6. Bioenergy resources in forest. Economic potential survey; Bioenergiressurser i skog. Kartlegging av oekonomisk potensial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergseng, Even; Eid, Tron; Roerstad, Per Kristian; Troemborg, Erik

    2012-07-01

    Forests constitute the largest resource potential for bioenergy in Norway. Based on simulations of forest development in Norway forward costs in the industry and other specified conditions, this study gives analysis and cost curves for increased recovery of bioenergy from Norwegian forests. (Author)

  7. Forest resources of southeast Alaska, 2000: results of a single-phase systematic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    2003-01-01

    A baseline assessment of forest resources in southeast Alaska was made by using a single-phase, unstratified, systematic-grid sample, with ground plots established at each grid intersection. Ratio-of-means estimators were used to develop population estimates. Forests cover an estimated 48 percent of the 22.9-million-acre southeast Alaska inventory unit. Dominant forest...

  8. Use and management of forest resources in the Colombian Amazon: cultural particularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Landínez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the main cultural particularities: worldviews and ways of knowing that are associated with the use and management practices of forest resources in the Colombian Amazon. The theoretical cutting proposal contrasts, cultural level, the forms of appropriation of forest resources in indigenous and urban contexts in light of the importance that such activity involves the establishment of management strategies biodiversity in Colombia. Thus, offers an integrated perspective that will address environmental situations considering conflicting factors not only biological but cultural in various scenarios, to give substance to the decisions made and provide a reasonable treatment that enables the implementation of environmental regulatory mechanisms in strategic special biological areas as the Colombian Amazon. Finally, reflect on the importance of facilitating the functional analysis of the connections and interrelationships of ecosystem components, including human communities, to sketch involving both biological and social guidelines for sustainable use of biodiversity.

  9. Integrating Expert Knowledge into Mapping Ecosystem Services Trade-offs for Sustainable Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Grêt-Regamey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mountain ecosystems are highly sensitive to global change. In fact, the continued capacity of mountain regions to provide goods and services to society is threatened by the impact of environmental changes on ecosystems. Although mapping ecosystem services values is known to support sustainable resource management, the integration of spatially explicit local expert knowledge on ecosystem dynamics and social responses to global changes has not yet been integrated in the modeling process. This contribution demonstrates the importance of integrating local knowledge into the spatially explicit valuation of ecosystem services. Knowledge acquired by expert surveys flows into a GIS-based Bayesian Network for valuing forest ecosystem services under a land-use and a climate change scenario in a case study in the Swiss Alps. Results show that including expert knowledge in ecosystem services mapping not only reduces uncertainties considerably, but also has an important effect on the ecosystem services values. Particularly the iterative process between integrating expert knowledge into the modeling process and mapping ecosystem services guarantees a continuous improvement of ecosystem services values maps while opening a new way for mutual learning between scientists and stakeholders which might support adaptive resource management.

  10. Sustainable Forest Management and Carbon in Tropical Latin America: The Case for REDD+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Wunder

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review paper, we assess the economical, governance, and technical conditions that shape forest management in tropical Latin America with particular regard to efforts to reduce forest-based carbon emissions. We provide a framework for discussions about ways to improve forest management that achieve environmental objectives while promoting local and national development and contributing to local livelihoods. We argue that many management practices that lead towards sustainability are only likely to be adopted where there is good governance backed by financial incentives for effective enforcement of management regulations. We propose some policy interventions designed to lower net greenhouse gas emissions by decreasing rates of forest degradation and increasing carbon stock recovery in logged-over or otherwise degraded forests. Implementation of REDD+ could provide critical compensation to forest users for improved management practices in the absence of, or in combination with other economic incentives.

  11. Timber resource statistics for timberland outside National Forests in eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil McKay; Gary J. Lettman; Mary A. Mei

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1992 timber resource inventory Of timberland outside National Forests in eastern Oregon. The report presents statistical tables of timberland area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. It also displays tables of revised 1986-87 timber resource statistics for timberland outside National Forests; the 1992 and 1986-87 tables may be...

  12. Understanding Climate Change Perceptions, Attitudes, and Needs of Forest Service Resource Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Rodriguez-Franco; Tara J. Haan

    2015-01-01

    Surveys were collected to assess Forest Service (FS) resource managers' perceptions, attitudes, and informational needs related to climate change and its potential impacts on forests and grasslands. Resource managers with three background types were surveyed. All participants generally considered themselves to be well-informed on climate change issues, although...

  13. Future of America's Forests and Rangelands: Update to the 2010 Resources Planning Act Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture

    2016-01-01

    The Update to the 2010 Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment summarizes findings about the status, trends, and projected future of forests, rangelands, wildlife, biodiversity, water, outdoor recreation, and urban forests, as well as the effects of climate change upon these resources. Varying assumptions about population and economic growth, land use change, and...

  14. Nursery profile: North Carolina Department of Forest Resources F.H. Claridge Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    James West

    2009-01-01

    North Carolina Department of Forest Resources F.H. Claridge Nursery in Goldsboro, was founded as the Little River Nursery in 1954, and was one of five nurseries in the Forest Resources Division at the time. The early focus of the nursery was on southern yellow pine species, predominantly loblolly (Pinus taeda) and longleaf (P. palustris...

  15. A Forest Landowner's Guide to Internet Resources: States of the Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    2000-01-01

    This listing of internet resources was developed to provide you, the Non-Industrial Private Forest (NIPF) landowner, with a better understanding of the information and resources available on the internet relating to forest stewardship. In browsing the document, you'll hopefully find links to areas you're already interested in, and perhaps also find your...

  16. The conservation of forest genetic resources: case histories from Canada, Mexico, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig; J. Jesús Vargas-Hernández; Kurt H. Johnsen

    1998-01-01

    The genetic codes of living organisms are natural resources no less than soil, air, and water. Genetic resources-from nucleotide sequences in DNA to selected genotypes, populations, and species-are the raw material in forestry: for breeders, for the forest manager who produces an economic crop, for society that reaps the environmental benefits provided by forests, and...

  17. Regulating the sustainability of forest management in the Americas: Cross-country comparisons of forest legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen McGinley; Raquel Alvarado; Frederick Cubbage; Diana Diaz; Pablo J. Donoso; Laercio Antonio Jacovine Goncalves; Fabiano Luiz de Silva; Charles MacIntyre; Elizabeth. Monges Zalazar

    2012-01-01

    Based on theoretical underpinnings and an empirical review of forest laws and regulations of selected countries throughout the Americas, we examine key components of natural forest management and how they are addressed in the legal frameworks of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay, and the U.S. We consider forest policy...

  18. Effects of parcelization and land divestiture on forest sustainability in simulated forest landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; Craig Loehle

    2006-01-01

    Ownership parcelization of forest land and divestiture of industrial forest land is increasing throughout the U.S. This may affect (positively or negatively) the ability of forested landscapes to produce benefits that society values, such as fiber, biodiversity and recreation. We used a timber harvest simulator and neutral model landscapes to systematically study how...

  19. Sustainable forest management in Latium (Italy: implementation of sector rules based on Nature 2000 Network indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaglioppa P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2002 World Summit in Johannesburg has declared the year 2010 as “Year of Biodiversity”, though erosion of biodiversity around the world is still ongoing. Some actions were initiated by national Governments and the European Union, like Nature 2000 Network and Sustainable Forest Management. Pursuing the above EU targets, the administration of the Latium region (central Italy has issued several acts with the aim of creating a system of protected areas where the main focus for silvicultural activities is on biodiversity conservation and the preservation of multi-functionality of forests. Priority of forest planning activities and financing has been given to main habitats and species, sensu 92/43/CEE and 79/409/CEE European Directives. The Nature 2000 Network and the regional offices of Forestry and Protected Areas worked together to increase the forest managed areas, to apply the SFM (Sustainable Forest Management practices and to promote local community development. The Forest Conservation Area, with the help of EU Funds, is financing a Forest Management Plan in Nature 2000 sites and protected areas. The offices for Protected Areas and Nature 2000 Network are working to simplify the administrative procedures for logging in special Protected areas and in forest habitats with no specific conservation priority.

  20. The ecological sustainability of tropical forest management: evaluation of the national forest management standards of Costa Rica and Nicaragua, with emphasis on the need for adaptive. management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen McGinleya; Bryan Fineganb

    2003-01-01

    From a conceptual point of view, national forest management standards in Latin American countries have progressed significantly in recent years.Examples include the Costa Rican Standards and Procedures for Sustainable Forest Management and Certification, developed by the National Commission for Forest Certification and in Nicaragua, the National Institute of Forestry...

  1. The Resource Buffer Theory: Connecting the Dots from Conservation to Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter E. Black

    2006-01-01

    Review of conservation history and scientific developments helps us understand relationships between humans, environment, and sustainability. Applying “conservation” to natural resources and practical resource management occurred early in the Twentieth Century; practical economic definitions of conservation and natural resource followed. Resource surpluses underpin the...

  2. Forest Productivity and Diversity: Using Ecological Theory and Landscape Models to Guide Sustainable Forest Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huston, M.A.

