WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustainable effective inter-generational

  1. Memory Saves Lives: Inter-generational Warnings Effectiveness - 13556

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Luik, Abraham; Patterson, Russell; Shafer, David; Klein, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami was a world-class natural disaster. It has been described as the most powerful earthquake ever in Japan, and as one of the most powerful earthquakes ever noted in the world. The toll in terms of human lives lost and property destruction was unimaginable. Even the word 'horrible' is inadequate to describe the suffering and misery that resulted. Nations with nuclear power programs are engaged in, or at least planning to become engaged in, arranging to eventually dispose of their higher-level radioactive waste materials in deep geologic repositories. Geologic repositories are passive safety systems, and if undisturbed isolate these dangerous materials form the biosphere for extremely long times. The key words, however, are 'if undisturbed'. To assure that future generations do not inadvertently drill into repositories, national programs, and the international community (the Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) preservation project of the Nuclear Energy Agency, for example), are proposing to place markers and/or monuments on closed repository sites that say 'do not drill here, and this is why' in various sophisticated ways. Such markers or monuments are attempts at providing passive institutional controls. The effectiveness of messages from past generations to a present generation may give an indication of how effective such passive institutional controls may be. (authors)

  2. Renormalization in general theories with inter-generation mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, Bernd A.; Sirlin, Alberto

    2011-11-01

    We derive general and explicit expressions for the unrenormalized and renormalized dressed propagators of fermions in parity-nonconserving theories with inter-generation mixing. The mass eigenvalues, the corresponding mass counterterms, and the effect of inter-generation mixing on their determination are discussed. Invoking the Aoki-Hioki-Kawabe-Konuma-Muta renormalization conditions and employing a number of very useful relations from Matrix Algebra, we show explicitly that the renormalized dressed propagators satisfy important physical properties. (orig.)

  3. Recursive inter-generational utility in global climate risk modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, Ha-Duong [Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environnement et le Developpement (CIRED-CNRS), 75 - Paris (France); Treich, N. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA-LEERNA), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2003-07-01

    This paper distinguishes relative risk aversion and resistance to inter-temporal substitution in climate risk modeling. Stochastic recursive preferences are introduced in a stylized numeric climate-economy model using preliminary IPCC 1998 scenarios. It shows that higher risk aversion increases the optimal carbon tax. Higher resistance to inter-temporal substitution alone has the same effect as increasing the discount rate, provided that the risk is not too large. We discuss implications of these findings for the debate upon discounting and sustainability under uncertainty. (author)

  4. "The mothers have eaten unripe grapes and the children's teeth are set on edge": the potential inter-generational effects of the Holocaust on chronic morbidity in Holocaust survivors' offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2014-03-25

    Modern epidemiology has evolved in the last decades from the simplified "cause-effect" paradigm to a multi-factorial framework of causality. The concept of "Fetal Origin of Adult Diseases" (FOAD) is a good example: it suggests that preconception circumstances and fetal exposures as well as infancy and early childhood experiences may eventually change an individual's susceptibility to adult morbidity through fetal programming and epigenetic changes. The FOAD concept was supported, between others, by well-designed cohort studies carried out on non-Jewish World War II (WWII) survivors, exposed to hunger during the War years. However, data on late physical morbidity of Jewish WWII survivors are still scarce.The current paper presents some cohorts addressing the FOAD hypothesis in relation to the long-term impact of early exposures to hunger and their main results. It stresses the need for the establishing of a similar cohort in Israel, in order to study the long-term effects of the Holocaust on the health of Holocaust child survivors and on that of the "second" and "third" generations. A framework for such a cohort in Israel is also proposed.Establishing a cohort of this character in Israel should be a national priority and policy. First, taking special care of Holocaust survivors is a somewhat neglected national obligation. Second, if the population of Holocaust survivors and their offspring is indeed a high risk group for late chronic morbidity, higher awareness may lead to better primary prevention and to tailored secondary prevention programs. Third, the population at stack is unique and its contribution to the consolidation of the FOAD theory and its translational applications may be of foremost importance, in the global and national sense.

  5. “The mothers have eaten unripe grapes and the children's teeth are set on edge”: the potential inter-generational effects of the Holocaust on chronic morbidity in Holocaust survivors’ offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Modern epidemiology has evolved in the last decades from the simplified “cause-effect” paradigm to a multi-factorial framework of causality. The concept of “Fetal Origin of Adult Diseases” (FOAD) is a good example: it suggests that preconception circumstances and fetal exposures as well as infancy and early childhood experiences may eventually change an individual’s susceptibility to adult morbidity through fetal programming and epigenetic changes. The FOAD concept was supported, between others, by well-designed cohort studies carried out on non-Jewish World War II (WWII) survivors, exposed to hunger during the War years. However, data on late physical morbidity of Jewish WWII survivors are still scarce. The current paper presents some cohorts addressing the FOAD hypothesis in relation to the long-term impact of early exposures to hunger and their main results. It stresses the need for the establishing of a similar cohort in Israel, in order to study the long-term effects of the Holocaust on the health of Holocaust child survivors and on that of the “second” and “third” generations. A framework for such a cohort in Israel is also proposed. Establishing a cohort of this character in Israel should be a national priority and policy. First, taking special care of Holocaust survivors is a somewhat neglected national obligation. Second, if the population of Holocaust survivors and their offspring is indeed a high risk group for late chronic morbidity, higher awareness may lead to better primary prevention and to tailored secondary prevention programs. Third, the population at stack is unique and its contribution to the consolidation of the FOAD theory and its translational applications may be of foremost importance, in the global and national sense. PMID:24661388

  6. Indonesia against the trend? Ageing and inter-generational wealth flows in two Indonesian communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Schröder-Butterfill

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian family systems do not conform to the prevailing image of Asian families, the predominant arrangements being nuclear and bilateral, with an important matrilineal minority. This paper considers the strength of family ties in two communities, focussing particularly on inter-generational flows of support to and from older members. Data are drawn from a longitudinal anthropological demography that combines ethnographic and panel survey methods. Several sources of variation in family ties are detailed, particularly the heterogeneity of support flows - balanced, upward, and downward - that co-exist in both communities. Different norms in each locale give sharply contrasting valuations of these flows. The ability of families to observe norms is influenced by the effectiveness of networks and by socio-economic status.

  7. Father-Son Inter-Generational Transmission of Authoritarian Paternal Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Peter O.; Statum, Jo Ann

    1984-01-01

    Attempted to determine authoritarian paternal attitude inter-generational transmission in fathers and sons (N=75). Results suggested that authoritarian paternal attitudes could be indicated in terms of five factors: Dominant, Rigidity, Conformity, Intolerant, and Uncreative; and that the sons expressed strongly the authoritarian attitudes of their…

  8. The essence of value : an application of inter generational justice to the price of gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnon, F.; Bernard, G.; Cloutier, G.; Coignaud, R.; Couillard, R.; Lampron, J.; Latrasse, C.; Lemire, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper was prepared by a group of citizens concerned about the price of gasoline. The paper was presented during public hearings held in Quebec with regard to the price of gasoline and its effects on the economy of Quebec. The voices represented are diverse: some own a car, others do not, but all are confronted, at one time or another, with the price of gasoline. The authors were of the opinion that the price of gasoline is too low, as opposed to the point of view shared by a vast majority of citizens. Gasoline is a polluting, non-renewable energy source that will soon be depleted. Gasoline has detrimental effects on the environment, the economy, quality of life and human health. It also negatively affects other animal species. As a society, the authors argued that we are too concerned with buying the biggest sports utility vehicle, and that we do not rationalize our travels, while complaining about the high price of gasoline. There are solutions, that are based on the principle of inter generational justice. In other words, future generations ought to be offered the same productivity potential as that our generation had access to. Gasoline reserves are being depleted, and we have a responsibility to use it efficiently and with parsimony, while investigating alternative energy sources. Those alternative energy sources should not pollute the environment, or keep it to a bare minimum. Exploitation costs are rising, and it would be wise to invest a portion of the savings realised today to benefit society when exploitation costs have increased considerably. The best way to intervene is to raise gasoline taxes, which would help reduce consumption and free up funds for government to use for other purposes. 43 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  9. Proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance: The mediating effect of sustainability control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijethilake, Chaminda

    2017-07-01

    This study examines to what extent corporations use sustainability control systems (SCS) to translate proactive sustainability strategy into corporate sustainability performance. The study investigates the mediating effect of SCS on the relationship between proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance. Survey data were collected from top managers in 175 multinational and local corporations operating in Sri Lanka and analyzed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). SCS were observed to only partially mediate the relationship between proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance. The mediating effect of SCS is further examined under three sustainability strategies; environmental and social strategies reveal a partial mediation, while the economic strategy exhibits no mediation. The study also finds that (i) a proactive sustainability strategy is positively associated with SCS and corporate sustainability performance and (ii) SCS are positively associated with corporate sustainability performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparing Generative and Inter-generative Subjectivity in Post-Revolutionary Academic Generations in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehran Sohrabzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study of different post-revolutionary generation has been broadly applied by social scientists; among them some believe there is a gulf between generations, while some others endorsing some small differences among generations, emphasis that this variety is natural. Avoiding being loyal to any of these two views, the present study attempts to compare three different post-revolutionary academic generations using theory of “generative objects” which explores generations’ view about their behaviors, Beliefs, and historical monuments. Sampling was carried among 3 generations; firstly ones who were student in 60s and now are experienced faculties in the university, secondly ones who are recently employed as faculty members, and finally who are now students in universities. Results show that in all 3 generations there are essential in-generation similarities, while comparatively there are some differentiations in inter-generative analysis.

  11. Learning About Parenting Together: A Programme to Support Parents with Inter-generational Concerns in Pune, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, E.E.; Chakranarayan, C; Bunders-Aelen, J.G.F.; Regeer, B.J.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid developments in the last few decades have brought about dramatic changes in Indian social life, particularly affecting new middle-class families. Inter-generational conflicts, high academic pressures, and modern anxieties lead to stress both in parents and in children. There is a need for

  12. Evidence for high inter-generational individual quality in yellow-eyed penguins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviva M. Stein

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal studies focusing on lifetime reproductive success (LRS have been used to measure individual breeding performance and identify commonalities among successful breeders. By extending the focus to subsequent generations we identify a proportion of high-quality individuals that contribute disproportionately to the population over multiple generations. We used 23 years of yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes breeding data from one breeding area to identify the proportion of individual birds that raised successful breeders, which in turn raised offspring. We explored which life-history components influenced LRS, as this knowledge would enable conservation resources to be focused on high-performing individuals in this endangered population. From 2,147 birds marked as chicks, 370 (17.2% survived to adulthood and recruited to their natal location, of which 219 (10.2% fledged offspring: 124 (56.6% of the 219 birds produced offspring that recruited as breeders. Only 102 birds (4.8% of 2,147 fledged first-generation offspring that in turn fledged offspring (second-generation offspring, or grand-offspring. We found that ∼25% of the birds that survived to breed had above-average LRS as well as above-average numbers of grand-offspring, and were more likely to have produced first-generation chicks that recruited and also produced above-average numbers of second-generation chicks. Our findings suggest that there is a core of “super-breeders” that contribute disproportionately to the population over successive generations. Lifespan and age-at-first-breeding were correlated with LRS. We suggest that traits of birds relating to longevity, health (e.g., immunocompetence and fitness could be examined to identify potential links with high LRS and inter-generational fecundity. “Super-breeders” appear to consistently achieve high LRS and long lifespans in a stochastic environment, demonstrating greater resilience in the face of extreme events.

  13. Measuring the effect of Sustainable Public Procurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp MC; Kok L; Valk E de; DMG; M&V; M&V

    2018-01-01

    Many purchasing services of the Dutch local and central governments, aim to include the effects of products and services on human health and the environment in the procurement process. Sustainable procurement (SP) encompasses more than just price and quality considerations. SP can result, for

  14. Effective Strategies for Sustaining Professional Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Patricia R.

    2010-01-01

    Professional Learning Communities (PLCs), in which educators work collaboratively to improve learning for students, need effective strategies to sustain them. PLCs promote continuous improvement in student learning and build academic success with increased teacher expertise. Grounded in organizational systems theory, participative leadership…

  15. Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Mei, Ying; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of Sustainability. It is divided into the following sections : • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management.

  16. The employment effects of sustainable development policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, Judith M.; Williams, Jeremy B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that it is time for ecological economists to bring the employment impacts of sustainable development policies to the forefront of the research agenda. Important conservation efforts continue to founder because of their perceived employment effects. The paper examines the evidence on the employment impacts of sustainable development policies and argues that maintaining or even increasing employment depends critically on appropriate policy design and attention to the political economy of implementation of policies. The paper concludes that a better understanding of these issues, fair labour market and structural adjustment programs, and especially forward planning to anticipate problem areas, must replace the piecemeal, 'knee-jerk' reactions to environmental issues, such as were evident in Australia during the last federal election. (author)

  17. Priority for sustainability. Study of the effects on investment climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    The Dutch cabinet has been asked to make sure that sustainable electricity plants can be connected to the grid with high priority. By request of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, the effects on the investment climate have been examined (both for sustainable and conventional) if priority (with regard to connection and transport) is given to sustainable generated electricity. Five models for priority for sustainable have been defined, i.e. (1) Sustainable is only given priority on the waiting list for connection; (2) Connect sustainable immediately, but no priority for transport; (3) Connect sustainable immediately and priority granted in transport; (4) Connect sustainable and conventional immediately, no priority for transport; (5) Connect sustainable and conventional immediately and give priority in transport to sustainable. [mk] [nl

  18. The Inter-generational Transmission of Marital Instability: Comparisons by Race and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Hallowell; Mueller, Charles W.

    1976-01-01

    Notes that except for black males, a greater transmission effect is found among respondents from childhood homes disrupted by divorce or separation rather than by death. Also suggests that the role model rationale for the transmission of marital instability be elaborated upon. (Author/AM)

  19. Childhood adversity, parental vulnerability and disorder: examining inter-generational transmission of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, A; Moran, P M; Ball, C; Jacobs, C; Baines, R; Bunn, A; Cavagin, J

    2002-11-01

    An investigation of intergenerational factors associated with psychiatric disorder in late adolescence/early adulthood was undertaken to differentiate influences from maternal disorder, maternal poor psychosocial functioning and poor parenting, on offspring. The sample comprised an intensively studied series of 276 mother-offspring pairs in a relatively deprived inner-city London area with high rates of lone parenthood and socio-economic disadvantage. The paired sample was collected over two time periods: first a consecutively screened series of mothers and offspring in 1985-90 (n = 172 pairs) and second a 'vulnerable' series of mothers and offspring in 1995-99 (n = 104 pairs). The vulnerable mothers were selected for poor interpersonal functioning and/or low self-esteem and the consecutive series were used for comparison. Rates of childhood adversity and disorder in the offspring were examined in the two groups. Maternal characteristics including psychosocial vulnerability and depression were then examined in relation to risk transmission. Offspring of vulnerable mothers had a fourfold higher rate of yearly disorder than those in the comparison series (43% vs. 11%, p maternal vulnerability and neglect/abuse of offspring provided the best model for offspring disorder. Maternal history of depression had no direct effect on offspring disorder; its effects were entirely mediated by offspring neglect/abuse. Maternal childhood adversity also had no direct effect. Results are discussed in relation to psychosocial models of risk transmission for disorder. Maternal poor psychosocial functioning needs to be identified as a factor requiring intervention in order to stem escalation of risk across generations.

  20. Healthcare Building Sustainability Assessment tool - Sustainable Effective Design criteria in the Portuguese context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Maria de Fátima; Mateus, Ricardo; Bragança, Luís

    2017-01-01

    Tools and methods to improve current practices and quality in the healthcare building sector are necessary to support decision-making at different building life cycle phases. Furthermore, Healthcare Building Sustainability Assessment (HBSA) Methods are based on criteria organised into different levels, such as categories and indicators. These criteria highlight aspects of significant importance when designing and operating a sustainable healthcare building. To bring more objectivity to the sustainability assessments, the standardisation bodies (CEN and ISO) proposed core indicators that should be used in the evaluation of the environmental, societal and economic performances of buildings. Nevertheless, relying on state of the art analysis, it is possible to conclude that there are aspects of major importance for the operation of healthcare buildings that are not considered in the HBSA methods. Thus, the aim of this paper is to discuss the context of sustainability assessment methods in the field of healthcare buildings and to present a proposal for the incorporation of Sustainable-Effective Design (SED) criteria in a new HBSA method. The used research method is innovative since in the development of the list of sustainability criteria it considers the opinion of main healthcare buildings' stakeholders, the existing healthcare assessment methods and the ISO and CEN standardisation works in the field of the methods to assess the sustainability of construction works. As a result, the proposed method is composed of fifty-two sustainability indicators that cover the different dimensions of the sustainability concept to support decision making during the design of a new or retrofitted healthcare building in urban areas. - Highlights: •A new system to assess the sustainability of healthcare buildings is presented. •We propose a method to develop the list of sustainability indicators for hospitals. •We propose a new concept – Sustainable-Effective Design (SED

  1. Inter-generational Decision Making for Radioactive Waste Disposal, Policy and Science: Regulatory Protection Forever?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, E.P.; Wallo, A.

    2006-01-01

    Assumptions about this generation's duty to future generations underlie decisions on regulatory requirements for disposal of radioactive waste. Regulatory provisions related to time of compliance, dose criteria, and institutional controls, for example, continue to be topics of discussion as regulations are revised or compared. Subjective and difficult ethical issues are either explicit or implicit in these discussions. The information and criteria used must be relevant and help make good decisions that, ideally, increase the overall welfare of future generations. To what extent can or should science usefully inform such decision-making? Both the National Academies of Science and the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA) have reported on this topic, albeit from different viewpoints. This paper explains and expands upon the rationale used for setting compliance time periods such as the Department of Energy's requirement for a 1,000 year time of compliance with dose limits for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It evaluates radioactive waste disposal against principles of equity recommended by NAPA. Radioactive waste disposal standards require evaluation of impacts much farther into the future than has been common for other endeavors with very long term effects. While performance assessment analyses provide much useful information, their inherent uncertainties over long time periods preclude the projection of reality. Thus, the usefulness of extremely long projections in supporting good decisions that promote the welfare of future generations is limited. Such decisions are fundamentally a question of resource allocation, equity, and fairness. (authors)

  2. Effective integrated frameworks for assessing mining sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgone, K M; Ramirez-Andreotta, M; Mainhagu, J; Brusseau, M L

    2018-05-28

    The objectives of this research are to review existing methods used for assessing mining sustainability, analyze the limited prior research that has evaluated the methods, and identify key characteristics that would constitute an enhanced sustainability framework that would serve to improve sustainability reporting in the mining industry. Five of the most relevant frameworks were selected for comparison in this analysis, and the results show that there are many commonalities among the five, as well as some disparities. In addition, relevant components are missing from all five. An enhanced evaluation system and framework were created to provide a more holistic, comprehensive method for sustainability assessment and reporting. The proposed framework has five components that build from and encompass the twelve evaluation characteristics used in the analysis. The components include Foundation, Focus, Breadth, Quality Assurance, and Relevance. The enhanced framework promotes a comprehensive, location-specific reporting approach with a concise set of well-defined indicators. Built into the framework is quality assurance, as well as a defined method to use information from sustainability reports to inform decisions. The framework incorporates human health and socioeconomic aspects via initiatives such as community-engaged research, economic valuations, and community-initiated environmental monitoring.

  3. Sustainability, the Greenhouse effect, silviculture, and overpopulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, F.K. (International Paper Co., Corporate Research Center, Tuxedo Park, NY (US))

    1991-10-01

    Ever since man became conscious of the finite dimensions of Planet Earth, he has worried about his ability to survive in an ever-more crowded environment. This paper reports that the fundamental question underlying this concern is sustainability: Can we indefinitely supply, maintain, and prolong that which we have This question is, of course, multifaceted. Man's early concerns quickly polarized the scientists and economists of this world into two philosophical camps---the Malthusians and the Cornucopians. Over time, economists learned that Malthus seriously underestimated the capacity of technology to enhance productivity, although Malthusian sympathizers (both scientists and economists) continually raised the specter of imminent doom. Much of what lies ahead will provide a series of daunting challenges for us all, and the engine that drives sustainability has to be technology. The central issue is to ensure that the right kind of technology is available, and that it is used widely to ensure sustainability.

  4. Sustainability, the Greenhouse effect, silviculture, and overpopulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, F.K.

    1991-01-01

    Ever since man became conscious of the finite dimensions of Planet Earth, he has worried about his ability to survive in an ever-more crowded environment. This paper reports that the fundamental question underlying this concern is sustainability: Can we indefinitely supply, maintain, and prolong that which we have? This question is, of course, multifaceted. Man's early concerns quickly polarized the scientists and economists of this world into two philosophical camps---the Malthusians and the Cornucopians. Over time, economists learned that Malthus seriously underestimated the capacity of technology to enhance productivity, although Malthusian sympathizers (both scientists and economists) continually raised the specter of imminent doom. Much of what lies ahead will provide a series of daunting challenges for us all, and the engine that drives sustainability has to be technology. The central issue is to ensure that the right kind of technology is available, and that it is used widely to ensure sustainability

  5. Conceptualizing the Effectiveness of Sustainability Assessment in Development Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Hugé

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessment has emerged as a key decision-support process in development cooperation in response to the growing acknowledgement of the impacts of global change. This paper aims at conceptualizing the effectiveness of sustainability assessment as applied in development cooperation, by focusing on the sustainability assessment practice by actors of the official Belgian Development Cooperation. The conceptualization of the effectiveness of sustainability assessment is synthesized in a set of issues and concerns, based on semi-structured interviews. The paper highlights the specificity of sustainability assessment in the development cooperation sector (e.g., through the cultural and discursive compatibility dimensions of assessment in a North-South context. Effectiveness is inherently linked to the expected functions of sustainability assessment in the decision-making process, which include fostering organizational change, shaping contextually adapted framings of sustainability and operationalizing the sustainability transition. These findings highlight the relevance of a discourse-sensitive approach to sustainability assessment if one is to strengthen its credibility and legitimacy.

  6. Fociss for an effective sustainable innovation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    John J. Hageman; Dr. ir. Jan Venselaar

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable development will be a major driving force for new developments in businesses. Most companies are very much aware of that but find it difficult to translate this insight into concrete actions. An often observed obstacle is that most, particularly SME's, find it difficult to evaluate how

  7. Sustaining an Effective ABC-ABM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary COKINS

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the Activity- Based Costing (ABC and Activity-Based Management (ABM system and techniques to sustain them as a permanent and repeatable production reporting system, not just for one-off analysis. A comparison is made between ABC/ABM modeling software that extracts source data and business systems that include ABC/ABM modeling features. There are presented the stages of updating, running and rerunning the ABC/ABM system. The resulting information calculated and provided by the ABC/ABM system are analyzed and interpreted in terms of a multidimensional data analysis. The article ends with the authors' conclusions about the benefits of continued operation of sustaining the ABC/ABM system.

  8. Sustaining an Effective ABC-ABM System

    OpenAIRE

    Gary COKINS; Sorinel CĂPUŞNEANU

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the Activity- Based Costing (ABC) and Activity-Based Management (ABM) system and techniques to sustain them as a permanent and repeatable production reporting system, not just for one-off analysis. A comparison is made between ABC/ABM modeling software that extracts source data and business systems that include ABC/ABM modeling features. There are presented the stages of updating, running and rerunning the ABC/ABM system. The resul...

  9. Realism and Impartiality: Making Sustainability Effective in Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastons, Miquel; Armengou, Jaume

    2017-08-01

    There is both individual and collective widespread concern in society about the impact of human activity and the effects of our decisions on the physical and social environment. This concern is included within the idea of sustainability. The meaning of the concept is still ambiguous and its practical effectiveness disputed. Like many other authors, this article uses as a starting point the definition proposed by the World Commission on Environment and Development (Our common future, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1987), considering it to be a proposal for changing the assessment of the effects of decisions, from at least two perspectives: (1) what effects we should consider and (2) how we should assess them. Based on this double perspective, sustainability is explored as a method for decision-making which both expands the assessment of the consequences, and also provides an objective criterion for such assessment. It will be argued that the idea of sustainability, seen from this perspective, brings to decision-making two qualities which had been partially lost: realism and impartiality. In turn, the criteria for realism and impartiality in decision-making can be used to identify the limitations of some partial approaches to sustainability, which suffer from insufficient realism (emotional altruism), insufficient impartiality (tactical altruism) or both phenomena at once (egoism). The article concludes by demonstrating how realism and impartiality provide the basis for a new form of sustainable decision-making (ethical sustainability), which is dependent on the development of two moral virtues, prudence and benevolence, and which brings practical effectiveness and ethical sense to the concept of sustainability.

  10. School effectiveness and school improvement : Sustaining links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, B.P.M.; Reezigt, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    Ideally, school effectiveness research and school improvement might have a relationship with a surplus value for both. In reality, this relationship is often troublesome. Some problems can be attributed to the intrinsic differences between effectiveness and improvement, such as different missions.

  11. ERP characterization of sustained attention effects in visual lexical categorization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara D Martin

    Full Text Available As our understanding of the basic processes underlying reading is growing, the key role played by attention in this process becomes evident. Two research topics are of particular interest in this domain: (1 it is still undetermined whether sustained attention affects lexical decision tasks; (2 the influence of attention on early visual processing (i.e., before orthographic or lexico-semantic processing stages remains largely under-specified. Here we investigated early perceptual modulations by sustained attention using an ERP paradigm adapted from Thierry et al. [1]. Participants had to decide whether visual stimuli presented in pairs pertained to a pre-specified category (lexical categorization focus on word or pseudoword pairs. Depending on the lexical category of the first item of a pair, participants either needed to fully process the second item (hold condition or could release their attention and make a decision without full processing of the second item (release condition. The P1 peak was unaffected by sustained attention. The N1 was delayed and reduced after the second item of a pair when participants released their attention. Release of sustained attention also reduced a P3 wave elicited by the first item of a pair and abolished the P3 wave elicited by the second. Our results are consistent with differential effects of sustained attention on early processing stages and working memory. Sustained attention modulated early processing stages during a lexical decision task without inhibiting the process of stimulus integration. On the contrary, working memory involvement/updating was highly dependent upon the allocation of sustained attention. Moreover, the influence of sustained attention on both early and late cognitive processes was independent of lexical categorization focus.

  12. Effective and Sustainable Health Research Partnerships : a ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC frequently supports collaborative Canada-South research on subjects of vital ... to structure and manage Canada-South research partnerships more effectively. ... Africa, Latin America and Canada leading to region-specific working papers on ... for the Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program 2018 competition.

  13. Effectiveness of plant based insecticides as a sustainable means of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is an important crop in Pakistan. It is affected by many biotic and abiotic factors. Among these, Cucumber mosaic virus is the important disease with economic losses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of plant based insecticides as a sustainable means to control the ...

  14. The Effect of Implementation of Education for Sustainable Development in Swedish Compulsory Schools--Assessing Pupils' Sustainability Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, D.; Gericke, N.; Chang Rundgren, S.-N.

    2016-01-01

    During the past decade, numerous schools in Sweden have implemented education for sustainable development (ESD) as an explicit guiding approach in teaching. In this paper, we investigate the effect of this approach in comparison with that of pupils taught in ordinary schools. Accordingly, we introduce the concept of sustainability consciousness to…

  15. Sustainability principles in strategic environmental assessment: A framework for analysis and examples from Italian urban planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamorgese, Lydia, E-mail: lydial@tin.it; Geneletti, Davide, E-mail: davide.geneletti@unitn.it

    2013-09-15

    This paper presents a framework for analysing the degree of consideration of sustainability principles in Strategic environmental assessment (SEA), and demonstrates its application to a sample of SEA of Italian urban plans. The framework is based on Gibson's (2006) sustainability principles, which are linked to a number of guidance criteria and eventually to review questions, resulting from an extensive literature review. A total of 71 questions are included in the framework, which gives particular emphasis to key concepts, such as intragenerational and intergenerational equity. The framework was applied to review the Environmental Report of the urban plans of 15 major Italian cities. The results of this review show that, even if sustainability is commonly considered as a pivotal concept, there is still work to be done in order to effectively integrate sustainability principles into SEA. In particular, most of the attention is given to mitigation and compensation measures, rather than to actual attempts to propose more sustainable planning decisions in the first place. Concerning the proposed framework of analysis, further research is required to clarify equity concerns and particularly to identify suitable indicators for operationalizing the concepts of intra/inter-generational equity in decision-making. -- Highlights: ► A framework was developed in order to evaluate planning against sustainability criteria. ► The framework was applied to analyse how sustainable principles are addressed in 15 Italian SEA reports. ► Over 85% of the reports addressed, to some extent, at least 40% of the framework questions. ► Criteria explicitly linked to intra and inter-generational equity are rarely addressed.

  16. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function. PMID:26075234

  17. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hirano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64% showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5% showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23% showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9% showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  18. Chewing and attention: a positive effect on sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  19. Sustainable packaging: from eco-efficiency to eco-effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Boas, Simon H.; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2014-01-01

    According to Verghese et al (2012) sustainable packaging should be: effective in delivering its functional requirements, efficient in its use of materials, energy, and water throughout its life cycle, cyclic in its use of renewable materials and recoverability at end-of-life, and safe for people...... and the natural environment. Companies in the packaging sector have traditionally been using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology to fulfill these requirements. However, being inspired by the eco-efficiency principle, LCA aims to reduce the negative environmental footprint of human activities by optimizing...... and emissions can be taken up as nutrients by other processes instead of reducing the amount of waste as eco-efficiency advocates. From a company point of view, LCA and C2C are complementary approaches to develop sustainable andinnovative solutions for packaging, see Figure 1. We will illustrate the challenges...

  20. Sustainability effects of household-scale biogas in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosens, Jorrit; Lu, Yonglong; He, Guizhen; Bluemling, Bettina; Beckers, Theo A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Households in rural China rely heavily on low quality fuels which results in reduced quality of life and environmental degradation. This study assesses the comparative contribution of household scale biogas installations to the broad set of sustainability objectives in the Chinese biogas policy framework, which targets household budget, fuel collection workload, forest degradation, indoor air quality and health, renewable energy supply, and climate change. A household survey was used to determine how biogas affected consumption levels of crop residues, fuel wood, coal, LPG, and electricity. Biogas users were found to reduce consumption of biomass fuels but not coal. Although LPG is not a highly commonly used fuel in rural China, biogas users nearly cease to use it altogether. A big reduction in fuel wood consumption results in strongly reduced workload and forest degradation. Although household scale biogas has alleviated all sustainability issues targeted by Chinese policies, low quality fuel use remains abundant, even in households using biogas. Continued promotion of the construction of biogas installations is advisable, but additional policies are needed to ensure higher quality heating energy supply and cleaner uses of biomass fuels. - Highlights: ► Household biogas alleviated all sustainability issues targeted by policy. ► Biogas users consume less biomass fuels, much less LPG, but similar amounts of coal. ► Strongest sustainability effects are reduced workload and forest degradation. ► Household budget effects are slight as commercial cooking fuel use is limited. ► Low quality fuel use remains abundant and further policy efforts are needed

  1. Does high optimism protect against the inter-generational transmission of high BMI? The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serlachius, Anna; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Juonala, Markus; Sabin, Matthew; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Elovainio, Marko

    2017-09-01

    The transmission of overweight from one generation to the next is well established, however little is known about what psychosocial factors may protect against this familial risk. The aim of this study was to examine whether optimism plays a role in the intergenerational transmission of obesity. Our sample included 1043 participants from the prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young FINNS Study. Optimism was measured in early adulthood (2001) when the cohort was aged 24-39years. BMI was measured in 2001 (baseline) and 2012 when they were aged 35-50years. Parental BMI was measured in 1980. Hierarchical linear regression and logistic regression were used to examine the association between optimism and future BMI/obesity, and whether an interaction existed between optimism and parental BMI when predicting BMI/obesity 11years later. High optimism in young adulthood demonstrated a negative relationship with high BMI in mid-adulthood, but only in women (β=-0.127, p=0.001). The optimism×maternal BMI interaction term was a significant predictor of future BMI in women (β=-0.588, p=0.036). The logistic regression results confirmed that high optimism predicted reduced obesity in women (OR=0.68, 95% CI, 0.55-0.86), however the optimism × maternal obesity interaction term was not a significant predictor (OR=0.50, 95% CI, 0.10-2.48). Our findings supported our hypothesis that high optimism mitigated the intergenerational transmission of high BMI, but only in women. These findings also provided evidence that positive psychosocial factors such as optimism are associated with long-term protective effects on BMI in women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of natural resources on a sustainable development policy: The approach of non-sustainable externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, Markus; Chiang Lichun

    2011-01-01

    The debate about the importance of non-renewable resources for economic development between optimists and pessimists shows that the extensive depletion of non-renewable resources, particularly oil, along with a higher level of consumption could have a significant impact on the economic development of future generations. Based on this debate, this paper proposes criteria under which the depletion of non-renewable resources would create excess costs for future generations. Therefore, this paper aims to answer the question 'What will be the impact of the depletion of non-renewable resources on sustainable economic development?' Accordingly, a sustainable development policy appears feasible by minimizing non-sustainable externalities which derive from future externalities that weigh the benefits from a previous employment of natural resources. The research based on qualitative analysis clarifies the reasons for and the extents of taking sustainability into account as well as points to difficulties of implementing policies to time the transition towards a sustainable economic development. Finally, the research shows the implications of this approach for environmental degradation, the depletion of non-renewable resources and energy production. - Research Highlights: →Economic development will more or less smoothly switch to the use of renewable substitutes. →The transition towards a sustainable use of resources may inherit costs for future generations. →Non-sustainable externalities show the future costs of excessive resource depletion. →The approach aims to take the long-term global effects of resource substitution into account.

  3. Effects of sustainable employability policies on organizational performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, K.O.; Sanders, J.

    2015-01-01

    Presentations on the 11th International Conference on Occupational Stress and Health. Session: organizational justice and sustainability: approaches and implications for performance and the bottom line. Interactive paper session: sustainability, occupational safety and health: developing a research

  4. Preliminary evaluation of the impact and inter-generation risk transfers related to the release and disposal of radioactive waste from the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tort, V.; Lochard, J.; Schneider, T.; Sugier, A.

    1997-12-01

    This report is an attempt to contribute to the complex issue of the decision-making in the field of radioactive waste management. Because of the complex and multidimensional nature of the distant future consequences of waste management options, their analysis implies the taking into considerations of various aggregated indicators which depend on the elapse of time during which the radionuclides remain in the environment and their local, regional or world-wide dispersion. This report is a preliminary work sponsored by IPSN mainly focused on the risk transfer dimension, inherent to waste disposal management. Its objective is to illustrate, using the French nuclear fuel cycle context, the relative impact of some simple waste management options, outlining particularly the issue of inter-generation risk transfer. Even though the selected six radionuclides are the most important, a complete assessment should include all the radionuclides contained in the waste, what is particularly important in case of underground waste disposal were both normal evolution scenarios and intrusion must be considered. The extreme alternatives, i.e. the total disposal or total release of the radionuclides are analyzed but realistic are the intermediate options, which should be thoroughly examined from the technical point of view. The analysis of intermediate management options could give an estimation of the most appropriate solution in an ALARA perspective

  5. The effect of knowledge based view on sustainable competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rezaee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the quantitative relationship between knowledge based view (i.e. empowering employees, promoting confidence, coding rules and sustainability competitive advantage (i.e. market, customer, financial within the banking industry of Iran. A valid research instrument was utilized to conduct a survey of 150 top- and middle-level managers from Mellat bank of Iran. With a response rate of 81.3 percent, 122 questionnaires are returned; the number of valid and usable questionnaires was 101. In order to determine validity of questionnaire, the content validity was used and Cronbach's alpha was used to determine the reliability of the questionnaire (KBV questionnaire 0.886, SCA questionnaire 0.843. Utilizing the structural equation modeling, and after a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, it was found that KBV had the greatest effect on the market centered SCA, while it had the least influence on the customer centered.

  6. Enabling Effective Problem-oriented Research for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kueffer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems caused by human activities are increasing; biodiversity is disappearing at an unprecedented rate, soils are being irreversibly damaged, freshwater is increasingly in short supply, and the climate is changing. To reverse or even to reduce these trends will require a radical transformation in the relationship between humans and the natural environment. Just how this can be achieved within, at most, a few decades is unknown, but it is clear that academia must play a crucial role. Many believe, however, that academic institutions need to become more effective in helping societies move toward sustainability. We first synthesize current thinking about this crisis of research effectiveness. We argue that those involved in producing knowledge to solve societal problems face three particular challenges: the complexity of real-world sustainability problems, maintaining impartiality when expert knowledge is used in decision making, and ensuring the salience of the scientific knowledge for decision makers. We discuss three strategies to meet these challenges: conducting research in interdisciplinary teams, forming research partnerships with actors and experts from outside academia, and framing research questions with the aim of solving specific problems (problem orientation. However, we argue that implementing these strategies within academia will require both cultural and institutional change. We then use concepts from transition management to suggest how academic institutions can make the necessary changes. At the level of system optimization, we call for: quality criteria, career incentives, and funding schemes that reward not only disciplinary excellence but also achievements in inter-/transdisciplinary work; professional services and training through specialized centers that facilitate problem-oriented research and reciprocal knowledge exchange with society; and the integration of sustainability and inter

  7. Effects of Corporate Sustainability on Established Brand : the case of IKEA

    OpenAIRE

    Gbanabila, Yenimi

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Sustainable Development as an alternative approach to changing unsustainable behaviour in today’s business practices to save the planet towards a sustainable society is shifting branding paradigm from the “what of the commodity to the how of shared values”. For marketers responding to this changing paradigm to maintain competitive in today’s market sustainable branding is gaining attention in today’s business practices. But does sustainable practice have effects on branding i...

  8. The effect of resource based view on sustainable capability advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Jafari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, it is important to achieve and to sustain an organization’s competitive advantage in complex environments. This paper evaluates different concepts that have led to such benefits. The study sheds light on resource based view (RBV and its role to reach sustainable competitive advantage (SCA within banking industry of Iran. A valid research instrument was utilized to conduct a survey of 150 top- and middle-level managers from Mellat bank of Iran. With a response rate of 81.3 percent, 122 questionnaires were returned while a number of valid and usable questionnaires were 101. In order to determine validity of questionnaire, the content validity and Cronbach's alpha were used to determine the reliability of the questionnaire (RBV questionnaire 0.934, SCA questionnaire 0.843. The study utilized structural equation modelling, and a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and they tested the integrated model of MKM and SCA. Statistical support was found for the hypothesized relationships. Moreover it has been shown that RBV had the greatest effect on the market centered SCA, while it had the least influence on the financial centered. The findings offer valuable insights on the generalizability of MKM in a research setting. Structural equation modeling has been implemented and the study also used freedman test to rank the factors and the results show that communication was the most important factor (4.41, followed by process (4.03, knowledge implementation (2.79, decision making (2.54 and human resources (1.22 was the last important factor.

  9. Sustainable Transformation & Effective Competency Management Practices in Nuclear Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardelliano, S.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Managing essential knowledge as a strategic organizational asset is a factor of upmost relevance in today’s nuclear organizations. The author considers evident that competencies are critical carriers of knowledge. As such the use of an appropriate competency model could be the most effective way to capture the present reservoir of explicit and tacit Knowledge of specific functions or organizational areas. Besides, we could use them for new or other redesigned functions or determine the needs of specific competencies for future positions. Therefore, appropriate competency models or systems have to be developed or updated in each nuclear organization since these are fundamental for managing more effectively and efficiently the present nuclear human capital and to forecast the evolving competence required in management, technical, scientific and safety areas to continuously ensure a highly competent nuclear workforce. On the other hand, competency based management models or systems would not achieve the expected results if they are not fully designed and integrated within the strategic organizational infrastructure of the related nuclear organization. This paper is expected to provide a wider view and practical reflections on organizational transformation issues and the benefits of using an integrative competency model in the nuclear industry. Particularly, the paper give an insight of an empiric model for strategic organizational transformation processes and integrative management practices, and on how to realign strategic issues with top management processes and build organizational capacity through effective competency based management for the sustainable transformation of nuclear organizations. (author

  10. Sustaining the Effects of Gatekeeper Suicide Prevention Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtivelband, Annette; Aloise-Young, Patricia A; Chen, Peter Y

    2015-02-23

    Background: Gatekeeper training is a promising suicide prevention strategy that is growing in popularity. Although gatekeeper training programs have been found to improve trainee knowledge, self-efficacy, and perceived skills, researchers have found that the benefit of gatekeeper training may not last over time. Aims: The purpose of this study was to identify strategies for strengthening the long-term effects of suicide prevention gatekeeper training. Method: In-depth interviews and focus groups were conducted with gatekeepers (N = 44) and data were analyzed using a qualitative research approach. Results: The results of this study suggest that posttraining interventions may be more effective if they include the following seven themes: (a) social network - connecting with other gatekeepers; (b) continued learning - further education; (c) community outreach - building awareness; (d) accessibility - convenience; (e) reminders - ongoing communication; (f) program improvement -- enhancing previous training; and (g) certification - accreditation. Conclusion: Posttraining interventions that incorporate the themes from this study offer a promising direction in which to sustain the effects of gatekeeper suicide prevention training.

  11. The mediating effect of sustainability control system on reverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyses part of the viability of green supply chain management practices created for fisheries industry to implement sustainability control system adoption as mediating on reverse logistics innovation and customer environmental collaboration towards sustainability performance. It examines reverse logistics ...

  12. Technological progress and sustainable development. What about the rebound effect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binswanger, M.

    2001-01-01

    Sustainability concepts that rest on the idea of resource- or energy-efficiency improvements due to technological progress tend to overestimate the potential saving effects because they frequently ignore the behavioral responses evoked by technological improvements. Efficiency improvements also affect the demand for resources and energy, and often an increase in efficiency by 1% will cause a reduction in resource use that is far below 1% or, sometimes, it can even cause an increase in resource use. This phenomenon is commonly labeled the rebound effect, which is well-known among energy economists, but never attracted much attention in ecological economics. The paper starts with the traditional neoclassical analysis of the rebound effect in a partial equilibrium framework that concentrates on the demand of one particular energy service such as mobility or room temperature. It also provides an overview of some of the main empirical studies based on this model that mostly confirm the existence of the rebound effect, but are controversial about its actual importance. However, we have to go beyond the neoclassical single-service model in order to take care of the variety of possible feedback affecting energy use. The paper presents two important expansions of the single-service model in order to show the potential relevance of the rebound effect to ecological economics. First, it is shown that in a multi-services model it proves to be difficult to make general statements about the relevance of the rebound effect. In this case, the overall effect of an increase in energy efficiency on total energy use depends on the on the assumptions about the substitutability between the services considered and the direction of the income effect. Second, the paper also tries to take care of the fact that changes in resource use or energy use are frequently just 'side-effects' of other forms of technological progress. Especially technological change of a time-saving nature can have a

  13. What are the Most Effective Drivers of Sustainable Development in the Decision Making Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Tine Ring; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2017-01-01

    The identification of the most effective drivers of sustainable development is a focal point for most – if not all – policymakers and companies interested in sustainable development. Whilst the answer to this is of course very contextual this paper presents a practitioner’s review of the political...... and sustaining the market demand for sustainable buildings it is actually the economic and social drivers for sustainable building, such as life cycle costs, futureproofing of investments, better quality and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), that have the greatest impact on construction clients’ decision...

  14. Sustained effects of attentional re-training on chocolate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Elford, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that cognitive bias modification produces immediate changes in attentional bias for, and consumption of, rewarding substances including food. This study examined the longevity of these attentional bias modification effects. A modified dot probe paradigm was used to determine whether alterations in biased attentional processing of food cues, and subsequent effects on consumption, were maintained at 24-h and one-week follow-up. One hundred and forty-nine undergraduate women were trained to direct their attention toward ('attend') or away from ('avoid') food cues (i.e., pictures of chocolate). Within each group, half received a single training session, the other half completed 5 weekly training sessions. Attentional bias for chocolate cues increased in the 'attend' group, and decreased in the 'avoid' group immediately post training. Participants in the 'avoid' group also ate disproportionately less of a chocolate food product in a so-called taste test than did those in the 'attend' group. Importantly, the observed re-training effects were maintained 24 h later and also one week later, but only following multiple training sessions. There are a number of limitations that could be addressed in future research: (a) the inclusion of a no-training control group, (b) the inclusion of a suspicion probe to detect awareness of the purpose of the taste test, and (c) the use of different tasks to assess and re-train attentional bias. The results showed sustained effects of attentional re-training on attentional bias and consumption. They further demonstrate the importance of administering multiple re-training sessions in attentional bias modification protocols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Wrong effects of apparent sustainable solutions. The Dutch impact on global biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rood, T.; Alkemade, R.

    2005-01-01

    What is the value of sustainable development in a specific country if imported products have negative effects in the country from where those products were imported. Apparently sustainable solutions in one's own country might have negative effects somewhere else, sooner or later. A clear picture of the ecological claim of a country is one of the methods to find the right way towards a sustainable future [nl

  16. Building Corporate Reputation through Sustainable Entrepreneurship: The Mediating Effect of Ethical Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª del Mar Ramos-González

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates how a management approach based on sustainable entrepreneurship can positively affect corporate reputation. The analysis showed that this effect is enhanced by the mediating effect of good governance based on ethical behavior. The empirical study was conducted using data for 104 large Spanish firms defined as sustainable by the Corporate Reputation Business Monitor (MERCO ranking.

  17. Social mobility and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle-income country: Association of intra- and inter-generational social mobility with carotid intima-media thickness in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Joanna M N; Clarke, Philippa; Tate, Denise; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Griep, Rosane Harter; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Santos, Itamar S; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Chor, Dora

    2016-11-01

    Over the past half century Brazil has undergone a process of dramatic industrialization and urbanization. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have become common due to rapid demographic, epidemiologic, and nutritional transitions. The association of social mobility with subclinical CVD has been rarely explored, particularly in developing societies. We investigated the association of intra- and inter-generational social mobility with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a marker of subclinical or asymptomatic atherosclerosis, in a large Brazilian sample (ELSA-Brasil). We used baseline data (2008-2010) for 7343 participants from ELSA-Brasil. Intra-generational social mobility was defined as the change in occupational social class between participants' first occupation and current occupation. Inter-generational social mobility was defined as the change in occupational social class of the head of the household when the participant started working and participants' current occupation. Social mobility groups were classified as: stable high (reference), upward, downward and stable low. Linear regression models were used to examine the associations between type of social mobility and IMT. Compared to those who experienced stable high occupational status across generations, downward inter-generational mobility was associated with greater IMT. Additionally, those who declined the most in occupational status had the highest values of IMT, even after adjustments for lifestyle and cardiovascular factors. For intra-generational mobility, stable low versus stable high social mobility was independently associated with higher IMT. Subclinical atherosclerosis is patterned by socioeconomic status both within and across generations, demonstrating an association even before symptoms of CVD appear. The health consequences of downward inter-generational social mobility were not fully explained by lifestyle and cardiovascular factors, whereas being consistently exposed to low occupational

  18. Urban branding as an effective sustainability tool in urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeman Mohammed Rehan

    2014-08-01

    Urban branding is a new approach toward urban development of sustainable cities. City branding, a novel aspect of urban communication, improves marketing of the city image in various ways by converting the visual image of the city into a brand image. Unique characteristics of the city are featured and a sustainable urban image is created. This paper will focus on city branding as a powerful image-building strategy. In this realm, the branding of Stuttgart, Germany, serves as a successful model of a branding strategy. Next, branding of the city of Port Said, Egypt, will be explored. The principal aim of this paper is to describe how cities become branded; how branding succeeds; and how a viable city image is created. This paper reviews the methods used to brand cities, and concludes by emphasizing the importance of urban branding in terms of sustainability.

  19. Undergraduate Sustainable Learning: Effects of Sustainable Soilless Media on Production and Sensory Evaluation of Cucumbers, Basil, Parsley, and Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Russell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern greenhouse production has been ~100% reliant on fossil fuels for all inputs (glazing, heating, fertilization, lighting, post-harvest. Recent innovations may reduce fossil fuel dependence but their effectiveness may not be thoroughly tested. To promote education in sustainable production, undergraduate students in Greenhouse Management class (Hort 3002W; University of Minnesota tested the effectiveness of two organic or ‘sustainable’ soilless media (Sunshine Natural and Organic Growing Mix, Sungro Metro-Mix Special Blend with a control (Sunshine LC8 Professional for crop production (height, leaf/flower number, yield and sensory evaluations (appearance, texture, taste, purchase of cucumbers (‘Big Burpless Hybrid’, ‘Sweet Burpless Hybrid’, basil (‘Opal Purple’, ‘Redleaf’, parsley (‘Green River’, ‘Extra Curled Dwarf’, ‘Hamburg’, and lettuce (Flying Saucer ‘Green’, ‘Red’. Significant differences between sustainable vs. control soils occurred for plant growth, depending on vegetative or reproductive traits, crops, and cultivars. These differences occasionally disappeared for sensory evaluation of edible components. In most crops, however, cultivars were highly significant factors. Undergraduate research can be used to provide directionality for future vegetable and herb plant breeding to focus on creating cultivars with increased yield and high consumer acceptance when grown in sustainable greenhouse soilless mixes.

  20. Evaluation of the impact and inter-generation risk transfers related to the release and disposal of radioactive waste from the nuclear fuel cycle: a methodological exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croueail, P.; Schneider, T.; Sugier, A.

    2000-01-01

    Reflections about the consequences of decisions involving the long term raise various theoretical and complex issues related to the validity of the quantitative assessment of what could be future risks, but also to the ethical position we are adopting towards future generations. In this perspective, decision-making in the field of radioactive waste management, with a view to maintaining present and future radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable, implies being able to discriminate among alternative options, i.e., being in a position to evaluate the differences in terms of radiological impacts between the options. Because of the complex and multi-dimensional nature of the distant future consequences of waste management options, their comparison involves expressing these impacts using various aggregated or disaggregated indicators, taking into account the time during which radionuclides remain in the environment and their local, regional, or world-wide dispersion. This paper is an attempt to contribute to the development of such a framework. It is mainly focused on the risk transfer dimension inherent to waste disposal management. Any decision to protect people now against the potential impacts of radioactive releases into the environment leads inevitably to the exposure of current generations and potentially of future generations. In this perspective, one of the key questions related to waste management is to decide on the best compromise between present dilution-dispersion into the environment or concentration in surface or underground disposal sites. The objective of this paper is to illustrate, the relative impact of different waste management options, focusing especially on inter-generational risk transfers. For the sake of the exercise, calculations have been performed for six particular radionuclides and for the current waste management options combining underground disposal and releases as well as for extreme alternative waste management options

  1. Sustainability effects of household-scale biogas in rural China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, J.; Lu Yonglong,; He Guizhen,; Bluemling, B.; Beckers, T.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Households in rural China rely heavily on low quality fuels which results in reduced quality of life and environmental degradation. This study assesses the comparative contribution of household scale biogas installations to the broad set of sustainability objectives in the Chinese biogas policy

  2. Sustainable school infrastructure through effective innovative building technology selection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mphahlele, C

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of a model proposed for the selection Innovative Building Technologies (IBTs) and procurement of services supporting the erection of the IBTs that will ensure the construction of a sustainable school...

  3. Effects of economics and demographics on global fisheries sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qi; Wang, Yali; Chen, Xinjun; Chen, Yong

    2017-08-01

    A good understanding of social factors that lead to marine ecological change is important to developing sustainable global fisheries. We used balanced panel models and conducted cross-national time-series analyses (1970-2010) of 122 nations to examine how economic prosperity and population growth affected the sustainability of marine ecosystems. We used catches in economic exclusive zone (EEZ); mean trophic level of fishery landings (MTL); primary production required to sustain catches (expressed as percentage of local primary production [%PPR]); and an index of ecosystem overfishing (i.e., the loss in secondary production index [L index]) as indicators of ecological change in marine ecosystems. The EEZ catch, %PPR, and L index declined gradually after gross domestic product (GDP) per capita reached $15,000, $14,000, and $19,000, respectively, and MTL increased steadily once GDP per capita exceeded $20,000. These relationships suggest that economic growth and biodiversity conservation are compatible goals. However, increasing human populations would degrade marine ecosystems. Specifically, a doubling of human population caused an increase in the %PPR of 17.1% and in the L index of 0.0254 and a decline in the MTL of 0.176. A 1% increase in human population resulted in a 0.744% increase in EEZ catch. These results highlight the importance of considering social and economic factors in developing sustainable fisheries management policy. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. The Impact of Organisational Alignment on the Effectiveness of Firms' Sustainability Strategic Performance Measurement Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parisi, Cristiana

    2013-01-01

    concerns. This paper contributes to the research on integrating sustainability into companies’ daily activities both directly and indirectly. It analyses the extent to which top management’s commitment to sustainability directly affects structural and social alignment and the effectiveness of measurement...

  5. Attribute Segmentation and Communication Effects on Healthy and Sustainable Consumer Diet Intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verain, Muriel; Sijtsema, Siet; Dagevos, Hans; Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    A shift towards more sustainable consumer diets is urgently needed. Dietary guidelines state that changes towards less animal-based and more plant-based diets are beneficial in terms of sustainability and, in addition, will have a positive effect on public health. Communication on these guidelines

  6. The Effect of Board Independence on the Sustainability Reporting Practices of Large U.S. Firms \\

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Herda

    2012-12-01

    firms with a greater proportion of independent board members are: 1 more likely to publish standalone sustainability reports, and 2 more likely to publish higher quality sustainability reports. This paper contributes to prior literature that reports somewhat mixed results on the effect of board independence on voluntary disclosure.

  7. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We ...

  8. Effects of hypercapnia and NO synthase inhibition in sustained hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory disorders may lead to sustained alveolar hypoxia with hypercapnia resulting in impaired pulmonary gas exchange. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) optimizes gas exchange during local acute (0-30 min), as well as sustained (> 30 min) hypoxia by matching blood perfusion to alveolar ventilation. Hypercapnia with acidosis improves pulmonary gas exchange in repetitive conditions of acute hypoxia by potentiating HPV and preventing pulmonary endothelial dysfunction. This study investigated, if the beneficial effects of hypercapnia with acidosis are preserved during sustained hypoxia as it occurs, e.g in permissive hypercapnic ventilation in intensive care units. Furthermore, the effects of NO synthase inhibitors under such conditions were examined. Method We employed isolated perfused and ventilated rabbit lungs to determine the influence of hypercapnia with or without acidosis (pH corrected with sodium bicarbonate), and inhibitors of endothelial as well as inducible NO synthase on acute or sustained HPV (180 min) and endothelial permeability. Results In hypercapnic acidosis, HPV was intensified in sustained hypoxia, in contrast to hypercapnia without acidosis when HPV was amplified during both phases. L-NG-Nitroarginine (L-NNA), a non-selective NO synthase inhibitor, enhanced acute as well as sustained HPV under all conditions, however, the amplification of sustained HPV induced by hypercapnia with or without acidosis compared to normocapnia disappeared. In contrast 1400 W, a selective inhibitor of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), decreased HPV in normocapnia and hypercapnia without acidosis at late time points of sustained HPV and selectively reversed the amplification of sustained HPV during hypercapnia without acidosis. Hypoxic hypercapnia without acidosis increased capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc). This increase disappeared after administration of 1400 W. Conclusion Hypercapnia with and without acidosis increased HPV during

  9. Effects of hypercapnia and NO synthase inhibition in sustained hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketabchi Farzaneh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory disorders may lead to sustained alveolar hypoxia with hypercapnia resulting in impaired pulmonary gas exchange. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV optimizes gas exchange during local acute (0-30 min, as well as sustained (> 30 min hypoxia by matching blood perfusion to alveolar ventilation. Hypercapnia with acidosis improves pulmonary gas exchange in repetitive conditions of acute hypoxia by potentiating HPV and preventing pulmonary endothelial dysfunction. This study investigated, if the beneficial effects of hypercapnia with acidosis are preserved during sustained hypoxia as it occurs, e.g in permissive hypercapnic ventilation in intensive care units. Furthermore, the effects of NO synthase inhibitors under such conditions were examined. Method We employed isolated perfused and ventilated rabbit lungs to determine the influence of hypercapnia with or without acidosis (pH corrected with sodium bicarbonate, and inhibitors of endothelial as well as inducible NO synthase on acute or sustained HPV (180 min and endothelial permeability. Results In hypercapnic acidosis, HPV was intensified in sustained hypoxia, in contrast to hypercapnia without acidosis when HPV was amplified during both phases. L-NG-Nitroarginine (L-NNA, a non-selective NO synthase inhibitor, enhanced acute as well as sustained HPV under all conditions, however, the amplification of sustained HPV induced by hypercapnia with or without acidosis compared to normocapnia disappeared. In contrast 1400 W, a selective inhibitor of inducible NO synthase (iNOS, decreased HPV in normocapnia and hypercapnia without acidosis at late time points of sustained HPV and selectively reversed the amplification of sustained HPV during hypercapnia without acidosis. Hypoxic hypercapnia without acidosis increased capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc. This increase disappeared after administration of 1400 W. Conclusion Hypercapnia with and without acidosis

  10. Effects of hypercapnia and NO synthase inhibition in sustained hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketabchi, Farzaneh; Ghofrani, Hossein A; Schermuly, Ralph T; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich; Egemnazarov, Bakytbek; Shid-Moosavi, S Mostafa; Dehghani, Gholam A; Weissmann, Norbert; Sommer, Natascha

    2012-01-31

    Acute respiratory disorders may lead to sustained alveolar hypoxia with hypercapnia resulting in impaired pulmonary gas exchange. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) optimizes gas exchange during local acute (0-30 min), as well as sustained (> 30 min) hypoxia by matching blood perfusion to alveolar ventilation. Hypercapnia with acidosis improves pulmonary gas exchange in repetitive conditions of acute hypoxia by potentiating HPV and preventing pulmonary endothelial dysfunction. This study investigated, if the beneficial effects of hypercapnia with acidosis are preserved during sustained hypoxia as it occurs, e.g in permissive hypercapnic ventilation in intensive care units. Furthermore, the effects of NO synthase inhibitors under such conditions were examined. We employed isolated perfused and ventilated rabbit lungs to determine the influence of hypercapnia with or without acidosis (pH corrected with sodium bicarbonate), and inhibitors of endothelial as well as inducible NO synthase on acute or sustained HPV (180 min) and endothelial permeability. In hypercapnic acidosis, HPV was intensified in sustained hypoxia, in contrast to hypercapnia without acidosis when HPV was amplified during both phases. L-NG-Nitroarginine (L-NNA), a non-selective NO synthase inhibitor, enhanced acute as well as sustained HPV under all conditions, however, the amplification of sustained HPV induced by hypercapnia with or without acidosis compared to normocapnia disappeared. In contrast 1400 W, a selective inhibitor of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), decreased HPV in normocapnia and hypercapnia without acidosis at late time points of sustained HPV and selectively reversed the amplification of sustained HPV during hypercapnia without acidosis. Hypoxic hypercapnia without acidosis increased capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc). This increase disappeared after administration of 1400 W. Hypercapnia with and without acidosis increased HPV during conditions of sustained hypoxia. The

  11. Environmental ethics and regional sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Du; DAI Erfu

    2012-01-01

    The scientific environmental ethics plays a key role in the recognition of the human-environment interactions.Modern environmental ethics is the philosophical re-thinking of modern human race environmental behavior.The development of environmental ethics theory,as well as its application in reality,determines the viewpoints of environmental ethics.Sustainable development implies harmony on human-environment interactions and inter-generation responsibility,with emphasis on a harmonious relationship among population,resources,environment and development,so as to lay a sustainable and healthy foundation of resources and environment for future generations.The harmonious society construction in China that is raised by the Chinese central government should be covered by environmental ethics.The connotation of open environmental ethics includes a respect for nature,care for the individual human race,and respect for the development of future generations,which means giving consideration to natural values,individual and human race benefits and welfare across generations.The role of environmental ethics in regional development consists of cognition,criticism,education,inspiration,adjusting,legislation and promoting environmental regulations.The major problems in regional development are extensive resource exploration,fast population growth,irrational industrial structure,unfair welfare distribution and the twofold effects of science and technology development.The formulation of environmental ethics that aims at regional sustainable development,can not only harmonize the relationship of population,resource,environment and economic development,but also guide behavior selection,push social and political system transformation,strengthen the legal system,and raise environmental awareness of the public.

