WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustainable bioreactor systems

  1. Denitrification 'Woodchip' Bioreactors for Productive and Sustainable Agricultural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, L. E.; Summerfelt, S.; Sharrer, K.; Lepine, C.; Helmers, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Growing alarm about negative cascading effects of reactive nitrogen in the environment has led to multifaceted efforts to address elevated nitrate-nitrogen levels in water bodies worldwide. The best way to mitigate N-related impacts, such as hypoxic zones and human health concerns, is to convert nitrate to stable, non-reactive dinitrogen gas through the natural process of denitrification. This means denitrification technologies need to be one of our major strategies for tackling the grand challenge of managing human-induced changes to our global nitrogen cycle. While denitrification technologies have historically been focused on wastewater treatment, there is great interest in new lower-tech options for treating effluent and drainage water from one of our largest reactive nitrogen emitters -- agriculture. Denitrification 'woodchip' bioreactors are able to enhance this natural N-conversion via addition of a solid carbon source (e.g., woodchips) and through designs that facilitate development of anoxic conditions required for denitrification. Wood-based denitrification technologies such as woodchip bioreactors and 'sawdust' walls for groundwater have been shown to be effective at reducing nitrate loads in agricultural settings around the world. Designing these systems to be low-maintenance and to avoid removing land from agricultural production has been a primary focus of this "farmer-friendly" technology. This presentation provides a background on woodchip bioreactors including design considerations, N-removal performance, and current research worldwide. Woodchip bioreactors for the agricultural sector are an accessible new option to address society's interest in improving water quality while simultaneously allowing highly productive agricultural systems to continue to provide food in the face of increasing demand, changing global diets, and fluctuating weather.

  2. Bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamaleddine, E. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Composting is once again gaining interest among ecological engineers in view of greener industrial and residential activities. Uniform composting is needed to ensure decomposition and to keep the whole system at the same composting stage. A homogeneous temperature must be maintained throughout the media. A bioreactor design consisting of a heater core made of copper tubing was designed and tested. Two four-inch holes were made at the top and bottom of the barrel to allow air to flow through the system and promote aerobic composting. Once composting began and temperature increased, the water began to flow through the copper piping and the core heat was distributed throughout the medium. Three thermocouples were inserted at different heights on a 200 litre plastic barrel fitted with the aforementioned apparatus. Temperature variations were found to be considerably lower when the apparatus was operated with the heat redistribution system, enabling uniform composting, accelerating the process and reducing the risks of pathogenic or other contaminants remaining active in the barrels.

  3. Life Cycle Assessment and Cost Analysis of Water and Wastewater Treatment Options for Sustainability: Influence of Scale on Membrane Bioreactor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    changes in drinking and wastewater infrastructure need to incorporate a holistic view of the water service sustainability tradeoffs and potential benefits when considering shifts towards new treatment technology, decentralized systems, energy recovery and reuse of treated wastewa...

  4. Investigations concerning the use of membrane bioreactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger-Oehn, H.; Universitaet fuer Bodenkulturen, Wien; Braun, R.; Universitaet fuer Bodenkulturen, Wien

    1994-01-01

    Membrane bioreactor systems are increasingly being used to clean leachates from landfills. Besides being compact they can, especially, be easily combined with further cleaning techniques. The paper first of all gives an overview on landfill leachate cleaning standards in Austria. A combination of processes is applied where the membrane bioreactor forms a preferred element. Finally, results are presented which should help with the dimensioning of membrane bioreactors. (orig.) [de

  5. Miniature Bioreactor System for Long-Term Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Kleis, Stanley J.; Geffert, Sandara K.

    2010-01-01

    A prototype miniature bioreactor system is designed to serve as a laboratory benchtop cell-culturing system that minimizes the need for relatively expensive equipment and reagents and can be operated under computer control, thereby reducing the time and effort required of human investigators and reducing uncertainty in results. The system includes a bioreactor, a fluid-handling subsystem, a chamber wherein the bioreactor is maintained in a controlled atmosphere at a controlled temperature, and associated control subsystems. The system can be used to culture both anchorage-dependent and suspension cells, which can be either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Cells can be cultured for extended periods of time in this system, and samples of cells can be extracted and analyzed at specified intervals. By integrating this system with one or more microanalytical instrument(s), one can construct a complete automated analytical system that can be tailored to perform one or more of a large variety of assays.

  6. Sustainable operation of submerged Anammox membrane bioreactor with recycling biogas sparging for alleviating membrane fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziyin; Xu, Xindi; Xu, Xiaochen; Yang, FengLin; Zhang, ShuShen

    2015-12-01

    A submerged anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (Anammox) membrane bioreactor with recycling biogas sparging for alleviating membrane fouling has been successfully operated for 100d. Based on the batch tests, a recycling biogas sparging rate at 0.2m(3)h(-1) was fixed as an ultimate value for the sustainable operation. The mixed liquor volatile suspended solid (VSS) of the inoculum for the long operation was around 3000mgL(-1). With recycling biogas sparging rate increasing stepwise from 0 to 0.2m(3)h(-1), the reactor reached an influent total nitrogen (TN) up to 1.7gL(-1), a stable TN removal efficiency of 83% and a maximum specific Anammox activity (SAA) of 0.56kg TNkg(-1) VSSd(-1). With recycling biogas sparging rate at 0.2 m(3) h(-1) (corresponding to an aeration intensity of 118m(3)m(-2)h(-1)), the membrane operation circle could prolong by around 20 times compared to that without gas sparging. Furthermore, mechanism of membrane fouling was proposed. And with recycling biogas sparging, the VSS and EPS content increasing rate in cake layer were far less than the ones without biogas sparging. The TN removal performance and sustainable membrane operation of this system showed the appealing potential of the submerged Anammox MBR with recycling biogas sparging in treating high-strength nitrogen-containing wastewaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The sustainable landfill bioreactor: a waste management option for the twenty first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hens, L.; Stoyanov, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: According to the EU hierarchy of waste management, disposal of solid waste to landfill is the method of last resort. However landfilling is still a widely used disposal route in Europe and it will continue to be an important waste management option for many years, even though rising environmental standards continue to cause landfill disposal costs to rise. The traditional model of a landfill as a permanent waste deposit in which decomposition processes are minimised has given way to the concept of a controlled decomposition process managed as a large-scale bioreactor. The fundamental aim of the sustainable landfill is to optimise the natural degradation processes in the waste, to contain the products of degradation to prevent pollution of the environment and finally to use the residual organic matter as a soil conditioner. This paper discusses the legal and technical imperatives driving the development of the sustainable large-scale bioreactor concept of landfilling. key words: sustainable development, landfill, bioreactor, waste management

  8. Holistic Evaluation of Field-Scale Denitrifying Bioreactors as a Basis to Improve Environmental Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Owen; Healy, Mark G; Brennan, Fiona P; Thornton, Steven F; Lanigan, Gary J; Ibrahim, Tristan G

    2016-05-01

    Denitrifying bioreactors convert nitrate-nitrogen (NO-N) to di-nitrogen and protect water quality. Herein, the performance of a pilot-scale bioreactor (10 m long, 5 m wide, 2 m deep) containing seven alternating cells filled with either sandy loam soil or lodgepole pine woodchip and with a novel "zig-zag" flow pattern was investigated. The influent water had an average NO-N concentration of 25 mg L. The performance of the bioreactor was evaluated in two scenarios. In Scenario 1, only NO-N removal was evaluated; in Scenario 2, NO-N removal, ammonium-N (NH-N), and dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) generation was considered. These data were used to generate a sustainability index (SI), which evaluated the overall performance taking these parameters into account. In Scenario 1, the bioreactor was a net reducer of contaminants, but it transformed into a net producer of contaminants in Scenario 2. Inquisition of the data using these scenarios meant that an optimum bioreactor design could be identified. This would involve reduction to two cells: a single sandy loam soil cell followed by a woodchip cell, which would remove NO-N and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and DRP losses. An additional post-bed chamber containing media to eliminate NH-N and surface capping to reduce GHG emissions further is advised. Scenario modeling, such as that proposed in this paper, should ideally include GHG in the SI, but because different countries have different emission targets, future work should concentrate on the development of geographically appropriate weightings to facilitate the incorporation of GHG into a SI. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. An anaerobic bioreactor system for biobutanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paekkilae, J.; Hillukkala, T.; Myllykoski, L.; Keiski, R.L. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Process and Environmental Engineering (Finland)). email: johanna.pakkila@oulu.fi

    2009-07-01

    evaporation, perstraction, pervaporation and reverse osmosis with high selectivity are the most promising product recovery techniques despite of the tendency for clogging and fouling. Process development to achieve an economical and efficient production process have been done also by genetic strain manipulation, regulation of substrate utilization and butanol production, by using cell immobilization or cell recycling, and by using different kinds of product recovery techniques. The aim of this research was to design and build a system for the anaerobic bacteria cultivation. The purpose was to discover suitable cultivation conditions for strict anaerobic clostridia bacteria

  10. Optimizing hydraulic retention times in denitrifying woodchip bioreactors treating recirculating aquaculture system wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of wood-based denitrifying bioreactors to treat high-nitrate wastewaters from aquaculture systems has not previously been demonstrated. Four pilot-scale woodchip bioreactors (approximately 1:10 scale) were constructed and operated for 268 d to determine the optimal range of design hy...

  11. Comparison between moving bed-membrane bioreactor (MB-MBR) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems: influence of wastewater salinity variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Trapani, Daniele; Di Bella, Gaetano; Mannina, Giorgio; Torregrossa, Michele; Viviani, Gaspare

    2014-06-01

    Two pilot plant systems were investigated for the treatment of wastewater subject to a gradual increase of salinity. In particular, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and a moving bed biofilm membrane bioreactor (MB-MBR) were analyzed. Carbon and ammonium removal, kinetic constants and membranes fouling rates have been assessed. Both plants showed very high efficiency in terms of carbon and ammonium removal and the gradual salinity increase led to a good acclimation of the biomass, as confirmed by the respirometric tests. Significant biofilm detachments from carriers were experienced, which contributed to increase the irreversible superficial cake deposition. However, this aspect prevented the pore fouling tendency in the membrane module of MB-MBR system. On the contrary, the MBR pilot, even showing a lower irreversible cake deposition, was characterized by a higher pore fouling tendency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cultivation of Mammalian Cells Using a Single-use Pneumatic Bioreactor System

    OpenAIRE

    Obom, Kristina M.; Cummings, Patrick J.; Ciafardoni, Janelle A.; Hashimura, Yasunori; Giroux, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in mammalian, insect, and stem cell cultivation and scale-up have created tremendous opportunities for new therapeutics and personalized medicine innovations. However, translating these advances into therapeutic applications will require in vitro systems that allow for robust, flexible, and cost effective bioreactor systems. There are several bioreactor systems currently utilized in research and commercial settings; however, many of these systems are not optimal for establishi...

  13. Fundamentals of membrane bioreactors materials, systems and membrane fouling

    CERN Document Server

    Ladewig, Bradley

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a critical, carefully researched, up-to-date summary of membranes for membrane bioreactors. It presents a comprehensive and self-contained outline of the fundamentals of membrane bioreactors, especially their relevance as an advanced water treatment technology. This outline helps to bring the technology to the readers’ attention, and positions the critical topic of membrane fouling as one of the key impediments to its more widescale adoption. The target readership includes researchers and industrial practitioners with an interest in membrane bioreactors.

  14. System Innovation for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    System Innovation for Sustainability 2 focuses on change towards sustainable personal mobility based on implemented cases analysed from a system perspective. It examines what changes can be made to help us reduce our need for mobility, or start to make use of more sustainable mobility systems...... in order to provide sustainable solutions to our current ‘lock-in’ problems. Three major problem areas are considered (the ‘three Cs’): carbon emissions (and the growing contribution of mobility to the climate change crisis), congestion, and casualties. And each strategy proposed addresses one or more...... such as governments, manufacturers and consumers to intervene in the complex system to promote sustainable mobility. It concludes with a reflection on problems, trends and action needed. The ‘System Innovation for Sustainability’ series is the fruit of the first major international research network on SCP...

  15. A flow bioreactor system compatible with real-time two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Nian; Riedl, Julia A; Carvajal Berrio, Daniel A; Davis, Zachary; Monaghan, Michael G; Layland, Shannon L; Hinderer, Svenja; Schenke-Layland, Katja

    2018-02-02

    Bioreactors are essential cell and tissue culture tools that allow the introduction of biophysical signals into in vitro cultures. One major limitation is the need to interrupt experiments and sacrifice samples at certain time points for analyses. To address this issue, we designed a bioreactor that combines high-resolution contact-free imaging and continuous flow in a closed system that is compatible with various types of microscopes. The high throughput fluid flow bioreactor was combined with two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (2P-FLIM) and validated. The hydrodynamics of the bioreactor chamber were characterized using COMSOL. The simulation of shear stress indicated that the bioreactor system provides homogeneous and reproducible flow conditions. The designed bioreactor was used to investigate the effects of low shear stress on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In a scratch assay, we observed decreased migration of HUVECs under shear stress conditions. Furthermore, metabolic activity shifts from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation-dependent mechanisms in HUVECs cultured under low shear stress conditions were detected using 2P-FLIM. Future applications for this bioreactor range from observing cell fate development in real-time to monitoring the environmental effects on cells or metabolic changes due to drug applications.

  16. Sustainable diets within sustainable food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybeck, Alexandre; Gitz, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Sustainable diets and sustainable food systems are increasingly explored by diverse scientific disciplines. They are also recognised by the international community and called upon to orient action towards the eradication of hunger and malnutrition and the fulfilment of sustainable development goals. The aim of the present paper is to briefly consider some of the links between these two notions in order to facilitate the operationalisation of the concept of sustainable diet. The concept of sustainable diet was defined in 2010 combining two totally different perspectives: a nutrition perspective, focused on individuals, and a global sustainability perspective, in all its dimensions: environmental, economic and social. The nutrition perspective can be easily related to health outcomes. The global sustainability perspective is more difficult to analyse directly. We propose that it be measured as the contribution of a diet to the sustainability of food systems. Such an approach, covering the three dimensions of sustainability, enables identification of interactions and interrelations between food systems and diets. It provides opportunities to find levers of change towards sustainability. Diets are both the results and the drivers of food systems. The drivers of change for those variously involved, consumers and private individuals, are different, and can be triggered by different dimensions (heath, environment, social and cultural). Combining different dimensions and reasons for change can help facilitate the transition to sustainable diets, recognising the food system's specificities. The adoption of sustainable diets can be facilitated and enabled by food systems, and by appropriate policies and incentives.

  17. Tissue engineering bioreactor systems for applying physical and electrical stimulations to cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, GyuHyun; Yang, Gi-Hoon; Kim, GeunHyung

    2015-05-01

    Bioreactor systems in tissue engineering applications provide various types of stimulation to mimic the tissues in vitro and in vivo. Various bioreactors have been designed to induce high cellular activities, including initial cell attachment, cell growth, and differentiation. Although cell-stimulation processes exert mostly positive effects on cellular responses, in some cases such stimulation can also have a negative effect on cultured cells. In this review, we discuss various types of bioreactor and the positive and negative effects of stimulation (physical, chemical, and electrical) on various cultured cell types. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Microbial-based evaluation of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) for the sustainable and efficient treatment of municipal wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moustapha

    2017-03-01

    Conventional activated sludge-based wastewater treatment is an energy and resource-intensive process. Historically it has been successful at producing safely treated wastewater effluents in the developed world, specifically in places that have the infrastructure and space to support its operation. However, with a growing need for safe and efficient wastewater treatment across the world in both urban and rural settings, a paradigm shift in waste treatment is proving to be necessary. The sustainability of the future of wastewater treatment, in a significant way, hinges on moving towards energy neutrality and wastewater effluent reuse. This potential for reuse is threatened by the recent emergence and study of contaminants that have not been previously taken into consideration, such as antibiotics and other organic micropollutants (OMPs), antibiotic resistance genes, and persistent pathogenic bacteria. This dissertation focuses on investigating the use of anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology for the sustainable treatment of municipal-type wastewaters. Specifically, a microbial approach to understanding biofouling and methane recovery potential in anaerobic MBR systems has been employed to assess different reactor systems’ efficiency. This dissertation further compares AnMBRs to their more widely used aerobic counterparts. This comparison specifically focuses on the removal and biodegradation of OMPs and antibiotics in both anaerobic and aerobic MBRs, while also investigating their effect on the proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes. Due to rising interest in wastewater effluent reuse and the lack of a comprehensive understanding of MBR systems’ effects on pathogen proliferation, this dissertation also investigates the presence of pathogens in both aerobic and anaerobic MBR effluents by using molecularbased detection methods. The findings of this dissertation demonstrate that membrane-associated anaerobic digestion processes have significant

  19. Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS) for Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Imhoff; Ramin Yazdani; Don Augenstein; Harold Bentley; Pei Chiu

    2010-04-30

    Methane is an important contributor to global warming with a total climate forcing estimated to be close to 20% that of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the past two decades. The largest anthropogenic source of methane in the US is 'conventional' landfills, which account for over 30% of anthropogenic emissions. While controlling greenhouse gas emissions must necessarily focus on large CO2 sources, attention to reducing CH4 emissions from landfills can result in significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at low cost. For example, the use of 'controlled' or bioreactor landfilling has been estimated to reduce annual US greenhouse emissions by about 15-30 million tons of CO2 carbon (equivalent) at costs between $3-13/ton carbon. In this project we developed or advanced new management approaches, landfill designs, and landfill operating procedures for bioreactor landfills. These advances are needed to address lingering concerns about bioreactor landfills (e.g., efficient collection of increased CH4 generation) in the waste management industry, concerns that hamper bioreactor implementation and the consequent reductions in CH4 emissions. Collectively, the advances described in this report should result in better control of bioreactor landfills and reductions in CH4 emissions. Several advances are important components of an Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS).

  20. A performance evaluation of three membrane bioreactor systems: aerobic, anaerobic, and attached-growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilli, A; Marchand, E A; Childress, A E

    2011-01-01

    Water sustainability is essential for meeting human needs for drinking water and sanitation in both developing and developed countries. Reuse, decentralization, and low energy consumption are key objectives to achieve sustainability in wastewater treatment. Consideration of these objectives has led to the development of new and tailored technologies in order to balance societal needs with the protection of natural systems. Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are one such technology. In this investigation, a comparison of MBR performance is presented. Laboratory-scale submerged aerobic MBR (AMBR), anaerobic MBR (AnMBR), and attached-growth aerobic MBR (AtMBR) systems were evaluated for treating domestic wastewater under the same operating conditions. Long-term chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) monitoring showed greater than 80% removal in the three systems. The AnMBR system required three months of acclimation prior to steady operation, compared to one month for the aerobic systems. The AnMBR system exhibited a constant mixed liquor suspended solids concentration at an infinite solids retention time (i.e. no solids wasting), while the aerobic MBR systems produced approximately 0.25 g of biomass per gram of COD removed. This suggests a more economical solids management associated with the AnMBR system. Critical flux experiments were performed to evaluate fouling potential of the MBR systems. Results showed similar critical flux values between the AMBR and the AnMBR systems, while the AtMBR system showed relatively higher critical flux value. This result suggests a positive role of the attached-growth media in controlling membrane fouling in MBR systems.

  1. Biogeochemistry of the compost bioreactor components of a composite acid mine drainage passive remediation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D. Barrie; Hallberg, Kevin B.