    1998-11-01

    Sustainable forest management requires maintaining or increasing ecosystem productivity, while preserving or restoring natural levels of biodiversity. Application of general concepts from ecological theory, along with use of mechanistic, landscape-based computer models, can contribute to the successful achievement of both of these objectives. Ecological theories based on the energetics and dynamics of populations can be used to predict the general distribution of individual species, the diversity of different types of species, ecosystem process rates and pool sizes, and patterns of spatial and temporal heterogeneity over a broad range of environmental conditions. This approach requires subdivision of total biodiversity into functional types of organisms, primarily because different types of organisms respond very differently to the spatial and temporal variation of environmental conditions on landscapes. The diversity of species of the same functional type (particularly among plants) tends to be highest at relatively low levels of net primary productivity, while the total number of different functional types (particularly among animals) tends to be highest at high levels of productivity (e.g., site index or potential net primary productivity). In general, the diversity of animals at higher trophic levels (e.g., predators) reaches its maximum at much higher levels of productivity than the diversity of lower trophic levels (e.g., plants). This means that a single environment cannot support high diversity of all types of organisms. Within the framework of the general patterns described above, the distributions, population dynamics, and diversity of organisms in specific regions can be predicted more precisely using a combination of computer simulation models and GIS data based on satellite information and ground surveys. Biophysical models that use information on soil properties, climate, and hydrology have been developed to predict how the abundance and spatial

  3. Increasing wood mobilization through Sustainable Forest Management in protected areas of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Maesano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT JA X-NONE The European Community has long recognized the need to further promote renewable energy. Under the overall objective to support and enhance sustainable management, the promotion of the use of forest biomass could help to mitigate climate change by substituting fossil fuel, increasing carbon stock in wood products and improve energy self-sufficiency enhancing security of supply and providing job opportunities in rural areas. To what extent Italian forests can satisfy an increased wood demand, without compromising the others Ecosystem Services (ESs remains an open question. Our aim was to assess the potential supply of woody biomass from the network of protected areas in Italy considering the felling constraints. We estimated the theoretical annual potential increment from forest inventory data performing a correlation with the Corine Land Cover 2006 at the IV level with a 1:100,000 resolution elaborated in a GIS (Geographic Information System environment. The average annual potential increment at national level available for felling was 4.4 m3ha-1. Within the network of protected areas (EUAP and Natura 2000, the average annual increment, available to felling, was 0.98 m3ha-1, respectively, 0.81 m3ha-1 from coppice and 1.14 m3ha-1 from non-coppice forests. Based on data obtained from this study, the availability of wood materials could be increased of almost 20 % at national level by pursuing an active management within the network of protected areas. In Italy, the actual level of resource utilization is rather low; increasing felling together with the implementation of an active management within protected areas could allow satisfying, theoretically, the Italian wood consumption. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0

  4. Applying stakeholder Delphi techniques for planning sustainable use of aquatic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren; Banta, Gary Thomas; Bunting, Stuart W

    2015-01-01

    The HighARCS (Highland Aquatic Resources Conservation and Sustainable Development) project was a participatory research effort to map and better understand the patterns of resource use and livelihoods of communities who utilize highland aquatic resources in five sites across China, India and Viet......The HighARCS (Highland Aquatic Resources Conservation and Sustainable Development) project was a participatory research effort to map and better understand the patterns of resource use and livelihoods of communities who utilize highland aquatic resources in five sites across China, India...

  5. Sustainable Management of Mineral Resources-another view on criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, F.-W.

    2012-04-01

    Generally investigations of criticality capture the supply risks on one hand and on the other hand the impact on the economy, the vulnerability to supply disruptions. The classification is a relative one and the analyses are always only a snapshot of a dynamic system: in the seventies of the last century chromium was generally considered the most critical metal. Today others are considered far more critical. These are especially the rare earth and the platinum group elements. Regardless in which direction technology develops these elements together with the steel alloy and electronic metal elements will most probably be the decisive elements to produce the high-tech products necessary for the well-being of Europe in the 21st century. These elements- often in small quantities- have a high economic lever effect. In a new research programme of the German Ministry of Education and Research they have been termed, therefore: economic-strategic raw materials. This paper will concentrate not so much on the critical materials as such, but on the factors critical in the background, critical to produce them: water, energy and the social acceptance of mining —the license to operate. From the point of sustainable management of mineral resources an important question with regard to critical aspects is also, how fast and to what extent mankind is able to reactivate the secondary materials in the technosphere to replace resource requirements from the geosphere under the limiting factors to minimize the environmental impact and energy needs. There will always be losses which have to be compensated from the geosphere (thermodynamical impossibility of a 100% closed loop, losses due to different redox potential, losses due to dispersal effects like wear and corrosion), however losses occurring today due to low scrap values can be minimized by better technology. Developments are well under way to replace more and more relative proportions of the major metal needs by material from the

  6. The South's outlook for sustainable forest bioenergy and biofuels production

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Wear; Robert Abt; Janaki Alavalapati; Greg Comatas; Mike Countess; Will McDow

    2010-01-01

    The future of a wood-based biofuel/bioenergy sector could hold important implications for the use, structure and function of forested landscapes in the South. This paper examines a set of questions regarding the potential effects of biofuel developments both on markets for traditional timber products and on the provision of various non-timber ecosystem services. In...

  7. Forests and landscapes: linking ecology, sustainability and aesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster

    2001-01-01

    The prairies of the Midwestern US seem like an unlikely place for me to comment on the friuts of a workshop inspired by the forest of Canada's Pacific Northwest. But it is from this smae vantage point, more than a half-century earlier, that Aldo Leopold outlined the elements of what has been called an ecological aesthetic, a way of beholding the...

  8. Matching Shades of Forest Environment to sustain Crude Fibre and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five different types of shades were employed as experimental treatments using the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The natural forest condition served as a control. Samples of the edible parts from the domesticated and wild Vegetables were harvested for laboratory analysis for calcium, zinc, iron and crude ...

  9. [Construction and evaluation of indicator system for sustainable use of fishery resources in Zhoushan fishing ground].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Haier; Lu, Jiehua

    2003-06-01

    In order to assess the sustainable use level of fisheries resources, Zhoushan Fishing Ground was selected as a demonstration. Based on 24 indicators related to the resource-environment subsystem and economic subsystem, principal component analysis was employed to analyze the indicator system in each subsystem, and grey relative relationship analysis was computed as a indicator to evaluate the sustainable use level of fisheries resources. The results indicated that the sustainable use of fisheries resources was at a lower level before 1962, and gradually rose to the top in 1974. It has sharply declined since 1978, and dropped to almost the lowest level in 1983, being 51.72% of 1974.

  10. The complexities of managing forest resources in post-decentralization Indonesia: a case study from Sintang District, West Kalimantan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yasmi, Y.; Anshari, Gusti Z.; Alqadrie, S.; Budiarto, T.; Ngusmanto,; Abidin, E.; Komarudin, H.; McGrath, S.; Zulkifli,; Afifudin,

    2005-01-01

    The study attempted to understand the dynamics and complexities of forest resources management following decentralization, the interactions among stakeholders in forest resources management, and the impacts of the new legislation on local community livelihoods in Sintang District, West Kalimantan.

  11. Evaluation and Countermeasures on sustainable development of nickel resources in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhifeng

    2017-08-01

    Nickel is an important strategic resource in China. With the gradual reduction of nickel re-sources and the increasing competition of the global mineral resources market, the safety of nickel resources in China has been seriously threatened. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate the sustainable develop-ment of nickel resources in China and put forward the corresponding countermeasures. In this paper, the concept and research situation of sustainable development are analyzed. Based on the specific development of nickel resources in China, this paper uses AHP to evaluate the safety of nickel resources in china. Finally, it puts forward the concrete measures to implement the sustainable development strategy of nickel resources in China.

  12. The Luquillo Mountains: forest resources and their history

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. L. Weaver

    2012-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the El Yunque National Forest, which is also designated as Luquillo Experimental Forest, in northeastern Puerto Rico. The principal topics include the environmental setting (geology, soils, and climate), environmental gradients, arborescent flora, vertebrate fauna, and forest management (i.e., plantations, silvicultural operations,...

  13. Standing dead tree resources in forests of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Karen L. Waddell; Christopher M. Oswalt; James E. Smith

    2013-01-01

    Given the importance of standing dead trees to numerous forest ecosystem attributes/ processes such as fuel loadings and wildlife habitat, the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, initiated a consistent nationwide inventory of standing dead trees in 1999. As the first cycle of annual standing dead tree...

  14. Economic vulnerability of timber resources to forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Rodriguez y Silva; Juan Ramon Molina; Armando Gonzalez-Caban; Miguel Angel Herrera Machuca

    2012-01-01

    The temporal-spatial planning of activities for a territorial fire management program requires knowing the value of forest ecosystems. In this paper we extend to and apply the economic valuation principle to the concept of economic vulnerability and present a methodology for the economic valuation of the forest production ecosystems. The forest vulnerability is...

  15. Alternative forest resource use - outdoor recreation and rural economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellene Kebede; John Schelhas; Janet Haslerig

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1980s demand for outdoor recreation has been increasing in the United States. Growing income and change in lifestyles have been cited as factors contributing to the increase in demand. This period also coincided with a decline in timber prices and loss of income to forest land owners. Forest-based recreation has intensified as a part of forest management...

  16. Structuring institutional analysis for urban ecosystems: A key to sustainable urban forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah K. Mincey; Miranda Hutten; Burnell C. Fischer; Tom P. Evans; Susan I. Stewart; Jessica M. Vogt

    2013-01-01

    A decline in urban forest structure and function in the United States jeopardizes the current focus on developing sustainable cities. A number of social dilemmas—for example, free-rider problems—restrict the sustainable production of ecosystem services and the stock of urban trees from which they flow. However, institutions, or the rules, norms, and strategies that...