  12. Effectiveness of community-based mangrove management for sustainable resource use and livelihood support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damastuti, Ekaningrum; Groot, de Dolf

    2017-01-01

    Community-Based Mangrove Management (CBMM) is implemented with different approaches and outcomes. This study examined the effectiveness of various CBMM practices to achieve sustainable management of mangrove resources. We analyzed local mangrove resource management strategies in four coastal

  13. Starting the Pluralistic Tradition of Teaching? Effects of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) on Pre-Service Teachers' Views on Teaching about Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Klas

    2017-01-01

    There is currently a well-established belief among politicians, scholars and university representatives that educational systems can produce positive attitudes towards sustainable development (SD) among citizens. This article investigates whether Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in teacher education has effects on pre-service teachers'…

  14. Levee Setbacks: An Innovative, Cost Effective, and Sustainable Solution for Improved Flood Risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    ER D C/ EL S R- 17 -3 Levee Setbacks: An Innovative , Cost-Effective, and Sustainable Solution for Improved Flood Risk Management En vi...EL SR-17-3 June 2017 Levee Setbacks: An Innovative , Cost-Effective, and Sustainable Solution for Improved Flood Risk Management David L. Smith...alternative view point is necessary. ERDC/EL SR-17-3 4 Levee setbacks are a relatively recent innovation in Corps flood risk management practice

  15. Evaluating the effectiveness of palm oil certification in delivering multiple sustainability objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgans, Courtney L.; Meijaard, Erik; Santika, Truly; Law, Elizabeth; Budiharta, Sugeng; Ancrenaz, Marc; Wilson, Kerrie A.

    2018-06-01

    Industrial oil palm plantations in South East Asia have caused significant biodiversity losses and perverse social outcomes. To address concerns over plantation practices and in an attempt to improve sustainability through market mechanisms, civil society organisations and industry representatives developed the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) in 2004. The effectiveness of RSPO in improving the sustainability of the palm oil industry is frequently debated and to date, few quantitative analyses have been undertaken to assess how successful RSPO has been in delivering the social, economic and environmental sustainability outcomes it aims to address. With the palm oil industry continuing to expand in South East Asia and significant estates being planted in Africa and South America, this paper evaluates the effectiveness of RSPO plantations compared to non-certified plantations by assessing the relative performance of several key sustainability metrics compared to business as usual practices. Using Indonesian Borneo (Kalimantan) as a case study, a novel dataset of RSPO concessions was developed and causal analysis methodologies employed to evaluate the environmental, social and economic sustainability of the industry. No significant difference was found between certified and non-certified plantations for any of the sustainability metrics investigated, however positive economic trends including greater fresh fruit bunch yields were revealed. To achieve intended outcomes, RSPO principles and criteria are in need of substantial improvement and rigorous enforcement.

  16. Structural model to evaluate the effect of participation and satisfaction on ecotourism sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kencana, Eka N.; Manutami, T.

    2017-10-01

    This paper is directed to study the effect of local community participation and visitors’ satisfaction on ecotourism sustainability at Badung regency of Bali province, Indonesia. Two important aspects regarding ecotourism sustainability had been studied, i.e. (a) economic benefits for local people and (b) tourists’ satisfaction. Applying variance-based structural equation modeling, data were collected in July 2015 from local community leaders of Kiadan Village at Badung regency and tourists whom visited this village, were analysed. Four latent variables, namely (a) community participation, (b) economic benefits, (c) tourists’ satisfaction, and (d) ecotourism sustainability, were used to build structural model. The results showed sustainability of Kiadan’s ecotourism was significantly affected by local community participation and visitors’ satisfaction although community participation’s effect slightly greater than tourists’ satisfaction with path values for participation and satisfaction as much as 0.651 and 0.627, respectively.

  17. Sustainability of hydrogen supply chain. Part I: Identification of critical criteria and cause–effect analysis for enhancing the sustainability using DEMATEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Manzardo, Alessandro; Toniolo, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The enhancement of sustainability of hydrogen supply chain is of vital importance for the stakeholders/decision-makers to design a sustainable hydrogen supply chain. The objective of this paper is to develop a method for prioritizing the influential factors, identifying the key driving factors...... that influence the sustainability of hydrogen supply chain and mapping the cause–effect relationships to improve the sustainability of hydrogen supply chain. In this paper, thirty seven criteria in four aspects including economic, technological, environmental and societal aspects are considered for enhancing...... the sustainability of hydrogen supply chain, and decision making trial and evaluation laboratory has been used to analyze the relationships among these criteria. The status of hydrogen supply chain in China has been studied by the proposed method, and the results are consistent with the actual conditions. It could...

  18. Effective Disclosure in the Fast-Fashion Industry: from Sustainability Reporting to Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Garcia-Torres

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work, set in the context of the apparel industry, proposes an action-oriented disclosure tool to help solve the sustainability challenges of complex fast-fashion supply chains (SCs. In a search for effective disclosure, it focusses on actions towards sustainability instead of the measurements and indicators of its impacts. We applied qualitative and quantitative content analysis to the sustainability reporting of the world’s two largest fast-fashion companies in three phases. First, we searched for the challenges that the organisations report they are currently facing. Second, we introduced the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs framework to overcome the voluntary reporting drawback of ‘choosing what to disclose’, and revealed orphan issues. This broadened the scope from internal corporate challenges to issues impacting the ecosystems in which companies operate. Third, we analysed the reported sustainability actions and decomposed them into topics, instruments, and actors. The results showed that fast-fashion reporting has a broadly developed analysis base, but lacks action orientation. This has led us to propose the ‘Fast-Fashion Sustainability Scorecard’ as a universal disclosure framework that shifts the focus from (i reporting towards action; (ii financial performance towards sustainable value creation; and (iii corporate boundaries towards value creation for the broader SC ecosystem.

  19. Sustainable Hydraulic Barrier Design Technologies for Effective Infrastructure Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitral Wijeyesekera Devapriya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Migration of liquids lead to embarrassing post construction scenarios such as that of leaks from roofs, potable water leaking from water tanks/ reservoirs, rising damp in walls with groundwater seeping into basement structures, leakage of water from ornamental lakes and ponds or leachate leakage into the environment from MSW landfill sites. Such failures demand immediate and expensive maintenance. A stringent control on structural and waterproof stability is deemed necessary for long term service life of structures and in particular underground and near surface structures. On a micro scale and over a longer time scale, the phenomenon of rising dampness occurs in older buildings with the groundwater rising up through walls, floors and masonry via capillary action. Even slower rates of contaminant fluid migration occur through landfill base liners. In this paper a variety of hydraulic barrier technologies is critically discussed against a backdrop of relevant case studies. The choice of an appropriate hydraulic barrier technology for a given scenario will depend also on the sustainability, financial affordability and subjective aesthetics.

  20. Effect of yogic education system and modern education system on sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, R; Nagendra, H R; Bhatt, Ramachandra

    2009-01-01

    Sustained attention is a vital function mediated by the right frontoparietal cortex. The Six Letter Cancellation Task (SLCT) measures sustained attention. Development of sustained attention in a yoga-based education system compared to a modern one is the theme of the present study. To compare the effectiveness of the Modern Education System (MES) and the Gurukula Education System (GES) in developing sustained attention. Forty nine boys (11-13 years) were selected from two residential schools, one MES and the other GES, providing similar ambiance and daily routines. The boys were matched for age and socioeconomic status. The GES educational program is based around integrated yoga modules while the MES provides a conventional modern education program. Sustained attention was assessed using the SLCT at the start and end of an academic year. Within groups, the pre-post test differences were significant for both groups. However, the between groups result showed improvement in the GES group compared to the MES group at a P < 0.001 significance level. The study suggests that both MES and GES improve sustained attention in school boys, but GES is more effective.

  1. Determinants of Sustainability and Organisational Effectiveness in Non-Profit Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This case study investigates the criteria for organizational effectiveness in non-profit organizations (NPOs with the aim to determine how the elements of sustainability fit within the criteria. To achieve this, the study utilized the research questions: “what criteria do NPOs use to evaluate their effectiveness?” and “how is sustainability embedded in NPO effectiveness?” The research design was interpretivist, adopting focus group interviews to obtain data. Specifically, two focus group interviews were held with the top management of an NPO which revealed that both financial and non-financial criteria were equally essential for NPO effectiveness. This finding is consistent with the literature, although it contradicts the initial assumption of the study that NPO effectiveness was based more on non-financial criteria than financial criteria. The study also found that the effectiveness of an NPO should be viewed in two ways: firstly, “the full achievement of its mandate” and, secondly, “the ability to run business projects to cover cost.” It also emerged that both the ability to cover costs and the achievement of a mandate should be done in a sustainable manner (a sustainable manner is seen as one that is harmonious with the natural and the socio-political environment. The results of this paper present a practical case for the management of NPOs by reiterating that the full achievement of the NPO mandate and the successful running of social projects to generate funds for sustainability are key elements of effectiveness. Given the essential role that NPOs play in developing countries, this study has provided the foundation for more widespread enquiry into the sustainability and effectiveness of NPOs.

  2. Empirical Study on the Indicators of Sustainable Performance – the Sustainability Balanced Scorecard, Effect of Strategic Organizational Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Radu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable organizational change has an ever increasing importance, leading to the rethinking of the management and systems of performance measurement and monitoring within the companies. As a reaction to current economic phenomena, in the first section of this work we tried to bring out the need for using the couple Balanced Scorecard - Corporate Social Responsibility by companies. Thus, companies involved in sustainable actions must grant a great importance to the impact of environmental, social and economic factors in providing added value, informing the interested parties and reflecting the reporting of sustainable performance. As a consequence, in the second part of the work we present the Sustainability Balanced Scorecard for the implementation of efficient strategies which cumulate the economic, social and environmental aspects as integrating system for sustainable performance and as a new challenge for organizational change. The key performance indicators included in the Sustainability Balanced Scorecard are quantified by the indicators of sustainable development, based on which the empirical research described in the third section of the work was achieved. Through the quantitative analysis of the economic and ecological indicators (Gross Domestic Product per capita, respective, Environmental Performance Index in correlation with the social indicator (Global Competitive Index, we conclude that the implementation of green strategies by companies leads to sustainable economic growth.

  3. Sustaining Engagement and Interest in the Classroom: Effects of the EngageALL Instructional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Sue C.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes an empirical study that tests the motivational and learning effects of an intervention designed to initiate and sustain interest and engagement in high school biology classrooms. Positive effects were demonstrated for conceptual understanding, vocabulary acquisition, and perceptions of the learning experiences. [This article…

  4. Short Intervention, Sustained Effects: Promoting Students’ Math Competence Beliefs, Effort, and Achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brisson, Brigitte Maria; Dicke, Anna Lena; Gaspard, Hanna; Häfner, Isabelle; Flunger, Barbara|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412516322; Nagengast, Benjamin; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the effectiveness of two short relevance interventions (writing a text or evaluating quotations about the utility of mathematics) using a sample of 1,916 students in 82 math classrooms in a cluster randomized controlled experiment. Short-term and sustained effects (6

  5. Effect of Corrupt Behavior of the Forestry Bureaucrats on the Forest Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsono Soedomo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 This article show that corrupt bureaucrats do not always result in a negative effect on the forest sustainability. Even under a certain condition, a corrupt behavior may result in a positive effect on the forest sustainability. An inappropriate policy is more important a cause of the forest sustainability than a corrupt behavior. Therefore, fixing this structural mistake needs to be prioritized in combating the forest destruction, for this structural mistake is the real primary cause of the forest destruction in Indonesia. Fixing this structural mistake is much more effective in combating the forest destruction than finding honest bureaucrats. Keywords:     Birokrat, Distortionary, Nondistortionary, Kelestarian, Korup. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  6. The Sustainability Analysis Framework: An Effective Knowledge Communication Tool in a Whole of Government Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendal Hodgman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the structural formation of the Sustainability Analysis Framework (SAF, which has proved to be an effective knowledge communication tool in the largest state administration in Australia, the Government of New South Wales. The SAF, devised by the author, has been implemented across thirty-eight state agencies and demonstrates that a whole of government Sustainability perspective is achievable. The level of the NSW Government's commitment to this process is evidenced by the fact that it was coordinated at the highest levels of the administration and engaged high-level input from a comprehensive portfolio of its agencies. The SAF's successful deployment across this significant bureaucracy shows that the generally applicable mechanism is effective in data collation, information sharing, knowledge organisation and the communication of Sustainability practice and wisdom. At the heart of the paper is the author's contention that one of the key problems which jeopardises our common future on Earth is the lack of effective tools to communicate Sustainability thinking and practice. In the course of the project, upon which this paper is based, the author identified the need for a visually and conceptually accessible mechanism to accelerate the uptake of Sustainability practice in a whole of organization context. In designing the SAF, which has successfully bridged this knowledge communication gap, the author employed two of humanity's fundamental learning tools – the diagram and the story.

  7. A Research on Class Teachers Related to Determining the Effects of Consumers’ Personal Values on Sustainable Consumption Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Karalar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The world’s sources about to running out have been realised as a result of that population increase and economic development to be lived in the twentieth century have caused the transformation from the notion of unlimited economic development to sustainable development notion. Sustainable development is a model that predicts existing generation satisfies their needs without that next generation’s satisfy their need. Projection of sustainable development on marketing area have been actualized by means of coming up with sustainable marketing approach. Sustainable marketing approach predict to create sustainable solutions by adding conformity with eco-system in addition to achieving organizational goals and satisfy consumers’ needs which traditional marketing’s goals. The target of sustainable development notion in regard of consumption is to be accepted sustainable consumption behavior. It requires inquiring factors affecting behavior in question because sustainable consumption pattern to be accepted and spread to the world. In the study examined that individual values affecting sustainable consumption behavior of class teacher who work at elementary schools in Kutahya, Merkez. The findings indicate the significant effect of universalism and security values type in sustainable consumption behavior. Also, it is found that frequency of sustainable consumption behavior is mid-level. The results of this research have significant implications for stakeholders of sustainable consumption and future research.

  8. Free school fruit - Sustained effect three years later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Bere (Elling); M.B. Veierød (Marit); Ø. Skare; K.I. Klepp (Knut-Inge)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Norwegian children consume less fruit and vegetables (FV) than recommended. In order to increase the intake, a School Fruit subscription programme is now offered to all Norwegian elementary and junior high schools. This programme has limited effect due to low participation by

  9. Promoting Sustainability: The Effects of Workplace Mindfulness Training

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkiniemi, Jaana-Piia; Heikkilä-Tammi, Kirsi

    2018-01-01

    Mindfulness training is enjoying growing popularity in workplaces. In the current study, the effects of workplace mindfulness training were evaluated using quantitative and qualitative methods. The study’s novelty value arises from the implementation of workplace training among factory employees and the mixed-methods approach to evaluation. The quasi-experimental design with training and control groups included pre- and postmeasurements and four focus group interviews. The results of th...

  10. A EUropean study on effectiveness and sustainability of current Cardiac Rehabilitation programmes in the Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Meindersma, Esther P; van der Velde, Astrid E

    2016-01-01

    of EU-CaRE is to map the efficiency of current CR of the elderly in Europe, and to investigate whether mCR is an effective alternative in terms of efficacy, adherence and sustainability. METHODS AND RESULTS: The EU-CaRE study includes patients aged 65 years or older with ischaemic heart disease or who...... on effectiveness and sustainability of current cardiac rehabilitation programmes in the elderly (EU-CaRE) project consists of an observational study and an open prospective, investigator-initiated multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) involving mobile telemonitoring guided CR (mCR). OBJECTIVE: The aim...... and sustainability. CONCLUSION: The study will provide important information to improve CR in the elderly. The EU-CaRE RCT is the first European multicentre study of mCR as an alternative for elderly patients not attending usual CR....

  11. Effect of ripple loads on sustained-load cracking in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pao, P.S.; Meyn, D.A.; Bayles, R.A.; Feng, C.R.; Yoder, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    In the present paper, the authors have extended their study on the effect of the ripple loads on the sustained-load cracking (SLC) behavior of two titanium alloys, Ti-6Al-4V (an α-β alloy) and Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn (a β-α alloy), in an ambient air environment. The methodology which has been used successfully to treat ripple effects on stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) is employed again to address the influence of ripple loads on sustained-load cracking. Ripple loads can significantly reduce the apparent sustained load cracking resistance of titanium alloys in a relatively benign environment such as ambient air. For a ripple-load amplitude equal to 5% of the sustained load, the ripple-load cracking thresholds (K IRLC ) of beta-annealed Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-15V-3Cr-3al-3Sn are less than half of the respective sustained-load cracking thresholds (K ISLC ). The extent of ripple-load degradation for these alloys in ambient air -- relative to K ISLC , were found comparable to those observed in a much more aggressive 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution

  12. Can the Clean Development Mechanism attain both cost-effectiveness and sustainable development objectives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolshus, Hans H; Vevatne, Jonas; Torvanger, Asbjoern; Aunan, Kristin

    2001-06-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), as defined in the Kyoto Protocol, has two objectives: to promote sustainable development in host developing countries, and to improve global cost-effectiveness by assisting developed countries in meeting their Kyoto targets. The aim of this paper is to explore the background of the CDM and discuss to what extent its current design allows it to achieve its dual objective. The first part of the paper is a literature review that includes descriptions of the flexibility mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol; the CDM's market potential, and the issues of cost-effectiveness and sustainable development. In the second part of the paper, we discuss to what extent there is a conflict between cost-effectiveness and sustain ability, and whether the two objectives of the CDM can be achieved simultaneously. We develop a set of indicators to evaluate non-carbon benefits of CDM projects on the environment, development, and. equity, and show how these indicators can be used in practice by looking at case studies of CDM project candidates in the energy sector from Brazil and China. We demonstrate that for some CDM projects there is a trade-off between cost-effectiveness, in terms of a low quota price, and a high score on sustain ability indicators. We have reason to believe that the size of the CDM market in some studies is over-estimated since transaction costs and the challenge of promoting sustainable development are not fully accounted for. Also, we find that the proposed set of indicators can be a necessary tool to assure that sustain ability impacts of CDM projects are taken into consideration. (author)

  13. Can the Clean Development Mechanism attain both cost-effectiveness and sustainable development objectives?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolshus, Hans H; Vevatne, Jonas; Torvanger, Asbjoern; Aunan, Kristin

    2001-06-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), as defined in the Kyoto Protocol, has two objectives: to promote sustainable development in host developing countries, and to improve global cost-effectiveness by assisting developed countries in meeting their Kyoto targets. The aim of this paper is to explore the background of the CDM and discuss to what extent its current design allows it to achieve its dual objective. The first part of the paper is a literature review that includes descriptions of the flexibility mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol; the CDM's market potential, and the issues of cost-effectiveness and sustainable development. In the second part of the paper, we discuss to what extent there is a conflict between cost-effectiveness and sustain ability, and whether the two objectives of the CDM can be achieved simultaneously. We develop a set of indicators to evaluate non-carbon benefits of CDM projects on the environment, development, and. equity, and show how these indicators can be used in practice by looking at case studies of CDM project candidates in the energy sector from Brazil and China. We demonstrate that for some CDM projects there is a trade-off between cost-effectiveness, in terms of a low quota price, and a high score on sustain ability indicators. We have reason to believe that the size of the CDM market in some studies is over-estimated since transaction costs and the challenge of promoting sustainable development are not fully accounted for. Also, we find that the proposed set of indicators can be a necessary tool to assure that sustain ability impacts of CDM projects are taken into consideration. (author)

  14. Effect of socioeconomic development in the sustainability of the paramo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polanco Lopez de Mesa, Jorge Andres

    2011-01-01

    Globalization compromises local communities in their ways to socioeconomic development triggering forms of interaction that are mainly determined by productivism and seldom promoting solidarity and environmental awareness. In this text, the impact of developmental practices in the High-Andean Paramo System of the Antioquia Department are analyzed, in order to estimate the effect of the tunnel of Occidente and associated road infrastructure on welfare and the status of the strategic paramo ecosystem. Multicriteria spatial analysis is adopted to represent the interactions between the environment and development taking into consideration the mobility of crops border, unsatisfied basic needs and the centripetal force of Medellin. Results indicate that the agricultural border advances significantly for the wealthiest municipalities which are also the closest to Medellin. The Paramo System is more prone to experience advance of the border in municipalities benefited by the new road infrastructure because they get richer as they get closer to Medellin.

  15. Inter-Generational Differences in Individualism/Collectivism Orientations: Implications for Outlook towards HRD/HRM Practices in India and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rajashi; Chaudhuri, Sanghamitra

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a conceptual model to explore the effects of intergenerational transition in individualism/collectivism orientations on the outlook towards different human resource development (HRD) and management practices. It contributes to the existing cross-cultural research in HRD by defining three prominent generations in India and by…

  16. Development through sustainable tourism and effective policy implementation: Practices of Puerto Princesa City, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazztin Jairum P. Manalo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable tourism has been considered by many local governments as part of their initiatives for economic upliftment. It is one of the major sources of income through the use of their tourist attraction without compromising the natural resources situated within. The enactment and effective implementation of the local government’s policy have achieved a promising efficient outcome for sustainable tourism.. The city of Puerto Princesa had a long history considering its transformation from an environmentally degraded city into one of the major ecotourism sites around the world. Thus, this paper presents the case of Puerto Princesa and its practices as well as economic development by practicing sustainable tourism and effective policy implementation. The City Ordinance No. 163-91 and 640 has improved the lives of the communities by practicing cleanliness and effective waste management their surrounding and tourist destinations. Economic development and benefits from sustainable tourism reflects the city of Puerto Princesa as a role model for Local Government Units. The passing of City Ordinances on Cleanliness drive have played an important role in effective waste management of the city. The key role of having a strong political will in the local government has strongly maintained its best practices for two decades up to the present.

  17. Sustained attention in adult ADHD : time-on-task effects of various measures of attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Koerts, Janneke; Buggenthin, Rieka; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Weisbrod, Matthias; Thome, Johannes; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    Neuropsychological research on adults with ADHD showed deficits in various aspects of attention. However, the majority of studies failed to explore the change of performance over time, so-called time-on-task effects. As a consequence, little is known about sustained attention performance of adults

  18. Proteomics reveals the effects of sustained weight loss on the human plasma proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geyer, Philipp E; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Tyanova, Stefka

    2016-01-01

    Sustained weight loss is a preferred intervention in a wide range of metabolic conditions, but the effects on an individual's health state remain ill-defined. Here, we investigate the plasma proteomes of a cohort of 43 obese individuals that had undergone 8 weeks of 12% body weight loss followed ...

  19. Regulatory fit effects for injunctive versus descriptive social norms: Evidence from the promotion of sustainable products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melnyk, V.; Herpen, van E.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Consumers face marketing messages using social norms in many situations where different goals are dominant. This research examines moderating effects of regulatory focus for descriptive and injunctive norms in the promotion of sustainable products. More specifically, it shows that descriptive norms

  20. Sustained Intervention Effects on Older Adults' Attitudes toward Alcohol and Medication Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanjani, Faika; Allen, Hannah; Schoenberg, Nancy; Martin, Catherine; Clayton, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Background: Older adults are at risk for experiencing alcohol and medication interactions (AMIs) given their concomitant alcohol and medication use. However, there have been limited efforts to develop and evaluate AMI prevention interventions. Purpose: The current study examined sustained intervention effects on older adults' attitudes, awareness,…

  1. Inhibiting the Physiological Stress Effects of a Sustained Attention Task on Shoulder Muscle Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Wixted

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate if a breathing technique could counteract the effects of hyperventilation due to a sustained attention task on shoulder muscle activity. Background: The trend towards higher levels of automation in industry is increasing. Consequently, manufacturing operators often monitor automated process for long periods of their work shift. Prolonged monitoring work requires sustained attention, which is a cognitive process that humans are typically poor at and find stressful. As sustained attention becomes an increasing requirement of manufacturing operators’ job content, the resulting stress experienced could contribute to the onset of many health problems, including work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs. Methods: The SART attention test was completed by a group of participants before and after a breathing intervention exercise. The effects of the abdominal breathing intervention on breathing rate, upper trapezius muscle activity and end-tidal CO2 were evaluated. Results: The breathing intervention reduced the moderation effect of end-tidal CO2 on upper trapezius muscle activity. Conclusions: Abdominal breathing could be a useful technique in reducing the effects of sustained attention work on muscular activity. Application: This research can be applied to highly-automated manufacturing industries, where prolonged monitoring of work is widespread and could, in its role as a stressor, be a potential contributor to WRMSDs.

  2. Inhibiting the Physiological Stress Effects of a Sustained Attention Task on Shoulder Muscle Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wixted, Fiona; O'Riordan, Cliona; O'Sullivan, Leonard

    2018-01-11

    The objective of this study was to investigate if a breathing technique could counteract the effects of hyperventilation due to a sustained attention task on shoulder muscle activity. The trend towards higher levels of automation in industry is increasing. Consequently, manufacturing operators often monitor automated process for long periods of their work shift. Prolonged monitoring work requires sustained attention, which is a cognitive process that humans are typically poor at and find stressful. As sustained attention becomes an increasing requirement of manufacturing operators' job content, the resulting stress experienced could contribute to the onset of many health problems, including work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs). The SART attention test was completed by a group of participants before and after a breathing intervention exercise. The effects of the abdominal breathing intervention on breathing rate, upper trapezius muscle activity and end-tidal CO₂ were evaluated. The breathing intervention reduced the moderation effect of end-tidal CO₂ on upper trapezius muscle activity. Abdominal breathing could be a useful technique in reducing the effects of sustained attention work on muscular activity. This research can be applied to highly-automated manufacturing industries, where prolonged monitoring of work is widespread and could, in its role as a stressor, be a potential contributor to WRMSDs.

  3. Sustainable semiarid dryland production in relation to tillage effects on Hydrology: 1983-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiarid dryland crop yields with no-till, NT, residue management are often greater than stubble-mulch tillage, SM, as a result of improved soil conditions or water conservation, but knowledge of long-term tillage effects on the comprehensive field hydrology and sustained crop production is needed. ...

  4. Adapting Hypertension Self-Management Interventions to Enhance their Sustained Effectiveness among Urban African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Ameling, Jessica M.; Ephraim, Patti L.; Bone, Lee R.; Levine, David M.; Roter, Debra L.; Wolff, Jennifer L.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Noronha, Gary J.; Fagan, Peter J.; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Hickman, Debra; Simmons, Michelle; Purnell, Leon; Fisher, Annette

    2014-01-01

    African Americans suffer disproportionately poor hypertension control despite the availability of efficacious interventions. Using principles of community-based participatory research and implementation science, we adapted established hypertension self-management interventions to enhance interventions’ cultural relevance and potential for sustained effectiveness among urban African Americans. We obtained input from patients and their family members, their health care providers, and community ...

  5. India's Proposed Universal Health Coverage Policy: Evidence for Age Structure Transition Effect and Fiscal Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Muttur Ranganathan

    2016-12-01

    India's High Level Expert Group on Universal Health Coverage in 2011 recommended a universal, public-funded and national health coverage policy. As a plausible forward-looking macroeconomic reform in the health sector, this policy proposal on universal health coverage (UHC) needs to be evaluated for age structure transition effect and fiscal sustainability to strengthen its current design and future implementation. Macroeconomic analyses of the long-term implications of age structure transition and fiscal sustainability on India's proposed UHC policy. A new measure of age-specific UHC is developed by combining the age profile of public and private health consumption expenditure by using the National Transfer Accounts methodology. Different projections of age-specific public health expenditure are calculated over the period 2005-2100 to account for the age structure transition effect. The projections include changes in: (1) levels of the expenditure as gross domestic product grows, (2) levels and shape of the expenditure as gross domestic product grows and expenditure converges to that of developed countries (or convergence scenario) based on the Lee-Carter model of forecasting mortality rates, and (3) levels of the expenditure as India moves toward a UHC policy. Fiscal sustainability under each health expenditure projection is determined by using the measures of generational imbalance and sustainability gap in the Generational Accounting methodology. Public health expenditure is marked by age specificities and the elderly population is costlier to support for their healthcare needs in the future. Given the discount and productivity growth rates, the proposed UHC is not fiscally sustainable under India's current fiscal policies except for the convergence scenario. However, if the income elasticity of public expenditure on social welfare and health expenditure is less than one, fiscal sustainability of the UHC policy is attainable in all scenarios of projected public

  6. Effect of propranolol in head tremor: quantitative study following single-dose and sustained drug administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzetti, S; Sasso, E; Negrotti, A; Baratti, M; Fava, R

    1992-12-01

    The effect of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol has been investigated in nine patients suffering from isolated (six patients) or prominent (three patients) essential tremor of the head. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study the tremorolytic efficacy of propranolol has been assessed by a quantitative accelerometric method after a single oral dose (120 mg) and following 2 weeks of sustained treatment with two different dosage regimens of the drug (120 and 240 mg daily). As compared with placebo, a significant reduction in tremor magnitude was found following a single oral dose but not on sustained administration of the beta-blocker at either dosage. The results suggest that the efficacy of sustained propranolol on isolated or prominent essential head tremor is less predictable and satisfactory than expected on the basis of the single-dose response, as compared with hand tremor.

  7. Assessing Capacity for Sustainability of Effective Programs and Policies in Local Health Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Rachel G; Duggan, Katie; Smith, Carson; Aisaka, Kristelle; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Brownson, Ross C

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability has been defined as the existence of structures and processes that allow a program to leverage resources to effectively implement and maintain evidence-based public health and is important in local health departments (LHDs) to retain the benefits of effective programs. Explore the applicability of the Program Sustainability Framework in high- and low-capacity LHDs as defined by national performance standards. Case study interviews from June to July 2013. Standard qualitative methodology was used to code transcripts; codes were developed inductively and deductively. Six geographically diverse LHD's (selected from 3 of high and 3 of low capacity) : 35 LHD practitioners. Thematic reports explored the 8 domains (Organizational Capacity, Program Adaptation, Program Evaluation, Communications, Strategic Planning, Funding Stability, Environmental Support, and Partnerships) of the Program Sustainability Framework. High-capacity LHDs described having environmental support, while low-capacity LHDs reported this was lacking. Both high- and low-capacity LHDs described limited funding; however, high-capacity LHDs reported greater funding flexibility. Partnerships were important to high- and low-capacity LHDs, and both described building partnerships to sustain programming. Regarding organizational capacity, high-capacity LHDs reported better access to and support for adequate staff and staff training when compared with low-capacity LHDs. While high-capacity LHDs described integration of program evaluation into implementation and sustainability, low-capacity LHDs reported limited capacity for measurement specifically and evaluation generally. When high-capacity LHDs described program adoption, they discussed an opportunity to adapt and evaluate. Low-capacity LHDs struggled with programs requiring adaptation. High-capacity LHDs described higher quality communication than low-capacity LHDs. High- and low-capacity LHDs described strategic planning, but high

  8. Inter-generational micro-class mobility during and after socialism: The power, education, autonomy, capital, and horizontal (PEACH) model in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippényi, Zoltán; Gerber, Theodore P

    2016-07-01

    We propose a theoretical model of how occupational mobility operates differently under socialism than under market regimes. Our model specifies four vertical dimensions of occupational resources-power, education, autonomy, and capital-plus a horizontal dimension consisting of linkages among occupations in the same economic branch. Given the nature of state socialist political-economic institutions, we expect power to exhibit much stronger effects in the socialist mobility regime, while autonomy and capital should play greater stratifying roles after the market transition. Education should have stable effects, and horizontal linkages should diminish in strength with market reforms. We estimate our model's parameters using data from surveys conducted in Hungary during and after the socialist period. We adopt a micro-class approach, though we test it against approaches that use more aggregated class categories. Our model provides a superior fit to other mobility models, and our results confirm our hypotheses about the distinctive features of the state socialist mobility regime. Mobility researchers often look for common patterns characterizing mobility in all industrialized societies. Our findings suggest that national institutions can produce fundamentally distinct patterns of mobility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An experimental analysis of the effectiveness and sustainability of a Chinese tutoring package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hang; Miller, L Keith

    2012-01-01

    This experiment evaluated the effects of training tutors to use an instructional package to teach pronunciation and translation of the Chinese language. Tutors' correct use of the package increased from 68% of trials to 92% after training, and student correct pronunciation increased from 45% to 90%, with similar effects for translation. Continued use of the package, high social validity, and extended follow-up suggest that use of the package may be sustainable.

  10. Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory across Generations (RK and M). Markers - Reflections on Inter-generational Warnings in the Form of Japanese Tsunami Stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, Claudio; Botezvan, Radu; Luik, Abe; Holtorf, Cornelius; Van Wyck, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    As states with nuclear power programmes are, or intend to become, engaged in planning the disposal of their high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste in deep geological repositories, means to ensure that future generations will be aware of these repositories and not disturb them are being studied. Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) across Generations, launched in March 2010, is the relevant initiative under the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee in this area. Its several years of work and findings are documented online at www.oecdnea. org/rwm/rkm. A strategy of communicating important information to future generations must be based on several complementary means and approaches. Markers placed in the vicinity of closed repositories represent one potential component of this strategy. The RK and M initiative's glossary defines a marker as 'a long-lasting object that indicates an area of influence, power or danger. It is placed strategically at or near the site for immediate recognition or for discovery at a later time'. Markers are meant to reach future generations in the medium (a few hundred years) to long term (hundred thousand of years) and are conceived to be immobile (that is, in permanent association with a site), robust (in order to maximize survivability on its own) and provide messages that are likely to be understandable across generations. A marking system can range from a simple stone to a contrived and monumental multi-component system. The present report seeks to develop the understanding of the potential effectiveness of makers drawing from the study of the role that stone markers played in Japan during the Tohoku tsunami event of 2011. There are hundreds such markers placed at various epochs on Japan's north-eastern coast to warn future generations about the dangers of tsunamis. The existence of markers for recurrent, destructive events may help save lives, as in the case of the villages of Murohama and Aneyoshi

  11. International cooperation to improve access to and sustain effectiveness of antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Årdal, Christine; Outterson, Kevin; Hoffman, Steven J; Ghafur, Abdul; Sharland, Mike; Ranganathan, Nisha; Smith, Richard; Zorzet, Anna; Cohn, Jennifer; Pittet, Didier; Daulaire, Nils; Morel, Chantal; Rizvi, Zain; Balasegaram, Manica; Dar, Osman A; Heymann, David L; Holmes, Alison H; Moore, Luke S P; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Mendelson, Marc; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2016-01-16

    Securing access to effective antimicrobials is one of the greatest challenges today. Until now, efforts to address this issue have been isolated and uncoordinated, with little focus on sustainable and international solutions. Global collective action is necessary to improve access to life-saving antimicrobials, conserving them, and ensuring continued innovation. Access, conservation, and innovation are beneficial when achieved independently, but much more effective and sustainable if implemented in concert within and across countries. WHO alone will not be able to drive these actions. It will require a multisector response (including the health, agriculture, and veterinary sectors), global coordination, and financing mechanisms with sufficient mandates, authority, resources, and power. Fortunately, securing access to effective antimicrobials has finally gained a place on the global political agenda, and we call on policy makers to develop, endorse, and finance new global institutional arrangements that can ensure robust implementation and bold collective action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Intergenerational equity and governance in sustainable development policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucheux, S.; Meral, P.

    1999-01-01

    With ecological globalization, environmental degradation has become a phenomenon capable of accentuating not only the sources of spatial and temporal conflicts, but also inter-and intragenerational inequities. In this context, it seems important, first of all, to explain the ways in which the taking into account of inter-generational equity in our societies' decisions constitutes a new challenge posing unresolved questions for decision makers. Secondly, we see that the implementation of effective policies for sustainable development (that is, taking real account of the long-term and of equity concerns), requires the development of new perspectives and practices in science and of new ''governance'' institutions capable of responding to these new challenges. Thirdly, we show that these changes imply, for economic analysis and the advice that can be offered by economists, a shift from a substantive rationality perspective towards a procedural rationality. This latter encourages the development of new analysis and decision support tools based on a wider sharing of information and efforts at reconciling different perspectives in the assessment of risks and equity concerns. This new rationality will be expressed as a process of debate and dialogue taking place continuously in all phases of the policy process. (orig.)

  13. Enhancing Effective Stakeholder Participation in Local Groundwater Sustainability Planning through Technical Assistance in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, C.; Christian-Smith, J.; Dobbin, K.; Cullen, K.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will share content from UCS's new publication, Getting Involved in Groundwater; A Guide to Effective Engagement in California's Groundwater Sustainability Plans, as well as lessons learned from collaborating with community organizations to provide technical assistance to Groundwater Sustainability Agency (GSA) board members and stakeholders in the San Joaquin Valley on Groundwater Sustainability Plan (GSP) development. California's Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) mandates extensive stakeholder engagement, presenting an opportunity for unincorporated, low-income communities that have historically been affected by but not included in water decisions. However, implementation requires a concerted, thoughtful effort. Through technical assistance and strategic outreach, the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) is working to ensure stakeholder engagement in GSP development is robust, diverse, and supported by the best science available. UCS created the GSP stakeholder engagement guide to equip GSA members, scientists and interested community members to meaningfully engage in the GSP development process. The guide serves as a technical primer on SGMA's GSP process and as a resource for understanding groundwater management in California. The guide is just one component of a larger effort to overcome barriers to effective engagement in sustainable groundwater management, especially those presented by technical information. In April, UCS co-hosted a technical assistance workshop for GSA and advisory committee members in Visalia, CA with the Community Water Center (CWC), a local environmental justice non-profit. The workshop was well received and UCS and the CWC were invited to host a second workshop in June. To deepen this engagement and provide one-on-one technical assistance, UCS developed a program to match relevant water experts in the UCS Science Network with GSA members or involved community members in need of specific technical support

  14. The Influence of Local Governance: Effects on the Sustainability of Bioenergy Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Cavicchi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with processes and outcomes of sustainable bioenergy development in Emilia Romagna. It draws on an on-going research project concerning inclusive innovation in forest-based bioenergy and biogas in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Italy. The goal is to explore how local governance impacts on inclusive innovation processes and triple bottom sustainability of bioenergy development in Emilia Romagna and, ultimately, to contribute to the debate on the bioeconomy. It thus compares the case of biogas and forest-based bioenergy production. The study adopts an analytical framework called Grounded Innovation (GRIP and the local governance approach. The study uses qualitative methods and particularly semi-structured interviews and governance analysis. The key results show different outcomes on both inclusive innovation and triple bottom-line dimensions. Biogas has not fostered inclusiveness and triple bottom line sustainability benefits, contrary to forest-based bioenergy. The findings indicate that the minor role of local actors, particularly municipalities, in favour of industrial and national interests may jeopardise the sustainability of biobased industries. Besides, policies limited to financial incentives may lead to a land-acquisition rush, unforeseen local environmental effects and exacerbate conflicts.

  15. Three necessary conditions for establishing effective Sustainable Development Goals in the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert V. Norström

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the United Nations-guided process to establish Sustainable Development Goals is to galvanize governments and civil society to rise to the interlinked environmental, societal, and economic challenges we face in the Anthropocene. We argue that the process of setting Sustainable Development Goals should take three key aspects into consideration. First, it should embrace an integrated social-ecological system perspective and acknowledge the key dynamics that such systems entail, including the role of ecosystems in sustaining human wellbeing, multiple cross-scale interactions, and uncertain thresholds. Second, the process needs to address trade-offs between the ambition of goals and the feasibility in reaching them, recognizing biophysical, social, and political constraints. Third, the goal-setting exercise and the management of goal implementation need to be guided by existing knowledge about the principles, dynamics, and constraints of social change processes at all scales, from the individual to the global. Combining these three aspects will increase the chances of establishing and achieving effective Sustainable Development Goals.

  16. Overall Bike Effectiveness as a Sustainability Metric for Bike Sharing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Nugroho Yahya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bike sharing systems (BSS have been widely accepted as an urban transport scheme in many cities around the world. The concept is recently expanded and followed by many cities to offer citizen a “green” and flexible transportation scheme in urban areas. Many works focus on the issues of bike availability while the bike performance, i.e., life cycle issues and its sustainability, for better management has been abandoned. As a consequence, mismanagement of BSS would lead to cost inefficiency and, the worst case, end with operation termination. This study proposes a design science approach by developing an Overall Bike Effectiveness (OBE framework. By incorporating the concept of overall equipment analysis (OEE, the proposed framework is used to measure the bike utilization. Accordingly, the OBE is extended into Theoretical OBE to measure the sustainability of the early-stage of BSS. The framework has been verified and evaluated using a real dataset of BSS. The proposed method provides valuable results for benchmarking, life cycle analysis, system expansion and strategy planning toward sustainability. The paper concludes with a discussion to show the impact of the proposed approach into the real practices of BSS including an outlook toward sustainability of BSS.

  17. Sustainability of University Technology Transfer: Mediating Effect of Inventor’s Technology Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the perspective of knowledge transfer and the technology acceptance model (TAM, this paper constructs a university technology transfer sustainable development model that considers the inventor’s technology service from the perspective of the long-term cooperation of enterprise, and analyzes the mediating effect of the inventor’s technology service on university technology transfer sustainability. By using 270 questionnaires as survey data, it is found that the availability of an inventor’s technology service has a significant positive impact on the attitude tendency and practice tendency of enterprise long-term technological cooperation; enterprise technology absorption capacity and trust between a university and an enterprise also have significant influence on an inventor’s technical service availability. Therefore, the inventor’s technology service acts as a mediator in the relationship between university technology transfer sustainability and influence factors. Universities ought to establish the technology transfer model, which focuses on the inventor’s tacit knowledge transfer service, and promotes the sustainable development of the university.

  18. Exploring the effectiveness of sustainable water management structures in the Upper Pungwe river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyikadzino, B.; Chibisa, P.; Makurira, H.

    The study endeavoured to assess the effectiveness of stakeholder structures and their participation in sustainable water resources management in the Upper Pungwe river basin shared by Zimbabwe and Mozambique. The study sought to assess the level and effectiveness of stakeholder, gender and the vulnerable groups representation in sustainable water resources management as well as the whole stakeholder participation process. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative methods for data collection and analysis. Sampling data was obtained from 15 stakeholder representatives (councillors) constituting Pungwe Subcatchment Council, 30 water users ranging from small scale to large scale users and professionals in water resources management. Two different questionnaires and three structured interviews were administered during the study. Water permit database, financial reports and other source documents were also analysed. The study established that the sustainability and effectiveness of stakeholder structures and their participation in water resources management is being compromised by lack of stakeholder awareness. Water utilisation is very high in the subcatchment (99%) while women participation is still low (20%). The study therefore recommends the use of quotas for the participation of women in stakeholder structures. Stakeholder structures are encouraged to intensify stakeholder awareness on issues of river protection, efficient water use and pollution control. Further research is recommended to be carried out on the effectiveness of stakeholder structures in combating water pollution and enhancing river protection.

  19. Glucose and caffeine effects on sustained attention: an exploratory fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Grabulosa, Josep M; Adan, Ana; Falcón, Carles; Bargalló, Núria

    2010-11-01

    Caffeine and glucose can have beneficial effects on cognitive performance. However, neural basis of these effects remain unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of caffeine and glucose on sustained attention, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Forty young right-handed, healthy, low caffeine-consuming subjects participated in the study. In a double-blind, randomised design, subjects received one of the following beverages: vehicle (water, 150 ml); vehicle plus 75 g of glucose; vehicle plus 75 mg of caffeine; vehicle plus 75 g of glucose and 75 mg of caffeine. Participants underwent two scanning fMRI sessions (before and 30 min after of the administration of the beverage). A continuous performance test was used to assess sustained attention. Participants who received combined caffeine and glucose had similar performance to the others but had a decrease in activation in the bilateral parietal and left prefrontal cortex. Since these areas have been related to the sustained attention and working memory processes, results would suggest that combined caffeine and glucose could increase the efficiency of the attentional system. However, more studies using larger samples and different levels of caffeine and glucose are necessary to better understand the combined effects of both substances. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Influence of MHD effects and edge conditions on ITER helium ash accumulation and sustained ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, M.H.; Cohen, S.A.

    1990-06-01

    Dilution of reacting species by build-up of helium ash and its effect on ignition in the ITER tokamak have been studies in a series of simulations with the one-dimensional BALDUR transport code. Thermal diffusivities, obtained from ITER scaling laws and with radial variations observed in JET, gave τ E ∼ 2--4 sec. Refueling of deuterium and tritium maintained constant electron density, while carbon recycling was 100% and the helium ash recycling was varied from 1.0 to 0.5. Including MHD effects, specifically sawteeth and beta limits, we find that ignition can be sustained for 200 seconds with R helium = 0.95. These simulations, the only non-zero-dimensional, time-dependent simulations thus far made for ITER plasmas, emphasize that edge plasma conditions, MHD behavior, and helium particle transport are critical synergistic issues for sustained ignition. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from Volume 1 (Volume 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langholtz, M. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, K. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stokes, B. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-13

    On behalf of all the authors and contributors, it is a great privilege to present the 2016 Billion-Ton Report (BT16), volume 2: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from volume 1. This report represents the culmination of several years of collaborative effort among national laboratories, government agencies, academic institutions, and industry. BT16 was developed to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s efforts towards national goals of energy security and associated quality of life.

  2. Adapting hypertension self-management interventions to enhance their sustained effectiveness among urban African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameling, Jessica M; Ephraim, Patti L; Bone, Lee R; Levine, David M; Roter, Debra L; Wolff, Jennifer L; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Noronha, Gary J; Fagan, Peter J; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Hickman, Debra; Simmons, Michelle; Purnell, Leon; Fisher, Annette; Cooper, Lisa A; Aboumatar, Hanan J; Albert, Michael C; Flynn, Sarah J; Boulware, L Ebony

    2014-01-01

    African Americans suffer disproportionately poor hypertension control despite the availability of efficacious interventions. Using principles of community-based participatory research and implementation science, we adapted established hypertension self-management interventions to enhance interventions' cultural relevance and potential for sustained effectiveness among urban African Americans. We obtained input from patients and their family members, their health care providers, and community members. The process required substantial time and resources, and the adapted interventions will be tested in a randomized controlled trial.

  3. A comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Ramjerdi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    ; (3) Toll schemes; (4) Reward systems giving incentives to reduce driving or change driver behaviour. The effects of these policy instruments are stated in terms of elasticities. All four economic policy instruments have negative elasticities, which means that they do promote environmentally...... sustainable transport. Long-term elasticities tend to be larger than short term elasticities. The long-term elasticities of reward systems are unknown. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. Adapting Hypertension Self-Management Interventions to Enhance their Sustained Effectiveness among Urban African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameling, Jessica M.; Ephraim, Patti L.; Bone, Lee R.; Levine, David M.; Roter, Debra L.; Wolff, Jennifer L.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Noronha, Gary J.; Fagan, Peter J.; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Hickman, Debra; Simmons, Michelle; Purnell, Leon; Fisher, Annette; Cooper, Lisa A.; Aboumatar, Hanan J.; Albert, Michael C.; Flynn, Sarah J.; Boulware, L. Ebony

    2014-01-01

    African Americans suffer disproportionately poor hypertension control despite the availability of efficacious interventions. Using principles of community-based participatory research and implementation science, we adapted established hypertension self-management interventions to enhance interventions’ cultural relevance and potential for sustained effectiveness among urban African Americans. We obtained input from patients and their family members, their health care providers, and community members. The process required substantial time and resources, and the adapted interventions will be tested in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:24569158

  5. Towards Sustainability: Effective Operations Strategies, Quality Management and Operational Excellence in Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Tornjanski; Sanja Marinković; Željka Jančić

    2017-01-01

    This paper sets out to extend and deepen the understanding the ways toward economic sustainability through efficient and effective growth operations strategies, quality management and operational excellence in banking. In this study we define new quality management practices based on developed conceptual architecture of digital platform for operations function in banking. Additionally, we employ decision making framework consisted of two parts: introduction of new operations services using To...

  6. R&D Cooperation and Knowledge Spillover Effects for Sustainable Business Innovation in the Chemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Hájek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of research and development (R&D cooperation on the creation of spillover effects for sustainable firms in the chemical industry. We explore the evidence for the origin of knowledge spillovers derived from cooperation amongst firms and universities and R&D organizations as well as to test the influence of internal/external financial support on these effects. The results confirm that when firms acquire knowledge from internal sources, this leads to increased innovation and sustainable performance. We have proved that internal expenditure results in increased internal knowledge spillovers. These findings may be specific for Central and Eastern (CEE transition countries, indicating their efforts to build path-dependent structures based on knowledge institutions and businesses as well as knowledge networks. However, this study also provides a more “global” contribution to the knowledge spillover effect theory. It shows that a firm’s cooperation both with universities and with other firms promotes different types of knowledge spillovers and can affect diverse modes of sustainable activities in innovation.

  7. The Avahan Transition: Effects of Transition Readiness on Program Institutionalization and Sustained Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Ozawa

    Full Text Available With declines in development assistance for health and growing interest in country ownership, donors are increasingly faced with the task of transitioning health programs to local actors towards a path to sustainability. Yet there is little available guidance on how to measure and evaluate the success of a transition and its subsequent effects. This study assesses the transition of the Avahan HIV/AIDS prevention program in India to investigate how preparations for transition affected continuation of program activities post-transition.Two rounds of two surveys were conducted and supplemented by data from government and Avahan Computerized Management Information Systems (CMIS. Exploratory factor analysis was used to develop two measures: 1 transition readiness pre-transition, and 2 institutionalization (i.e. integration of initial program systems into organizational procedures and behaviors post-transition. A fixed effects model was built to examine changes in key program delivery outcomes over time. An ordinary least square regression was used to assess the relationship between transition readiness and sustainability of service outcomes both directly, and indirectly through institutionalization.Transition readiness data revealed 3 factors (capacity, alignment and communication, on a 15-item scale with adequate internal consistency (alpha 0.73. Institutionalization was modeled as a unidimensional construct, and a 12-item scale demonstrated moderate internal consistency (alpha 0.60. Coverage of key populations and condom distribution were sustained compared to pre-transition levels (p<0.01. Transition readiness, but not institutionalization, predicted sustained outcomes post-transition. Transition readiness did not necessarily lead to institutionalization of key program elements one year after transition.Greater preparedness prior to transition is important to achieve better service delivery outcomes post-transition. This paper illustrates a

  8. Assessing capacity for sustainability of effective programs and policies in local health departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Rachel G.; Duggan, Katie; Smith, Carson; Aisaka, Kristelle; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Brownson, Ross C.

    2015-01-01

    Context Sustainability has been defined as the existence of structures and processes that allow a program to leverage resources to effectively implement and maintain evidence-based public health and is important in local health departments (LHDs) to retain the benefits of effective programs. Objective Explore the applicability of the Program Sustainability Framework in high- and low-capacity LHDs as defined by national performance standards. Design Case study interviews from June-July 2013. Standard qualitative methodology was used to code transcripts; codes were developed inductively and deductively. Setting Six geographically diverse LHD’s (selected from three high- and three low-capacity) Participants 35 LHD practitioners Main Outcome Measures Thematic reports explored the eight domains (Organizational Capacity, Program Adaptation, Program Evaluation, Communications, Strategic Planning, Funding Stability, Environmental Support, and Partnerships) of the Program Sustainability Framework. Results High-capacity LHDs described having environmental support, while low-capacity LHDs reported this was lacking. Both high- and low-capacity LHDs described limited funding; however, high-capacity LHDs reported greater funding flexibility. Partnerships were important to high- and low-capacity LHDs, and both described building partnerships to sustain programming. Regarding organizational capacity, high-capacity LHDs reported better access to and support for adequate staff and staff training compared to low-capacity LHDs. While high-capacity LHDs described integration of program evaluation into implementation and sustainability, low-capacity LHDs reported limited capacity for measurement specifically and evaluation generally. When high-capacity LHDs described program adoption, they discussed an opportunity to adapt and evaluate. Low-capacity LHDs struggled with programs requiring adaptation. High-capacity LHDs described higher quality communication than low-capacity LHDs. High

  9. Diffused and sustained inhibitory effects of intestinal electrical stimulation on intestinal motility mediated via sympathetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaotuan; Yin, Jieyun; Wang, Lijie; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2014-06-01

    The aims were to investigate the energy-dose response effect of intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) on small bowel motility, to compare the effect of forward and backward IES, and to explore the possibility of using intermittent IES and mechanism of IES on intestinal motility. Five dogs implanted with a duodenal cannula and one pair of intestinal serosal electrodes were studied in five sessions: 1) energy-dose response study; 2) forward IES; 3) backward IES; 4) intermittent IES vs. continuous IES; 5) administration of guanethidine. The contractile activity and tonic pressure of the small intestine were recorded. The duration of sustained effect after turning off IES was manually calculated. 1) IES with long pulse energy dose dependently inhibited contractile activity and tonic pressure of the small intestine (p intestine depended on the energy of IES delivered (p intestine. 5) Guanethidine blocked the inhibitory effect of IES on intestinal motility. IES with long pulses inhibits small intestinal motility; the effect is energy-dose dependent, diffused, and sustained. Intermittent IES has the same efficacy as the continuous IES in inhibiting small intestinal motility. Forward and backward IES have similar inhibitory effects on small bowel motility. This IES-induced inhibitory effect is mediated via the sympathetic pathway. © 2013 International Neuromodulation Society.

  10. International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems: Sustaining Improvements Globally. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this conference is to review and assess ways of further improving the effectiveness of regulatory systems for nuclear facilities and activities for both nuclear safety and nuclear security. The action items in the summary presented by the President of the conference held in 2013 in Ottawa, the lessons of the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the discussions at other international conferences and at international experts’ meetings conducted within the framework of the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, as well as the CNS and the principles outlined in the Vienna Declaration on Nuclear Safety, will continue to have a significant impact on regulatory systems. All the aforementioned need to be taken into account to sustain improvements to regulatory systems. The expected outcomes of the conference are: - Enhanced safety and security of nuclear installations worldwide; - Challenges in regulating radiation sources and radioactive waste addressed; - Enhanced international cooperation for sustaining regulatory effectiveness; - Strengthened and sustained regulatory competence for nuclear safety and security; and - Strategies and actions for the future identified, as well as issues for consideration by governments, regulatory bodies and international organizations.

  11. Effects of Population Growth and Climate Variability on Sustainable Groundwater in Mali, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Lutz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is increasingly relied on as a source of potable water in developing countries, but factors such as population growth, development, and climate variability, pose potential challenges for ongoing sustainable supply. The effect of these factors on the groundwater system was considered in four scenarios using a numerical model to represent the Bani area of Mali, West Africa. By 2040, population growth, climate variability, and development as urbanization, agriculture, and industry creates scenarios in which groundwater extraction is an increasingly larger percentage of the groundwater system. Consumption from agriculture and industry increases extraction rates from less than 1 to 3.8% of mean annual precipitation, which will likely affect the groundwater system. For instance, concentrated pumping in local areas may result in water level declines. The results of this study contribute to an ongoing evaluation of sustainable groundwater resources in West Africa.

  12. Effect of impurities and ripple upon power regulation in self-sustained tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Tokamak power reactors will likely operate in a self sustained heating mode where additional power losses are introduced to permit higher levels of alpha particle heating (and thus higher levels of total fusion power) at thermal equilibrium. Illustrative 0-dimensional calculations are made to assess requirements for power regulation of self sustained tokamak plasmas by the use of impurity radiation. Effects of impurities upon allowable fuel density and thermal stability are determined. Requirements are calculated for passive thermal stability control by temperature driven radial motion in the presence of ripple transport losses; it appears that stability might be attained over a relatively wide temperature range with a small amount of ripple transport loss. Requirements for power regulation by the use of ripple transport are also determined

  13. Alkali-Activated Mortars for Sustainable Building Solutions: Effect of Binder Composition on Technical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnese Attanasio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in the construction sector in the use of sustainable binders as an alternative to ordinary Portland cement, the production of which is highly impacting on the environment, due to high carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption. Alkali-activated binders, especially those resulting from low-cost industrial by-products, such as coal fly ash or metallurgical slag, represent a sustainable option for cement replacement, though their use is more challenging, due to some technological issues related to workability or curing conditions. This paper presents sustainable alkali-activated mortars cured in room conditions and based on metakaolin, fly ash, and furnace slag (both by-products resulting from local sources and relevant blends, aiming at their real scale application in the building sector. The effect of binder composition—gradually adjusted taking into consideration technical and environmental aspects (use of industrial by-products in place of natural materials in the view of resources saving—on the performance (workability, compressive strength of different mortar formulations, is discussed in detail. Some guidelines for the design of cement-free binders are given, taking into consideration the effect of each investigated alumino-silicate component. The technical feasibility to produce the mortars with standard procedures and equipment, the curing in room conditions, the promising results achieved in terms of workability and mechanical performance (from 20.0 MPa up to 52.0 MPa, confirm the potential of such materials for practical applications (masonry mortars of class M20 and Md. The cement-free binders resulting from this study can be used as reference for the development of mortars and concrete formulations for sustainable building materials production.

  14. Proteomics reveals the effects of sustained weight loss on the human plasma proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geyer, Philipp E; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Tyanova, Stefka

    2016-01-01

    Sustained weight loss is a preferred intervention in a wide range of metabolic conditions, but the effects on an individual's health state remain ill-defined. Here, we investigate the plasma proteomes of a cohort of 43 obese individuals that had undergone 8 weeks of 12% body weight loss followed...... by a year of weight maintenance. Using mass spectrometry-based plasma proteome profiling, we measured 1,294 plasma proteomes. Longitudinal monitoring of the cohort revealed individual-specific protein levels with wide-ranging effects of losing weight on the plasma proteome reflected in 93 significantly...

  15. Effectiveness of Financial and Fiscal Instruments for Promoting Sustainable Renewable Energy Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dombrovski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The new EU target of achieving 80-95% emission reductions by 2050 calls for novel energy policy solutions. Previous research has failed to evaluate the influence of all relevant elements of energy policy on technology-specific sustainable renewable energy diffusion. This paper adds to existing research by studying the effectiveness of financial and fiscal instruments on diffusion, additionally controlling for potential political, economic, social, and environmental drivers. These drivers are analysed for 26 EU countries over the period 1990-2011. The main results show that feed-in tariffs, quotas, and tenders effectively promote wind technologies. Other explanatory variables have technology- and model-dependent impacts.

  16. The Differential Effect of Sustained Operations on Psychomotor Skills of Helicopter Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Terry W; Newman, David G

    2018-06-01

    Flying a helicopter is a complex psychomotor skill requiring constant control inputs from pilots. A deterioration in psychomotor performance of a helicopter pilot may be detrimental to operational safety. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that psychomotor performance deteriorates over time during sustained operations and that the effect is more pronounced in the feet than the hands. The subjects were helicopter pilots conducting sustained multicrew offshore flight operations in a demanding environment. The remote flight operations involved constant workload in hot environmental conditions with complex operational tasking. Over a period of 6 d 10 helicopter pilots were tested. At the completion of daily flying duties, a helicopter-specific screen-based compensatory tracking task measuring tracking accuracy (over a 5-min period) tested both hands and feet. Data were compared over time and tested for statistical significance for both deterioration and differential effect. A statistically significant deterioration of psychomotor performance was evident in the pilots over time for both hands and feet. There was also a statistically significant differential effect between the hands and the feet in terms of tracking accuracy. The hands recorded a 22.6% decrease in tracking accuracy, while the feet recorded a 39.9% decrease in tracking accuracy. The differential effect may be due to prioritization of limb movement by the motor cortex due to factors such as workload-induced cognitive fatigue. This may result in a greater reduction in performance in the feet than the hands, posing a significant risk to operational safety.McMahon TW, Newman DG. The differential effect of sustained operations on psychomotor skills of helicopter pilots. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(6):496-502.