    2005-01-01

    The compost bioreactor ('anaerobic cell') components of three composite passive remediation systems constructed to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) at the former Wheal Jane tin mine, Cornwall, UK were studied over a period of 16 months. While there was some amelioration of the preprocessed AMD in each of the three compost bioreactors, as evidenced by pH increase and decrease in metal concentrations, only one of the cells showed effective removal of the two dominant heavy metals (iron and zinc) present. With two of the compost bioreactors, concentrations of soluble (ferrous) iron draining the cells were significantly greater than those entering the reactors, indicating that there was net mobilisation (by reductive dissolution) of colloidal and/or solid-phase ferric iron compounds within the cells. Soluble sulfide was also detected in waters draining all three compost bioreactors which was rapidly oxidised, in contrast to ferrous iron. Oxidation and hydrolysis of iron, together with sulfide oxidation, resulted in reacidification of processed AMD downstream of the compost bioreactors in two of the passive treatment systems. The dominant cultivatable microorganism in waters draining the compost bioreactors was identified, via analysis of its 16S rRNA gene, as a Thiomonas sp. and was capable of accelerating the dissimilatory oxidation of both ferrous iron and reduced sulfur compounds. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were also detected, although only in the bioreactor that was performing well were these present in significant numbers. This particular compost bioreactor had been shut down for 10 months prior to the monitoring period due to operational problems. This unforeseen event appears to have allowed more successful development of AMD-tolerant and other microbial populations with critical roles in AMD bioremediation, including neutrophilic SRB (nSRB), in this compost bioreactor than in the other two, where the throughput of AMD was not interrupted. This study has

  2. Biogeochemistry of the compost bioreactor components of a composite acid mine drainage passive remediation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D Barrie; Hallberg, Kevin B

    2005-02-01

    The compost bioreactor ("anaerobic cell") components of three composite passive remediation systems constructed to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) at the former Wheal Jane tin mine, Cornwall, UK were studied over a period of 16 months. While there was some amelioration of the preprocessed AMD in each of the three compost bioreactors, as evidenced by pH increase and decrease in metal concentrations, only one of the cells showed effective removal of the two dominant heavy metals (iron and zinc) present. With two of the compost bioreactors, concentrations of soluble (ferrous) iron draining the cells were significantly greater than those entering the reactors, indicating that there was net mobilisation (by reductive dissolution) of colloidal and/or solid-phase ferric iron compounds within the cells. Soluble sulfide was also detected in waters draining all three compost bioreactors which was rapidly oxidised, in contrast to ferrous iron. Oxidation and hydrolysis of iron, together with sulfide oxidation, resulted in reacidification of processed AMD downstream of the compost bioreactors in two of the passive treatment systems. The dominant cultivatable microorganism in waters draining the compost bioreactors was identified, via analysis of its 16S rRNA gene, as a Thiomonas sp. and was capable of accelerating the dissimilatory oxidation of both ferrous iron and reduced sulfur compounds. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were also detected, although only in the bioreactor that was performing well were these present in significant numbers. This particular compost bioreactor had been shut down for 10 months prior to the monitoring period due to operational problems. This unforeseen event appears to have allowed more successful development of AMD-tolerant and other microbial populations with critical roles in AMD bioremediation, including neutrophilic SRB (nSRB), in this compost bioreactor than in the other two, where the throughput of AMD was not interrupted. This study has

  3. Role of Bioreactors in Microbial Biomass and Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liang [Chongqing University, Chongqing, China; Zhang, Biao [Chongqing University, Chongqing, China; Zhu, Xun [Chongqing University, Chongqing, China; Chang, Haixing [Chongqing University of Technology; Ou, Shawn [ORNL; Wang, HONG [Chongqing University, Chongqing, China

    2018-04-01

    Bioenergy is the world’s largest contributor to the renewable and sustainable energy sector, and it plays a significant role in various energy industries. A large amount of research has contributed to the rapidly evolving field of bioenergy and one of the most important topics is the use of the bioreactor. Bioreactors play a critical role in the successful development of technologies for microbial biomass cultivation and energy conversion. In this chapter, after a brief introduction to bioreactors (basic concepts, configurations, functions, and influencing factors), the applications of the bioreactor in microbial biomass, microbial biofuel conversion, and microbial electrochemical systems are described. Importantly, the role and significance of the bioreactor in the bioenergy process are discussed to provide a better understanding of the use of bioreactors in managing microbial biomass and energy conversion.

  4. A novel membrane distillation-thermophilic bioreactor system: biological stability and trace organic compound removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijekoon, Kaushalya C; Hai, Faisal I; Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Cath, Tzahi Y; Nghiem, Long D

    2014-05-01

    The removal of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) by a novel membrane distillation-thermophilic bioreactor (MDBR) system was examined. Salinity build-up and the thermophilic conditions to some extent adversely impacted the performance of the bioreactor, particularly the removal of total nitrogen and recalcitrant TrOCs. While most TrOCs were well removed by the thermophilic bioreactor, compounds containing electron withdrawing functional groups in their molecular structure were recalcitrant to biological treatment and their removal efficiency by the thermophilic bioreactor was low (0-53%). However, the overall performance of the novel MDBR system with respect to the removal of total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and TrOCs was high and was not significantly affected by the conditions of the bioreactor. All TrOCs investigated here were highly removed (>95%) by the MDBR system. Biodegradation, sludge adsorption, and rejection by MD contribute to the removal of TrOCs by MDBR treatment. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. NASA Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101825 for a version with major elements labeled, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic. 0101816

  6. The stress response system of proteins: Implications for bioreactor scaleup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goochee, Charles F.

    1988-01-01

    Animal cells face a variety of environmental stresses in large scale bioreactors, including periodic variations in shear stress and dissolved oxygen concentration. Diagnostic techniques were developed for identifying the particular sources of environmental stresses for animal cells in a given bioreactor configuration. The mechanisms by which cells cope with such stresses was examined. The individual concentrations and synthesis rates of hundreds of intracellular proteins are affected by the extracellular environment (medium composition, dissolved oxygen concentration, ph, and level of surface shear stress). Techniques are currently being developed for quantifying the synthesis rates and concentrations of the intracellular proteins which are most sensitive to environmental stress. Previous research has demonstrated that a particular set of stress response proteins are synthesized by mammalian cells in response to temperature fluctuations, dissolved oxygen deprivation, and glucose deprivation. Recently, it was demonstrated that exposure of human kidney cells to high shear stress results in expression of a completely distinct set of intracellular proteins.

  7. A New Fluidized Bed Bioreactor Based on Diversion-Type Microcapsule Suspension for Bioartificial Liver Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Lu

    Full Text Available A fluidized bed bioreactor containing encapsulated hepatocytes may be a valuable alternative to a hollow fiber bioreactor for achieving the improved mass transfer and scale-up potential necessary for clinical use. However, a conventional fluidized bed bioreactor (FBB operating under high perfusion velocity is incapable of providing the desired performance due to the resulting damage to cell-containing microcapsules and large void volume. In this study, we developed a novel diversion-type microcapsule-suspension fluidized bed bioreactor (DMFBB. The void volume in the bioreactor and stability of alginate/chitosan microcapsules were investigated under different flow rates. Cell viability, synthesis and metabolism functions, and expression of metabolizing enzymes at transcriptional levels in an encapsulated hepatocyte line (C3A cells were determined. The void volume was significantly less in the novel bioreactor than in the conventional FBB. In addition, the microcapsules were less damaged in the DMFBB during the fluidization process as reflected by the results for microcapsule retention rates, swelling, and breakage. Encapsulated C3A cells exhibited greater viability and CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 activity in the DMFBB than in the FBB, although the increases in albumin and urea synthesis were less prominent. The transcription levels of several CYP450-related genes and an albumin-related gene were dramatically greater in cells in the DMFBB than in those in the FBB. Taken together, our results suggest that the DMFBB is a promising alternative for the design of a bioartificial liver system based on a fluidized bed bioreactor with encapsulated hepatocytes for treating patients with acute hepatic failure or other severe liver diseases.

  8. Studies of Cell-Mediated Immunity Against Immune Disorders Using Synthetic Peptides and Rotating Bioreactor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Jagannadha K.

    1998-01-01

    We conducted a series of experiments using mouse immune-precursor cells, and observed that bioreactor culturing results in the loss of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) function. The reason for the abrogation of CTL function is microgravity conditions in the bioreactor, but not the antigen per se or its MHC restriction. Similarly, we observed that allostimulation of human PBMC in the bioreactor, but not in the T flask, resulted in the blunting of both allo-CTL function and the NK activity, indicating that the microgravity-associated functional defects are not unique to the mouse system. These results provide further confirmation to the microgravity-associated immune dysfunction, and constitute ground-based confirmatory data for those related to space-travel.

  9. Sustainable Drainage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban water management has somewhat changed since the publication of The Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS Manual in 2007 [1], transforming from building traditional sewers to implementing SuDS, which are part of the best management practice techniques used in the USA and seen as contributing to water-sensitive urban design in Australia. Most SuDS, such as infiltration trenches, swales, green roofs, ponds, and wetlands, address water quality and quantity challenges, and enhance the local biodiversity while also being acceptable aesthetically to the public. Barriers to the implementation of SuDS include adoption problems, flood and diffuse pollution control challenges, negative public perception, and a lack of decision support tools addressing, particularly, the retrofitting of these systems while enhancing ecosystem services. [...

  10. Sustainable organic loading rate and energy recovery potential of mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai

    2014-08-01

    The overall performance of a mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for synthetic municipal wastewater treatment was investigated under a range of organic loading rate (OLR). A very steady and high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (around 98%) was achieved over a broad range of volumetric OLR of 0.8-10gCOD/L/d. The sustainable volumetric and sludge OLR satisfying a permeate COD below 50mg/L for general reuse was 6gCOD/L/d and 0.63gCOD/gMLVSS (mixed liquor volatile suspended solids)/d, respectively. At a high sludge OLR of over 0.6gCOD/gMLVSS/d, the AnMBR achieved high methane production of over 300ml/gCOD (even approaching the theoretical value of 382ml/gCOD). A low biomass production of 0.015-0.026gMLVSS/gCOD and a sustainable flux of 6L/m2/h were observed. The integration of a heat pump and forward osmosis into the mesophilic AnMBR process would be a promising way for net energy recovery from typical municipal wastewater in a temperate area. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Assessment of packed bed bioreactor systems in the production of viral vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendran, Ramya; Lingala, Rajendra; Vuppu, Siva Kumar; Bandi, Bala Obulapathi; Manickam, Elaiyaraja; Macherla, Sankar Rao; Dubois, Stéphanie; Havelange, Nicolas; Maithal, Kapil

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is believed to be the most effective method for the prevention of infectious diseases. Thus it is imperative to develop cost effective and scalable process for the production of vaccines so as to make them affordable for mass use. In this study, performance of a novel disposable iCELLis fixed bed bioreactor system was investigated for the production of some viral vaccines like Rabies, Hepatitis-A and Chikungunya vaccines in comparison to conventional systems like the commercially ...

  12. Managing Sustainable Information Systems Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kautz, Karlheinz

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable information systems development (ISD) in the context of this paper is not about products that support sustainability at large with its environmental, economic and social dimensions and little about the development of sustainable products, which are both without doubt important topics...

  13. A novel, membrane-based bioreactor design to enable a closed-loop system on Earth and beyond, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a membrane bioreactor system to produce a biopolymer from methane gas. This new methane fermentation process will expand and advance...

  14. Continuous biodiesel production using in situ glycerol separation by membrane bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Myung Joo; Park, Hyun June; Hong, So Yeon; Yoo, Young Je

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel is one of the most promising renewable fuel sources. Candida antarctica lipase B (CalB) has been used for biodiesel production because of its high activity and stability. However, CalB can only be utilized in industrial biodiesel production if the enzyme deactivation by methanol and the negative effects of glycerol can be mitigated. Methanol inhibition can be avoided by utilizing a stepwise addition of methanol, but there is no suitable method to reduce the glycerol effect. This study aims to use a membrane bioreactor system to remove glycerol during biodiesel production. In addition, methanol inhibition can be reduced by continuously feeding methanol through the membrane system. This continuous membrane bioreactor system can be used for efficient biodiesel production.

  15. Micro propagation of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni through temporary immersion bioreactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norazlina Noordin; Rusli Ibrahim; Nur Hidayah Sajahan; Siti Maryam Mohd Nahar; Siti Hajar Mohd Nahar

    2012-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a perennial herb that belongs to the family of Asteraceae. It is a natural sweetener plant known as sweet leaf, which is estimated to be 300 times sweeter than cane sugar. In this study, micro propagation of this natural herb via temporary immersion bioreactor system was successfully conducted. Shoot tips and nodal segment were used as explants to induce multiply shoots. It was found that shoot tips on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l Kinetin showed the highest shoot multiplication after 3 weeks of culture. Shoot elongation and rooting was successfully optimized in MS basal medium 2 weeks later. Mass propagation of stevia shoots were carried out in temporary immersion bioreactor and this system showed promising potential as an alternative approach for rapid and continuous production of in vitro stevia plantlets. (author)

  16. Configuration of bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, D.E.; End, van den E.J.; Streefland, M.

    2014-01-01

    Lab-scale stirred-tank bioreactors (0.2–20 l) are used for fundamental research on animal cells and in process development and troubleshooting for large-scale production. In this chapter, different configurations of bioreactor systems are shortly discussed and setting up these different

  17. Phosphorus and water recovery by a novel osmotic membrane bioreactor-reverse osmosis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenhai; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nghiem, Long D

    2016-01-01

    An osmotic membrane bioreactor-reverse osmosis (OMBR-RO) hybrid system integrated with periodic microfiltration (MF) extraction was evaluated for simultaneous phosphorus and clean water recovery from raw sewage. In this hybrid system, the forward osmosis membrane effectively retained inorganic salts and phosphate in the bioreactor, while the MF membrane periodically bled them out for phosphorus recovery with pH adjustment. The RO process was used for draw solute recovery and clean water production. Results show that phosphorus recuperation from the MF permeate was most effective when the solution pH was adjusted to 10, whereby the recovered precipitate contained 15-20% (wt/wt) of phosphorus. Periodic MF extraction also limited salinity build-up in the bioreactor, resulting in a stable biological performance and an increase in water flux during OMBR operation. Despite the build-up of organic matter and ammonia in the draw solution, OMBR-RO allowed for the recovery of high quality reused water. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental and economic sustainability of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors treating urban wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Pretel Jolis, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Anaerobic MBRs (AnMBRs) can provide the desired step towards sustainable wastewater treatment, broadening the range of application of anaerobic biotechnology to low-strength wastewaters (e.g. urban ones) or extreme environmental conditions (e.g. low operating temperatures). This alternative technology gathers the advantages of anaerobic treatment processes (e.g. low energy demand stemming from no aeration and energy recovery through methane production) jointly with the benefits of membra...

  19. SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    While sustainability is generally associated with the definition given by the World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) namely development that "meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future," it is import...

  20. Application of acidogenic fixed-bed reactor prior to anaerobic membrane bioreactor for sustainable slaughterhouse wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddoud, Ahlem; Sayadi, Sami

    2007-01-01

    High rate anaerobic treatment systems such as anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AMBR) are less popular for slaughterhouse wastewater due to the presence of high fat oil and suspended matters in the effluent. This affects the performance and efficiency of the treatment system. In this work, AMBR has been tried for slaughterhouse wastewater treatment. After the start up period, the reactor was operated with an average organic loading rate (OLR) of 4.37 kg TCOD m -3 d -1 with gradual increase to an average of 13.27 kg TCOD m -3 d -1 . At stable conditions, the treatment efficiency was high with an average COD and BOD 5 reduction of 93.7 and 93.96%, respectively. However, a reduction in the AMBR performance was shown with the increase of the OLR to 16.32 kg TCOD m -3 d -1 . The removal efficiencies of SCOD and BOD 5 were drastically decreased to below 53.6 and 73.3%, respectively. The decrease of the AMBR performance was due to the accumulation of VFAs. Thus, a new integrated system composed of a FBR for the acidogenesis step followed by the AMBR for methanogenesis step was developed. At high ORL, the integrated system improved the performance of the anaerobic digestion and it successfully overcame the VFA accumulation problem in the AMBR. The anaerobic treatment led to a total removal of all tested pathogens. Thus, the microbiological quality of treated wastewater fits largely with WHO guidelines

  1. Principles of sustainable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kreith, Frank

    2013-01-01

    … ""This is an ideal book for seniors and graduate students interested in learning about the sustainable energy field and its penetration. The authors provide very strong discussion on cost-benefit analysis and ROI calculations for various alternate energy systems in current use. This is a descriptive book with detailed case-based analyses of various systems and engineering applications. The text book provides real-world case studies and related problems pertaining to sustainable energy systems.""--Dr. Kuruvilla John, University of North Texas""The new edition of ""Principles of Sustainable En

  2. Application of dynamic membranes in anaerobic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erşahin, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) physically ensure biomass retention by the application of a membrane filtration process. With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the combination of membrane and anaerobic processes has received much attention and become

  3. Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dinçer, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications presents analyses of sustainable energy systems and their applications, providing new understandings, methodologies, models and applications along with descriptions of several illustrative examples and case studies. This textbook aims to address key pillars in the field, such as: better efficiency, cost effectiveness, use of energy resources, environment, energy security, and sustainable development. It also includes some cutting-edge topics, such as hydrogen and fuel cells, renewable, clean combustion technologies, CO2 abatement technologies, and some potential tools for design, analysis and performance improvement. The book also: Discusses producing energy by increasing systems efficiency in generation, conversion, transportation and consumption Analyzes the conversion of fossil fuels to clean fuels for limiting  pollution and creating a better environment Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications is a research-based textbook which can be used by senior u...

  4. Development of a hybrid photo-bioreactor and nanoparticle adsorbent system for the removal of CO2, and selected organic and metal co-pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Andrea A; Wilde, Christian; Hu, Zhenzhong; Nepotchatykh, Oleg; Nazarenko, Yevgen; Ariya, Parisa A

    2017-07-01

    Fossil fuel combustion and many industrial processes generate gaseous emissions that contain a number of toxic organic pollutants and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) which contribute to climate change and atmospheric pollution. There is a need for green and sustainable solutions to remove air pollutants, as opposed to conventional techniques which can be expensive, consume additional energy and generate further waste. We developed a novel integrated bioreactor combined with recyclable iron oxide nano/micro-particle adsorption interfaces, to remove CO 2, and undesired organic air pollutants using natural particles, while generating oxygen. This semi-continuous bench-scale photo-bioreactor was shown to successfully clean up simulated emission streams of up to 45% CO 2 with a conversion rate of approximately 4% CO 2 per hour, generating a steady supply of oxygen (6mmol/hr), while nanoparticles effectively remove several undesired organic by-products. We also showed algal waste of the bioreactor can be used for mercury remediation. We estimated the potential CO 2 emissions that could be captured from our new method for three industrial cases in which, coal, oil and natural gas were used. With a 30% carbon capture system, the reduction of CO 2 was estimated to decrease by about 420,000, 320,000 and 240,000 metric tonnes, respectively for a typical 500MW power plant. The cost analysis we conducted showed potential to scale-up, and the entire system is recyclable and sustainable. We further discuss the implications of usage of this complete system, or as individual units, that could provide a hybrid option to existing industrial setups. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Treatment of Medical Wastewater by Moving Bed Bioreactor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Ibrahim Jasem

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The hospital wastewater is considered as a complex mixture, populated with microbial and a variety of toxic substances. The performance of EEC USA moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR with polyethylene media as biofilm support carrier, packaged wastewater treatment plant with a capacity of 250 m3/day was evaluated for treating the wastewater from Al- Batul hospital of Baquba city in Iraq in terms of the organic matter and suspended solid removal, along with nitrification and microbial growth for medical wastewater. The test results showed that the average removal efficiency of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and total suspended solid (TSS were 79.5%, 74.5%, and 78%, respectively. The system offers good nitrification with the efficiency of 79%. The system shows a weak formation of biomass on carriers, only 1.93 g TSS/m2 of media, corresponding to 32% of the suspended biomass in the reactor.