  17. Sustainable management in crop monocultures: the impact of retaining forest on oil palm yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Felicity A; Edwards, David P; Sloan, Sean; Hamer, Keith C

    2014-01-01

    Tropical agriculture is expanding rapidly at the expense of forest, driving a global extinction crisis. How to create agricultural landscapes that minimise the clearance of forest and maximise sustainability is thus a key issue. One possibility is protecting natural forest within or adjacent to crop monocultures to harness important ecosystem services provided by biodiversity spill-over that may facilitate production. Yet this contrasts with the conflicting potential that the retention of forest exports dis-services, such as agricultural pests. We focus on oil palm and obtained yields from 499 plantation parcels spanning a total of ≈23,000 ha of oil palm plantation in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. We investigate the relationship between the extent and proximity of both contiguous and fragmented dipterocarp forest cover and oil palm yield, controlling for variation in oil palm age and for environmental heterogeneity by incorporating proximity to non-native forestry plantations, other oil palm plantations, and large rivers, elevation and soil type in our models. The extent of forest cover and proximity to dipterocarp forest were not significant predictors of oil palm yield. Similarly, proximity to large rivers and other oil palm plantations, as well as soil type had no significant effect. Instead, lower elevation and closer proximity to forestry plantations had significant positive impacts on oil palm yield. These findings suggest that if dipterocarp forests are exporting ecosystem service benefits or ecosystem dis-services, that the net effect on yield is neutral. There is thus no evidence to support arguments that forest should be retained within or adjacent to oil palm monocultures for the provision of ecosystem services that benefit yield. We urge for more nuanced assessments of the impacts of forest and biodiversity on yields in crop monocultures to better understand their role in sustainable agriculture.

  18. Sustainable management in crop monocultures: the impact of retaining forest on oil palm yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity A Edwards

    Full Text Available Tropical agriculture is expanding rapidly at the expense of forest, driving a global extinction crisis. How to create agricultural landscapes that minimise the clearance of forest and maximise sustainability is thus a key issue. One possibility is protecting natural forest within or adjacent to crop monocultures to harness important ecosystem services provided by biodiversity spill-over that may facilitate production. Yet this contrasts with the conflicting potential that the retention of forest exports dis-services, such as agricultural pests. We focus on oil palm and obtained yields from 499 plantation parcels spanning a total of ≈23,000 ha of oil palm plantation in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. We investigate the relationship between the extent and proximity of both contiguous and fragmented dipterocarp forest cover and oil palm yield, controlling for variation in oil palm age and for environmental heterogeneity by incorporating proximity to non-native forestry plantations, other oil palm plantations, and large rivers, elevation and soil type in our models. The extent of forest cover and proximity to dipterocarp forest were not significant predictors of oil palm yield. Similarly, proximity to large rivers and other oil palm plantations, as well as soil type had no significant effect. Instead, lower elevation and closer proximity to forestry plantations had significant positive impacts on oil palm yield. These findings suggest that if dipterocarp forests are exporting ecosystem service benefits or ecosystem dis-services, that the net effect on yield is neutral. There is thus no evidence to support arguments that forest should be retained within or adjacent to oil palm monocultures for the provision of ecosystem services that benefit yield. We urge for more nuanced assessments of the impacts of forest and biodiversity on yields in crop monocultures to better understand their role in sustainable agriculture.

  19. Sustainability is possible despite greed - Exploring the nexus between profitability and sustainability in common pool resource systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osten, Friedrich Burkhard von der; Kirley, Michael; Miller, Tim

    2017-05-23

    The sustainable use of common pool resources has become a significant global challenge. It is now widely accepted that specific mechanisms such as community-based management strategies, institutional responses such as resource privatization, information availability and emergent social norms can be used to constrain individual 'harvesting' to socially optimal levels. However, there is a paucity of research focused specifically on aligning profitability and sustainability goals. In this paper, an integrated mathematical model of a common pool resource game is developed to explore the nexus between the underlying costs and benefits of harvesting decisions and the sustainable level of a shared, dynamic resource. We derive optimal harvesting efforts analytically and then use numerical simulations to show that individuals in a group can learn to make harvesting decisions that lead to the globally optimal levels. Individual agents make their decision based on signals received and a trade-off between economic and ecological sustainability. When the balance is weighted towards profitability, acceptable economic and social outcomes emerge. However, if individual agents are solely driven by profit, the shared resource is depleted in the long run - sustainability is possible despite some greed, but too much will lead to over-exploitation.

  20. The Rents of Illegal Logging: The Mechanisms behind the Rush on Forest Resources in Southeast Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stahl Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the collapse of socialism, Central and Eastern Europe has experienced a massive rush on forest resources. This paper examines the concrete mechanisms through which the postsocialist transformation has spurred this rush through a case study of a forest sector in southeastern Albania, where various kinds of actors collide in a struggle over rent from illegal firewood extraction and trade. I argue that the broader political and economic changes of postsocialism have altered rural resource values, changed the mechanisms through which forest users gain access to productive resources, and shifted the creation and distribution of resource rent among actors. Together, these changes affected forest users′ incentives, decision-making and practices. Over the past two decades they have caused this rush and severe forest degradation.

  1. Ranking of industrial forest plantations in terms of sustainability: A multicriteria approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Balteiro, L; Alfranca, O; González-Pachón, J; Romero, C

    2016-09-15

    As forest managers and owners must have precise assessments of sustainability, in this study we have proposed a methodology based on multi-criteria techniques for assessing sustainability in industrial forest plantations and establishing a ranking of these plantations in terms of sustainability. First, we identified and have briefly described a set of sustainability indicators (economic, environmental and social). Next, we developed a statistical procedure to determine if a linear relationship existed between the indicators. With this analysis, the final set of indicators was defined and normalized. Then, we formulated four goal programming models, by which to aggregate the different indicators. In these models, we introduced the preferences of the decision makers for each indicator, using a survey with questions formulated in a pairwise comparison format. The procedure was applied to 30 Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in northwestern Spain and 11 indicators were selected in order to define the sustainability. The results showed several rankings under each goal programming model. Although the results may not be the same in the different models, some plantations are always the most sustainable, while others are always the worst in terms of sustainability. The combination of initial values of indicators, goal programming models and preferences of stakeholders (preferential weights and targets) influence the results, and it cannot be predicted a priori which plantation is the best/worst in terms of sustainability. In our case study, we show how changes in preferential weights and targets substantially modify the results obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of forest management systems on natural resource use and provision of ecosystem services in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Ayron M; Rurai, Masegeri T; Almedom, Astier M

    2016-09-15

    Social, religious and economic facets of rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa are heavily dependent on natural resources, but improper resource management, drought, and social instability frequently lead to their unsustainable exploitation. In rural Tanzania, natural resources are often governed locally by informal systems of traditional resource management (TRM), defined as cultural practices developed within the context of social and religious institutions over hundreds of years. However, following independence from colonial rule, centralized governments began to exercise jurisdictional control over natural resources. Following decades of mismanagement that resulted in lost ecosystem services, communities demanded change. To improve resource protection and participation in management among stakeholders, the Tanzanian government began to decentralize management programs in the early 2000s. We investigated these two differing management approaches (traditional and decentralized government) in Sonjo communities, to examine local perceptions of resource governance, management influences on forest use, and their consequences for forest and water resources. While 97% of households understood the regulations governing traditionally-managed forests, this was true for only 39% of households for government-managed forests, leading to differences in forest use. Traditional management practices resulted in improved forest condition and surface water quality. This research provides an essential case study demonstrating the importance of TRM in shaping decision frameworks for natural resource planning and management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Carbon Emission Reduction Potential through Sustainable Forest Management in Forest Concession of PT Salaki Summa Sejahtera, Province of West Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Hilwan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A management unit (MU of a forest concession holder implementing the sustainable forest management (SFM principles, could be involved in reducing Emmission from Reforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+ and carbon trading project. The fact the strategic in implementing the REDD+ and carbon trading in MU level is still lack of pilot project and methodology. Therefore, some scenarios must be developed and tested to find out the best potential of carbon credit in MU level. The objectives of the research were: to calculate carbon credit in some SFM scenarios, to analyze of carbon trading project feasibility, and to determine carbon stock recovery period of logged over area (LOA. The result revealed that carbon stock and carbon credit of LOA was affected by timber cutting intensity.  The 6th scenario with lowest annual allowable cutting (AAC obtained greater carbon credit and profit coming from timber harvesting income and carbon trading. In other hand, this scenario has shortest duration of carbon stock recovery period (27 years and shorter than its cutting cycle.  In this case, the MU has to recalculate and to decrease its AAC to have highest benefits from carbon trading in the same cutting cycle period.  It will provide double benefits from carbon trading, those are contribution in achieving the SFM purposes (production, ecology, social and climate change mitigation.Keywords: sustainable forest management, AAC, carbon stocks, recovery period, carbon trading

  4. Bioeconomic Approaches to Sustainable Management of Natural Tropical Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Holmes; Erin O. Sills

    2016-01-01

    Bioeconomic models are idealized representations of human-nature interactions used to describe how the decisions that people make regarding the harvest of biological resources affect the future condition of resource stocks and the flow of net economic benefits. This modeling approach posits an assumed goal or objective that a decision-maker seeks to optimize subject to...

  5. A NUTRIENT-IN-WATER RESOURCE FOR SUSTAINABLE CROP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sys01

    2011-09-03

    Sep 3, 2011 ... SUSTAINABLE CROP PRODUCTION ON 'ACID SANDS' OF SOUTHERN. NIGERIA. Amalu U. C. and Okon P. B. ... sustainable production of arable and vegetable crops. Application of a solution of urea and lime, ... conducted at Teaching and Research Farm,. Faculty of Agriculture, University of Calabar,.