  17. The role of international sustainable development law principles in enabling effective renewable energy policy – a South African perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Barnard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is universally accepted that renewable energy is an important contributing factor towards the promotion of sustainable development. The implementation of renewable energy needs to be regulated in an effective manner which in turn necessitates the formulation of law and policy geared towards sustainable development. Recent policy developments in South Africa propose to facilitate the promotion of sustainable development through the implementation of renewable energy, among others. In terms of existing energy policy in South-Africa, the interconnectivity of renewable energy and sustainable development is evident. Most notably, the White Paper on Renewable Energy of 2003 promotes increased access to affordable renewable energy in order to contribute to sustainable development. Moreover, the 2008 first review of the National Energy Efficiency Strategy of the Republic of South-Africa of 2005 states that in order for the country’s renewable energy policy to be considered sustainable, it needs to facilitate development in the social, economic and environmental spheres. Notwithstanding, attaining the goal of sustainable development depends on whether all its effecting principles are catered for in the policy developments. Accordingly, in order to ascertain whether South-African law and policy can successfully facilitate/enable sustainable development via the implementation of renewable energy, a specific methodology is proposed. In terms of the New Delhi Declaration of 2002 there are 7 principles of international law effecting sustainable development. These principles will be used as criteria in a principled assessment of South-African renewable energy law and policy in order to establish whether the goal of promoting sustainable development would be effected through the national policy developments.

  18. Experts’ Perceptions of the Effects of Forest Biomass Harvesting on Sustainability in the Alpine Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Grilli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: In the EU political agenda, the use of forest biomass for energy has grown rapidly and significantly, in order to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions and reduce the energy dependence on fossil fuels of European member countries. The target of the EU climate and energy package is to raise the share of renewable energy consumption produced from renewable resources to 20% in 2020 (Directive 2009/28/EC. With regards to biomass energy, the supply of forest wood biomass is expected to rise by 45% (reference period: 2006-2020, in response to increasing demand for renewable sources. The increase of forest biomass supply could have both positive and negative effects on several forest ecosystem services (ESs and local development. These effects should be assessed in a proper manner and taken into account when formulating management strategies. The aim of the paper is to assess the environmental, economic and social sustainability of forest biomass harvesting for energy, using the Figure of Merit (FoM approach. Materials and Methods: Sustainability was assessed through a set of four indicators: two focused on experts’ opinions regarding the effects of forest biomass harvesting and the other two focused on the cost-benefit analysis (potential energy obtained and costs for wood chips. The research was developed through four case studies located in the Alpine Region. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered face-to-face to 32 selected experts. The perceived effects of forest biomass harvesting for energy on ESs and local development were evaluated by experts using a 5-point Likert scale (from “quite negative effect” to “quite positive effect”. Results: All experts agree that forest biomass harvesting has a positive effect on forest products provision and local economic development (employment of local workforce, local entrepreneurship and market diversification, while the effects on other ESs are controversial (e

  19. Effect of Economic Vulnerability on Competitive Advantages, Enterprise Performance and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al Mamun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of economic vulnerability upon competitive advantages, performance, and sustainability of micro-enterprises owned and managed by micro-entrepreneurs who participate in varied development initiatives in Peninsular Malaysia. Upon adopting the cross-sectional design, data were randomly collected from selected 300 micro-entrepreneurs from the eKasih program (national poverty data bank located in four states of Peninsular Malaysia. The quantitative data were collected by conducting structured interview sessions with the respondents held from September until November 2017. The findings revealed that the state of economic vulnerability among the respondents had a significantly negative effect on the aspects of competitive advantages, performance, and sustainability among micro-enterprises in Peninsular Malaysia. Despite of the widely acknowledged and empirically examined effects of socioeconomic antecedents upon micro-enterprise performance, the focus on the effect of a more comprehensive measure of socioeconomic condition, that is, economic vulnerability, among low-income households appears to be scant. Hence, the outcomes of this study are able to provide critical insights for development organizations pertaining to development programs and their effectiveness on economically vulnerable, particularly among low-income households in Peninsular Malaysia.

  20. Predicted effects of prescribed burning and harvesting on forest recovery and sustainability in southwest Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garten, Charles T

    2006-12-01

    A model-based analysis of the effect of prescribed burning and forest thinning or clear-cutting on stand recovery and sustainability was conducted at Fort Benning, GA, in the southeastern USA. Two experiments were performed with the model. In the first experiment, forest recovery from degraded soils was predicted for 100 years with or without prescribed burning. In the second experiment simulations began with 100 years of predicted stand growth, then forest sustainability was predicted for an additional 100 years under different combinations of prescribed burning and forest harvesting. Three levels of fire intensity (low, medium, and high), that corresponded to 17%, 33%, and 50% consumption of the forest floor C stock by fire, were evaluated at 1-, 2-, and 3-year fire return intervals. Relative to the control (no fire), prescribed burning with a 2- or 3-year return interval caused only a small reduction in predicted steady state soil C stocks (burns did adversely impact forest recovery and sustainability (after harvesting) on less sandy soils, but not on more sandy soils that had greater N availability. Higher intensity and frequency of ground fires increased the chance that tree biomass would not return to pre-harvest levels. Soil N limitation was indicated as the cause of unsustainable forests when prescribed burns were too frequent or too intense to permit stand recovery.

  1. A Review of "The Politics of Sustainability: Philosophical Perspectives"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Goldemberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about sustainable development are not a recent phenomenon. Societal problem-solving efforts within this realm have focused on concrete problems such as the preservation of fisheries, forests and national reserves. 'The Politics of Sustainability' has been discussed extensively in  literature, particularly after the publication of the Brundtland Commission's 'Our Common Future' report in 1987 [1] emphasizing inter-generational responsibilities involving economic, environmental and social aspects. Among other areas, the authors of the report highlighted the challenge of global climate change resulting from, amongst other things, unsustainable patterns of consumption. 'The Politics of Sustainability: Philosophical Perspectives', edited by Dieter Birnhacher and May Thorseth, brings  a new angle into the discussion of the politics of sustainable development: ethical considerations.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE EFFECTS OF INHALED PERCHLOROETHYLENE ON SUSTAINED ATTENTION IN RATS PERFORMING A VISUAL SIGNAL DETECTION TASK

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aliphatic hydrocarbon perchloroethyelene (PCE) has been associated with neurobehavioral dysfunction including reduced attention in humans. The current study sought to assess the effects of inhaled PCE on sustained attention in rats performing a visual signal detection task (S...

  3. R-ketamine: a rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant without psychotomimetic side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Shirayama, Y; Zhang, J-c; Ren, Q; Yao, W; Ma, M; Dong, C; Hashimoto, K

    2015-01-01

    Although the efficacy of racemate ketamine, a rapid onset and sustained antidepressant, for patients with treatment-resistant depression was a serendipitous finding, clinical use of ketamine is limited, due to psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. Behavioral and side-effect evaluation tests were applied to compare the two stereoisomers of ketamine. To elucidate their potential therapeutic mechanisms, we examined the effects of these stereoisomers on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)–TrkB signaling, and synaptogenesis in selected brain regions. In the social defeat stress and learned helplessness models of depression, R-ketamine showed a greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant effect than S-ketamine (esketamine). Furthermore, R-ketamine induced a more potent beneficial effect on decreased dendritic spine density, BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus from depressed mice compared with S-ketamine. However, neither stereoisomer affected these alterations in the nucleus accumbens of depressed mice. In behavioral tests for side effects, S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, precipitated behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperlocomotion, prepulse inhibition deficits and rewarding effects. In addition, a single dose of S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, caused a loss of parvalbumin (PV)-positive cells in the prelimbic region of the medial PFC and DG. These findings suggest that, unlike S-ketamine, R-ketamine can elicit a sustained antidepressant effect, mediated by increased BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the PFC, DG and CA3. R-ketamine appears to be a potent, long-lasting and safe antidepressant, relative to S-ketamine, as R-ketamine appears to be free of psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. PMID:26327690

  4. Global comparative healthcare effectiveness research: Evaluating sustainable programmes in low & middle resource settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Balkrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to focus healthcare expenditures on innovative and sustainable health systems that efficiently use existing effective therapies are the major drivers stimulating Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER across the globe. Lack of adequate access and high cost of essential medicines and technologies in many countries increases morbidity and mortality and cost of care that forces people and families into poverty due to disability and out-of-pocket expenses. This review illustrates the potential of value-added global health care comparative effectiveness research in shaping health systems and health care delivery paradigms in the "global south". Enabling the development of effective CER systems globally paves the way for tangible local and regional definitions of equity in health care because CER fosters the sharing of critical assets, resources, skills, and capabilities and the development of collaborative of multi-sectorial frameworks to improve health outcomes and metrics globally.

  5. Effects of discharge parameters on the micro-hollow cathode sustained glow discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoujie, HE; Peng, WANG; Jing, HA; Baoming, ZHANG; Zhao, ZHANG; Qing, LI

    2018-05-01

    The effects of parameters such as pressure, first anode radius, and the cavity diameter on the micro-hollow cathode sustained glow discharge are investigated by using a two-dimensional self-consistent fluid model in pure argon. The results indicate that the three parameters influence the discharge in the regions inside and outside of the cavity. Under a fixed voltage on each electrode, a larger volume of high density plasma can be produced in the region between the first and the second anodes by selecting the appropriate pressure, the higher first anode, and the appropriate cavity diameter. As the pressure increases, the electron density inside the hollow cathode, the high density plasma volume between the first anode and second anodes, and the radial electric field in the cathode cavity initially increase and subsequently decrease. As the cavity diameter increases, the high-density plasma volume between the first and second anodes initially increases and subsequently decreases; whereas the electron density inside the hollow cathode decreases. As the first anode radius increases, the electron density increases both inside and outside of the cavity. Moreover, the increase of the electron density is more obvious in the microcathode sustained region than in the micro cavity region. The results reveal that the discharge inside the cavity interacts with that outside the cavity. The strong hollow cathode effect and the high-density plasma inside the cavity favor the formation of a sustained discharge between the first anode and the second anodes. Results also show that the radial boundary conditions exert a considerably weaker influence on the discharge except for a little change in the region close to the radial boundary.

  6. Strengthening Radiation Protection Infrastructures in Africa: Towards Establishing Effective and Sustainable Co-operations and Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    The third African IRPA 2010 conference on Strengthening Radiation Protection Infrastructures in Africa: Towards Establishing Effective and Sustainable Co-operations and Networks. IAEA's role in radiation protection with focus in Africa. The controlling of exposure to indoor Radon. And Measure of activities and calculation of effective dose of indoor 222 Rn in some dwelling and enclosed areas in Africa - capacity building for radiation protection. It had also address Patient Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy, challenges for advancing medical physic globally, Heath effects and medical applications of non-ionizing radiation, nuclear safety and radiation protection consideration in the design of research and development. The International radiation protection association (IRPA) 2010-2011 strategic plan that address among other issues educations and training activities (2000-2020) and the current UNSCLEAR activities

  7. Sustained Large-Scale Collective Climate Action Supported by Effective Climate Change Education Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepold, F., III; Crim, H.; Fiorile, G.; Eldadah, S.

    2017-12-01

    Since 2012, the Climate and Energy Literacy community have realized that as cities, nations and the international community seek solutions to global climate change over the coming decades, a more comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach to climate literacy—one that includes economic and social considerations—will play a vital role in knowledgeable planning, decision-making, and governance. City, county and state leaders are now leading the American response to a changing climate by incubating social innovation to prevail in the face of unprecedented change. Cities are beginning to realize the importance of critical investments to support the policies and strategies that will foster the climate literacy necessary for citizens to understand the urgency of climate actions and to succeed in a resilient post-carbon economy and develop the related workforce. Over decade of federal and non-profit Climate Change Education effective methods have been developed that can support municipality's significant educational capabilities for the purpose of strengthening and scaling city, state, business, and education actions designed to sustain and effectively address this significant social change. Looking to foster the effective and innovative strategies that will enable their communities several networks have collaborated to identify recommendations for effective education and communication practices when working with different types of audiences. U.S. National Science Foundation funded Climate Change Education Partnership (CCEP) Alliance, the National Wildlife Federation, NOAA Climate Program Office, Tri-Agency Climate Change Education Collaborative and the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) are working to develop a new web portal that will highlight "effective" practices that includes the acquisition and use of climate change knowledge to inform decision-making. The purpose of the web portal is to transfer effective practice to support communities to be

  8. Can learning in informal settings mitigate disadvantage and promote urban sustainability? School gardens in Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Maltese, Carley; Fisher, Dana R.; Ray, Rashawn

    2017-09-01

    This article explores how school gardens provide learning opportunities for school-aged children while concurrently helping cities achieve sustainability. The authors analyse this process in Washington, DC, a particularly innovative metropolis in the United States. This national capital city boasts two of the most progressive examples of legislation aimed at improving environmental awareness and inciting citizens to engage in environmental stewardship, both of which focus on school-aged children: (1) the Healthy Schools Act of 2010 and (2) the Sustainable DC Act of 2012. Together these policies focus on bringing healthy lifestyles and environmental awareness, including meaningful outdoor learning experiences, to students and families in the District of Columbia. This article is organised into three parts. The first part discusses how Washington, DC became a sustainable learning city through the implementation of these specific policies. The next part presents the results of a pilot study conducted in one kindergarten to Grade 5 (K-5) elementary school located in Ward 8, the poorest part of the city. The authors' analysis considers the support and the obstacles teachers and principals in the District of Columbia (DC) are experiencing in their efforts to integrate school gardens into the curriculum and the culture of their schools. Exploring the impacts of the school garden on the students, the local community, and the inter-generational relationships at and beyond schools, the authors aim to shed light on the benefits and the challenges. While Washington, DC is fostering its hope that the benefits prevail as it provides a model for other cities to follow, the authors also candidly present the challenges of implementing these policies. In the final part, they discuss the implications of their findings for school gardens and sustainable learning cities more broadly. They encourage further research to gain more insights into effective ways of promoting environmental

  9. Integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective biosolids management at a large Canadian wastewater treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, R J; Allain, C J; Laughton, P J; Henry, J G

    2004-01-01

    The Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission's 115,000 m3/d advanced, chemically assisted primary wastewater treatment facility located in New Brunswick, Canada, has developed an integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective programme for the management and beneficial utilization of biosolids from lime stabilized raw sludge. The paper overviews biosolids production, lime stabilization, conveyance, and odour control followed by an indepth discussion of the wastewater sludge as a resource programme, namely: composting, mine site reclamation, landfill cover, land application for agricultural use, tree farming, sod farm base as a soil enrichment, topsoil manufacturing. The paper also addresses the issues of metals, pathogens, organic compounds, the quality control program along with the regulatory requirements. Biosolids capital and operating costs are presented. Research results on removal of metals from primary sludge using a unique biological process known as BIOSOL as developed by the University of Toronto, Canada to remove metals and destroy pathogens are presented. The paper also discusses an ongoing cooperative research project with the Université de Moncton where various mixtures of plant biosolids are composted with low quality soil. Integration, approach to sustainability and "cumulative effects" as part of the overall biosolids management strategy are also discussed.

  10. International conference on national infrastructures for radiation safety: Towards effective and sustainable systems. Contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in co-operation with the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Labour Office (ILO), the European Commission (EC), and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), organized the International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety: Towards Effective and Sustainable Systems. This book contains contributed papers submitted on pertinent issues, including stakeholder involvement, IAEA Model Projects on Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure, Quality Assurance, education and training, regulatory activities, performance evaluation, source security, and emergency preparedness. The material in this book has not been edited by the IAEA. These contributed papers will be published on a CD ROM as part of the Proceedings of the Conference, along with the invited papers and discussions. The papers are grouped by topical sessions: Stakeholder Involvement in Building and Maintaining National Radiation Safety Infrastructure (National and International); Implementation Experience with The Model Projects (Views From The Countries, Positive and Negative Experiences); Resources and Services (Systematic Approach), Quality Assurance, International Support Of Services; Sustainable Education And Training: Developing Skills (National Systems And Regional Solutions); Needs for Education And Training at The International Level (Including IAEA Programmes Assisting in Establishing Adequate Infrastructures); Authorization, Inspection and Enforcement (Effectiveness and Efficiency Of The Activities Of The Regulatory Bodies), Independence of Regulatory Authorities; Performance Evaluation; Source Security and Emergency Preparedness (Infrastructure Requirements at the International, National And User's Level)

  11. International conference on national infrastructures for radiation safety: Towards effective and sustainable systems. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in co-operation with the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Labour Office (ILO), the European Commission (EC), and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), organized the International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety: Towards Effective and Sustainable Systems. This book contains contributed papers submitted on pertinent issues, including stakeholder involvement, IAEA Model Projects on Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure, Quality Assurance, education and training, regulatory activities, performance evaluation, source security, and emergency preparedness. The material in this book has not been edited by the IAEA. These contributed papers will be published on a CD ROM as part of the Proceedings of the Conference, along with the invited papers and discussions. The papers are grouped by topical sessions: Stakeholder Involvement in Building and Maintaining National Radiation Safety Infrastructure (National and International); Implementation Experience with The Model Projects (Views From The Countries, Positive and Negative Experiences); Resources and Services (Systematic Approach), Quality Assurance, International Support Of Services; Sustainable Education And Training: Developing Skills (National Systems And Regional Solutions); Needs for Education And Training at The International Level (Including IAEA Programmes Assisting in Establishing Adequate Infrastructures); Authorization, Inspection and Enforcement (Effectiveness and Efficiency Of The Activities Of The Regulatory Bodies), Independence of Regulatory Authorities; Performance Evaluation; Source Security and Emergency Preparedness (Infrastructure Requirements at the International, National And User's Level)

  12. The effect of marketing knowledge management on sustainable competitive advantage: Evidence from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rezaee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the importance of achieving sustainable organization with competitive advantage in complex environments has many researchers’ interest. So, in this study, we evaluate different views of MKM and its role to reach SCA within banking industry. This research is relatively the scarce empirical study and adds to its originality. The findings offer valuable insights on the generalizability of MKM in a research setting. In fact, the purpose of this study is to empirically test the effect of the marketing knowledge management (MKM on sustainable competitive advantage (SCA within banking industry of Iran. A valid research instrument was utilized to conduct a survey of 150 top- and middle-level managers from Mellat bank of Iran (MBI. With a response rate of 81.3 percent, 122 questionnaires were returned; the number of valid and usable questionnaires was 101. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, MKM were classified into organizational strategies, culture and performance of senior manager, information technology (IT, research and development (R & D, internal customer (personnel, and external customer (client. Moreover, MBI’ SCA was classified into three dimensions: market, customer, finance. Structural equation modelling was utilized to test the stated hypotheses and model. Statistical support was found for the hypothesized relationships. Moreover it has been shown that MKM maintained the greatest effect on the market centered SCA, while it had the least influence on the customer centered.

  13. The effect of residential choice on the travel distance and the implications for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eka Putra, Kaspan

    2018-03-01

    For Medan citizens, the choice of residence location depends on the ability to buy a house. House price is determined by the price of land where the housing is located. The more to the edge of the city the location of a house, then the price will be lower. So that the suburbs of Medan become the residential choice for the citizens of low-income. The residential choice will affect the distance of the journey to the workplace. This study analyzed the effect of residential choice on the travel distance and the implications for the implementation of sustainable development. The data used in this study is the primary data obtained through the survey held in Medan. The research approach is quantitative with the data analysis technique of Structural Equation Model (SEM). The results show that low-income citizens tend to choose the location of suburbs, while they work in the urban area. The location of the residence affects the daily travel distance is very high. The travel distance that is the very high effect the use of private vehicle mode. The use of private vehicles for long travel distance requires a huge energy. The use of very high fuel oils is a waste of energy and can increase air pollution. This is not in accordance with the concept of sustainable development.

  14. Integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective biosolids management at a large Canadian wastewater treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlance, R.J.; Allain, C.J.; Laughton, P.J.; Henry, J.G.

    2003-07-01

    The Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission's 115 000 m{sup 3}/d advanced, chemically assisted primary wastewater treatment facility located in New Brunswick, Canada, has developed an integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective programme for the management and beneficial utilization of biosolids from lime stabilized raw sludge. The paper overviews biosolids production, lime stabilization, conveyance, and odour control followed by an indepth discussion of the wastewater sludge as a resource programme, namely: composting, mine site reclamation, landfill cover, land application for agricultural use, tree farming, sod farm base as a soil enrichment, topsoil manufacturing. The paper also addresses the issues of metals, pathogens, organic compounds, the quality control program along with the regulatory requirements. Biosolids capital and operating costs are presented. Research results on removal of metals from primary sludge using a unique biological process known as BIOSOL as developed by the University of Toronto, Canada to remove metals and destroy pathogens are presented. The paper also discusses an ongoing cooperative research project with the Universite de Moncton where various mixtures of plant biosolids are composted with low quality soil. Integration, approach to sustainability and ''cumulative effects'' as part of the overall biosolids management strategy is also discussed. (author)

  15. [Territory, intersectoriality and stages: requirements for the effectiveness of the sustainable development goals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Edmundo; Setti, Andréia Faraoni Freitas

    2014-11-01

    The post-2015 development agenda highlights the incorporation of sustainability in approaches developed and/or applied to distinct fields of knowledge and action and the demonstration of the effectiveness of experiences of sustainable and healthy territories. This process results from the confrontation of different viewpoints which seek to address social production vis-à-vis their project, with the possibility of updating the hegemonic mode of production and consumption or the emergence of counter-hegemonic rationales. Health, as one of the SDGs, has the challenge of imposing an intersectorial agenda that addresses its social determinants, in a process of participative governance able to build a hierarchy of priorities based on the needs of the territory and build techno-political solutions based on the ecology of knowledge, constituting a strategic-situational and communicative management process. The consistency in formulation of the agenda and potential challenges to its implementation are analyzed, considering its intersectoriality, its strategic governance and management, and especially an assessment of its effectiveness. Moreover, it tests the evaluative tools used and their ability to analyze the consistency in the formulation of the agenda.

  16. Is the emotional Stroop task a special case of mood induction? Evidence from sustained effects of attention under emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Haim, Moshe Shay; Mama, Yaniv; Icht, Michal; Algom, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Sustained effects of emotion are well known in everyday experience. Surprisingly, such effects are seldom recorded in laboratory studies of the emotional Stroop task, in which participants name the color of emotion and neutral words. Color performance is more sluggish with emotion words than with neutral words, the emotional Stroop effect (ESE). The ESE is not sensitive to the order in which the two groups of words are presented, so the effect of exposure to emotion words does not extend to disrupting performance in a subsequent block with neutral words. We attribute this absence of a sustained effect to habituation engendered by excessive repetition of the experimental stimuli. In a series of four experiments, we showed that sustained effects do occur when habituation is removed, and we also showed that the massive exposure to negative stimuli within the ESE paradigm induces a commensurately negative mood. A novel perspective is offered, in which the ESE is considered a special case of mood induction.

  17. Sustainable Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsegai Berhane Ghebretekle

    Ethiopia is selected as a case study in light of its pace in economic growth ... Interrogating the Economy-First Paradigm in 'Sustainable Development' … 65 .... agreement, since such effective global cooperation on climate change ultimately ..... and foster innovation; reduce inequality within and among countries; make cities.

  18. COMPANION ANIMALS SYMPOSIUM: Sustainable Ecosystems: Domestic cats and their effect on wildlife populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts-Morgan, S E

    2015-03-01

    Domestic cats are estimated to kill billions of small mammals and birds each year. In certain areas of the world, it is not uncommon for either feral or free-ranging cats to have high population densities, creating concern regarding their level of hunting. Many cats are considered to be subsidized predators, as they receive care and food from humans. Arguments abound regarding the presence of cats in the habitats of native small mammals and birds and whether or not local ecosystems can sustain this predator-prey relationship. The effects of cats on native wildlife can depend on several factors, including cat classification (feral vs. free ranging vs. indoor-outdoor), geographical location (islands vs. mainland), and type of habitat (rural vs. suburban vs. urban). Feral and free-ranging cats may have a greater impact on native species on islands because habitat is severely limited. Continued urbanization and development of rural areas also creates fragmented habitats, and native species may struggle to survive with the added pressure of hunting by domestic cats. Additionally, cats in rural areas are frequently fed by humans, which can support high population densities and intensify pressure on native species. Species targeted by cats may also vary based on prey availability in different areas, but small mammals are generally preferred over birds, reptiles, or invertebrates. Domestic cats certainly have the potential to roam and hunt in very large areas inhabited by native species and loss of biodiversity is a major concern. Therefore, it is possible that ecosystems may not be able to sustain hunting by domestic cats. Because this predator-prey relationship is probably not sustainable, it is necessary to responsibly manage outdoor domestic cats.

  19. Effect of oil palm sustainability certification on deforestation and fire in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly M; Heilmayr, Robert; Gibbs, Holly K; Noojipady, Praveen; Burns, David N; Morton, Douglas C; Walker, Nathalie F; Paoli, Gary D; Kremen, Claire

    2018-01-02

    Many major corporations and countries have made commitments to purchase or produce only "sustainable" palm oil, a commodity responsible for substantial tropical forest loss. Sustainability certification is the tool most used to fulfill these procurement policies, and around 20% of global palm oil production was certified by the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) in 2017. However, the effect of certification on deforestation in oil palm plantations remains unclear. Here, we use a comprehensive dataset of RSPO-certified and noncertified oil palm plantations (∼188,000 km 2 ) in Indonesia, the leading producer of palm oil, as well as annual remotely sensed metrics of tree cover loss and fire occurrence, to evaluate the impact of certification on deforestation and fire from 2001 to 2015. While forest loss and fire continued after RSPO certification, certified palm oil was associated with reduced deforestation. Certification lowered deforestation by 33% from a counterfactual of 9.8 to 6.6% y -1 Nevertheless, most plantations contained little residual forest when they received certification. As a result, by 2015, certified areas held less than 1% of forests remaining within Indonesian oil palm plantations. Moreover, certification had no causal impact on forest loss in peatlands or active fire detection rates. Broader adoption of certification in forested regions, strict requirements to avoid all peat, and routine monitoring of clearly defined forest cover loss in certified and RSPO member-held plantations appear necessary if the RSPO is to yield conservation and climate benefits from reductions in tropical deforestation. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  20. Externality or sustainability economics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  1. A comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustained attention in schizophrenic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Narges bahmany; Karamatollah Zandi ghashghaee; Sadrollah Khosravi

    2014-01-01

    Background: schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder in which a lot of cognitive functions including memory, attention, motor skills, executive functions and intelligence are compromised. Numerous empirical studies showed that schizophrenic patients have problem in sustain retention and memory activity. The objective of this study was a comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustain retention in schizophrenic patients. Material and Methods: A total of 6...

  2. Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Agonist Experts Sustained Neuroprotective Effects In Aged Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumners, Colin; Isenberg, Jacob; Harmel, Allison

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The renin angiotensin system is a promising target for stroke neuroprotection and therapy through activation of angiotensin type II receptors (AT2R). The selective non-peptide AT2R agonist, Compound 21 (C21), has been shown to exhibit neuroprotection and improve stroke outcomes...... in preclinical studies, effects that likely involve neurotropic actions. However, these beneficial actions of C21 have not been demonstrated to occur beyond 1 week post stroke. The objective of this study was to determine if systemic administration of C21 would exert sustained neuroprotective effects in aged...... min), 24 h, and 48 h after stroke. Infarct size was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging at 21 days post MCAO. Animals received blinded neurological exams at 4 h, 24 h, 72 h, 7d, 14d, and 21d post-MCAO. RESULTS: Systemic treatment with C21 after stroke significantly improved neurological function...

  3. Effects of Nuclear Energy on Sustainable Development and Energy Security: Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungjoo Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a stepwise method of selecting appropriate indicators to measure effects of a specific nuclear energy option on sustainable development and energy security, and also to compare an energy option with another. Focusing on the sodium-cooled fast reactor, one of the highlighted Generation IV reactors, we measure and compare its effects with the standard pressurized water reactor-based nuclear power, and then with coal power. Collecting 36 indicators, five experts select seven key indicators to meet data availability, nuclear energy relevancy, comparability among energy options, and fit with Korean energy policy objectives. The results show that sodium-cooled fast reactors is a better alternative than existing nuclear power as well as coal electricity generation across social, economic and environmental dimensions. Our method makes comparison between energy alternatives easier, thereby clarifying consequences of different energy policy decisions.

  4. Preliminary Effectiveness and Sustainability of Group Aerobic Exercise Program in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sol; Ryu, Je-Kwang; Kim, Chan-Hyung; Chang, Jhin-Goo; Lee, Hwa-Bock; Kim, Do-Hoon; Roh, Daeyoung

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and sustained effect of a group aerobic exercise program in patients with schizophrenia. Twenty-four schizophrenic patients participated in a group-based individually tailored 90-minute outdoor cycling session per week for 3 months with intervention to enhance motivation. Physical health was evaluated by anthropometric measures, cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness, and blood tests. Mental health was assessed on self-esteem, interpersonal relationship, quality of life, and global function. Attrition rate for the exercise program was 8.3%. Exercise program significantly increased participant's self-esteem, positive relationship, global function, and quality of life. CR fitness significantly improved after 3 months. At the 9-month follow-up, 6 months after program completion, only in interpersonal relationship change the improved effects were maintained. These findings support the feasibility of group aerobic exercise program with high level of adherence and its long-term benefits in positive relationship change.

  5. A prospective cohort study on sustained effects of low-dose ecstasy use on the brain in new ecstasy users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Reneman, Liesbeth; Jager, Gerry; Vlieger, Erik-Jan P.; Olabarriaga, Sílvia D.; Lavini, Cristina; Bisschops, Ivo; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; Booij, Jan; den Heeten, Gerard J.; van den Brink, Wim

    2007-01-01

    It is debated whether ecstasy use has neurotoxic effects on the human brain and what the effects are of a low dose of ecstasy use. We prospectively studied sustained effects (>2 weeks abstinence) of a low dose of ecstasy on the brain in ecstasy-naive volunteers using a combination of advanced MR

  6. Concurrent and Sustained Cumulative Effects of Adolescent Marijuana Use on Subclinical Psychotic Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Jordan; Hipwell, Alison; Lewis, David A; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin

    2016-08-01

    Adolescents who regularly use marijuana may be at heightened risk of developing subclinical and clinical psychotic symptoms. However, this association could be explained by reverse causation or other factors. To address these limitations, the current study examined whether adolescents who engage in regular marijuana use exhibit a systematic increase in subclinical psychotic symptoms that persists during periods of sustained abstinence. The sample comprised 1,009 boys who were recruited in 1st and 7th grades. Self-reported frequency of marijuana use, subclinical psychotic symptoms, and several time-varying confounds (e.g., other substance use, internalizing/externalizing problems) were recorded annually from age 13 to 18. Fixed-effects (within-individual change) models examined whether adolescents exhibited an increase in their subclinical psychotic symptoms as a function of their recent and/or cumulative history of regular marijuana use and whether these effects were sustained following abstinence. Models controlled for all time-stable factors (default) and several time-varying covariates as potential confounds. For each year adolescent boys engaged in regular marijuana use, their expected level of subsequent subclinical psychotic symptoms rose by 21% and their expected odds of experiencing subsequent subclinical paranoia or hallucinations rose by 133% and 92%, respectively. The effect of prior regular marijuana use on subsequent subclinical psychotic symptoms persisted even when adolescents stopped using marijuana for a year. These effects were after controlling for all time-stable and several time-varying confounds. No support was found for reverse causation. These results suggest that regular marijuana use may significantly increase the risk that an adolescent will experience persistent subclinical psychotic symptoms.

  7. Multi-criteria decision support framework for sustainable implementation of effective green supply chain management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutkhoum, Omar; Hanine, Mohamed; Boukhriss, Hicham; Agouti, Tarik; Tikniouine, Abdessadek

    2016-01-01

    At present, environmental issues become real critical barriers for many supply chain corporations concerning the sustainability of their businesses. In this context, several studies have been proposed from both academia and industry trying to develop new measurements related to green supply chain management (GSCM) practices to overcome these barriers, which will help create new environmental strategies, implementing those practices in their manufacturing processes. The objective of this study is to present the technical and analytical contribution that multi-criteria decision making analysis (MCDA) can bring to environmental decision making problems, and especially to GSCM field. For this reason, a multi-criteria decision-making methodology, combining fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (fuzzy TOPSIS), is proposed to contribute to a better understanding of new sustainable strategies through the identification and evaluation of the most appropriate GSCM practices to be adopted by industrial organizations. The fuzzy AHP process is used to construct hierarchies of the influential criteria, and then identify the importance weights of the selected criteria, while the fuzzy TOPSIS process employs these weighted criteria as inputs to evaluate and measure the performance of each alternative. To illustrate the effectiveness and performance of our MCDA approach, we have applied it to a chemical industry corporation located in Safi, Morocco.

  8. Sustainable Carbon Dioxide Photoreduction by a Cooperative Effect of Reactor Design and Titania Metal Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Olivo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective process based on the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to face on the one hand, the crucial problem of environmental pollution, and, on the other hand, to propose an efficient way to product clean and sustainable energy sources has been developed in this work. Particular attention has been paid to the sustainability of the process by using a green reductant (water and TiO2 as a photocatalyst under very mild operative conditions (room temperature and atmospheric pressure. It was shown that the efficiency in carbon dioxide photoreduction is strictly related to the process parameters and to the catalyst features. In order to formulate a versatile and high performing catalyst, TiO2 was modified by oxide or metal species. Copper (in the oxide CuO form or gold (as nanoparticles were employed as promoting metal. Both photocatalytic activity and selectivity displayed by CuO-TiO2 and Au-TiO2 were compared, and it was found that the nature of the promoter (either Au or CuO shifts the selectivity of the process towards two strategic products: CH4 or H2. The catalytic results were discussed in depth and correlated with the physicochemical features of the photocatalysts.

  9. International and Domestic Sustainable Forest Management Policies: Distributive Effects on Power among State Agencies in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Giessen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades of forest policy discussions have been dominated by calls for sustainable management of forest resources. Consequently, multiple international and domestic policies, supporting sustainable forest management (SFM, have evolved in numerous jurisdictions. Policies in developing countries often rely on foreign donors’ projects, which supplement domestic SFM policy. These policies assign various policy tasks to specific public bureaucracies, who then compete for these very tasks, as well as the related staff and budgets. Therefore, project and policy task assignment greatly influences bureaucratic power. This article analyzes the distributive effects of SFM policy on power (in terms of coercion, incentives and dominant information among relevant domestic and foreign donor bureaucracies in Bangladesh. Concepts from power theory, bureaucratic politics theory, and concepts of policy and policy process were combined to analyze 121 Bangladeshi SFM policies from 1992–2013, which assign a total of 1012 policy tasks to specific public bureaucracies. Using qualitative content analysis, inferences about power were assigned to specific competing bureaucracies by the totality of SFM policies made. Results identify domestic and foreign bureaucracies whose power distribution benefit most from the SFM policies viz. their competitors. It is concluded that bureaucracies gaining the most power set the limits and directions in designing, implementing and evaluating various elements of any national SFM policies.

  10. The effect of loss of immunity on noise-induced sustained oscillations in epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, J; Kuske, R

    2011-11-01

    The effect of loss of immunity on sustained population oscillations about an endemic equilibrium is studied via a multiple scales analysis of a SIRS model. The analysis captures the key elements supporting the nearly regular oscillations of the infected and susceptible populations, namely, the interaction of the deterministic and stochastic dynamics together with the separation of time scales of the damping and the period of these oscillations. The derivation of a nonlinear stochastic amplitude equation describing the envelope of the oscillations yields two criteria providing explicit parameter ranges where they can be observed. These conditions are similar to those found for other applications in the context of coherence resonance, in which noise drives nearly regular oscillations in a system that is quiescent without noise. In this context the criteria indicate how loss of immunity and other factors can lead to a significant increase in the parameter range for prevalence of the sustained oscillations, without any external driving forces. Comparison of the power spectral densities of the full model and the approximation confirms that the multiple scales analysis captures nonlinear features of the oscillations.

  11. Sustained analgesic effect of clonidine co-polymer depot in a porcine incisional pain model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilsey JT

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Jared T Wilsey, Julie H Block Medtronic Spine Division, Memphis, TN, USA Background: Previous research suggests that the α2 adrenergic agonist clonidine, a centrally acting analgesic and antihypertensive, may also have direct effects on peripheral pain generators. However, aqueous injections are limited by rapid systemic absorption leading to off target effects and a brief analgesic duration of action. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a sustained-release clonidine depot, placed in the wound bed, in a pig incisional pain model. Methods: The depot was a 15 mm ×5 mm ×0.3 mm poly(lactide-co-caprolactone polymer film containing 3% (w/w clonidine HCl (MDT3. Fifty-two young adult mix Landrace pigs (9–11 kg were divided into seven groups. All subjects received a 6 cm, full-thickness, linear incision into the left lateral flank. Group 1 served as a Sham control group (Sham, n=8. Group 2 received three placebo strips (PBO, n=8, placed end-to-end in the subcutaneous wound bed before wound closure. Group 3 received one MDT3 and two PBO (n=8, Group 4 received two MDT3 and one PBO (n=8, and Group 5 received three MDT3 (n=8. Positive control groups received peri-incisional injections of bupivacaine solution (Group 6, 30 mg/day bupivacaine, n=8 or clonidine solution (Group 7, 225 µg/day, n=4. Results: The surgical procedure was associated with significant peri-incisional tactile allodynia. There was a dose-dependent effect of MDT3 in partially reversing the peri-incisional tactile allodynia, with maximum pain relief relative to Sham at 72 hours. Daily injections of bupivacaine (30 mg, but not clonidine (up to 225 µg, completely reversed allodynia within 48 hours. There was a statistically significant correlation between the dose of MDT3 and cumulative withdrawal threshold from 4 hours through the conclusion of the study on day 7. Conclusion: These data suggest that a sustained-release clonidine depot may be a

  12. Customization of biliopancreatic limb length to modulate and sustain antidiabetic effect of gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, A; Rhoads, D B; Tavakkoli, A

    2018-02-01

    Although Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) remains the most effective treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), many patients fail to achieve remission, or relapse. Increasing intestinal limb lengths of RYGB may improve outcomes, but the mechanistic basis for this remains unclear. We hypothesize biliopancreatic (BP) limb length modulates the antidiabetic effect of RYGB. Rats underwent RYGB with a 20-cm (RYGB-20cm) or 40-cm (RYGB-40cm) BP limb and were compared with control animals. After 2 and 4 wk, portal and systemic blood was sampled during intestinal glucose infusion. Portosystemic gradient was used to calculate intestinal glucose utilization (G util ), absorption (G absorp ), and hormone secretion. Intestinal morphology and gene expression were assessed. At 2 wk, G absorp progressively decreased with increasing BP limb length; this pattern persisted at 4 wk. G util increased ≈70% in both RYGB-20cm and -40cm groups at 2 wk. At 4 wk, G util progressively increased with limb length. Furthermore, Roux limb weight, and expression of hexokinase and preproglucagon, exhibited a similar progressive increase. At 4 wk, glucagon-like peptide-1 and -2 levels were higher after RYGB-40cm, with associated increased secretion. We conclude that BP limb length modulates multiple antidiabetic mechanisms, analogous to the dose-response relationship of a drug. Early postoperatively, a longer BP limb reduces G absorp . Later, G util , Roux limb hypertrophy, hormone secretion, and hormone levels are increased with longer BP limb. Sustained high incretin levels may prevent weight regain and T2D relapse. These data provide the basis for customizing BP limb length according to patient characteristics and desired metabolic effect. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Biliopancreatic limb length in gastric bypass modulates multiple antidiabetic mechanisms, analogous to the dose-response relationship of a drug. With a longer biliopancreatic limb, Roux limb hypertrophy, increased glucose utilization

  13. Behavioral effects of chronic adolescent stress are sustained and sexually dimorphic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Chase H.; Neigh, Gretchen N.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that women are more susceptible to stress-related disorders than men. Animal studies demonstrate a similar female sensitivity to stress and have been used to examine the underlying neurobiology of sex-specific effects of stress. Although our understanding of the sex-specific effects of chronic adolescent stress has grown in recent years, few studies have reported the effects of adolescent stress on depressive-like behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine if a chronic mixed modality stressor (consisting of isolation, restraint, and social defeat) during adolescence (PND37-49) resulted in differential and sustained changes in depressive-like behavior in male and female Wistar rats. Female rats exposed to chronic adolescent stress displayed decreased sucrose consumption, hyperactivity in the elevated plus maze, decreased activity in the forced swim test, and a blunted corticosterone response to an acute forced swim stress compared to controls during both adolescence (PND48-57) and adulthood (PND96-104). Male rats exposed to chronic adolescent stress did not manifest significant behavioral changes at either the end of adolescence or in adulthood. These data support the proposition that adolescence may be a stress sensitive period for females and exposure to stress during adolescence results in behavioral effects that persist in females. Studies investigating the sex-specific effects of chronic adolescent stress may lead to a better understanding of the sexually dimorphic incidence of depressive and anxiety disorders in humans and ultimately improve prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:21466807

  14. Effect of Loads and Other Key Factors on Oil-Transformer Ageing: Sustainability Benefits and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Godina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Transformers are one of the more expensive pieces of equipment found in a distribution network. The transformer’s role has not changed over the last decades. With simple construction and at the same time mechanically robust, they offer long term service that on average can reach half a century. Today, with the ongoing trend to supply a growing number of non-linear loads along with the notion of distributed generation (DG, a new challenge has arisen in terms of transformer sustainability, with one of the possible consequences being accelerated ageing. In this paper we carefully review the existing studies in the literature of the effect of loads and other key factors on oil-transformer ageing. The state-of-the-art is reviewed, each factor is analysed in detail, and in the end a smart transformer protection method is sought in order to monitor and protect it from upcoming challenges.

  15. Dutch environmental policy up for revision. Towards a cost-effective, sustainable society. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dorp, H.W.; Schmitz, H.

    2009-01-01

    In a series of two articles an important energy formula is used to discuss current Dutch environmental policy and calculations are made based on 7.2 million dwellings. Normally, everyone who has an opinion on energy and carbon dioxide emissions should know this formula and be able to apply it. The second article discusses climate policy and provides a comparison of the social cost at new housing level for both policy lines. More specifically, the investment effectiveness of carbon dioxide in the soil near Barendrecht and Geleen is discussed as well as the annual investments in the 220 and 380 kV high tension grid. Moreover, some recommendations and necessary policy adjustments to strengthen the competitive edge of the SMB compared to large energy companies and to realize an affordable and sustainable society are provided [nl

  16. Netherlands climate policy to be revised. Towards a cost-effective, sustainable society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dorp, H.W.; Schmitz, H.

    2009-01-01

    This is the second article in a series of two. The first article addresses current Dutch energy policy by means of an important energy formula and calculations were made based on 7.2 million Dutch dwellings. This article addresses climate policy with a comparison of the social cost on the level of new housing construction of both policy lines. More specifically, the investment effect of carbon dioxide storage in the soil in Barendrecht and Geleen, both Netherlands, is discussed as well as the annual investment in the 220 and 380 kV high voltage grid. Some recommendations and necessary policy adjustments are suggested that will strengthen the competitive edge of the SMBs compared to large energy companies and will help realize a truly affordable sustainable society [nl

  17. Effect and Analysis of Sustainable Cell Rate using MPEG video Traffic in ATM Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Kaushal

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The broadband networks inhibit the capability to carry multiple types of traffic – voice, video and data, but these services need to be controlled according to the traffic contract negotiated at the time of the connection to maintain desired Quality of service. Such control techniques use traffic descriptors to evaluate its performance and effectiveness. In case of Variable Bit Rate (VBR services, Peak Cell Rate (PCR and its Cell Delay Variation Tolerance (CDVTPCR are mandatory descriptors. In addition to these, ATM Forum proposed Sustainable Cell Rate (SCR and its Cell delay variation tolerance (CDVTSCR. In this paper, we evaluated the impact of specific SCR and CDVTSCR values on the Usage Parameter Control (UPC performance in case of measured MPEG traffic for improving the efficiency

  18. Towards Sustainability: Effective Operations Strategies, Quality Management and Operational Excellence in Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Tornjanski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to extend and deepen the understanding the ways toward economic sustainability through efficient and effective growth operations strategies, quality management and operational excellence in banking. In this study we define new quality management practices based on developed conceptual architecture of digital platform for operations function in banking. Additionally, we employ decision making framework consisted of two parts: introduction of new operations services using Total Unduplicated Reach and Frequency (TURF statistical analysis and segregation of core from actual and augmented operations services utilizing Analytic Network Process (ANP method based on BOCR model. Proposed quality management practices were used for the first time in this paper for particular purposes and have the high potential to impact the excellence in banking business. The study can contribute to operations management, quality management, innovation management, IT management, business process management and decision making in service organizations.

  19. The in vitro sustained release profile and antitumor effect of etoposide-layered double hydroxide nanohybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin LL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lili Qin,1 Mei Wang,2 Rongrong Zhu,3 Songhui You,1 Ping Zhou,1 Shilong Wang31Department of Physical Education, Tongji University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3School of Life Science and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides intercalated with antitumor drug etoposide (VP16 were prepared for the first time using a two-step procedure. The X-ray powder diffraction data suggested the intercalation of VP16 into layers with the increased basal spacing from 0.84–1.18 nm was successful. Then, it was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The prepared nanoparticles, VP16-LDH, showed an average diameter of 62.5 nm with a zeta potential of 20.5 mV. Evaluation of the buffering effect of VP16-LDH indicated that the nanohybrids were ideal for administration of the drugs that treat human stomach irritation. The loading amount of intercalated VP16 was 21.94% and possessed a profile of sustained release. The mechanism of VP16-LDH release in the phosphate buffered saline solution at pH 7.4 is likely controlled by the diffusion of VP16 anions from inside to the surface of LDH particles. The in vitro cytotoxicity and antitumor assays indicated that VP16-LDH hybrids were less toxic to GES-1 cells while exhibiting better antitumor efficacy on MKN45 and SGC-7901 cells. These results imply that VP16-LDH is a potential antitumor drug for a broad range of gastric cancer therapeutic applications.Keywords: layered double hydroxides, etoposide, drug delivery, antitumor effect, sustained release

  20. Sustainable Sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Kathleen M; Veitch, Daisy

    2016-08-01

    To provide a review of sustainable sizing practices that reduce waste, increase sales, and simultaneously produce safer, better fitting, accommodating products. Sustainable sizing involves a set of methods good for both the environment (sustainable environment) and business (sustainable business). Sustainable sizing methods reduce (1) materials used, (2) the number of sizes or adjustments, and (3) the amount of product unsold or marked down for sale. This reduces waste and cost. The methods can also increase sales by fitting more people in the target market and produce happier, loyal customers with better fitting products. This is a mini-review of methods that result in more sustainable sizing practices. It also reviews and contrasts current statistical and modeling practices that lead to poor fit and sizing. Fit-mapping and the use of cases are two excellent methods suited for creating sustainable sizing, when real people (vs. virtual people) are used. These methods are described and reviewed. Evidence presented supports the view that virtual fitting with simulated people and products is not yet effective. Fit-mapping and cases with real people and actual products result in good design and products that are fit for person, fit for purpose, with good accommodation and comfortable, optimized sizing. While virtual models have been shown to be ineffective for predicting or representing fit, there is an opportunity to improve them by adding fit-mapping data to the models. This will require saving fit data, product data, anthropometry, and demographics in a standardized manner. For this success to extend to the wider design community, the development of a standardized method of data collection for fit-mapping with a globally shared fit-map database is needed. It will enable the world community to build knowledge of fit and accommodation and generate effective virtual fitting for the future. A standardized method of data collection that tests products' fit methodically

  1. The Effects of the Sustained Silent Reading Program on Cultivating Students' Habits and Attitudes in Reading Books for Leisure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Siah Poh

    2008-01-01

    The author examines the effects of the sustained silent reading program on cultivating students' habits and attitudes in reading books for leisure. The author used a time-series design and measured students' reading habits and attitudes three times in twelve months. It was expected that if the program created positive effects on cultivating…

  2. Sustained and "sleeper" effects of group metacognitive training for schizophrenia: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Veckenstedt, Ruth; Andreou, Christina; Bohn, Francesca; Hottenrott, Birgit; Leighton, Lucy; Köther, Ulf; Woodward, Todd S; Treszl, András; Menon, Mahesh; Schneider, Brooke C; Pfueller, Ute; Roesch-Ely, Daniela

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive interventions increasingly complement psychopharmacological treatment to enhance symptomatic and functional outcome in schizophrenia. Metacognitive training (MCT) is targeted at cognitive biases involved in the pathogenesis of delusions. To examine the long-term efficacy of group MCT for schizophrenia in order to explore whether previously established effects were sustained. A 2-center, randomized, controlled, assessor-blind, parallel group trial was conducted. A total of 150 inpatients or outpatients with DSM-IV diagnoses of schizophrenia spectrum disorders were enrolled. All patients were prescribed antipsychotic medication. The second follow-up assessment took place 3 years later after the intervention phase was terminated. Group MCT targeting cognitive biases vs neuropsychological training (COGPACK). Patients received a maximum of 16 sessions. The primary outcome measure was a delusion score derived from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The PANSS positive syndrome and total scores, the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales, the jumping to conclusions bias, self-esteem, and quality of life served as secondary outcome measures. The intention-to-treat analyses demonstrated that patients in the MCT group had significantly greater reductions in the core PANSS delusion score, after 3 years compared with the control group (η2partial = .037; P = .05). Among the secondary outcomes, the intention-to-treat analyses also demonstrated that patients in the MCT group had significantly greater reductions in the PANSS positive syndrome score (η2partial = .055; P = .02) and the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales delusion score (η2partial = .109; P = .001). Significant group differences at the 3-year follow-up were also found on measures of self-esteem and quality of life, which did not distinguish groups at earlier assessment points. Attention was improved in the neuropsychological training group relative to the MCT group. The

  3. Effects of social sustainability signals on neural valuation signals and taste-experience of food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eEnax

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Value-based decision making occurs when individuals choose between different alternatives and place a value on each alternative and its attributes. Marketing actions frequently manipulate product attributes, by adding e.g., health claims on the packaging. A previous imaging study found that an emblem for organic products increased willingness to pay (WTP and activity in the ventral striatum (VS. The current study investigated neural and behavioral processes underlying the influence of Fair Trade (FT labeling on food valuation and choice. Sustainability is an important product attribute for many consumers, with FT signals being one way to highlight ethically sustainable production. Forty participants valuated products in combination with an FT emblem or no emblem and stated their WTP in a bidding task while in an MRI scanner. After that, participants tasted – objectively identical – chocolates, presented either as FT or as conventionally produced. In the fMRI task, WTP was significantly higher for FT products. FT labeling increased activity in regions important for reward-processing and salience, that is, in the VS, anterior and posterior cingulate, as well as superior frontal gyrus. Subjective value, that is, WTP was correlated with activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC. We find that the anterior cingulate, VS and superior frontal gyrus exhibit task-related increases in functional connectivity to the vmPFC when an FT product was evaluated, suggesting a network which alters valuation processes. We also found a significant taste-placebo effect, with higher experienced taste pleasantness and intensity for FT labeled chocolates. Our results reveal a possible neural mechanism underlying valuation processes of certified food products. The results are important in light of understanding current marketing trends as well as designing future interventions that aim at positively influencing food choice.

  4. Effect of oil palm sustainability certification on deforestation and fire in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Holly K.; Noojipady, Praveen; Burns, David N.; Morton, Douglas C.; Walker, Nathalie F.; Paoli, Gary D.; Kremen, Claire

    2018-01-01

    Many major corporations and countries have made commitments to purchase or produce only “sustainable” palm oil, a commodity responsible for substantial tropical forest loss. Sustainability certification is the tool most used to fulfill these procurement policies, and around 20% of global palm oil production was certified by the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) in 2017. However, the effect of certification on deforestation in oil palm plantations remains unclear. Here, we use a comprehensive dataset of RSPO-certified and noncertified oil palm plantations (∼188,000 km2) in Indonesia, the leading producer of palm oil, as well as annual remotely sensed metrics of tree cover loss and fire occurrence, to evaluate the impact of certification on deforestation and fire from 2001 to 2015. While forest loss and fire continued after RSPO certification, certified palm oil was associated with reduced deforestation. Certification lowered deforestation by 33% from a counterfactual of 9.8 to 6.6% y−1. Nevertheless, most plantations contained little residual forest when they received certification. As a result, by 2015, certified areas held less than 1% of forests remaining within Indonesian oil palm plantations. Moreover, certification had no causal impact on forest loss in peatlands or active fire detection rates. Broader adoption of certification in forested regions, strict requirements to avoid all peat, and routine monitoring of clearly defined forest cover loss in certified and RSPO member-held plantations appear necessary if the RSPO is to yield conservation and climate benefits from reductions in tropical deforestation. PMID:29229857

  5. Grassland Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah U. Potter; Paulette L. Ford

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss grassland sustainability in the Southwest, grassland management for sustainability, national and local criteria and indicators of sustainable grassland ecosystems, and monitoring for sustainability at various scales. Ecological sustainability is defined as: [T]he maintenance or restoration of the composition, structure, and processes of...

  6. Collaboration Between Universities: An effective way of sustaining community-university partnerships?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Pratt

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights some of the opportunities and challenges that collaboration between higher education institutions (HEIs can bring to the development of sustainable community-university partnerships. In particular, it explores the potential for universities to collaborate on building effective engagement mechanisms (such as helpdesks, ‘hub and spoke’ contact models, and research groups to review ideas for activities that will support an ongoing flow of new projects and partnerships over time. It draws on evidence gathered from the evaluation and coordination of the South East Coastal Communities (SECC program, an almost unique experiment in collaboration between English universities. In an ‘age of austerity’, opportunities to reduce costs without damaging core services are of particular interest to public funding bodies. The article suggests that collaboration between universities may be an efficient and effective way of engaging with local communities, but that it is not cost-free, and high-level strategic buy-in within HEIs is required if community-university partnerships are to thrive in the current higher education funding environment. The article also suggests that there may be a geographic dimension to effective collaboration between universities in both community-university partnership work and the mechanisms that support community engagement. Inter-university collaboration across the whole region covered by the SECC program has been much weaker than collaboration at a subregional level and within ‘city-regions’ in particular. This raises a key question: does the natural geography for effective collaboration between universities need to reflect, at least in part, the geographies of communities themselves, in terms of lived experiences and/or community representation? Such a debate has interesting and timely parallels in the United Kingdom, where the new coalition government is bringing about a fundamental shift in the

  7. Sustained effects of ecstasy on the human brain: a prospective neuroimaging study in novel users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Win, Maartje M L; Jager, Gerry; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schilt, Thelma; Lavini, Cristina; Olabarriaga, Sílvia D; den Heeten, Gerard J; van den Brink, Wim

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies have suggested toxic effects of recreational ecstasy use on the serotonin system of the brain. However, it cannot be excluded that observed differences between users and non-users are the cause rather than the consequence of ecstasy use. As part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study, we prospectively assessed sustained effects of ecstasy use on the brain in novel ecstasy users using repeated measurements with a combination of different neuroimaging parameters of neurotoxicity. At baseline, 188 ecstasy-naive volunteers with high probability of first ecstasy use were examined. After a mean period of 17 months follow-up, neuroimaging was repeated in 59 incident ecstasy users and 56 matched persistent ecstasy-naives and their outcomes were compared. Neuroimaging included [(123)I]beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-iodophenyl)tropane (CIT) SPECT to measure serotonin transporter densities as indicators of serotonergic function; (1)H-MR spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to measure brain metabolites as indicators of neuronal damage; diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to measure the apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the diffusional motion of water molecules in the brain as indicators of axonal integrity; and perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) to measure regional relative cerebral blood volume (rrCBV) which indicates brain perfusion. With this approach, both structural ((1)H-MRS and DTI) and functional ([(123)I]beta-CIT SPECT and PWI) aspects of neurotoxicity were combined. Compared to persistent ecstasy-naives, novel low-dose ecstasy users (mean 6.0, median 2.0 tablets) showed decreased rrCBV in the globus pallidus and putamen; decreased FA in thalamus and frontoparietal white matter; increased FA in globus pallidus; and increased apparent diffusion coefficient in the thalamus. No changes in serotonin transporter densities and brain metabolites were observed. These findings suggest sustained effects of ecstasy on brain microvasculature, white

  8. Central and peripheral effects of sustained caffeine use: tolerance is incomplete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joanne; Deary, Ian; Kerr, David

    2002-01-01

    Aims It is widely held that tolerance develops to the effects of sustained caffeine consumption. This study was designed to investigate the effects of chronic, staggered caffeine ingestion on the responses of an acute caffeine challenge, during euglycaemia. Methods Twelve healthy volunteers were randomized using a double-blind, cross-over design to take either 200 mg caffeine (C-replete) or placebo (C-naïve) twice daily for 1 week. Following baseline measurements being made, the responses to 200 mg caffeine (blood-pressure, middle cerebral artery velocity, mood and cognitive performance) were examined over the subsequent 120 min. Blood glucose was not allowed to fall below 4.0 mmol l−1. Results After the caffeine challenge, middle cerebral artery blood velocity decreased in both conditions but was greater in the C-naïve condition (−8.0 [-10.0, −6.1] cm s−1 vs −4.9 [-6.8, −2.9] cm s−1 C-replete, P Mood was adversely affected by regular caffeine consumption with tense aspect of mood significantly higher at baseline in C-replete 11.6 ± 0.6 C-naïve vs 16.3 ± 1.6 C-replete, P affected by previous caffeine exposure. Conclusions Overall these results suggest that tolerance is incomplete with respect to both peripheral or central effects of caffeine. PMID:12392588

  9. Identifying Effective and Sustainable Measures for Community-Based Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ariana J.; Johnson, Chris J.

    2017-09-01

    Resource development projects typically result in monitoring programs that fail to fully consider the values and participation of surrounding communities. Also, monitoring protocols for single environmental values can be insufficient for addressing the cumulative impacts of resource development. Community-based environmental monitoring (CBEM) has emerged as a way to meaningfully include local citizens in the decision-making process and assessment of the development of natural resources. Our research explored how to develop effective and sustainable CBEM. Interviews were conducted with staff from 15 CBEM programs established across Canada to identify criteria of what constitutes effective CBEM. Results demonstrate that CBEM offers an effective, locally adapted, and culturally applicable approach to facilitate community participation in natural resource management and to track environmental change. Benefits of CBEM include: locally relevant monitoring protocols, inclusion of cumulative impacts, better informed decision-making, and increased awareness and collaboration amongst community, governments, and proponents. Challenges associated with CBEM are cost, capacity, longevity, distribution of results, and establishing credibility. This research validates the use of CBEM for improving resource management.

  10. Theoretical Investigation of the Bistability Effect in Non-Self-Sustained Discharges in Kr and Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyatko, N.A.; Napartovich, A.P.