  6. Smart sustainable bottle (SSB) system for E. coli based recombinant protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaopeng; Carstensen, Bettina; Rinas, Ursula

    2014-11-05

    Recombinant proteins are usually required in laboratories interested in the protein but not in the production process itself. Thus, technical equipment which is easy to handle and straight forward protein production procedures are of great benefit to those laboratories. Companies selling single use cultivation bags and bioreactors are trying to satisfy at least part of these needs. However, single-use systems can contribute to major costs which might be acceptable when "good manufacturing practices" are required but not acceptable for most laboratories facing tight funding. The assembly and application of a simple self-made "smart sustainable bottle" (SSB) system for E. coli based protein production is presented. The core of the SSB system is a 2-L glass bottle which is operated at constant temperature, air flow, and stirrer speed without measurement and control of pH and dissolved oxygen. Oxygen transfer capacities are in the range as in conventional bioreactors operated at intermediate aeration rates and by far exceed those found in conventional shaking flasks and disposable bioreactors. The SSB system was applied for the production of various recombinant proteins using T7-based expression systems and a defined autoinduction medium. The production performance regarding amount and solubility of proteins with robust and delicate properties was as good as in state-of-the-art stirred tank commercial bioreactors. The SSB system represents a low cost protein production device applicable for easy, effective, and reproducible recombinant protein production.

  7. Application of acidogenic fixed-bed reactor prior to anaerobic membrane bioreactor for sustainable slaughterhouse wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saddoud, Ahlem [Laboratoire des Bio-procedes, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, BP: K, Sfax 3038 (Tunisia); Sayadi, Sami [Laboratoire des Bio-procedes, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, BP: K, Sfax 3038 (Tunisia)], E-mail: sami.sayadi@cbs.rnrt.tn

    2007-11-19

    High rate anaerobic treatment systems such as anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AMBR) are less popular for slaughterhouse wastewater due to the presence of high fat oil and suspended matters in the effluent. This affects the performance and efficiency of the treatment system. In this work, AMBR has been tried for slaughterhouse wastewater treatment. After the start up period, the reactor was operated with an average organic loading rate (OLR) of 4.37 kg TCOD m{sup -3} d{sup -1} with gradual increase to an average of 13.27 kg TCOD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. At stable conditions, the treatment efficiency was high with an average COD and BOD{sub 5} reduction of 93.7 and 93.96%, respectively. However, a reduction in the AMBR performance was shown with the increase of the OLR to 16.32 kg TCOD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The removal efficiencies of SCOD and BOD{sub 5} were drastically decreased to below 53.6 and 73.3%, respectively. The decrease of the AMBR performance was due to the accumulation of VFAs. Thus, a new integrated system composed of a FBR for the acidogenesis step followed by the AMBR for methanogenesis step was developed. At high ORL, the integrated system improved the performance of the anaerobic digestion and it successfully overcame the VFA accumulation problem in the AMBR. The anaerobic treatment led to a total removal of all tested pathogens. Thus, the microbiological quality of treated wastewater fits largely with WHO guidelines.

  8. Lactose autoinduction with enzymatic glucose release: characterization of the cultivation system in bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Sonja; Junne, Stefan; Ukkonen, Kaisa; Glazyrina, Julia; Glauche, Florian; Neubauer, Peter; Vasala, Antti

    2014-02-01

    The lactose autoinduction system for recombinant protein production was combined with enzymatic glucose release as a method to provide a constant feed of glucose instead of using glycerol as a carbon substrate. Bioreactor cultivation confirmed that the slow glucose feed does not prevent the induction by lactose. HPLC studies showed that with successful recombinant protein production only a very low amount of lactose was metabolized during glucose-limited fed-batch conditions by the Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)pLysS in well-aerated conditions, which are problematic for glycerol-based autoinduction systems. We propose that slow enzymatic glucose feed does not cause a full activation of the lactose operon. However recombinant PDI-A protein (A-domain of human disulfide isomerase) was steadily produced until the end of the cultivation. The results of the cultivations confirmed our earlier observations with shaken cultures showing that lactose autoinduction cultures based on enzymatic glucose feed have good scalability, and that this system can be applied also to bioreactor cultivations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimizing Hydraulic Retention Times in Denitrifying Woodchip Bioreactors Treating Recirculating Aquaculture System Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepine, Christine; Christianson, Laura; Sharrer, Kata; Summerfelt, Steven

    2016-05-01

    The performance of wood-based denitrifying bioreactors to treat high-nitrate wastewaters from aquaculture systems has not previously been demonstrated. Four pilot-scale woodchip bioreactors (approximately 1:10 scale) were constructed and operated for 268 d to determine the optimal range of design hydraulic retention times (HRTs) for nitrate removal. The bioreactors were operated under HRTs ranging from 6.6 to 55 h with influent nitrate concentrations generally between 20 and 80 mg NO-N L. These combinations resulted in N removal rates >39 g N m d, which is greater than previously reported. These high removal rates were due in large part to the relatively high chemical oxygen demand and warm temperature (∼19°C) of the wastewater. An optimized design HRT may not be the same based on metrics of N removal rate versus N removal efficiency; longer HRTs demonstrated higher removal efficiencies, and shorter HRTs had higher removal rates. When nitrate influent concentrations were approximately 75 mg NO-N L ( = 6 sample events), the shortest HRT (12 h) had the lowest removal efficiency (45%) but a significantly greater removal rate than the two longest HRTs (42 and 55 h), which were N limited. Sulfate reduction was also observed under highly reduced conditions and was exacerbated under prolonged N-limited environments. Balancing the removal rate and removal efficiency for this water chemistry with a design HRT of approximately 24 h would result in a 65% removal efficiency and removal rates of at least 18 g N m d. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Modeling of leachate recirculation using combined drainage blanket-horizontal trench systems in bioreactor landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Cao, Ben-Yi; Xie, Hai-Jian

    2017-10-01

    Leachate recirculation in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills operated as bioreactors offers significant economic and environmental benefits. Combined drainage blanket (DB)-horizontal trench (HT) systems can be an alternative to single conventional recirculation approaches and can have competitive advantages. The key objectives of this study are to investigate combined drainage blanket -horizontal trench systems, to analyze the effects of applying two recirculation systems on the leachate migration in landfills, and to estimate some key design parameters (e.g., the steady-state flow rate, the influence width, and the cumulative leachate volume). It was determined that an effective recirculation model should consist of a moderate horizontal trench injection pressure head and supplementary leachate recirculated through drainage blanket, with an objective of increasing the horizontal unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and thereby allowing more leachate to flow from the horizontal trench system in a horizontal direction. In addition, design charts for engineering application were established using a dimensionless variable formulation.

  11. Cyclic mechanical stimulation rescues achilles tendon from degeneration in a bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Lin, Zhen; Ni, Ming; Thien, Christine; Day, Robert E; Gardiner, Bruce; Rubenson, Jonas; Kirk, Thomas B; Smith, David W; Wang, Allan; Lloyd, David G; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Qiujian; Zheng, Ming H

    2015-12-01

    Physiotherapy is one of the effective treatments for tendinopathy, whereby symptoms are relieved by changing the biomechanical environment of the pathological tendon. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we first established a model of progressive tendinopathy-like degeneration in the rabbit Achilles. Following ex vivo loading deprivation culture in a bioreactor system for 6 and 12 days, tendons exhibited progressive degenerative changes, abnormal collagen type III production, increased cell apoptosis, and weakened mechanical properties. When intervention was applied at day 7 for another 6 days by using cyclic tensile mechanical stimulation (6% strain, 0.25 Hz, 8 h/day) in a bioreactor, the pathological changes and mechanical properties were almost restored to levels seen in healthy tendon. Our results indicated that a proper biomechanical environment was able to rescue early-stage pathological changes by increased collagen type I production, decreased collagen degradation and cell apoptosis. The ex vivo model developed in this study allows systematic study on the effect of mechanical stimulation on tendon biology. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The importance of bicarbonate and nonbicarbonate buffer systems in batch and continuous flow bioreactors for articular cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aasma A; Surrao, Denver C

    2012-05-01

    In cartilage tissue engineering an optimized culture system, maintaining an appropriate extracellular environment (e.g., pH of media), can increase cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation. We have previously reported on a continuous-flow bioreactor that improves tissue growth by supplying the cells with a near infinite supply of medium. Previous studies have observed that acidic environments reduce ECM synthesis and chondrocyte proliferation. Hence, in this study we investigated the combined effects of a continuous culture system (bioreactor) together with additional buffering agents (e.g., sodium bicarbonate [NaHCO₃]) on cartilaginous tissue growth in vitro. Isolated bovine chondrocytes were grown in three-dimensional cultures, either in static conditions or in a continuous-flow bioreactor, in media with or without NaHCO₃. Tissue constructs cultivated in the bioreactor with NaHCO₃-supplemented media were characterized with significantly increased (p<0.05) ECM accumulation (glycosaminoglycans a 98-fold increase; collagen a 25-fold increase) and a 13-fold increase in cell proliferation, in comparison with static cultures. Additionally, constructs grown in the bioreactor with NaHCO₃-supplemented media were significantly thicker than all other constructs (p<0.05). Further, the chondrocytes from the primary construct expanded and synthesized ECM, forming a secondary construct without a separate expansion phase, with a diameter and thickness of 4 mm and 0.72 mm respectively. Tissue outgrowth was negligible in all other culturing conditions. Thus this study demonstrates the advantage of employing a continuous flow bioreactor coupled with NaHCO₃ supplemented media for articular cartilage tissue engineering.

  13. Dependency of microalgal production on biomass and the relationship to yield and bioreactor scale-up for biofuels: A statistical analysis of 60+ years of algal bioreactor data

    OpenAIRE

    Granata, Timothy (Autor/in)

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1950's, research has been undertaken to promote algal biofuel as a sustainable alternative to fossil fuels. Most commercial production of microalgae is done in open systems, such as raceways flumes but especially, ponds. There has also been substantial work to develop closed, photo-bioreactors on a commercial scale. This paper statistically analyzed 290 studies of microalgal bioreactors to determine the interdependence of biological and physical factors. Forty genera in 5 classes an...

  14. Synthetic sustained gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankit; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy today is hampered by the need of a safe and efficient gene delivery system that can provide a sustained therapeutic effect without cytotoxicity or unwanted immune responses. Bolus gene delivery in solution results in the loss of delivered factors via lymphatic system and may cause undesired effects by the escape of bioactive molecules to distant sites. Controlled gene delivery systems, acting as localized depot of genes, provide an extended sustained release of genes, giving prolonged maintenance of the therapeutic level of encoded proteins. They also limit the DNA degradation in the nuclease rich extra-cellular environment. While attempts have been made to adapt existing controlled drug delivery technologies, more novel approaches are being investigated for controlled gene delivery. DNA encapsulated in nano/micro spheres of polymers have been administered systemically/orally to be taken up by the targeted tissues and provide sustained release once internalized. Alternatively, DNA entrapped in hydrogels or scaffolds have been injected/implanted in tissues/cavities as platforms for gene delivery. The present review examines these different modalities for sustained delivery of viral and non-viral gene-delivery vectors. Design parameters and release mechanisms of different systems made with synthetic or natural polymers are presented along with their prospective applications and opportunities for continuous development.

  15. Enhancing productivity for cascade biotransformation of styrene to (S)-vicinal diol with biphasic system in hollow fiber membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pengfei; Wu, Shuke; Praveen, Prashant; Loh, Kai-Chee; Li, Zhi

    2017-03-01

    Biotransformation is a green and useful tool for sustainable and selective chemical synthesis. However, it often suffers from the toxicity and inhibition from organic substrates or products. Here, we established a hollow fiber membrane bioreactor (HFMB)-based aqueous/organic biphasic system, for the first time, to enhance the productivity of a cascade biotransformation with strong substrate toxicity and inhibition. The enantioselective trans-dihydroxylation of styrene to (S)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol, catalyzed by Escherichia coli (SSP1) coexpressing styrene monooxygenase and an epoxide hydrolase, was performed in HFMB with organic solvent in the shell side and aqueous cell suspension in the lumen side. Various organic solvents were investigated, and n-hexadecane was found as the best for the HFMB-based biphasic system. Comparing to other reported biphasic systems assisted by HFMB, our system not only shield much of the substrate toxicity but also deflate the product recovery burden in downstream processing as the majority of styrene stayed in organic phase while the diol product mostly remained in the aqueous phase. The established HFMB-based biphasic system enhanced the production titer to 143 mM, being 16-fold higher than the aqueous system and 1.6-fold higher than the traditional dispersive partitioning biphase system. Furthermore, the combination of biphasic system with HFMB prevents the foaming and emulsification, thus reducing the burden in downstream purification. HFMB-based biphasic system could serve as a suitable platform for enhancing the productivity of single-step or cascade biotransformation with toxic substrates to produce useful and valuable chemicals.

  16. Development of a Mechanically Versatile Bioreactor System as a Cellular Microgravity Countermeasure for Regenerative Medicine Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective of this research project is to develop a compact, mechanically versatile bioreactor capable of producing desired local mechanical environments...

  17. Biotic manganese oxidation coupled with methane oxidation using a continuous-flow bioreactor system under marine conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shingo; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Kikuchi, Sakiko; Kashiwabara, Teruhiko; Saito, Yumi; Tasumi, Eiji; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Takai, Ken; Cao, Linh Thi Thuy; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Imachi, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-01

    Biogenic manganese oxides (BioMnOx) can be applied for the effective removal and recovery of trace metals from wastewater because of their high adsorption capacity. Although a freshwater continuous-flow system for a nitrifier-based Mn-oxidizing microbial community for producing BioMnOx has been developed so far, a seawater continuous-flow bioreactor system for BioMnOx production has not been established. Here, we report BioMnOx production by a methanotroph-based microbial community by using a continuous-flow bioreactor system. The bioreactor system was operated using a deep-sea sediment sample as the inoculum with methane as the energy source for over 2 years. The BioMnOx production became evident after 370 days of reactor operation. The maximum Mn oxidation rate was 11.4 mg L -1 day -1 . An X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the accumulated BioMnOx was birnessite. 16S rRNA gene-based clone analyses indicated that methanotrophic bacterial members were relatively abundant in the system; however, none of the known Mn-oxidizing bacteria were detected. A continuous-flow bioreactor system coupled with nitrification was also run in parallel for 636 days, but no BioMnOx production was observed in this bioreactor system. The comparative experiments indicated that the methanotroph-based microbial community, rather than the nitrifier-based community, was effective for BioMnOx production under the marine environmental conditions.

  18. Creating Sustainable Urban Water Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Managing urban water infrastructure is conventionally the professional domain of engineers. As urban water systems are placed under increasing pressure due to population growth, rapid urbanisation and climate change, the provision of water and sanitation services to cities has become a wicked problem. As such it cannot be adequately addressed by engineers alone, and requires greater attention from urban designers and planners. The move to sustainable urban water systems will involve greater a...

  19. Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

    2004-03-11

    This report summarizes work of this project from October 2003 through March 2004. The major focus of the research was to further investigate BTEX removal from produced water, to quantify metal ion removal from produced water, and to evaluate a lab-scale vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) for BTEX destruction in off-gases produced during SMZ regeneration. Batch equilibrium sorption studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of semi-volatile organic compounds commonly found in produced water on the sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) onto surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) and to examine selected metal ion sorption onto SMZ. The sorption of polar semi-volatile organic compounds and metals commonly found in produced water onto SMZ was also investigated. Batch experiments were performed in a synthetic saline solution that mimicked water from a produced water collection facility in Wyoming. Results indicated that increasing concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds increased BTEX sorption. The sorption of phenol compounds could be described by linear isotherms, but the linear partitioning coefficients decreased with increasing pH, especially above the pKa's of the compounds. Linear correlations relating partitioning coefficients of phenol compounds with their respective solubilities and octanol-water partitioning coefficients were developed for data collected at pH 7.2. The sorption of chromate, selenate, and barium in synthetic produced water were also described by Langmuir isotherms. Experiments conducted with a lab-scale vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) packed with foam indicated that this system could achieve high BTEX removal efficiencies once the nutrient delivery system was optimized. The xylene isomers and benzene were found to require the greatest biofilter bed depth for removal. This result suggested that these VOCs would ultimately control the size of the biofilter required for the produced water application. The biofilter

  20. Advances in biotreatment of acid mine drainage and biorecovery of metals: 2. Membrane bioreactor system for sulfate reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Henry H; Govind, Rakesh

    2003-12-01

    Several biotreatmemt techniques for sulfate conversion by the sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) have been proposed in the past, however few of them have been practically applied to treat sulfate containing acid mine drainage (AMD). This research deals with development of an innovative polypropylene hollow fiber membrane bioreactor system for the treatment of acid mine water from the Berkeley Pit, Butte, MT, using hydrogen consuming SRB biofilms. The advantages of using the membrane bioreactor over the conventional tall liquid phase sparged gas bioreactor systems are: large microporous membrane surface to the liquid phase; formation of hydrogen sulfide outside the membrane, preventing the mixing with the pressurized hydrogen gas inside the membrane; no requirement of gas recycle compressor; membrane surface is suitable for immobilization of active SRB, resulting in the formation of biofilms, thus preventing washout problems associated with suspended culture reactors; and lower operating costs in membrane bioreactors, eliminating gas recompression and gas recycle costs. Information is provided on sulfate reduction rate studies and on biokinetic tests with suspended SRB in anaerobic digester sludge and sediment master culture reactors and with SRB biofilms in bench-scale SRB membrane bioreactors. Biokinetic parameters have been determined using biokinetic models for the master culture and membrane bioreactor systems. Data are presented on the effect of acid mine water sulfate loading at 25, 50, 75 and 100 ml/min in scale-up SRB membrane units, under varied temperatures (25, 35 and 40 degrees C) to determine and optimize sulfate conversions for an effective AMD biotreatment. Pilot-scale studies have generated data on the effect of flow rates of acid mine water (MGD) and varied inlet sulfate concentrations in the influents on the resultant outlet sulfate concentration in the effluents and on the number of SRB membrane modules needed for the desired sulfate conversion in

  1. Development of a Comprehensive Fouling Model for a Rotating Membrane Bioreactor System Treating Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parneet Paul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane bioreactors (MBRs are now main stream wastewater treatment technologies. In recent times, novel pressure driven rotating membrane disc modules have been specially developed that induce high shear on the membrane surface, thereby reducing fouling. Previous research has produced dead-end filtration fouling model which combines all three classical mechanisms that was later used by another researcher as a starting point for a greatly refined model of a cross flow side-stream MBR that incorporated both hydrodynamics and soluble microbial products’ (SMP effects. In this study, a comprehensive fouling model was created based on this earlier work that incorporated all three classical fouling mechanisms for a rotating MBR system. It was tested and validated for best fit using appropriate data sets. The initial model fit appeared good for all simulations, although it still needs to be calibrated using further appropriate data sets.