  6. Assessment of textural differentiations in forest resources in Romania using fractal analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andronache, Ion; Fensholt, Rasmus; Ahammer, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation have several negative effects on the environment including a loss of species habitats, disturbance of the water cycle and reduced ability to retain CO2, with consequences for global warming. We investigated the evolution of forest resources from development...... regions in Romania affected by both deforestation and reforestation using a non-Euclidean method based on fractal analysis.We calculated four fractal dimensions of forest areas: the fractal box-counting dimension of the forest areas, the fractal box-counting dimension of the dilated forest areas......, the fractal dilation dimension and the box-counting dimension of the border of the dilated forest areas. Fractal analysis revealed morpho-structural and textural differentiations of forested, deforested and reforested areas in development regions with dominant mountain relief and high hills (more forested...

  7. 36 CFR 261.3 - Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false report to a Forest officer. 261.3... General Prohibitions § 261.3 Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program..., intimidating, or intentionally interfering with any Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program...

  8. Using structural sustainability for forest health monitoring and triage: Case study of a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonusponderosae)-impacted landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan A. Cale; Jennifer G. Klutsch; Nadir Erbilgin; Jose F. Negron; John D. Castello

    2016-01-01

    Heavy disturbance-induced mortality can negatively impact forest biota, functions, and services by drastically altering the forest structures that create stable environmental conditions. Disturbance impacts on forest structure can be assessed using structural sustainability - the degree of balance between living and dead portions of a tree population’s size-...

  9. Nontimber forest products in Daniel Boone National Forest region--economic significance and potential for sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasharathi Hembram; William L. Hoover

    2008-01-01

    Household members who gather nontimber forest products (NTFP) in and around the Daniel Boone National Forest (DBNF) in eastern Kentucky were interviewed. Participants reported that a wide variety of NTFP were economically and culturally important to them. Forty-three species of plants were sold commercially and 120 were used in households. Ginseng (Panax...

  10. Forest Maintenance Practices and Wood Energy Alternatives to Increase Uses of Forest Resources in a Local Initiative in Nishiwaga, Iwate, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Hayashi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the impact of wood energy use under underutilized conditions of wood resources: the impact on promotion of forest maintenance practices (FMPs, user costs, and local economies, using the case of a local initiative in Nishiwaga, Iwate, Japan. We conducted two main analyses: resource and economic assessment. For resource assessment, we investigate whether wood supply from FMP residue is sufficient to sustainably satisfy new demand created by a local initiative in Nishiwaga, and in how much forest area can FMPs be performed to satisfy the demand. These questions are analyzed by linear programming. Regarding economic assessment, we investigate whether replacement of fossil fuel by wood energy brings economic benefit to a user and local economy using input–output analysis. Our overall findings demonstrated that the use of wood energy under underutilized situations can lead to an increase of implementations of FMPs and of domestic wood resource supplies from a short-term perspective that comes from residues of the FMPs. We also found that wood energy consumption introduces co-benefits in terms of reduced heating costs for users and a larger economic impact on the local economy than fossil fuel.

  11. Environmental sustainability of intercropping switchgrass in a loblolly pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Chescheir; Francois Birgand; Mohamed Youssef; Jami Nettles; Devendra Amatya

    2016-01-01

    A multi-institutional watershed study has been conducted since 2010 to quantify the environmental sustainability of planting switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) between wide rows of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). The hypothesized advantage of this intercropping system is the production of biofuel feedstock to provide additional...

  12. Oregon’s forest resources, 2001–2010: ten-year Forest Inventory and Analysis report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheel Bansal; Leslie Brodie; Sharon Stanton; Karen Waddell; Marin Palmer; Glenn Christensen; Olaf Kuegler; John Chase; Joel Thompson; Sarah Jovan; Andrew Gray; Morgan Todd

    2017-01-01

    This report highlights key findings from a comprehensive vegetation survey of all forested land across the state of Oregon. A total of 5,180 forested field plots in Oregon were visited by Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) crews over a 10-year period from 2001 to 2010. Oregon has 30 million acres of forest, covering nearly half the state. The structure and composition...

  13. Sustainable forest management: A case study on machiara national park In district muzaffarabad, state of Azad jammu and kashmir, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Butt, Tariq Mahmood

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable forest management and conservation in Azad Jammu and Kashmir, as in other developing states, has often been a source of conflict between the government and dependent communities. The forestry in the state has traditionally focused on maximization of revenue, hence other ecological services of forests have received less attention than wood production. This study focused on examining the degree of sustainability in the contemporary forest management within the Machiara National Park...

  14. Sustaining northern red oak forests: managing oak from regeneration to canopy dominance in mature stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Gary W. Miller; John M. Kabrick

    2008-01-01

    Across the range of northern red oak, managers have problems sustaining current stocking of northern red oak in forests. Oak species are adapted to frequent stand disturbances that reduce the abundance of shade tolerant competitors and control fast-growing pioneer species. A widely recommended approach to regenerating northern red oak is to develop relatively large...

  15. The influence of financial incentive programs in promoting sustainable forestry on the nation's family forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Kilgore; John L. Greene; Michael G. Jacobson; Thomas J. Straka; Steven E. Daniels

    2007-01-01

    Financial incentive programs were evaluated to assess their contribution to promoting sustainable forestry practices on the nation’s family forests. The evaluation consisted of an extensive review of the literature on financial incentive programs, a mail survey of the lead administrator of financial incentive programs in each state forestry agency, and focus groups...

  16. Sustainable land allocation : GIS-based decision support for industrial forest plantation development in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanuariadi, T.

    1999-01-01

    A land allocation model for sustainable industrial forest plantation (IFP) project establishment is developed in this research. The model provides the foundation for a spatial decision support system (DSS) that deals with analytical and practical problem solving in IFP land allocation in

  17. Using climate-FVS to project landscape-level forest carbon stores for 100 years from field and LiDAR measures of initial conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gálvez, Fabián B; Hudak, Andrew T; Byrne, John C; Crookston, Nicholas L; Keefe, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    ...). As climate is changing, forest managers have added pressure to obtain forest resources by following stand management alternatives that are biologically sustainable and economically profitable...

  18. Making Meaning and Using Natural Resources: Education and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stables, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A natural resource is not given, but depends on human knowledge for its exploitation. Thus a "unit of resource" is, to a significant degree, a "unit of meaning", and education is potentially important not only for the use of resources but also for their creation. The paper draws on poststructuralism to confirm the intuition that it would be…

  19. Sustainability Assessment of indicators for integrated water resources management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, A; Morato, J; Peixoto, H; Botero, V; Zuluaga, L; Figueroa, A

    2017-02-01

    The scientific community strongly recommends the adoption of indicators for the evaluation and monitoring of progress towards sustainable development. Furthermore, international organizations consider that indicators are powerful decision-making tools. Nevertheless, the quality and reliability of the indicators depends on the application of adequate and appropriate criteria to assess them. The general objective of this study was to evaluate how indicators related to water use and management perform against a set of sustainability criteria. Our research identified 170 indicators related to water use and management. These indicators were assessed by an international panel of experts that evaluated whether they fulfil the four sustainability criteria: social, economic, environmental, and institutional. We employed an evaluation matrix that classified all indicators according to the DPSIR (Driving Forces, Pressures, States, Impacts and Responses) framework. A pilot study served to test and approve the research methodology before carrying out the full implementation. The findings of the study show that 24 indicators comply with the majority of the sustainability criteria; 59 indicators are bi-dimensional (meaning that they comply with two sustainability criteria); 86 are one-dimensional indicators (fulfilling just one of the four sustainability criteria) and one indicator do not fulfil any of the sustainability criteria. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Global Equity and Resource Sustainability: the Central Roles of Conservation and Enhanced Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W. G.

    2002-05-01

    The terrestrial biosphere arose at approximately 3.5 Ga, and since the early Archean, evolving life has maintained a dynamic equilibrium with solar energy and resources derived from the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. This well-integrated system persisted after the emergence of Homo sapiens while we remained in a hunter/gatherer mode. Beginning about 10,000 years ago, settled agriculture allowed for division of labor, and the rise of civilization. World population now exceeds six billion individuals, and is growing at about ninety million annually. By about 2050, demographic estimates put our numbers at 9-10 billion. Approximately 85 percent of humanity now reside in the Developing Nations. Most people desire the increased standard of living now confined to the Industrialized Nations (due largely to exploitation of the planet). The present distribution of wealth is grossly inequitable and politically destabilizing. But can all people be afforded reasonably comfortable lives without destroying planetary habitability? Of the Earth's net primary biological production, humans control about a third, and our share is increasing. The impact on the environment is largely adverse, resulting in heightened air and water pollution, accelerated loss of biodiversity, ecosystem services, topsoil, fisheries, tropical rain forests, and in global warming + sea-level rise. Implications for human welfare and for viability of the web of life are ominous. Modern societies are sustained by the extraction of energy, water, and other Earth materials far beyond renewal rates, limiting future global carrying capacity. Island communities (e. g., Easter Island, Haiti, Madagascar) provide sobering examples of the fate of cultures that overexploit their environments. The biological carrying capacity of the planet is unknown but finite, hence humanity eventually must reach a managed steady state involving efficient, universal resource recovery and world-wide conservation, while

  1. Indicators and Tools for Assessing Sustainability Impacts of the Forest Bioeconomy.

    OpenAIRE

    Karvonen Jaakko; Halder Pradipta; Kangas Jyrki; Leskinen Pekka

    2017-01-01

    The sustainable use of renewable resources has become an important issue worldwide in the move towards a less fossil-fuel-intensive future. Mainstream method for fulfilling this aim is to increase the share of renewable energy and materials to substitute fossil fuels and to become fully independent from fossil fuels over the long-term. However, the environmental sustainability of this endeavor has been questioned. In addition, economic and social sustainability issues are also much debated to...