    2004-01-01

    The electron energy distribution function and the related plasma parameters in non-self-sustained discharges in Kr and Ar are studied theoretically. The investigations are carried out by numerically solving the corresponding Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function with allowance for electron-electron collisions. The electron energy distribution and electron density are calculated self-consistently as functions of the intensity q of the source of secondary electrons and the magnitude of the reduced electric field E/N. The main goal of the investigations was to determine the conditions under which the plasma exhibits bistable parameters. Calculations show that, for discharges in Kr, there is a certain range of q and E/N values in which the Boltzmann equation has two different stable solutions. For an Ar plasma, such a bistability effect was not found: over the parameter range under consideration, the Boltzmann equation has a unique solution. Various plasma parameters (such as the effective electron temperature, electron drift velocity, and electron current density) are calculated for different discharge conditions, including those corresponding to the bistability effect

  11. The Effect of Gender on Students' Sustainability Consciousness: A Nationwide Swedish Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Daniel; Gericke, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    This study extends previous environmental education research on gender differences by investigating the gender gap between boys' and girls' sustainability consciousness. The issue of whether the gender gap in environmental education can be identified also in sustainability education is addressed. It has been suggested that Education for…

  12. Sustainable competence development of business students : Effectiveness of using serious games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, Rink; Bekebrede, Geertje; Nikolic, Igor

    2016-01-01

    A transition towards a safer, healthier, more equitable and more sustainable world requires focused Sustainable Development education. While this is true for all forms of education, it is particularly vital for business education curricula, and here it is sorely lacking. The main problem is that

  13. Soil Tillage Conservation and its Effect on Soil Properties Bioremediation and Sustained Production of Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Teodor; Ioana Moraru, Paula; Muresan, Liliana; Andriuca, Valentina; Cojocaru, Olesea

    2017-04-01

    Soil Tillage Conservation (STC) is considered major components of agricultural technology for soil conservation strategies and part of Sustainable Agriculture (SA). Human action upon soil by tillage determines important morphological, physical-chemical and biological changes, with different intensities and evaluative directions. Nowadays, internationally is unanimous accepted the fact that global climatic changes are the results of human intervention in the bio-geo-chemical water and material cycle, and the sequestration of carbon in soil is considered an important intervention to limit these changes. STC involves reducing the number of tillage's (minimum tillage) to direct sowing (no-tillage) and plant debris remains at the soil surface in the ratio of at least 30%. Plant debris left on the soil surface or superficial incorporated contributes to increased biological activity and is an important source of carbon sequestration. STC restore soil structure and improve overall soil drainage, allowing more rapid infiltration of water into soil. The result is a soil bioremediation, more productive, better protected against wind and water erosion and requires less fuel for preparing the germinative bed. Carbon sequestration in soil is net advantageous, improving the productivity and sustainability. We present the influence of conventional plough tillage system on soil, water and organic matter conservation in comparison with an alternative minimum tillage (paraplow, chisel plow and rotary harrow) and no-tillage system. The application of STC increased the organic matter content 0.8 to 22.1% and water stabile aggregate content from 1.3 to 13.6%, in the 0-30 cm depth, as compared to the conventional system. For the organic matter content and the wet aggregate stability, the statistical analysis of the data showed, increasing positive significance of STC. While the soil fertility and the wet aggregate stability were initially low, the effect of conservation practices on the

  14. Sustained analgesic effect of clonidine co-polymer depot in a porcine incisional pain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsey, Jared T; Block, Julie H

    2018-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the α 2 adrenergic agonist clonidine, a centrally acting analgesic and antihypertensive, may also have direct effects on peripheral pain generators. However, aqueous injections are limited by rapid systemic absorption leading to off target effects and a brief analgesic duration of action. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a sustained-release clonidine depot, placed in the wound bed, in a pig incisional pain model. The depot was a 15 mm ×5 mm ×0.3 mm poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) polymer film containing 3% (w/w) clonidine HCl (MDT3). Fifty-two young adult mix Landrace pigs (9-11 kg) were divided into seven groups. All subjects received a 6 cm, full-thickness, linear incision into the left lateral flank. Group 1 served as a Sham control group (Sham, n=8). Group 2 received three placebo strips (PBO, n=8), placed end-to-end in the subcutaneous wound bed before wound closure. Group 3 received one MDT3 and two PBO (n=8), Group 4 received two MDT3 and one PBO (n=8), and Group 5 received three MDT3 (n=8). Positive control groups received peri-incisional injections of bupivacaine solution (Group 6, 30 mg/day bupivacaine, n=8) or clonidine solution (Group 7, 225 µg/day, n=4). The surgical procedure was associated with significant peri-incisional tactile allodynia. There was a dose-dependent effect of MDT3 in partially reversing the peri-incisional tactile allodynia, with maximum pain relief relative to Sham at 72 hours. Daily injections of bupivacaine (30 mg), but not clonidine (up to 225 µg), completely reversed allodynia within 48 hours. There was a statistically significant correlation between the dose of MDT3 and cumulative withdrawal threshold from 4 hours through the conclusion of the study on day 7. These data suggest that a sustained-release clonidine depot may be a viable nonopioid, nonamide anesthetic therapy for the treatment of acute postsurgical nociceptive sensitization.

  15. Unmasking a sustained negative effect of SGLT2 inhibition on body fluid volume in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takahiro; Watanabe, Yuko; Fukuda, Keiko; Watanabe, Minami; Onishi, Akira; Ohara, Ken; Imai, Toshimi; Koepsell, Hermann; Muto, Shigeaki; Vallon, Volker; Nagata, Daisuke

    2018-05-23

    The chronic intrinsic diuretic and natriuretic tone of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors is incompletely understood, because their effect on body fluid volume (BFV) has not been fully evaluated and because they often increase food and fluid intake at the same time. Here we first compared the effect of the SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin (Ipra, 0.01% in diet for 8 weeks) and vehicle (Veh) in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii rat, a non-obese type 2 diabetic model, and non-diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats. In non-diabetic rats, Ipra increased urinary excretion of Na+ (UNaV) and fluid (UV) associated with increased food and fluid intake. Diabetes increased these 4 parameters, but Ipra had no further effect; probably due to its antihyperglycemic effect, such that glucosuria and as a consequence food and fluid intake were unchanged. Fluid balance and BFV, determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy, were similar among the 4 groups. To study the impact of food and fluid intake, non-diabetic rats were treated for 7 days with Veh, Ipra or Ipra+pair-feeding+pair-drinking (Pair-Ipra). Pair-Ipra maintained a small increase in UV and UNaV versus Veh despite similar food and fluid intake. Pair-Ipra induced a negative fluid balance and decreased BFV, while Ipra or Veh had no significant effect compared with basal values. In conclusion, SGLT2 inhibition induces a sustained diuretic and natriuretic tone. Homeostatic mechanisms are activated to stabilize body fluid volume, including compensatory increases in fluid and food intake.

  16. Re-evaluating Sustainability Assessment: Aligning the vision and the practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, Alan J.; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable Development is the core goal of the expanding field of Sustainability Assessment (SA). However, we find that three key areas of debate in relation to SA practice in England and Western Australia can be classified as policy controversies. Through literature review and analysis of documentary evidence we consider the problem of reductionism (breaking down complex processes to simple terms or component parts) as opposed to holism (considering systems as wholes); the issue of contested understandings of the meaning of sustainability (and of the purpose of SA); and the definition of 'inter-generational' in the context of sustainable development and how this is reflected in the timescales considered in SA. We argue that SA practice is based on particular framings of the policy controversies and that the critical role of SA in facilitating deliberation over these controversies needs to be recognised if there is to be a move towards a new deliberative sustainability discourse which can accommodate these different framings.

  17. Assessing the effectiveness of sustainable land management policies for combating desertification: A data mining approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, L; Kosmas, C; Kairis, O; Karavitis, C; Acikalin, S; Belgacem, A; Solé-Benet, A; Chaker, M; Fassouli, V; Gokceoglu, C; Gungor, H; Hessel, R; Khatteli, H; Kounalaki, A; Laouina, A; Ocakoglu, F; Ouessar, M; Ritsema, C; Sghaier, M; Sonmez, H; Taamallah, H; Tezcan, L; de Vente, J; Kelly, C; Colantoni, A; Carlucci, M

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between fine resolution, local-scale biophysical and socioeconomic contexts within which land degradation occurs, and the human responses to it. The research draws on experimental data collected under different territorial and socioeconomic conditions at 586 field sites in five Mediterranean countries (Spain, Greece, Turkey, Tunisia and Morocco). We assess the level of desertification risk under various land management practices (terracing, grazing control, prevention of wildland fires, soil erosion control measures, soil water conservation measures, sustainable farming practices, land protection measures and financial subsidies) taken as possible responses to land degradation. A data mining approach, incorporating principal component analysis, non-parametric correlations, multiple regression and canonical analysis, was developed to identify the spatial relationship between land management conditions, the socioeconomic and environmental context (described using 40 biophysical and socioeconomic indicators) and desertification risk. Our analysis identified a number of distinct relationships between the level of desertification experienced and the underlying socioeconomic context, suggesting that the effectiveness of responses to land degradation is strictly dependent on the local biophysical and socioeconomic context. Assessing the latent relationship between land management practices and the biophysical/socioeconomic attributes characterizing areas exposed to different levels of desertification risk proved to be an indirect measure of the effectiveness of field actions contrasting land degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The power of competition: Effects of social motivation on attention, sustained physical effort, and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brynne Catherine DiMenichi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Competition has often been implicated as a means to improve effort-based learning and attention. Two experiments examined the effects of competition on effort and memory. In Experiment 1, participants completed a physical effort task in which they were rewarded for winning an overall percentage, or for winning a competition they believed was against another player. In Experiment 2, participants completed a memory task in which they were rewarded for remembering an overall percentage of shapes, or more shapes than a competitor. We found that, in the physical effort task, participants demonstrated faster reaction times—a previous indicator of increased attention— in the competitive environment. Moreover, individual differences predicted the salience of competition’s effect. Furthermore, male participants showed faster reaction times and greater sustained effort as a result of a competitive environment, suggesting that males may be more affected by competition in physical effort tasks. However, in Experiment 2, participants remembered fewer shapes when competing, and later recalled less of these shapes during a post-test, suggesting that competition was harmful in our memory task. The different results from these two experiments suggest that competition can improve attention in a physical effort task, yet caution the use of competition in memory tasks.

  19. From Attitude Change to Behaviour Change: Institutional Mediators of Education for Sustainable Development Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Velasco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the way in which institutional contexts mediate values-focused behaviour change, with potential design implications. We use concepts taken from training research, where “learning transfer” refers to the translation into practice of the learning acquired during training: it is considered necessary to generalize it for the job context and for it to be maintained over a period of time on the job. In this paper, we analyse the example of one education for sustainable development (ESD intervention that is already established as pedagogically effective when it is deployed in diverse institutional environments worldwide—the Youth as Agents of Behaviour Change program of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC. This allows an opportunity to consider variations in learning transfer due to distinctive moderating institutional features, which can now be understood in terms of varying transfer climates, levels of leadership support and opportunities to practice. Additional barriers of tokenistic consultation, lack of role clarity and perverse effects of increased distance between trainees and their colleagues on return were also seen. ESD programs intending to bridge the values-action gap could benefit from not focusing only on the training content, but pre-planning organisational support for returning trainees and including in the training ways for them to assess and plan to overcome such difficulties.

  20. Effects of sustained exercise on pulmonary clearance of aerosolized 99mTc-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorino, A.M.; Meignan, M.; Bouissou, P.; Atlan, G.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of intensive prolonged exercise on the pulmonary clearance rate of aerosolized 99m Tc-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ( 99m Tc-DTPA) and pulmonary mechanics were studied in seven healthy nonsmoking volunteers. 99m Tc-DTPA clearance and pulmonary mechanics (lung volumes and compliance) were assessed before and after 75 min of constant-load exercise performed on a treadmill, corresponding to 75% of maximal O 2 uptake. Because both clearance measurements were made in similar conditions of pulmonary blood flow, respiratory rate, and tidal volume, changes in clearance rate can be assumed to represent changes of alveolar epithelial permeability. After exercise, total, apical, and basal clearance were significantly increased (P less than 0.01, 0.05, and 0.05, respectively) and the increases in total clearance and tidal volume observed during exercise were significantly correlated (P less than 0.05). In contrast, no significant change was found in pulmonary mechanics. These results show that prolonged intensive exercise induces an increase in epithelial permeability, which appears to be related to the mechanical effects of sustained increased ventilation. Because no change was evidenced in pulmonary volumes or in lung elasticity, our results suggest that this increase may result from alteration of the intercellular tight junctions rather than from a surfactant deficiency

  1. A comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustained attention in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges bahmany

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder in which a lot of cognitive functions including memory, attention, motor skills, executive functions and intelligence are compromised. Numerous empirical studies showed that schizophrenic patients have problem in sustain retention and memory activity. The objective of this study was a comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustain retention in schizophrenic patients. Material and Methods: A total of 60 schizophrenic patients (30 males , 30 females 18-48 years old were selected from available sampling frame. Participants were otherwise healthy except for schizophrenia. Wechsler Memory Scale and cognitive diagnostic battery Kay test were taken from all subjects. Then patients were randomly divided into three experimental groups (Iranian classic, western classic and pop music and three control groups. There were 10 participants (5 male, 5 female in each group. After taking these tests, music therapy course was performed on experimental groups. After music therapy sessions were completed, tests were taken again from groups. Results: Covariance analysis results indicated that music therapy is overall effective on memory activity. But type of music had no effect in improving memory activity. There wasn’t significant difference between groups considering type of music. Furthermore, covariance analysis showed that music therapy is totally effective on sustain retention and type of music is effective in this intervention. Pop music had the most effectiveness on schizophrenic patients in improving sustain retention. Conclusion: Performing music therapy improves memory and retention. More over, using pop music particularly has the most effect in improving sustain retention in schizophrenic patients.

  2. Healthy and sustainable diets: Community concern about the effect of the future food environments and support for government regulating sustainable food supplies in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harray, Amelia J; Meng, Xingqiong; Kerr, Deborah A; Pollard, Christina M

    2018-06-01

    To determine the level of community concern about future food supplies and perception of the importance placed on government regulation over the supply of environmentally friendly food and identify dietary and other factors associated with these beliefs in Western Australia. Data from the 2009 and 2012 Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series computer-assisted telephone interviews were pooled. Level of concern about the effect of the environment on future food supplies and importance of government regulating the supply of environmentally friendly food were measured. Multivariate regression analysed potential associations with sociodemographic variables, dietary health consciousness, weight status and self-reported intake of eight foods consistent with a sustainable diet. Western Australia. Community-dwelling adults aged 18-64 years (n = 2832). Seventy nine per cent of Western Australians were 'quite' or 'very' concerned about the effect of the environment on future food supplies. Respondents who paid less attention to the health aspects of their diet were less likely than those who were health conscious ('quite' or 'very' concerned) (OR = 0.53, 95% CI [0.35, 0.8] and 0.38 [0.17, 0.81] respectively). The majority of respondents (85.3%) thought it was 'quite' or 'very' important that government had regulatory control over an environmentally friendly food supply. Females were more likely than males to rate regulatory control as 'quite' or 'very' important' (OR = 1.63, 95% CI [1.09, 2.44], p = .02). Multiple regression modeling found that no other factors predicted concern or importance. There is a high level of community concern about the impact of the environment on future food supplies and most people believe it is important that the government regulates the issue. These attitudes dominate regardless of sociodemographic characteristics, weight status or sustainable dietary behaviours. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On the effectiveness of private transnational governance regimes - evaluating corporate sustainability reporting according to the Global Reporting Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Barkemeyer, Ralf; Preuss, Lutz; Lee, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    The increasing involvement of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in global governance has been both applauded for its potential to make governance more effective and criticized for lacking democratic legitimization. Hence we investigate the effectiveness of one transnational governance regime, corporate sustainability reporting according to the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI). We found that the GRI has been successful in terms of output effectiveness by promoting the dissemination of sustaina...

  4. Oncogenic Nras has bimodal effects on stem cells that sustainably increase competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Bohin, Natacha; Wen, Tiffany; Ng, Victor; Magee, Jeffrey; Chen, Shann-Ching; Shannon, Kevin; Morrison, Sean J

    2013-12-05

    'Pre-leukaemic' mutations are thought to promote clonal expansion of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) by increasing self-renewal and competitiveness; however, mutations that increase HSC proliferation tend to reduce competitiveness and self-renewal potential, raising the question of how a mutant HSC can sustainably outcompete wild-type HSCs. Activating mutations in NRAS are prevalent in human myeloproliferative neoplasms and leukaemia. Here we show that a single allele of oncogenic Nras(G12D) increases HSC proliferation but also increases reconstituting and self-renewal potential upon serial transplantation in irradiated mice, all prior to leukaemia initiation. Nras(G12D) also confers long-term self-renewal potential to multipotent progenitors. To explore the mechanism by which Nras(G12D) promotes HSC proliferation and self-renewal, we assessed cell-cycle kinetics using H2B-GFP label retention and 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Nras(G12D) had a bimodal effect on HSCs, increasing the frequency with which some HSCs divide and reducing the frequency with which others divide. This mirrored bimodal effects on reconstituting potential, as rarely dividing Nras(G12D) HSCs outcompeted wild-type HSCs, whereas frequently dividing Nras(G12D) HSCs did not. Nras(G12D) caused these effects by promoting STAT5 signalling, inducing different transcriptional responses in different subsets of HSCs. One signal can therefore increase HSC proliferation, competitiveness and self-renewal through bimodal effects on HSC gene expression, cycling and reconstituting potential.

  5. Sustained effects of atmospheric [CO2] and nitrogen availability on forest soil CO2 efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, A Christopher; Palmroth, Sari; Johnsen, Kurt H; McCarthy, Heather R; Oren, Ram

    2014-04-01

    Soil CO2 efflux (Fsoil ) is the largest source of carbon from forests and reflects primary productivity as well as how carbon is allocated within forest ecosystems. Through early stages of stand development, both elevated [CO2] and availability of soil nitrogen (N; sum of mineralization, deposition, and fixation) have been shown to increase gross primary productivity, but the long-term effects of these factors on Fsoil are less clear. Expanding on previous studies at the Duke Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) site, we quantified the effects of elevated [CO2] and N fertilization on Fsoil using daily measurements from automated chambers over 10 years. Consistent with previous results, compared to ambient unfertilized plots, annual Fsoil increased under elevated [CO2] (ca. 17%) and decreased with N (ca. 21%). N fertilization under elevated [CO2] reduced Fsoil to values similar to untreated plots. Over the study period, base respiration rates increased with leaf productivity, but declined after productivity saturated. Despite treatment-induced differences in aboveground biomass, soil temperature and water content were similar among treatments. Interannually, low soil water content decreased annual Fsoil from potential values - estimated based on temperature alone assuming nonlimiting soil water content - by ca. 0.7% per 1.0% reduction in relative extractable water. This effect was only slightly ameliorated by elevated [CO2]. Variability in soil N availability among plots accounted for the spatial variability in Fsoil , showing a decrease of ca. 114 g C m(-2) yr(-1) per 1 g m(-2) increase in soil N availability, with consistently higher Fsoil in elevated [CO2] plots ca. 127 g C per 100 ppm [CO2] over the +200 ppm enrichment. Altogether, reflecting increased belowground carbon partitioning in response to greater plant nutritional needs, the effects of elevated [CO2] and N fertilization on Fsoil in this stand are sustained beyond the early stages of stand development and

  6. Effectiveness and Cost-benefit Evaluation of a Comprehensive Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Sustainable Employability of Meat Processing Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, van Berry J.; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive workers' health surveillance (WHS) program on aspects of sustainable employability and cost-benefit. Methods A cluster randomized stepped wedge trial was performed in a Dutch meat processing company from february 2012 until march 2015. In

  7. Effectiveness and Cost-benefit Evaluation of a Comprehensive Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Sustainable Employability of Meat Processing Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Berry J; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive workers' health surveillance (WHS) program on aspects of sustainable employability and cost-benefit. Methods A cluster randomized stepped wedge trial was performed in a Dutch meat processing company from february 2012 until march 2015. In

  8. Conceptualising sustainability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, Jenny; Annandale, David; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2004-01-01

    Sustainability assessment is being increasingly viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainability. However, this is a new and evolving concept and there remain very few examples of effective sustainability assessment processes implemented anywhere in the world. Sustainability assessment is often described as a process by which the implications of an initiative on sustainability are evaluated, where the initiative can be a proposed or existing policy, plan, programme, project, piece of legislation, or a current practice or activity. However, this generic definition covers a broad range of different processes, many of which have been described in the literature as 'sustainability assessment'. This article seeks to provide some clarification by reflecting on the different approaches described in the literature as being forms of sustainability assessment, and evaluating them in terms of their potential contributions to sustainability. Many of these are actually examples of 'integrated assessment', derived from environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA), but which have been extended to incorporate social and economic considerations as well as environmental ones, reflecting a 'triple bottom line' (TBL) approach to sustainability. These integrated assessment processes typically either seek to minimise 'unsustainability', or to achieve TBL objectives. Both aims may, or may not, result in sustainable practice. We present an alternative conception of sustainability assessment, with the more ambitious aim of seeking to determine whether or not an initiative is actually sustainable. We term such processes 'assessment for sustainability'. 'Assessment for sustainability' firstly requires that the concept of sustainability be well-defined. The article compares TBL approaches and principles-based approaches to developing such sustainability criteria, concluding that the latter are more appropriate, since they avoid many

  9. Sustained effects of neurofeedback in ADHD: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doren, Jessica; Arns, Martijn; Heinrich, Hartmut; Vollebregt, Madelon A; Strehl, Ute; K Loo, Sandra

    2018-02-14

    Neurofeedback (NF) has gained increasing interest in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Given learning principles underlie NF, lasting clinical treatment effects may be expected. This systematic review and meta-analysis addresses the sustainability of neurofeedback and control treatment effects by considering randomized controlled studies that conducted follow-up (FU; 2-12 months) assessments among children with ADHD. PubMed and Scopus databases were searched through November 2017. Within-group and between-group standardized mean differences (SMD) of parent behavior ratings were calculated and analyzed. Ten studies met inclusion criteria (NF: ten studies, N = 256; control: nine studies, N = 250). Within-group NF effects on inattention were of medium effect size (ES) (SMD = 0.64) at post-treatment and increased to a large ES (SMD = 0.80) at FU. Regarding hyperactivity/impulsivity, NF ES were medium at post-treatment (SMD = 0.50) and FU (SMD = 0.61). Non-active control conditions yielded a small significant ES on inattention at post-treatment (SMD = 0.28) but no significant ES at FU. Active treatments (mainly methylphenidate), had large ES for inattention (post: SMD = 1.08; FU: SMD = 1.06) and medium ES for hyperactivity/impulsivity (post: SMD = 0.74; FU: SMD = 0.67). Between-group analyses also revealed an advantage of NF over non-active controls [inattention (post: SMD = 0.38; FU: SMD = 0.57); hyperactivity-impulsivity (post: SMD = 0.25; FU: SMD = 0.39)], and favored active controls for inattention only at pre-post (SMD = - 0.44). Compared to non-active control treatments, NF appears to have more durable treatment effects, for at least 6 months following treatment. More studies are needed for a properly powered comparison of follow-up effects between NF and active treatments and to further control for non-specific effects.

  10. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mavis Dora

    2012-01-01

    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  11. Episodic retrieval involves early and sustained effects of reactivating information from encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey D; Price, Mason H; Leiker, Emily K

    2015-02-01

    Several fMRI studies have shown a correspondence between the brain regions activated during encoding and retrieval, consistent with the view that memory retrieval involves hippocampally-mediated reinstatement of cortical activity. With the limited temporal resolution of fMRI, the precise timing of such reactivation is unclear, calling into question the functional significance of these effects. Whereas reactivation influencing retrieval should emerge with neural correlates of retrieval success, that signifying post-retrieval monitoring would trail retrieval. The present study employed EEG to provide a temporal landmark of retrieval success from which we could investigate the sub-trial time course of reactivation. Pattern-classification analyses revealed that early-onsetting reactivation differentiated the outcome of recognition-memory judgments and was associated with individual differences in behavioral accuracy, while reactivation was also evident in a sustained form later in the trial. The EEG findings suggest that, whereas prior fMRI findings could be interpreted as reflecting the contribution of reinstatement to retrieval success, they could also indicate the maintenance of episodic information in service of post-retrieval evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of sustained manual pressure stimulation according to Vojta Therapy on heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opavsky, Jaroslav; Slachtova, Martina; Kutin, Miroslav; Hok, Pavel; Uhlir, Petr; Opavska, Hana; Hlustik, Petr

    2018-05-23

    The physiotherapeutic technique of Vojta reflex locomotion is often accompanied by various autonomic activity changes and unpleasant sensations. It is unknown whether these effects are specific to Vojta Therapy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare changes in cardiac autonomic control after Vojta reflex locomotion stimulation and after an appropriate sham stimulation. A total of 28 young healthy adults (20.4 - 25.7 years) were enrolled in this single-blind randomized cross-over study. Participants underwent two modes of 20-minute sustained manual pressure stimulation on the surface of the foot on two separate visits. One mode used manual pressure on the lateral heel, i.e., in a zone employed in the Vojta Therapy (active stimulation). The other mode used pressure on the lateral ankle (control), in an area not included among the active zones used by Vojta Therapy and whose activation does not evoke manifestations of reflex locomotion. Autonomic nervous system activity was evaluated using spectral analysis of heart rate variability before and after the intervention. The active stimulation was perceived as more unpleasant than the control stimulation. Heart rate variability parameters demonstrated almost identical autonomic responses after both stimulation types, showing either modest increase in parasympathetic activity, or increased heart rate variability with similar contribution of parasympathetic and sympathetic activity. The results demonstrate changes of cardiac autonomic control in both active and control stimulation, without evidence for a significant difference between the two.

  13. Effect of cross-linked biodegradable polymers on sustained release of sodium diclofenac-loaded microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avik Kumar Saha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate an oral sustained release delivery system of sodium diclofenac(DS based on sodium alginate (SA as a hydrophilic carrier in combination with chitosan (CH and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC as drug release modifiers to overcome the drug-related adverse effects and to improve bioavailability. Microspheres of DS were prepared using an easy method of ionotropic gelation. The prepared beads were evaluated for mean particle size, entrapment efficiency, swelling capacity, erosion and in-vitro drug release. They were also subjected to various studies such as Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR for drug polymer compatibility, Scanning Electron Microscopy for surface morphology, X-ray Powder Diffraction Analysis (XRD and Differential Scanning Calorimetric Analysis (DSC to determine the physical state of the drug in the beads. The addition of SCMC during the preparation of polymeric beads resulted in lower drug loading and prolonged release of the DS. The release profile of batches F5 and F6 showed a maximum drug release of 96.97 ± 0.356% after 8 h, in which drug polymer ratio was decreased. The microspheres of sodium diclofenac with the polymers were formulated successfully. Analysis of the release profiles showed that the data corresponds to the diffusion-controlled mechanism as suggested by Higuchi.

  14. Process Evaluation: Standard, Effectiveness, Efficiency and Sustainability of Maternity Nursing Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laili Rahayuwati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although globally there is a change in the trend of epidemiology from infectious diseases to chronic diseases, the prevalence and incidence of infectious diseases as well as MMR (Maternal Mortality Rate and IMR (infant mortality rate in Indonesia is still high. In year 2000, Faculty of Nursing of the Universitas Padjadjaran in collaboration with Hasan Sadikin Hospital built a model of treatment room, which was affiliated with obstetric gynecology room for improving integrated quality of health care services and education. The model built in this room aimed to : 1 Improve the quality of health care service; 2 to develop the student’s experiences with patients; 3 Provide quality nurse education to support students; 4 encourage students to improve the results of clinical prctice. The objective of process evaluation in this study was to give an insight to an appropriate model for maternity nursing service. This results showed on the one hand , there are some records not yet achieved an ideal standard , lack of effectiveness and efficiency of care delivery, namely: 1 the ratio of midwives and patients are not ideal ; 2 No one consultant obstetrician gynecologist and one doctor for every room . As well as challenges to sustainability care that meets the standards of maternity care. Conclusion: this study recommends to take a comprehensive strategic planning for improving nursing and midwifery services that involve all relevant stakeholders in the government, civil society, service delivery, education, and professional organizations.

  15. Effect of parameter mismatch on the dynamics of strongly coupled self sustained oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Nilaj; Jain, Aditya; Lal, Nijil; Das Gupta, Kantimay; Parmananda, Punit

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an experimental setup and an associated mathematical model to study the synchronization of two self-sustained, strongly coupled, mechanical oscillators (metronomes). The effects of a small detuning in the internal parameters, namely, damping and frequency, have been studied. Our experimental system is a pair of spring wound mechanical metronomes; coupled by placing them on a common base, free to move along a horizontal direction. We designed a photodiode array based non-contact, non-magnetic position detection system driven by a microcontroller to record the instantaneous angular displacement of each oscillator and the small linear displacement of the base, coupling the two. In our system, the mass of the oscillating pendula forms a significant fraction of the total mass of the system, leading to strong coupling of the oscillators. We modified the internal mechanism of the spring-wound "clockwork" slightly, such that the natural frequency and the internal damping could be independently tuned. Stable synchronized and anti-synchronized states were observed as the difference in the parameters was varied in the experiments. The simulation results showed a rapid increase in the phase difference between the two oscillators beyond a certain threshold of parameter mismatch. Our simple model of the escapement mechanism did not reproduce a complete 180° out of phase state. However, the numerical simulations show that increased mismatch in parameters leads to a synchronized state with a large phase difference.

  16. A comprehensive framework for optimising the effects of inverse logistics practices in SC sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina López Vargas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With growing sustainability concern in mind, firms seek to implement reverse logistic systems in their operations. However, if these practices were not properly implemented, they would be costly and even ineffective. In order to guide company efforts, the present study provide a comprehensive framework based on two dimensions. On one hand, it suits a reverse logistic management model stage-by-stage. On the other hand, the framework brings together concrete measures to optimize SC sustainability from three perspectives: operative, economical and environmental. The proposed framework thus allow to balance reverse logistic practices and SC sustainability. Furthermore, we validated it by analysing six real case in different industries. Findings highlight how reverse logistic activities may improve each SC sustainability dimension.

  17. Virginia Sustainable Travel Choices : Effects of Land Use and Location on Current and Future Travel Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Diverse states like Virginia, with a mix of urban, suburban, and rural environments and transportation systems, cannot rely on a single approach to increasing transportation sustainability, but require an understanding of what has worked and what mig...

  18. Effect of sustainability information on consumers' liking of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Julia Siqueira; Mársico, Eliane Teixeira; da Cruz, Adriano Gomes; de Freitas, Mônica Queiroz; Doro, Laís Higino; Conte-Junior, Carlos Adam

    2015-12-01

    This research aimed to investigate whether consumer acceptance is affected by information on sustainable practices on the product label. Hedonic evaluations of freshwater prawns were performed by 80 consumers under three aspects: the blind condition - consumers taste samples without information; expected - without tasting samples, consumers evaluated the message 'Freshwater prawns were grown using sustainable practices, reducing environmental impacts caused by traditional breeding'; informed - in which prawns were tasted and the card evaluated. For the entire consumer group, it was observed that the message about sustainability on packaging increased freshwater prawn acceptability (8.25, expected condition (E) versus 6.75, blind condition (B)). High scores were observed under all three test conditions, ranging from 6 (like slightly) to 9 (like extremely), on a 9-point scale. It can be concluded that the use of sustainable information can influence consumers' perception and increase their preference toward freshwater prawns, and even increase the sensory attributes of the product. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Rational and Safe Design of Concrete Transportation Structures for Size Effect and Multi-Decade Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The overall goal of this project was to improve the safety and sustainability in the design of large : prestressed concrete bridges and other transportation structures. The safety of large concrete : structures, including bridges, has been insufficie...

  20. Assessing sustainability effect of infrastructure transportation projects using systems-based analytic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Sustainability means providing for the necessities of today without endangering the necessities of tomorrow within the technical, environmental, economic, social/cultural, and individual contexts. However, the assessment tools available to study the ...

  1. A comprehensive investigation into the effect of temperature variation on the mechanical properties of sustainable concrete

    OpenAIRE

    El Mir Abdulkader; Nehme Salem

    2017-01-01

    Minimizing the production energy and resources consumption are the key principle for engineering sustainability. In the case of concrete structures, this concept can be achieved by the use of materials in the most efficient way considering in the mix design the optimal mechanical and durability properties. The substitution of ordinary Portland cement for other supplementary cementitious materials is assessing the possibility of enhancing the sustainability and decreasing the environmental imp...

  2. Pretreating mesenchymal stem cells with electrical stimulation causes sustained long-lasting pro-osteogenic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eischen-Loges

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Electrical stimulation (ES has a long history of successful use in the clinical treatment of refractory, non-healing bone fractures and has recently been proposed as an adjunct to bone tissue-engineering treatments to optimize their therapeutic potential. This idea emerged from ES’s demonstrated positive effects on stem cell migration, proliferation, differentiation and adherence to scaffolds, all cell behaviors recognized to be advantageous in Bone Tissue Engineering (BTE. In previous in vitro experiments we demonstrated that direct current ES, administered daily, accelerates Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC osteogenic differentiation. In the present study, we sought to define the optimal ES regimen for maximizing this pro-osteogenic effect. Methods Rat bone marrow-derived MSC were exposed to 100 mV/mm, 1 hr/day for three, seven, and 14 days, then osteogenic differentiation was assessed at Day 14 of culture by measuring collagen production, calcium deposition, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic marker gene expression. Results We found that exposing MSC to ES for three days had minimal effect, while seven and 14 days resulted in increased osteogenic differentiation, as indicated by significant increases in collagen and calcium deposits, and expression of osteogenic marker genes Col1a1, Osteopontin, Osterix and Calmodulin. We also found that cells treated with ES for seven days, maintained this pro-osteogenic activity long (for at least seven days after discontinuing ES exposure. Discussion This study showed that while three days of ES is insufficient to solicit pro-osteogenic effects, seven and 14 days significantly increases osteogenic differentiation. Importantly, we found that cells treated with ES for only seven days, maintained this pro-osteogenic activity long after discontinuing ES exposure. This sustained positive osteogenic effect is likely due to the enhanced expression of RunX2 and Calmodulin we observed. This

  3. Effects on Environmental and Socioeconomic Sustainability of Producing Ethanol from Perennial Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, V. H.; Parish, E. S.

    2016-12-01

    Using perennial grasses to produce ethanol can enhance progress toward sustainability. A suite of 35 environmental and socioeconomic sustainability indicators was considered in a holistic sustainability assessment of a five-year switchgrass-to-ethanol production experiment centered on a demonstration-scale biorefinery in Vonore, Tennessee. By combining field measurements, literature review and expert opinion, the team was able to rate 28 of the 35 recommended sustainability indicators. The team combined these ratings within a multi-attribute decision support system tool and used this information to compare the sustainability of producing 2118 hectares of no-till switchgrass relative to two alternative business-as-usual scenarios of unmanaged pasture and tilled corn production. The results suggest that East Tennessee switchgrass production improves environmental quality overall and can be beneficial to the counties surrounding the biorefinery in terms of dollars earned and jobs created. The timing of switchgrass production also provides an opportunity to use inactive equipment and laborers. By incorporating a landscape design approach, the opportunities, constraints and most reasonable paths forward for growing bioenergy feedstock in specific context can be assessed in a way that adapts and improves local practices. Lessons learned from this case study are being incorporated into sustainability assessments of corn stover in Iowa and a variety of bioenergy feedstocks in diverse settings. The overall goal is to develop sound management practices that can address the multiple and sometimes competing demands of stakeholders.

  4. Combined Heat and Power: Effective Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipley, Ms. Anna [Sentech, Inc.; Hampson, Anne [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., an ICF Company; Hedman, Mr. Bruce [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., an ICF Company; Garland, Patricia W [ORNL; Bautista, Paul [Sentech, Inc.

    2008-12-01

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) solutions represent a proven and effective near-term energy option to help the United States enhance energy efficiency, ensure environmental quality, promote economic growth, and foster a robust energy infrastructure. Using CHP today, the United States already avoids more than 1.9 Quadrillion British thermal units (Quads) of fuel consumption and 248 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions annually compared to traditional separate production of electricity and thermal energy. This CO{sub 2} reduction is the equivalent of removing more than 45 million cars from the road. In addition, CHP is one of the few options in the portfolio of energy alternatives that combines environmental effectiveness with economic viability and improved competitiveness. This report describes in detail the four key areas where CHP has proven its effectiveness and holds promise for the future as an: (1) Environmental Solution: Significantly reducing CO{sub 2} emissions through greater energy efficiency; (2) Competitive Business Solution: Increasing efficiency, reducing business costs, and creating green-collar jobs; (3) Local Energy Solution: Deployable throughout the US; and (4) Infrastructure Modernization Solution: Relieving grid congestion and improving energy security. CHP should be one of the first technologies deployed for near-term carbon reductions. The cost-effectiveness and near-term viability of widespread CHP deployment place the technology at the forefront of practical alternative energy solutions such as wind, solar, clean coal, biofuels, and nuclear power. Clear synergies exist between CHP and most other technologies that dominate the energy and environmental policy dialogue in the country today. As the Nation transforms how it produces, transports, and uses the many forms of energy, it must seize the clear opportunity afforded by CHP in terms of climate change, economic competitiveness, energy security, and infrastructure

  5. Sustained effect of simulation-based ultrasound training on clinical performance: a randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolsgaard, M G; Ringsted, C; Dreisler, E; Nørgaard, L N; Petersen, J H; Madsen, M E; Freiesleben, N L C; Sørensen, J L; Tabor, A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of initial simulation-based transvaginal sonography (TVS) training compared with clinical training only, on the clinical performance of residents in obstetrics and gynecology (Ob-Gyn), assessed 2 months into their residency. Methods In a randomized study, new Ob-Gyn residents (n = 33) with no prior ultrasound experience were recruited from three teaching hospitals. Participants were allocated to either simulation-based training followed by clinical training (intervention group; n = 18) or clinical training only (control group; n = 15). The simulation-based training was performed using a virtual-reality TVS simulator until an expert performance level was attained, and was followed by training on a pelvic mannequin. After 2 months of clinical training, one TVS examination was recorded for assessment of each resident's clinical performance (n = 26). Two ultrasound experts blinded to group allocation rated the scans using the Objective Structured Assessment of Ultrasound Skills (OSAUS) scale. Results During the 2 months of clinical training, participants in the intervention and control groups completed an average ± SD of 58 ± 41 and 63 ± 47 scans, respectively (P = 0.67). In the subsequent clinical performance test, the intervention group achieved higher OSAUS scores than did the control group (mean score, 59.1% vs 37.6%, respectively; P training leads to substantial improvement in clinical performance that is sustained after 2 months of clinical training. © 2015 The Authors. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. PMID:25580809

  6. Sustainability of prevention practices at the workplace: safety, simplification, productivity and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messineo, A; Cattaruzza, M S; Prestigiacomo, C; Giordano, F; Marsella, L T

    2017-01-01

    Traditional full-time employment has evolved into various types of occupational situations, and, nowadays, new work organization strategies have been developed. Previously overlooked risk factors have emerged, such as traffic accidents while commuting or during work hours, poor work organization, and detrimental lifestyles (like alcohol and substance abuse, although recent statistics seem to show a declining trend for the latter). The global scenario shows greater attention to occupational risks, but also, to the reduced degree of protection. Moreover, the elevated costs, the unacceptably high fatal accident rates in some sectors, the complexity of the prevention systems, the lack of prevention training, the inadequate controls (despite the numerous independent supervisory bodies) and the obsolescence of certain precepts, call for a prompt review of the regulatory system. This is especially needed for general simplification, streamlining certification bodies and minimizing references to other provisions in the legislation that make it difficult for Italian and foreign workers to read and understand the rules "without legal interpreters". "New" occupational diseases and occupational risk factors have also been reported in addition to pollution. There are concerns for continued economic and social destabilization, unemployment, commuting, temporary and precarious contracts. All of these contribute to the lack of wellbeing in the working population. Thus, the timing, duration, and types of prevention training should be carefully assessed, making prevention more appealing by evaluating costs and benefits with a widespread use of indicators that make appropriate actions for health promotion "visible", thus encouraging awareness. Although reducing prevention is never justified, it should still be "sustainable" economically in order to avoid waste of resources. It is also essential to have laws which are easily and consistently interpreted and to work on the ethics of

  7. Polymer based microspheres of aceclofenac as sustained release parenterals for prolonged anti-inflammatory effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Sharma, Sumit; Sinha, VR, E-mail: sinha_vr@rediffmail.com

    2017-03-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (75:25) and polycaprolactone (PCL) microspheres were fabricated for prolonged release of aceclofenac by parenteral administration. Microspheres encapsulating aceclofenac were designed to release the drug at controlled rate for around one month. Biodegradable microspheres were prepared by solvent emulsification evaporation method in different polymer:drug ratios (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1). After drug loading, PLGA and PCL microspheres showed a controlled size distribution with an average size of 11.75 μm and 3.81 μm respectively and entrapment efficiency in the range of 90 ± 0.72% to 91.06 ± 4.01% with PLGA and 83.01 ± 2.13% to 90.4 ± 2.11% with PCL. Scanning electron microscopy has confirmed good spherical structures of microspheres. The percent yield of biodegradable polymeric microspheres ranged between 30.95 ± 10.14% to 92.84 ± 3.15% and 47.33 ± 4.72% to 80 ± 3.60% for PLGA and PCL microspheres respectively. PLGA microspheres followed Higuchi release pattern while Korsmeyer-Peppas explained the release pattern of PCL microspheres. Stability studies of microspheres were also carried out by storing the preparations at 2-8 °C for 30, 60 and 90 days and evaluating them for entrapment efficiency, residual drug content and polymer drug compatability. In-vivo studies showed significant anti-inflammatory activity of microspheres upto 48 hours using the carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model. - Highlights: • PLGA and PCL polymeric microspheres for parenteral prolonged drug delivery system were formulated. • Polymeric microspheres were characterized physically and drug excipient incompatability. • Three months accelerated stability studies were carried for drug loaded polymeric microspheres. • Pharmacodynamic studies prove the rationality of sustained therapeutic effect of designed drug delivery system.

  8. Sustainability index for Taipei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-J.; Huang Chingming

    2007-01-01

    Sustainability indicators are an effective means of determining whether a city is moving towards sustainable development (SD). After considering the characteristics of Taipei, Taiwan, discussions with experts, scholars and government departments and an exhaustive literature review, this study selected 51 sustainability indicators corresponding to the socio-economic characteristic of Taipei City. Such indicators should be regarded as a basis for assessing SD in Taipei City. The 51 indicators are classified into economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions. Furthermore, statistical data is adopted to identify the trend of SD from 1994 to 2004. Moreover, the sustainability index is calculated for the four dimensions and for Taipei as a whole. Analysis results demonstrate that social and environmental indicators are moving towards SD, while economic and institutional dimensions are performing relatively poorly. However, since 2002, the economic sustainability index has gradually moved towards SD. Overall, the Taipei sustainability index indicates a gradual trend towards sustainable development during the past 11 years

  9. “The mothers have eaten unripe grapes and the children's teeth are set on edge”: the potential inter-generational effects of the Holocaust on chronic morbidity in Holocaust survivors’ offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2014-01-01

    Modern epidemiology has evolved in the last decades from the simplified “cause-effect” paradigm to a multi-factorial framework of causality. The concept of “Fetal Origin of Adult Diseases” (FOAD) is a good example: it suggests that preconception circumstances and fetal exposures as well as infancy and early childhood experiences may eventually change an individual’s susceptibility to adult morbidity through fetal programming and epigenetic changes. The FOAD concept was supported, between othe...

  10. The effect of methylphenidate on sustained attention among adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufi, Dubi; Bassin-Savion, Shiry; Rubel, Lilach

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-seven adolescents diagnosed as having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were tested twice with a computerized MATH-CPT (mathematics continuous performance test). In one administration, the participants took medication (methylphenidate, MPH) 1.5 hr before being tested. In another administration, the MATH-CPT was administered without the medication. Treatment with MPH improved the "overall attention level" and in measures of "reaction time" and "impulsivity." MPH did not improve the performance in the four measures of sustained attention. Knowing that treatment with MPH does not improve sustained attention can be helpful in reaching a decision of whether or not a child should be treated with MPH.

  11. New Technologies for a sustainable nuclear energy and your effect in the management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Romero, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    The probable worldwide increase and distribution of nuclear energy for electricity generation, replacing partially fossil fuels, is promoting the development of technologies that foster its long-term sustain ability. Fast neutron system, combined with closed fuel cycles, are the key elements for the sustain ability. When combined, they can provide a significant reduction on the final high level wastes of the nuclear generation. In particular, Partitioning and Transmutation of actinides would allow the reduction of the nuclear wastes radiotoxicity, their content in fissile material and the heat load to the repository. (Author) 8 refs

  12. Scalable, sustainable cost-effective surgical care: a model for safety and quality in the developing world, part III: impact and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Alex; Restrepo, Carolina; Mackay, Don; Sherman, Randy; Varma, Ajit; Ayala, Ruben; Sarma, Hiteswar; Deshpande, Gaurav; Magee, William

    2014-09-01

    The Guwahati Comprehensive Cleft Care Center (GCCCC) utilizes a high-volume, subspecialized institution to provide safe, quality, and comprehensive and cost-effective surgical care to a highly vulnerable patient population. The GCCCC utilized a diagonal model of surgical care delivery, with vertical inputs of mission-based care transitioning to investments in infrastructure and human capital to create a sustainable, local care delivery system. Over the first 2.5 years of service (May 2011-November 2013), the GCCCC made significant advances in numerous areas. Progress was meticulously documented to evaluate performance and provide transparency to stakeholders including donors, government officials, medical oversight bodies, employees, and patients. During this time period, the GCCCC provided free operations to 7,034 patients, with improved safety, outcomes, and multidisciplinary services while dramatically decreasing costs and increasing investments in the local community. The center has become a regional referral cleft center, and governments of surrounding states have contracted the GCCCC to provide care for their citizens with cleft lip and cleft palate. Additional regional and global impact is anticipated through continued investments into education and training, comprehensive services, and research and outcomes. The success of this public private partnership demonstrates the value of this model of surgical care in the developing world, and offers a blueprint for reproduction. The GCCCC experience has been consistent with previous studies demonstrating a positive volume-outcomes relationship, and provides evidence for the value of the specialty hospital model for surgical delivery in the developing world.

  13. Effects of the Use of Social Network Sites on Task Performance: Toward a Sustainable Performance in a Distracting Work Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyoung Min

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As the use of social network sites (SNS has become increasingly prevalent, its effect on sustainable performance has received much attention. The existing literature has taken either a positive or negative view of SNS, arguing that it either decreases performance by taking time and effort away from work, or increases performance by providing social benefits for enhancing performance. In contrast, this experimental study, investigates how SNS use can disturb or enhance the performance of different types of tasks differently, thus influencing the sustainability of task performance. Based on distraction-conflict theory, this study distinguishes between simple and complex tasks, examines the role of SNS, and analyzes data including electroencephalography data captured by a brain-computer interface. The results show that task performance can be sustainable such that SNS use positively influences performance when participants are engaged in a simple task and influences performance neither positively nor negatively when participants are engaged in a complex task. The study finds the former result is attributable to the positive effect of the psychological arousal induced by SNS use and the latter result to the negative effect of the psychological arousal offsetting the positive effect of reduced stress resulting from SNS use.

  14. Enterprising health: creating the conditions for entrepreneurial behaviour as a strategy for effective and sustainable change in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exton, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate conditions under which entrepreneurs emerge as agents of effective and sustainable change in UK National Health Service Trusts. The research synthesises literature on changing regulatory structures ("post-bureaucracy") and entrepreneurial behaviour to understand how individual identity construction is informed both by context and by individual attributes. Thematic analysis of interview data involving managers from 11 NHS Trusts, including detailed analysis of six transcripts, focuses on regulatory processes, the emergence of entrepreneurial behaviour and outcome variations in workplace innovation and improvement. This study identifies co-existing modes of regulation, which interact with individual behaviour, generating strategies differentiated as entrepreneurial or conformist. Four ideal types are identified: organisational entrepreneurship, resisted or dissonant entrepreneurship, conformity, and symbolic entrepreneurship. Analysis reinforces those literature findings, which suggest that the interaction of regulatory structures and the identity work of individuals influence the emergence of entrepreneurial behaviour and the effectiveness of change. The ability to achieve effective and sustainable outcomes varies considerably even between NHS Trusts faced with comparable challenges in implementing nationally prescribed targets. This variance is explained in terms of the organisation's ability to generate the structures, processes, individual competence and motivation which enable employees at all levels to act entrepreneurially with the ability and legitimacy to achieve strategic goals by working creatively in the spaces between formal organisational structures. The study identifies specific conditions, which stimulate the emergence of entrepreneurs as agents of effective and sustainable change in the NHS, identifying factors that policymakers should consider when implementing change.

  15. Solar Irradiance Measurements Using Smart Devices: A Cost-Effective Technique for Estimation of Solar Irradiance for Sustainable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Al-Taani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar irradiance measurement is a key component in estimating solar irradiation, which is necessary and essential to design sustainable energy systems such as photovoltaic (PV systems. The measurement is typically done with sophisticated devices designed for this purpose. In this paper we propose a smartphone-aided setup to estimate the solar irradiance in a certain location. The setup is accessible, easy to use and cost-effective. The method we propose does not have the accuracy of an irradiance meter of high precision but has the advantage of being readily accessible on any smartphone. It could serve as a quick tool to estimate irradiance measurements in the preliminary stages of PV systems design. Furthermore, it could act as a cost-effective educational tool in sustainable energy courses where understanding solar radiation variations is an important aspect.

  16. Effect of Misoprostol on the Pharmacokinetics of Sustained Release Diclofenac in Myanmar Healthy Male Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Htet Htet Aung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sustained release diclofenac (diclofenac SR is the commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for chronic inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Misoprostol, prostaglandin analogue, is the agent that enhances gastrointestinal mucosal defense. Concomitant administration of misoprostol with diclofenac SR can prevent the gastrointestinal side effects of diclofenac SR. Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore the effect of misoprostol on the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac SR in healthy volunteers. Methods: Crossover study was evaluated in 14 male volunteers. Single oral dose of 100 mg diclofenac SR was concomitantly administered with 200 μg misoprostol with one-week wash out period. Plasma concentrations at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 6 and 10 hrs were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as area under concentration-time curve (AUC0-α, peak plasma concentration (Cmax, time to achieve peak plasma concentration (Tmax, absorption half-life (T½(ab, elimination half-life (T1/2(el, absorption rate constant (Kab, and elimination rate constant (Kel were determined. Results: With misoprostol, the mean AUC0-α of diclofenac SR was significantly reduced from 12.11±5.25μg/ mL×hr to 4.17±2.72μg/mL×hr (p0.05. The mean T½(ab was decreased from 0.56±0.23hr to 0.54±0.19hr (p>0.05. The mean Kab were almost the same 1.43±0.54hr-1 and 1.43±0.48hr-1. The mean T1/2(el was decreased from 3.68±1.64hr to 3.03±1.08hr (p>0.05. The mean Kel was increased from 0.21±0.09hr-1 to 0.25±0.09hr-1 (p>0.05. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction in the extent of absorption of diclofenac SR when concomitantly administered with misoprostol. Therefore, the dose of diclofenac SR may need to be increased to avoid therapeutic failure of diclofenac SR or concurrent use with misoprostol may need to be changed to other gastroprotective agents.

  17. The Effect of Nest Box Distribution on Sustainable Propagation of Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Commercial Tart Cherry Orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Boyle, N. K.; Pitts-Singer, T. L.

    2017-01-01

    The blue orchard bee, Osmia lignaria (Say), is a solitary bee that is an excellent pollinator of tree fruit orchards. Due to the annual rising costs of honey bee hive rentals, many orchardists are eager to develop management tools and practices to support O. lignaria as an alternative pollinator. Establishing O. lignaria pollination as a sustainable industry requires careful consideration of both bee and orchard management. Here, we test the effect of artificial nest box distribution on in-or...

  18. Effectiveness of sustainable land management measures in West Usambara highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wickama, Juma; Okoba, Barrack; Sterk, Geert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/157276465

    2014-01-01

    Soil erosion is a serious problem that affects food security and social livelihoods in the highlands of East Africa. Sustainable land management (SLM) measures have been widely promoted to reduce erosion and increase crop yield, but the adoption of SLM measures has remained low. In order to

  19. Sustainable Effects of Small Hydropower Substituting Firewood Program in Majiang County, Guizhou Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Small hydropower substituting fuel (SHSF is an ecological environment protection program to improve regional ecosystems and alleviate poverty. However, the sustainability of SHSF programs remains controversial due to lingering doubts about its potential for socioeconomic development and its environmental impacts. The sustainability of SHSF was examined based on field investigations and household questionnaire surveys. The results were as follows: (1 Biomass of SHSF protected masson pine (Pinus massoniana and weeping cypress (Platycladus orientalis plantations were 11.06 t·ha−1 and 7.15 t·ha−1 higher than unprotected plantations, respectively. Furthermore, the differences in ecosystem biomass were mainly derived from arbor biomass. While the energy conversion efficiency based on field investigations was merely 1.28 kg (kWh−1, which was only 64% of the empirical value and 54% of the guideline for accounting for the ecological benefit of small hydropower substituting fuel. (2 Households’ total income in SHSF villages was higher than in households with access to a hydropower plant but no substituting fuel or households with no hydropower plant. (3 Most of the households had a positive attitude towards SHSF because of its cheaper electricity and associated ecological environmental improvements. Overall, our results suggest optimistic and sustainable prospects for the SHSF program; however, continued education and policy communications are needed to sustain program success.

  20. Sustainable development and quality of life : expected effects of prospective changes in economic and environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, C.A.J.; Skolnik, M; Gatersleben, B.C.M.

    1998-01-01

    In the context of "sustainable development", we studied which attributes are important to people's quality of life (QoL) and which changes in QoL people would expect from future economic and environmental improvements or deteriorations. About 200 adult subjects evaluated the relative importance of

  1. Sustainable supply chain governance systems: conditions for effective market based governance in global trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, W.J.V.

    2010-01-01

    In this article I discuss the conceptualisation and existing empirical research on the creation of sustainable global product chains. This papers sets steps in moving from normative prescriptive approaches towards an empirical descriptive approach, comparing available research in various forms of

  2. Governance through learning: making corporate social responsibility in dutch industry effective from a sustainable development perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.M.; Loeber, A.

    2004-01-01

    An increasing number of firms try to implement corporate social responsibility (CSR) from the perspective of sustainable development. This article considers these efforts in the light of the changing relation between the state, society and the corporate sector, as a result of which governance

  3. Innovation subject to sustainability: the European policy on biofuels and its effects on innovation in the Brazilian bioethanol industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pacini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are a suitable complement for fossil energy in the transport sector and bioethanol is the main biofuel traded worldwide. Based on the assumption that innovation can be influenced by regulation, the Brazilian bioethanol industry is facing new requirements from external actors while reaching for international markets. Until 2010, national environmental laws were the main sustainability instrument that the biofuel industry faced. With the introduction of sustainability criteria for biofuels in the European Fuels Quality Directive (FQD and Renewable Energy Directive (RED of 2009, bioethanol producers have been pressured to innovate in respect of the requirements of future markets. Here, the aim is to analyse the case of Brazil, given the potential exports of sugarcane-based ethanol from this country to the EU. Brazil provides an interesting overview of how a bioethanol industry innovated while facing sustainability requirements in the past. A comparison between the European requirements and the industry´s status quo is then explored. The EU criteria are likely to have effects on the Brazilian bioethanol industry and incremental improvements in sustainability levels might take place based on the sustainability requirements. In addition, the industry could follow two other paths, namely risk diversification by engaging in multi-output models; and market leakage towards less-regulated markets. At the same time, an environmental overregulation of the biofuel market may make it more difficult for emerging biofuel industries in other countries, especially in Africa, by creating a barrier rather than contributing to its expansion. The results of this analysis show the main challenges to be addressed and the potential positive and negative impacts of the European Union biofuels policy on the Brazilian bioethanol industry.

  4. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  5. Do "good" food products make others look "bad"? Spin-off effects of labels for sustainable food production in the consumer perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnekamp, M.H.A.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Purpose ¿ The objective of this study is to examine whether sustainability labels like Fair Trade have a spin-off effect to mainstream products in the consumer perception: do consumers perceive mainstream products and brands more negatively in the presence of a product with a sustainability

  6. Environmental Sustainability and Effects on Urban Micro Region using Agent-Based Modeling of Urbanisation in Select Major Indian Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aithal, B. H.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Urbanisation has gained momentum with globalization in India. Policy decisions to set up commercial, industrial hubs have fuelled large scale migration, added with population upsurge has contributed to the fast growing urban region that needs to be monitored in order to design sustainable urban cities. Unplanned urbanization have resulted in the growth of peri-urban region referred to as urban sprawl, are often devoid of basic amenities and infrastructure leading to large scale environmental problems that are evident. Remote sensing data acquired through space borne sensors at regular interval helps in understanding urban dynamics aided by Geoinformatics which has proved very effective in mapping and monitoring for sustainable urban planning. Cellular automata (CA) is a robust approach for the spatially explicit simulation of land-use land cover dynamics. CA uses rules, states, conditions that are vital factors in modelling urbanisation. This communication effectively introduces simulation assistances of CA with the agent based modelling supported by its fuzzy characteristics and weightages through analytical hierarchal process (AHP). This has been done considering perceived agents such as industries, natural resource etc. Respective agent's role in development of a particular regions into an urban area has been examined with weights and its influence of each of these agents based on its characteristics functions. Validation was performed obtaining a high kappa coefficient indicating the quality and the allocation performance of the model & validity of the model to predict future projections. The prediction using the proposed model was performed for 2030. Further environmental sustainability of each of these cities are explored such as water features, environment, greenhouse gas emissions, effects on human human health etc., Modeling suggests trend of various land use classes transformation with the spurt in urban expansions based on specific regions and

  7. The effect of food on gastrointestinal (GI) transit of sustained-release ibuprofen tablets as evaluated by gamma scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borin, M.T.; Khare, S.; Beihn, R.M.; Jay, M.

    1990-01-01

    The GI transit of radiolabeled sustained-release ibuprofen 800-mg tablets in eight healthy, fed volunteers was monitored using external gamma scintigraphy. Ibuprofen serum concentrations were determined from blood samples drawn over 36 hr following dosing. Sustained-release ibuprofen tablets containing 0.18% of 170Er2O3 (greater than 96% 170Er) in the bulk formulation were manufactured under pilot-scale conditions and were radiolabeled utilizing a neutron activation procedure which converted stable 170Er to radioactive 171Er (t1/2 = 7.5 hr). At the time of dosing, each tablet contained 50 mu Ci of 171Er. Dosage form position were reported at various time intervals. In five subjects the sustained-release tablet remained in the stomach and eroded slowly over 7-12 hr, resulting in gradual increases in small bowel radioactivity. In the remaining three subjects, the intact tablet was ejected from the stomach and a gastric residence time of approximately 4 hr was measured. This is in marked contrast to a previous study conducted in fasted volunteers in which gastric retention time ranged from 10 to 60 min. Differences in GI transit between fed and fasted volunteers had little effect on ibuprofen bioavailability. AUC and Tmax were unaltered and Cmax was increased by 24%, which is in agreement with results from a previous, crossover-design food effect study

  8. SUSTAINABILITY EFFECTS OF Crotalaria juncea L. AND Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH ON SOIL FERTILITY AND SOIL CONSERVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    Sustainable agriculture is defined as the successful management of resources for agriculture to satisfy changing human needs while maintaining or enhancing the quality of the environment and conserving natural resources. A sustained increase of agricultural production becomes a great possibility for international community. In this process a green manure crops application for example crotalaria get a new chance for improvement process on soil fertility and soil conservation. Field experiment was carried out on a calcareous chernozem soil (Experiment station Nagyhörcsök of RISSAC-HAS) in partly of experiment series (3 years) at Hungary in 1998. The soil with about 20% clay, 3% humus, 5% CaCO3 in its ploughed layer. To ensure a sufficient macro and micronutrient supply in the whole experiment, 100 kg N, 100 kg P2O5 and 100 kg K2O were given hectare. The Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH were applied with 2 replications. Each plot has an area of 45 m2 with 230-230 individual plants. In vegetation grown period were measured green and dry matter yield. The soil and plant samples were analysed for the macro and microelements contents. The main results achieved in 1998 are summarized as follows: 1. The green matter yield at before flowering reached 63.8 t ha-1 in case of Crotalaria juncea L. 2. Total dry matter yield at harvest (without roots) fluctuated between 9.6 and 17.0 t ha-1, depending on the crotalaria species. 3. The average of element concentration (including stems, leaves of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH) before flowering reached to 3.2 % N, 2.3 % Ca, 1.3 % K, 0.39 % Mg, 0.22 % P and 0.24 % S. The content of Al and Fe total 14 - 25, while that of Sr, Mn, Na, B and Ba 2 - 6 ppm in dry matter. The Zn, Cu, Mo, Cr, Se, Ni, As, Pb, Cd and Co concentration did not reach here the value of 1 ppm. 4. The average of biological activated element uptake (including stems, leaves of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis

  9. Seeing and Being Green? The Effect of Money Priming on Willingness to Perform Sustainable Actions, Social Connectedness, and Prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldi, Colin A; Zelenski, John M

    2016-01-01

    This investigation attempted to conceptually replicate/extend research that suggests that reminders of money can inhibit prosociality, promote self-sufficiency, and influence political beliefs. Based on these results, we hypothesized that money primes would decrease willingness to engage in sustainable actions. We also predicted that people would distribute points less prosocially and feel less socially connected when money was primed. Individuals were recruited from an undergraduate participant pool and MTurk. Meta-analytic results across the two samples revealed that money priming did not have a significant impact on willingness to act sustainably, but it did cause participants to distribute points less prosocially and report lower social connectedness than individuals in the control condition. While effects were smaller than those reported in Vohs, Mead, and Goode (2006), this study still offers support for the detrimental impact of reminders of money on interpersonal relations.