  2. Oxygen Limited Bioreactors System For Nitrogen Removal Using Immobilized Mix Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, B. K.; Sumino, T.; Saiki, Y.; Kazama, F.

    2005-12-01

    Recently nutrients concentrations especially nitrogen in natural water is alarming in the world wide. Most of the effort is being done on the removal of high concentration of nitrogen especially from the wastewater treatment plants. The removal efficiency is targeted in all considering the effluent discharge standard set by the national environment agency. In many cases, it does not meet the required standard and receiving water is being polluted. Eutrophication in natural water bodies has been reported even if the nitrogen concentration is low and self purification of natural systems itself is not sufficient to remove the nitrogen due to complex phenomenon. In order to recover the pristine water environment, it is very essential to explore bioreactor systems for natural water systems using immobilized mix culture. Microorganism were entrapped in Polyethylene glycol (PEG) prepolymer gel and cut into 3mm cubic immobilized pellets. Four laboratory scale micro bio-reactors having 0.1 L volumes were packed with immobilized pellets with 50% compact ratio. RUN1, RUN2, RUN3 and RUN4 were packed with immobilized pellets from reservoirs sediments, activated sludge (AS), mixed of AS, AG and biodegradable plastic and anaerobic granules (AG) respectively. Water from Shiokawa Reservoirs was feed to all reactors with supplemental ammonia and nitrite nitrogen as specified in the results and discussions. The reactors were operated dark incubated room in continuous flow mode with hydraulic retention time of 12 hours under oxygen limiting condition. Ammonium, nitrate nitrite nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were measured as described in APWA and AWWA (1998). Laboratory scale four bioreactors containing different combination of immobilized cell were monitored for 218 days. Influent NH4+-N and NO2--N concentration were 2.27±0.43 and 2.05±0.41 mg/l respectively. Average dissolved oxygen concentration and pH in the reactors were 0.40-2.5 mg/l and pH 6

  3. Proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance: The mediating effect of sustainability control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijethilake, Chaminda

    2017-07-01

    This study examines to what extent corporations use sustainability control systems (SCS) to translate proactive sustainability strategy into corporate sustainability performance. The study investigates the mediating effect of SCS on the relationship between proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance. Survey data were collected from top managers in 175 multinational and local corporations operating in Sri Lanka and analyzed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). SCS were observed to only partially mediate the relationship between proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance. The mediating effect of SCS is further examined under three sustainability strategies; environmental and social strategies reveal a partial mediation, while the economic strategy exhibits no mediation. The study also finds that (i) a proactive sustainability strategy is positively associated with SCS and corporate sustainability performance and (ii) SCS are positively associated with corporate sustainability performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of operating conditions in production of diagnostic Salmonella Enteritidis O-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody in different bioreactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyildiz-Tamis, Duygu; Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Elibol, Murat; Deliloglu-Gurhan, Saime Ismet

    2014-01-01

    In this study, different cultivation systems such as roller bottles (RB), 5-L stirred-tank bioreactor (STR), and disposable bioreactors were used to cultivate hybridoma for lab-scale production of Salmonella Enteritidis O-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb). Hybridoma cell line was cultivated in either serum-containing or serum-free medium (SFM) culture conditions. In STR, MAb production scaled up to 4 L, and production capabilities of the cells were also evaluated in different featured production systems. Moreover, the growth parameters of the cells in all production systems such as glucose consumption, lactate and ammonia production, and also MAb productivities were determined. Collected supernatants from the reactors were concentrated by a cross-flow filtration system. In conclusion, cells were not adapted to SFM in RB and STR. Therefore, less MAb titer in both STR and RB systems with SFM was observed compared to the cultures containing fetal bovine serum-supplemented medium. A higher MAb titer was gained in the membrane-aerated system compared to those in STR and RB. Although the highest MAb titer was obtained in the static membrane bioreactor system, the highest productivity was obtained in STR operated in semicontinuous mode with overlay aeration.

  5. ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT. PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs for domestic wastewaters treatment was studied in laboratory scale, with the objective to define sustainable filtration conditions of the suspensions along the process. During continuous experiments, the organic matter degradation by anaerobic way showed an average DQOT removal of 85% and 93%. Indeed, the degradation generated biogas after 12 days of operation and its relative methane composition was of 60% after 25 days of operation. Additionally, the comparison between membrane bioreactors (MBRs performance in aerobic and anaerobic conditions in filterability terms, reported that both systems behave similarly once reached the stationary state.

  6. A microbial fuel cell–membrane bioreactor integrated system for cost-effective wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yong-Peng; Liu, Xian-Wei; Li, Wen-Wei; Li, Feng; Wang, Yun-Kun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Zeng, Raymond J.; Yu, Han-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An MFC–MBR integrated system for wastewater treatment and electricity generation. ► Stable electricity generation during 1000-h continuous operation. ► Low-cost electrode, separator and filter materials were adopted. -- Abstract: Microbial fuel cell (MFC) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) are both promising technologies for wastewater treatment, but both with limitations. In this study, a novel MFC–MBR integrated system, which combines the advantages of the individual systems, was proposed for simultaneous wastewater treatment and energy recovery. The system favored a better utilization of the oxygen in the aeration tank of MBR by the MFC biocathode, and enabled a high effluent quality. Continuous and stable electricity generation, with the average current of 1.9 ± 0.4 mA, was achieved over a long period of about 40 days. The maximum power density reached 6.0 W m −3 . Moreover, low-cost materials were used for the reactor construction. This integrated system shows great promise for practical wastewater treatment application.

  7. Method and Apparatus for a Miniature Bioreactor System for Long-Term Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleis, Stanley J. (Inventor); Geffert, Sandra K. (Inventor); Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A bioreactor and method that permits continuous and simultaneous short, moderate, or long term cell culturing of one or more cell types or tissue in a laminar flow configuration is disclosed, where the bioreactor supports at least two laminar flow zones, which are isolated by laminar flow without the need for physical barriers between the zones. The bioreactors of this invention are ideally suited for studying short, moderate and long term studies of cell cultures and the response of cell cultures to one or more stressors such as pharmaceuticals, hypoxia, pathogens, or any other stressor. The bioreactors of this invention are also ideally suited for short, moderate or long term cell culturing with periodic cell harvesting and/or medium processing for secreted cellular components.

  8. Ten years of industrial and municipal membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems - lessons from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrea, Asun; Rambor, Andre; Fabiyi, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    The use of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) in activated sludge wastewater treatment has grown significantly in the last decade. While there is growing awareness and knowledge about the application of MBR technology in municipal wastewater treatment, not much information is available on the application of MBRs in industrial wastewater treatment. A comparative study of design data, operating conditions and the major challenges associated with MBR operations in 24 MBR plants treating both municipal and industrial wastewater, built by and/or operated by Praxair, Inc., is presented. Of the 24 MBR systems described, 12 of the plants used high purity oxygen (HPO). By enabling a wide range of food/microorganism ratios and loading conditions in the same system, HPO MBR systems can extend the options available to industrial plant operators to meet the challenges of wide fluctuations in organic loading and footprint limitations. While fouling in industrial MBR systems can be an issue, adequate flux and permeability values can be reliably maintained by the use of good maintenance strategies and effective process controls (pretreatment, cleaning and membrane autopsies).

  9. A novel osmosis membrane bioreactor-membrane distillation hybrid system for wastewater treatment and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nguyen Cong; Nguyen, Hau Thi; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Chan, Wen Hao; Ray, Saikat Sinha; Li, Chi-Wang; Hsu, Hung-Te

    2016-06-01

    A novel approach was designed to simultaneously enhance nutrient removal and reduce membrane fouling for wastewater treatment using an attached growth biofilm (AGB) integrated with an osmosis membrane bioreactor (OsMBR) system for the first time. In this study, a highly charged organic compound (HEDTA(3-)) was employed as a novel draw solution in the AGB-OsMBR system to obtain a low reverse salt flux, maintain a healthy environment for the microorganisms. The AGB-OsMBR system achieved a stable water flux of 3.62L/m(2)h, high nutrient removal of 99% and less fouling during a 60-day operation. Furthermore, the high salinity of diluted draw solution could be effectively recovered by membrane distillation (MD) process with salt rejection of 99.7%. The diluted draw solution was re-concentrated to its initial status (56.1mS/cm) at recovery of 9.8% after 6h. The work demonstrated that novel multi-barrier systems could produce high quality potable water from impaired streams. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Application of dynamic membranes in anaerobic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems

    OpenAIRE

    Erşahin, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) physically ensure biomass retention by the application of a membrane filtration process. With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the combination of membrane and anaerobic processes has received much attention and become more attractive and feasible, due to advantages provided by the combination with regard to developments for energy-efficient wastewater treatment. The major drawbacks of MBR technology are related w...

  11. Costing systems design for sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TURTUREA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an overall image of the way Accounting responds to nowadays user’s needs in relation to the quantification of the impact companies have towards the environment. Regarding this, there have been analyzed concepts like sustainable development, environmental accounting, environmental costs and there have been presented the main progress towards environmental cost identification and measurement from the perspective of Activity Based Costing system. To provide an overall image of this concepts, there have been used as research methodology methods the documentation from literature review, analysis, synthesis and comparison.

  12. Sustainable intensification in agricultural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Jules; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez

    2014-01-01

    Background Agricultural systems are amended ecosystems with a variety of properties. Modern agroecosystems have tended towards high through-flow systems, with energy supplied by fossil fuels directed out of the system (either deliberately for harvests or accidentally through side effects). In the coming decades, resource constraints over water, soil, biodiversity and land will affect agricultural systems. Sustainable agroecosystems are those tending to have a positive impact on natural, social and human capital, while unsustainable systems feed back to deplete these assets, leaving fewer for the future. Sustainable intensification (SI) is defined as a process or system where agricultural yields are increased without adverse environmental impact and without the conversion of additional non-agricultural land. The concept does not articulate or privilege any particular vision or method of agricultural production. Rather, it emphasizes ends rather than means, and does not pre-determine technologies, species mix or particular design components. The combination of the terms ‘sustainable’ and ‘intensification’ is an attempt to indicate that desirable outcomes around both more food and improved environmental goods and services could be achieved by a variety of means. Nonetheless, it remains controversial to some. Scope and Conclusions This review analyses recent evidence of the impacts of SI in both developing and industrialized countries, and demonstrates that both yield and natural capital dividends can occur. The review begins with analysis of the emergence of combined agricultural–environmental systems, the environmental and social outcomes of recent agricultural revolutions, and analyses the challenges for food production this century as populations grow and consumption patterns change. Emergent criticisms are highlighted, and the positive impacts of SI on food outputs and renewable capital assets detailed. It concludes with observations on policies and

  13. Finding Sustainability Indicators for Information System Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Nyström, Tobias; Mustaquim, Moyen

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the importance of sustainability is persuading novel shifts in everyday life. This diversity makes it significant and challenging for sustainability to be quantified and measured. While the existence of perfect sustainability indicators is relatively unreasonable, they have important pragmatic roles in quantification and measurement by bridging sustainability's three pillars. Information system (IS) and sustainability are popular research areas, which clearly reflect the divergent a...

  14. Sustainable intensification in agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Jules; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems are amended ecosystems with a variety of properties. Modern agroecosystems have tended towards high through-flow systems, with energy supplied by fossil fuels directed out of the system (either deliberately for harvests or accidentally through side effects). In the coming decades, resource constraints over water, soil, biodiversity and land will affect agricultural systems. Sustainable agroecosystems are those tending to have a positive impact on natural, social and human capital, while unsustainable systems feed back to deplete these assets, leaving fewer for the future. Sustainable intensification (SI) is defined as a process or system where agricultural yields are increased without adverse environmental impact and without the conversion of additional non-agricultural land. The concept does not articulate or privilege any particular vision or method of agricultural production. Rather, it emphasizes ends rather than means, and does not pre-determine technologies, species mix or particular design components. The combination of the terms 'sustainable' and 'intensification' is an attempt to indicate that desirable outcomes around both more food and improved environmental goods and services could be achieved by a variety of means. Nonetheless, it remains controversial to some. This review analyses recent evidence of the impacts of SI in both developing and industrialized countries, and demonstrates that both yield and natural capital dividends can occur. The review begins with analysis of the emergence of combined agricultural-environmental systems, the environmental and social outcomes of recent agricultural revolutions, and analyses the challenges for food production this century as populations grow and consumption patterns change. Emergent criticisms are highlighted, and the positive impacts of SI on food outputs and renewable capital assets detailed. It concludes with observations on policies and incentives necessary for the wider adoption of

  15. Business system: Sustainable development and anticipatory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Potočan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence and development of humankind depends mainly upon the co-ordinated operation of all areas and levels of human activity. However, in theory and in practice there is no model of operation, which would provide a harmonized and target oriented development. A partial solution is offered by sustainable development, which tries to define and carry out common goals of mankind with a harmonized implementation of human activities at all levels of its living and behaviour. Companies belong to central institutions of modern society which essentially co–create the sustainability of society. The company’s endeavour by simulation to prepare models of their goals concerning their internal and external environment. On the base of systemic treatment, we can define companies as business system, which can survive in a log-run only on the basis of sustainable development. The business system can also be supported by the application of the anticipatory systems. The anticipatory systems can be, in this sense, understood as an entity of the methodological approach, techniques and modes of work. Their characteristics have, a direct impact on the determination of goals, on the orientation of operation, and hence on the achievement of the business system results.

  16. A novel approach to recycle bacterial culture waste for fermentation reuse via a microbial fuel cell-membrane bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhu, Yuan; Zhuang, Liangpeng; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Masaya; Goodell, Barry; Sonoki, Tomonori; He, Zhen

    2015-09-01

    Biochemical production processes require water and nutrient resources for culture media preparation, but aqueous waste is generated after the target products are extracted. In this study, culture waste (including cells) produced from a lab-scale fermenter was fed into a microbial fuel cell-membrane bioreactor (MFC-MBR) system. Electrical energy was generated via the interaction between the microbial consortia and the solid electrode in the MFC. The treated wastewater was reclaimed in this process which was reused as a solvent and a nutrient source in subsequent fermentation. Polarization testing showed that the MFC produced a maximum current density of 37.53 A m(-3) with a maximum power density of 5.49 W m(-3). The MFC was able to generate 0.04 kWh of energy per cubic meter of culture waste treated. The lab-scale fermenters containing pure cultures of an engineered Pseudomonas spp. were used to generate 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDC), a high value platform chemical. When the MFC-MBR-treated wastewater was used for the fermenter culture medium, a specific bacterial growth rate of 1.00 ± 0.05 h(-1) was obtained with a PDC production rate of 708.11 ± 64.70 mg PDC L(-1) h(-1). Comparable values for controls using pure water were 0.95 ± 0.06 h(-1) and 621.01 ± 22.09 mg PDC L(-1) h(-1) (P > 0.05), respectively. The results provide insight on a new approach for more sustainable bio-material production while at the same time generating energy, and suggest that the treated wastewater can be used as a solvent and a nutrient source for the fermentation production of high value platform chemicals.

  17. Evaluation of microwell based systems and miniature bioreactors for rapid cell culture bioprocess development and scale-up

    OpenAIRE

    Sani, M. H. B.

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of antibodies for human therapy has driven rational approaches to accelerate bioprocess development in producing cost effective and highly productive antibodies. The potential of microwell based systems and miniature bioreactors (MBR) to mimic the scalability and operations of conventional bench reactors are seen as an alternative. This study has investigated the microtitre plate (MTP), microMatrix and MBR (HEL-BioXplore) as scale-down mimic for rapid and accu...

  18. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  19. Characterization of an autotrophic bioreactor microbial consortium degrading thiocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Mathew Paul; Spurr, Liam Patrick; Gan, Han Ming; Moreau, John William

    2017-07-01

    Thiocyanate (SCN - ) forms as a by-product of cyanidation during gold ore processing and can be degraded by a variety of microorganisms utilizing it as an energy, nitrogen, sulphur and/or carbon source. In complex consortia inhabiting bioreactor systems, a range of metabolisms are sustained by SCN - degradation; however, despite the addition or presence of labile carbon sources in most bioreactor designs to date, autotrophic bacteria have been found to dominate key metabolic functions. In this study, we cultured an autotrophic SCN - -degrading consortium directly from gold mine tailings. In a batch-mode bioreactor experiment, this consortium degraded 22 mM SCN - , accumulating ammonium (NH 4 + ) and sulphate (SO 4 2- ) as the major end products. The consortium consisted of a diverse microbial community comprised of chemolithoautotrophic members, and despite the absence of an added organic carbon substrate, a significant population of heterotrophic bacteria. The role of eukaryotes in bioreactor systems is often poorly understood; however, we found their 18S rRNA genes to be most closely related to sequences from bacterivorous Amoebozoa. Through combined chemical and phylogenetic analyses, we were able to infer roles for key microbial consortium members during SCN - biodegradation. This study provides a basis for understanding the behaviour of a SCN - degrading bioreactor under autotrophic conditions, an anticipated approach to remediating SCN - at contemporary gold mines.

  20. Effluent quality of a conventional activated sludge and a membrane bioreactor system treating hospital wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, B.; Ngwa, F.; Deconinck, S.; Verstraete, W.

    2005-01-01

    Two lab scale wastewater treatment plants treating hospital wastewater in parallel were compared in terms of performance characteristics. One plant consisted of a conventional activated sludge system (CAS) and comprised In anoxic and aerobic compartment followed by a settling tank with recycle loop. The second pilot plant was a -late membrane bioreactor (MBR). The wastewater as obtained from the hospital had a variable COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) ranging from 250 to 2300 mg/L. Both systems were operated at a similar hydraulic residence time of 12 hours. The reference conventional activated sludge system did not meet the regulatory standard for effluent COD of 125 mg /L most of the time. Its COD removal efficiency was 88%. The plate MBR delivered an effluent with a COD value of 50 mg/L or less, and attained an efficiency of 93%. The effluent contained no suspended particles. In addition, the MBR resulted in consistent operational parameters with a flux remaining around 8 -10 L/m/sup 2/.h and a trans membrane pressure <0.1 bar without the need for backwash or chemical cleaning. The CAS and the MBR system performed equally good in terms of TAN removal and EE2 removal. The CAS system typically decreased bacterial groups for about 1 log unit, whereas the MBR decreased these groups for about 3 log units. Enterococci were decreased below the detection limit in the MBR and indicator organisms such as fecal coliforms were decreased for 1.4 log units in the CAS system compared to a 3.6 log removal in the MBR. (author)

  1. Dynamic cultivation of human mesenchymal stem cells in a rotating bed bioreactor system based on the Z RP platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Solvig; Röker, Stefanie; Marten, Dana; Peterbauer, Anja; Scheper, Thomas; van Griensven, Martijn; Kasper, Cornelia

    2009-01-01

    Because the regeneration of large bone defects is limited by quantitative restrictions and risks of infections, the development of bioartificial bone substitutes is of great importance. To obtain a three-dimensional functional tissue-like graft, static cultivation is inexpedient due to limitations in cell density, nutrition and oxygen support. Dynamic cultivation in a bioreactor system can overcome these restrictions and furthermore provide the possibility to control the environment with regard to pH, oxygen content, and temperature. In this study, a three-dimensional bone construct was engineered by the use of dynamic bioreactor technology. Human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells were cultivated on a macroporous zirconium dioxide based ceramic disc called Sponceram. Furthermore, hydroxyapatite coated Sponceram was used. The cells were cultivated under dynamic conditions and compared with statically cultivated cells. The differentiation into osteoblasts was initiated by osteogenic supplements. Cellular proliferation during static and dynamic cultivation was compared measuring glucose and lactate concentration. The differentiation process was analysed determining AP-expression and using different specific staining methods. Our results demonstrate much higher proliferation rates during dynamic conditions in the bioreactor system compared to static cultivation measured by glucose consumption and lactate production. Cell densities on the scaffolds indicated higher proliferation on native Sponceram compared to hydroxyapatite coated Sponceram. With this study, we present an excellent method to enhance cellular proliferation and bone lineage specific growth of tissue like structures comprising fibrous (collagen) and globular (mineral) extracellular components. (c) 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009.