  2. Considering Background Condition Effects in Tailoring Tropical Forest Management Systems for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Hammond

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Systems devised for managing tropical forests sustainably have yet to prove successful. In many instances, they have fallen short of initial prospects, but the reasons for these shortfalls are often not apparent. Here, we explore factors that can shape the likelihood of success, collectively referred to as background conditions, which are not always adequately considered prior to selecting a suitable management system. We examine the ability of one background condition, geologic terrane, to explain crude spatial variation in a number of trailing indicators of varying forest land use. Forest areas on Precambrian and Phanerozoic terranes show significant differences in production of fossil hydrocarbons, gold, and tropical roundwood, among other indicators, even after considering regional effects. Background conditions are considered to be factors capable of quantifying spatial variation in the likelihood of achieving management success given predefined benchmarks of sustainability. A number of avenues for further exploring and discriminating spatial variation of background conditions are discussed.

  3. Introduction: Relationships Between Protected Areas and Sustainable Forest Management: Where are We Heading?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda F Wiersma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between protected areas and forest management has been one that has often been fraught with conflict. New practices in the forest sector and new ecological insights have led more recently to better co-operation in some regions, although it is debatable to what extent cooperative approaches are desirable. In this introduction to the special section on the relationships between protected areas and sustainable forest management, we outline the history of the forestry and protected areas sectors in Canada, and the evolution of the relationships between them. We define key terms for the debate and offer a novel framework for understanding the relationship between the two sectors as management regimes that occur along parallel continua of sustainability. This framework is contrasted against real-world findings from across Canada, and with examples from elsewhere in the world.

  4. Community knowledge and sustainable natural resources management: learning from the Monpa of Arunachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjay K. Singh

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Community knowledge and local institutions play a significant role in sustainable comanagement, use and conservation of natural resources. Looking to the importance of these resources, a project, funded by the National Innovation Foundation (NIF, Ahmedabad, India was implemented to document the community knowledge associated with agriculture and natural resources in few selected Monpa tribe dominating villages of West Kameng and Tawang Districts of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Dynamics of various indigenous practices, gender role, culture and informal rural social institutions, cultural edges significantly contribute in managing and using the natural resources sustainably. Experiential learning and location specific knowledge play a pivotal role in ecosystem sustainability. Study also indicates the synergistic relation existing between local knowledge and ecological edges, thereby helping in sustaining livelihood in high altitude. Indigenous resource management systems are not mere traditions but adaptive responses that have evolved over time.

  5. [Application of synthetic biology to sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu-Qi; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Yong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive natural products are the material bases of Chinese materia medica resources. With successful applications of synthetic biology strategies to the researches and productions of taxol, artemisinin and tanshinone, etc, the potential ability of synthetic biology in the sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources has been attracted by many researchers. This paper reviews the development of synthetic biology, the opportunities of sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources, and the progress of synthetic biology applied to the researches of bioactive natural products. Furthermore, this paper also analyzes how to apply synthetic biology to sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources and what the crucial factors are. Production of bioactive natural products with synthetic biology strategies will become a significant approach for the sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources.

  6. Change Detection and Sustainable Policies of Mangrove Forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malik, Abdul

    the period 2006–2011. The changes were caused mainly by the conversion to aquaculture, and the consequences have manifested themselves as increasing forest degradation, coastal abrasion, seawater intrusion, a decline in volumes of captured fish, a reduction in shrimp and milkfish fry, and outbreaks of shrimp...... and rehabilitation; and (6) Development and implementation of integrated mangrove aquaculture systems that are environmentally friendly and socio-economically beneficial by managing aquaculture systems similar to, or inspired by, the concept of silvofishery, where fishponds (for farming fish and shrimps...

  7. Sustainability for the nation: resource connections and governance linkages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2013-01-01

    ... that there is no sufficient organization to deal with sustainability issues. Each federal agency appears to have a single mandate or a single area of expertise making it difficult to tackle issues such as managing the ecosystem...

  8. Institutions for sustainable forest governance: Robustness, equity, and cross-level interactions in Mawlyngbna, Meghalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Oberlack

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study adopts Ostrom’s Social-Ecological Systems (SES framework in empirical fieldwork to explain how local forestry institutions affect forest ecosystems and social equity in the community of Mawlyngbna in North-East India. Data was collected through 26 semi-structured interviews, participatory timeline development, policy documents, direct observation, periodicals, transect walks, and a concurrent forest-ecological study in the village. Results show that Mawlyngbna's forests provide important sources of livelihood benefits for the villagers. However, ecological disturbance and diversity varies among the different forest ownership types and forest-based livelihood benefits are inequitably distributed. Based on a bounded rationality approach, our analysis proposes a set of causal mechanisms that trace these observed social-ecological outcomes to the attributes of the resource system, resource units, actors and governance system. We analyse opportunities and constraints of interactions between the village, regional, and state levels. We discuss how Ostrom’s design principles for community-based resource governance inform the explanation of robustness but have a blind spot in explaining social equity. We report experiences made using the SES framework in empirical fieldwork. We conclude that mapping cross-level interactions in the SES framework needs conceptual refinement and that explaining social equity of forest governance needs theoretical advances.

  9. Holocene variations of wildfire occurrence as a guide for sustainable management of the northeastern Canadian boreal forest

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed El-Guellab; Hugo Asselin; Sylvie Gauthier; Yves Bergeron; Ali, Adam A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cumulative impacts of wildfires and forest harvesting can cause shifts from closed-crown forest to open woodland in boreal ecosystems. To lower the probability of occurrence of such catastrophic regime shifts, forest logging must decrease when fire frequency increases, so that the combined disturbance rate does not exceed the Holocene maximum. Knowing how climate warming will affect fire regimes is thus crucial to sustainably manage the forest. This study aimed to provide a guid...

  10. Global sustainable timber supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince

    2010-01-01

    Industrial timber use has provided timber revenue that has helped make timber supply and demand more sustainable in the leading timber producing regions of the world. Sustainable development implies not consuming more resources today than we can replace tomorrow, but sustainable forest management implies more than merely a non-declining supply of timber. Forests as a...

  11. Policy Networks and Forest Resource Management in Ghana | Teye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper employs a policy network model to explore the formal and informal interactions and structures which characterise forest management in Ghana. A comprehensive analysis of primary and secondary data reveals that forest management in Ghana has historically been influenced by complex relations of power and ...

  12. Management Models of Forest Resources in the Atlas Mountain ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    timber forest products are under-used. Governments are trying to improve the situation, but their efforts tend to be purely technical and fail to address the social and institutional dimensions of the problem. This project will examine forest governance ...

  13. Sustainable Management of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Plantation Forests in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban forestry is increasingly used as a tool for climate change mitigation and for providing environmental services to inhabitants of urban areas. However, tree species used in urban forestry are usually different from the ones used in commercial forestry. As a consequence, available data on growth and yield under alternative management scenarios are usually scarce. As forest models can be used to explore potential forest futures, they are of special interest as decision-support tools in urban forestry. In this research, we used the FORECAST ecosystem-level forest model to define the management prescriptions for Metasequoia glyptostroboides plantations in Shanghai that reach the highest net primary productivity (NPP. In a first step, a battery of different stand densities (from 500 to 4000 stems ha−1 was used to identify those with the highest NPP at stand level. Then, different thinning regimes (with intensities ranging from 15% to 40% of trees removed and applied at stand age 5 to 20 years were simulated on those initial densities with the highest NPP (3000 and 4000 stems ha−1. Planting 4000 stems ha−1 and not applying thinning achieved the highest annual NPP (14.39 ± 3.92 Mg ha−1 yr−1 during the first rotation, but it was not significantly different from the NPP achieved with the same initial density but thinning 40% of trees at year 10. NPP was estimated to decrease with consecutive rotations, and for the second rotation thinning was needed to significantly increase NPP (10.11 ± 2.59 Mg ha−1 yr−1 with 4000 stems ha−1 and 25% thinning at year 10 above non-thinning management. For the third rotation, the highest NPP was reached with initial density 3000 stems ha−1 and 25% thinning at year 10. Nitrogen flows were also estimated to decrease with consecutive rotations. These results indicate the potential of managing M. glyptostroboides urban plantations to reach their maximum productivity potential, but also that additional

  14. Estimation of regional-scale forest resources using ICESat/GLAS spaceborne lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masato; Saigusa, Nobuko; Borjigin, Habura; Sawada, Yoshito; Yamagata, Yoshiki; Hirano, Takashi; Ichii, Kazuhito

    2015-10-01

    Recently, the demand of forest resources monitoring technology on a large scale is growing, and spaceborne LiDAR is expected to provide a means for accurate monitoring. This study aims to clarify the potential of ICESat/GLAS spaceborne LiDAR for forest resources monitoring on a regional scale. The study areas were Hokkaido Island in Japan (cool-temperate forest), Borneo Island (tropical forest), and Siberia (boreal forest). Firstly, we conducted field measurements in Hokkaido and Borneo, and calculated the average canopy height (Lorey's height) and the above-ground biomass (AGB) for each GLAS-footprint. Then, we developed some models to estimate canopy height and AGB from the GLAS waveform parameters based on the field measurement data. Next, we applied the developed models to the GLAS data in Hokkaido and Borneo. The average canopy height and AGB were 17.8 m and 119.4 Mg ha-1, respectively, in Hokkaido, and 16.2 m and 190.2 Mg ha-1, respectively, in Borneo. These results suggest that the tropical forest in Borneo has a higher biomass than the cool-temperate forest in Hokkaido. Furthermore, we applied the estimation model to the GLAS data acquired in Siberia. The average AGB was 86.2 Mg ha-1, and it has decreased especially in Southern area of Western Siberia. This study showed that spaceborne LiDAR had an ability of forest resources monitoring on a regional scale, for each of boreal, cool-temperate, and tropical forests.