  10. Effect of the helicity injection rate and the Lundquist number on spheromak sustainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Pablo Luis; Lampugnani, Leandro Gabriel; Farengo, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of the magnetic relaxation process during the sustainment of spheromak configurations at different helicity injection rates is studied. The three-dimensional activity is recovered using time-dependent resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. A cylindrical flux conserver with concentric electrodes is used to model configurations driven by a magnetized coaxial gun. Magnetic helicity is injected by tangential boundary flows. Different regimes of sustainment are identified and characterized in terms of the safety factor profile. The spatial and temporal behavior of fluctuations is described. The dynamo action is shown to be in close agreement with existing experimental data. These results are relevant to the design and operation of helicity injected devices, as well as to basic understanding of the plasma relaxation mechanism in quasi-steady state.

  11. Effect of the helicity injection rate and the Lundquist number on spheromak sustainment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Martínez, Pablo Luis, E-mail: pablogm@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) and Sede Andina—Universidad Nacional de Río Negro (UNRN), Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Lampugnani, Leandro Gabriel; Farengo, Ricardo [Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atómico Bariloche (CAB-CNEA), Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina)

    2014-12-15

    The dynamics of the magnetic relaxation process during the sustainment of spheromak configurations at different helicity injection rates is studied. The three-dimensional activity is recovered using time-dependent resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. A cylindrical flux conserver with concentric electrodes is used to model configurations driven by a magnetized coaxial gun. Magnetic helicity is injected by tangential boundary flows. Different regimes of sustainment are identified and characterized in terms of the safety factor profile. The spatial and temporal behavior of fluctuations is described. The dynamo action is shown to be in close agreement with existing experimental data. These results are relevant to the design and operation of helicity injected devices, as well as to basic understanding of the plasma relaxation mechanism in quasi-steady state.

  12. The sustainability effects of Product/Service-System design validated through Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smidt Dreijer, Leise; Birkved, Morten; Howard, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    and lifts. The major research question for the case is how the supplier’s continued ownership of the building materials influences the sustainability of such buildings. By using a PSS design approach in the early design stages, the architects involved in the case project were able to make design decisions......Temporary buildings are generally considered to be unsustainable due to a short life span of the materials applied in the building. The construction materials typically have a longer use life than the required use life of the building, thus functioning building materials are often discarded after...... the demolition. In an attempt to improve the sustainability of temporary buildings, a Product/Service-System (PSS) strategy is here applied to a case project. The case project concerns a temporary building made of leased materials and building components such as shipping containers, scaffolding materials...

  13. Food quality, effects on health and sustainability today: a model case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni, Vittorio Natale; Fargion, Silvia; Mazzocchi, Alessandra; Giachetti, Marco; Lanzarini, Achille; Dall'Asta, Margherita; Scazzina, Francesca; Agostoni, Carlo

    2017-02-01

    The Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico is a five-century institution that, besides the unique clinical role in the center of Milan, may rely on benefactor donations such as fields and farming houses not far from the city, for a total of 8500 ha, all managed by the "Sviluppo Ca' Granda' Foundation". Presently, the main products of these fields are represented by rice and cow's milk. During the latest years, farmers and managers have developed a model of sustainable food production, with great attention to the product quality based on compositional analysis and functional nutritional characteristics. This experience represents a new holistic model of food production and consumption, taking great care of both sustainability and health.

  14. Effect of Loads and Other Key Factors on Oil-Transformer Ageing: Sustainability Benefits and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Godina; Eduardo M. G. Rodrigues; João C. O. Matias; João P. S. Catalão

    2015-01-01

    Transformers are one of the more expensive pieces of equipment found in a distribution network. The transformer’s role has not changed over the last decades. With simple construction and at the same time mechanically robust, they offer long term service that on average can reach half a century. Today, with the ongoing trend to supply a growing number of non-linear loads along with the notion of distributed generation (DG), a new challenge has arisen in terms of transformer sustainability, ...

  15. Linking Environmental Sustainability and Healthcare: The Effects of an Energy Saving Intervention in Two Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Danae Manika; Diana Gregory-Smith; Victoria K. Wells; Lee Comerford; Lucy Aldrich-Smith

    2017-01-01

    Set in a real organisational setting, this study examines the challenges of implementing environmentally sustainable behaviour in healthcare. It evaluates the success of a real energy saving behaviour change intervention, based on social marketing principles, which targeted the employees of two National Health Service (NHS) hospitals. It also explores the intervention benefits for three key stakeholders: the organisation/hospitals, hospital employees and patients. A rich secondary dataset con...

  16. The effect of local sustained delivery of sirolimus on the vascular PAI-1 and t-PA expression after angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E Yajun; He Nengshu; Fan Hailun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of local sustained delivery of sirolimus on the vascular inhibitor of plasminogen activator-1 (PAI-1) and tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA) expression after angioplasty. Methods: Experimental common carotid artery injury model was established in the rats. A total of 30 male Wistar rats were divided into experimental group (n=20) and control group (n=10). Adventitial administration of drug was applied. Pluronic F-127 gel containing sirolimus was administered to the exposed adventitial surface of injured carotid artery. The experimental group was divided into high concentration (600 μg/100 μl) sub-group and low concentration (300 μg/100μl) sub-group according to the concentration of sirolimus delivered. The effect of local sustained delivery sirolimus on vascular PAI-1 and t-PA expression after percutaneous angioplasty was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results: Compared to control group, 15 and 30 days after injury local sustained delivery of sirolimus in both high concentration and low concentration sub-groups the expression of the PAI-1 in neointima was significantly enhanced (P 0.05). At 15 and 30 days after injury, the expression of t-PA in neointima was decreased in both high and low concentration sub-groups (P<0.05), and the expression of t-PA in media was significantly decreased in high concentration sub-group (P<0.05) while on significant difference could be detected in low concentration sub-group. Conclusion: Local sustained delivery of sirolimus can induce the high expression of PAI-1 and low expression of t-PA in neointima although it inhibits the proliferation of neointima in the same time, and the imbalanced expression of t-PA and PAI-1 may probably play an important role in the late formation of thrombosis after the placement of drug-eluting stent. (authors)

  17. Therapeutic effects of 5-fluorouracil sustained-release particles in 81 malignant pericardial effusion patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Li Ji

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the clinical application value of the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU sustained-release particles implanted along the cardiac tangent direction into malignant pericardial effusion (MPCE. A total of 81 MPCE patients underwent pericardiocentesis, and were implanted with 5-FU sustained-release particles into the pericardial cavity under ultrasound guidance. The puncturing path was along the cardiac tangent direction. Ultrasound examinations were performed every week, and the efficacy was evaluated 4 weeks after treatment. The 45 patients who were treated with pericardial catheter drainage and simultaneous intracavitary chemotherapy were used as the control group. The success rate of pericardiocentesis was 100%. Ultrasound reviews performed 4 weeks after treatment showed that 71 cases achieved complete remission and eight cases achieved partial remission, while treatment was completely ineffective in two cases. The total remission rate was 97.53%, which was significantly higher than that of the control group (77.78%, p < 0.01. The implantation of 5-FU sustained-release particles along the cardiac tangent direction was safe, and demonstrated good efficacy and fewer adverse reactions. Thus, this method could be ideal for the treatment of MPCE.

  18. ICT innovations for sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Aebischer, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    ICT Innovations for Sustainability is an investigation of how information and communication technology can contribute to sustainable development. It presents clear definitions of sustainability, suggesting conceptual frameworks for the positive and negative effects of ICT on sustainable development. It reviews methods of assessing the direct and indirect impact of ICT systems on energy and materials demand, and examines the results of such assessments. In addition, it investigates ICT-based approaches to supporting sustainable patterns of production and consumption, analyzing them at various levels of abstraction – from end-user devices, Internet infrastructure, user behavior, and social practices to macro-economic indicators.   Combining approaches from Computer Science, Information Systems, Human-Computer Interaction, Economics, and Environmental Sciences, the book presents a new, holistic perspective on ICT for Sustainability (ICT4S). It is an indispensable resource for anyone working in the area of ICT...

  19. Effective policy for sustainable behavior. An international comparison; Effectief beleid voor duurzaam gedrag. Een internationale vergelijking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsting, S.; Uyterlinde, M.; Pol, M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Breukers, S.; Mourik, R.; Backhaus, J.; Mathijsen, T. [DuneWorks, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This international comparative case study (the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, United Kingdom) compares policy themes (household energy, food, mobility, household waste) and cases of interventions aims at more sustainable behaviours. It investigates how national policy can contribute to sustainable behaviour in these four themes. The study focuses on policy contexts and concrete 'best practice examples' (both policy -initiated and society-driven initiatives), paying attention to the extent to which social scientific insights have been utilised to conduct and evaluate the interventions. The conceptual approach in this study regards individual behaviour not in isolation but as embedded in institutional, social and physical contexts. In line with this, the evaluation of best practice examples focuses on how the following dimensions have been addressed in order to enable, support and sustain behavioural changes: the policy environment and institutional environment, individual behaviour, social norms a nd the physical environment. In this discussion, the Netherlands is both the starting point and the point of return, enabling us to draw lessons for Dutch policy. We conclude that a more proactive, dynamic and supportive role would fit national policy if it aims at encouraging the spread of more sustainable behaviours in society. Dutch policy could learn from the experiences of other countries and attempt at (among others): showing explicit commitment, connecting initiatives at different levels, and facilitating platforms for exchange of knowledge, experience and expertise, across sectors and departments, in order to arrive at a more integrated approach towards encouraging sustainable behaviours [Dutch] Als achtergrondstudie voor het advies Duurzame gedragspatronen zijn twee onderzoeken uitgevoerd naar effectief beleid voor duurzaam gedrag (1) in Nederland en (2) internationaal. De twee rapporten beschrijven een aantal beleidscases die vanuit gedragskundig

  20. Effective policy for sustainable behavior. An international comparison; Effectief beleid voor duurzaam gedrag. Een internationale vergelijking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsting, S.; Uyterlinde, M.; Pol, M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Breukers, S.; Mourik, R.; Backhaus, J.; Mathijsen, T. [DuneWorks, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This international comparative case study (the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, United Kingdom) compares policy themes (household energy, food, mobility, household waste) and cases of interventions aims at more sustainable behaviours. It investigates how national policy can contribute to sustainable behaviour in these four themes. The study focuses on policy contexts and concrete 'best practice examples' (both policy -initiated and society-driven initiatives), paying attention to the extent to which social scientific insights have been utilised to conduct and evaluate the interventions. The conceptual approach in this study regards individual behaviour not in isolation but as embedded in institutional, social and physical contexts. In line with this, the evaluation of best practice examples focuses on how the following dimensions have been addressed in order to enable, support and sustain behavioural changes: the policy environment and institutional environment, individual behaviour, social norms a nd the physical environment. In this discussion, the Netherlands is both the starting point and the point of return, enabling us to draw lessons for Dutch policy. We conclude that a more proactive, dynamic and supportive role would fit national policy if it aims at encouraging the spread of more sustainable behaviours in society. Dutch policy could learn from the experiences of other countries and attempt at (among others): showing explicit commitment, connecting initiatives at different levels, and facilitating platforms for exchange of knowledge, experience and expertise, across sectors and departments, in order to arrive at a more integrated approach towards encouraging sustainable behaviours [Dutch] Als achtergrondstudie voor het advies Duurzame gedragspatronen zijn twee onderzoeken uitgevoerd naar effectief beleid voor duurzaam gedrag (1) in Nederland en (2) internationaal. De twee rapporten beschrijven een aantal beleidscases die vanuit gedragskundig perspectief

  1. Teaching sustainability to a broad audience through an entertainment game – The effect of Catan : Oil Springs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, E.J.L.; Bijvoet, Xanna; Oei, A.

    2017-01-01

    In order to attain a truly sustainable society it is necessary for people to make ‘the sustainable choice’ in daily life, business and governance. Instrumental in increasing the awareness and understanding about sustainability issues and improving people's behaviour regarding sustainability

  2. Adaptation of slow myofibers: the effect of sustained BDNF treatment of extraocular muscles in infant nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Christy L; Fleuriet, Jérome; Walton, Mark M; Mustari, Michael J; McLoon, Linda K

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated promising new treatment options for strabismus. Neurotrophic factors have emerged as a potential treatment for oculomotor disorders because of diverse roles in signaling to muscles and motor neurons. Unilateral treatment with sustained release brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to a single lateral rectus muscle in infant monkeys was performed to test the hypothesis that strabismus would develop in correlation with extraocular muscle (EOM) changes during the critical period for development of binocularity. The lateral rectus muscles of one eye in two infant macaques were treated with sustained delivery of BDNF for 3 months. Eye alignment was assessed using standard photographic methods. Muscle specimens were analyzed to examine the effects of BDNF on the density, morphology, and size of neuromuscular junctions, as well as myofiber size. Counts were compared to age-matched controls. No change in eye alignment occurred with BDNF treatment. Compared to control muscle, neuromuscular junctions on myofibers expressing slow myosins had a larger area. Myofibers expressing slow myosin had larger diameters, and the percentage of myofibers expressing slow myosins increased in the proximal end of the muscle. Expression of BDNF was examined in control EOM, and observed to have strongest immunoreactivity outside the endplate zone. We hypothesize that the oculomotor system adapted to sustained BDNF treatment to preserve normal alignment. Our results suggest that BDNF treatment preferentially altered myofibers expressing slow myosins. This implicates BDNF signaling as influencing the slow twitch properties of EOM.

  3. Effects of internal structure on equilibrium of field-reversed configuration plasma sustained by rotating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Inomoto, Michiaki; Okada, Shigefumi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Asai, Tomohiko

    2008-01-01

    The effects of an internal structure on the equilibrium of a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma sustained by rotating magnetic field is investigated by using detailed electrostatic probe measurements in the FRC Injection Experiment apparatus [S. Okada, et al., Nucl. Fusion. 45, 1094 (2005)]. An internal structure installed axially on the geometrical axis, which simulates Ohmic transformer or external toroidal field coils on the FRC device, brings about substantial changes in plasma density profile. The internal structure generates steep density-gradients not only on the inner side but on the outer side of the torus. The radial electric field is observed to sustain the ion thermal pressure-gradient in the FRC without the internal structure; however, the radial electric field is not sufficient to sustain the increased ion thermal pressure-gradient in the FRC with the internal structure. Spontaneously driven azimuthal ion flow will be accountable for the imbalance of the radial pressure which is modified by the internal structure.

  4. Effect of Discrete Fracture Network Characteristics on the Sustainability of Heat Production in Enhanced Geothermal Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, A.; Damjanac, B.

    2013-12-01

    Viability of an enhanced or engineered geothermal reservoir is determined by the rate of produced fluid at production wells and the rate of temperature drawdown in the reservoir as well as that of the produced fluid. Meeting required targets demands sufficient permeability and flow circulation in a relatively large volume of rock mass. In-situ conditions such overall permeability of the bedrock formation, magnitude and orientation of stresses, and the characteristics of the existing Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) greatly affect sustainable heat production. Because much of the EGS resources are in formations with low permeability, different stimulation techniques are required prior to the production phase to enhance fluid circulation. Shear stimulation or hydro-shearing is the method of injecting a fluid into the reservoir with the aim of increasing the fluid pressure in the naturally fractured rock and inducing shear failure or slip events. This mechanism can enhance the system's permeability through permanent dilatational opening of the sheared fractures. Using a computational modeling approach, the correlation between heat production and DFN statistical characteristics, namely the fracture length distribution, fracture orientation, and also fracture density is studied in this paper. Numerical analyses were completed using two-dimensional distinct element code UDEC (Itasca, 2011), which represents rock masses as an assembly of interacting blocks separated by fractures. UDEC allows for simulation of fracture propagation along the predefined planes only (i.e., the trajectory of the hydraulic fracture is not part of the solution of the problem). Thus, the hydraulic fracture is assumed to be planar, aligned with the direction of the major principal stress. The pre-existing fractures were represented explicitly. They are discontinuities which deform elastically, but also can open and slip (Coulomb slip law) as a function of pressure and total stress changes. The fluid

  5. Effect of HFE gene polymorphism on sustained virological response in patients with chronic hepatitis C and elevated serum ferritin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Coelho-Borges

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Abnormal serum ferritin levels are found in approximately 20%-30% of the patients with chronic hepatitis C and are associated with a lower response rate to interferon therapy. OBJECTIVE: To determine if the presence of HFE gene mutations had any effect on the sustained virological response rate to interferon based therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients with elevated serum ferritin. METHODS: A total of 44 treatment naÏve patients with histologically demonstrated chronic hepatitis C, all infected with hepatitis C virus genotype non-1 (38 genotype 3; 6 genotype 2 and serum ferritin above 500 ng/mL were treated with interferon (3 MU, 3 times a week and ribavirin (1.000 mg, daily for 24 weeks. RESULTS: Sustained virological response was defined as negative qualitative HCV-RNA more than 24 weeks after the end of treatment. Serum HCV-RNA was measured by qualitative in house polymerase chain reaction with a limit of detection of 200 IU/mL. HFE gene mutation was detected using restriction-enzyme digestion with RsaI (C282Y mutation analysis and BclI (H63D mutation analysis in 16 (37% patients, all heterozygous (11 H63D, 2 C282Y and 3 both. Sustained virological response was achieved in 0 of 16 patients with HFE gene mutations and 11 (41% of 27 patients without HFE gene mutations (P = 0.002; exact Fisher test. CONCLUSION: Heterozigozity for H63D and/or C282Y HFE gene mutation predicts absence of sustained virological response to combination treatment with interferon and ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C, non-1 genotype and serum ferritin levels above 500 ng/mL.

  6. Effect of HFE gene polymorphism on sustained virological response in patients with chronic hepatitis C and elevated serum ferritin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho-Borges, Silvia; Cheinquer, Hugo; Wolff, Fernando Herz; Cheinquer, Nelson; Krug, Luciano; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal serum ferritin levels are found in approximately 20%-30% of the patients with chronic hepatitis C and are associated with a lower response rate to interferon therapy. To determine if the presence of HFE gene mutations had any effect on the sustained virological response rate to interferon based therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients with elevated serum ferritin. A total of 44 treatment naÏve patients with histologically demonstrated chronic hepatitis C, all infected with hepatitis C virus genotype non-1 (38 genotype 3; 6 genotype 2) and serum ferritin above 500 ng/mL were treated with interferon (3 MU, 3 times a week) and ribavirin (1.000 mg, daily) for 24 weeks. Sustained virological response was defined as negative qualitative HCV-RNA more than 24 weeks after the end of treatment. Serum HCV-RNA was measured by qualitative in house polymerase chain reaction with a limit of detection of 200 IU/mL. HFE gene mutation was detected using restriction-enzyme digestion with RsaI (C282Y mutation analysis) and BclI (H63D mutation analysis) in 16 (37%) patients, all heterozygous (11 H63D, 2 C282Y and 3 both). Sustained virological response was achieved in 0 of 16 patients with HFE gene mutations and 11 (41%) of 27 patients without HFE gene mutations (P = 0.002; exact Fisher test). Heterozigozity for H63D and/or C282Y HFE gene mutation predicts absence of sustained virological response to combination treatment with interferon and ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C, non-1 genotype and serum ferritin levels above 500 ng/mL.

  7. A New Dynamic Pricing Model for the Effective Sustainability of Perishable Product Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pırıl Tekin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Perishable products run their life cycle in a short period of time due to the shortness of their shelf lives. Product efficiency falls when especially non-recyclable products are thrown away without being used. Furthermore, this kind of products that unnecessarily occupy shelves of supermarkets cause supermarkets to follow an insufficient stock management policy. Unconscious and unplanned use of our limited natural resources will deteriorate the product portfolio for future generations. Such unconscious production and consumption patterns will disrupt natural balance and damage sustainability of products. In addition to creating very high costs for producers, sellers and consumers alike, these unsold or stale products lead to environmental problems due to such pricing policies. In other words, although the products have to be thrown away without being sold is attributed by many managers to be attributable to the unplanned over-orders, the actual reason is something else. The real contributor of the problem is changing purchase attitudes of customers because of wrong pricing policies of wholesaler. In addition, limited resources are also consumed fast and in unnecessary amounts. The imbalance in respect to the sustainability of these products leads to increase in the production costs, procurement costs and failure to achieve balance among products to be kept in storage houses as some of the products occupy stocks unnecessarily. In the present study, a new pricing policy is developed for product stock whose shelf lives are about to expire and generally become waste to increase salability of these products in reference to fresher stocks of these products. The present study, which is designed to reduce the above-mentioned losses, will seek to minimize the cost of waste, maximize the profit earned by supermarkets from the product, maximize product utilization rates and ensure sustainability of products and stocks as well. Fulfillment of these

  8. Linking Environmental Sustainability and Healthcare: The Effects of an Energy Saving Intervention in Two Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danae Manika

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Set in a real organisational setting, this study examines the challenges of implementing environmentally sustainable behaviour in healthcare. It evaluates the success of a real energy saving behaviour change intervention, based on social marketing principles, which targeted the employees of two National Health Service (NHS hospitals. It also explores the intervention benefits for three key stakeholders: the organisation/hospitals, hospital employees and patients. A rich secondary dataset containing actual workplace behaviour measures (collected via observations and self-reported data from employee interviews and patient questionnaires is used for this purpose. The intervention encouraged three employee energy saving actions (called TLC actions: (1 Turn off machines, (2 Lights out when not needed, and (3 Close doors when possible; which led to energy savings and carbon reduction for the two hospitals. Hospital employees reported a greater level of work efficiency as a result of engaging in TLC actions, which increased the 'quiet time' periods in both hospitals. Indirectly, employees' TLC actions also improved patients' quality of sleep (which in turn is positively associated with greater patient hospital experience satisfaction. These findings shed light on the benefits of social marketing interventions targeting energy saving behaviour change for multiple stakeholders in healthcare organisations. They also illustrate connections between environmental sustainability and social and political pillars of corporate social responsibility. Additionally, organisational culture was highlighted as a key challenge in changing practices. To encourage long-term sustainable behaviour, this study recommends a pre-intervention assessment of infrastructure and equipment, the communication of expected benefits to motivate higher involvement of employees, the need for internal green champions and the dissemination of post-intervention feedback on various energy

  9. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...

  10. Natural recharge to sustainable yield from the barind aquifer: a tool in preparing effective management plan of groundwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monirul Islam, Md; Kanungoe, P

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of water balance study and aquifer simulation modeling for preliminary estimation of the recharge rate and sustainable yield for the semi arid Barind Tract region of Bangladesh. The outcomes of the study are likely to be useful for planning purposes. It is found from detailed water balance study for the area that natural recharge rates in the Barind Tract vary widely year to year. It may have resulted from the method used for the calculation. If the considered time interval had been smaller than the monthly rainfall, the results could have been different. Aquifer Simulation Modeling (ASM) for the Barind aquifer is used to estimate long-term sustainable yield of the groundwater considering limiting drawdown from the standpoint of economic pumping cost. In managing a groundwater basin efficiently and effectively, evaluation of the maximum annual groundwater yield of the basin that can be withdrawn and used without producing any undesirable effect is one of the most important issues. In investigating such recharge rate, introduction of certain terms such as sustainable yield and safe yield has been accompanied. Development of this area involves proper utilization of this vast land, which is possible only through ensured irrigation for agriculture. The Government of Bangladesh has a plan to develop irrigation facilities by optimum utilization of available ground and surface water. It is believed that the groundwater table is lowering rapidly and the whole region is in an acute state of deforestation. Indiscriminate groundwater development may accelerate deforestation trend. In this context estimation of actual natural recharge rate to the aquifer and determination of sustainable yield will assist in proper management and planning of environmentally viable abstraction schemes. It is revealed from the study that the sustainable yield of ground water (204 mm/y) is somewhat higher than the long-term annual average recharge (152.7 mm) to the

  11. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  12. Effectiveness and sustainability of the ViSC Social Competence Program to prevent cyberbullying and cyber-victimization: Class and individual level moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradinger, Petra; Yanagida, Takuya; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Spiel, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether the general anti-bullying program ViSC sustainably prevents cyberbullying and cyber-victimization. A longitudinal randomized control group design was used to examine (i) program effectiveness immediately after a 1 year implementation phase and (ii) sustainable program effects 6 months later taking several moderators on the class level (class climate and ethnic diversity) and on the individual level (gender, age, internet usage, traditional bullying/victimization) into account. Effectiveness (e.g., the change between waves 2 and 1) was examined in 2,042 students (47.6% girls), aged 11.7 years (SD = 0.88) enrolled in 18 schools and 103 classes. Sustainability (e.g., the change between waves 3 and 2) was examined in a sub-sample of 6 schools and 35 classes comprising 659 students. The self-assessment multiple-item scales showed longitudinal and multiple group invariance. Factor scores were extracted to compute difference scores for effectiveness (Posttest minus Pretest) and sustainability (Follow-up test minus Posttest) for cyberbullying and cyber-victimization. Multilevel Modeling was applied to examine (i) the effectiveness and (ii) the sustainability of the ViSC intervention controlling for several individual and class level variables. Controlling for covariates, it was demonstrated that the ViSC program is effective in preventing cyberbullying and cyber-victimization and that the effects are sustainable after 6 months. The consequences for cyberbullying prevention are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A prospective cohort study on sustained effects of low-dose ecstasy use on the brain in new ecstasy users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Win, Maartje M L; Reneman, Liesbeth; Jager, Gerry; Vlieger, Erik-Jan P; Olabarriaga, Sílvia D; Lavini, Cristina; Bisschops, Ivo; Majoie, Charles B L M; Booij, Jan; den Heeten, Gerard J; van den Brink, Wim

    2007-02-01

    It is debated whether ecstasy use has neurotoxic effects on the human brain and what the effects are of a low dose of ecstasy use. We prospectively studied sustained effects (>2 weeks abstinence) of a low dose of ecstasy on the brain in ecstasy-naive volunteers using a combination of advanced MR techniques and self-report questionnaires on psychopathology as part of the NeXT (Netherlands XTC Toxicity) study. Outcomes of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), and questionnaires on depression, impulsivity, and sensation seeking were compared in 30 subjects (12M, 21.8+/-3.1 years) in two sessions before and after first ecstasy use (1.8+/-1.3 tablets). Interval between baseline and follow-up was on average 8.1+/-6.5 months and time between last ecstasy use and follow-up was 7.7+/-4.4 weeks. Using 1H-MRS, no significant changes were observed in metabolite concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), myo-inositol (mI), and creatine (Cr), nor in ratios of NAA, Cho, and mI relative to Cr. However, ecstasy use was followed by a sustained 0.9% increase in fractional anisotropy (FA) in frontoparietal white matter, a 3.4% decrease in apparent diffusion (ADC) in the thalamus and a sustained decrease in relative regional cerebral blood volume (rrCBV) in the thalamus (-6.2%), dorsolateral frontal cortex (-4.0%), and superior parietal cortex (-3.0%) (all significant at pecstasy users, although effect sizes were limited and clinical relevance questionable. As no indications were found for structural neuronal damage with the currently used techniques, our data do not support the concern that incidental ecstasy use leads to extensive axonal damage. However, sustained decreases in rrCBV and ADC values may indicate that even low ecstasy doses can induce prolonged vasoconstriction in some brain areas, although it is not known whether this effect is permanent. Additional studies are needed to

  14. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    Declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) can be viewed as a piece of international regulation. Over the past 30 years research at universities has produced convincing data to warn about deterioration of the environment, resource scarcity and the need for sustainability. This in turn....... Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...

  15. Beyond time and space: The effect of a lateralized sustained attention task and brain stimulation on spatial and selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Nir; De Wandel, Linde; Dockree, Paul; Demeyere, Nele; Chechlacz, Magdalena

    2017-10-03

    The Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) provides a mathematical formalisation of the "biased competition" account of visual attention. Applying this model to individual performance in a free recall task allows the estimation of 5 independent attentional parameters: visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity, speed of information processing, perceptual threshold of visual detection; attentional weights representing spatial distribution of attention (spatial bias), and the top-down selectivity index. While the TVA focuses on selection in space, complementary accounts of attention describe how attention is maintained over time, and how temporal processes interact with selection. A growing body of evidence indicates that different facets of attention interact and share common neural substrates. The aim of the current study was to modulate a spatial attentional bias via transfer effects, based on a mechanistic understanding of the interplay between spatial, selective and temporal aspects of attention. Specifically, we examined here: (i) whether a single administration of a lateralized sustained attention task could prime spatial orienting and lead to transferable changes in attentional weights (assigned to the left vs right hemi-field) and/or other attentional parameters assessed within the framework of TVA (Experiment 1); (ii) whether the effects of such spatial-priming on TVA parameters could be further enhanced by bi-parietal high frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) (Experiment 2). Our results demonstrate that spatial attentional bias, as assessed within the TVA framework, was primed by sustaining attention towards the right hemi-field, but this spatial-priming effect did not occur when sustaining attention towards the left. Furthermore, we show that bi-parietal high-frequency tRNS combined with the rightward spatial-priming resulted in an increased attentional selectivity. To conclude, we present a novel, theory-driven method for attentional modulation

  16. Assessing intraindividual variability in sustained attention: reliability, relation to speed and accuracy, and practice effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAGEN C. FLEHMIG

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the psychometric properties of competing measures of sustained attention. 179 subjects were assessed twice within seven day's time with a test designed to measure sustained attention, or concentration, respectively. In addition to traditional performance indices [i.e., speed (MRT and accuracy (E%], we evaluated two intraindividual response time (RT variability measures: standard deviation (SDRT and coefficient of variation (CVRT. For the overall test, both indices were reliable. SDRT showed good to acceptable retest reliability for all subtests. For CVRT, retest reliability coefficients ranged from very good to not satisfactory. While the reversed-word recognition test proved highly reliable, the mental calculation test and the arrows test were not sufficiently reliable. CVRT was only slightly correlated but SDRT was highly correlated with MRT. In contrast to substantial practice gains for MRT, SDRT and E%, only CVRT proved to be stable. In conclusion, CVRT appears to be a potential index for assessing performance variability: it is reliable for the overall test, only moderately correlated with speed, and virtually not affected by practice. However, before applying CVRT in practical assessment settings, additional research is required to elucidate the impact of task-specific factors on the reliability of this performance measure.

  17. A comprehensive investigation into the effect of temperature variation on the mechanical properties of sustainable concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mir Abdulkader

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing the production energy and resources consumption are the key principle for engineering sustainability. In the case of concrete structures, this concept can be achieved by the use of materials in the most efficient way considering in the mix design the optimal mechanical and durability properties. The substitution of ordinary Portland cement for other supplementary cementitious materials is assessing the possibility of enhancing the sustainability and decreasing the environmental impact of concrete. Mass concrete is rich in cementitious materials which results in high temperature within the concrete, hence several hazards such as cracking or temperature differences between the interior and the surface of concrete could be prevented. An experimental study evaluated on several one cubic meter sized concrete elements in which during the primary phase of hydration, the temperature variation is recorded in several location offsets with respect to time. Thermal variations results are analyzed in accordance with the cement type, CO2 emission production of cement, compressive strength, water tightness, drying shrinkage and rapid chloride migration coefficient. The results indicate that slag cement CEM III/B 32.5, that incorporates highest amount of slag, ensured improved mechanical, thermal and durability properties in comparison with ordinary Portland cement CEM I 32.5.

  18. Effect of a package of health and nutrition services on sustained recovery in children after moderate acute malnutrition and factors related to sustaining recovery: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobaugh, Heather C; Bollinger, Lucy B; Adams, Sara E; Crocker, Audrey H; Grise, Jennifer B; Kennedy, Julie A; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Maleta, Kenneth M; Dietzen, Dennis J; Manary, Mark J; Trehan, Indi

    2017-08-01

    Background: Children who recover from moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) have high rates of relapse in the year after nutritional recovery. Interventions to decrease these adverse outcomes are needed to maximize the overall effectiveness of supplemental feeding programs (SFPs). Objective: We evaluated the effectiveness of a package of health and nutrition interventions on improving the proportion of children who sustained recovery for 1 y after MAM treatment. We further explored factors related to sustained recovery. Design: We conducted a cluster-randomized clinical effectiveness trial involving rural Malawian children aged 6-62 mo who were enrolled on discharge from an SFP for MAM. We enrolled 718 children at 10 control sites and 769 children at 11 intervention sites. In addition to routine health and nutrition counseling, the intervention group received a package of health and nutrition interventions that consisted of a lipid nutrient supplement, deworming medication, zinc supplementation, a bed net, and malaria chemoprophylaxis. A survival analysis was used to determine the effectiveness of the intervention as well as to identify factors associated with sustained recovery. Results: Of 1383 children who returned for the full 12-mo follow-up period, 407 children (56%) and 347 children (53%) sustained recovery in the intervention and control groups, respectively. There was no significant difference in relapse-free survival curves between the treatment and control groups ( P = 0.380; log-rank test). The risk factors for relapse or death after initial recovery were a smaller midupper arm circumference on SFP admission ( P = 0.01) and discharge ( P nutrition services in addition to traditional SFP treatment has no significant effect on improving sustained recovery in children after treatment of MAM. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02351687. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Vietnam war literature: reflections of the sustained tension between politics, history, morality and the effect of war on human nature.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Vietnam War literature is a reflection of a sustained tension between politics and history on the one hand and morality and the effect of the war on human nature on the other hand. Although the authors under discussion urge the reader to forget the political, moral and historical milieu of the Vietnam War, it is impossible to separate the war from those three factors and by extension, the literature that stems from it. I have chosen Philip Caputo’s A Rumor of War (1977) and Robert Mason’s Chi...

  20. Acute Stress Dysregulates the LPP ERP Response to Emotional Pictures and Impairs Sustained Attention: Time-Sensitive Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomari, Rima A; Fernandez, Mercedes; Banks, Jonathan B; Acosta, Juliana; Tartar, Jaime L

    2015-05-20

    Stress can increase emotional vigilance at the cost of a decrease in attention towards non-emotional stimuli. However, the time-dependent effects of acute stress on emotion processing are uncertain. We tested the effects of acute stress on subsequent emotion processing up to 40 min following an acute stressor. Our measure of emotion processing was the late positive potential (LPP) component of the visual event-related potential (ERP), and our measure of non-emotional attention was the sustained attention to response task (SART). We also measured cortisol levels before and after the socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT) induction. We found that the effects of stress on the LPP ERP emotion measure were time sensitive. Specifically, the LPP ERP was only altered in the late time-point (30-40 min post-stress) when cortisol was at its highest level. Here, the LPP no longer discriminated between the emotional and non-emotional picture categories, most likely because neutral pictures were perceived as emotional. Moreover, compared to the non-stress condition, the stress-condition showed impaired performance on the SART. Our results support the idea that a limit in attention resources after an emotional stressor is associated with the brain incorrectly processing non-emotional stimuli as emotional and interferes with sustained attention.

  1. Sustainable Development Plan for Korea through Expansion of Green IT: Policy Issues for the Effective Utilization of Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Baek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The South Korean government is providing full support for green IT as one of the growth engines of Korea. The purpose of this study is to derive policy issues needed for the sustainable development of Korea through utilizing Big Data by applying green IT. The analysis is done using a Delphi technique. Results show that the establishment of computing platforms that can easily share data and generate value is prioritized for the effective use of Big Data from the environment. In addition, the government-led publication of genetic information and electronic medical records for research purposes has been derived as an important policy issue for the use of bio-Big Data. Besides, a guideline concerning the standardization of machine to machine and Internet of Things communication and data security is needed to effectively use Big Data from machines/things. Moreover, a review of legislation related to the utilization of Big Data from digital media has been derived as an important policy issue. The results of this study propose the direction in which the Korean government should move for green growth through effective utilization of Big Data. The results can be also useful resources for establishing relevant policies for various countries that are accelerating sustainable development.

  2. Acute effects of glucose tablets on craving, withdrawal symptoms, and sustained attention in 12-h abstinent tobacco smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakas, P; Foulds, J

    2002-05-01

    Glucose administration may decrease desire to smoke in abstinent smokers. Moreover, glucose administration has been associated with improved performance on measures of attention in healthy humans but evidence remains modest. The present study aimed to determine whether reported craving and nicotine withdrawal symptoms can be relieved, and sustained attention on the Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) task improved, with the administration of 12 g oral glucose in nicotine-deprived smokers. Forty-one smokers, abstinent for 12 h, participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study to examine the effect of glucose on desire to smoke, withdrawal symptoms, and attention. Participants completed the RVIP task once and then rated craving and nicotine withdrawal symptoms before chewing four 3 g glucose tablets (experimental group) or four matched placebo tablets (control group). Following tablet consumption participants rated craving and withdrawal symptoms at 5-min intervals for 20 min. Subsequently a second RVIP task was performed, followed by a final rating of craving and withdrawal symptoms. Any effect of glucose across time was not statistically significant on craving, withdrawal symptoms, or performance on the RVIP task. There were no differences between the groups in measures of 'satisfaction' or 'sickness'. The present study failed to find a significant effect of 12 g oral glucose on tobacco craving, withdrawal symptoms, or sustained attention in relatively young tobacco smokers after 12 h of tobacco abstinence.

  3. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...

  4. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuil...

  5. Sustainability Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability labeling originated from a need to protect the identity of alternative systems of food production and to increase market transparency. From the 1980s onwards sustainability labeling has changed into a policy instrument replacing direct government regulation of the food market, and a

  6. [Effect of long-term application of NPK fertilizer on maize yield and yellow soil nutrients sustainability in Guizhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan Ling; Li, Yu; Zhang, Ya Rong; Huang, Xing Cheng; Zhang, Wen An; Jiang, Tai Ming

    2017-11-01

    A long-term fertilization field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) fertilizer on maize relative yield, yield-increasing effect and the changes of nutrients in yellow soil in Guizhou Province. Five fertilizer combinations were evaluated, including balanced fertilization (NPK) and nutrient deficiency treatments (N, NK, NP, and PK). The maize relative yield, contribution efficiency of N, P, K fertilizer application, sustainability index of soil N, P, K nutrients, and other indicators were measured. The results revealed that the balanced fertilization (NPK) significantly increased maize yield, and the average yield under each treatment ranked as: NPK>NP>NK>PK>CK. The contribution efficiency and agronomic efficiency of N, P, K fertilizer application was N>P>K. The fertilization dependence was ranked as: combined application of N, P and K>N>P>K. But in the lack of P treatment (NK), the maize relative yield significantly decreased at a speed of 1.4% per year, with the contribution efficiency and fertilization dependence of applied P significantly increasing at a speed of 2.3% per year and 1.4% per year, respectively. Over time, the effect of P fertilizer on maize yield gradually became equal to that of N fertilizer. The pH and soil organic matter content were the lowest in the P-lack treatment (NK), while they were higher in the N-lack treatment (PK). The application of chemical P significantly improved the sustainability index of soil P, but the application of chemical N and K did not significantly change the sustainability index of soil N and K nutrients compared to the N- and K-lack treatments, respectively. In summary, the use of balanced fertilizer application is critical for achieving high maize yield in typical yellow soil regions in Guizhou Province. P and N fertilizers are equally important for improving maize yield, and long-term application of unbalanced chemical fertilizer, especially the lack

  7. Formulation and in vivo evaluation of diclofenac sodium sustained release matrix tablet: effect of compression force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ehab Ibrahim; Shazly, Gamal Abdel-Ghany; Harisa, Gamaleldin Ibrahim; Barakat, Nahla Sedik; Al-Enazi, Fouza Kayem; Elbagory, Ibrahim Mostafa

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, Diclofenac Sodium (DS) matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression method under different compression forces (5, 10, 15 and 20 KN), using ethylcellulose as matrix forming material. The produced tablets were characterized on the foundation of satisfactory tablet properties such as hardness, friability, drug content, weight variations and in vitro drug release rate. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction have been used to investigate any incompatibilities of the tablet's ingredients. Additionally, in vivo bioavailability has been investigated on beagle dogs. Data obtained revealed that, upon increasing compression force the in vitro drug release was sustained and the T(max) value was four hours (for formulations compressed at 15 and 20 kN) compared to the conventional voltarine(®) 50 tablets (T(max) value of 2 hours).

  8. Strategies for achieving a sustainable, clean and cost-effective biomass resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, J.

    1993-01-01

    Biomass produced in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner, could realistically be used to supply 50,000 MW (5 Quads) of electric capacity by the year 2010 and probably twice that amount by the year 2030. During the past year, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have each been independently evaluating the potential for biomass to become a major renewable energy resource over the next four decades, able to offset some of the U.S. dependency on imported fossil fuels while also offering important environmental and economic benefits. This paper presents EPRI's conclusions, which are more conservative than those of DOE, and outlines possible strategies by which EPRI can advance acceptance of biomass as a preferred renewable resource

  9. Afterschool Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary D. Joyce

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth participation in quality extended learning opportunities (ELOs results in positive academic, physical, mental health, and social/emotional outcomes. Funding is essential to implementing and sustaining quality ELOs; however multiple funding barriers and challenges exist. Understanding the types of funds available for ELOs and the factors that influence sustainability is critical. Through surveys and telephone interviews of ELO providers, this descriptive study identified and examined ELO funding streams, the ways ELO providers use these funding streams, and the barriers and challenges to sustainability. ELO programs often relied on one major funding stream coupled with nutrition supports as well as in-kind resources. Barriers to sustainability included year-to-year funding, transportation costs, reducing community partnerships, and difficulty in diversifying funds. Recommendations to enhance ELO sustainability are offered, particularly in relation to overcoming the challenges to diversification of funding resources and establishing mutually supportive partnerships and collaboration.

  10. Identifying Effective Policy and Technologic Reforms for Sustainable Groundwater Management in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, K.; Zekri, S.; Karimi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Oman has gone through three decades of efforts aimed at addressing groundwater over-pumping and the consequent seawater intrusion. Example of measures adopted by the government since the 1990's include a vast subsidy program of irrigation modernization, a freeze on drilling new wells, delimitation of several no-drill zones, a crop substitution program, re-use of treated wastewater and construction of recharge dams. With no major success through these measures, the government laid the ground for water quotas by creating a new regulation in 1995. Nevertheless, groundwater quotas have not been enforced to date due to the high implementation and monitoring costs of traditional flow meters. This presentation discusses how sustainable groundwater management can be secured in Oman using a suit of policy and technologic reforms at a reasonable economic, political and practical cost. Data collected from farms with smart meters and low-cost wireless smart irrigation systems have been used to propose sustainable groundwater withdrawal strategies for Oman using a detailed hydro-economic model that couples a MODFLOW-SEAWAT model of the coastal aquifers with a dynamic profit maximization model. The hydro-economic optimization model was flexible to be run both as a social planner model to maximize the social welfare in the region, and as an agent-based model to capture the behavior of farmers interested in maximizing their profits independently. This flexibility helped capturing the trade-off between the optimality of the social planner solution developed at the system's level and its practicality (stability) with respect to the concerns and behaviors of the profit-maximizing farmers. The idetified promising policy and technolgical reforms for Oman include strict enforcement of groundwater quotas, smart metering, changing crop mixes, improving irrigation technologies, and revising geographical distribution of the farming activities. The presentation will discuss how different

  11. Evaluation of some self-sustained capillary effects taking place in slag at the interface during desulphurization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nita, Petre Stelian

    2008-01-01

    In the paper are presented and analyzed some specific problems of instability and of Marangoni convection in desulphurizing slags at 1873.15 K, due to the presence of sulphur, during liquid steel treatments. Starting from the quantity sulphide capacity, a limit of sulphur solubility in a homogeneous liquid slag is established. The thermodynamic effect of sulphur in the slag is evaluated using an enthalpy of interaction of sulphur containing the balance of the partial molar enthalpy of mixing for CaS and CaO. The sulphur effect in slag, on the enhancement of the mass transfer coefficient through the interface is evaluated based on the expression of the concentration coefficient of the surface tension related to the mole fraction, the solutal Marangoni number and of the sulphur mass transfer enhancement parameters. It is concluded that during desulphurization, self-sustained capillary effects are present in slags

  12. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Williams, Joseph; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    , supply chain, customer-related, human capital, financial, marketplace, societal, and environmental performance. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence integrates ethical, efficient and effective (E3) enterprise governance with 3E (equity, ecology, economy) Triple Top Line strategy throughout enterprise...

  13. Effect and sustainability of part-time occlusion therapy for patients with anisometropic amblyopia aged > or =8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, D J; Kim, Y J; Lee, J Y

    2010-09-01

    To study the effect and long-term sustainability of part-time occlusion therapy for anisometropic amblyopia after 8 years of age. A total of 41 anisometropic amblyopes aged > or =8 years were analysed. In six patients, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of amblyopic eye improved more than two lines within 2 weeks of full-time spectacle wear. The remaining patients were assigned to perform part-time patching during out-of-school hours. Long-term results were assessed in patients who were observed over 1 year after the end of the treatment. Among 35 patients, four dropped out, refusing further treatment, and one changed to atropine penalisation. The part-time patching schedule was completed in 30 patients. 90% of patients (27/30) complied well. Mean BCVA in the amblyopic eye improved significantly (ppart-time occlusion treatment in school-aged amblyopes, which had been carried out after school hours, was successful and the effect was sustained in most cases.

  14. The effect of sustained release boli with ammoniumiron(III)-hexacyanoferrate(II) on radiocesium accumulation in sheep grazing contaminated pasture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, H.S.; Hove, K.; Barvik, K.

    1996-01-01

    Sustained release boli with the cesium binder ammoniumiron(III)-hexacyanoferrate(II) (AFCF) were tested under practical conditions for sheep grazing on pastures contaminated with radiocesium ( 134 Cs+ 137 Cs) from the Chernobyl fallout. Two types of AFCF boli were developed: boli without a protective surface coating intended to last 4-8 wk; and boli coated by a wax-mixture with an extended duration of 10-12 wk. From 1989 to 1993 we measured the effect of wax-coated and uncoated boli administered at various times during the grazing season to a total of 3,248 animals. Reductions in radiocesium levels in meat of sheep were measured by in vivo monitoring. Administration of AFCF boli without a wax-coating reduced the mean radiocesium levels in lambs by 42-75% over a 408 wk period, and administration of the wax-coated AFCF boli reduced the mean radiocesium levels by 48-65% over a 9-11 wk period. The coefficients of variation in meat radiocesium levels were similar in treated and control groups at the end of the observation period, showing that the reduction of meat radiocesium values was homogeneous throughout the treated groups. The boli giving sustained release of AFCF is a labor-saving and cost effective counter-measure for sheep grazing radiocesium contaminated pastures. 16 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Sustainable nuclear energy dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afgan Naim H.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development implies the need for the emerging potential energy sources which are not producing adverse effect to the environment. In this respect nuclear energy has gained the complimentary favor to be considered as the potential energy source without degradation of the environment. The sustainability evaluation of the nuclear energy systems has required the special attention to the criteria for the assessment of nuclear energy system before we can make firm justification of the sustainability of nuclear energy systems. In order to demonstrate the sustainability assessment of nuclear energy system this exercise has been devoted to the potential options of nuclear energy development, namely: short term option, medium term option, long term option and classical thermal system option. Criteria with following indicators are introduced in this analysis: nuclear indicator, economic indicator, environment indicator, social indicator... The Sustainability Index is used as the merit for the priority assessment among options under consideration.

  16. Sustainability Marketing Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollin, Karin; Bech Christensen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    sustainability in marketing, processes associated with sustainability marketing commitment, drivers of sustainability marketing at the functional level of marketing, and its organizational context. Using survey data from 269 managers in marketing, covering a broad range of industries in Sweden and Denmark, we...... took a structural modelling approach to examine construct relationships, mediation, and moderation effects. Overall, the findings show that marketing capabilities associated with the innovation of new products, services, and business models constitute a strong driver to leverage sustainability......Corporate sustainability is an important strategy and value orientation for marketing, but scarce research addresses the organizational drivers and barriers to including it in companies’ marketing strategies and processes. The purpose of this study is to determine levels of commitment to corporate...

  17. Differential immediate and sustained memory enhancing effects of alpha7 nicotinic receptor agonists and allosteric modulators in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten S Thomsen

    Full Text Available The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR is a potential target for the treatment of cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia, ADHD and Alzheimer's disease. Here we test the hypothesis that upregulation of α7 nAChR levels underlies the enhanced and sustained procognitive effect of repeated administration of α7 nAChR agonists. We further compare the effect of agonists to that of α7 nAChR positive allosteric modulators (PAMs, which do not induce upregulation of the α7 nAChR. Using the social discrimination test as a measure of short-term memory, we show that the α7 nAChR agonist A-582941 improves short-term memory immediately after repeated (7× daily, but not a single administration. The α7 nAChR PAMs PNU-120596 and AVL-3288 do not affect short-term memory immediately after a single or repeated administration. This demonstrates a fundamental difference in the behavioral effects of agonists and PAMs that may be relevant for clinical development. Importantly, A-582941 and AVL-3288 increase short-term memory 24 hrs after repeated, but not a single, administration, suggesting that repeated administration of both agonists and PAMs may produce sustained effects on cognitive performance. Subsequent [(125I]-bungarotoxin autoradiography revealed no direct correlation between α7 nAChR levels in frontal cortical or hippocampal brain regions and short-term memory with either compound. Additionally, repeated treatment with A-582941 did not affect mRNA expression of RIC-3 or the lynx-like gene products lynx1, lynx2, PSCA, or Ly6H, which are known to affect nAChR function. In conclusion, both α7 nAChR agonists and PAMs exhibit sustained pro-cognitive effects after repeated administration, and altered levels of the α7 nAChR per se, or that of endogenous regulators of nAChR function, are likely not the major cause of this effect.

  18. Economic and Environmental Performance of Fashion Supply Chain: The Joint Effect of Power Structure and Sustainable Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiutian Shi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fashion supply chain members now search for trade-offs between sustainable investment and the related incentives, such as savings on environmental taxes and gains in incremental demands. To evaluate the economic and environmental performance of sustainable investment from a power perspective, we develop an analytical model to study a two-echelon sustainable supply chain consisting of one retailer and one manufacturer with three different power structures. We derive the optimal solutions for various cases associated with different supply chain power structures and sustainable investors. Though it is beneficial for both the manufacturer and retailer to make sustainable investment, they often utilize high power to gain economic benefit with less sustainable investment. Interestingly, the follower with less supply chain power has more incentive to make a sustainable effort to achieve a higher profit. The optimal amount of sustainable investment in the apparel manufacturer investment case is greater than that in the retailer investment case in most scenarios.

  19. Effects of harvest on the sustainability and leaf productivity of populations of two palm species in Maya homegardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ballesté, Andrea; Martorell, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Traditional management practices are usually thought to be sustainable. The Maya manage Sabal (Arecaceae) palms in homegardens, using their leaves for thatching. The sustainability of such production systems depends on the long-term persistence of palm populations, whereas resource availability also depends on the number of leaves on individual palms. We examined how leaf harvest affects Sabal yapa and S. mexicana population growth rates (λ) and leaf production, comparing traditional and alternative harvest regimes in terms of sustainability and productivity. Demographic, harvest and leaf production data were recorded for three years in two homegardens. We used general integral projection models linked to leaf-production models to describe population dynamics and productivity. Harvest had no effect on S. yapa's vital rates or on λ, but it changed the growth rate of individuals of S. mexicana, with a negligible impact on λ. Homegardens affected λ values, reflecting the species' ecological affinities. S. mexicana, introduced from mesic forests, required watering and shade; therefore, its population declined rapidly in the homegarden that lacked both water and shade. The λ of the xerophilic S. yapa was slightly larger without watering than with watering. Palms usually compensated for leaf extraction, causing the number of leaves harvested per individual to increase with harvest intensity. Nevertheless, traditional management is relatively mild, allowing standing leaves to accumulate but reducing the homegarden's yield. Apparently, the Maya do not seek to maximize annual production but to ensure the availability of large numbers of leaves in homegardens. These leaves may then be used when the entire roof of a hut needs to be replaced every few years.

  20. DC-Evoked Modulation of Excitability of Myelinated Nerve Fibers and Their Terminal Branches; Differences in Sustained Effects of DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Dominik; Jankowska, Elzbieta

    2018-03-15

    Direct current (DC) evokes long-lasting changes in neuronal networks both presynaptically and postsynaptically and different mechanisms were proposed to be involved in them. Different mechanisms were also suggested to account for the different dynamics of presynaptic DC actions on myelinated nerve fibers stimulated before they entered the spinal gray matter and on their terminal branches. The aim of the present study was to examine whether these different dynamics might be related to differences in the involvement of K + channels. To this end, we compared effects of the K + channel blocker 4-amino-pyridine (4-AP) on DC-evoked changes in the excitability of afferent fibers stimulated within the dorsal columns (epidurally) and within their projection areas in the dorsal horn and motor nuclei (intraspinally). 4-AP was applied systemically in deeply anesthetized rats. DC-evoked increases in the excitability of epidurally stimulated afferent nerve fibers, and increases in field potentials evoked by these fibers, were not affected by 4-AP. In contrast, sustained decreases rather than increases in the excitability of intraspinally stimulated terminal nerve branches were evoked by local application of DC in conjunction with 4-AP. The study leads to the conclusion that 4-AP-sensitive K + channels contribute to the sustained DC-evoked post-polarization increases in the excitability at the level of terminal branches of nerve fibers but not of the nodes of Ranvier nor within the juxta-paranodal regions where other mechanisms would be involved in inducing the sustained DC-evoked changes. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sustained release of piroxicam from solid lipid nanoparticle as an effective anti-inflammatory therapeutics in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li-Hua; Wei, Wei; Shan, Ying-Hui; Chong, Yee-Song; Yu, Lian; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) as a novel vehicle for the sustained release and transdermal delivery of piroxicam, as well as to determine the anti-inflammation effect of piroxicam-loaded SLN. SLN formulation was optimized and the particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential (ZP), encapsulation efficiency, drug release, and morphological properties were characterized. The transdermal efficiency and mechanism of the piroxicam-loaded SLNs were investigated in vitro. With the inflammation induced edema model in rat, the anti-inflammatory efficiency of piroxicam-enriched SLNs (Pir-SLNs) was evaluated. The SLN formulation was optimized as: lecithin 100 mg, glycerin monostearate 200 mg, and Tween (1%, w/w). The particle size is around 102 ± 5.2 nm with a PDI of 0.262. The ZP is 30.21 ± 2.05 mV. The prepared SLNs showed high entrapment efficiency of 87.5% for piroxicam. There is no interaction between piroxicam and the vehicle components. The presence of polymorphic form of lipid with higher drug content in the optimized Pir-SLNs enables the Pir-SLNs to release the drug with a sustained manner. Pir-SLNs with oleic acid as enhancer can radically diffuse into both the stratum corneum and dermal layer, as well as penetrate through the hair follicles and sebaceous glands with significantly higher density than the other control groups. Pir-SLNs promptly inhibited the inflammation since the 3rd hour after the treatment by decreasing the PGE 2 level. SLN was demonstrated to be a promising carrier for encapsulation and sustained release of piroxicam. Pir-SLN is a novel topical preparation with great potential for anti-inflammation application.

  2. Effect of Alpinia galanga on Mental Alertness and Sustained Attention With or Without Caffeine: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shalini; Mennemeier, Mark; Pimple, Surekha

    2017-01-01

    Although Alpinia galanga has been reported to improve cognitive performance in animals, it has not been thoroughly studied for its potential psychostimulant effect in humans. A randomized, double-dummy, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study was conducted to determine the effect of A galanga on mental alertness and sustained attention in comparison with caffeine and placebo in participants with a habitual caffeine intake. Fifty-nine participants (18-40 years and body mass index of ≥18.5 and caffeine consumption were enrolled. The participants had a Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 score ≤7, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ≤14 and a Jin Fan's Attention Network Test alertness score of 50 ± 20 ms. The interventional product (placebo, A galanga proprietary extract [E-AG-01], caffeine, and a combination of E-AG-01 with caffeine) was administered to the participants, followed by sequential administration of the remaining interventions on the consecutive study visits; the effects on mental alertness, sustained attention, and sleep architecture, along with safety and tolerability, were analyzed by validated methods. In the E-AG-01 group, the alertness score was increased by 11.65 ± 23.94, 12.50 ± 19.73, and 12.62 ± 0.68 ms from baseline at 1, 3 (p = 0.042), and 5 hours, respectively, indicating its efficacy to enhance mental alertness and the increase in alertness score as compared to placebo. In the composite group (E-AG-01 with caffeine), mean response time was significantly reduced, by 15.55 ms (p = 0.026) at 3 hours. A galanga (E-AG-01) induces a beneficial effect in mental alertness and the combination of A galanga with caffeine impedes the caffeine crash and improves sustained attention at 3 hours. Thus, these stimulant effects might yield a new usage for A galanga as a key ingredient in energy drinks or similar products.

  3. Strategic Leadership of Corporate Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Strategic leadership and corporate sustainability have recently come together in conspicuously explicit fashion through the emergence of top management team (TMT) positions with dedicated corporate sustainability responsibilities. These TMT positions, commonly referred to as 'Chief Sustainability......? What effects do corporate sustainability TMT positions have at their organizations? We consider these questions through strategic leadership and neoinstitutional theoretical frameworks. Through the latter, we also engage with Weberian considerations of bureaucracy. We find that the reasons why...

  4. Implementation of Financial Sustainability in Organizations through Valuation of Financial Leverage Effect in Russian Practice of Financial Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmarina, Svetlana I.; Zotova, Anna S.; Smolina, Ekaterina S.

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the need of ensuring the sustainable development of organizations in the unstable external environment; financial sustainability which is understood as the optimal structure of funding sources of a business entity is proved to be the most significant factor of sustainable development. The article proves that the index of…

  5. Who Is Listening? An Examination of Gender Effects and Employment Choice in Sustainability Education in an Undergraduate Business School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaven, Scott; Griffin, Deborah; McPhail, Ruth; Smith, Calvin

    2013-01-01

    Whilst universities acknowledge the importance of sustainability education, numerous problems exist in relation to the nature, delivery and outcomes of sustainability instruction. Many of these problems arise due to a lack of understanding about students' perception towards, and knowledge about business sustainability. This article examines…

  6. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  7. Knowledge transfer in the field of parental mental illness: objectives, effective strategies, indicators of success, and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, Camilla; Reedtz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Mental health problems are often transmitted from one generation to the next. However, transferring knowledge about interventions that reduce intergenerational transmission of disease to the field of parental mental illness has been very difficult. One of the most critical issues in mental health services research is the gap between what is generally known about effective treatment and what is provided to consumers in routine care. In this article we discuss several aspects of knowledge transfer in the field of parental mental illness. Effective strategies and implementation prerequisites are explored, and we also discuss indicators of success and sustainability. Altogether, this article presents a rationale for the importance of preventive strategies for children of mentally ill parents. Furthermore, the discussion shows how complex it is to change clinical practice.