  2. Novel perfused compression bioreactor system as an in vitro model to investigate fracture healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar eHoffmann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Secondary bone fracture healing is a physiological process that leads to functional tissue regeneration via endochondral bone formation. In vivo studies have demonstrated that early mobilization and the application of mechanical loads enhances the process of fracture healing. However, the influence of specific mechanical stimuli and particular effects during specific phases of fracture healing remain to be elucidated. In this work, we have developed and provided proof-of-concept of an in vitro human organotypic model of physiological loading of a cartilage callus, based on a novel perfused compression bioreactor system (PCB. We then used the fracture callus model to investigate the regulatory role of dynamic mechanical loading. Our findings provide a proof-of-principle that dynamic mechanical loading applied by the PCB can enhance the maturation process of mesenchymal stromal cells towards late hypertrophic chondrocytes and the mineralization of the deposited extracellular matrix. The PCB provides a promising tool to study fracture healing and for the in vitro assessment of alternative fracture treatments based on engineered tissue grafts or pharmaceutical compounds, allowing for the reduction of animal experiments.

  3. Production of oncolytic adenovirus and human mesenchymal stem cells in a single-use, Vertical-Wheel bioreactor system: Impact of bioreactor design on performance of microcarrier-based cell culture processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Marcos F Q; Silva, Marta M; Giroux, Daniel; Hashimura, Yas; Wesselschmidt, Robin; Lee, Brian; Roldão, António; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M; Serra, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Anchorage-dependent cell cultures are used for the production of viruses, viral vectors, and vaccines, as well as for various cell therapies and tissue engineering applications. Most of these applications currently rely on planar technologies for the generation of biological products. However, as new cell therapy product candidates move from clinical trials towards potential commercialization, planar platforms have proven to be inadequate to meet large-scale manufacturing demand. Therefore, a new scalable platform for culturing anchorage-dependent cells at high cell volumetric concentrations is urgently needed. One promising solution is to grow cells on microcarriers suspended in single-use bioreactors. Toward this goal, a novel bioreactor system utilizing an innovative Vertical-Wheel™ technology was evaluated for its potential to support scalable cell culture process development. Two anchorage-dependent human cell types were used: human lung carcinoma cells (A549 cell line) and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Key hydrodynamic parameters such as power input, mixing time, Kolmogorov length scale, and shear stress were estimated. The performance of Vertical-Wheel bioreactors (PBS-VW) was then evaluated for A549 cell growth and oncolytic adenovirus type 5 production as well as for hMSC expansion. Regarding the first cell model, higher cell growth and number of infectious viruses per cell were achieved when compared with stirred tank (ST) bioreactors. For the hMSC model, although higher percentages of proliferative cells could be reached in the PBS-VW compared with ST bioreactors, no significant differences in the cell volumetric concentration and expansion factor were observed. Noteworthy, the hMSC population generated in the PBS-VW showed a significantly lower percentage of apoptotic cells as well as reduced levels of HLA-DR positive cells. Overall, these results showed that process transfer from ST bioreactor to PBS-VW, and scale-up was

  4. Rheological properties and mechanical stability of new gel-entrapment systems applied in bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelsang, C.; Wijffels, R.H.; Ostgaard, K.

    2000-01-01

    The mechanical stability of gels applied for entrapment and retention of biocatalysts in bioreactors is of crucial importance for successful scale-up applications. Gel abrasion in agitated reactors will depend on liquid shear, bubble shear, and wall shear, as well as collisions between the gel

  5. Sustainability and Cities as Systems of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Lehmann, Martin

    Cities often constitute relevant environments for interactive learning and innovation potentially capable of tackling sustainability problems. In this paper we ask if the concept of systems of innovation can increase our understanding of city dynamics and help promoting the sustainable development...... of cities. Through a combination of the innovation system approach and the perspective of creative cities, we argue that a slightly modified concept – sustainable city systems of innovation – may be helpful in this context. To underline this, we discuss certain ‘city-traits’ of sustainability and conclude...... that the new concept may be of special use for urban quality development and management....

  6. Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactor Systems for Wastewater Processing: Effects of Environmental Stresses Including Dormancy Cycling and Antibiotic Dosing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Lunn, Griffin M.; Larson, Brian D.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Kosiba, Michael L.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Catechis, John A.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane-aerated biofilm reactors (MABRs) have been studied for a number of years as an alternate approach for treating wastewater streams during space exploration. While the technology provides a promising pre-treatment for lowering organic carbon and nitrogen content without the need for harsh stabilization chemicals, several challenges must be addressed before adoption of the technology in future missions. One challenge is the transportation of bioreactors containing intact, active biofilms as a means for rapid start-up on the International Space Station or beyond. Similarly, there could be a need for placing these biological systems into a dormant state for extended periods when the system is not in use, along with the ability for rapid restart. Previous studies indicated that there was little influence of storage condition (4 or 25 C, with or without bulk fluid) on recovery of bioreactors with immature biofilms (48 days old), but that an extensive recovery time was required (20+ days). Bioreactors with fully established biofilms (13 months) were able to recover from a 7-month dormancy within 4 days (approximately 1 residence). Further dormancy and recovery testing is presented here that examines the role of biofilm age on recovery requirements, repeated dormancy cycle capabilities, and effects of long-duration dormancy cycles (8-9 months) on HFMB systems. Another challenge that must be addressed is the possibility of antibiotics entering the wastewater stream. Currently, for most laboratory tests of biological water processors, donors providing urine may not contribute to the study when taking antibiotics because the effects on the system are yet uncharacterized. A simulated urinary tract infection event, where an opportunistic, pathogenic organism, E. coli, was introduced to the HFMBs followed by dosing with an antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, was completed to study the effect of the antibiotic on reactor performance and to also examine the development of

  7. Local food systems: a sustainability review

    OpenAIRE

    Kwong, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of global food systems has led to industrial food production processes that have environmental and social external costs. Consumer awareness about sustainability issues brings a heightened awareness of general consumption impacts in our food choices. This paper explores sustainability factors within local food systems in order to understand the impact on sustainability issues within the local food economy. A review of environmental, economic, and social issues within a sustai...

  8. Stimulating transitions towards sustainable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, B.; Barbier, M.; Cerf, M.; Grin, J.

    2012-01-01

    How can the dynamics of the agro-food sector in the long run be addressed? We argue that sustainable agro-food systems cannot be developed through a simple improvement of existing systems, but will require a transition. Therefore, we focus on how transitions to sustainability could be initiated and

  9. Threshold Concepts, Systems and Learning for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Orana Jade

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for understanding the role that systems theory might play in education for sustainability (EfS). It offers a sketch and critique of Land and Meyer's notion of a "threshold concept", to argue that seeing systems as a threshold concept for sustainability is useful for understanding the processes of…

  10. Traditional formwork system sustainability performance: experts’ opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher Al-ashwal, Mohammed; Abdullah, Redzuan; Zakaria, Rozana

    2017-11-01

    The traditional formwork system is one of the commonly used systems in concrete construction. It is considered as one of the least observed activities in term of sustainability performance. In this paper, the sustainability performance of the traditional formwork has been assessed by using a multi-criteria assessment tool to facilitate the decision on the sustainability performance measurement. A quantitative five Likert scale survey study using judgemental sampling is employed in this study. A sample of 93 of engineering construction experts, with different fields including contractors, developers, and consultants in the Malaysian context has made the body of the collected primary data. The results show variety in the distribution of the respondents’ working experience. The sustainability performance is considered moderately sustainable by the experts with only given 40.24 % of the overall total score for the three sustainable categories namely environmental, social and economic. Despite the finding that shows that the economic pillar was rated as the most sustainable aspect in comparison to the environmental and social pillars the traditional formwork system sustainability still needs enhancement. Further incorporation of the social and environmental pillars into the concrete construction the sustainability performance of traditional formwork system could be improved.

  11. Monitoring the energy systems of sustainable buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollin, Elmar

    2011-05-01

    The complexity of sustainable energy systems for buildings services calls for more transparency of the processes which provide energy for the buildings heating, cooling and power needs. In the frame of applied scientific research at University of Applied Sciences Offenburg, different systems and even buildings in total have been monitored over years to analyse their performance and to optimize the system installations and operations. New EU regulations like EN 16001 require an effective monitoring and a continuous commissioning of the energy relevant systems to certificate sustainable processes. On the other hand, new operation tools are necessary to handle the volatility of renewable energy sources and the buildings demand. Predictive building automation has shown good results when applied for energy systems with high inertia. Operating large-scale solar thermal systems and sustainable buildings over long-term periods the University of Applied Sciences provided evidence that monitoring is an essential system tool for an energy and cost efficient operation of sustainable buildings.

  12. Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

    2004-09-11

    supply and EBCT on compost biofilter performance were also investigated. The bioreactor maintained greater than 95% removal efficiency for over 40 days without an additional supply of nutrients when a 10X concentrated HCMM was mixed with the compost packing at the beginning of the experiments. Results also suggest that an EBCT greater than 30 seconds is required to maintain high BTEX removal efficiencies in the compost biofilter system.

  13. Assessing the sustainability of small wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten

    1999-01-01

    The authors present a planning tool for comparing and assessing the sustainability of different wastewater systems. The core of the planning tool is an assessment method based on both technical and social elements. The point of departure is that no technique is inherently sustainable or ecological...

  14. Treatment of Produced Water Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; Robert S. Bowman; Enid J. Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig R. Altare

    2006-01-31

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. Produced waters typically contain a high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component as well as chemicals added during the oil-production process. It has been estimated that a total of 14 billion barrels of produced water were generated in 2002 from onshore operations (Veil, 2004). Although much of this produced water is disposed via reinjection, environmental and cost considerations can make surface discharge of this water a more practical means of disposal. In addition, reinjection is not always a feasible option because of geographic, economic, or regulatory considerations. In these situations, it may be desirable, and often necessary from a regulatory viewpoint, to treat produced water before discharge. It may also be feasible to treat waters that slightly exceed regulatory limits for re-use in arid or drought-prone areas, rather than losing them to reinjection. A previous project conducted under DOE Contract DE-AC26-99BC15221 demonstrated that surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) represents a potential treatment technology for produced water containing BTEX. Laboratory and field experiments suggest that: (1) sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) to SMZ follows linear isotherms in which sorption increases with increasing solute hydrophobicity; (2) the presence of high salt concentrations substantially increases the capacity of the SMZ for BTEX; (3) competitive sorption among the BTEX compounds is negligible; and, (4) complete recovery of the SMZ sorption capacity for BTEX can be achieved by air sparging the SMZ. This report summarizes research for a follow on project to optimize the regeneration process for multiple sorption/regeneration cycles, and to develop and incorporate a vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) system for treatment of the off-gas generated during

  15. Biological NOx removal by denitrification process in a jet-loop bioreactor: system performance and model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmazpinar, Serdar; Ilhan, Nalan; Demir, Gonca; Insel, Güçlü; Dizge, Nadir; Ergenekon, Pinar; Erhan, Elif; Keskinler, Bülent

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide referred as NOx are one of the most important air pollutants in the atmosphere. Biological NOx removal technologies have been developing to reach a cost-effective control method for upcoming stringent NOx emission standards. The BioDeNOx system was seen as a promising biological NOx control technology which is composed of two reactors, one for absorbing of NO in an aqueous Fe(II)EDTA2- solution and the other for subsequent reduction to N2 gas in a biological reactor by the denitrification process. In this study, instead of two discrete reactors, only one jet-loop bioreactor (JLBR) was utilized as both absorption and denitrification unit and no chelate-forming chemicals were added. In other words, the advantage of better mass transfer conditions of jet bioreactor was used instead of Fe(II)EDTA2-. The process was named as Jet-BioDeNOx. The JLBR was operated for the removal of NOx from air streams containing 500-3000 ppm NOx and the results showed that the removal efficiency was between 81% and 94%. The air to liquid flow ratio (Q(G)/Q(RAS)) varied in the range of 0.07-0.12. Mathematical modelling of the system demonstrated that the removal efficiency strongly depends on this ratio. The high mass transfer conditions prevailed in the reactor provided a competitive advantage on removing NO gas without any requirement of chelating chemicals.

  16. Treatment of palm oil mill effluent using combination system of microbial fuel cell and anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sze Pin; Kong, Hong Feng; Bashir, Mohammed J K; Lo, Po Kim; Ho, Chii-Dong; Ng, Choon Aun

    2017-12-01

    It was found that the operational temperature and the incorporation of microbial fuel cell (MFC) into anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) have significant effect on AnMBRs' filtration performance. This paper addresses two issues (i) effect of temperature on AnMBR; and (ii) effect of MFC on AnMBRs' performance. The highest COD removal efficiency was observed in mesophilic condition (45°C). It was observed that the bioreactors operated at 45°C had the highest filtration resistance compared to others, albeit the excellent performance in removing the organic pollutant. Next, MFC was combined with AnMBR where the MFC acted as a pre-treatment unit prior to AnMBR and it was fed directly with palm oil mill effluent (POME). The supernatant from MFC was further treated by AnMBR. Noticeable improvement in filtration performance was observed in the combined system. Decrease in polysaccharide amount was observed in combined system which in turn suggested that the better filtration performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Continuous pH monitoring in a perfused bioreactor system using an optical pH sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Vani, Sundeep; Taylor, Thomas D.; Anderson, Melody M.

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring and regulating the pH of the solution in a bioprocess is one of the key steps in the success of bioreactor operation. An in-line optical pH sensor, based on the optical absorption properties of phenol red present in the medium, was developed and tested in this work for use in NASA space bioreactors based on a rotating wall-perfused vessel system supporting a baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cell culture. The sensor was tested over three 30-day and one 124-day cell runs. The pH sensor initially was calibrated and then used during the entire cell culture interval. The pH reported by the sensor was compared to that measured by a fiber optically coupled Shimadzu spectrophotometer and a blood gas analyzer. The maximum standard error of prediction for all the four cell runs for development pH sensor against BGA was +/-0.06 pH unit and for the fiber optically coupled Shimadzu spectrophotometer against the blood gas analyzer was +/-0.05 pH unit. The pH sensor system performed well without need of recalibration for 124 days. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Edible insects in Sustainable Food Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton; Flore, Roberto; Vantomme, Paul

    Edible insects in Sustainable Food Systems comprehensively covers the basic principles of entomology and population dynamics; edible insects and culture; nutrition and health; gastronomy; insects as animal feed; factors influencing preferences and acceptability of insects; environmental impacts...

  19. SEMS: System for Environmental Monitoring and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this project was to establish a computational and data management system, SEMS, building on our existing system and MTPE-related research. We proposed that the new system would help support Washington University's efforts in environmental sustainability through use in: (a) Problem-based environmental curriculum for freshmen and sophomores funded by the Hewlett Foundation that integrates scientific, cultural, and policy perspectives to understand the dynamics of wetland degradation, deforestation, and desertification and that will develop policies for sustainable environments and economies; (b) Higher-level undergraduate and graduate courses focused on monitoring the environment and developing policies that will lead to sustainable environmental and economic conditions; and (c) Interdisciplinary research focused on the dynamics of the Missouri River system and development of policies that lead to sustainable environmental and economic floodplain conditions.

  20. Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Graham; Orr, James K.; Watson, Steve

    2007-01-01

    A mission-systems architecture, based on a highly modular infrastructure utilizing: open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is essential for affordable and sustainable space exploration programs. This mission-systems architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous system, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimal sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program and Earthbound complex engineered system are applied to define the model. Technology projections reaching out 5 years are mde to refine model details.

  1. Influence of dynamic coupled hydro-bio-mechanical processes on response of municipal solid waste and liner system in bioreactor landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna R; Kumar, Girish; Giri, Rajiv K

    2017-05-01

    A two-dimensional (2-D) mathematical model is presented to predict the response of municipal solid waste (MSW) of conventional as well as bioreactor landfills undergoing coupled hydro-bio-mechanical processes. The newly developed and validated 2-D coupled mathematical modeling framework combines and simultaneously solves a two-phase flow model based on the unsaturated Richard's equation, a plain-strain formulation of Mohr-Coulomb mechanical model and first-order decay kinetics biodegradation model. The performance of both conventional and bioreactor landfill was investigated holistically, by evaluating the mechanical settlement, extent of waste degradation with subsequent changes in geotechnical properties, landfill slope stability, and in-plane shear behavior (shear stress-displacement) of composite liner system and final cover system. It is concluded that for the given specific conditions considered, bioreactor landfill attained an overall stabilization after a continuous leachate injection of 16years, whereas the stabilization was observed after around 50years of post-closure in conventional landfills, with a total vertical strain of 36% and 37% for bioreactor and conventional landfills, respectively. The significant changes in landfill settlement, the extent of MSW degradation, MSW geotechnical properties, along with their influence on the in-plane shear response of composite liner and final cover system, between the conventional and bioreactor landfills, observed using the mathematical model proposed in this study, corroborates the importance of considering coupled hydro-bio-mechanical processes while designing and predicting the performance of engineered bioreactor landfills. The study underscores the importance of considering the effect of coupled processes while examining the stability and integrity of the liner and cover systems, which form the integral components of a landfill. Moreover, the spatial and temporal variations in the landfill settlement, the

  2. Mathematical modeling of continuous ethanol fermentation in a membrane bioreactor by pervaporation compared to conventional system: Genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahanian, Mehri; Shokuhi Rad, Ali; Khoshhal, Saeed; Najafpour, Ghasem; Asghari, Behnam

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, genetic algorithm was used to investigate mathematical modeling of ethanol fermentation in a continuous conventional bioreactor (CCBR) and a continuous membrane bioreactor (CMBR) by ethanol permselective polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane. A lab scale CMBR with medium glucose concentration of 100gL(-1) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae microorganism was designed and fabricated. At dilution rate of 0.14h(-1), maximum specific cell growth rate and productivity of 0.27h(-1) and 6.49gL(-1)h(-1) were respectively found in CMBR. However, at very high dilution rate, the performance of CMBR was quite similar to conventional fermentation on account of insufficient incubation time. In both systems, genetic algorithm modeling of cell growth, ethanol production and glucose concentration were conducted based on Monod and Moser kinetic models during each retention time at unsteady condition. The results showed that Moser kinetic model was more satisfactory and desirable than Monod model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Sustainable Energy System in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lotte Holmberg

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents some of the problems in the Latvian energy system, the Latvian economy and how a sustainable restructuring of the energy system with renewable energy, co-generation and the production of energy technology can help solve some of the problems.......This paper presents some of the problems in the Latvian energy system, the Latvian economy and how a sustainable restructuring of the energy system with renewable energy, co-generation and the production of energy technology can help solve some of the problems....