  15. The forest resources of the Russian Federation and their regional characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukuev, Y.A. [Department of Forest Utilization and Inventory, The Federal Forest Service of Russia (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The forests of Russia amount to ca. 25% of the world`s forests. They cover a territory of ca. 1.2 billion hectares, i.e. 69% of the land area of the Russian Federation, stretching from the western to the eastern borders, from the subtundra in the north to the steppes of the south. These forests are differing in terms of their economic value, species composition, and age. All forest stands have a major impact on the climate, they protect the soil against erosion by water and wind, and they regulate the water regimes. Our knowledge of the forests is based on the data provided by inventories carried out by federal forest inventory enterprises following universally applied principles. These data form the main basis for the forest resource statistical accounting conducted every five years to demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative changes that have taken place in the Federation`s forest resources. Major annual changes in the forest resources of Russia are caused by economic activity, natural calamities and the administrative reorganization of district forestry units (reshow). These changes determine the period when the inventory materials (projects of forestry organization, inventory data, etc.) are elaborated. This period is 10 years in regions where intensive forestry is practised and 15 years in regions of low intensity of commercial forestry. (orig.)

  16. USDA Forest Service watershed analyses: A lesson in interdisciplinary natural resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony S. DeFalco

    1999-01-01

    Abstract - Recent thinking in natural resource management has led federal land management agencies such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service (Forest Service) to adopt ecosystem management as its official land management policy. A pivotal aspect of ecosystem management is interdisciplinary analysis of complex land management problems....

  17. Timber resource statistics for non-Federal forest land in southwest Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1985 timber resource inventory of the non-Federal forest land in the five counties (Coos, Curry, Douglas, Jackson, and Josephine) in southwest Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  18. Timber resource statistics for non-federal forest land in northwest Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1986 timber resource inventory of the non-Federal forest land in the 10 counties (Clackamas, Clatsop, Columbia, Hood River, Marion, Multnomah , Polk, Tillamook, Washington, and Yamhill) in northwest Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  19. Timber resource statistics for non-Federal forest land in west-central Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1985-86 timber resource inventory of the non-Federal forest land in the four counties (Benton, Lane, Lincoln, and Linn) in west-central Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  20. Forest adaptation resources: Climate change tools and approaches for land managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Swanston; Maria, eds. Janowiak

    2012-01-01

    The forests of northern Wisconsin, a defining feature of the region's landscape, are expected to undergo numerous changes in response to the changing climate. This document provides a collection of resources designed to help forest managers incorporate climate change considerations into management and devise adaptation tactics. It was developed in northern...

  1. Forest Influences on Climate and Water Resources at the Landscape to Regional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Yongqiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well known that climate controls the distribution, productivity and functioning of vegetation on earth, our knowledge about the role of forests in regulating regional climate and water resources is lacking. The studies on climate-forests feedbacks have received increasing attention from the climate change and ecohydrology research communities. The goal...

  2. Proposed wildland fire amendment to the Coronado National Forest Land and Resource Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry A. Tune; Erin M. Boyle

    2005-01-01

    The Coronado National Forest proposed amending its 1986 Land and Resource Management Plan to conform to the 2001 Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy. This Policy emphasizes fire’s essential role in maintaining natural ecosystems and allows a broader range of management options for wildland fires. Under the current Forest Plan, fires must be suppressed in areas...

  3. Economic vulnerability of timber resources to forest fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    y Silva, Francisco Rodríguez; Molina, Juan Ramón; González-Cabán, Armando; Machuca, Miguel Ángel Herrera

    2012-06-15

    The temporal-spatial planning of activities for a territorial fire management program requires knowing the value of forest ecosystems. In this paper we extend to and apply the economic valuation principle to the concept of economic vulnerability and present a methodology for the economic valuation of the forest production ecosystems. The forest vulnerability is analyzed from criteria intrinsically associated to the forest characterization, and to the potential behavior of surface fires. Integrating a mapping process of fire potential and analytical valuation algorithms facilitates the implementation of fire prevention planning. The availability of cartography of economic vulnerability of the forest ecosystems is fundamental for budget optimization, and to help in the decision making process. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Environmental and natural resource implications of sustainable urban infrastructure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergesen, Joseph D.; Suh, Sangwon; Baynes, Timothy M.; Kaviti Musango, Josephine

    2017-12-01

    As cities grow, their environmental and natural resource footprints also tend to grow to keep up with the increasing demand on essential urban services such as passenger transportation, commercial space, and thermal comfort. The urban infrastructure systems, or socio-technical systems providing these services are the major conduits through which natural resources are consumed and environmental impacts are generated. This paper aims to gauge the potential reductions in environmental and resources footprints through urban transformation, including the deployment of resource-efficient socio-technical systems and strategic densification. Using hybrid life cycle assessment approach combined with scenarios, we analyzed the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water use, metal consumption and land use of selected socio-technical systems in 84 cities from the present to 2050. The socio-technical systems analyzed are: (1) bus rapid transit with electric buses, (2) green commercial buildings, and (3) district energy. We developed a baseline model for each city considering gross domestic product, population density, and climate conditions. Then, we overlaid three scenarios on top of the baseline model: (1) decarbonization of electricity, (2) aggressive deployment of resource-efficient socio-technical systems, and (3) strategic urban densification scenarios to each city and quantified their potentials in reducing the environmental and resource impacts of cities by 2050. The results show that, under the baseline scenario, the environmental and natural resource footprints of all 84 cities combined would increase 58%–116% by 2050. The resource-efficient scenario along with strategic densification, however, has the potential to curve down GHG emissions to 17% below the 2010 level in 2050. Such transformation can also limit the increase in all resource footprints to less than 23% relative to 2010. This analysis suggests that resource-efficient urban infrastructure and decarbonization

  5. Estimating Companies and Sectoral Sustainability in Resource Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona CRUCERU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic growth during the last decades has been associated with a continuously increasing intensive use of material resources, in spite of the technological progress. The historical data over a century reveals that the current economic system supports to a certain degree the inefficient use of resources by allowing large waste, low conversions factors, pricing below true costs. The paper intends to address some interesting points based on observations derived from statistical evidence on resource indicators. The resource efficiency indicators relate to the following broad categories - overall (national resource consumption/ efficiency and industry resource consumption/efficiency. In the paper, the first category is addressed by involving the resource productivity - measured as the volume of Gross Domestic Product in market prices (GDP over Domestic Material Consumption (DMC, it is studied for the period 2000-2009 based on the Eurostat database. The indicator has increased by 16 %, with a slightly larger rhythm as compared to the growth in GDP (around 12 % over the same period, indicating that in the EU27 there was placed in a separate and decoupled growth pattern from that one of domestic resource consumption. Yet the evolution was very specific at the member states’ level depending on domestic context – the economic structure, the competitiveness level, the impact of financial crisis etc. Even if the most frequently used to estimate the efficiency of the resource consumption is resource productivity, the link with other time series or structure indicators bring to light new perspectives in revealing the patterns of consumption and policy actions to improve the resource efficient use.

  6. Change Detection and Sustainable Policies of Mangrove Forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malik, Abdul

    Deforestation and degradation of mangrove forests have become one of the main issues for coastal ecosystems in Indonesia and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. Over the past decades, over-exploitation of timber, firewood, charcoal production, housing materials, and commercial logging and conversion...... and the environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the observed changes for communities living around mangrove areas. In this connection, the effects of mangrove exploitation on biodiversity and ecosystem services, including forestry and fishery products, are explored. Finally, the total economic value...... of mangroves is calculated, including the direct use value, the indirect use value, and the option value, and compared to the benefit value of commercial aquaculture. Takalar district of South Sulawesi province has been chosen as a case study for exploring changes as it is one of the mangrove hotspots...

  7. Sustainable natural resource use in rural China: Trends and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, F.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Shi, X.; Heerink, N.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we provide an overview of recent trends in the availability and quality of land and water resources in rural China, and examine the common presumption that rural resources are rapidly degrading in China. Data based on consistent definitions and measurement methods that have recently

  8. Local institutions for sustaining wetland resources and community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    permitting authority, taxes/ local levies for using the wetland resources, recent institutional changes observed affecting wetland resource-use activities ... rice, sweet potatoes, vegetables, maize, sugar cane and fruit trees mainly for subsistence and cotton as a cash crop. The wetland vegetation has been extensively cleared ...

  9. Interactions of forests, climate, water resources, and humans in a changing environment: research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Catalina Segura

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the special issue “Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment” is to present case studies on the influences of natural and human disturbances on forest water resources under a changing climate. Studies in this collection of six papers cover a wide range of geographic regions from Australia to Nigeria with spatial...