  8. The effects of sustained release metofluthrin on the biting, movement, and mortality of Aedes aegypti in a domestic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapley, Luke P; Russell, Richard C; Montgomery, Brian L; Ritchie, Scott A

    2009-07-01

    The impact of a sustained release metofluthrin emanator and an allethrin-based mosquito coil on biting, movement and mortality of female Aedes aegypti was assessed in an apartment. In the room in which the metofluthrin emanator was activated, mosquito biting counts were reduced to zero. Metofluthrin also had a spillover effect, significantly (P metofluthrin. Indeed, a significantly (P = 0.023) greater proportion of mosquitoes were found in the treated room after exposure to metofluthrin when compared with either the coil or control treatment. Furthermore, in the room treated with metofluthrin the majority of mosquitoes died and a spillover effect into the neighboring room caused greater than one-third mortality of the mosquitoes. Metofluthrin could be used to prevent dengue transmission within a household.

  9. Sustainable medical research by effective and comprehensive medical skills: overcoming the frontiers by predictive, preventive and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Guglielmo M

    2014-01-01

    Clinical research and practice require affordable objectives, sustainable tools, rewarding training strategies and meaningful collaboration. Our unit delivers courses on project design and management promoting ideas, useful skills, teaching and exploring implementation of networks and existing collaborations. We investigated the effectiveness of a sustainable approach of comprehensive diagnosis and care and its usefulness within concrete models of research project teaching methodology. The model of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine (PPPM) of adolescent hypertension, developed since 1976 and still active, was displayed. This is a paradigm of comprehensive PPPM aimed at the management of a recognized, but actually neglected, societal and clinical problem. The second model was addressed to the analysis of performance of an outpatient diagnostic and therapy unit and its relationship with the emergency department. Part of the patients, 4,057 cancer patients presenting at the emergency care, were addressed to the outpatient diagnostic and therapy unit for further assessment, treatment and follow-up. The stay in DH was 6.3 ± 2.1 non-consecutive days, with shortage of costs, vs. in-hospital stays. Research planning courses, based on these models, ensued in an increase of competitive project submission and successful funding. Active promotion of interdisciplinary knowledge and skills is warranted. Misleading messages and information are detrimental not only to healthy and sick people but, equally, to all health professionals: efforts for basing on evidence by research any statement are needed. The actual pre-requisite of personalized medicine is the coherent and articulated promotion of the professional quality of staff. Health professionals should and can be skilled in sustainable non-invasive diagnostic procedures, in non-pharmacological intervention, in translational research (from epidemiology to personalized therapy) and in timely dissemination of

  10. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  11. Agriculture: Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  12. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  13. Sustainable Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Futures is a voluntary program that encourages industry to use predictive models to screen new chemicals early in the development process and offers incentives to companies subject to TSCA section 5.

  14. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  15. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt......, that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  16. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  17. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs......” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resources. While growth has delivered benefits, however, it has done so unequally and unsustainably. This thesis focuses...... on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...

  18. Strengthening the effective implementation of research and development in la union, Philippines: it's relation to sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumlao, F.S.; Baga, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    The study presents a general framework of strengthening the effective implementation of R and D system's integration as a way of supporting food security and sustainable environmental management. The descriptive method was used through the aid of a questionnaire floated to 40 respondents conducting 103 studies from four R and D institutions in La Union, Philippines in 1992-2002. On the status of the 103 R and D studies implemented, the respondents made use of the single and combined technology development process within the R and D continuum, 33% are classified as upstream, 15.54% are midstream and 29.13% are downstream and only 6.79% are utilized and commercialized. The R and D studies were conducted in a piece-meal method and not all the technologies generated were further tested for adoption and verification. This status contributed to a very low adoption rate of research outputs. All the respondents were involved in research for 14 years, 20% in the development activities for 13 years. The lack of involvement of the 80% respondents on development activities signify that research activities were not disseminated to the clientele. This shows the lack of R and D System integration on the link between research and extension. Hence, a multi-sectoral interface between and among research, extension and client system was developed in relation to sustainable development. (author)

  19. Seeking Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L. Spash

    2014-01-01

    What does sustainability research do to help the environment? One might well wonder when observing the annual conference season with various academics and professors in sustainability science, ecological economics or environmental ethics driving to the airport to fly off to international meetings to discuss how bad things are getting, what should been done about it, and how time is running out for action. In fact, singling out a few academic groups is highly unfair because the link between pr...

  20. Soybean (Glycine max L.) N-Turnover Effects on Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    A lysimeter N-experiment was carried out over a period of three years (1986-1988) in Hungary on a slightly calcareous Ramann sandy-loam brown forest soil. In a trial without seed inoculation, the effect of N-fertiliser was studied on yield and N-uptake and the mineral (NO3+ NO2 ) N-content of 0-90 cm soil-layer of soybean. On the given soil with regulated optimal water supply the highest quantity of 200 kg/ha N-dose seemed to give alredy over-fertilization and lowered in its tendency the grain and pod yield. About one third of the dry matter production without roots and foliage at harvest was given by the grain yield, which ranged between 1.8-5.4 t/ha, depending on the treatment applied and on years. The N-content was accumulated chiefly in the grain, its concentration exceeded about 7-10 times the N-content of roots and stalk. The half of the total N-uptake, on an average 102-256 kg/ha, was built in the grain. The highest N-yield = 631 kg/ha was achieved in 1988 by 150 kg/ha N-fertilization per year. In the first years the N-uptake of the plants agreed with the total supply (mineral reserve of soil + given in the form of fertilizer + precipitation N), while in the 3th year a double amount was recorded. The mineral reserve of N in the soil did not decrease at the end of the trial. Presumably, the soil of soybean in monoculture lost gradually its "Rhisobium japonicum sterility", the biological N-fixation increased with the time. In the first years without seed inoculation however, soybean may be in need of N-fertilization. Key Words: soybean, nitrogen, sustainable agriculture Introduction Soya is an important crop and is now grown all over the world (Márton et al. 1998, Márton et al. 1998, Kádár and Márton 1999, Márton and Kádár 1999, Márton and Kádár 1998). This crop originated in the Far East and has been grown in China for more than four thousand years. It has for long been regarded as one of the five sacred grains with rice, wheat, barley and millet

  1. Local Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizosa Umana, Julio

    1998-01-01

    The current polemic about the possibilities of sustainable development has led to a renovated interest for the topic of the sustainability of the communities and the local sustainability. In front of the global sustainability whose conditions have been exposed by systemic ecologists and for macro economists, the sustainability of specific places arises in the planet whose conditions are object of study of the ecology of landscapes, of the ecological economy, of the cultural anthropology, of the environmental sociology and naturally, of the integral environmentalism. In this discussion the Colombian case charges unusual interest to be one of the few countries of Latin America, where a very dense net of municipalities exists, each one with its urban helmet and with a position and some functions defined by the political constitution of the nation. This net of municipalities and of urban helmets it also constitutes net of alternative to the current macro-cephalic situation. As well as Bogota grew, in a hundred years, of less than a hundred thousand inhabitants to six million inhabitants, each one of these municipalities contains a potential of growth that depends on the characteristics of its ecological, social, economic and politic sustainability

  2. Perceptions of community-based field workers on the effect of a longitudinal biomedical research project on their sustainable livelihoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christabelle S. Moyo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers involved in biomedical community-based projects rarely seek the perspectives of community fieldworkers, who are the ‘foot soldiers’ in such projects. Understanding the effect of biomedical research on community-based field workers could identify benefits and shortfalls that may be crucial to the success of community-based studies. The present study explored the perceptions of community-based field workers on the effect of the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development Project" (MAL-ED South Africa on their tangible and intangible capital which together comprise sustainable livelihoods. Methods The study was conducted in Dzimauli community in Limpopo Province of South Africa between January-February 2016. The sustainable livelihoods framework was used to query community-based field workers’ perspectives of both tangible assets such as income and physical assets and intangible assets such as social capital, confidence, and skills. Data were collected through twenty one individual in-depth interviews and one focus group discussion. Data were analysed using the Thematic Content Analysis approach supported by ATLAS.ti, version 7.5.10 software. Results All the field workers indicated that they benefitted from the MAL-ED South Africa project. The benefits included intangible assets such as acquisition of knowledge and skills, stronger social capital and personal development. Additionally, all indicated that MAL-ED South Africa provided them with the tangible assets of increased income and physical assets. Observations obtained from the focus group discussion and the community-based leaders concurred with the findings from the in-depth interviews. Additionally, some field workers expressed the desire for training in public relations, communication, problem solving and confidence building. Conclusions The MAL-ED South Africa

  3. Therapeutic effect of an injectable sustained-release sinomenine hydrochloride and sodium hyaluronate compound in a rabbit model of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Guang; Ling, Pei-Xue; Lin, Xiu-Kun; Chen, Jian-Ying; Wang, Shao-Jin; Li, Peng; Wu, Xiao-Juan; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Liu, Sheng-Hou

    2012-07-01

    While intra-articular injection of sinomenine hydrochloride has a therapeutic effect on osteoarthritis, it has a short half-life, and is thermolabile and photolabile. The aim of this research was to evaluate the sustained-release of sinomenine hydrochloride from an injectable sinomenine hydrochloride and sodium hyaluronate compound (CSSSI) and its therapeutic effect in a rabbit model of osteoarthritis following intra-articular injection. An injectable compound consisting of 1% sodium hyaluronate and 2.5% sinomenine hydrochloride was prepared and kept as the experiment group, and 2.5% sinomenine hydrochloride was prepared and kept as the control group. The cumulative mass release was measured at different time points in each group in vitro. Sixty-five male Zelanian rabbits were randomly divided into five groups: 15 (30 knees) each for the control, sodium hyaluronate, sinomenine hydrochloride, and CSSSI groups respectively, and five (10 knees) for the modeling group. Papain was injected into both knees of each rabbit for model establishment. Subsequently, 0.2 ml of the corresponding drugs was injected into the articular cavities of the remaining experiment groups, while the control group was treated with 0.2 ml normal saline. All groups were treated once a week for 4 weeks. Seven days after the last treatment, knees were anatomized to perform pathological observations and Mankin's evaluation of the synovium. Four groups were compared using the SPSS 13.0 software package. In the in vitro sustained-release experiments, 90% of the drug was released in the experiment group 360 minutes following the injection. Comparison of the Mankin's evaluations of the four groups illustrated statistical discrepancies (P sodium hyaluronate/sinomenine hydrochloride groups, statistical significance was uniformly obtained. Moreover, sodium hyaluronate and sinomenine hydrochloride treatments showed significant improvement over the modeling control (P sodium hyaluronate vs. sinomenine

  4. Limits to sustained energy intake. XV. Effects of wheel running on the energy budget during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Król, Elzbieta; Moille, Sophie; Gamo, Yuko; Speakman, John R

    2013-06-15

    The capacity of animals to dissipate heat may constrain sustained energy intake during lactation. We examined these constraints at peak lactation in MF1 mice that had ad libitum access to food, or that had to run a pre-set target on running wheels to obtain ad libitum access to food. The voluntary distance run decreased sharply during pregnancy and peak lactation. When lactating females were provided with 80% of their estimated food requirements, and had to run pre-set distances of 2, 4 or 6 km before given access to additional ad libitum food, most of them did not complete the running target during late lactation and the mice with the highest targets failed to reach their targets earlier in lactation. There were consequently significant group differences in asymptotic food intake (2 km, 16.97 ± 0.40 g day(-1); 4 km, 14.29 ± 0.72 g day(-1); and 6 km, 12.65 ± 0.45 g day(-1)) and weaned litter masses (2 km, 71.11 ± 2.39 g; 4 km, 54.63 ± 4.28 g and 6 km, 47.18 ± 2.46 g). When the females did run sufficiently to gain ad libitum food access, their intake did not differ between the different distance groups or from controls that were not required to run. Thus, despite being physically capable of running the distances, mice could not exercise sufficiently in lactation to gain regular ad libitum access to food, probably because of the risks of hyperthermia when combining heat production from exercise with thermogenesis from lactation.

  5. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  6. Maternal programming of defensive responses through sustained effects on gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tie-Yuan; Bagot, Rose; Parent, Carine; Nesbitt, Cathy; Bredy, Timothy W; Caldji, Christian; Fish, Eric; Anisman, Hymie; Szyf, Moshe; Meaney, Michael J

    2006-07-01

    There are profound maternal effects on individual differences in defensive responses and reproductive strategies in species ranging literally from plants to insects to birds. Maternal effects commonly reflect the quality of the environment and are most likely mediated by the quality of the maternal provision (egg, propagule, etc.), which in turn determines growth rates and adult phenotype. In this paper we review data from the rat that suggest comparable forms of maternal effects on defensive responses stress, which are mediated by the effects of variations in maternal behavior on gene expression. Under conditions of environmental adversity maternal effects enhance the capacity for defensive responses in the offspring. In mammals, these effects appear to 'program' emotional, cognitive and endocrine systems towards increased sensitivity to adversity. In environments with an increased level of adversity, such effects can be considered adaptive, enhancing the probability of offspring survival to sexual maturity; the cost is that of an increased risk for multiple forms of pathology in later life.

  7. Organizational resilience: Sustained institutional effectiveness among smaller, private, non-profit US higher education institutions experiencing organizational decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Kenneth A

    2016-06-04

    analysis was used to examine the direct and interaction effects between organizational decline, organizational rigidity response, organizational resilience response, and institutional effectiveness, controlling for age of institution and level of endowment. The study validated previous threat-rigidity response findings that organizational decline alone does not adversely impact institutional effectiveness. The direct effect of Goal-Directed Solution Seeking and Role Dependency organizational resilience factors had a positive, significant correlation with the Student Personal Development institutional effectiveness factor. The interactive effect of Goal-Directed Solution Seeking organizational resilience factor during organizational decline had a positive, significant correlation with the Professional Development and Quality of Faculty institutional effectiveness factor. The interactive effect of Avoidance during organizational decline had a positive, significant correlation with the Faculty and Administrator Employment Satisfaction institutional effectiveness factor. The interactive effect of Diminished Innovation, Morale, and Leader Credibility rigidity response factor and Avoidance organizational resilience factor during organizational decline had a positive, significant correlation with the Professional Development and Quality of Faculty institutional effectiveness factor. Lastly, the interactive effect of Increased Scapegoating of Leaders, Interest group Activities, and Conflict rigidity response factor and Avoidance organizational resilience factor during organizational decline had a positive, significant correlation with the Faculty and Administrator Employment Satisfaction institutional effectiveness factor. Factors of organizational resilience were found to have a positive effect among smaller, private non-profit higher educational institutions associated with this study toward sustaining institutional effectiveness during organizational decline. Specifically, the

  8. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE: Sustained Leadership is Critical to Effective Financial and Business Management Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    DOD's pervasive financial and business management problems adversely affect the economy, efficiency, and effectiveness of its operations, and have resulted in a lack of adequate accountability across...

  9. Greenlining. Economic and Environmental Effects of Government Facilitated Lending to Sustainable Economic Activities in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtens, B.

    2001-03-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and environmental impact of a policy instrument that is related to the tax deductibility of interest returns and dividend yields from specified 'green' projects. We investigate this so-called 'Green Project Facility' in the Netherlands during 1995-1999. We analyze the effect on taxes, economic growth, employment, as well as on the emission of a number of gases and on solid waste production. We find that the economic effects in general are positive. However, the environmental effects are quite mixed. It is concluded that the policy instrument could be used much more effective

  10. Valence interacts with the early ERP old/new effect and arousal with the sustained ERP old/new effect for affective pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W; Langeslag, Sandra J E; Strekalova, Nadja J; Gootjes, Liselotte; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2009-01-28

    To examine whether valence and arousal influence recognition memory during early automatic or during more sustained processes, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) of 21 women were recorded while they made old/new judgments in a continuous recognition task with pictures from the International Affective Picture System. The pictures were presented twice and differed in emotional valence and arousal. The P1 peak and four time windows were investigated: 200-300 ms, 300-400 ms, 400-600 ms, and 750-1000 ms after stimulus onset. There was a robust old/new effect starting in the 200-300 ms epoch and lasting all time windows. The valence effect was mainly present in the P1 peak and the 200-400 ms epoch, whereas the arousal effect was found in the 300-1000 ms epoch. Exploratory sLORETA analyses dissociated valence-dependent ventromedial prefrontal activity and arousal-dependent occipital activity in the 350-380 ms time window. Valence interacted with the 200-400 ms old/new effect at central and frontal sites. Arousal interacted with the 750-1000 ms old/new effect at posterior sites. It is concluded that valence influences fast recognition memory, while arousal may influence sustained encoding.

  11. Ionization asymmetry effects on the properties modulation of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge sustained by tailored voltage waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. L.; Nie, Q. Y.; Zhang, X. N.; Wang, Z. B.; Kong, F. R.; Jiang, B. H.; Lim, J. W. M.

    2018-04-01

    The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is a promising technology to generate high density and uniform cold plasmas in atmospheric pressure gases. The effective independent tuning of key plasma parameters is quite important for both application-focused and fundamental studies. In this paper, based on a one-dimensional fluid model with semi-kinetics treatment, numerical studies of ionization asymmetry effects on the properties modulation of atmospheric DBD sustained by tailored voltage waveforms are reported. The driving voltage waveform is characterized by an asymmetric-slope fundamental sinusoidal radio frequency signal superimposing one or more harmonics, and the effects of the number of harmonics, phase shift, as well as the fluctuation of harmonics on the sheath dynamics, impact ionization of electrons and key plasma parameters are investigated. The results have shown that the electron density can exhibit a substantial increase due to the effective electron heating by a spatially asymmetric sheath structure. The strategic modulation of harmonics number and phase shift is capable of raising the electron density significantly (e.g., nearly three times in this case), but without a significant increase in the gas temperature. Moreover, by tailoring the fluctuation of harmonics with a steeper slope, a more profound efficiency in electron impact ionization can be achieved, and thus enhancing the electron density effectively. This method then enables a novel alternative approach to realize the independent control of the key plasma parameters under atmospheric pressure.

  12. The Jurisprudence and Legal Review of the Effect of Promise Fulfillment in Sustainable Development of Islamic Community with Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Hasan Delgoshamehr

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems in different countries including Iran is contracts breach and termination of securities contrary to the ethics. If this process is not resolved via trust and negotiation, two parties refer to legal courts and this increases the legal cases and costly operation, legal procedure, different social problems, property loss that are sold by paltry price in the bids and this is not compensated sometimes. This study evaluates promise fulfillment from jurisprudence and legal aspects and its effect is explained in the sustainable development of Islamic community. Also, promise fulfillment shows high level of human character and ignoring this element leads to loss and this is evaluated with a comparative evaluation in this study.

  13. Dietary sources and their effects on animal production and environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metha Wanapat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Animal agriculture has been an important component in the integrated farming systems in developing countries. It serves in a paramount diversified role in producing animal protein food, draft power, farm manure as well as ensuring social status-quo and enriching livelihood. Ruminants are importantly contributable to the well-being and the livelihood of the global population. Ruminant production systems can vary from subsistence to intensive type of farming depending on locality, resource availability, infrastructure accessibility, food demand and market potentials. The growing demand for sustainable animal production is compelling to researchers exploring the potential approaches to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG emissions from livestock. Global warming has been an issue of concern and importance for all especially those engaged in animal agriculture. Methane (CH4 is one of the major GHG accounted for at least 14% of the total GHG with a global warming potential 25-fold of carbon dioxide and a 12-year atmospheric lifetime. Agricultural sector has a contribution of 50 to 60% methane emission and ruminants are the major source of methane contribution (15 to 33%. Methane emission by enteric fermentation of ruminants represents a loss of energy intake (5 to 15% of total and is produced by methanogens (archae as a result of fermentation end-products. Ruminants׳ digestive fermentation results in fermentation end-products of volatile fatty acids (VFA, microbial protein and methane production in the rumen. Rumen microorganisms including bacteria, protozoa and fungal zoospores are closely associated with the rumen fermentation efficiency. Besides using feed formulation and feeding management, local feed resources have been used as alternative feed additives for manipulation of rumen ecology with promising results for replacement in ruminant feeding. Those potential feed additive practices are as follows: 1 the use of plant extracts or plants containing

  14. Partial resistance to stripe rust and its effect on sustainability of wheat yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, M.; Din, R.U.; Gardazi, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici) poses a serious threat to wheat production in cooler areas of Pakistan. The 70% area of wheat in Pakistan is prone to stripe rust disease. It can cause 10-17% yield losses if susceptible cultivars are planted under favorable conditions. Level of partial plant resistance in bread wheat and its impact on sustainable wheat production was studied at the National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad under natural conditions in the field. Eleven Pakistani commercial wheat cultivars/advance lines including check (Inqalab 91) were assessed for the level of partial resistance against stripe rust using Area Under the Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC), disease severity (DS) and epidemic growth rate in comparison with wheat cultivar, Inqalab 91. During 2007 cropping season, natural epidemic was developed and relative AUDPC was recorded from 0 to 100% whereas the 2008 cropping season was dry and no stripe rust appeared. Two advanced lines (NR 268 and NR 285) showed the infection type (IT) less than 7 (incompatible reaction) to the mixture of prevailing stripe rust inoculums. Very low level of DS and AUDPC were recorded in the remaining cultivars/lines indicating a high level of partial resistance to stripe rust compared to the susceptible check cultivar, Inqalab 91. Among eight cultivars/lines that showed compatible type of reaction (IT greater then equal to 7), one was resistant (relative AUDPC = 20% of Inqalab 91) and six showed very high resistance levels (relative AUDPC greater then equal to 5%). Maximum level of resistance (relative AUDPC = 0.1%) was observed in advanced line, NR 271. The wheat cultivars/lines that showed a slow disease development (low DS and AUDPC), could be considered as -1 partially resistant for stripe rust infection. The yield (2178 kg ha) of susceptible check cultivar Inqalab-91 during 2007 was reduced to 45% as -1 compared to its yield (3945 kg ha) in epidemic free year (2008). Thus the use

  15. Effective grouping for energy and performance: Construction of adaptive, sustainable, and maintainable data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essary, David S.

    The performance gap between processors and storage systems has been increasingly critical over the years. Yet the performance disparity remains, and further, storage energy consumption is rapidly becoming a new critical problem. While smarter caching and predictive techniques do much to alleviate this disparity, the problem persists, and data storage remains a growing contributor to latency and energy consumption. Attempts have been made at data layout maintenance, or intelligent physical placement of data, yet in practice, basic heuristics remain predominant. Problems that early studies sought to solve via layout strategies were proven to be NP-Hard, and data layout maintenance today remains more art than science. With unknown potential and a domain inherently full of uncertainty, layout maintenance persists as an area largely untapped by modern systems. But uncertainty in workloads does not imply randomness; access patterns have exhibited repeatable, stable behavior. Predictive information can be gathered, analyzed, and exploited to improve data layouts. Our goal is a dynamic, robust, sustainable predictive engine, aimed at improving existing layouts by replicating data at the storage device level. We present a comprehensive discussion of the design and construction of such a predictive engine, including workload evaluation, where we present and evaluate classical workloads as well as our own highly detailed traces collected over an extended period. We demonstrate significant gains through an initial static grouping mechanism, and compare against an optimal grouping method of our own construction, and further show significant improvement over competing techniques. We also explore and illustrate the challenges faced when moving from static to dynamic (i.e. online) grouping, and provide motivation and solutions for addressing these challenges. These challenges include metadata storage, appropriate predictive collocation, online performance, and physical placement

  16. Effects of Caffeine on Classroom Behavior, Sustained Attention, and a Memory Task in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Ruth A.

    1987-01-01

    The investigation of the effect of normative amounts of caffeine on the behavior of six normal kindergarten children found that caffeine exerted only small and inconsistent effects on such classroom behaviors as time off-task and gross motor activity. (Author/DB)

  17. Effects of different agricultural management on a stagnic Luvisol in Lower Saxony, Germany - Factors for sustainable soil protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Marco; Brunotte, Joachim; Ortmeier, Berthold

    2017-04-01

    Regarding increasing pressures by global societal and climate change, for example, the assessment of the impact of land use and land management practices on land productivity, land degradation and the related decrease in sustainable food production and the provision of ecosystem services gains increasing interest. Regarding international research on land use and soil threats, main problems in agricultural land use on global scale are erosion by water and wind, soil organic matter loss, salinization, depletion of nutrients, chemical and physical deterioration, including e.g. soil compaction. When coming to soil sciences, basically soil functions are affected negatively by intensive food production and field traffic. Management based negative changes in soil functions and a suboptimal soil structure have multiple negative effects on physical, biological and chemical soil functions, like a poor water balance, air and water permeability, disturbed soil fauna, impeded root penetration etc. and in consequence on the achievable yields. The presentation deals with the multiple effects of different agricultural machinery and technologies and different agricultural soil tillage (e.g. no-till, conservation tillage, ploughing), on various soil properties of a stagnic Luvisol in Lower Saxony, Germany. These are e.g. bulk density, air capacity, saturated water permeability, changes in pore size distribution and water retention curve as well as crop yields. Furthermore results of a long term study of bulk density and total pore size on more then 20 farms in Lower Saxony since the year 1952 will be presented. Finally, key factors and first recommendations for sustainable agricultural soil protection will be derived from the results.

  18. Effects of Shift Work and Sustained Operations: Operator Performance in Remotely Piloted Aircraft (OP-REPAIR)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, William T; Lopez, Nadia; Hickey, Patrick; DaLuz, Christina; Caldwell, J. L; Tvaryanas, Anthony P

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) with "inhuman endurance" has led to operational requirements for extended duty days and varying shift schedules which are likely to reduce operator effectiveness because of fatigue...

  19. Advancing sustainable consumption in the UK and China: the mediating effect of pro-environmental self-identity

    OpenAIRE

    Dermody, Janine; Hanmer-Lloyd, Stuart; Koenig-Lewis, Nicole; Zhao, Anita Lifen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we respond to the call for more holistic and culturally diverse research to advance understanding of (non)sustainable consumption behaviour. Our conceptual model incorporates materialism, environmental concern, social consumption motivation, pro-environmental self-identity and sustainable consumption behaviours. This paper contributes to knowledge by examining the mediating role of pro-environmental self-identity to more fully explain consumers’ (non)sustainable consumption beh...

  20. Roles of Governments in Multi-Actor Sustainable Supply Chain. Governance Systems and the effectiveness of their interventions. An exploratory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeulen, W.; Uitenboogaart, Y.; Pesqueira, L.D.I.; Metselaar, J.; Kok, M.

    2010-11-01

    During the last decade, a growing number of market-based certification systems has been introduced for sustainable products consumed in the Netherlands and the EU but sourced through international supply chains. These systems, which cover agro-food products as well as non-food products, consist of requirements for products from developing countries with regard to environmental and social-ethical issues. These systems aim to improve production processes at the front end of the supply chain. These so called 'sustainable supply chain systems' have been initiated and are managed mainly by the market and civil society, without directly involving the government. This raises questions about the effectiveness, transparency, and legitimacy of such forms of self-regulation and about the most appropriate role for national government in relation to these emerging systems. This exploratory study analyses some of the earliest multi-actor sustainable supply chain governance systems in order to answer the key research questions: Which strategies and instruments do governments - national and supranational - apply in advancing sustainable production and consumption in global supply chains; and What is known about the effectiveness of these strategies and instruments? The study focuses on two supply chains with the longest history of addressing imports from developing countries (tropical timber and coffee). These two supply chains are compared with two supply chains that are gaining increasing attention: cocoa and tea. This study shows that the two most 'mature' global sustainable supply chains are market led in issuing voluntary certification and that buying certified products is starting to become mainstream and increasingly effective. The sustainable supply chains for tea and cacoa are more recent developments but may develop faster because of the lessons learnt in sustainable supply chains developed earlier.

  1. Roles of Governments in Multi-Actor Sustainable Supply Chain. Governance Systems and the effectiveness of their interventions. An exploratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, W.; Uitenboogaart, Y.; Pesqueira, L.D.I.; Metselaar, J. [Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kok, M. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    During the last decade, a growing number of market-based certification systems has been introduced for sustainable products consumed in the Netherlands and the EU but sourced through international supply chains. These systems, which cover agro-food products as well as non-food products, consist of requirements for products from developing countries with regard to environmental and social-ethical issues. These systems aim to improve production processes at the front end of the supply chain. These so called 'sustainable supply chain systems' have been initiated and are managed mainly by the market and civil society, without directly involving the government. This raises questions about the effectiveness, transparency, and legitimacy of such forms of self-regulation and about the most appropriate role for national government in relation to these emerging systems. This exploratory study analyses some of the earliest multi-actor sustainable supply chain governance systems in order to answer the key research questions: Which strategies and instruments do governments - national and supranational - apply in advancing sustainable production and consumption in global supply chains; and What is known about the effectiveness of these strategies and instruments? The study focuses on two supply chains with the longest history of addressing imports from developing countries (tropical timber and coffee). These two supply chains are compared with two supply chains that are gaining increasing attention: cocoa and tea. This study shows that the two most 'mature' global sustainable supply chains are market led in issuing voluntary certification and that buying certified products is starting to become mainstream and increasingly effective. The sustainable supply chains for tea and cacoa are more recent developments but may develop faster because of the lessons learnt in sustainable supply chains developed earlier.

  2. Promoting the Inter- Generational Equity Principle Through Archival ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a pragmatic philosophical paradigm that permitted the use of both qualitative and quantitative research instruments, this study examined the archival reference services at the National Archives of Zimbabwe (NAZ) with the view of assessing how well archivists are meeting the needs of today's researchers without ...

  3. Inter-generational relationships at different ages: An attachment perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.M.; Schuengel, C.; Schulze, H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics of parent-child relationships after childhood from a theoretical attachment perspective. It describes how relationships between adult children and their parents vary by age group of the child on three dimensions that were derived from attachment theory:

  4. Environmentally Sustainable Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Brad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth and sustainable development are important issues for social prosperity. Sustainable development strives for moderate and responsible use within the economic activity of the limited resources of our planet, whereas economic growth does not limit the resource exploitation and energy, being mainly focused on productivity increase. From this perspective, both conceptual and operational contradictions occur between the two pillars of prosperity. This paper looks to these contradictions and proposes some streams of intervention such as economic growth and environmental sustainability to operate in harmony. A structured framework for innovative problem solving is considered in this respect. Results of this research show that it is possible to induce smart measures in the economic system for directing businesses towards new paradigms where economic growth is possible without negative effects on environmental sustainability.

  5. Roundtabling Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity...... and procedures to meet ‘good practice’ in standard setting and management. This is opening space for competing initiatives that are less democratic, quicker, and more aligned with industry interests to establish substantial presence in the market for sustainability certifications. These tend to more easily...

  6. Analysis of vaccination campaign effectiveness and population immunity to support and sustain polio elimination in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upfill-Brown, Alexander M; Voorman, Arend; Chabot-Couture, Guillaume; Shuaib, Faisal; Lyons, Hil M

    2016-03-30

    The world is closer than ever to a polio-free Africa. In this end-stage, it is important to ensure high levels of population immunity to prevent polio outbreaks. Here, we introduce a new method of assessing vaccination campaign effectiveness and estimating immunity at the district-level. We demonstrate how this approach can be used to plan the vaccination campaigns prospectively to better manage population immunity in Northern Nigeria. Using Nigerian acute flaccid paralysis surveillance data from 2004-2014, we developed a Bayesian hierarchical model of campaign effectiveness and compared it to lot-quality assurance sampling data. We then used reconstructed sero-specific population immunity based on campaign history and compared district estimates of immunity to the occurrence of confirmed poliovirus cases. Estimated campaign effectiveness has improved across northern Nigeria since 2004, with Kano state experiencing an increase of 40 % (95 % CI, 26-54 %) in effectiveness from 2013 to 2014. Immunity to type 1 poliovirus has increased steadily. On the other hand, type 2 immunity was low and variable until the recent use of trivalent oral polio vaccine. We find that immunity estimates are related to the occurrence of both wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus cases and that campaign effectiveness correlates with direct measurements using lot-quality assurance sampling. Future campaign schedules highlight the trade-offs involved with using different vaccine types. The model in this study provides a novel method for assessing vaccination campaign performance and epidemiologically-relevant estimates of population immunity. Small-area estimates of campaign effectiveness can then be used to evaluate prospective campaign plans. This modeling approach could be applied to other countries as well as other vaccine preventable diseases.

  7. Temperature effects on seaweed-sustaining top-down control vary with season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Franziska J; Graiff, Angelika; Matthiessen, Birte

    2016-03-01

    Rising seawater temperature and CO2 concentrations (ocean acidification) represent two of the most influential factors impacting marine ecosystems in the face of global climate change. In ecological climate change research, full-factorial experiments performed across seasons in multispecies, cross-trophic-level settings are essential as they permit a more realistic estimation of direct and indirect effects as well as the relative importance of the effects of both major environmental stressors on ecosystems. In benthic mesocosm experiments, we tested the responses of coastal Baltic Sea Fucus vesiculosus communities to elevated seawater temperature and CO2 concentrations across four seasons of one year. While increasing [CO2] levels had only minor effects, warming had strong and persistent effects on grazers, and the resulting effects on the Fucus community were found to be season dependent. In late summer, a temperature-driven collapse of grazers caused a cascading effect from the consumers to the foundation species, resulting in overgrowth of Fucus thalli by epiphytes. In fall/winter (outside the growing season of epiphytes), intensified grazing under warming resulted in a significant reduction in Fucus biomass. Thus, we were able to confirm the prediction that future increases in water temperatures will influence marine food-web processes by altering top-down control, but we were also able to show that specific consequences for food-web structure depend on the season. Since F. vesiculosus is the dominant habitat-forming brown algal system in the Baltic Sea, its potential decline under global warming implies a loss of key functions and services such as provision of nutrient storage, substrate, food, shelter, and nursery grounds for a diverse community of marine invertebrates and fish in Baltic Sea coastal waters.

  8. Assessment of creation prospects of the effective economic stimulation mechanism of ecologically sustainable oil and gas complex development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheveleva Anastasia, V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Negative anthropogenous impact on environment is now felt especially sharply and gains global character that can lead to economic and ecological collapse, eventually. One of the most large-scale subjects of the economic environment doing harm to environment are the enterprises of an oil and gas complex as they in large volumes throw out the polluting substances and in high volumes take natural resources. However the field of activity of such enterprises is priority for national economy, and difficult interchangeability of energy raw material resources demands from the state and the oil and gas enterprises of development within realization of complete branch ecological-economic policy of the economic mechanism of stimulation of ecologically sustainable development of an oil and gas complex. Experience of last years within regulation and stimulation of decrease in pollution shows that the most effective way of achievement of it is implementation of serious capital investments in introduction of the environmentally friendly technologies in production allowing to receive a smaller stream of pollution "at the exit" a production system, and also a recycling of resources that can be provided by introduction in practice of work of the company of the best available technologies. Problems of ecologically sustainable development will also be answered by problems of economy not only in production and power, but also in power - a consumer sector for what it is necessary to provide compliance of the technologies used in extracting and processing the energy sectors, with technologies of economy of energy in a consumer sector. In the paper in this regard much attention is paid to possibility of formation of such economic mechanism via the public-private partnership mechanism that means that ecological-economic strategy of development of the enterprises of an oil and gas complex have to be coordinated with power strategy of development of regions and the

  9. Sustained Effects of Incredible Years as a Preventive Intervention in Preschool Children with Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posthumus, Jocelyne A.; Raaijmakers, Maartje A. J.; Maassen, Gerard H.; van Engeland, Herman; Matthys, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated preventive effects of the Incredible Years program for parents of preschool children who were at risk for a chronic pattern of conduct problems, in the Netherlands. In a matched control design, 72 parents of children with conduct problems received the Incredible Years program. These families (intervention group) were…

  10. Sustained effects of ecstasy on the human brain: a prospective neuroimaging study in novel users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Jager, Gerry; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schilt, Thelma; Lavini, Cristina; Olabarriaga, Sílvia D.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; van den Brink, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested toxic effects of recreational ecstasy use on the serotonin system of the brain. However, it cannot be excluded that observed differences between users and non-users are the cause rather than the consequence of ecstasy use. As part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity

  11. Sustained effects of ecstasy on the human brain : a prospective neuroimaging study in novel users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Jager, Gerry; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schilt, Thelma; Lavini, Cristina; Olabarriaga, Silvia D.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; van den Brink, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested toxic effects of recreational ecstasy use on the serotonin system of the brain. However, it cannot be excluded that observed differences between users and non-users are the cause rather than the consequence of ecstasy use. As part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity

  12. Sustained effects of ecstasy on the human brain : a prospective neuroimaging study in novel users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Jager, Gerry; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schilt, Thelma; Lavini, Cristina; Olabarriaga, Silvia D.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; van den Brink, Wim

    Previous studies have suggested toxic effects of recreational ecstasy use on the serotonin system of the brain. However, it cannot be excluded that observed differences between users and non-users are the cause rather than the consequence of ecstasy use. As part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity

  13. Language of Instruction: Unlocking Effectiveness of Education and Sustainable Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    The choice of the language of instruction in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is a fundamental educational issue with ramifications for educational access and effectiveness and ultimately national development. Indigenous SSA languages have suffered devaluation in colonial and post-colonial SSA education, and this devaluation alienates the majority of SSA…

  14. Differential immediate and sustained memory enhancing effects of alpha7 nicotinic receptor agonists and allosteric modulators in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; El-Sayed, Mona; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2011-01-01

    of repeated administration of α7 nAChR agonists. We further compare the effect of agonists to that of α7 nAChR positive allosteric modulators (PAMs), which do not induce upregulation of the α7 nAChR. Using the social discrimination test as a measure of short-term memory, we show that the α7 nAChR agonist A......-582941 improves short-term memory immediately after repeated (7× daily), but not a single administration. The α7 nAChR PAMs PNU-120596 and AVL-3288 do not affect short-term memory immediately after a single or repeated administration. This demonstrates a fundamental difference in the behavioral effects...... of agonists and PAMs that may be relevant for clinical development. Importantly, A-582941 and AVL-3288 increase short-term memory 24 hrs after repeated, but not a single, administration, suggesting that repeated administration of both agonists and PAMs may produce sustained effects on cognitive performance...

  15. SeaFrame: Sustaining Today’s Fleet Efficiently and Effectively. Volume 5, Issue 1, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Maneuvering 11 Shipboard Launch and Recovery Systems 13 Integrated Logistics System 15 Special Hull Treatment Tile Manufacturing 17 Navy Shipboard Oil ...Developing advanced blade section design technology for propulsors that reduces cavitation damage and required repair cost and time. - Conducting...complex we have ever written.” Ammeen adds that steering and diving algorithms are also very complex, because hydrodynamic effects of a submarine

  16. Combined Heat and Power: Effective Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipley, Anna [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States); Hampson, Anne [ICF, International, Arlington, VA (United States); Hedman, Bruce [ICF, International, Arlington, VA (United States); Garland, Patti [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bautista, Paul [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2008-12-01

    This report describes in detail the four key areas where CHP has proven its effectiveness and holds promise for the future—as an: environmental solution, significantly reducing CO2 emissions through greater energy efficiency; competitive business solution, increasing efficiency, reducing business costs, and creating green-collar jobs; local energy solution, deployable throughout the United States; and infrastructure modernization solution, relieving grid congestion and improving energy security.

  17. Effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on carbohydrate metabolism protein synthesis in the myocardium during sustained hypodynamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    Glycolysis and the intensity of protein synthesis were studied in 140 white male rats in subcellular fractions of the myocardium during 45 day hypodynamia and hyperbaric oxygenation. Hypodynamia increased: (1) the amount of lactic acids; (2) the amount of pyruvic acid; (3) the lactate/pyruvate coefficient; and (4) the activities of aldolase and lactate dehydrogenase. Hyperbaric oxygenation was found to have a favorable metabolic effect on the animals with hypodynamia.

  18. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence

  19. Sustainable Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telles, Pedro; Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    and within it how sustainable requirements have increased the level of compliance required, particularly regulatory compliance. Compliance was already present in previous EU public procurement frameworks, but its extent on Directive 2014/24/EU leads the authors to consider the current legal framework...

  20. Exergy sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

    2006-05-01

    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  1. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  2. Sustainable Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltegger, Stefan; Beckmann, Markus; Hockerts, Kai

    2018-01-01

    . We also explore the transformation path of the case company, which starts with simple use and then moves to the feedback to core business pattern. By drawing on insights from lead user theory in innovation management and sustainable entrepreneurship, we ground the new concept in extant literature...

  3. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  4. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  5. Architecture Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich

    2013-01-01

    Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The

  6. Sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    2004-01-01

    Marcel Boiteux evokes the results of the work on the sustainable development by the Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques. This is a vast political programme with the goal of allowing all humanity to live well in growing unity while protecting the environment and favouring economic growth. (author)

  7. Sustainable Soesterkwartier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahams, H.; Goosen, H.; Jong, de F.; Sickmann, J.; Prins, D.

    2010-01-01

    The municipality of Amersfoort wants to construct an endurable and sustainable eco-town in the Soesterkwartier neighbourhood, by taking future climate change into account. The impact of climate change at the location of the proposed eco-town was studied by a literature review.

  8. Wrong effects of apparent sustainable solutions. The Dutch impact on global biodiversity; Averechtse effecten van schijnbaar duurzame oplossingen. De Nederlandse invloed op de mondiale biodiversiteit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, T.; Alkemade, R. [Milieu- en Natuur Planbureau MNP, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2005-09-01

    What is the value of sustainable development in a specific country if imported products have negative effects in the country from where those products were imported. Apparently sustainable solutions in one's own country might have negative effects somewhere else, sooner or later. A clear picture of the ecological claim of a country is one of the methods to find the right way towards a sustainable future. [Dutch] Wat is een duurzame ontwikkeling van een land waard als de producten die men importeert elders nadelig uitwerken? Schijnbaar duurzame oplossingen in eigen land kunnen elders of later tot het tegendeel leiden. Een helder beeld van de ecologische claim van een land is een van de methoden voor het vinden van de weg naar duurzame ontwikkeling.

  9. Lack of sustainable prevention effect of the "Smoke-Free Class Competition" on German pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Alexander; Mons, Ute; Edler, Lutz; Pötschke-Langer, Martina

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of the school-based campaign "Smoke-Free Class Competition" as a means of preventing young non-smokers from taking up smoking. Based on two measurements of the Heidelberg Children's Panel Study (1998 and 2000), a longitudinal sample of 1704 pupils was examined: 948 in the intervention group and 756 in the control group. In order to evaluate the effects of the intervention, we compared the smoking behavior in the intervention and the control group at two points in time, shortly before, and 18 months after the intervention, on an individual case basis. (1) Stabilization of never-smoking rates: the proportion of pupils remaining a never-smoker at the follow-up is 62.1% in the intervention group and 61.5% in the control group (OR 1.02, 95% CI: 0.83-1.24); (2) Lowering of relapse rates among ex-smokers: the proportion of former smokers who had not started smoking again in the follow-up is 45.1% in the intervention group and 41.4% in the control group (OR 1.07, 95% CI: 0.77-1.49). The "Smoke-Free Class Competition" did not prevent smoking among adolescents and does not appear to be an effective substitute to the complete ban of tobacco advertising, the abolition of vending machines and the creation of smoke-free environments in German schools.

  10. Computerized assessment of sustained attention: interactive effects of task demand, noise, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, J C

    1996-12-01

    In a sample of 163 college undergraduates, the effects of task demand, noise, and anxiety on Continuous Performance Test (CPT) errors were evaluated with multiple regression and multivariate analysis of variance. Results indicated significantly more omission errors on the difficult task. Complex interaction effects of noise and self-reported anxiety yielded more omissions in quiet intermittent white noise, particularly for high-anxious subjects performing the difficult task. Anxiety levels tended to increase from pretest to posttest, particularly for low-anxious subjects in the quiet, difficult-task condition, while a decrease was seen for high-anxious subjects in the loud, easy-task condition. Commission errors were unrelated to any predictor variables, suggesting that "attention" cannot be considered a unitary phenomenon. The variety of direct and interactive effects on vigilance performance underscore the need for clinicians to use a variety of measures to assess attentional skills, to avoid diagnosis of attention deficits on the basis of a single computerized task performance, and to rule out anxiety and other contributors to poor vigilance task performance.

  11. Effects of groundwater pumping on the sustainability of a mountain wetland complex, Yosemite National Park, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Cooper

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Study Region: We analyzed the effects of groundwater pumping on a mountain wetland complex, Yosemite National Park, California, USA. Study Focus: Groundwater pumping from mountain meadows is common in many regions of the world. However, few quantitative analyses exist of the hydrologic or ecological effects of pumping. New Hydrological Insights for the Region: Daily hydraulic head and water table variations at sampling locations within 100 m of the pumping well were strongly correlated with the timing and duration of pumping. The effect of pumping varied by distance from the pumping well, depth of the water table when the pumping started, and that water year's snow water equivalent (SWE. Pumping in years with below average SWE and/or early melting snow pack, resulted in a water table decline to the base of the fen peat body by mid summer. Pumping in years with higher SWE and later melting snowpack, resulted in much less water level drawdown from the same pumping schedule. Predictive modeling scenarios showed that, even in a dry water year like 2004, distinct increases in fen water table elevation can be achieved with reductions in pumping. A high water table during summers following low snowpack water years had a more significant influence on vegetation composition than depth of water table in wet years or peat thickness, highlighting the impact of water level drawdown on vegetation. Keywords: Fen, Groundwater pumping, Modeling, Mountain meadow, Water table, Wetlands

  12. Sustained Partial Sleep Deprivation: Effects on Immune Modulation and Growth Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullington, Janet M.

    1999-01-01

    The vulnerability to medical emergencies is greatest in space where there are real limits to the availability or effectiveness of ground based assistance. Moreover, astronaut safety and health maintenance will be of increasing importance as we venture out into space for extended periods of time. It is therefore critical to understand the mechanisms of the regulatory physiology of homeostatic systems (sleep, circadian, neuroendocrine, fluid and nutritional balance) and the key roles played in adaptation. This synergy project has combined aims of the "Human Performance Factors, Sleep and Chronobiology Team"; the "Immunology, Infection and Hematology Team"; and the "Muscle Alterations and Atrophy Team", to broadly address the effects of long term sleep reduction, as is frequently encountered in space exploration, on neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and circulating growth factors. Astronaut sleep is frequently curtailed to averages of between 4- 6.5 hours per night. There is evidence that this amount of sleep is inadequate for maintaining optimal daytime functioning. However, there is a lack of information concerning the effects of chronic sleep restriction, or reduction, on regulatory physiology in general, and there have been no controlled studies of the cumulative effects of chronic sleep reduction on neuroendocrine and neuroimmune parameters. This synergy project represents a pilot study designed to characterize the effects of chronic partial sleep deprivation (PSD) on neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and growth factors. This project draws its subjects from two (of 18) conditions of the larger NSBRI project, "Countermeasures to Neurobehavioral Deficits from Cumulative Partial Sleep Deprivation During Space Flight", one of the projects on the "Human Performance Factors, Sleep and Chronobiology Team ". For the purposes of this study, to investigate the effects of chronic sleep loss on neuroendocrine and neuroimmune function, we have focused on the two extreme sleep conditions

  13. Knowledge Management in Sustainability Research Projects: Concepts, Effective Models, and Examples in a Multi-Stakeholder Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, David Brian; Köhler, Thomas; Weith, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to sketch a conceptual design for an information and knowledge management system in sustainability research projects. The suitable frameworks to implement knowledge transfer models constitute social communities, because the mutual exchange and learning processes among all stakeholders promote key sustainable developments through…

  14. How can plant genetic engineering contribute to cost-effective fish vaccine development for promoting sustainable aquaculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jihong Liu; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Lössl, Andreas G; Martinussen, Inger; Daniell, Henry

    2013-09-01

    Aquaculture, the fastest growing food-producing sector, now accounts for nearly 50 % of the world's food fish (FAO in The state of world fisheries and aquaculture. FAO, Rome, 2010). The global aquaculture production of food fish reached 62.7 million tonnes in 2011 and is continuously increasing with an estimated production of food fish of 66.5 million tonnes in 2012 (a 9.4 % increase in 1 year, FAO, www.fao.org/fishery/topic/16140 ). Aquaculture is not only important for sustainable protein-based food fish production but also for the aquaculture industry and economy worldwide. Disease prevention is the key issue to maintain a sustainable development of aquaculture. Widespread use of antibiotics in aquaculture has led to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the accumulation of antibiotics in the environment, resulting in water and soil pollution. Thus, vaccination is the most effective and environmentally-friendly approach to combat diseases in aquaculture to manage fish health. Furthermore, when compared to >760 vaccines against human diseases, there are only about 30 fish vaccines commercially available, suggesting the urgent need for development and cost-effective production of fish vaccines for managing fish health, especially in the fast growing fish farming in Asia where profit is minimal and therefore given high priority. Plant genetic engineering has made significant contributions to production of biotech crops for food, feed, valuable recombinant proteins etc. in the past three decades. The use of plants for vaccine production offers several advantages such as low cost, safety and easy scaling up. To date a large number of plant-derived vaccines, antibodies and therapeutic proteins have been produced for human health, of which a few have been made commercially available. However, the development of animal vaccines in plants, especially fish vaccines by genetic engineering, has not yet been addressed. Therefore, there is a need to exploit

  15. Tumor treatment by sustained intratumoral release of cisplatin: effects of drug alone and combined with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yapp, Donald T.T.; Lloyd, David K.; Zhu, Julian; Lehnert, Shirley M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The effect of intratumoral delivery of cisplatin to a mouse tumor model (RIF-1) by means of a biodegradable polymer implant with and without radiation was studied. Methods and Materials: The polymer bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)propane-sebacic acid (CPP:SA; 80:20) and its degradation products have been characterized. Polymer rods (8 x 0.5 mm) containing 17% cisplatin by weight were prepared by extrusion, and the in vitro degradation rate measured. The implants were placed into mouse tumors and their effect (with and without radiation) on tumor growth delay studied. The levels of Pt in the mouse kidney, tumor, and blood plasma at selected intervals after implant were also determined. These results were compared with those obtained when cisplatin was delivered systematically. Results: When cisplatin was delivered by the polymer implants, higher levels were present in the tumor for longer time periods (cf. systemic delivery of the drug). For both nonirradiated and irradiated tumors, those treated with the polymer implants had significantly longer tumor growth delays compared to nonimplanted controls and to systematically treated tumors. Conclusions: The results show that intratumoral delivery of cisplatin is more efficient than systemic delivery. Using the biodegradable polymer implant, higher doses of cisplatin can be tolerated by the animal as the drug is localized within the tumor, and the high levels of the drug in the tumor can be maintained for an extended period of time. When radiation is given in conjunction with cisplatin, the tumor response is supraadditive for all modes of cisplatin administration but is potentiated to a greater extent when cisplatin is delivered through the polymer implant. The greatest effect is seen for treatment with cisplatin delivered by polymer implant combined with fractionated radiation

  16. Building a sustainable future - The effects of CSR-finance on national oil companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Vishal

    2010-09-15

    Since the release of Goldman Sach's 'Path to 2050' report, arguing the combined economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China, would ellipse the economies of the current richest countries by 2050, the BRIC countries have garnered global attention. As demand for oil in these nations increases, NOCs within the BRIC have gone beyond national borders for exploration and financing - giving rise to concerns over emerging policies, objectives and priorities. The purpose of this paper is to examine NOCs of the BRIC and their compliance with international standards of corporate social responsibility and their effects through international capital markets.

  17. Using Ecotech Architecture as an Effective Tool for Sustainability in Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Mozhdegani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecotech architecture can be used as an effective strategy to minimize energy consumption and enhance the satisfaction of construction industry beneficiaries in the Middle East. The use of ecotech principles has been employed in different parts of the world. However, following a universal approach is not possible as local conditions are always to be considered Applications and examples of ecotech architecture are investigated in this paper. A proposed building design for the Cheetgar region in Tehran is also briefly demonstrated. A further insight on Masdar city in Abhu Dabi is provided. An overall discussion is made and key conclusions are drawn.

  18. Building a sustainable future - The effects of CSR-finance on national oil companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Vishal

    2010-09-15

    Since the release of Goldman Sach's 'Path to 2050' report, arguing the combined economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China, would ellipse the economies of the current richest countries by 2050, the BRIC countries have garnered global attention. As demand for oil in these nations increases, NOCs within the BRIC have gone beyond national borders for exploration and financing - giving rise to concerns over emerging policies, objectives and priorities. The purpose of this paper is to examine NOCs of the BRIC and their compliance with international standards of corporate social responsibility and their effects through international capital markets.

  19. Modular Laboratories—Cost-Effective and Sustainable Infrastructure for Resource-Limited Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Daniel J.; Colborn, James; Chan, Adeline S. T.; Winters, Anna M.; Dengala, Dereje; Fornadel, Christen M.; Kosloff, Barry

    2014-01-01

    High-quality laboratory space to support basic science, clinical research projects, or health services is often severely lacking in the developing world. Moreover, the construction of suitable facilities using traditional methods is time-consuming, expensive, and challenging to implement. Three real world examples showing how shipping containers can be converted into modern laboratories are highlighted. These include use as an insectary, a molecular laboratory, and a BSL-3 containment laboratory. These modular conversions have a number of advantages over brick and mortar construction and provide a cost-effective and timely solution to offer high-quality, user-friendly laboratory space applicable within the developing world. PMID:25223943

  20. Effects of stocking density and sustained aerobic exercise on growth, energetics and welfare of rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, David J.; Höglund, Erik; Dupont-Prinet, A.

    2012-01-01

    relationship between the quantity of energy dissipated and their SGR. There was no evidence of a neuroendocrine stress response, plasma cortisol was around 1 ng ml−1 in all conditions. An acute crowding stress increased plasma cortisol to above 120 ng ml−1 in all groups, but C groups recovered to control...... than the L groups which, together with their raised metabolic rate, indicated a physiological impairment. Thus, high density reduced SGR by raising energy dissipation, at least partially as a physiological response by the fish, although there was no evidence of an endocrine stress response. The only...... beneficial effect of C was in recovery from acute stress...

  1. Sustainable manufacturing: Effect of material selection and design on the environmental impact in the manufacturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harun, Mohd Hazwan Syafiq; Salaam, Hadi Abdul; Taha, Zahari

    2013-01-01

    The environmental impact of a manufacturing process is also dependent on the selection of the material and design of a product. This is because the manufacturing of a product is directly connected to the amount of carbon emitted in consuming the electrical energy for that manufacturing process. The difference in the general properties of materials such as strength, hardness and impact will have significant effect on the power consumption of the machine used to complete the product. In addition the environmental impact can also be reduced if the proposed designs use less material. In this study, an LCA tool called Eco-It is used. Evaluate the environmental impact caused by manufacturing simple jig. A simple jig with 4 parts was used as a case study. Two experiments were carried out. The first experiment was to study the environmental effects of different material, and the second experiment was to study the environmental impact of different design. The materials used for the jig are Aluminium and mild steel. The results showed a decrease in the rate of carbon emissions by 60% when Aluminium is use instead from mild steel, and a decrease of 26% when the-design is modified

  2. Biofuels and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Barry D

    2010-01-01

    Interest in liquid biofuels production and use has increased worldwide as part of government policies to address the growing scarcity and riskiness of petroleum use, and, at least in theory, to help mitigate adverse global climate change. The existing biofuels markets are dominated by U.S. ethanol production based on cornstarch, Brazilian ethanol production based on sugarcane, and European biodiesel production based on rapeseed oil. Other promising efforts have included programs to shift toward the production and use of biofuels based on residues and waste materials from the agricultural and forestry sectors, and perennial grasses, such as switchgrass and miscanthus--so-called cellulosic ethanol. This article reviews these efforts and the recent literature in the context of ecological economics and sustainability science. Several common dimensions for sustainable biofuels are discussed: scale (resource assessment, land availability, and land use practices); efficiency (economic and energy); equity (geographic distribution of resources and the "food versus fuel" debate); socio-economic issues; and environmental effects and emissions. Recent proposals have been made for the development of sustainable biofuels criteria, culminating in standards released in Sweden in 2008 and a draft report from the international Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels. These criteria hold promise for accelerating a shift away from unsustainable biofuels based on grain, such as corn, and toward possible sustainable feedstock and production practices that may be able to meet a variety of social, economic, and environmental sustainability criteria.

  3. Lives saved from malaria prevention in Africa--evidence to sustain cost-effective gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korenromp Eline L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lives saved have become a standard metric to express health benefits across interventions and diseases. Recent estimates of malaria-attributable under-five deaths prevented using the Lives Saved tool (LiST, extrapolating effectiveness estimates from community-randomized trials of scale-up of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs in the 1990s, confirm the substantial impact and good cost-effectiveness that ITNs have achieved in high-endemic sub-Saharan Africa. An even higher cost-effectiveness would likely have been found if the modelling had included the additional indirect mortality impact of ITNs on preventing deaths from other common child illnesses, to which malaria contributes as a risk factor. As conventional ITNs are being replaced by long-lasting insecticidal nets and scale-up is expanded to target universal coverage for full, all-age populations at risk, enhanced transmission reduction may--above certain thresholds--enhance the mortality impact beyond that observed in the trials of the 1990s. On the other hand, lives saved by ITNs might fall if improved malaria case management with artemisinin-based combination therapy averts the deaths that ITNs would otherwise prevent. Validation and updating of LiST's simple assumption of a universal, fixed coverage-to-mortality-reduction ratio will require enhanced national programme and impact monitoring and evaluation. Key indicators for time trend analysis include malaria-related mortality from population-based surveys and vital registration, vector control and treatment coverage from surveys, and parasitologically-confirmed malaria cases and deaths recorded in health facilities. Indispensable is triangulation with dynamic transmission models, fitted to long-term trend data on vector, parasite and human populations over successive phases of malaria control and elimination. Sound, locally optimized budget allocation including on monitoring and evaluation priorities will benefit much if policy

  4. Effects of low-dose IV ketamine on peripheral and central pain from major limb injuries sustained in combat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polomano, Rosemary C; Buckenmaier, Chester C; Kwon, Kyung H; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Rupprecht, Christine; Goldberg, Cynthia; Gallagher, Rollin M

    2013-07-01

    Examine response patterns to low-dose intravenous (IV) ketamine continuous infusions on multiple pain outcomes, and demonstrate effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of ketamine administration on general wards. Retrospective case series of consecutive patients given low-dose IV ketamine continuous infusions. Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC. Nineteen eligible inpatients with neuropathic pain from major limb injuries sustained in combat with inadequate pain control from multimodal analgesia. A 3-day IV infusion of ketamine at doses ≤ 120 μg/kg/h. Daily present (PPI), average (API), and worst (WPI) pain intensity (0-10), global pain relief (GPR) (1 "no relief" to 5 "complete relief"), daily assessments of adverse events, and daily opioid requirements measured during therapy. A significant reduction in PPI (P pain (PLP) (N = 10; P = 0.0436) were observed. Mean percent increase in overall GPR was better for those reporting GPR scores ≤ 3 (N = 13) in the first 24 hours of therapy (P = 0.0153). While not significant, mean opioid requirement (IV morphine equivalents) decreased from 129.9 mgs ± 137.3 on day 1 to 112.14 ± 86.3 24 hours after therapy. Low-dose ketamine infusions for complex combat injury pain were safe and effective, and demonstrated response patterns over time and by baseline pain score stratification and presence or absence of PLP. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of sustainable measures for water protection; Kosten-Wirksamkeitsanalyse von nachhaltigen Massnahmen im Gewaesserschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, E.; Hillenbrand, T.; Liebert, J.; Schleich, J.; Walz, R.