  4. PSSD - Planning System for Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    PSSD - Planning System for Sustainable Development - is a part of the Baltic Sea Region's INTERREG II C program. The current report describes some theories, methods and tools developed under the PSSD project. First, the theoretical foundation of the project is described. Secondly, the role...... of indicators in sustainable development is discussed and a Web-based indicator generator is described. Thirdly, we describe a number of methods and tools, which support planning for sustainable development. Finally, some technical interface tools - especially a Web-based interface to the methods and tools...

  5. Assessing the removal of organic micropollutants by a novel baffled osmotic membrane bioreactor-microfiltration hybrid system

    KAUST Repository

    Pathak, Nirenkumar

    2018-04-14

    A novel approach was employed to study removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in a baffled osmotic membrane bioreactor-microfiltration (OMBR-MF) hybrid system under oxic–anoxic conditions. The performance of OMBR-MF system was examined employing three different draw solutes (DS), and three model OMPs. The highest forward osmosis (FO) membrane rejection was attained with atenolol (100 %) due to its higher molar mass and positive charge. With inorganic DS caffeine (94-100 %) revealed highest removal followed by atenolol (89-96 %) and atrazine (16-40 %) respectively. All three OMPs exhibited higher removal with organic DS as compared to inorganic DS. Significant anoxic removal was observed for atrazine under very different redox conditions with extended anoxic cycle time. This can be linked with possible development of different microbial consortia responsible for diverse enzymes secretion. Overall, the OMBR-MF process showed effective removal of total organic carbon (98%) and nutrients (phosphate 97% and total nitrogen 85%), respectively.

  6. Nutrient utilization and oxygen production by Chlorella Vulgaris in a hybrid membrane bioreactor and algal membrane photobioreactor system

    KAUST Repository

    Najm, Yasmeen Hani Kamal

    2017-02-17

    This work studied oxygen production and nutrient utilization by Chlorella Vulgaris at different organic/inorganic carbon (OC/IC) and ammonium/nitrate (NH4+-N/NO3--N) ratios to design a hybrid aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) and membrane photobioreactor (MPBR) system. Specific oxygen production by C. vulgaris was enough to support the MBR if high growth is accomplished. Nearly 100% removal (or utilization) of PO43--P and IC was achieved under all conditions tested. Optimal growth was achieved at mixotrophic carbon conditions (0.353 d-1) and the highest NH4+-N concentration (0.357 d-1), with preferable NH4+-N utilization rather than NO3--N. The results indicate the potential of alternative process designs to treat domestic wastewater by coupling the hybrid MBR - MPBR systems.

  7. Aujeszky's disease virus production in disposable bioreactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aujeszky's disease virus, baby hamster kidney cells, cell culture, disposable bioreactor, virus titre. Abstract. A novel, disposable-bag bioreactor system that uses wave action for mixing and transferring oxygen was evaluated for BHK 21 C13 cell line growth and Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) production. Growth kinetics of ...

  8. Comparison of membrane bioreactor technology and conventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper was to review the use of membrane bioreactor technology as an alternative for treating the discharged effluent from a bleached kraft mill by comparing and contrasting membrane bioreactors with conventional activated sludge systems for wastewater treatment. There are many water shortage ...

  9. Towards a sustainable industrial system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Steve; Gregory, Mike; Ryan, Chris

    Our industrial system has been responsible for raising the quality of life of peoples around the world. It is becoming increasingly clear however, that the current system is creating unintended and serious consequences for the environment at a global level. Change on a significant scale is required...

  10. A sustainable energy-system in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lotte Holmberg

    2003-01-01

    but a negative trade-balance. With this in mind, it is important that Latvia is able to meet the challenge and use the economic development to develop a sustainable energy-system and a sounder trade-balance. A combination of energy planning, national economy and innovation processes in boiler companies will form......The paper presents some of the problems in the Latvian energy-system, the Latvian economy and how a sustainable restructuring of the energy system with renewable energy, co-generation and the production of energy technology can help solve some of the problems. Latvia has economic growth...

  11. Business strategies for transitions to sustainable systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A. Loorbach (Derk); J.C. Bakel (Janneke); G.M. Whiteman (Gail); J. Rotmans (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper develops a strategic perspective for business to contribute to the innovation of societal systems. Sustainability issues at the level of societal sectors cannot be addressed by single organizations but need to be thought of as systemic challenges in which business, government

  12. Membrane bioreactors: present and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H N; Furusaki, S

    1991-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors have a very handy in-situ separation capability lacking in other types of bioreactors. Combining various functions of membrane separations and biocatalyst characteristics of enzymes, microbial cells, organelles, animal and plant tissues can generate quite a number of membrane bioreactor systems. The cell retaining property of membranes and selective removal of inhibitory byproducts makes high cell density culture possible and utilizes enzyme catalytic activity better, which leads to high productivity of bioreactors. Enzyme reactions utilizing cofactors and hydrolysis of macromolecules are advantageous in membrane bioreactors. Anaerobic cell culture may be efficiently carried out in membrane cell recycle systems, while aerobic cultures work well in dual hollow fiber reactors. Animal and plant cells have much a better chance of success in membrane reactors because of the protective environment of the reactor and the small oxygen uptake rate of these cells. Industrial use of these reactors are still in its infancy and limited to enzyme and animal tissue culture, but applications will expand as existing problems are resolved.

  13. Engineering biological systems toward a sustainable bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mateus Schreiner Garcez

    2015-06-01

    The nature of our major global risks calls for sustainable innovations to decouple economic growth from greenhouse gases emission. The development of sustainable technologies has been negatively impacted by several factors including sugar production costs, production scale, economic crises, hydraulic fracking development and the market inability to capture externality costs. However, advances in engineering of biological systems allow bridging the gap between exponential growth of knowledge about biology and the creation of sustainable value chains for a broad range of economic sectors. Additionally, industrial symbiosis of different biobased technologies can increase competitiveness and sustainability, leading to the development of eco-industrial parks. Reliable policies for carbon pricing and revenue reinvestments in disruptive technologies and in the deployment of eco-industrial parks could boost the welfare while addressing our major global risks toward the transition from a fossil to a biobased economy.

  14. Significance of membrane bioreactor design on the biocatalytic performance of glucose oxidase and catalase: Free vs. immobilized enzyme systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthensen, Sofie Thage; Meyer, Anne S.; Jørgensen, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Membrane separation of xylose and glucose can be accomplished via oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid by enzymatic glucose oxidase catalysis. Oxygen for this reaction can be supplied via decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by enzymatic catalase catalysis. In order to maximize the biocatalytic...... productivity of glucose oxidase and catalase (gluconic acid yield per total amount of enzyme) the following system set-ups were compared: immobilization of glucose oxidase alone; co-immobilization of glucose oxidase and catalase; glucose oxidase and catalase free in the membrane bioreactor. Fouling......-induced enzyme immobilization in the porous support of an ultrafiltration membrane was used as strategy for entrapment of glucose oxidase and catalase. The biocatalytic productivity of the membrane reactor was found to be highly related to the oxygen availability, which in turn depended on the reactor...

  15. Reaction mechanisms and rate constants of waste degradation in landfill bioreactor systems with enzymatic-enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, P A; Hettiaratchi, J P A; Mehrotra, A K; Kumar, S

    2014-06-01

    Augmenting leachate before recirculation with peroxidase enzymes is a novel method to increase the available carbon, and therefore the food supply to microorganisms at the declining phase of the anaerobic landfill bioreactor operation. In order to optimize the enzyme-catalyzed leachate recirculation process, it is necessary to identify the reaction mechanisms and determine rate constants. This paper presents a kinetic model developed to ascertain the reaction mechanisms and determine the rate constants for enzyme catalyzed anaerobic waste degradation. The maximum rate of reaction (Vmax) for MnP enzyme-catalyzed reactors was 0.076 g(TOC)/g(DS).day. The catalytic turnover number (k(cat)) of the MnP enzyme-catalyzed was 506.7 per day while the rate constant (k) of the un-catalyzed reaction was 0.012 per day. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

    2010-01-01

    dynamic shear (i.e., as required for viability of shear-sensitive cells) to the developing engineered tissue construct. This bioreactor was recently utilized to show independent and interactive effects of a growth factor (IGF-I) and slow bidirectional perfusion on the survival, differentiation, and contractile performance of 3D tissue engineering cardiac constructs. The main application of this system is within the tissue engineering industry. The ideal final application is within the automated mass production of tissue- engineered constructs. Target industries could be both life sciences companies as well as bioreactor device producing companies.

  17. Energy and greenhouse gas life cycle assessment and cost analysis of aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems: Influence of scale, population density, climate, and methane recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study calculated the energy and greenhouse gas life cycle and cost profiles of transitional aerobic membrane bioreactors (AeMBR) and anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR). Membrane bioreactors (MBR) represent a promising technology for decentralized wastewater treatment and...

  18. A two-compartment bioreactor system made of commercial parts for bioprocess scale-down studies: impact of oscillations on Bacillus subtilis fed-batch cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junne, Stefan; Klingner, Arne; Kabisch, Johannes; Schweder, Thomas; Neubauer, Peter

    2011-08-01

    This study describes an advanced version of a two-compartment scale-down bioreactor that simulates inhomogeneities present in large-scale industrial bioreactors on the laboratory scale. The system is made of commercially available parts and is suitable for sterilization with steam. The scale-down bioreactor consists of a usual stirred tank bioreactor (STR) and a plug flow reactor (PFR) equipped with static mixer modules. The PFR module with a working volume of 1.2 L is equipped with five sample ports, and pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) sensors. The concept was applied using the non-sporulating Bacillus subtilis mutant strain AS3, characterized by a SpoIIGA gene knockout. In a fed-batch process with a constant feed rate, it is found that oscillating substrate and DO concentration led to diminished glucose uptake, ethanol formation and an altered amino acid synthesis. Sampling at the PFR module allowed the detection of dynamics at different concentrations of intermediates, such as pyruvic acid, lactic acid and amino acids. Results indicate that the carbon flux at excess glucose and low DO concentrations is shifted towards ethanol formation. As a result, the reduced carbon flux entering the tricarboxylic acid cycle is not sufficient to support amino acid synthesis following the oxaloacetic acid branch point. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Systems and practices in sustainable consumption research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    . The intention with this paper is to highlight the importance of these other systems for sustainability transitions and to discuss various aspects of finance as an example. Simultaneously, the intention is to illustrate how a system perspective and a practice theory perspective can be combined when exploring......The financial crisis in 2007-2008 and the subsequent economic crisis served as a wake-up call for sustainable consumption studies. The literature on consumption and environment had little focus on finance, but the crisis made it clear that financial issues are important also from an environmental...... perspective. Credit plays an important role as a driver of unsustainable consumption, and financial mechanisms contribute to the widening inequalities as well as the build-up of macroeconomic instability. Looking ahead, transformation of finance is just as important for sustainability as transformation...

  20. Sustainable Food Security Measurement: A Systemic Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findiastuti, W.; Singgih, M. L.; Anityasari, M.

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable food security measures how a region provides food for its people without endangered the environment. In Indonesia, it was legally measured in Food Security and Vulnerability (FSVA). However, regard to sustainable food security policy, the measurement has not encompassed the environmental aspect. This will lead to lack of environmental aspect information for adjusting the next strategy. This study aimed to assess Sustainable Food security by encompassing both food security and environment aspect using systemic eco-efficiency. Given existing indicator of cereal production level, total emission as environment indicator was generated by constructing Causal Loop Diagram (CLD). Then, a stock-flow diagram was used to develop systemic simulation model. This model was demonstrated for Indonesian five provinces. The result showed there was difference between food security order with and without environmental aspect assessment.

  1. A sustainable system of systems approach: a new HFE paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Andrew; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability issues such as natural resource depletion, pollution and poor working conditions have no geographical boundaries in our interconnected world. To address these issues requires a paradigm shift within human factors and ergonomics (HFE), to think beyond a bounded, linear model understanding towards a broader systems framework. For this reason, we introduce a sustainable system of systems model that integrates the current hierarchical conceptualisation of possible interventions (i.e., micro-, meso- and macro-ergonomics) with important concepts from the sustainability literature, including the triple bottom line approach and the notion of time frames. Two practical examples from the HFE literature are presented to illustrate the model. The implications of this paradigm shift for HFE researchers and practitioners are discussed and include the long-term sustainability of the HFE community and comprehensive solutions to problems that consider the emergent issues that arise from this interconnected world. A sustainable world requires a broader systems thinking than that which currently exists in ergonomics. This study proposes a sustainable system of systems model that incorporates ideas from the ecological sciences, notably a nested hierarchy of systems and a hierarchical time dimension. The implications for sustainable design and the sustainability of the HFE community are considered.

  2. Perfusion Bioreactor Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    1990-01-01

    Perfusion bioreactor module, self-contained, closed-loop cell-culture system that operates in microgravity or on Earth. Equipment supports growth or long-term maintenance of cultures of human or other fragile cells for experiments in basic cell biology or process technology. Designed to support proliferation (initially at exponential rates of growth) of cells in complex growth medium and to maintain confluent cells in defined medium under conditions optimized to permit or encourage selected functions of cells, including secretion of products of cells into medium.

  3. Edible insects in Sustainable Food Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton; Flore, Roberto; Vantomme, Paul

    Edible insects in Sustainable Food Systems comprehensively covers the basic principles of entomology and population dynamics; edible insects and culture; nutrition and health; gastronomy; insects as animal feed; factors influencing preferences and acceptability of insects; environmental impacts...... and conservation; considerations for insect farming and policy and legislation. The book contains practical information for researchers, NGOs and international organizations, decision-makers, entrepreneurs and students...

  4. Global drivers, sustainable manufacturing and systems ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A; Henshaw, M J deC

    2015-11-01

    This paper briefly explores the expected impact of the 'Global Drivers' (such as population demographics, food security; energy security; community security and safety), and the role of sustainability engineering in mitigating the potential effects of these Global Drivers. The message of the paper is that sustainability requires a significant input from Ergonomics/Human Factors, but the profession needs some expansion in its thinking in order to make this contribution. Creating a future sustainable world in which people experience an acceptable way of life will not happen without a large input from manufacturing industry into all the Global Drivers, both in delivering products that meet sustainability criteria (such as durability, reliability, minimised material requirement and low energy consumption), and in developing sustainable processes to deliver products for sustainability (such as minimum waste, minimum emissions and low energy consumption). Appropriate changes are already being implemented in manufacturing industry, including new business models, new jobs and new skills. Considerable high-level planning around the world is in progress and is bringing about these changes; for example, there is the US 'Advanced Manufacturing National Program' (AMNP)', the German 'Industrie 4.0' plan, the French plan 'la nouvelle France industrielle' and the UK Foresight publications on the 'Future of Manufacturing'. All of these activities recognise the central part that humans will continue to play in the new manufacturing paradigms; however, they do not discuss many of the issues that systems ergonomics professionals acknowledge. This paper discusses a number of these issues, highlighting the need for some new thinking and knowledge capture by systems ergonomics professionals. Among these are ethical issues, job content and skills issues. Towards the end, there is a summary of knowledge extensions considered necessary in order that systems ergonomists can be fully

  5. Advanced Wastewater Treatment Engineering—Investigating Membrane Fouling in both Rotational and Static Membrane Bioreactor Systems Using Empirical Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parneet Paul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced wastewater treatment using membranes are popular environmental system processes since they allow reuse and recycling. However, fouling is a key limiting factor and so proprietary systems such as Avanti’s RPU-185 Flexidisks membrane bioreactor (MBR use novel rotating membranes to assist in ameliorating it. In earlier research, this rotating process was studied by creating a simulation model based on first principles and traditional fouling mechanisms. In order to directly compare the potential benefits of this rotational system, this follow-up study was carried out using Avanti’s newly developed static (non-rotating Flexidisks MBR system. The results from operating the static pilot unit were simulated and modelled using the rotational fouling model developed earlier however with rotational switching functions turned off and rotational parameters set to a static mode. The study concluded that a rotating MBR system could increase flux throughput when compared against a similar static system. It is thought that although the slowly rotating spindle induces a weak crossflow shear, it is still able to even out cake build up across the membrane surface, thus reducing the likelihood of localised critical flux being exceeded at the micro level and lessening the potential of rapid trans-membrane pressure increases at the macro level.

  6. Sustainability of organic, integrated and conventional farming systems in Tuscany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacini, C.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Vazzana, C.; Wossink, G.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability. The principal purpose of this paper is to evaluate the financial and environmental aspects of sustainability of Organic,

  7. Bioreactor technology for herbal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobri Hussein; Rusli Ibrahim; Abdul Rahim Harun; Azhar Mohamad; Hawa Abdul Aziz; Wan Nazirah Wan Ali

    2010-01-01

    Plants have been an important source of medicine for thousands of years and herbs are hot currency in the world today. During the last decade, popularity of alternative medicine increased significantly worldwide with noticeable trend. This in turn accelerated the global trade of herbal raw materials and herbal products and created greater scope for Asian countries that possess the major supply of herbal raw materials within their highly diversified tropical rain forest. As such, advanced bioreactor culture system possesses a great potential for large scale production than the traditional tissue culture system. Bioreactor cultures have many advantages over conventional cultures. Plant cells in bioreactors can grow fast and vigorously in shorter period as the culture conditions in bioreactor such as temperature, pH, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrients can be optimised by on-line manipulation. Nutrient uptake can also be enhanced by continuous medium circulation, which ultimately increased cell proliferation rate. Consequently, production period and cost are substantially reduced, product quality is controlled and standardized as well as free of pesticide contamination and production of raw material can be conducted all year round. Taking all these into consideration, current research efforts were focused on varying several parameters such as inoculation density, air flow, medium formulation, PGRs etc. for increased production of cell and organ cultures of high market demand herbal and medicinal plants, particularly Eurycoma longifolia, Panax ginseng and Labisia pumila. At present, the production of cell and organ culture of these medicinal plants have also been applied in airlift bioreactor with different working volumes. It is hope that the investment of research efforts into this advanced bioreactor technology will open up a bright future for the modernization of agriculture and commercialisation of natural product. (author)

  8. Information Systems Solutions for Environmental Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Roya; Watson, Richard T.; Hasan, Helen

    2016-01-01

    We contend that too few information systems (IS) academics engage in impactful research that offers solutions to global warming despite the fact that climate change is one of the most critical challenges facing this generation. Climate change is a major threat to global sustainability in the 21st...... themselves in creating solutions for environmental problems. Moreover, information is a perquisite for assessing the state of the environment and making appropriate decisions to ameliorate identified problems. Indeed, the IS scholarly community needs to help create a sustainable society. While...

  9. Development and Testing of a Fully Adaptable Membrane Bioreactor Fouling Model for a Sidestream Configuration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parneet Paul

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A dead-end filtration model that includes the three main fouling mechanisms mentioned in Hermia (i.e., cake build-up, complete pore blocking, and pore constriction and that was based on a constant trans-membrane pressure (TMP operation was extensively modified so it could be used for a sidestream configuration membrane bioreactor (MBR situation. Modifications and add-ons to this basic model included: alteration so that it could be used for varying flux and varying TMP operations; inclusion of a backwash mode; it described pore constriction (i.e., irreversible fouling in relation to the concentration of soluble microbial products (SMP in the liquor; and, it could be used in a cross flow scenario by the addition of scouring terms in the model formulation. The additional terms in this modified model were checked against an already published model to see if they made sense, physically speaking. Next this modified model was calibrated and validated in Matlab© using data collected by carrying out flux stepping tests on both a pilot sidestream MBR plant, and then a pilot membrane filtration unit. The model fit proved good, especially for the pilot filtration unit data. In conclusion, this model formulation is of the right level of complexity to be used for most practical MBR situations.