  10. Sustainable High-Potential Career Development: A Resource-Based View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Paul

    1997-01-01

    In the current economic climate, fast-track career models pose problems for individuals and organizations. An alternative model uses a resource-based view of the company and principles of sustainable development borrowed from environmentalism. (SK)

  11. Learning to change, changing to learn : managing natural resources for sustainable agriculture in the Philippine uplands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campilan, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    The study explores problem situations in natural resource management in the Philippine uplands. It examines, through a knowledge systems perspective, the changing nature of development intervention that is required as sustainability becomes an important criterion of agricultural

  12. Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Strategic Research Action Plan 2016-2019

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Safe and Sustainable Water Resources (SSWR) research program is using an integrated systems approach to develop scientific and technological solutions to protect human health, and to protect and restore watersheds and aquatic ecosystems.

  13. Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Strategic Research Action Plan 2012-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document represents a strategic guide to EPA’s research actions, alone and in part-nership with the broader federal, industry and scientific research community, to provide the science and engineering necessary for safe and sustainable water resources.

  14. Sustaining the natural and economical resources of the Lac Courte Oreilles, Leslie Isham; Jason Weaver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isham, Leslie; Weaver, Jason

    2013-09-30

    The Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, located in northwest Wisconsin has developed a project, entitled Sustaining the Natural and Economic Resources of the LCO Ojibwe. This technical report is a summary of the project.

  15. EO Underpinning the Quality of Ecosystem Services with Geospatial Data- The Case of Sustainable Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosthwaite Eyre, Charles

    2010-12-01

    Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) is an exciting and expanding opportunity for sustainably managed forests. PES are derived from a range of ecosystem benefits from forests including climate change mitigation through afforestation and avoided deforestation, green power generation, wetland and watershed rehabilitation, water quality improvement, marine flood defence and the reduction in desertification and soil erosion. Forests are also the ancestral home to many vulnerable communities which need protection. Sustainable forest management plays a key role in many of these services which generates a potentially critical source of finance. However, for forests to realise revenues from these PES, they must meet demanding standards of project validation and service verification. They also need geospatial data to manage and monitor operational risk. In many cases the data is difficult to collect on the ground - in some cases impossible. This will create a new demand for data that must be impartial, timely, area wide, accurate and cost effective. This presentation will highlight the unique capacity of EO to provide these geospatial inputs required in the generation of PES from forestry and demonstrate products with practical examples.

  16. Adaptive exchange of capitals in urban water resources management : an approach to sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    With water availability increasingly restricted by deficiencies in quality and quantity, water resources management is a central issue in planning for sustainability in the Anthropocene. We first offer a definition of sustainability based on the ease with which capitals (e.g., na...

  17. Can we learn our way to sustainable management? : adaptive collaborative management in Mafungautsi State Forest, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Mutimukuru, T.

    2010-01-01

    Following the failure of top-down centralised management approaches to natural resources, attention has shifted in the last two decades to participatory approaches. Unfortunately, participatory resource management projects have produced disappointing results. They have failed to meet the objectives of enhancing sustainable management of resources and of improving the well-being of local people. These efforts have recently been criticized by environmental conservationists, who continue to beli...

  18. Sustainable wetland resource utilization of Sango Bay through Eco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defining and achieving sustainable development is a major issue for policy debates both in the developed and developing countries. Eco-tourism as an important niche market in the world tourism industry has been embraced by developing countries like Uganda, which are trying to use tourism as an engine of national ...

  19. Towards a sustainable use of primary boron. Approach to a sustainable use of primary resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, M.L.C.M.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Worrell, E.

    2015-01-01

    The sustainable use of raw materials does not only concern the environmental impacts of their production and consumption, but also the intergenerational distribution of access to the raw material or the services provided by that material. From this sustainability perspective, current generations

  20. Sustainable forest management and impacts on forest responses to a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, D. B.; Parker, G.; Riutta, T.; Capretz, R.; Murthy, I.; Haibao, R.; Bebber, D.

    2009-12-01

    Impacts from human activities at varying scales and intensities have a profound influence on forest carbon dynamics in addition to interactions with climate. As such, forest carbon stocks and fluxes are among the least well-defined elements of the global carbon cycle, and great uncertainty remains in predicting the effect of climate change on forest dynamics. In some cases, these management-climate interactions are well known, but often represent a fundamental gap in our understanding of ecosystem responses and are likely to be important in improving modeling of climate change, and in valuing forest carbon. To improve understanding of human induced forest management-climate interactions, a network of permanent study plots has been established in five sites around the world - in the US, UK, Brazil, India and China. The sites are near larger global monitoring (Smithsonian CTFS) plots to facilitate comparisons. At each site, a series of 1-ha plots have been placed in forest stands with differing management regimes and histories. Utilizing citizen scientists from HSBC bank, all trees >5 cm dbh are tagged, mapped, identified to species, and diameter is recorded within each plot. A subset of trees have dendrometer bands attached, to record seasonal growth. Dead wood and litterfall samples are taken, and microclimate is recorded with automatic sensors. Serial measurements will allow correlation of forest dynamics with weather. Although the studies are at an early stage current results indicate above-ground biomass estimates are 102-288 Mg ha-1 for intermediate and mature Liriodendron tulipifera-dominated stands in the US, respectively. In India, mature semi-natural evergreen forests biomass estimates are 192-235 Mg ha-1 while plantation and semi-natural core forests in the UK are estimated at 211-292 Mg ha-1. Successional Atlantic forests in Brazil are estimated to contain 192-235 Mg ha-1. In the US, initial results have demonstrated dramatic differences in microclimate

  1. Macroecology Meets Macroeconomics: Resource Scarcity and Global Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James H; Burger, Joseph R; Burnside, William R; Chang, Michael; Davidson, Ana D; Fristoe, Trevor S; Hamilton, Marcus J; Hammond, Sean T; Kodric-Brown, Astrid; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Nekola, Jeffrey C; Okie, Jordan G

    2014-04-01

    The current economic paradigm, which is based on increasing human population, economic development, and standard of living, is no longer compatible with the biophysical limits of the finite Earth. Failure to recover from the economic crash of 2008 is not due just to inadequate fiscal and monetary policies. The continuing global crisis is also due to scarcity of critical resources. Our macroecological studies highlight the role in the economy of energy and natural resources: oil, gas, water, arable land, metals, rare earths, fertilizers, fisheries, and wood. As the modern industrial technological-informational economy expanded in recent decades, it grew by consuming the Earth's natural resources at unsustainable rates. Correlations between per capita GDP and per capita consumption of energy and other resources across nations and over time demonstrate how economic growth and development depend on "nature's capital". Decades-long trends of decreasing per capita consumption of multiple important commodities indicate that overexploitation has created an unsustainable bubble of population and economy.

  2. Environmental sustainability control by water resources carrying capacity concept: application significance in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuwansyah, M. R.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reviews the use of Water Resources carrying capacity concept to control environmental sustainability with the particular note for the case in Indonesia. Carrying capacity is a capability measure of an environment or an area to support human and the other lives as well as their activities in a sustainable manner. Recurrently water-related hazards and environmental problems indicate that the environments are exploited over its carrying capacity. Environmental carrying capacity (ECC) assessment includes Land and Water Carrying Capacity analysis of an area, suggested to always refer to the dimension of the related watershed as an incorporated hydrologic unit on the basis of resources availability estimation. Many countries use this measure to forecast the future sustainability of regional development based on water availability. Direct water Resource Carrying Capacity (WRCC) assessment involves population number determination together with their activities could be supported by available water, whereas indirect WRCC assessment comprises the analysis of supply-demand balance status of water. Water resource limits primarily environmental carrying capacity rather than the land resource since land capability constraints are easier. WRCC is a crucial factor known to control land and water resource utilization, particularly in a growing densely populated area. Even though capability of water resources is relatively perpetual, the utilization pattern of these resources may change by socio-economic and cultural technology level of the users, because of which WRCC should be evaluated periodically to maintain usage sustainability of water resource and environment.

  3. 77 FR 47814 - Florida National Forests Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Supervisor's Office, 325 John Knox Road, Suite F-100, Tallahassee, FL 32303. Many of the participants are... time for oral comments must be sent to Denise Rains, U.S. Forest Service, 325 John Knox Road, Suite F...

  4. EU's forest fuel resources, energy technology market and international bioenergy trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asikainen, A.; Laitila, J.; Anttila, P.; Parikka, H. (The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, Joensuu (Finland)), email: antti.asikainen@metla.fi; Virkkunen, M.; Leinonen, A.; Heiskanen, V.-P.; Flyktman, M. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Heinimoe, J. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)), email: jussi.heinimo@lut.fi

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the project was to provide for Finnish bioenergy technology, machine and appliance manufactures information about forest fuel resources in EU and international bioenergy trade mechanism. The projects results act as an instrument for market potential assessments and provide information to the local energy producer about biomass as an energy source. The possibilities to use forest chips in CHP and heating plants were investigated in three case studies. Case studies include three main tasks: (1) Assessment of forest fuel resources around the CHP or heating plant. (2) Forest fuel procurement cost study and (3) Study on the economics of forest fuel based energy production. The project was carried out as co-operation between Finnish research institutes and companies, and local actors. First case study was carried out at Poland. The second case study country was the Czech Republic and the third case study country was France. (orig.)