    2001-08-01

    The study continues the project 'Environmental Action Plan for Sustainable Water Resources Management' (UBA-Texte 25/99). The methodological basis in high-priority fields of water protection is improved and the available knowledge with regard to costs and effectiveness of the measures is evaluated systematically. Especially for the fields urban waste water, agriculture and morphological water structures the cost-effectiveness of different measures could be assessed. The results may be an important item for priority setting among different measures on a national basis. On the other hand these methods and data may be helpful for action plans in river basin management as well. (orig.) [German] Das Vorhaben hatte zum Ziel, anknuepfend an das Projekt 'Massnahmenplan Nachhaltige Wasserwirtschaft' (UBA-Texte 25/99), fuer besonders wichtige Zielbereiche des Gewaesserschutzes die methodische Basis fuer die Abschaetzung kurz- bis mittelfristiger Wirkungen zu verbessern und fuer diese Bereiche die aktuellen Kenntnisse zu den Kosten und Wirkungen systematisch auszuwerten. Insbesondere fuer die Schwerpunkte Siedlungsentwaesserung, Landwirtschaft und Verbesserung der Gewaesserstruktur konnten damit Aussagen zur Kosten-Wirksamkeit unterschiedlicher Massnahmen zum Gewaesserschutz getroffen werden, die ein wesentliches Element der Priorisierung denkbarer Massnahmen sein koennen. Gegenstand der Untersuchung waren Massnahmen auf nationaler Ebene, jedoch koennen die erarbeiteten Methoden und Daten auch als Orientierung fuer das Erstellen von Massnahmenplaenen fuer einzelne Flusseinzugsgebiete dienen. (orig.)

  6. Sustaining Biodiversity in the Oregon Coast Range: Potential effects of Forest Policies in a Multi-ownership Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda C. McComb

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand the potential effects of forest policies on sustaining biological diversity at broad scales, we used spatial simulation models to evaluate current and potential future habitat availability over 100 yr for three focal species: Pacific Fisher (Martes pennanti, Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus, and Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus. The habitats of these species represent a broad range of spatial scales and forest types. Area of habitat for fishers and Pileated Woodpeckers is predicted to increase over time under current forest land management policies. Habitat for Warbling Vireos is predicted to decline. These patterns are consistent with past analyses that predicted declines in diverse early successional forests and hardwood forests and increases in late-successional forests under current and two alternative policies. Land ownership influenced the spatial arrangement of habitat for all three focal species. Public lands subsidized habitat for wide-ranging species on adjacent private lands. A land use policy that required greater green tree retention on private lands seemed to result in modest increases in habitat quality over 100 yr for Pileated Woodpeckers. Thinning of plantations on federal lands had little effect on these focal species. Policy analyses such as these highlight incongruities between historic habitat patterns and contemporary spatial and temporal scales of habitat in managed landscapes. This information can be used to assess risks and inform the policy debates surrounding biodiversity conservation.

  7. Effect of cutting parameters on sustainable machining performance of coated carbide tool in dry turning process of stainless steel 316

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaber, Salem A.; Yusoff, Ahmed Razlan

    2017-04-01

    The manufacturing industry aims to produce many products of high quality with relatively less cost and time. Different cutting parameters affect the machining performance of surface roughness, cutting force, and material removal rate. Nevertheless, a few studies reported on the effects of sustainable factors such as power consumed, cycle time during machining, and tool life on the dry turning of AISI 316. The present study aims to evaluate the machining performance of coated carbide in the machining of hard steel AISI 316 under the dry turning process. The influence of cutting parameters of cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut with their five (5) levels is established by a central composite design. Highly significant parameters were determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the main effects of power consumed and time during machining, surface roughness, and tool wear were observed. Results showed that the cutting speed was proportional to power consumption and tool wear. Meanwhile, insignificant to surface roughness, feed rate most significantly affected surface roughness and power consumption followed by depth of cut.

  8. Effects of changes in stock productivity and mixing on sustainable fishing and economic viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Eero, Margit

    2017-01-01

    Within the new FMSY European paradigm, this paper shows how a combination of changes in fish stock mixing, non-stationarity in productivity, and constraints on unit stock concepts undermine the effective management of fisheries, especially when management reference points are not adjusted...... accordingly. Recent changes in stock structures, conditions and stock mixing between eastern and western Baltic cod can jeopardize the reliability of stock assessments and of the fishery economy. We modelled how different management, individual vessel decision-making, and stock growth and mixing scenarios...... have induced alternative individual vessel spatial effort allocation and economic performance by affecting fishing costs and by changing the relative stock abundance and size distribution. Stock mixing heavily influences profit and stock abundance for stocks that have experienced increased fishing...

  9. Modular laboratories--cost-effective and sustainable infrastructure for resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Daniel J; Colborn, James; Chan, Adeline S T; Winters, Anna M; Dengala, Dereje; Fornadel, Christen M; Kosloff, Barry

    2014-12-01

    High-quality laboratory space to support basic science, clinical research projects, or health services is often severely lacking in the developing world. Moreover, the construction of suitable facilities using traditional methods is time-consuming, expensive, and challenging to implement. Three real world examples showing how shipping containers can be converted into modern laboratories are highlighted. These include use as an insectary, a molecular laboratory, and a BSL-3 containment laboratory. These modular conversions have a number of advantages over brick and mortar construction and provide a cost-effective and timely solution to offer high-quality, user-friendly laboratory space applicable within the developing world. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. Assessment of the effectiveness of sustained release Bupropion and intensive physician advice in smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Pranav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use is the cause of immense burden on our nation in terms of mortality and morbidity, being the single leading cause of preventable illnesses and death. Smoking cessation interventions in our country will be the most cost effective of all interventions considering that the cost incurred on the three main tobacco related illnesses (COPD, CAD, and Cancer being around Rs 27,761 crore in the year 1999. Materials and Methods: A double blind placebo controlled trial was conducted to see the efficacy of Bupropion in smoking cessation. Smokers with current depression were excluded. The subjects (n = 30 were randomly assigned to receive Bupropion SR 300 mg/day or placebo for seven weeks. Target quit date was preferentially 8 th day of starting the treatment. Intensive counseling was provided by the physician at the baseline and brief counseling at every visit weekly during the treatment phase and at weeks 12 and 16. Self reported abstinence was confirmed by a carbon monoxide concentration in expired air of less than 10 ppm. Results: The seven-day point prevalence abstinence rate at the end of week 2 and week 16 in the drug group was 46.67% and 53.33 % respectively and in the placebo group was 13.33% and 20% respectively with the ′P" value of 0.04 and 0.05 respectively. Rates of continuous abstinence at weeks 4, 7 and 16 were 46.67%, 40% and 33.33% in the drug group and 13.33%, 13.33% and 13.33% in the placebo group respectively. The rates were significantly higher in the drug group till week 4 starting from week 2 of the treatment phase. The mean weight gain in drug group was found to be significant less as compared to the placebo at week 16 (P = 0.025 The mean change of depression scores from the baseline was not significantly different between the two groups at any point of time. The withdrawal symptom score increase from the baseline was not significantly higher at any point of time in the drug group but in the placebo group the

  11. Fractal based complexity measure and variation in force during sustained isometric muscle contraction: effect of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K; Bastos, Teodiano

    2012-01-01

    This study has investigated the effect of age on the fractal based complexity measure of muscle activity and variance in the force of isometric muscle contraction. Surface electromyogram (sEMG) and force of muscle contraction were recorded from 40 healthy subjects categorized into: Group 1: Young - age range 20-30; 10 Males and 10 Females, Group 2: Old - age range 55-70; 10 Males and 10 Females during isometric exercise at Maximum Voluntary contraction (MVC). The results show that there is a reduction in the complexity of surface electromyogram (sEMG) associated with aging. The results demonstrate that there is an increase in the coefficient of variance (CoV) of the force of muscle contraction and a decrease in complexity of sEMG for the Old age group when compared with the Young age group.

  12. Effect of carbohydrate ingestion on brain exchange of amino acids during sustained exercise in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomstrand, Eva; Møller, Kirsten; Secher, Niels Henry

    2005-01-01

    occasions; either supplemented with a 6% carbohydrate solution or with flavoured water (placebo). Catheters were inserted into the right internal jugular vein and the radial artery of the non-dominant arm. The brain exchange of amino acids during exercise was calculated from the arterial-jugular venous......AIM: This study investigated the effect of prolonged exercise with and without carbohydrate intake on the brain exchange of amino acids, especially focussing on tryptophan and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). METHODS: Five male subjects exercised for 3 h on a cycle ergometer at 200 +/- 7 W on two...... concentration difference multiplied by plasma flow. RESULTS: About 106 micromol (22 mg) of tryptophan was taken up by the brain during exercise in the placebo trial, whereas no significant uptake was observed in the carbohydrate trial. In accordance, the arterial concentration of free tryptophan increased from...

  13. The effects of tDCS upon sustained visual attention are dependent on cognitive load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, James M; Nesheim, Mathias; Mathiesen, Nina C; Moberget, Torgeir; Alnæs, Dag; Sneve, Markus H

    2016-01-08

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) modulates the excitability of neuronal responses and consequently can affect performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. However, the interaction between cognitive load and the effects of tDCS is currently not well-understood. We recorded the performance accuracy of participants on a bilateral multiple object tracking task while undergoing bilateral stimulation assumed to enhance (anodal) and decrease (cathodal) neuronal excitability. Stimulation was applied to the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), a region inferred to be at the centre of an attentional tracking network that shows load-dependent activation. 34 participants underwent three separate stimulation conditions across three days. Each subject received (1) left cathodal / right anodal PPC tDCS, (2) left anodal / right cathodal PPC tDCS, and (3) sham tDCS. The number of targets-to-be-tracked was also manipulated, giving a low (one target per visual field), medium (two targets per visual field) or high (three targets per visual field) tracking load condition. It was found that tracking performance at high attentional loads was significantly reduced in both stimulation conditions relative to sham, and this was apparent in both visual fields, regardless of the direction of polarity upon the brain's hemispheres. We interpret this as an interaction between cognitive load and tDCS, and suggest that tDCS may degrade attentional performance when cognitive networks become overtaxed and unable to compensate as a result. Systematically varying cognitive load may therefore be a fruitful direction to elucidate the effects of tDCS upon cognitive functions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Polyurethane acrylates as effective substrates for sustained in vitro culture of human myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Yosephine; Chua, Jason Min-Wen; Chua, Benjamin Yan-Jiang; Phang, In Yee; Shyh-Chang, Ng; Tan, Wui Siew

    2017-07-15

    Muscular disease has debilitating effects with severe damage leading to death. Our knowledge of muscle biology, disease and treatment is largely derived from non-human cell models, even though non-human cells are known to differ from human cells in their biochemical responses. Attempts to develop highly sought after in vitro human cell models have been plagued by early cell delamination and difficulties in achieving human myotube culture in vitro. In this work, we developed polyurethane acrylate (PUA) materials to support long-term in vitro culture of human skeletal muscle tissue. Using a constant base with modulated crosslink density we were able to vary the material modulus while keeping surface chemistry and roughness constant. While previous studies have focused on materials that mimic soft muscle tissue with stiffness ca. 12kPa, we investigated materials with tendon-like surface moduli in the higher 150MPa to 2.4GPa range, which has remained unexplored. We found that PUA of an optimal modulus within this range can support human myoblast proliferation, terminal differentiation and sustenance beyond 35days, without use of any extracellular protein coating. Results show that PUA materials can serve as effective substrates for successful development of human skeletal muscle cell models and are suitable for long-term in vitro studies. We developed polyurethane acrylates (PUA) to modulate the human skeletal muscle cell growth and maturation in vitro by controlling surface chemistry, morphology and tuning material's stiffness. PUA was able to maintain muscle cell viability for over a month without any detectable signs of material degradation. The best performing PUA prevented premature cell detachment from the substrate which often hampered long-term muscle cell studies. It also supported muscle cell maturation up to the late stages of differentiation. The significance of these findings lies in the possibility to advance studies on muscle cell biology, disease and

  15. Protective effect of SP600125 against liver cell injury in rats under repeated and sustained high +Gz exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-bing LI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of JNK inhibitor SP600125 on expression of JNK/c-jun in liver cells of rats under repeated and sustained high +Gz exposure and its mechanism of the effect. Methods Eighteen inbred adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, +10Gz group and SP600125 group (n=6. The rats in +10Gz group and SP600125 group were fixed to the rotating arm of a centrifuge with head towards the axis. The increase rate of acceleration was 1G/s with a peak-time of 3 minutes, and the +Gz exposure was repeated 5 times with an interval of 30 minutes. SP600125 was given to rats of SP600125 group 30 minutes before the first centrifugation by intraperitoneal injection. All of the animals were sacrificed 30 minutes after centrifugation. Blood samples were collected from inferior vena cava to determine the plasma level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT. The expression of c-jun mRNA was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRTPCR. The expressions of p-JNK, JNK, p-c-jun and c-jun protein were determined by Western blotting. The morphological change in the liver tissue was observed after HE staining. Results The plasma level of ALT and AST, expression level of c-jun mRNA and p-JNK, p-c-jun, c-jun protein in the liver tissue of SP600125 group were significantly higher than those of control group (P0.05. HE staining revealed disorganized hepatic cords, irregular liver cells, vacuolar changes, and marked edema of hepatocytes, and collapsed hepatic sinusoids in +10Gz group, but these changes were alleviated obviously in SP600125 group. Conclusion SP600125 could alleviate the liver cell injury in rats under repeated and sustained high +Gz exposure. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.2577-7402.2014.11.02

  16. Subsidy modes, waste cooking oil and biofuel: Policy effectiveness and sustainable supply chains in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huiming; Li, Lianshui; Zhou, Peng; Hou, Jianmin; Qiu, Yueming

    2014-01-01

    Many countries are concerned with the waste-to-energy for economic development and societal welfare. This paper constructs a dynamic game model that, for the first time compares the incentive effects of four common subsidy modes on waste cooking oil supply for biofuel refining and sales of waste cooking oil refined products. The model considers the impact of preferential tax treatment, a raw material subsidy, a sales subsidy and an investment subsidy on the profits of biofuel enterprises and waste cooking oil recyclers. Results indicate that common approaches adopted in developed economies such as raw material price subsidies and finished products sales subsidies increase the profits of both biofuel enterprises and recyclers. On the contrary, investment subsidies, which are relatively common in some regions of China, increase the profits of recyclers, while reducing revenues achieved by biofuel enterprises. To promote the supply chain, policy should give priority to raw material price subsidies and finished products sales subsidies, and for investment subsidies, however, the government should be cautious

  17. [Simvastatin therapy and effect on hiperlipidemia and vascular status in nephrotic children with sustained dyslipidemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiazek, Joanna; Niemirska, Anna; Lipka, Maria; Wierzbicka, Aldona; Syczewska, Małgorzata; Grenda, Ryszard

    2009-03-01

    Dyslipidemia is common in nephrotic children and persistent lipid abnormalities are risk factor of late vascular complications. The aim of the study was evaluation of efficacy and safety of 12-months simvastatin therapy in nephrotic children with lipid profile abnormalities present despite clinical remission lasting for at least 8 weeks, including ultrasonographic assessment of carotid and femoral arteries. Overall 52 children (40 steroid-dependent and 12 steroid-resistant) were initially introduced to the study and 29 of them were treated with simvastatin. Normalisation of lipid profile was achieved in 19/29 (65.5%) and improvement in 9/29 (31%). Significant reduction in total cholesterol (p 2.0) was small. Increased cIMT was seen at baseline in 4 patients and in 5 after simvastatin treatment, however average and Z-score values in children under simvastatin treatment have decreased. Increased fIMT values were seen at baseline in 2 and in one case after simvastatin treatment. Tolerance of simvastation was very good in all cases but one. Simvastatin therapy was effective and safe in nephrotic non-proteinuric children with abnormal lipid profile. Fair estimation of impact of the 12-months simvastatin therapy on vascular status was not available due to limited number of children with significantly increased IMT at baseline.

  18. Measuring the Socioeconomic and Environmental Effects of Energy Efficiency Investments for a More Sustainable Spanish Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Medina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present here an application of a multisector economic model to simulate the impact of investing in energy-efficiency-related sectors. Given the value chain of energy production shows several aspects to be improved, this paper intends to identify the economic sectors where investment should be allocated in order to reach the targeted energy efficiency levels in the overall economic system. We expect that an improvement in energy efficiency will bring a fall in electricity demand. Simulating these impacts will enable an assessment of the macroeconomic effects of such demand-side changes in Spain. For simulation purposes, we will use input–output methodology, based on data from a Spanish input–output table from the year 2012 that we have constructed. The scenario used for modeling has been obtained from the objectives proposed by the European Union for 2030, specifically the one promoting an increase to at least a 27% increase in energy efficiency compared with the business-as-usual scenario. This demand-side model enables us to measure the potential sector-by-sector growth of the Spanish economy and to calculate households’ expected savings in energy bills due to the implementation of energy efficiency measures. The impacts of employment and CO2 emissions are also quantified as a result of the investments aimed at improving energy efficiency.

  19. Cropping systems sustainability: Inoculation and fertilisation effect on sulla performances in a new cultivation area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Sulas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the feasibility of the sulla [Sulla coronaria (L. Medik] forage legume in a new agroecosystem, its host-specific symbiotic interaction needs to be taken into account. This study aimed to investigate the effects of inoculation and nitrogen (N fertiliser on productive performances and N-fixation ability of sulla established in a new habitat within a Mediterranean agropastoral area. Sulla plants, previously inoculated (with peat-based, liquid inoculants, and using soil from an existing sulla field and unfertilised or N fertilised were evaluated in Sardinia (Italy. During 2013-2014, sulla plants were sampled at four growing stages, from vegetative stage to seed set, and shoot length, shoot dry matter (DM yield and N content were monitored. Moreover, atom% 15N isotopic excess, proportion of N derived from the atmosphere and fixed N of sulla shoots were quantified. Inoculation and N fertilisation both affected growth, DM and N yields, and N-fixation of sulla. Compared to the best inoculated treatment, the DM yield and fixed N of the control only represented 10 to 22% and 2 to 11%, respectively. Nitrogen fertilisation caused temporary decreases in the N fixing ability of sulla. Results pointed out that rhizobial inoculation is essential for the exploitation of sulla outside its traditional cropping area.

  20. Effect of Powdered Activated Carbon to Reduce Fouling in Membrane Bioreactors: A Sustainable Solution. Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mancini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Membrane Bio Reactors (MBRs are mainly used for industrial wastewaters applications where their costs can be more easily afforded. High costs are basically due to energy consumption and membrane cleaning or replacement. Membrane fouling is responsible for reducing treated water production and increasing maintenance as well as operation costs. According to previous researches, the addition of Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC in high dosages could reduce membrane fouling; but such concentrations are economically unsustainable for operative conditions. A MBR pilot plant, fed by mixed liquor of a full-scale activated sludge process from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, was operated dosing low PAC concentrations (0, 2, 5, 10 and 20 mg·L−1, respectively. Experiments were also carried out at two different temperatures corresponding to summer and winter conditions. Results indicated that PAC addition was effective at the low dosages (2 and 5 mg·L−1 by reducing the permeate flux loss (from 16 up to 27%, respectively while higher PAC concentrations turns out in a useless cost increase.

  1. Using the Delphi Technique to Identify Key Elements for Effective and Sustainable Visitor Use Planning Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica P. Fefer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas around the world receive nearly 800 billion visits/year, with international tourism continuing to increase. While protected areas provide necessary benefits to communities and visitors, the increased visitation may negatively impact the resource and the recreational experience, hence the need to manage visitor use in protected areas around the world. This research focused on obtaining information from experts to document their experiences utilizing one visitor use planning framework: Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP. Using the Delphi Technique, 31 experts from seven regions around the world were asked to identify elements necessary for effective visitor management, as well as elements that facilitated or limited success when using VERP. Elements were categorized and rated in terms of importance. Scoring of the final categories was analyzed using Wilcoxon and Median non-parametric statistical tests. Results suggest that planning challenges stem from limitations in organizational capacity to support a long-term, adaptive management process, inferring that VERP may be sufficiently developed, but implementation capacity may not. The results can be used to refine existing frameworks, and to aid in the development of new recreation frameworks.

  2. Three-dimensional Printed Scaffolds with Gelatin and Platelets Enhance In vitro Preosteoblast Growth Behavior and the Sustained-release Effect of Growth Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our experiments confirmed that the 3D printed scaffolds we had designed could provide a sustained-release effect for growth factors and improve the proliferation of preosteoblasts with little cytotoxicity in vitro. They may hold promise as bone graft substitute materials in the future.

  3. Survey on Impact of Public push on Sustainability marketing mix and Sustainability marketing mix on Sustainability marketing success

    OpenAIRE

    iman mousavian; bahram kheiry; vahidreza mirabi

    2014-01-01

    Partaking the movement in reaching a more sustainable planet, organizations should reconsider their marketing strategies according to the social and environmental impacts. Even though, attaining sustainability would become a serious challenge for them, but there exist no other options for the third millennium. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the Impact of public push on the sustainability marketing mix, as well as the effect of sustainability marketing mix on sustainability m...

  4. The effect of temperature and thermal acclimation on the sustainable performance of swimming scup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rome, Lawrence C

    2007-11-29

    There is a significant reduction in overall maximum power output of muscle at low temperatures due to reduced steady-state (i.e. maximum activation) power-generating capabilities of muscle. However, during cyclical locomotion, a further reduction in power is due to the interplay between non-steady-state contractile properties of muscle (i.e. rates of activation and relaxation) and the stimulation and the length-change pattern muscle undergoes in vivo. In particular, even though the relaxation rate of scup red muscle is slowed greatly at cold temperatures (10 degrees C), warm-acclimated scup swim with the same stimulus duty cycles at cold as they do at warm temperature, not affording slow-relaxing muscle any additional time to relax. Hence, at 10 degrees C, red muscle generates extremely low or negative work in most parts of the body, at all but the slowest swimming speeds. Do scup shorten their stimulation duration and increase muscle relaxation rate during cold acclimation? At 10 degrees C, electromyography (EMG) duty cycles were 18% shorter in cold-acclimated scup than in warm-acclimated scup. But contrary to the expectations, the red muscle did not have a faster relaxation rate, rather, cold-acclimated muscle had an approximately 50% faster activation rate. By driving cold- and warm-acclimated muscle through cold- and warm-acclimated conditions, we found a very large increase in red muscle power during swimming at 10 degrees C. As expected, reducing stimulation duration markedly increased power output. However, the increased rate of activation alone produced an even greater effect. Hence, to fully understand thermal acclimation, it is necessary to examine the whole system under realistic physiological conditions.

  5. Effects of Sustained Otolith-Only Stimulation on Post-Rotational Nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Solomon, David

    2017-06-01

    Constant velocity rotations in darkness evoke vestibulo-ocular reflex in form of pre- and post-rotational nystagmus under cerebellar supervision. Reorientation of the head with respect to gravity, stimulating otolith and semicircular canal, during post-rotational phase rapidly suppresses the post-rotational nystagmus. We asked if pure otolith stimulation without semicircular canal signal is sufficient for the suppression of post-rotational nystagmus. The experimental paradigm comprised of on-axis rotations in the horizontal plane when the subject was sitting upright, followed by a novel stimulus that combined off-axis centrifugation in the horizontal plane with amplitude matched, yet out-of-phase, on-axis horizontal rotation-double centrifugation. The resultant effect of double centrifugation was pure otolith stimulation that constantly changed direction, yet completely canceled out angular velocity (no horizontal semicircular canal stimulation). Double centrifugation without pre-existing on-axis rotations evoked mixture of horizontal and vertical eye movements, latter reflected the known uncertainty of the vestibular system to differentiate whether the sensory signal is related to low-frequency translations in horizontal plane or head tilts relative to the gravity. Double centrifugation during post-rotational phase suppressed the peak slow phase eye velocity of the post-rotational nystagmus, hence affecting the vestibular ocular reflex gain (eye velocity/head velocity) matrix. The decay time constant, however, was unchanged. Amount of suppression of the peak slow phase eye velocity of the post-rotational nystagmus during double centrifugation correlated with the peak vertical eye velocity evoked by the pure otolith stimuli in the absence of pre-existing on axis rotations. In post-rotational phase, the pure otolith signal affects vestibular ocular reflex gain matrix but does not affect the time constant.

  6. Sustainable Effectiveness of Applying Trauma Team Activation in Managing Trauma Patients in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthisuthimethawee, Prasit; Molloy, Michael S; Ciottone, Gregory R

    2015-09-01

    To determine long term effectiveness of trauma team activation criteria by measuring emergency department length of stay (EDLOS) and 28-day mortality. A 3-year retrospective cohort study conducted in adult trauma patients who met one of the trauma team activation criteria (shock, penetrating torso injury, post traumatic arrest, respiratory rate of less than 12 or more than 30, and pulse rate of more than 120). Specific demographic data, physiologic parameters, EDLOS, injury severity score (ISS), and 28-day mortality were prospectively recorded into the Trauma Registry database. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors affecting mortality. The Institutional Review Board approval was obtained prior to undertaking the project. Two hundred eighty two patients with a mean age of35.1 years old were eligible. The median ISS was 25 (range, 13-30). The median EDLOS was 85 minutes (range, 50-135) and the 28-day mortality rate was 46.5%. The mean age was 31.7 years in the survival group and 38.7 years in the fatal group (p = 0.001). The median ISS was 17 in the survival group and 26 in the fatal group (p = 0.000) and the median EDLOS was 110 minutes in the survival group and 82 minutes in the fatal group (p = 0.034). When compared to data prior to the TTA application, the median time of EDLOS improvedsustainably from 184 to 85 minutes (p = 0.000) and the mortality rate decreased from 66.7% to 46.5% (p = 0.057). The parameters affecting patient mortality were older age, high ISS, and shorter EDLOS. Trauma team activation criteria significantly improved acute trauma care in the emergency department and decreased mortality.

  7. Mediating effect of sustainable product development on relationship between quality management practices and organizational performance: Empirical study of Malaysian automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohd Akhir; Asaad, Mohd Norhasni; Saad, Rohaizah; Iteng, Rosman; Rahim, Mohd Kamarul Irwan Abdul

    2016-08-01

    Global competition in the automotive industry has encouraged companies to implement quality management practices in all managerial aspects to ensure customer satisfaction in products and reduce costs. Therefore, guaranteeing only product quality is insufficient without considering product sustainability, which involves economic, environment, and social elements. Companies that meet both objectives gain advantages in the modern business environment. This study addresses the issues regarding product quality and sustainability in small and medium-sized enterprises in the Malaysian automotive industry. A research was carried out in 91 SMEs automotive suppliers in throughout Malaysia. The analyzed using SPSS ver.23 has been proposed in correlation study. Specifically, this study investigates the relationship between quality management practices and organizational performance as well as the mediating effect of sustainable product development on this relationship.

  8. Effects of mental health interventions for students in higher education are sustainable over time: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Winzer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and distress are more common in undergraduates compared to age-matched peers. Mental ill health among students is associated with impaired academic achievement, worse occupational preparedness, and lower future occupational performance. Research on mental health promoting and mental ill health preventing interventions has shown promising short-term effects, though the sustainability of intervention benefits deserve closer attention. We aimed to identify, appraise and summarize existing data from randomized control trials (RCTs reporting on whether the effects of mental health promoting and mental ill health preventing interventions were sustained at least three months post-intervention, and to analyze how the effects vary for different outcomes in relation to follow-up length. Further, we aimed to assess whether the effect sustainability varied by intervention type, study-level determinants and of participant characteristics. Material and Methods A systematic search in MEDLINE, PsycInfo, ERIC, and Scopus was performed for RCTs published in 1995–2015 reporting an assessment of mental ill health and positive mental health outcomes for, at least, three months of post-intervention follow-up. Random-effect modeling was utilized for quantitative synthesis of the existing evidence with standardized mean difference (Hedges’ g used to estimate an aggregated effect size. Sustainability of the effects of interventions was analyzed separately for 3–6 months, 7–12 months, and 13–18 months of post-intervention follow-up. Results About 26 studies were eligible after reviewing 6,571 citations. The pooled effects were mainly small, but significant for several categories of outcomes. Thus, for the combined mental ill health outcomes, symptom-reduction sustained up to 7–12 months post-intervention (standardized mean difference (Hedges’ g effect size (ES = −0.28 (95% CI [−0.49, −0.08]. Further

  9. Effect of the size of nanoparticles on their dissolution within metal-glass nanocomposites under sustained irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, T. H. Y., E-mail: thi-hai-yen.vu@polytechnique.edu; Ramjauny, Y.; Rizza, G.; Hayoun, M. [Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2016-01-21

    We investigate the dissolution law of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) under sustained irradiation. The system is composed of isolated spherical gold NPs (4–100 nm) embedded in an amorphous silica host matrix. Samples are irradiated at room temperature in the nuclear stopping power regime with 4 MeV Au ions for fluences up to 8 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −2}. Experimentally, the dependence of the dissolution kinetics on the irradiation fluence is linear for large NPs (45–100 nm) and exponential for small NPs (4–25 nm). A lattice-based kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) code, which includes atomic diffusion and ballistic displacement events, is used to simulate the dynamical competition between irradiation effects and thermal healing. The KMC simulations allow for a qualitative description of the NP dissolution in two main stages, in good agreement with the experiment. Moreover, the perfect correlation obtained between the evolution of the simulated flux of ejected atoms and the dissolution rate in two stages implies that there exists an effect of the size of NPs on their dissolution and a critical size for the transition between the two stages. The Frost-Russell model providing an analytical solution for the dissolution rate, accounts well for the first dissolution stage but fails in reproducing the data for the second stage. An improved model obtained by including a size-dependent recoil generation rate permits fully describing the dissolution for any NP size. This proves, in particular, that the size effect on the generation rate is the principal reason for the existence of two regimes. Finally, our results also demonstrate that it is justified to use a unidirectional approximation to describe the dissolution of the NP under irradiation, because the solute concentration is particularly low in metal-glass nanocomposites.

  10. Statistical Detection of the He ii Transverse Proximity Effect: Evidence for Sustained Quasar Activity for >25 Million Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Tobias M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Worseck, Gabor [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Hennawi, Joseph F. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Crighton, Neil H. M. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Lukić, Zarija [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Oñorbe, Jose, E-mail: tschmidt@mpia.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-10-17

    The reionization of helium at z ~ 3 is the final phase transition of the intergalactic medium and supposed to be driven purely by quasars. The He ii transverse proximity effect—enhanced He ii transmission in a background sightline caused by the ionizing radiation of a foreground quasar—therefore offers a unique opportunity to probe the morphology of He ii reionization and to investigate the emission properties of quasars, e.g., ionizing emissivity, lifetime and beaming geometry. We use the most-recent HST/COS far-UV dataset of 22 He ii absorption spectra and conduct our own dedicated optical spectroscopic survey to find foreground quasars around these He ii sightlines. Based on a set of 66 foreground quasars, we perform the first statistical analysis of the He ii transverse proximity effect. Despite a large object-to-object variance, our stacking analysis reveals an excess in the average He ii transmission near the foreground quasars at 3σ significance. This statistical evidence for the transverse proximity effect is corroborated by a clear dependence of the signal strength on the inferred He ii ionization rate at the background sightline. Our detection places, based on the transverse light crossing time, a geometrical limit on the quasar lifetime of t{sub Q} > 25 Myr. This evidence for sustained activity of luminous quasars is relevant for the morphology of H i and He ii reionization and helps to constrain AGN triggering mechanisms, accretion physics and models of black hole mass assembly. We show how future modeling of the transverse proximity effect can additionally constrain quasar emission geometries and e.g., clarify if the large observed object-to-object variance can be explained by current models of quasar obscuration.

  11. Bypassing the EPR effect with a nanomedicine harboring a sustained-release function allows better tumor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yao An; Shyu, Ing Luen; Lu, Maggie; He, Chun Lin; Hsu, Yen Mei; Liang, Hsiang Fa; Liu, Chih Peng; Liu, Ren Shyan; Shen, Biing Jiun; Wei, Yau Huei; Chuang, Chi Mu

    2015-01-01

    The current enhanced permeability and retention (EPR)-based approved nanomedicines have had little impact in terms of prolongation of overall survival in patients with cancer. For example, the two Phase III trials comparing Doxil(®), the first nanomedicine approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, with free doxorubicin did not find an actual translation of the EPR effect into a statistically significant increase in overall survival but did show less cardiotoxicity. In the current work, we used a two-factor factorial experimental design with intraperitoneal versus intravenous delivery and nanomedicine versus free drug as factors to test our hypothesis that regional (intraperitoneal) delivery of nanomedicine may better increase survival when compared with systemic delivery. In this study, we demonstrate that bypassing, rather than exploiting, the EPR effect via intraperitoneal delivery of nanomedicine harboring a sustained-release function demonstrates dual pharmacokinetic advantages, producing more efficient tumor control and suppressing the expression of stemness markers, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis signals, and multidrug resistance in the tumor microenvironment. Metastases to vital organs (eg, lung, liver, and lymphatic system) are also better controlled by intraperitoneal delivery of nanomedicine than by standard systemic delivery of the corresponding free drug. Moreover, the intraperitoneal delivery of nanomedicine has the potential to replace hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy because it shows equal efficacy and lower toxicity. In terms of efficacy, exploiting the EPR effect may not be the best approach for developing a nanomedicine. Because intraperitoneal chemotherapy is a type of regional chemotherapy, the pharmaceutical industry might consider the regional delivery of nanomedicine as a valid alternative pathway to develop their nanomedicine(s) with the goal of better tumor control in the future.

  12. 1. Dimensions of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repetto, R.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the following topics: the concept of sustainable development; envisioning sustainable development (economic dimensions, human dimensions, environmental dimensions, technological dimensions); policy implications (economic policies, people-oriented policies, environmental policies, creating sustainable systems); and global issues (effect of war on development and the environment and the debt burden). This chapter also introduces the case studies by discussing the levels of economic development and comparing key trends (economic growth, human development, population growth, and energy use)

  13. EFFECTIVENESS OF SELECTION OF WHEAT TO MODERN REQUIREMENTS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE III. ENERGY PRODUCTIVITY OF CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisaveta Vasileva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to conclude on adaptation of modern varieties to the requirements of sustainable agriculture and hence the effectiveness of their methods of selection with respect to these requirements. The comparison between genotypes in two directions - by the selection methods by which they were established and according to the time of their creation. Energy assessment shows that the gross energy yield of grain is higher ( in average 5% over standard for varieties produced by the methods of the Intervarietal hybridization and during the period 1995 to 1999. While absolute maximum values of the energy productivity of grain (at N18 and maximum average total gross energy productivity of crops (4% above standard were detected in genotypes generated by the methods of mutagenesis by irradiation with gamma rays. Absolute maximum value of the energy productivity of crops were reported in cultivar Zdravko (at N18, which was established by the method of plant biotechnology by combining and somaclonal variation.

  14. An Effective Financial Statements Fraud Detection Model for the Sustainable Development of Financial Markets: Evidence from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyan-long Jan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to establish a rigorous and effective model to detect enterprises’ financial statements fraud for the sustainable development of enterprises and financial markets. The research period is 2004–2014 and the sample is companies listed on either the Taiwan Stock Exchange or the Taipei Exchange, with a total of 160 companies (including 40 companies reporting financial statements fraud. This study adopts multiple data mining techniques. In the first stage, an artificial neural network (ANN and a support vector machine (SVM are deployed to screen out important variables. In the second stage, four types of decision trees (classification and regression tree (CART, chi-square automatic interaction detector (CHAID, C5.0, and quick unbiased efficient statistical tree (QUEST are constructed for classification. Both financial and non-financial variables are selected, in order to build a highly accurate model to detect fraudulent financial reporting. The empirical findings show that the variables screened with ANN and processed by CART (the ANN + CART model yields the best classification results, with an accuracy of 90.83% in the detection of financial statements fraud.

  15. Oil Palm Expansion in the Brazilian Amazon (2006-2014): Effects of the 2010 Sustainable Oil Palm Production Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benami, E.; Curran, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Brazil has the world's largest suitable land area for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) establishment, with estimates as high as 238 million ha. To promote oil palm development, Brazil launched the Sustainable Palm Oil Production Program (SPOPP) in 2010 and delineated 30 million ha for its growth that excluded forested areas and indigenous reserves. Here we examine oil palm expansion (2006-2014) as well as the SPOPP's effectiveness in Pará, the major oil palm producing state in Brazil. By combining analyses of satellite imagery, land registration data, and site based interviews, we found that oil palm area expanded 205%. Although >50% of oil palm parcels were located within 0.5 km of intact forests, lands. Direct intact forest conversion pre- and post-SPOPP declined from 4% to <1%; however, <1% of the 30 million ha promoted for oil palm was developed by 2014. To explore the major factors that may have constrained oil palm expansion under the SPOPP, we conducted microeconomic simulations of oil palm production, combined with interviews with actors/individuals from oil palm companies, civil society, researchers at universities and NGOs, and governmental agencies. Brazil's oil palm-deforestation dynamics, policies, and economic conditions will be discussed.

  16. Effective Use and Management of Kunisaki Peninsula Usa GIAHS Long Trail—A Sustainable Tourism Model leading to Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Nomura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing recognition of the importance of maintaining environmental public goods such as rural landscapes and their ecological systems, it remains challenging to implement a management system where the value of maintaining such public goods is reflected by a means of a support payment. We proposed a tourism model for the regional promotion of footpaths as the main axis in the “Agri-culture System” designated as part of the Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS. Applying a Contingent Valuation Method, we asked walkers how much they were willing to contribute to various GIAHS-related activities through volunteering in addition to the participation fee for the walk. We hypothesized that the diverse means and activities to support conservation would contribute to sustainable management of GIAHS. The research findings showed that walkers had options to choose which activity to support. For track maintenance, WTCL in volunteering is 4.23 days a year. In the case of walkers who had no options, their Willingness to Contribute in Labor (WTCL by volunteering is 3.34 days a year. To link the regional resources used for tourism with GIAHS require their effective management and conservation. Thus, it is desirable to formulate a combined approach such as payments by users of the trails and contributions through volunteer activities.

  17. Aggregated effects of combining daily milk consumption and aerobic exercise on short-term memory and sustained attention among female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, In-Tyng; Moghadam, Sedigheh; Hashim, Hairul A

    2015-02-01

    Regular aerobic exercise and milk consumption have been found to have positive effects on certain cognitive functions such as short-term memory and sustained attention. However, aggregated effects of combining these modalities have not been explored. This study examined the combined effects of milk supplementation and aerobic exercise on the short-term memory and sustained attention of female students aged 16 yr. (N = 81). The intervention involved serving of 250 ml of regular milk during school days and/or a 1-hr. aerobic exercise period twice per week for 6 weeks. The Digit Span Test and Digit Vigilance Test were used to measure short-term memory and sustained attention, respectively. The combination group (milk and exercise) and exercise group performed significantly better than did the milk and control groups in terms of short-term memory. No significant interaction or group differences were found for sustained attention. The results suggest benefits of regular exercise for students' short-term memory.

  18. The sustainable development effects of investment by emerging-market multinationals: Shaping beneficial outcomes for home and host country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, G. (Guus)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractEmerging-market multinational enterprises (EMNEs) play an increasingly important role as investors in developing economies. When certain conditions are met, their foreign investment can contribute to host-country progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Moreover,

  19. Facile and sustainable synthesis of shaped iron oxide nanoparticles: effect of iron precursor salts on the shapes of iron oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Farheen N; Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2015-05-05

    A facile and sustainable protocol for synthesis of six different shaped iron oxides is developed. Notably, all the six shapes of iron oxides can be synthesised using exactly same synthetic protocol, by simply changing the precursor iron salts. Several of the synthesised shapes are not reported before. This novel protocol is relatively easy to implement and could contribute to overcome the challenge of obtaining various shaped iron oxides in economical and sustainable manner.

  20. Effectiveness and Cost-benefit Evaluation of a Comprehensive Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Sustainable Employability of Meat Processing Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Holland, Berry J; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R

    2018-03-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive workers' health surveillance (WHS) program on aspects of sustainable employability and cost-benefit. Methods A cluster randomized stepped wedge trial was performed in a Dutch meat processing company from february 2012 until march 2015. In total 305 workers participated in the trial. Outcomes were retrieved during a WHS program, by multiple questionnaires, and from company registries. Primary outcomes were sickness absence, work ability, and productivity. Secondary outcomes were health, vitality, and psychosocial workload. Data were analyzed with linear and logistic multilevel models. Cost-benefit analyses from the employer's perspective were performed as well. Results Primary outcomes sickness absence (OR = 1.40), work ability (B = -0.63) and productivity (OR = 0.71) were better in the control condition. Secondary outcomes did not or minimally differ between conditions. Of the 12 secondary outcomes, the only outcome that scored better in the experimental condition was meaning of work (B = 0.18). Controlling for confounders did not or minimally change the results. However, our stepped wedge design did not enable adjustment for confounding in the last two periods of the trial. The WHS program resulted in higher costs for the employer on the short and middle term. Conclusions Primary outcomes did not improve after program implementation and secondary outcomes remained equal after implementation. The program was not cost-beneficial after 1-3 year follow-up. Main limitation that may have contributed to absence of positive effects may be program failure, because interventions were not deployed as intended.

  1. Effects of Combined Training with Breathing Resistance and Sustained Physical Exertion to Improve Endurance Capacity and Respiratory Muscle Function in Healthy Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kido, Satoshi; Nakajima, Yasuhiro; Miyasaka, Tomoya; Maeda, Yusuke; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Yu, Wenwei; Maruoka, Hiroshi; Takayanagi, Kiyomi

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, combined training with breathing resistance and sustained physical exertion was carried out to evaluate its physiological effects and its effect on improve endurance capacity. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were nine healthy adults (mean age 20.4, SD ? 1.7?years). The combined training group (n = 5) carried out 6 weeks of combined training using a cycle ergometer, with exercise load tests and respiratory function tests performed before and after the training. The...

  2. A Dynamic Model of Sustainment Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Sustainment System Dynamics Model 11 Figure 7: Core Structure of Sustainment Work 12 Figure 8: Bandwagon Effect Loop 13 Figure 9: Limits to Growth Loop 14...Dynamics Model sustainment capacity sustainment performance gap Bandwagon Effect R1 Limits to Growth B1 S Work Smarter B3 Work Bigger B2 desired...which is of concern primarily when using the model as a vehicle for research. Figure 8 depicts a reinforcing loop called the “ Bandwagon Effect

  3. Building sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mass Media

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available particu- lar social environment also being awarded. If a building can be used by the community after hours, it should be awarded extra points.” School sports facilities or meeting halls in corporate buildings, are some example. Multi-purpose use..., architect and senior researcher for the CSIR’s Built Environment Unit, the integra- tion of sustainability in building design cannot begin soon enough before it is too late. He says: “Unfortunately nothing is in place in South Africa. For a start...

  4. Sustainable building; Duurzaam bouwen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, Ch.F. [ed.] [Interfacultair Onderzoek Centrum ' De Ecologische Stad' DIOC, Delft (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    A complete overview is given of starting points and targets for the sustainable construction of buildings. The notion of sustainable indicates the necessity of managing specific flows: materials, energy, water and transport (traffic). Also, the monitoring and calculation of environmental effects must be clarified by the generally accepted method of life cycle analysis. This book is for the larger part the result of research carried out at the Interdepartmental Research Centre 'The Ecological City' at the Delft University of Technology in Delft, Netherlands. refs.

  5. An investigation of effects of modification processes on physical properties and mechanism of drug release for sustaining drug release from modified rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, Vuong Duy; Luu, Thinh Duc; Van Vo, Toi [Pharmaceutical Engineering Laboratory, Biomedical Engineering Department, International University, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Tran, Van-Thanh [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Duan, Wei [School of Medicine, Deakin University, Pigdons Road, Waurn Ponds, Victoria (Australia); Tran, Phuong Ha-Lien, E-mail: phuong.tran1@deakin.edu.au [School of Medicine, Deakin University, Pigdons Road, Waurn Ponds, Victoria (Australia); Tran, Thao Truong-Dinh, E-mail: ttdthao@hcmiu.edu.vn [Pharmaceutical Engineering Laboratory, Biomedical Engineering Department, International University, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of modification processes on physical properties and explain the mechanism of sustained drug release from modified rice (MR). Various types of Vietnamese rice were introduced in the study as the matrices of sustained release dosage form. Rice was thermally modified in water for a determined temperature at different times with a simple process. Then tablets containing MR and isradipine, the model drug, were prepared to investigate the capability of sustained drug release. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine different morphologies between MR formulations. Flow property of MR was analyzed by Hausner ratio and Carr's indices. The dissolution rate and swelling/erosion behaviors of tablets were evaluated at pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 at 37 ± 0.5 °C. The matrix tablet containing MR showed a sustained release as compared to the control. The SEM analyses and swelling/erosion studies indicated that the morphology as well as swelling/erosion rate of MR were modulated by modification time, drying method and incubation. It was found that the modification process was crucial because it could highly affect the granule morphologies and hence, leading to the change of flowability and swelling/erosion capacity for sustained release of drug. - Highlights: • Modification process affected granule morphologies and flowability of modified rice. • Modification process affected swelling/erosion capacity for drug sustained release. • Freeze-drying could decrease the erosion as well as increase the swelling rate.

  6. An investigation of effects of modification processes on physical properties and mechanism of drug release for sustaining drug release from modified rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Vuong Duy; Luu, Thinh Duc; Van Vo, Toi; Tran, Van-Thanh; Duan, Wei; Tran, Phuong Ha-Lien; Tran, Thao Truong-Dinh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of modification processes on physical properties and explain the mechanism of sustained drug release from modified rice (MR). Various types of Vietnamese rice were introduced in the study as the matrices of sustained release dosage form. Rice was thermally modified in water for a determined temperature at different times with a simple process. Then tablets containing MR and isradipine, the model drug, were prepared to investigate the capability of sustained drug release. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine different morphologies between MR formulations. Flow property of MR was analyzed by Hausner ratio and Carr's indices. The dissolution rate and swelling/erosion behaviors of tablets were evaluated at pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 at 37 ± 0.5 °C. The matrix tablet containing MR showed a sustained release as compared to the control. The SEM analyses and swelling/erosion studies indicated that the morphology as well as swelling/erosion rate of MR were modulated by modification time, drying method and incubation. It was found that the modification process was crucial because it could highly affect the granule morphologies and hence, leading to the change of flowability and swelling/erosion capacity for sustained release of drug. - Highlights: • Modification process affected granule morphologies and flowability of modified rice. • Modification process affected swelling/erosion capacity for drug sustained release. • Freeze-drying could decrease the erosion as well as increase the swelling rate.

  7. Sustainable development and energy indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, Jordan

    2002-01-01

    Starting from the basic definition of sustainable development and its four dimensions, the role of indicators for sustainable energy development is analysed. In particular, it is shown that important energy efficiency indicators belong in fact to energy supply efficiency, while the end-use energy efficiency could be more pertinently represented by energy intensity indicators. Furthermore, the negentropic effects of science and technology related sustainable energy scenarios are pointed out. Finally, the sustainable development is related to wisdom, interpreted as a sum of knowledge, morality and timing. (Author)

  8. In the Name of Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise Mubanda

    2017-01-01

    of ethnographic fieldwork with NGOs supporting ‘orphans and vulnerable children’ in Malawi, this article explores the practices, social relations and contradictory effects that the vision of sustainability engenders. The article illustrates how the commitment to sustainability paradoxically produces practices...... that can only be sustained through continuous flows of donor funding. It argues that the persistence of sustainability as an organising principle is connected both to its self-confirming logic and to the ways in which practices of ‘sustainability’ shape the subjectivities of local brokers and come...

  9. Sustainability Reporting in Fishing Industry Management - Regulation versus Voluntarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Wild

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of major corporations and industry organizations now overtly advocate thegeneral concept of corporate social and environmental responsibility, commonly emphasising the‘business case’ for such behaviour on the basis that it is ‘good for business’. Many now report totheir stakeholders on a voluntaristic basis a range of information regarding their impacts on thesocial and physical environment in which they operate.Intrinsic to the business case model is the argument that an optimal balance between the needs ofeconomic growth and the sustainable management of natural resources can best be attainedthrough the conventional mechanisms of corporate governance and voluntary corporate activity,rather than by imposition of governmental regulation. This view implies, however, that wherethe exigencies of environmental sustainability conflict with those of economic imperatives, thelatter must take precedence.A view oppositional to that of the business case instead promotes an intensified interventionistapproach towards natural resource management, advocating increased governmental regulationand control, including the mandating, standardization and independent verification of corporatesustainability reporting. This view gives precedence to public good concepts of natural resourcemanagement, prioritising intra- and inter-generational equity and human rights theories as tonatural resource distribution, and challenges traditional economic approaches to the relationalintersects of business, politics and environment science.This paper considers the relative claims for efficacy in achieving desirable corporateenvironmental behaviours of the business case and voluntary self-regulation model, vis-à-visthose for extended mandatory governmental control, utilizing the exemplar of voluntarysustainability reporting in the New Zealand fishing industry.

  10. Full Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibition Combined with Partial Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibition: Augmented and Sustained Antinociceptive Effects with Reduced Cannabimimetic Side Effects in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudeshna; Kinsey, Steven G; Liu, Qing-Song; Hruba, Lenka; McMahon, Lance R; Grim, Travis W; Merritt, Christina R; Wise, Laura E; Abdullah, Rehab A; Selley, Dana E; Sim-Selley, Laura J; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Lichtman, Aron H

    2015-08-01

    Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary hydrolytic enzymes for the respective endocannabinoids N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), produces antinociception but with minimal cannabimimetic side effects. Although selective inhibitors of either enzyme often show partial efficacy in various nociceptive models, their combined blockade elicits augmented antinociceptive effects, but side effects emerge. Moreover, complete and prolonged MAGL blockade leads to cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptor functional tolerance, which represents another challenge in this potential therapeutic strategy. Therefore, the present study tested whether full FAAH inhibition combined with partial MAGL inhibition would produce sustained antinociceptive effects with minimal cannabimimetic side effects. Accordingly, we tested a high dose of the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 (N-​3-​pyridinyl-​4-​[[3-​[[5-​(trifluoromethyl)-​2-​pyridinyl]oxy]phenyl]methyl]-​1-​piperidinecarboxamide; 10 mg/kg) given in combination with a low dose of the MAGL inhibitor JZL184 [4-nitrophenyl 4-(dibenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate] (4 mg/kg) in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. This combination of inhibitors elicited profound increases in brain AEA levels (>10-fold) but only 2- to 3-fold increases in brain 2-AG levels. This combination produced significantly greater antinociceptive effects than single enzyme inhibition and did not elicit common cannabimimetic effects (e.g., catalepsy, hypomotility, hypothermia, and substitution for Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in the drug-discrimination assay), although these side effects emerged with high-dose JZL184 (i.e., 100 mg/kg). Finally, repeated administration of this combination did not lead to tolerance to its antiallodynic actions in the carrageenan assay or CB1 receptor functional tolerance. Thus, full FAAH inhibition

  11. Mobilizing Sustainable Bioenergy Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Tat; Lattimore, Brenna; Berndes, Göran

    This report summarizes the results of an IEA Bioenergy inter-Task project involving collaborators from Tasks 37 (Energy from Biogas), 38 (Climate Change Effects of Biomass and Bioenergy Systems), 39 (Commercialising Conventional and Advanced Liquid Biofuels from Biomass), 40 (Sustainable Internat......-scale mobilization of major bioenergy resources through five case studies that determine the factors critical to their sustainable mobilization....

  12. Testing the implementation and sustainment facilitation (ISF) strategy as an effective adjunct to the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) strategy: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bryan R; Zehner, Mark; Roosa, Mathew R; Martino, Steve; Gotham, Heather J; Ball, Elizabeth L; Stilen, Patricia; Speck, Kathryn; Vandersloot, Denna; Rieckmann, Traci R; Chaple, Michael; Martin, Erika G; Kaiser, David; Ford, James H

    2017-11-17

    Improving the extent to which evidence-based practices (EBPs)-treatments that have been empirically shown to be efficacious or effective-are integrated within routine practice is a well-documented challenge across numerous areas of health. In 2014, the National Institute on Drug Abuse funded a type 2 effectiveness-implementation hybrid trial titled the substance abuse treatment to HIV Care (SAT2HIV) Project. Aim 1 of the SAT2HIV Project tests the effectiveness of a motivational interviewing-based brief intervention (MIBI) for substance use as an adjunct to usual care within AIDS service organizations (ASOs) as part of its MIBI Experiment. Aim 2 of the SAT2HIV Project tests the effectiveness of implementation and sustainment facilitation (ISF) as an adjunct to the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) model for training staff in motivational interviewing as part of its ISF Experiment. The current paper describes the study protocol for the ISF Experiment. Using a cluster randomized design, case management and leadership staff from 39 ASOs across the United States were randomized to receive either the ATTC strategy (control condition) or the ATTC + ISF strategy (experimental condition). The ATTC strategy is staff-focused and includes 10 discrete strategies (e.g., provide centralized technical assistance, conduct educational meetings, provide ongoing consultation). The ISF strategy is organization-focused and includes seven discrete strategies (e.g., use an implementation advisor, organize implementation team meetings, conduct cyclical small tests of change). Building upon the exploration-preparation-implementation-sustainment (EPIS) framework, the effectiveness of the ISF strategy is examined via three staff-level measures: (1) time-to-proficiency (i.e., preparation phase outcome), (2) implementation effectiveness (i.e., implementation phase outcome), and (3) level of sustainment (i.e., sustainment phase outcome). Although not without limitations, the ISF

  13. Ecosystem approach to fisheries: Exploring environmental and trophic effects on Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY reference point estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive analysis of estimation of fisheries Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY reference points using an ecosystem model built for Mille Lacs Lake, the second largest lake within Minnesota, USA. Data from single-species modelling output, extensive annual sampling for species abundances, annual catch-survey, stomach-content analysis for predatory-prey interactions, and expert opinions were brought together within the framework of an Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE ecosystem model. An increase in the lake water temperature was observed in the last few decades; therefore, we also incorporated a temperature forcing function in the EwE model to capture the influences of changing temperature on the species composition and food web. The EwE model was fitted to abundance and catch time-series for the period 1985 to 2006. Using the ecosystem model, we estimated reference points for most of the fished species in the lake at single-species as well as ecosystem levels with and without considering the influence of temperature change; therefore, our analysis investigated the trophic and temperature effects on the reference points. The paper concludes that reference points such as MSY are not stationary, but change when (1 environmental conditions alter species productivity and (2 fishing on predators alters the compensatory response of their prey. Thus, it is necessary for the management to re-estimate or re-evaluate the reference points when changes in environmental conditions and/or major shifts in species abundance or community structure are observed.

  14. Assessing the effects of caffeine and theanine on the maintenance of vigilance during a sustained attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxe, John J; Morie, Kristen P; Laud, Peter J; Rowson, Matthew J; de Bruin, Eveline A; Kelly, Simon P

    2012-06-01

    Caffeine and L-theanine, both naturally occurring in tea, affect the ability to make rapid phasic deployments of attention to locations in space as reflected in behavioural performance and alpha-band oscillatory brain activity (8-14 Hz). However, surprisingly little is known about how these compounds affect an aspect of attention that has been more popularly associated with tea, namely vigilant attention: the ability to maintain focus on monotonous tasks over protracted time-periods. Twenty-seven participants performed the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) over a two-hour session on each of four days, on which they were administered caffeine (50 mg), theanine (100 mg), the combination, or placebo in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over fashion. Concurrently, we recorded oscillatory brain activity through high-density electroencephalography (EEG). We asked whether either compound alone, or both in combination, would affect performance of the task in terms of reduced error rates over time, and whether changes in alpha-band activity would show a relationship to such changes in performance. When treated with placebo, participants showed a rise in error rates, a pattern that is commonly observed with increasing time-on-task, whereas after caffeine and theanine ingestion, error rates were significantly reduced. The combined treatment did not confer any additional benefits over either compound alone, suggesting that the individual compounds may confer maximal benefits at the dosages employed. Alpha-band oscillatory activity was significantly reduced on ingestion of caffeine, particularly in the first hour. This effect was not changed by addition of theanine in the combined treatment. Theanine alone did not affect alpha-band activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of emotion and physician communication behaviors on surrogates' life-sustaining treatment decisions: a randomized simulation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnato, Amber E; Arnold, Robert M

    2013-07-01

    Surrogate decision makers for critically ill patients experience strong negative emotional states. Emotions influence risk perception, risk preferences, and decision making. We sought to explore the effect of emotional state and physician communication behaviors on surrogates' life-sustaining treatment decisions. 5 × 2 between-subject randomized factorial experiment. Web-based simulated interactive video meeting with an intensivist to discuss code status. Community-based participants 35 and older who self-identified as the surrogate for a parent or spouse recruited from eight U.S. cities through public advertisements. Block random assignment to emotion arousal manipulation and each of the four physician communication behaviors. Surrogate's code status decision (cardiopulmonary resuscitation vs do not resuscitate/allow natural death). Two hundred fifty-six of 373 respondents (69%) logged-in and were randomized: average age was 50; 70% were surrogates for a parent; 63.5% were women; 76% were white, 11% black, and 9% Asian; and 81% were college educated. When asked about code status, 56% chose cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The emotion arousal manipulation increased the score on depression-dejection scale (β = 1.76 [0.58 - 2.94]) but did not influence cardiopulmonary resuscitation choice. Physician attending to emotion and framing the decision as the patient's rather than the surrogate's did not influence cardiopulmonary resuscitation choice. Framing no cardiopulmonary resuscitation as the norm rather than cardiopulmonary resuscitation resulted in fewer surrogates choosing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (48% vs 64%, odds ratio, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.32-0.87]), as did framing the alternative to cardiopulmonary resuscitation as "allow natural death" rather than do not resuscitate (49% vs 61%, odds ratio, 0.58 [95% CI, 0.35-0.96]). Experimentally induced emotional state did not influence code status decisions, although small changes in physician communication behaviors

  16. Interdependences between sustainable development and sustainable economy

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Mioara CÂMPEANU; Carmen Valentina RĂDULESCU

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development and sustainable economy are mostly used concepts. Understanding clearly their meaning allows their use in an appropriate context and, therefore, their boundaries in terms of theoretical and practical approaches on which occasion it can be given their interdependencies. The paper aim is to analyze the interdependences between sustainable development and sustainable economy.

  17. Effects of Zero Tillage (No-Till) Conservation Agriculture on soil physical and biological properties and their contributions to sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, John N.; Rass, Gerard; de Freitas, Pedro L.; Basch, Gottlieb; González Sanchez, Emilio J.; Tabaglio, Vincenzo; Kassan, Amir; Derpsch, Rolf; Friedrich, Theodor; Giupponi, Luca

    2013-04-01

    : Europés ZT/CA area is 1.35 million hectares, while the world area is now some 125 million and growing at a rate of 7 million hectares per year. More scientific measurements of the benefits of this system are required, both to assist adoption and to trigger policy measures. In the EEC, CAP reform (greening) needs to consider making environmental services payments for these social benefits since a reduction in single farm payments is ineluctable and carbon footprint reduction is of the essence, in the face of constantly-rising fuel prices and the need to cut GHG emissions. Therefore, as the principal farm tool which offers an effective and immediate solution towards positive changes in soil quality, productivity and sustainability, ZT/CA adoption needs financial incentives, which have high economic and environmental returns to society.

  18. OPTIMAL CONTROL THEORY FOR SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    With growing world population, diminishing resources, and realization of the harmful effects of various pollutants, research focus in environmental management has shifted towards sustainability. The goal of a sustainable management strategy is to promote the structure and operati...

  19. Effect of sustained-release isosorbide dinitrate on post-prandial gastric emptying and gastroduodenal motility in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Rasmussen, S L; Linnet, J

    2004-01-01

    and gastroduodenal motility after a meal. Eleven healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Each subject ingested 40 mg isosorbide dinitrate orally as a sustained-release formulation or oral placebo, in random order. Gastric emptying and gastroduodenal motility were...... consecutive 15-min periods. A 40 mg single dose of sustained-released isosorbide dinitrate does not seem to alter gastric emptying or gastroduodenal motility after a meal.......Nitric oxide (NO) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter released by non-adrenergic and non-cholinergic neurons that innervate the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract. We examined whether NO, derived from a sustained-release preparation of isosorbide dinitrate, influenced gastric emptying...