  10. Molecular-based detection of potentially pathogenic bacteria in membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems treating municipal wastewater: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Moustapha; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2017-02-01

    Although membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems provide better removal of pathogens compared to conventional activated sludge processes, they do not achieve total log removal. The present study examines two MBR systems treating municipal wastewater, one a full-scale MBR plant and the other a lab-scale anaerobic MBR. Both of these systems were operated using microfiltration (MF) polymeric membranes. High-throughput sequencing and digital PCR quantification were utilized to monitor the log removal values (LRVs) of associated pathogenic species and their abundance in the MBR effluents. Results showed that specific removal rates vary widely regardless of the system employed. Each of the two MBR effluents' microbial communities contained genera associated with opportunistic pathogens (e.g., Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter) with a wide range of log reduction values (5.5). Digital PCR further confirmed that these bacterial groups included pathogenic species, in several instances at LRVs different than those for their respective genera. These results were used to evaluate the potential risks associated both with the reuse of the MBR effluents for irrigation purposes and with land application of the activated sludge from the full-scale MBR system.

  11. Molecular-based detection of potentially pathogenic bacteria in membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems treating municipal wastewater: a case study

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moustapha

    2016-12-24

    Although membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems provide better removal of pathogens compared to conventional activated sludge processes, they do not achieve total log removal. The present study examines two MBR systems treating municipal wastewater, one a full-scale MBR plant and the other a lab-scale anaerobic MBR. Both of these systems were operated using microfiltration (MF) polymeric membranes. High-throughput sequencing and digital PCR quantification were utilized to monitor the log removal values (LRVs) of associated pathogenic species and their abundance in the MBR effluents. Results showed that specific removal rates vary widely regardless of the system employed. Each of the two MBR effluents’ microbial communities contained genera associated with opportunistic pathogens (e.g., Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter) with a wide range of log reduction values (< 2 to >5.5). Digital PCR further confirmed that these bacterial groups included pathogenic species, in several instances at LRVs different than those for their respective genera. These results were used to evaluate the potential risks associated both with the reuse of the MBR effluents for irrigation purposes and with land application of the activated sludge from the full-scale MBR system.

  12. Defense Systems Modernization and Sustainment Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-31

    System Resilience and Survivability SR &S1 R. T , Tŕ Defense Systems Modernization X X and Sustainment Initiative Center for Integrated...approximately by a percent, which is significant, considering that some of the cells are only used within 20% of their capacity. Chen- Mora model, described...CTL for modeling transients at different rates. ST9 VT) Ccapacity soc Figure 8. Chen- Mora model2 Time-domain analysis is based on a short

  13. Not planning a sustainable transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnveden, Göran; Åkerman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The overall objective of the Swedish transport policy is to ensure the economically efficient and sustainable provision of transport services for people and business throughout the country. More specifically, the transport sector shall, among other things, contribute to the achievement of environmental quality objectives in which the development of the transport system plays an important role in the achievement of the objectives. The aim of this study is to analyse if current transport planning supports this policy. This is done by analysing two recent cases: the National Infrastructure Plan 2010–2021, and the planning of Bypass Stockholm, a major road investment. Our results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. Another interesting aspect of the planning processes is that the long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes, neither as a clear goal nor as factor that will influence future transport systems. In this way, the long-term sustainability aspects are not present in the planning. We conclude that the two cases do not contribute to a sustainable transport system. Thus, several changes must be made in the processes, including putting up clear targets for emissions. Also, the methodology for the environmental assessments needs to be further developed and discussed. - Highlights: • Two cases are studied to analyse if current planning supports a sustainable transport system. • Results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. • Long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes. • Current practices do not contribute to a sustainable planning processes. • Methodology and process for environmental assessments must be further developed and discussed

  14. LCA and Cost Analysis of Membrane Bioreactor Systems: Influence of Scale, Population Density, Climate, and Methane Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Future changes in drinking and waste water infrastructure need to incorporate a holistic view of the water service sustainability tradeoffs and potential benefits when considering shifts towards new treatment technology, decentralized systems, energy recovery and reuse of treated...

  15. Studies of Cell-Mediated Immunity Against Immune Disorders Using Synthetic Peptides and Rotating Bioreactor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Jagannadha K.

    1997-01-01

    Our proposed experiments included: (1) immunzing mice with synthetic peptides; (2) preparing spleen and lymph node cells; (3) growing them under conventional conditions as well as in the rotatory vessel in appropriate medium reconstituting with synthetic peptides and/or cytokines as needed; and (4) comparing at regular time intervals the specific CTL activity as well as helper T-cell activity (in terms of both proliferative responses and cytokine production) using established procedures in my laboratory. We further proposed that once we demonstrated the merit of rotatory vessel technology to achieve desired results, these studies would be expanded to include immune cells from non-human primates (rhesus monkeys and chimpanzees) and also humans. We conducted a number of experiments to determine CTL induction by the synthetic peptides corresponding to antigenic proteins in HIV and HPV in different mouse strains that express MHC haplotypes H-2b or H-2d. We immunized mice with 100 ug of the synthetic peptide, suspended in sterile water, and emulsified in CFA (1:1). The immune lymph node cells obtained after 7 days were restimulated by culturing in T25 flask, HARV-10, or STLV-50, in the presence of the peptide at 20 ug/ml. The results from the 5'Cr-release assay consistently revealed complete abrogation of CTL activity of cells grown in the bioreactors (both HARV and STLV), while significant antigen-specific CTL activity was observed with cells cultured in tissue culture flasks. Thus, overall the data we generated in this study proved the usefulness of the NASA-developed developed technology for understanding the known immune deficiency during space travel. Additionally, this ex vivo microgravity technology since it mimics effectively the in vivo situation, it is also useful in understanding immune disorders in general. Thus, our proposed studies in TMC-NASA contract round II application benefit from data generated in this TMC-NASA contract round I study.

  16. Advancing a sustainable highway system : highlights of FHWA sustainability activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    FHWA is undertaking a significant amount of work related to sustainability across a number of program areas throughout the Agency. The purpose of this report is to showcase some of the ways in which FHWA is : incorporating and embedding sustainabilit...

  17. In search of sustainable transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijkamp, P.; Vleugel, J.

    1995-12-31

    Several options can be envisaged in order to alleviate the external costs of modern transport systems: moral conviction, strict regulations (including enforcement), user charge principles (e.g. road pricing, Pigovian taxation), sophisticated environment-friendly technologies (e.g. route guidance, zero-emission cars) and alternative modes of physical planning (e.g. compact city design). Any reduction target in environmental stress has to be assessed from both an environmental sustainability viewpoint and from a cost effectiveness viewpoint. Such an assessment may be based on evaluation criteria that are internal to the transport system or on criteria that mirror an overall systemic efficiency and sustainability. This provokes the question of the most appropriate level of reduction of environmental pollution by the transport sector compared to other economic sectors. A policy strategy aiming at a more sustainable transport system has to identify quantitative criteria which would offer guidelines on the maximum allowable contribution to environmental degradation by the transport sector. This presupposes knowledge on the total permissible pollution in a given area and in a given time frame, as well as knowledge on the share of the transport system in this total volume of pollution (for different pollutants). The aim of this paper is to develop some thoughts on the question of identifying the maximum allowable pollution share by the transport sector, assuming a critical level of maximum resource use, a maximum carrying capacity, a maximum environmental utilisation space, a maximum sustainable yield or some other critical threshold level for environmental decay. The notion of maximum environmental capacity use (MECU) is used to indicate the maximum resource use of a given environmental capital stock that - in a given time period - is compatible with both socio-economic objectives and environmental quality conditions now and in the future. 6 tabs., 24 refs.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Systems Management is the management of environmental problems at the systems level fully accounting for the multi-dimensional nature of the environment. This includes socio-economic dimensions as well as the usual physical and life science aspects. This is importa...

  19. The sustainable IT architecture resilient information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, P

    2009-01-01

    This book focuses on Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), the basis of sustainable and more agile IT systems that are able to adapt themselves to new trends and manage processes involving a third party. The discussion is based on the public Praxeme method and features a number of examples taken from large SOA projects which were used to rewrite the information systems of an insurance company; as such, decision-makers, creators of IT systems, programmers and computer scientists, as well as those who will use these new developments, will find this a useful resource

  20. Removal of trace organic contaminants by a membrane bioreactor-granular activated carbon (MBR-GAC) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Luong N; Hai, Faisal I; Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D

    2012-06-01

    The removal of trace organics by a membrane bioreactor-granular activated carbon (MBR-GAC) integrated system were investigated. The results confirmed that MBR treatment can be effective for the removal of hydrophobic (log D>3.2) and readily biodegradable trace organics. The data also highlighted the limitation of MBR in removing hydrophilic and persistent compounds (e.g. carbamazepine, diclofenac, and fenoprop) and that GAC could complement MBR very well as a post-treatment process. The MBR-GAC system showed high removal of all selected trace organics including those that are hydrophilic and persistent to biological degradation at up to 406 bed volumes (BV). However, over an extended period, breakthrough of diclofenac was observed after 7320 BV. This suggests that strict monitoring should be applied over the lifetime of the GAC column to detect the breakthrough of hydrophilic and persistent compounds which have low removal by MBR treatment. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sustainability assessment of a hybrid energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, Nain H.; Carvalho, Maria G.

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid energy system in the form of the Object structure is the pattern for the structure of options in the evaluation of a hybrid system. The Object structure is defined as: Hybrid Energy System {[production (solar, wind, biomass, natural gas)] [utilization(electricity, heat, hydrogen)]}. In the evaluation of hybrid energy systems only several options are selected to demonstrate the sustainability assessment method application in the promotion of the specific quality of the hybrid energy system. In this analysis the following options are taken into a consideration: 1.Solar photo-voltaic power plant (PV PP), wind turbine power plant (WTPP) biomass thermal power plant (ThSTPP) for electricity, heat and hydrogen production. 2.Solar PV PP and wind power plant (WPP) for electricity and hydrogen production. 3.Biomass thermal steam turbine power plant (BThSTPP) and WPP for heat and hydrogen production. 4.Combined cycle gas turbine power plant for electricity and hydrogen production. 5.Cogeneration of electricity and water by the hybrid system. The sustainability assessment method is used for the evaluation of quality of the selected hybrid systems. In this evaluation the following indicators are used: economic indicator, environment indicator and social indicator

  2. Bioreactor Technology in Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertsching, H.; Hansmann, J.

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering is a fast evolving field of biomedical science and technology to manufacture viable blood vessels, heart valves, myocar-dial substitutes and vascularised complex tissues. In consideration of the specific role of the haemodynamics of human circulation, bioreactors are a fundamental of this field. The development of perfusion bioreactor technology is a consequence of successes in extracorporeal circulation techniques, to provide an in vitro environment mimicking in vivo conditions. The bioreactor system should enable an automatic hydrodynamic regime control. Furthermore, the systematic studies regarding the cellular responses to various mechanical and biochemical cues guarantee the viability, bio-monitoring, testing, storage and transportation of the growing tissue.

  3. Tubular membrane bioreactors for biotechnological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Christoph; Beutel, Sascha; Scheper, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    This article is an overview of bioreactors using tubular membranes such as hollow fibers or ceramic capillaries for cultivation processes. This diverse group of bioreactor is described here in regard to the membrane materials used, operational modes, and configurations. The typical advantages of this kind of system such as environments with low shear stress together with high cell densities and also disadvantages like poor oxygen supply are summed up. As the usage of tubular membrane bioreactors is not restricted to a certain organism, a brief overview of various applications covering nearly all types of cells from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells is also given here.

  4. What makes closed ecological systems sustainable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelson, I.; Degermendzhy, A.; Rodicheva, E.

    A closed ecosystem has some properties that an open systems lacks. Let us consider the ones that increase the sustainability of an ecosystem. The common feature of biological and physicochemical life support systems is that basically they are both catalytic. There are two fundamental properties distinguishing biological systems: 1) they are auto-catalytic: their catalysts - enzymes of protein nature - are continuously reproduced when the system functions; 2) the program of every process performed by enzymes and the program of their reproduction are inherent in the biological system itself - in the totality of genomes of the species involved in the functioning of the ecosystem. Actually, one cell with the genome capable of the phenotypic realization is enough for the self- restoration of the function performed by the cells of this species in the ecosystem. The multi-cellular organisms with stem cells are constantly ready to repair themselves by intensifying the continuous process of regeneration. We (Gitelson) have made a quantitative investigation of this process by studying the regeneration and reparation of erythrocytes in mammals. The continuous microalgal culture of Chlorella vulgaris was taken to investigate quantitatively the similar functional process of self-restoration in unicellular algae (Rodicheva). Based on the data obtained, we proposed a mathematical model of the restoration process in the cell population that has suffered an acute radiation damage. Besides these general biological mechanisms responsible for their sustainability, closed systems also possess specific features enhancing their stability. They are as follows: 1. Nutrients cannot leave the system. 2. The metabolic pathways of the material cycling are closed. 3. The rates of interlink metabolism are in conformity with each other due to their mutual limitation. We present the data obtained in the Bios-3 experiments that prove the efficiency of this mechanism as a factor of the

  5. Bioreactors in tissue engineering - principles, applications and commercial constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansmann, Jan; Groeber, Florian; Kahlig, Alexander; Kleinhans, Claudia; Walles, Heike

    2013-03-01

    Bioreactor technology is vital for tissue engineering. Usually, bioreactors are used to provide a tissue-specific physiological in vitro environment during tissue maturation. In addition to this most obvious application, bioreactors have the potential to improve the efficiency of the overall tissue-engineering concept. To date, a variety of bioreactor systems for tissue-specific applications have been developed. Of these, some systems are already commercially available. With bioreactor technology, various functional tissues of different types were generated and cultured in vitro. Nevertheless, these efforts and achievements alone have not yet led to many clinically successful tissue-engineered implants. We review possible applications for bioreactor systems within a tissue-engineering process and present basic principles and requirements for bioreactor development. Moreover, the use of bioreactor systems for the expansion of clinically relevant cell types is addressed. In contrast to cell expansion, for the generation of functional three-dimensional tissue equivalents, additional physical cues must be provided. Therefore, bioreactors for musculoskeletal tissue engineering are discussed. Finally, bioreactor technology is reviewed in the context of commercial constraints. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Evaluation of a membrane bioreactor system as post-treatment in waste water treatment for better removal of micropollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga, Sonia; de Jonge, Nadieh; Nielsen, Marc Lund; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Borregaard, Vibeke; Jewel, Kevin; Ternes, Thomas A; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund

    2016-12-15

    Organic micropollutants (OMPs) such as pharmaceuticals are persistent pollutants that are only partially degraded in waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was used as a polishing step on a full-scale WWTP, and its ability to remove micropollutants was examined together with the development and stability of the microbial community. Two stages of operation were studied during a period of 9 months, one with (S1) and one without (S2) the addition of exogenous OMPs. Ibuprofen and naproxen had the highest degradation rates with values of 248 μg/g VSS ·h and 71 μg/g VSS ·h, whereas diclofenac was a more persistent OMP (7.28 μg/g VSS ·h). Mineralization of 14 C-labeled OMPs in batch kinetic experiments indicates that higher removal rates (∼0.8 ng/mg T SS ·h) with a short lag phase can be obtained when artificial addition of organic micropollutants was performed. Similar microbial populations dominated S1 and S2, despite the independent operations. Hydrogenophaga, Nitrospira, p55-a5, the actinobacterial Tetrasphaera, Propionicimonas, Fodinicola, and Candidatus Microthrix were the most abundant groups in the polishing MBR. Finally, potential microbial candidates for ibuprofen and naproxen degradation are proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Zosteric Acid for Mitigating Biofilm Formation of Pseudomonas putida Isolated from a Membrane Bioreactor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Polo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study provides data to define an efficient biocide-free strategy based on zosteric acid to counteract biofilm formation on the membranes of submerged bioreactor system plants. 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis showed that gammaproteobacteria was the prevalent taxa on fouled membranes of an Italian wastewater plant. Pseudomonas was the prevalent genus among the cultivable membrane-fouler bacteria and Pseudomonas putida was selected as the target microorganism to test the efficacy of the antifoulant. Zosteric acid was not a source of carbon and energy for P. putida cells and, at 200 mg/L, it caused a reduction of bacterial coverage by 80%. Biofilm experiments confirmed the compound caused a significant decrease in biomass (−97% and thickness (−50%, and it induced a migration activity of the peritrichous flagellated P. putida over the polycarbonate surface not amenable to a biofilm phenotype. The low octanol-water partitioning coefficient and the high water solubility suggested a low bioaccumulation potential and the water compartment as its main environmental recipient and capacitor. Preliminary ecotoxicological tests did not highlight direct toxicity effects toward Daphnia magna. For green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata an effect was observed at concentrations above 100 mg/L with a significant growth of protozoa that may be connected to a concurrent algal growth inhibition.

  8. Production of extracellular bifidogenic growth stimulator (BGS) from Propionibacterium shermanii using a bioreactor system with a microfiltration module and an on-line controller for lactic acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouya, Tomoaki; Tobita, Kazuhiro; Horiuchi, Masahito; Nakayama, Eri; Deguchi, Hiroyoshi; Tanaka, Takaaki; Taniguchi, Masayuki

    2008-03-01

    Production of a bifidogenic growth stimulator (BGS) by Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii (Propionibacterium shermanii) using lactic acid as a carbon source was investigated using different cultivation methods. When a continuous bioreactor system with a filtration device was used at a dilution rate of 0.075 h(-1), the average BGS concentration was 2.4 mg/l, which corresponds to a BGS productivity per cultivation time of 1.8 x 10(-1) mg x l(-1) x h(-1). The BGS productivity per cultivation time in continuous cultivation with filtration was 1.9-fold that (9.4 x 10(-2) mg x l(-1).h(-1)) in a conventional batch cultivation. In fed-batch cultivation with feed-back control using an on-line lactic acid controller with a lactic acid biosensor, it was possible to prevent substrate inhibition by maintaining the lactic acid concentration in culture broth low at 3.3 g/l, and an enhanced BGS production (31 mg/l) was successfully attained. The BGS productivity per cultivation time (2.1x10(-1) mg x l(-1) x h(-1)) in the fed-batch cultivation with feed-back control was 2.2-fold that in the conventional batch cultivation. A new bioreactor system was developed by coupling a continuous bioreactor system with a filtration device to an on-line lactic acid controller. Using the new bioreactor system, we produced BGS continuously at a high level of 47 mg/l. The BGS productivities per cultivation time (3.5 mg.l(-1) x h(-1)) and the total volume of medium used (1.7 x 10(-1) mg x l(-1) x h(-1)) obtained in the new bioreactor system were 37-fold and 2.1-fold those in the conventional batch cultivation, respectively. These results described above clearly demonstrate the positive effects of both the continuous filtration for removal of metabolites (propionic and acetic acids) inhibitory to cell growth and feed-back control of lactic acid concentration in the culture broth on BGS production by P. shermanii. This paper is the first report on BGS production by the propionic acid

  9. Effects of high-intensity static magnetic fields on a root-based bioreactor system for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Maria Elena; Massa, Silvia; Lopresto, Vanni; Pinto, Rosanna; Salzano, Anna Maria; Scaloni, Andrea; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Desiderio, Angiola

    2017-11-01

    Static magnetic fields created by superconducting magnets have been proposed as an effective solution to protect spacecrafts and planetary stations from cosmic radiations. This shield can deflect high-energy particles exerting injurious effects on living organisms, including plants. In fact, plant systems are becoming increasingly interesting for space adaptation studies, being useful not only as food source but also as sink of bioactive molecules in future bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS). However, the application of protective magnetic shields would generate inside space habitats residual magnetic fields, of the order of few hundreds milli Tesla, whose effect on plant systems is poorly known. To simulate the exposure conditions of these residual magnetic fields in shielded environment, devices generating high-intensity static magnetic field (SMF) were comparatively evaluated in blind exposure experiments (250 mT, 500 mT and sham -no SMF-). The effects of these SMFs were assayed on tomato cultures (hairy roots) previously engineered to produce anthocyanins, known for their anti-oxidant properties and possibly useful in the setting of BLSS. Hairy roots exposed for periods ranging from 24 h to 11 days were morphometrically analyzed to measure their growth and corresponding molecular changes were assessed by a differential proteomic approach. After disclosing blind exposure protocol, a stringent statistical elaboration revealed the absence of significant differences in the soluble proteome, perfectly matching phenotypic results. These experimental evidences demonstrate that the identified plant system well tolerates the exposure to these magnetic fields. Results hereby described reinforce the notion of using this plant organ culture as a tool in ground-based experiments simulating space and planetary environments, in a perspective of using tomato 'hairy root' cultures as bioreactor of ready-to-use bioactive molecules during future long-term space missions.