  5. Fighting over forest: interactive governance of conflicts over forest and tree resources in Ghana’s high forest zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkyi, M.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Based on eight case studies, this book analyses conflicts over forests and trees in Ghana’s high forest zone and ways of dealing with them. It thereby addresses the full range of forest and tree-based livelihoods. Combining interactive governance theory with political ecology and conflict theories,

  6. Method selection for sustainability assessments: The case of recovery of resources from waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijp, M C; Waaijers-van der Loop, S L; Heijungs, R; Broeren, M L M; Peeters, R; Van Nieuwenhuijzen, A; Shen, L; Heugens, E H W; Posthuma, L

    2017-07-15

    Sustainability assessments provide scientific support in decision procedures towards sustainable solutions. However, in order to contribute in identifying and choosing sustainable solutions, the sustainability assessment has to fit the decision context. Two complicating factors exist. First, different stakeholders tend to have different views on what a sustainability assessment should encompass. Second, a plethora of sustainability assessment methods exist, due to the multi-dimensional characteristic of the concept. Different methods provide other representations of sustainability. Based on a literature review, we present a protocol to facilitate method selection together with stakeholders. The protocol guides the exploration of i) the decision context, ii) the different views of stakeholders and iii) the selection of pertinent assessment methods. In addition, we present an online tool for method selection. This tool identifies assessment methods that meet the specifications obtained with the protocol, and currently contains characteristics of 30 sustainability assessment methods. The utility of the protocol and the tool are tested in a case study on the recovery of resources from domestic waste water. In several iterations, a combination of methods was selected, followed by execution of the selected sustainability assessment methods. The assessment results can be used in the first phase of the decision procedure that leads to a strategic choice for sustainable resource recovery from waste water in the Netherlands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mineral supply for sustainable development requires resource governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Saleem H.; Giurco, Damien; Arndt, Nicholas; Nickless, Edmund; Brown, Graham; Demetriades, Alecos; Durrheim, Ray; Enriquez, Maria Amélia; Kinnaird, Judith; Littleboy, Anna; Meinert, Lawrence D.; Oberhänsli, Roland; Salem, Janet; Schodde, Richard; Schneider, Gabi; Vidal, Olivier; Yakovleva, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Successful delivery of the United Nations sustainable development goals and implementation of the Paris Agreement requires technologies that utilize a wide range of minerals in vast quantities. Metal recycling and technological change will contribute to sustaining supply, but mining must continue and grow for the foreseeable future to ensure that such minerals remain available to industry. New links are needed between existing institutional frameworks to oversee responsible sourcing of minerals, trajectories for mineral exploration, environmental practices, and consumer awareness of the effects of consumption. Here we present, through analysis of a comprehensive set of data and demand forecasts, an interdisciplinary perspective on how best to ensure ecologically viable continuity of global mineral supply over the coming decades.

  8. Sustainable forest management of tropical forests can reduce carbon emissions and stabilize timber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Sasaki; G.P. Asner; Yude Pan; W. Knorr; P.B. Durst; H.O. Ma; I. Abe; A.J. Lowe; L.P. Koh

    2016-01-01

    The REDD+ scheme of the United Nations Framework Conventionon Climate Change has provided opportunities to manage tropical forests for timber production and carbon emission reductions. To determine the appropriate loggingtechniques, we analyzed potential timber production and carbon emission reductions under two logging techniques over a 40-year period of selective...

  9. Forest growth and timber quality: crown models and simulation methods for sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis P. Dykstra; Robert A. Monserud

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the international conference from which these proceedings are drawn was to explore relationships between forest management activities and timber quality. Sessions were organized to explore models and simulation methodologies that contribute to an understanding of tree development over time and the ways that management and harvesting activities can...

  10. Sustainable use of renewable resources in a stylized social-ecological network model under heterogeneous resource distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfuss, Wolfram; Donges, Jonathan F.; Wiedermann, Marc; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Human societies depend on the resources ecosystems provide. Particularly since the last century, human activities have transformed the relationship between nature and society at a global scale. We study this coevolutionary relationship by utilizing a stylized model of private resource use and social learning on an adaptive network. The latter process is based on two social key dynamics beyond economic paradigms: boundedly rational imitation of resource use strategies and homophily in the formation of social network ties. The private and logistically growing resources are harvested with either a sustainable (small) or non-sustainable (large) effort. We show that these social processes can have a profound influence on the environmental state, such as determining whether the private renewable resources collapse from overuse or not. Additionally, we demonstrate that heterogeneously distributed regional resource capacities shift the critical social parameters where this resource extraction system collapses. We make these points to argue that, in more advanced coevolutionary models of the planetary social-ecological system, such socio-cultural phenomena as well as regional resource heterogeneities should receive attention in addition to the processes represented in established Earth system and integrated assessment models.

  11. Use of Participatory Forest Management as a Strategy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of Participatory Forest Management as a Strategy for Sustainability of Kazimzumbwi and Pugu Forest Reserves, Tanzania. ... and deforestation are on the increase due to population pressure on forest resources, economic activities and climate change which are major challenges threatening forest resources.

  12. Distributed GIS Systems, Open Specifications and Interoperability: How do They Relate to the Sustainable Management of Natural Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael Moreno-Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this is paper is to provide a conceptual framework for the session: “The role of web-based Geographic Information Systems in supporting sustainable management.” The concepts of sustainability, sustainable forest management, Web Services, Distributed Geographic Information Systems, interoperability, Open Specifications, and Open Source Software are defined...

  13. The geographical distribution of plantation forests and land resources potentially available for pine plantations in the U.S. South

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Daowei [Forest Economics and Policy, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849-5418 (United States); Polyakov, Maksym [Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy, University of Western Australia, M089, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper, we provide an assessment of plantation forests and private land resources potentially available for pine plantation development in 11 southern states of the United States. After a sustained growth for 50 years, plantation forests (softwood and hardwood on both private and public lands) amounted to 18 million ha or 24 percent of all timberlands in these states in 2007. The vast majority of the plantation forests were established on private lands with fast-growing loblolly pines and slash pines. While purposeful hardwood plantations were rare, there were hardwood stands growing on failed pine plantation sites. Using a two-stage Markov land use transition model, we forecast that private forest land in these states will decline about 7 percent or from 66 million ha in 1997 to 61 million ha in 2027, primarily due to urbanization, and that private pine plantations will rise nearly 40 percent from 11 million ha to 16 million ha. Further, growth in pine plantations will decline in coming decades, and states with low population and population growth have the greatest increase in plantations. These plantations, along with other woody biomass, are expected to play an important role in the emerging bio-energy sector. (author)

  14. Argentina - Water Resources Management : Policy Elements for Sustainable Development in the 21st Century, Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    The study reviews the challenges water resources management faces, and the opportunities for policy formulation towards sustainable development in Argentina, where regardless of prudent public finances management, water resources management remain disproportionately backward compared to regional, and international best practices. Hence, within a frame of reference on the country's populati...

  15. Sustainable Tourism and Natural Resource Conservation in the Polar Regions: An Editorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbens, Edward; Lamers, M.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    This editorial provides an introduction to the special issue of Resources on Sustainable Tourism and Natural Resource Conservation in the Polar Regions, which proceeds the fifth bi-annual conference of the International Polar Tourism Research Network (IPTRN). The conference and coinciding community

  16. The Myth of 'Tragedy of the Commons' in Sustaining Water Resources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ayele_H_A

    2010-08-31

    Aug 31, 2010 ... The Myth of 'Tragedy of the Commons' in Sustaining Water Resources. 311. 1. Basic Assumptions of the Tragedy of the Commons. Theory. 1.1 The concepts of the tragedy of the commons. The fear of the ruin of scarce natural resources by human action is not a new idea. Hardin published an article in ...

  17. Managing Human Resource Capabilities for Sustainable Competitive Advantage: An Empirical Analysis from Indian Global Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandekar, Aradhana; Sharma, Anuradha

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to examine the role of human resource capability (HRC) in organisational performance and sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) in Indian global organisations. Design/Methodology/Approach: To carry out the present study, an empirical research on a random sample of 300 line or human resource managers from…

  18. The Dimension of Hydric Resources Quality in the Construction of the Sustainability Barometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cavalcante da Silva Batalhão

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sustainability Indicators are parameters that characterize past events, evidence situational portraits of the present and assist in projecting future scenarios in relation to sustainability. These instruments allow periodic checks of the process of sustainable development at various scales. The Barometer of Sustainability fits this proposal, because, treating men and nature equally, it assesses the degree of sustainability and has been used from local to national scope. Within this perspective, the basic aim of this research was to analyze the quality dimension of water resources in the development of this instrument, taking as an example the city of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. The adopted methodology had as its main foundation the Seven Stages Cycle for implementing the Barometer of Sustainability. The Barometer of Sustainability as an assessment tool has proved to be useful in contributing to the understanding of natural phenomena, being relevant to the analysis of water resources at the local level. This tool is a component part of an environmental management process and cannot be considered alone. The Barometer of Sustainability showed that Ribeirão Preto is at a reasonable level in relation to the water resources which were analyzed and considered in the research. The index of the theme Water, originated from the assessment tool, showed the highest value among the other topics discussed in the Ecological Subsystem for the city, being in health and environmental compliance.

  19. Natural resource administration: wildlife, fisheries, forests and parks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sparling, D. W

    2014-01-01

    "Natural Resource and Wildlife Administration presents a clear perspective on natural resource administration in North America, how it developed, how it is currently structured, and where it might be heading...

  20. Sustaining the Productivity and Function of Intensively Managed Forests - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, James A.; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2001-03-23

    The main goal of this study is to ensure sustainable management of wetland forests in the southeastern United States. The study is projected to measure soil, hydrology, and forest responses to several management scenarios across a complete forest cycle. From August 1997 to August 2000 the study has received funding as one of the Agenda 2020 projects, from the U.S. Department of Energy (Cooperative Agreement Number DE-FC07-97ID13551), the National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement, and Westvac Corporation. Quarterly progress reports were submitted regularly to the Department and all project participants. This final report summarizes the project results and progress achieved during this 3-year period. Over the past three years all research objectives planned for this project were completed.