  20. The impact of intermittent or sustained carbon dioxide on intermittent hypoxia initiated respiratory plasticity. What is the effect of these combined stimuli on apnea severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateika, Jason H; Panza, Gino; Alex, Raichel; El-Chami, Mohamad

    2017-10-31

    The following review explores the effect that intermittent or sustained hypercapnia coupled to intermittent hypoxia has on respiratory plasticity. The review explores published work which suggests that intermittent hypercapnia leads to long-term depression of respiration when administered in isolation and prevents the initiation of long-term facilitation when administered in combination with intermittent hypoxia. The review also explores the impact that sustained hypercapnia alone and in combination with intermittent hypoxia has on the magnitude of long-term facilitation. After exploring the outcomes linked to intermittent hypoxia/hypercapnia and intermittent hypoxia/sustained hypercapnia the translational relevance of the outcomes as it relates to breathing stability during sleep is addressed. The likelihood that naturally induced cycles of intermittent hypoxia, coupled to oscillations in carbon dioxide that range between hypocapnia and hypercapnia, do not initiate long-term facilitation is addressed. Moreover, the conditions under which intermittent hypoxia/sustained hypercapnia could serve to improve breathing stability and mitigate co-morbidities associated with sleep apnea are considered. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. The Impairing Effect of Mental Fatigue on Visual Sustained Attention under Monotonous Multi-Object Visual Attention Task in Long Durations: An Event-Related Potential Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizheng Guo

    Full Text Available The impairing effects of mental fatigue on visual sustained attention were assessed by event-related potentials (ERPs. Subjects performed a dual visual task, which includes a continuous tracking task (primary task and a random signal detection task (secondary task, for 63 minutes nonstop in order to elicit ERPs. In this period, the data such as subjective levels of mental fatigue, behavioral performance measures, and electroencephalograms were recorded for each subject. Comparing data from the first interval (0-25 min to that of the second, the following phenomena were observed: the subjective fatigue ratings increased with time, which indicates that performing the tasks leads to increase in mental fatigue levels; reaction times prolonged and accuracy rates decreased in the second interval, which indicates that subjects' sustained attention decreased.; In the ERP data, the P3 amplitudes elicited by the random signals decreased, while the P3 latencies increased in the second interval. These results suggest that mental fatigue can modulate the higher-level cognitive processes, in terms of less attentional resources allocated to the random stimuli, which leads to decreased speed in information evaluating and decision making against the stimuli. These findings provide new insights into the question that how mental fatigue affects visual sustained attention and, therefore, can help to design countermeasures to prevent accidents caused by low visual sustained attention.

  2. Exploring the moderating effect of social intelligence on the relationship between entrepreneurial decision-making strategy and SME sustainable performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhd Yusuf Dayang Hasliza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study reveals that causation, rather than effectuation, decision-making strategy is a more significant predictor of sustainable performance of SMEs. However, social intelligence was not found to be a significant moderator of entrepreneurial decision-making-sustainable performance relationship. The study uses data from a survey among 91 technology-based SMEs (TBS in Malaysia and employs structural equation modelling techniques for data analysis. A new instrument to measure all three variables of entrepreneurial decision-making strategy, social intelligence, and venture performance is proposed based on adoption and adaptation of existing validated scales available in literature.

  3. Infliximab Dose Reduction Sustains the Clinical Treatment Effect in Active HLAB27 Positive Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Two-Year Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boel Mörck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rationale of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of infliximab (IFX treatment in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and to determine whether IFX dose reduction and interval extension sustains the treatment effect. Nineteen patients were included and treated with IFX 5 mg/kg every 6 weeks for 56 weeks. All patients concomitantly received MTX with median dose 7.5 mg/weekly. During the second year, the IFX dose was reduced to 3 mg/kg every 8 weeks. Eighteen patients completed the 1-year and 15 patients the 2-year trial. The ≥50% improvement at week 16 from baseline of BASDAI was achieved in 16/19 (84% patients. Significant reductions in BASDAI, BASFI, and BASMI scores, decrease in ESR and CRP, and improvement in SF-36 were observed at weeks 16 and 56. The MRI-defined inflammatory changes in the sacroiliac joints disappeared in 10/15 patients (67% already at 16 weeks. IFX treatment effect was sustained throughout the second year after IFX dose reduction and interval extension. We conclude that IFX treatment is effective in well-established active AS and a dose reduction sustains the treatment effect. These observations are of clinical importance and open the opportunity to reduce the drug costs. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01850121.

  4. Virtual Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.

  5. Sustainability; Sustentabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter analyses the production chain of ethanol, considering the impacts on the quality of the air, water supplies, soil occupation and biodiversity, and the efforts for the soil preservation. It is pointed out the activities of the production cycle and use of bio ethanol due to great uncertainties as far the environmental impacts is concerning and that will deserve more attention in future evaluations. At same time, the chapter highlights another activities where the present acknowledge is sufficient to assure the control and/or prediction of consequences of the desired intervention on the environment media to accommodate the sugar and ethanol production expansion. The consideration is not conservative but to promote the sustainable development.

  6. Sustainability Science Needs Sustainable Data!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    Sustainability science (SS) is an 'emerging field of research dealing with the interactions between natural and social systems, and with how those interactions affect the challenge of sustainability: meeting the needs of present and future generations while substantially reducing poverty and conserving the planet's life support systems' (Kates, 2011; Clark, 2007). Bettencourt & Kaur (2011) identified more than 20,000 scientific papers published on SS topics since the 1980s with more than 35,000 distinct authors. They estimated that the field is currently growing exponentially, with the number of authors doubling approximately every 8 years. These scholars are undoubtedly using and generating a vast quantity and variety of data and information for both SS research and applications. Unfortunately we know little about what data the SS community is actually using, and whether or not the data that SS scholars generate are being preserved for future use. Moreover, since much SS research is conducted by cross-disciplinary, multi-institutional teams, often scattered around the world, there could well be increased risks of data loss, reduced data quality, inadequate documentation, and poor long-term access and usability. Capabilities and processes therefore need to be established today to support continual, reliable, and efficient preservation of and access to SS data in the future, especially so that they can be reused in conjunction with future data and for new studies not conceived in the original data collection activities. Today's long-term data stewardship challenges include establishing sustainable data governance to facilitate continuing management, selecting data to ensure that limited resources are focused on high priority SS data holdings, securing sufficient rights to allow unforeseen uses, and preparing data to enable use by future communities whose specific research and information needs are not yet known. Adopting sustainable models for archival

  7. Testing the implementation and sustainment facilitation (ISF strategy as an effective adjunct to the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC strategy: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Garner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the extent to which evidence-based practices (EBPs—treatments that have been empirically shown to be efficacious or effective—are integrated within routine practice is a well-documented challenge across numerous areas of health. In 2014, the National Institute on Drug Abuse funded a type 2 effectiveness–implementation hybrid trial titled the substance abuse treatment to HIV Care (SAT2HIV Project. Aim 1 of the SAT2HIV Project tests the effectiveness of a motivational interviewing-based brief intervention (MIBI for substance use as an adjunct to usual care within AIDS service organizations (ASOs as part of its MIBI Experiment. Aim 2 of the SAT2HIV Project tests the effectiveness of implementation and sustainment facilitation (ISF as an adjunct to the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC model for training staff in motivational interviewing as part of its ISF Experiment. The current paper describes the study protocol for the ISF Experiment. Methods Using a cluster randomized design, case management and leadership staff from 39 ASOs across the United States were randomized to receive either the ATTC strategy (control condition or the ATTC + ISF strategy (experimental condition. The ATTC strategy is staff-focused and includes 10 discrete strategies (e.g., provide centralized technical assistance, conduct educational meetings, provide ongoing consultation. The ISF strategy is organization-focused and includes seven discrete strategies (e.g., use an implementation advisor, organize implementation team meetings, conduct cyclical small tests of change. Building upon the exploration–preparation–implementation–sustainment (EPIS framework, the effectiveness of the ISF strategy is examined via three staff-level measures: (1 time-to-proficiency (i.e., preparation phase outcome, (2 implementation effectiveness (i.e., implementation phase outcome, and (3 level of sustainment (i.e., sustainment phase outcome

  8. Creating a sustainable and effective mental health workforce for Gippsland, Victoria: solutions and directions for strategic planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Keith P; Maybery, Darryl; Moore, Terry

    2011-01-01

    The Gippsland region of Victoria, in common with other Australian rural and regional areas, is experiencing a shortage of qualified mental health professionals. Attracting mental health professionals to work in such areas is a major concern for service providers, policy-makers and rural/regional communities. Previous studies have focused on identifying factors contributing to the maldistribution of the health workforce, principally medical practitioners. Recent reviews have highlighted the strengths and weaknesses of evidence for the effectiveness of initiatives designed to address workforce shortages in underserved locations. The reported study sought the views of mental health organisation leaders from Gippsland to identify current approaches and potential solutions to the challenges of workforce recruitment, retention and training. A key goal of the study was to inform a strategic regional approach to the development of a more sustainable and effective mental health workforce. Investigators conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 26 administrators, managers and senior clinicians from public and private sector mental health organisations throughout Gippsland. Thematic content analysis of the transcribed interviews identified current approaches and potential solutions to the recruiting, retaining and training problems in the region. The study categorised solutions as focusing on factors external or internal to organisations. Solutions external to organisations included efforts to enhance the pool of available workers, improve intra-sectoral collaboration and cross-sectoral linkages, make funding more flexible, and to institute a contemporary curriculum and take innovative pedagogical approaches to training. Internal solutions included the need for strong leadership and quality organisational culture, flexible and adaptable approaches to meeting individual worker and community needs, promoting the organisation and local area and adopting models of care

  9. Sustainable measures for sewage sludge treatment - evaluating the effects on P reaction in soils and plant P uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenker, Moshe; Einhoren, Hana

    2016-04-01

    Wastewater treatment, whether for water reusing or for releasing into the environment, results in sewage sludge rich in organic matter and nutrients. If free of pathogens and pollutants, this waste material is a widely used as soil amendment and source of valuable nutrients for agronomic use. Nevertheless, its P/N ratio largely exceeds plant P/N demand. Limiting its application rates according to the P demand of crops will largely limit its application rates and its beneficial effect as a soil amendment and as a source for other nutrients. An alternative approach, in which P is stabilized before application, was evaluated in this study. Anaerobically digested fresh sewage sludge (FSS) was stabilized by aluminum sulfate, ferrous sulfate, and calcium oxide (CaO), as well as by composting with shredded woody yard-waste to produce Al-FSS, Fe-FSS, CaO-FSS, and FSS-compost, respectively. Defined organic-P sources (glucose-1-phosphate and inositol-hexa-phosphate) and a P fertilizer (KH2PO4) were included as well and a control with no P amendments was included as a reference. Each material was applied at a fixed P load of 50 mg kg-1 to each of three soils and P speciation and plants P uptake were tested along 112 days of incubation at moderate (near field capacity) water content. Tomato seedlings were used for the P uptake test. The large set of data was used to evaluate the effect of each treatment on P reactions and mechanisms of retention in the tested soils and to correlate various P indices to P availability for plants. Plant P uptake was highly correlated to Olsen-P as well as to water-soluble inorganic-P, but not to water-soluble organic-P and not to total P or other experimentally-defined stable P fractions. We conclude that the P stabilization in the sludge will allow beneficial and sustainable use of sewage sludge as a soil amendment and source of nutrients, but the stabilization method should be selected in accordance with the target soil properties.

  10. Assessing an effective feeding strategy to optimize crude glycerol utilization as sustainable carbon source for lipid accumulation in oleaginous yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signori, Lorenzo; Ami, Diletta; Posteri, Riccardo; Giuzzi, Andrea; Mereghetti, Paolo; Porro, Danilo; Branduardi, Paola

    2016-05-05

    Microbial lipids can represent a valuable alternative feedstock for biodiesel production in the context of a viable bio-based economy. This production can be driven by cultivating some oleaginous microorganisms on crude-glycerol, a 10% (w/w) by-product produced during the transesterification process from oils into biodiesel. Despite attractive, the perspective is still economically unsustainable, mainly because impurities in crude glycerol can negatively affect microbial performances. In this view, the selection of the best cell factory, together with the development of a robust and effective production process are primary requirements. The present work compared crude versus pure glycerol as carbon sources for lipid production by three different oleaginous yeasts: Rhodosporidium toruloides (DSM 4444), Lipomyces starkeyi (DSM 70295) and Cryptococcus curvatus (DSM 70022). An efficient yet simple feeding strategy for avoiding the lag phase caused by growth on crude glycerol was developed, leading to high biomass and lipid production for all the tested yeasts. Flow-cytometry and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, supported by principal component analysis (PCA), were used as non-invasive and quick techniques to monitor, compare and analyze the lipid production over time. Gas chromatography (GC) analysis completed the quali-quantitative description. Under these operative conditions, the highest lipid content (up to 60.9% wt/wt) was measured in R. toruloides, while L. starkeyi showed the fastest glycerol consumption rate (1.05 g L(-1) h(-1)). Being productivity the most industrially relevant feature to be pursued, under the presented optimized conditions R. toruloides showed the best lipid productivity (0.13 and 0.15 g L(-1) h(-1) on pure and crude glycerol, respectively). Here we demonstrated that the development of an efficient feeding strategy is sufficient in preventing the inhibitory effect of crude glycerol, and robust enough to ensure high lipid

  11. Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) 10: operationalising disinvestment in a conceptual framework for resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Claire; Green, Sally; Elshaug, Adam G

    2017-09-08

    This is the tenth in a series of papers reporting a program of Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) in a local healthcare setting. After more than a decade of research, there is little published evidence of active and successful disinvestment. The paucity of frameworks, methods and tools is reported to be a factor in the lack of success. However there are clear and consistent messages in the literature that can be used to inform development of a framework for operationalising disinvestment. This paper, along with the conceptual review of disinvestment in Paper 9 of this series, aims to integrate the findings of the SHARE Program with the existing disinvestment literature to address the lack of information regarding systematic organisation-wide approaches to disinvestment at the local health service level. A framework for disinvestment in a local healthcare setting is proposed. Definitions for essential terms and key concepts underpinning the framework have been made explicit to address the lack of consistent terminology. Given the negative connotations of the word 'disinvestment' and the problems inherent in considering disinvestment in isolation, the basis for the proposed framework is 'resource allocation' to address the spectrum of decision-making from investment to disinvestment. The focus is positive: optimising healthcare, improving health outcomes, using resources effectively. The framework is based on three components: a program for decision-making, projects to implement decisions and evaluate outcomes, and research to understand and improve the program and project activities. The program consists of principles for decision-making and settings that provide opportunities to introduce systematic prompts and triggers to initiate disinvestment. The projects follow the steps in the disinvestment process. Potential methods and tools are presented, however the framework does not stipulate project design or conduct; allowing

  12. Sustainability in Health care by allocating resources effectively (SHARE) 1: introducing a series of papers reporting an investigation of disinvestment in a local healthcare setting

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Claire; Green, Sally; Ramsey, Wayne; Allen, Kelly; King, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This is the first in a series of papers reporting Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE). The SHARE Program is an investigation of concepts, opportunities, methods and implications for evidence-based investment and disinvestment in health technologies and clinical practices in a local healthcare setting. The papers in this series are targeted at clinicians, managers, policy makers, health service researchers and implementation scientists working in this cont...

  13. Effects of Online Synchronous Instruction with an Attention Monitoring and Alarm Mechanism on Sustained Attention and Learning Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Wang, Jung-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have shown that learners' sustained attention strongly affects e-learning performance, particularly during online synchronous instruction. This work thus develops a novel attention monitoring and alarm mechanism (AMAM) based on brainwave signals to improve learning performance via monitoring the attention state of individual learners…

  14. Effects of Kosovo's energy use scenarios and associated gas emissions on its climate change and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabashi, Skender; Bekteshi, Sadik; Ahmetaj, Skender [Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, University of Prishtina (RS); Kabashi, Gazmend [Faculty of Electric Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of Prishtina, Prishtina (RS); Najdovski, Dimitrij [X3DATA, Novi trg 6, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Zidansek, Aleksander [Jozef Stefan Institute and Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Jamova 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Slaus, Ivo [R. Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-02-15

    Climate change will be the first truly global challenge for sustainability. Energy production and consumption from fossil fuels has central role in respect to climate change, but also to sustainability in general. Because climate change is regionally driven with global consequences and is a result of economic imperatives and social values, it requires a redefinition as to the balance of these outcomes globally and regionally in Kosovo. Kosovo as one of the richest countries with lignite in Europe, with 95-97% of the electric power production from lignite and with 90% of vehicles over 10 years old, represents one of the regions with the greatest ratio of CO{sub 2} emissions per unit of GDP, as well as one of the countries with the most polluted atmosphere in Europe. The modelling is carried out regionally for Kosovo for two dynamical systems which are the main emitters of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, NO{sub x}, etc.) and air pollutants (CO, SO{sub 2}, dust CH{sub x}, etc.): electricity generation and transportation emissions systems, for the time period 2000-2025. Various energy scenarios of the future are shown. We demonstrate that a transition to environmentally compatible sustainable energy use in Kosovo is possible. Implementing the emission reduction policies and introducing new technologies in electrical power production and transportation in Kosovo ensure a sustainable future development in Kosovo, electric power production and transport that become increasingly environmentally compatible. (author)

  15. Life-Cycle Thinking in Inquiry-Based Sustainability Education--Effects on Students' Attitudes towards Chemistry and Environmental Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, Marianne; Aksela, Maija

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to improve the quality of students' environmental literacy and sustainability education in chemistry teaching by combining the socio-scientific issue of life-cycle thinking with inquiry-based learning approaches. This case study presents results from an inquiry-based life-cycle thinking project: an interdisciplinary…

  16. Effects of Kosovo's energy use scenarios and associated gas emissions on its climate change and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabashi, Skender; Bekteshi, Sadik; Ahmetaj, Skender; Kabashi, Gazmend; Najdovski, Dimitrij; Zidansek, Aleksander; Slaus, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Climate change will be the first truly global challenge for sustainability. Energy production and consumption from fossil fuels has central role in respect to climate change, but also to sustainability in general. Because climate change is regionally driven with global consequences and is a result of economic imperatives and social values, it requires a redefinition as to the balance of these outcomes globally and regionally in Kosovo. Kosovo as one of the richest countries with lignite in Europe, with 95-97% of the electric power production from lignite and with 90% of vehicles over 10 years old, represents one of the regions with the greatest ratio of CO 2 emissions per unit of GDP, as well as one of the countries with the most polluted atmosphere in Europe. The modelling is carried out regionally for Kosovo for two dynamical systems which are the main emitters of greenhouse gases (CO 2 , CH 4 , NO x , etc.) and air pollutants (CO, SO 2 , dust CH x , etc.): electricity generation and transportation emissions systems, for the time period 2000-2025. Various energy scenarios of the future are shown. We demonstrate that a transition to environmentally compatible sustainable energy use in Kosovo is possible. Implementing the emission reduction policies and introducing new technologies in electrical power production and transportation in Kosovo ensure a sustainable future development in Kosovo, electric power production and transport that become increasingly environmentally compatible.

  17. The new regulator in town : The effect of Walmart’s sustainability mandate on supplier shareholder value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielens, K.J.P.; Geyskens, Inge; Deleersnyder, Barbara; Nohe, Max

    Suppliers are increasingly forced by dominant retailers to clean up their supply chains. While these retailers argue that their sustainability mandates may translate into profits for suppliers, many suppliers are cynical about these mandates because the onus to undertake the required investments is

  18. Effect of sustained-release isosorbide dinitrate on post-prandial gastric emptying and gastroduodenal motility in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J L; Rasmussen, S L; Linnet, J

    2004-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter released by non-adrenergic and non-cholinergic neurons that innervate the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract. We examined whether NO, derived from a sustained-release preparation of isosorbide dinitrate, influenced gastric emptying and...

  19. The road to sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrao, John L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crabtree, George [ANL

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability is the hottest topic in energy research today, but what does it actually mean? George Crabtree and John Sarrao describe what makes a technology sustainable, and outline the materials-science challenges standing between us and clean, long-lasting energy. Although most people agree that more-sustainable energy technologies are desirable, they often find it harder to agree on exactly how sustainable these technologies need to be, and even precisely what is meant by sustainability. To clarify the debate, we suggest three criteria for sustainability, each of which captures a different feature of the problem. While we do not have the lUxury of achieving full sustainability for all of our next-generation energy technologies, we can use these definitions to select our strategic sustainability targets and track our progress toward achieving them. As will become clear, the most sustainable energy technologies require the most challenging fundamental science breakthroughs. The first criterion for sustainability is 'lasts a long time'. This quality has been a feature of many energy sources we have used historically, including wood in ancient times and oil throughout most of the 20th century. The definition of 'long time' is, of course, relative: the world's demand for energy long ago outpaced the ability of wood to supply it, and the production of oil is likely to peak sometime within the next few decades. Substantial reductions in the rate of oil consumption through higher-efficiency processes can significantly impact on how long non-renewable resources last. In applying the 'long time' criterion, we need to distinguish between energy sources that are effectively limitless and those that are finite but, for the moment, adequate. The second criterion for sustainability is 'does no harm'. Burning fossil fuels releases pollutants such as sulphur and mercury that endanger human health, as well as greenhouse gases like

  20. Economic competition, sustainability, and survival endurance: The extinction of the dodo, the Easter Island case, and the tragedy of the commons effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Moreira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A fast developing industry worldwide, tourism demands a monumental extent of resources, and at times devastates and condemns the very own environments that are fundamental to the economic survival of organizations and the sustainability of travel destinations. The purpose of the study is to link three established scientific themes on survival and sustainability to empirical results in the field of economic decision and behavior. The discussion of this link may also represent the originality value of the paper. Departing from the results of a series of decision games obtained under a quasi-experimental design, behavioral patterns were analyzed and extrapolated to explore the terminal effects of competition trends on the survival and economic viability of organizations and travel destinations in restricted environments. The findings show that the identified competition tendency neutralized an important share of the economic potential offered by the decision game, with significant negative effects on the economic efficiency. If persistent, the competition tendency is expected to produce long term effects on the sustainability and economic survival of organizations and travel destinations in restricted environments. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v2i4.84

  1. Multicriteria Decision Analysis to Develop Effective Sustainable Development Strategies for Enhancing Competitive Advantages: Case of the TFT-LCD Industry in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuan-Yuan Lu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Internet of Things era, panel displays play a major role in human life, because humans frequently use liquid crystal displays to monitor their electrical devices. The display industry creates remarkable economic output, but every manufacturing process inevitably has some undesirable effects on the environment. With the increasing awareness of environmental protection, balanced development is necessary to address the emerging market trends. However, short-sighted manufacturing corporations that focus solely on financial performance can achieve only short-term profits. The purpose of this study was to develop the most effective sustainable improvement strategies that can enhance competitive advantages in real-world situations. The proposed method combines the balanced scorecard and a new hybrid modified multiple attribute decision-making model which together adopt the DEMATEL technique to construct the influential network relation map and develop the DEMATEL-based ANP with the VIKOR method to deliver strategies that integrate environmental sustainability and competitive advantage. Finally, a real-world case study applying the proposed method to the cases of liquid crystal display manufacturers was conducted. Then, this paper discusses the effective use of natural resources, development of enterprises, and sustainable competitive advantage in this context. Various manufacturers, communities, and stakeholders can benefit from the coopetition solutions explained by the proposed method.

  2. Beyond cost-effectiveness, analysis. Value-based pricing and result-oriented financing as a pathway to sustainability for the national health system in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Hidalgo-Vega

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Beyond cost-effectiveness, analysis. Value-based pricing and result-oriented financing as a pathway to sustainability for the national health system in SpainThe editorial addresses the current use of economic evaluation in the assessment and potential funding and reimbursement of health technologies. Cost-effectiveness ratio and the acceptability thresholds are analyzed, pointing out the limitations that the current approach has for capturing the value of new technologies. A potential shift from National Health Systems to value-based prices is discussed, with a focus on health economics outcomes where multi-criteria analyses can be a complementary tool to traditional cost-effectiveness approaches.

  3. Sustained employability of workers in a production environment: design of a stepped wedge trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-benefit of the POSE program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Holland Berry J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sustained employability and health are generating awareness of employers in an aging and more complex work force. To meet these needs, employers may offer their employees health surveillance programs, to increase opportunities to work on health and sustained employability. However, evidence for these health surveillance programs is lacking. The FLESH study (Functional Labour Evaluation for Sustained Health and employment was developed to evaluate a comprehensive workers’ health promotion program on its effectiveness, cost-benefit, and process of the intervention. Methods The study is designed as a cluster randomised stepped wedge trial with randomisation at company plant level and is carried out in a large meat processing company. Every contracted employee is offered the opportunity to participate in the POSE program (Promotion Of Sustained Employability. The main goals of the POSE program are 1 providing employee’s insight into their current employability and health status, 2 offering opportunities to improve employability and decrease health risks and 3 improving employability and health sustainably in order to keep them healthy at work. The program consists of a broad assessment followed by a counselling session and, if needed, a tailored intervention. Measurements will be performed at baseline and will be followed up at 20, 40, 60, 80, 106 and 132 weeks. The primary outcome measures are work ability, productivity and absenteeism. Secondary outcomes include health status, vitality, and psychosocial workload. A cost-benefit study will be conducted from the employers’ perspective. A process evaluation will be conducted and the satisfaction of employer and employees with the program will be assessed. Discussion This study provides information on the effectiveness of the POSE program on sustained employment. When the program proves to be effective, employees benefit by improved work ability, and health. Employers benefit

  4. Sustained employability of workers in a production environment: design of a stepped wedge trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-benefit of the POSE program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Holland, Berry J; de Boer, Michiel R; Brouwer, Sandra; Soer, Remko; Reneman, Michiel F

    2012-11-20

    Sustained employability and health are generating awareness of employers in an aging and more complex work force. To meet these needs, employers may offer their employees health surveillance programs, to increase opportunities to work on health and sustained employability. However, evidence for these health surveillance programs is lacking. The FLESH study (Functional Labour Evaluation for Sustained Health and employment) was developed to evaluate a comprehensive workers' health promotion program on its effectiveness, cost-benefit, and process of the intervention. The study is designed as a cluster randomised stepped wedge trial with randomisation at company plant level and is carried out in a large meat processing company. Every contracted employee is offered the opportunity to participate in the POSE program (Promotion Of Sustained Employability). The main goals of the POSE program are 1) providing employee's insight into their current employability and health status, 2) offering opportunities to improve employability and decrease health risks and 3) improving employability and health sustainably in order to keep them healthy at work. The program consists of a broad assessment followed by a counselling session and, if needed, a tailored intervention. Measurements will be performed at baseline and will be followed up at 20, 40, 60, 80, 106 and 132 weeks. The primary outcome measures are work ability, productivity and absenteeism. Secondary outcomes include health status, vitality, and psychosocial workload. A cost-benefit study will be conducted from the employers' perspective. A process evaluation will be conducted and the satisfaction of employer and employees with the program will be assessed. This study provides information on the effectiveness of the POSE program on sustained employment. When the program proves to be effective, employees benefit by improved work ability, and health. Employers benefit from healthier employees, reduced sick leave (costs) and

  5. Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) 2: identifying opportunities for disinvestment in a local healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Claire; Allen, Kelly; King, Richard; Ramsey, Wayne; Kelly, Cate; Thiagarajan, Malar

    2017-05-05

    This is the second in a series of papers reporting a program of Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) in a local healthcare setting. Rising healthcare costs, continuing advances in health technologies and recognition of ineffective practices and systematic waste are driving disinvestment of health technologies and clinical practices that offer little or no benefit in order to maximise outcomes from existing resources. However there is little information to guide regional health services or individual facilities in how they might approach disinvestment locally. This paper outlines the investigation of potential settings and methods for decision-making about disinvestment in the context of an Australian health service. Methods include a literature review on the concepts and terminology relating to disinvestment, a survey of national and international researchers, and interviews and workshops with local informants. A conceptual framework was drafted and refined with stakeholder feedback. There is a lack of common terminology regarding definitions and concepts related to disinvestment and no guidance for an organisation-wide systematic approach to disinvestment in a local healthcare service. A summary of issues from the literature and respondents highlight the lack of theoretical knowledge and practical experience and provide a guide to the information required to develop future models or methods for disinvestment in the local context. A conceptual framework was developed. Three mechanisms that provide opportunities to introduce disinvestment decisions into health service systems and processes were identified. Presented in order of complexity, time to achieve outcomes and resources required they include 1) Explicit consideration of potential disinvestment in routine decision-making, 2) Proactive decision-making about disinvestment driven by available evidence from published research and local data, and 3) Specific exercises in

  6. Sustained health-economic effects after reorganisation of a Swiss hospital emergency centre: a cost comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Klaus; Hess, Sascha; Chmiel, Corinne; Bögli, Karin; Sidler, Patrick; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Brügger, Urs

    2014-10-01

    Emergency departments (EDs) are increasingly overcrowded by walk-in patients. However, little is known about health-economic consequences resulting from long waiting times and inefficient use of specialised resources. We have evaluated a quality improvement project of a Swiss urban hospital: In 2009, a triage system and a hospital-associated primary care unit with General Practitioners (H-GP-unit) were implemented beside the conventional hospital ED. This resulted in improved medical service provision with reduced process times and more efficient diagnostic testing. We now report on health-economic effects. From the hospital perspective, we performed a cost comparison study analysing treatment costs in the old emergency model (ED, only) versus treatment costs in the new emergency model (triage plus ED plus H-GP-unit) from 2007 to 2011. Hospital cost accounting data were applied. All consecutive outpatient emergency contacts were included for 1 month in each follow-up year. The annual number of outpatient emergency contacts increased from n=10 440 (2007; baseline) to n=16 326 (2011; after intervention), reflecting a general trend. In 2007, mean treatment costs per outpatient were €358 (95% CI 342 to 375). Until 2011, costs increased in the ED (€423 (396 to 454)), but considerably decreased in the H-GP-unit (€235 (221 to 250)). Compared with 2007, the annual local budget spent for treatment of 16 326 patients in 2011 showed cost reductions of €417 600 (27 200 to 493 600) after adjustment for increasing patient numbers. From the health-economic point of view, our new service model shows 'dominance' over the old model: While quality of service provision improved (reduced waiting times; more efficient resource use in the H-GP-unit), treatment costs sustainably decreased against the secular trend of increase. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Biofuels and sustainability in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Amigun, B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of climate change, the continued volatility of fuel prices, the recent food crisis and global economic turbulence have triggered a sense of urgency among policymakers, industries and development practitioners to find sustainable...

  8. MULTIPLE SCALES FOR SUSTAINABLE RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session will highlight recent research that incorporates the use of multiple scales and innovative environmental accounting to better inform decisions that affect sustainability, resilience, and vulnerability at all scales. Effective decision-making involves assessment at mu...

  9. Sustainable urban environmental quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošković Dobrivoje

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available MEANING as the essential element of urban quality. The role of the three main factors for the urban quality achievement: PLANNING, DEVELOPMENT and PEOPLE. Next to that, it is important to assume the identity of the local CONTEXT as the essential base for designing and shaping of form development. The problems of the quality achievements in the situation of the permanent changes. In such an environment - the RENEWAL of the towns become the basic strategic orientation requiring - evaluation of the development policy instruments. On the road of changes there are PROBLEMS of a strategic nature which should be, firstly, defined and, then, solved before entering in the process of structuring and arrangement. One of these problems is NEW versus OLD. Transition to a new policy of urbanism relying, first of all, on the private investors and international funds of the local authorities - call for a NEW STRATEGY in urbanism, in the context of the sustainability of environment. The sustainability of quality and the categories of the influencing factors. The sustainability of quality as a twofold process of urban design. The quality of environment as an aesthetic phenomenon. The urban situation and environmental quality: feasibility of changes and effects; the environmental capacity as an indicator and quality determinant. The urban quality and international experience. The evaluation of our urban situation. INSTEAD OF CONCLUSION: A general review on the visions and urban quality policy and planning. Toward an evaluation of urban environmental quality: negative and positive indicators; sustainable communities environmental ruling and urban quality planning.

  10. Beneficial Effects of a Dietary Weight Loss Intervention on Human Gut Microbiome Diversity and Metabolism Are Not Sustained during Weight Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsen, Femke-Anouska; Fangmann, Daniela; Müller, Nike; Schulte, Dominik M; Rühlemann, Malte C; Türk, Kathrin; Settgast, Ute; Lieb, Wolfgang; Baines, John F; Schreiber, Stefan; Franke, Andre; Laudes, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of a very low-calorie diet(VLCD)-based obesity program on human gut microbiome diversity and metabolism during weight loss and weight maintenance. Obese subjects underwent 3 months of VLCD followed by 3 months of weight maintenance. A lean and an obese control group were included. The microbiome was characterized by performing high-throughput dual-indexed 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. At baseline, a significant difference in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio between the lean and obese individuals was observed (p = 0.047). The VLCD resulted in significant alterations in gut microbiome diversity from baseline to 3 months (p = 0.0053). Acinetobacter represented an indicator species for the observed effect (indicator value = 0.998, p = 0.006). Metabolic analyses revealed alterations of the bacterial riboflavin pathway from baseline to 3 months (pnom = 0.0078). These changes in diversity and bacterial metabolism induced by VLCD diminished during the weight maintenance phase, despite sustained reductions in body weight and sustained improvements of insulin sensitivity. The present data show that a VLCD is able to beneficially alter both gut microbiome diversity and metabolism in obese humans, but that these changes are not sustained during weight maintenance. This finding might suggest that the microbiome should be targeted during obesity programs. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  11. Beneficial Effects of a Dietary Weight Loss Intervention on Human Gut Microbiome Diversity and Metabolism Are Not Sustained during Weight Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke-Anouska Heinsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study, we examined the effect of a very low-calorie diet(VLCD-based obesity program on human gut microbiome diversity and metabolism during weight loss and weight maintenance. Methods: Obese subjects underwent 3 months of VLCD followed by 3 months of weight maintenance. A lean and an obese control group were included. The microbiome was characterized by performing high-throughput dual-indexed 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. Results: At baseline, a significant difference in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio between the lean and obese individuals was observed (p = 0.047. The VLCD resulted in significant alterations in gut microbiome diversity from baseline to 3 months (p = 0.0053. Acinetobacter represented an indicator species for the observed effect (indicator value = 0.998, p = 0.006. Metabolic analyses revealed alterations of the bacterial riboflavin pathway from baseline to 3 months (pnom = 0.0078. These changes in diversity and bacterial metabolism induced by VLCD diminished during the weight maintenance phase, despite sustained reductions in body weight and sustained improvements of insulin sensitivity. Conclusion: The present data show that a VLCD is able to beneficially alter both gut microbiome diversity and metabolism in obese humans, but that these changes are not sustained during weight maintenance. This finding might suggest that the microbiome should be targeted during obesity programs.

  12. Solar energy systems: Sustainable or not? Environmental effects of materials of solar systems with Eco-Quantum: the break even point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapen, M.; Anink, D.; Donze, G.

    2000-01-01

    Solar systems seem a sustainable way of providing energy. But are nowadays PV-systems with materials like heavy metals sustainable? Is PV really environmentally sound with the actual efficiency? And what about solar collectors? This paper provides the answers and indicates improvement options for solar systems to make them more overall sustainable in the future. With Eco-Quantum, a simulation tool for analysing the environmental performance of buildings, the overall environmental profit of buildings with PV-systems and solar collectors is shown. It calculates the environmental effects during the entire life cycle of a complete building ('cradle to grave'). This includes the impact of energy and water use, maintenance during use phase, differences in durability of parts or construction needs, like adhesives and nails. The basis of Eco-Quantum is environmental life cycle assessment (LCA). IEA BCS Annex 31 indicated Eco-Quantum as one of the most sophisticated tools to calculate environment al performance of a build ing. The results of Eco-Quantum are the environmental indicators: Exhaustion of resources; Emissions; Energy and Waste. Options like PV and solar collectors are investigated in a reference building. On the one hand the energy during use is reduced by the options. On the other hand the environmental effects because of materials exhaustion of resources and emissions during production is increased as a consequence of additional material use. (au)

  13. Linking Environmental Sustainability and Healthcare: The Effects of an Energy Saving Intervention in Two Hospitals\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Manika, D.; Gregory-Smith, D.; Wells, V.K.; Comerford, L.; Aldrich-Smith, L.

    2017-01-01

    Set in a real organisational setting, this study examines the challenges of implementing environmentally sustainable behaviour in healthcare. It evaluates the success of a real energy saving behaviour change intervention, based on social marketing principles, which targeted the employees of two National Health Service (NHS) hospitals. It also explores the intervention benefits for three key stakeholders: the organisation/hospitals, hospital employees and patients. A rich secondary dataset con...

  14. Sustainability in School Building Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ece ŞAHİN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable construction is important for the continuation of life in a healthy world for futuregenerations; many issues affecting the quality of life such as effective use of resources, take advantage ofrenewable energy, the choice of recyclable materials that do not harm the environment and waterconservation are considered in the context of sustainable design. Implementations carried out in thisframework are regarded as valuable due to providing the consciousness of sustainability to the society.Creating the awareness of sustainability is given a great importance by educators; thus, “education forsustainability” are included from the preschool program so that children can learn the gainings of suchperspective in their early ages. In support of this concept, it is believed that education structures should bea laboratory where children can practice theoretical knowledge learned at school. In that respect, studiesneed to be considered in the context of sustainable construction are studied in this research. In the study,after a description of the importance of sustainable design as a learning mean, significant subjects such asusing natural light, heating, cooling and air-conditioning methods, wind energy, water protection andmaterial selection are analyzed in terms of designing sustainable schools. It is criticized worldwide thatstructures ground on sustainable design principles are relatively few in numbers. Despite, there is anincreasing interest to the subject in Turkey later years; a lot more steps are required in terms ofimplementation and research of the issue. Thus, the purpose of the study is to provide a supplementaryreference for school designs.

  15. Armenia's Economic Growth Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Tatsuji

    2015-01-01

    Armenia enjoyed 15 years of uninterrupted high economic growth prior to the global financial crisis in 2009. Investment, particularly in the mining and metallurgy sectors, played a key role as a driver of economic growth. Remittances,mostly from Russia, had an effect in sustaining consumption and boosting construction. Armenia has shown some weaknesses in the external sector, due to demands for natural gas, mineral products, machinery, and equipment. Armenia's exports and FDI suffer from the ...

  16. Taxation and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Common, Mick S.

    1992-01-01

    Clearly, the question which is the workshop title permits of no single simple answer. This paper addresses it in the particular context of taxation. The argument is that in this context the sustainability debate seems to have had rather little effect on economists' thinking and policy advice. While it is true that taxation is looked upon more favourably than some alternative instruments for environmental policy implementation, there does not appear to have been much in the way of thinking abo...

  17. Sustainability or profitability?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khennas, Smail; Doig, Alsion [Intermediate Technology, Bourton on Dunsmore, Rugby (United Kingdom)

    1999-10-01

    For small rural communities off-grid, micro-hydro power is often the most cost-effective means of providing electricity. Whether the electricity should be provided without cost to the beneficiaries or whether it should be paid for are the points under discussion. Details of cost and technology of schemes in both Nepal and Sri Lanka show that micro hydro can be sustainable in small isolated communities. (UK)

  18. Sustainable NREL - Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-01

    NREL's Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015 reports on sustainability plans for the lab for the year 2015 based on Executive Order Goals and provides the status on planned actions cited in the FY 2014 report.

  19. Sustainable Geophysical Observatory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemann, R. J.; Lerner-Lam, A.; Aster, R.; Beck, S.; Ekstrom, G.; Nyblade, A.; Sandvol, E.

    2007-05-01

    Geophysical networks are defined not only by their technical specifications, but also by the characteristics and needs of the communities that use them. Growing populations supported by more elaborate urban infrastructure with its fine-grained socio-economic interdependencies and relying on global and regional connections for sustainability make new demands for natural hazard risk management. Taking advantage of advances in the underlying science to provide society with accurate risk assessments often requires higher fidelity measurements, entirely new types of observations, and an evolutionary sense of data products and information management. Engineering a high-tech system to address stakeholder needs is difficult, and designing for unpredictable developments requires an emphasis on adaptation. Thus, it is essential to promote formation of organizations or communities that can support evolution of a technological system, imagine new uses, and develop the societal relationships that sustain operations and provide capital for improvement. The owners must have a deep understanding of why the system works in particular ways and how to manage data products for the benefits of stakeholders. To be effective, community promotion must be sustained over a longer period of time than required to build a network and should be aimed at integrating the community into worldwide partnerships. Practices that can promote community formation if they are sustained include repeated training and scientific exchange workshops, extended visits by experts and staff at all levels to and from countries where networks are installed, mechanisms that make timely upgrades realistically possible, and routine exchange and wide dissemination of data in all directions. The combination of international research and educational collaborations, supported by open data exchange, with regionalized and specific assessments of local stakeholder needs and concerns, provides a sustainable model for

  20. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  1. Sustainability in Transport Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Greve, Carsten

    Contribution to session J: Joint University Sustainability Initiatives. This session will provide an inspiring overview of interdisciplinary research and teaching activities on sustainability bridging DTU, KU, and CBS, and introduce the joint collaboration Copenhagen Sustainability Initiative (COSI...

  2. Potential long-term effects of a mind-body intervention for women with major depressive disorder: sustained mental health improvements with a pilot yoga intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Elswick, R K; Kornstein, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Despite pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic advances over the past decades, many individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience recurrent depressive episodes and persistent depressive symptoms despite treatment with the usual care. Yoga is a mind-body therapeutic modality that has received attention in both the lay and research literature as a possible adjunctive therapy for depression. Although promising, recent findings about the positive mental health effects of yoga are limited because few studies have used standardized outcome measures and none of them have involved long-term follow-up beyond a few months after the intervention period. The goal of our research study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of a yoga intervention for women with MDD using standardized outcome measures and a long follow-up period (1year after the intervention). The key finding is that previous yoga practice has long-term positive effects, as revealed in both qualitative reports of participants' experiences and in the quantitative data about depression and rumination scores over time. Although generalizability of the study findings is limited because of a very small sample size at the 1-year follow-up assessment, the trends in the data suggest that exposure to yoga may convey a sustained positive effect on depression, ruminations, stress, anxiety, and health-related quality of life. Whether an individual continues with yoga practice, simple exposure to a yoga intervention appears to provide sustained benefits to the individual. This is important because it is rare that any intervention, pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic, for depression conveys such sustained effects for individuals with MDD, particularly after the treatment is discontinued. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable technologies

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to deal with the innovative technologies in the field of textiles and clothing sustainability. It details a number of sustainable and innovative technologies and highlights their implications in the clothing sector. There are currently various measures to achieve sustainability in the textiles and the clothing industry, including innovations in the manufacturing stage, which is the crux of this book.

  4. Sustainable diets within sustainable food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybeck, Alexandre; Gitz, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Sustainable diets and sustainable food systems are increasingly explored by diverse scientific disciplines. They are also recognised by the international community and called upon to orient action towards the eradication of hunger and malnutrition and the fulfilment of sustainable development goals. The aim of the present paper is to briefly consider some of the links between these two notions in order to facilitate the operationalisation of the concept of sustainable diet. The concept of sustainable diet was defined in 2010 combining two totally different perspectives: a nutrition perspective, focused on individuals, and a global sustainability perspective, in all its dimensions: environmental, economic and social. The nutrition perspective can be easily related to health outcomes. The global sustainability perspective is more difficult to analyse directly. We propose that it be measured as the contribution of a diet to the sustainability of food systems. Such an approach, covering the three dimensions of sustainability, enables identification of interactions and interrelations between food systems and diets. It provides opportunities to find levers of change towards sustainability. Diets are both the results and the drivers of food systems. The drivers of change for those variously involved, consumers and private individuals, are different, and can be triggered by different dimensions (heath, environment, social and cultural). Combining different dimensions and reasons for change can help facilitate the transition to sustainable diets, recognising the food system's specificities. The adoption of sustainable diets can be facilitated and enabled by food systems, and by appropriate policies and incentives.

  5. Sustainability of Fossil Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, K. S.

    2002-05-01

    effects of injecting excess carbon into the environment need to be eliminated before fossil fuels can be considered sustainable. Sustainable fossil fuel use would likely rely on abundant, low-grade hydrocarbons like coal, tar, and shale. It would require a closed cycle approach in which carbon is extracted from the ground, processed for its energy content, and returned into safe and stable sinks for permanent disposal. Such sequestration technologies already exist and more advanced approaches that could maintain access to fossil energy for centuries are on the drawing boards. I will review these options and outline a pathway towards a zero emission fossil fuel based economy that could provide energy at prices comparable to those of today for several centuries. A successful implementation will depend not only on technological advances but also on the development of economic institutions that allow one to pay for the required carbon management. If done correctly the markets will decide whether renewable energy, or sustainable fossil energy provides a better choice.

  6. Effect of sustainable land management practices on soil aggregation and stabilization of organic carbon in semiarid mediterranean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Franco, Noelia; Albaladejo, Juan; Almagro, María; Wiesmeier, Martin; Martínez-Mena, María

    2016-04-01

    Arid and semiarid regions represent about 47% of the total land area of the world (UNEP, 1992). At present, there is a priority interest for carbon (C) sequestration in drylands. These areas are considered as very fragile ecosystems with low organic carbon (OC) saturation, and potentially, high capacity for soil OC sequestration. In addition, the restoration of these areas is one of the major challenges for scientists, who will be able to identify and recommended the best land uses and sustainable land management (SLM) practices for soil conservation and mitigation of climate change in these environments. In this regard, in semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems there is an urgent need for the implementation of SLM practices regardless of land-use type (forest, agricultural and shrubland) to maintain acceptable levels of soil organic matter (SOM) and the physico-chemical protection of the OC. Long- and short-term effects of SLM practices on soil aggregation and SOC stabilization were studied in two land uses. The long-term experiment was conducted in a reforestation area with Pinus halepensis Mill., where two afforestation techniques were implemented 20 years ago: a) mechanical terracing with a single application of organic waste of urban soil refuse, and b) mechanical terracing without organic amendment. An adjacent shrubland was considered as the reference plot. The short-term experiment was conducted in a rain-fed almond (Prunus dulcis Mill., var. Ferragnes) orchard where two SLM practices were introduced 4 years ago: a) reduced tillage plus green manure, and b) no tillage. Reduced tillage was considered as the reference plot given that it is the habitual management practice. Four aggregate size classes were differentiated by sieving (large and small macroaggregates, microaggregates, and the silt plus clay fraction), and the microaggregates occluded within small macroaggregates (SMm) were isolated. In addition, different organic C fractions corresponding with active

  7. Y-12 Site Sustainability Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherry, T D; Kohlhorst, D P; Little, S K

    2011-12-01

    The accomplishments to date and the long-range planning of the Y-12 Energy Management and Sustainability and Stewardship programs support the DOE and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) vision for a commitment to energy efficiency and sustainability and to achievement of the Guiding Principles. Specifically, the Y-12 vision is to support the Environment, Safety and Health Policy and the DOE Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan (SSPP) while promoting overall sustainability and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Table ES.2 gives a comprehensive overview of Y-12's performance status and planned actions. B&W Y-12's Energy Management mission is to incorporate renewable energy and energy efficient technologies site-wide and to position Y-12 to meet NNSA energy requirement needs through 2025 and beyond. During FY 2011, the site formed a sustainability team (Fig. ES.1). The sustainability team provides a coordinated approach to meeting the various sustainability requirements and serves as a forum for increased communication and consistent implementation of sustainability activities at Y-12. The sustainability team serves as an information exchange mechanism to promote general awareness of sustainability information, while providing a system to document progress and to identify resources. These resources are necessary to implement activities that support the overall goals of sustainability, including reducing the use of resources and conserving energy. Additionally, the team's objectives include: (1) Foster a Y-12-wide philosophy to conserve resources; (2) Reduce the impacts of production operations in a cost-effective manner; (3) Increase materials recycling; (4) Use a minimum amount of energy and fuel; (5) Create a minimum of waste and pollution in achieving Y-12-strategic objectives; (6) Develop and implement techniques, technologies, process modifications, and programs that support sustainable acquisition; (7) Minimize the

  8. If Development, Then Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bóna Péter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore how the effects of components belonging to the concept of strategic management system influence outstanding achievement and success in the processing industry in Hungary as well as the sustainability success component within that. In order to do that, the study defines the factors having an influence. Thereafter, it explains the successful operation of companies with the help of factors emerging via path analysis using regression models. It uses the balanced scorecard as a tool for success criteria describing success. This is a non-market aspect that has an impact on the whole system, making it of crucial importance. Via the exploration of effects, it can be shown the deliberate use of those factors that generate outstanding results and success from the point of view of sustainability, and thus internal development, customer appreciation, and financial success. By taking the results of the research into consideration, it will also be revealed that success factors in the processing industry in Hungary have the most direct and the largest impact on outstanding sustainability performance.

  9. SUSTAINABLE TRAILER FLOORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Different trailer flooring materials, including wood-based, aluminum, steel, and synthetic plastic floors, were evaluated in accordance with their durability and sustainability to our natural environment. Wood-based trailer flooring is an eco-friendly product. It is the most sustainable trailer flooring material compared with fossil fuel-intensive steel, aluminum, and plastics. It is renewable and recyclable. Oak, hard maple, and apitong are strong and durable hardwood species that are currently extensively used for trailer flooring. For manufacture, wood-based flooring is higher in energy efficiency and lower in carbon emission than steel, aluminum and plastics. Moreover, wood per se is a natural product that sequesters carbon. Accordingly, using more wood-based trailer flooring is effective to reduce global warming.

  10. Sustainable Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia; Eberle, Ulrike; Lorek, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary food production and consumption cannot be regarded as sustainable and raises problems with its wide scope involving diverse actors. Moreover, in the face of demographic change and a growing global population, sus-tainability problems arising from food systems will likely become more...... and globalization of agriculture and food processing, the shift of consumption patterns toward more dietary animal protein, the emergence of modern food styles that entail heavily processed products, the growing gap on a global scale between rich and poor, and the paradoxical lack of food security amid an abundance...... of food. These factors are attributable to national and international policies and regulations, as well as to prevalent business prac-tices and, in particular, consumers' values and habits. The most effective ways for affluent societies to reduce the environmental impact of their diets are to reduce...

  11. Sustainable Energy for All

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    - renewable energy and energy efficiency. The promise of renewable energy can only be realised through significant R&D investments on technologies such as solar, biomass, wind, hydropower, geothermal power, ocean energy sources, solar-derived hydrogen fuel coupled with energy storage technologies necessary......Energy crisis is one of the most pressing issues of our century. The world currently invests more than $1 trillion per year in energy, much of it going toward the energy systems of the past instead of building the clean energy economies of the future. Effectively, the provision of energy should...... be such that it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Investment in sustainable energy is a smart strategy for growing markets, improving competitiveness, and providing greater equity and opportunity. Sustainable energy has two key elements...

  12. Electricity and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.

    2003-11-01

    The sustainable development is a political project. Its purpose is to erase the contradictions between the requirements of Environment and social development. the first article of the law of February 10, 2000 erects a sustainable electricity. For the first time. a law integrates the environmental requirements into the electrical industry. The starting point of this study is in the observation of the effects of this integration in a central sector for the developed countries. electricity is the motive of social development. However, it is carried by a Network. This network results from the confusion between the energy policy and the rules which aim at ensuring the construction and the management of structures of production and transport. Nevertheless, if the energy policy integrates the requirements of the environment, the structures subject them to a dominant social logic which aim is to satisfy an increasing demand for electricity. (author)

  13. Depressive symptoms as a side effect of the sustained release form of methylphenidate in a 7-year-old boy with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakić Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hyperkinetic disorder or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a clinical entity consisting of a cluster of symptoms including hyperactivity, attention disorder and impulse control disorder group. In the context of ADHD etiology we may say that genetic, clinical and imaging studies point out a disruption of the brain dopamine system, which is corroborated by the clinical effectiveness of stimulant drugs, which increase extracellular dopamine in the brain. Basically, it is a biological and not psychological disorder, which is important both for the comprehension and therapeutical approach to this problem. Today, the best recommended approach regarding children with ADHD is a combination of two therapeutic modalities: pharmacotherapy and behavioral treatment. The first-choice drugs for this disorder belong to the group of sympathomimetics - psychostimulants and atomoxetine (more recently. As the firstchoice therapy, methylphenydate in sustained release form has numerous advantages. Like all drugs, methylphenidate has its unwanted side effects. Most common are: loss of appetite, weight loss, sleeping disorders, irritability, headache. These side effects are well-known and documented in the literature. By analysing the available literature we have found cases of psychiatric side effects such as: psychosis, mania, visual hallucinations, agitation, suicidal ideas. We have not found examples of ADHD in children who use increased dosage of sustained release of methylphenidate leading to depressive symptomatology. On the other side, methylphenidate may be prescribed for off-label use in treatmentresistant cases of depression. Case report. The case of a 7- year-old boy diagnosed with ADHD was on a minimal dose of sustained release form of methylphenidate. After initial titration of the drug, i.e. after raising the dose to the next level the boy developed clinical signs of depression. The treatment was ceased and depressive

  14. Sustainability of the effects of medicinal iron and iron rich food supplementation on haemoglobin, intelligence quotient and growth of school aged girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Jain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia in school aged girls is an important but neglected issue. Since iron supplementation programmes have had little reported success in reducing anaemia, interest is turning to food based approaches that have higher potential for achieving far reaching benefits. The purpose of the study was to observe sustainability of the effect of iron and food supplementation on haemoglobin (Hb, intelligence quotient (IQ and growth of the subjects. At baseline, estimation of haemoglobin (Hb, red cell indices, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, serum transferrin saturation and serum ferritin was done. IQ, weight and height were measured using standard procedures. Anaemic subjectswere divided into three groups, viz., (i twice weekly supplementation of iron folic acid syrup (53 mg iron/week; (ii daily supplementation of 4 niger seed and defatted soyaflour biscuits plus 2 lemons (45 mg iron/week and (iii control. Non anaemic group(NAC was not intervened. Endline data was collected after 120 days. Follow up for Hb, IQ, weight and height was done 4 months after cessation of supplementation. The prevalence of anaemia was 77% in the study population; 46% subjects had mild anaemia and 32% had moderate anaemia. Iron status was lower in anaemic subjects (p<0.001.Iron supplementation was more effective in raising Hb and building iron stores than iron rich food supplementation. Iron supplementation improved IQ but did not bring about catch up of anaemics to non anaemics. Iron rich food supplementation was better than medicinal iron in promoting growth in anaemic girls. The impact of iron rich food supplementation on Hb, IQ and growth sustained for 4 months while that of medicinal iron did not. Effects of food supplementation are sustainable for 4 months, therefore, this strategy holds more potential to control anaemia, in school aged girls.

  15. Short communication: Effects of summer rainfall variations on sheep body state and farming sustainability in sub-Mediterranean pastoral systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Scocco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Mediterranean climate the grassland aboveground phytomass production peaks in late spring and drops in summer, when the decrease of the pasture feed value may lead to the worsening of the animal welfare. Our goal was to define the summer rainfall values leading to a decrease of semi-extensive farming system sustainability in sub-Mediterranean regions. Summer rainfall variations reflect in the aboveground phytomass production and on the sheep body state. Differences of body condition score (BCS among years were significant in late summer, which is the mating period for sheep. In the driest year the BCS of end August drops down to 2.1, largely below the value considered sufficient to ensure the animal breeding/milking performances (2.5. Reduction of summer rainfall greater than 15–20% compared to the normal average value (thus less than expected by the scenario of climate change might be detrimental for semi-extensive rearing sustainability in sub-Mediterranean climate.

  16. Short communication: Effects of summer rainfall variations on sheep body state and farming sustainability in sub-Mediterranean pastoral systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scocco, P.; Piermarteri, K.; Malfatti, A.; Tardella, F.M.; Catorci, A.

    2016-11-01

    In sub-Mediterranean climate the grassland aboveground phytomass production peaks in late spring and drops in summer, when the decrease of the pasture feed value may lead to the worsening of the animal welfare. Our goal was to define the summer rainfall values leading to a decrease of semi-extensive farming system sustainability in sub-Mediterranean regions. Summer rainfall variations reflect in the aboveground phytomass production and on the sheep body state. Differences of body condition score (BCS) among years were significant in late summer, which is the mating period for sheep. In the driest year the BCS of end August drops down to 2.1, largely below the value considered sufficient to ensure the animal breeding/milking performances (2.5). Reduction of summer rainfall greater than 15–20% compared to the normal average value (thus less than expected by the scenario of climate change) might be detrimental for semi-extensive rearing sustainability in sub-Mediterranean climate. (Author)

  17. Management strategies to effect change in intensive care units: lessons from the world of business. Part III. Effectively effecting and sustaining change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Kocher, Robert; Factor, Phillip

    2014-03-01

    Reaping the optimal rewards from any quality improvement project mandates sustainability after the initial implementation. In Part III of this three-part ATS Seminars series, we discuss strategies to create a culture for change, improve cooperation and interaction between multidisciplinary teams of clinicians, and position the intensive care unit (ICU) optimally within the hospital environment. Coaches are used throughout other industries to help professionals assess and continually improve upon their practice; use of this strategy is as of yet infrequent in health care, but would be easily transferable and potentially beneficial to ICU managers and clinicians alike. Similarly, activities focused on improving teamwork are commonplace outside of health care. Simulation training and classroom education about key components of successful team functioning are known to result in improvements. In addition to creating an ICU environment in which individuals and teams of clinicians perform well, ICU managers must position the ICU to function well within the hospital system. It is important to move away from the notion of a standalone ("siloed") ICU to one that is well integrated into the rest of the institution. Creating a "pull-system" (in which participants are active in searching out needed resources and admitting patients) can help ICU managers both provide better care for the critically ill and strengthen relationships with non-ICU staff. Although not necessary, there is potential upside to creating a unified critical care service to assist with achieving these ends.

  18. Sustainability in Health care by allocating resources effectively (SHARE) 1: introducing a series of papers reporting an investigation of disinvestment in a local healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Claire; Green, Sally; Ramsey, Wayne; Allen, Kelly; King, Richard

    2017-05-04

    This is the first in a series of papers reporting Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE). The SHARE Program is an investigation of concepts, opportunities, methods and implications for evidence-based investment and disinvestment in health technologies and clinical practices in a local healthcare setting. The papers in this series are targeted at clinicians, managers, policy makers, health service researchers and implementation scientists working in this context. This paper presents an overview of the organisation-wide, systematic, integrated, evidence-based approach taken by one Australian healthcare network and provides an introduction and guide to the suite of papers reporting the experiences and outcomes.

  19. Assessing sustainable remediation frameworks using sustainability principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridsdale, D Reanne; Noble, Bram F

    2016-12-15

    The remediation industry has grown exponentially in recent decades. International organizations of practitioners and remediation experts have developed several frameworks for integrating sustainability into remediation projects; however, there has been limited attention to how sustainability is approached and operationalized in sustainable remediation frameworks and practices - or whether sustainability plays any meaningful role at all in sustainable remediation. This paper examines how sustainability is represented in remediation frameworks and the guidance provided for practical application. Seven broad sustainability principles and review criteria are proposed and applied to a sample of six international remediation frameworks. Not all review criteria were equally satisfied and none of the frameworks fully met all criteria; however, the best performing frameworks were those identified as sustainability remediation frameworks. Intra-generational equity was addressed by all frameworks. Integrating social, economic and biophysical components beyond triple-bottom-line indicators was explicitly addressed only by the sustainable remediation frameworks. No frameworks provided principle- or rule-based guidance for dealing with trade-offs in sustainability decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Technology and sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Boersema, J.J.; Tellegen, E.; Cremers, A.

    2011-01-01

    In ten essays, this book addresses a broad range of issues related to the interplay of sustainability and technology. How do population growth and technology relate to sustainable development? Can globalization be reconciled with sustainable development? Is sustainability a subjective or an