  10. A New Integrated Lab-on-a-Chip System for Fast Dynamic Study of Mammalian Cells under Physiological Conditions in Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Ping Zeng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available For the quantitative analysis of cellular metabolism and its dynamics it is essential to achieve rapid sampling, fast quenching of metabolism and the removal of extracellular metabolites. Common manual sample preparation methods and protocols for cells are time-consuming and often lead to the loss of physiological conditions. In this work, we present a microchip-bioreactor setup which provides an integrated and rapid sample preparation of mammalian cells. The lab-on-a-chip system consists of five connected units that allow sample treatment, mixing and incubation of the cells, followed by cell separation and simultaneous exchange of media within seconds. This microsystem is directly integrated into a bioreactor for mammalian cell cultivation. By applying overpressure (2 bar onto the bioreactor, this setup allows pulsation free, defined, fast, and continuous sampling. Experiments evince that Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO-K1 can be separated from the culture broth and transferred into a new medium efficiently. Furthermore, this setup permits the treatment of cells for a defined time (9 s or 18 s which can be utilized for pulse experiments, quenching of cell metabolism, and/or another defined chemical treatment. Proof of concept experiments were performed using glutamine containing medium for pulse experiments. Continuous sampling of cells showed a high reproducibility over a period of 18 h.

  11. A system of miniaturized stirred bioreactors for parallel continuous cultivation of yeast with online measurement of dissolved oxygen and off-gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Tobias; Schneider, Konstantin; Heinzle, Elmar

    2013-02-01

    Chemostat cultivation is a powerful tool for physiological studies of microorganisms. We report the construction and application of a set of eight parallel small-scale bioreactors with a working volume of 10 mL for continuous cultivation. Hungate tubes were used as culture vessels connected to multichannel-peristaltic pumps for feeding fresh media and removal of culture broth and off-gas. Water saturated air is sucked into the bioreactors by applying negative pressure, and small stirrer bars inside the culture vessels allow sufficient mixing and oxygen transfer. Optical sensors are used for non-invasive online measurement of dissolved oxygen, which proved to be a powerful indicator of the physiological state of the cultures, particularly of steady-state conditions. Analysis of culture exhaust-gas by means of mass spectrometry enables balancing of carbon. The capacity of the developed small-scale bioreactor system was validated using the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, focusing on the metabolic shift from respiratory to respiro-fermentative metabolism, as well as studies on consumption of different substrates such as glucose, fructose, and gluconate. In all cases, an almost completely closed carbon balance was obtained proving the reliability of the experimental setup. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Energy and greenhouse gas life cycle assessment and cost analysis of aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems: Influence of scale, population density, climate, and methane recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Sarah; Ma, Xin; Mosley, Janet; Garland, Jay; Crone, Brian; Xue, Xiaobo

    2018-04-01

    This study calculated the energy and greenhouse gas life cycle and cost profiles of transitional aerobic membrane bioreactors (AeMBR) and anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR). Membrane bioreactors (MBR) represent a promising technology for decentralized wastewater treatment and can produce recycled water to displace potable water. Energy recovery is possible with methane generated from AnMBRs. Scenarios for these technologies were investigated for different scale systems serving various population densities under a number of climate conditions with multiple methane recovery options. When incorporating the displacement of drinking water, AeMBRs started to realize net energy benefits at the 1 million gallons per day (MGD) scale and mesophilic AnMBRs at the 5 MGD scale. For all scales, the psychrophilic AnMBR resulted in net energy benefits. This study provides insights into key performance characteristics needed before an informed decision can be made for a community to transition towards the adoption of MBR technologies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Sustainable Energy, Water and Environmental Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Duic, Neven

    2014-01-01

    This issue presents research results from the 8th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – SDEWES - held in Dubrovnik, Croatia in 2013. Topics covered here include the energy situation in the Middle East with a focus in Cyprus and Israel, energy planning...... methodology with Ireland as a case and the applicability of energy scenarios modelling tools as a main focus, evaluation of energy demands in Italy and finally evaluation of underground cables vs overhead lines and lacking public acceptance of incurring additional costs for the added benefit of having...

  14. Glyphosate sustainability in South American cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffoleti, Pedro J; Galli, Antonio J B; Carvalho, Saul J P; Moreira, Murilo S; Nicolai, Marcelo; Foloni, Luiz L; Martins, Bianca A B; Ribeiro, Daniela N

    2008-04-01

    South America represents about 12% of the global land area, and Brazil roughly corresponds to 47% of that. The major sustainable agricultural system in South America is based on a no-tillage cropping system, which is a worldwide adopted agricultural conservation system. Societal benefits of conservation systems in agriculture include greater use of conservation tillage, which reduces soil erosion and associated loading of pesticides, nutrients and sediments into the environment. However, overreliance on glyphosate and simpler cropping systems has resulted in the selection of tolerant weed species through weed shifts (WSs) and evolution of herbicide-resistant weed (HRW) biotypes to glyphosate. It is a challenge in South America to design herbicide- and non-herbicide-based strategies that effectively delay and/or manage evolution of HRWs and WSs to weeds tolerant to glyphosate in cropping systems based on recurrent glyphosate application, such as those used with glyphosate-resistant soybeans. The objectives of this paper are (i) to provide an overview of some factors that influence WSs and HRWs to glyphosate in South America, especially in Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay soybean cropped areas; (ii) to discuss the viability of using crop rotation and/or cover crops that might be integrated with forage crops in an economically and environmentally sustainable system; and (iii) to summarize the results of a survey of the perceptions of Brazilian farmers to problems with WSs and HRWs to glyphosate, and the level of adoption of good agricultural practices in order to prevent or manage it. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Developing Sustainable Spacecraft Water Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.; Klaus, David M.

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally more robust and operationally sustainable overtime. This paper presents potential design and testing considerations for improving the reliability of water handling technologies for exploration spacecraft. Our application of interest is to devise a spacecraft wastewater management system wherein fouling can be accommodated by design attributes of the management hardware, rather than implementing some means of preventing its occurrence.

  16. Designing sustainable work systems: the need for a systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Klaus J

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing discussion concerning sustainability. While this discussion was at first mainly focused on a society level--and sometimes regarding especially environmental problems, one can now see that this topic is of increasing relevance for companies worldwide and even the social dimension of this three pillar approach is gaining more and more importance. This leads to some questions: Is sustainability already a part of human factors thinking or do we have to further develop our discipline? How can we define sustainable work systems? What are the topics we have to consider? Do we need a new systems ergonomics perspective regarding whole value creation chains and a life-cycle perspective concerning products (and work systems)? How can we deal with potential contradictions about social, ecological, and economic goals? Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  17. System learning approach to assess sustainability and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents a methodology that combines the power of an Artificial Neural Network and Information Theory to forecast variables describing the condition of a regional system. The novelty and strength of this approach is in the application of Fisher information, a key method in Information Theory, to preserve trends in the historical data and prevent over fitting projections. The methodology was applied to demographic, environmental, food and energy consumption, and agricultural production in the San Luis Basin regional system in Colorado, U.S.A. These variables are important for tracking conditions in human and natural systems. However, available data are often so far out of date that they limit the ability to manage these systems. Results indicate that the approaches developed provide viable tools for forecasting outcomes with the aim of assisting management toward sustainable trends. This methodology is also applicable for modeling different scenarios in other dynamic systems. Indicators are indispensable for tracking conditions in human and natural systems, however, available data is sometimes far out of date and limit the ability to gauge system status. Techniques like regression and simulation are not sufficient because system characteristics have to be modeled ensuring over simplification of complex dynamics. This work presents a methodology combining the power of an Artificial Neural Network and Information Theory to capture patterns in a real dyna

  18. Designing electrical stimulated bioreactors for nerve tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagita, Ignasius Dwi; Whulanza, Yudan; Dhelika, Radon; Nurhadi, Ibrahim

    2018-02-01

    Bioreactor provides a biomimetic ecosystem that is able to culture cells in a physically controlled system. In general, the controlled-parameters are temperature, pH, fluid flow, nutrition flow, etc. In this study, we develop a bioreactor that specifically targeted to culture neural stem cells. This bioreactor could overcome some limitations of conventional culture technology, such as petri dish, by providing specific range of observation area and a uniform treatment. Moreover, the microfluidic bioreactor, which is a small-controlled environment, is able to observe as small number of cells as possible. A perfusion flow is applied to mimic the physiological environment in human body. Additionally, this bioreactor also provides an electrical stimulation which is needed by neural stem cells. In conclusion, we found the correlation between the induced shear stress with geometric parameters of the bioreactor. Ultimately, this system shall be used to observe the interaction between stimulation and cell growth.

  19. Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2004-01-01

    Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today's waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous long-term management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by external intrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the long-term success of the prescribed system. In fact

  20. Reporting Systems for Sustainability: What Are They Measuring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    The dominance of the neoliberal discourse in the sustainability debate has tended to privilege the economy over environment and social dimensions with implications for what is measured by sustainability monitoring systems. Moreover, systems to measure sustainability, including those influenced by neoliberal discourse, lack robust definitions and…

  1. An Integrated Sustainable Business and Development System: Thoughts and Opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J. C. Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Companies understand the importance of monitoring and managing their environmental impacts and aim to integrate, with consistent quality control, effective reduce-reuse-recycle programs and risk preventions. By building an integrated sustainable business and development system to meet certain environmental standards, many companies are eligible to be “green” certified. Companies may consider recognizing global visions on sustainability while implementing local best practices. An integrated sustainable business and development system includes talent management, sustainable supply chain, practicing strategies of leveraging resources effectively, implementing social responsibilities, initiating innovative programs of recycling, reducing, and reusing, advancing leaders’ perceptions towards sustainability, reducing innovation barriers, and engaging sustainable practices strategically.

  2. Information systems outsourcing towards sustainable business value

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschheim, Rudy; Dibbern, Jens

    2014-01-01

    This book attempts to synthesize research that contributes to a better understanding of how to reach sustainable business value through information systems (IS) outsourcing. Important topics in this realm are how IS outsourcing can contribute to innovation, how it can be dynamically governed, how to cope with its increasing complexity through multi-vendor arrangements, how service quality standards can be met, how corporate social responsibility can be upheld and how to cope with increasing demands of internationalization and new sourcing models, such as crowdsourcing and platform-based cooperation. These issues are viewed from either the client or vendor perspective, or both. The book should be of interest to all academics and students in the fields of Information Systems, Management and Organization as well as corporate executives and professionals who seek a more profound analysis and understanding of the underlying factors and mechanisms of outsourcing.

  3. Bioreactor engineering using disposable technology for enhanced production of hCTLA4Ig in transgenic rice cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jun-Young; Yang, Yong-Suk; Cheon, Su-Hwan; Nam, Hyung-Jin; Jin, Gi-Hong; Kim, Dong-Il

    2013-09-01

    Two kinds of disposable bioreactors, air-lift disposable bioreactors (ADB) and wave disposable bioreactors (WDB) were compared with stirred-tank reactors (5-L STR). These bioreactors were successfully applied to transgenic rice cell cultures for the production of recombinant human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4-immunoglobulin (hCTLA4Ig). In both systems, a fed-batch culture method was used to produce hCTLA4Ig efficiently by feeding concentrated amino acids and production levels were enhanced when dissolved oxygen (DO) level was regulated at 30% using pure oxygen sparging. Agitation and aeration rate during cultivation in ADB and WDB were determined by the same mixing time. The results in both disposable bioreactors showed similar values in maximum cell density (11.9 gDCW/L and 12.6 gDCW/L), doubling time (4.8- and 5.0-day), and maximum hCTLA4Ig concentration (43.7 and 43.3 mg/L). Relatively higher cell viability was sustained in the ADB whereas hCTLA4Ig productivity was 1.2-fold higher than that in WDB. The productivity was improved by increasing aeration rate (0.2 vvm). Overall, our experiments demonstrate pneumatically driven disposable bioreactors are applicable for the production of recombinant proteins in plant cell cultures. These results will be useful for development and scale-up studies of disposable bioreactor systems for transgenic plant cell cultures. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A sustainability assessment system for Chinese iron and steel firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Yunguang; Pan, Jieyi; Farooq, Sami

    2016-01-01

    from financial and sustainability reports of four leading Chinese iron and steel firms. The proposed sustainable assessment system is envisaged to help Chinese iron and steel firms to objectively investigate their sustainability performance, provide clear and effective information to decision makers....... A sustainable assessment indicator system is an important tool to support that development. Currently, however, a sustainable assessment system, specifically designed to match the characteristics of Chinese iron and steel firms, is not available. In this paper such a system is proposed and evaluated using data...

  5. Visualizing feasible operating ranges within tissue engineering systems using a "windows of operation" approach: a perfusion-scaffold bioreactor case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Ryan J; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2012-12-01

    Tissue engineering approaches to developing functional substitutes are often highly complex, multivariate systems where many aspects of the biomaterials, bio-regulatory factors or cell sources may be controlled in an effort to enhance tissue formation. Furthermore, success is based on multiple performance criteria reflecting both the quantity and quality of the tissue produced. Managing the trade-offs between different performance criteria is a challenge. A "windows of operation" tool that graphically represents feasible operating spaces to achieve user-defined levels of performance has previously been described by researchers in the bio-processing industry. This paper demonstrates the value of "windows of operation" to the tissue engineering field using a perfusion-scaffold bioreactor system as a case study. In our laboratory, perfusion bioreactor systems are utilized in the context of bone tissue engineering to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of cell-seeded scaffolds. A key challenge of such perfusion bioreactor systems is to maximize the induction of osteogenesis but minimize cell detachment from the scaffold. Two key operating variables that influence these performance criteria are the mean scaffold pore size and flow-rate. Using cyclooxygenase-2 and osteopontin gene expression levels as surrogate indicators of osteogenesis, we employed the "windows of operation" methodology to rapidly identify feasible operating ranges for the mean scaffold pore size and flow-rate that achieved user-defined levels of performance for cell detachment and differentiation. Incorporation of such tools into the tissue engineer's armory will hopefully yield a greater understanding of the highly complex systems used and help aid decision making in future translation of products from the bench top to the market place. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Biological nutrient removal in simple dual sludge system with an UMBR (upflow multi-layer bioreactor) and aerobic biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, J-C; Park, H-S; An, J-Y; Shim, K-B; Kim, Y-H; Shin, H-S

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a simple dual sludge process was developed for small sewage treatment. It is a hybrid system that consists of upflow multi-layer bioreactor (UMBR) as anaerobic and anoxic reactor with suspended growth microorganisms and post aerobic biofilm reactor with inclined plates. UMBR is a multifunction reactor that acts as primary sedimentation tank, anaerobic reactor, anoxic reactor, and thickener. The sludge blanket in the UMBR is maintained at a constant level by automatic control so that clear water (30 mg-SS/L) can flow into the post aerobic biofilm reactor. It leads to improving performance of the biofilm reactor due to preventing of excess microbial attachment on the media surface and no requirment for a large clarifier caused by low solid loading. The HRT in the UMBR and the aerobic biofilm reactor were about 5.8 h and 6.4 h, respectively. The temperature in the reactor during this study varied from 12.5 degrees C to 28.3 degrees C. The results obtained from this study show that effluent concentrations of TCOD, TBOD, SS, TN, and TP were 29.7 mg/L, 6.0 mg/L, 10.3 mg/L, 12.0 mg/L, and 1.8 mg/L, which corresponded to a removal efficiency of 92.7%, 96.4%, 96.4%, 74.9%, and 76.5%, respectively. The sludge biomass index (SBI) of the excess sludge in the UMBR was about 0.55, which means that the sludge in the UMBR was sufficiently stabilized and may not require further treatment prior to disposal.

  7. Environmental Management Systems and Sustainability in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Satya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sustainability in manufacturing sector has been allocated a major consideration in the international literature. Due to growing concerns over the high effect of SMEs on world manufacturing industries and their contribution to pollution; this research attempts to focus on the key parameters that interact in the application of environmental management system, taking into account the main features of SMEs and also the integral role of industrial entrepreneurs in inspiring their firms’ approaches. The paper explores the potential opportunities which enable these enterprises to move towards organizations with high level of responsibility regarding environmental protection in order to provide a healthier life for future generations. Case investigation is carried out on an adhesive manufacturing company, which covers a notable market share within the sector. The research identifies that the company requires developing both internal and external entities within an explicit plan to revolutionize the recruitment patterns. Given the lack of adequate studies in adhesive technology, more researches are recommended in the future to consider the sustainable innovations on a broader sample of adhesive manufacturing companies to perform the life-cycle analysis due to the harmful organic compounds and toxic vapours of the adhesive products.

  8. Smart energy control systems for sustainable buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Spataru, Catalina; Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2017-01-01

    There is widespread interest in the way that smart energy control systems, such as assessment and monitoring techniques for low carbon, nearly-zero energy and net positive buildings can contribute to a Sustainable future, for current and future generations. There is a turning point on the horizon for the supply of energy from finite resources such as natural gas and oil become less reliable in economic terms and extraction become more challenging, and more unacceptable socially, such as adverse public reaction to ‘fracking’. Thus, in 2016 these challenges are having a major influence on the design, optimisation, performance measurements, operation and preservation of: buildings, neighbourhoods, cities, regions, countries and continents. The source and nature of energy, the security of supply and the equity of distribution, the environmental impact of its supply and utilization, are all crucial matters to be addressed by suppliers, consumers, governments, industry, academia, and financial institutions. Thi...

  9. Sustainable food systems for optimal planetary health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, Chelsey R; Noor, Ramadhani A; Golden, Christopher D; Juma, Calestous; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2017-06-01

    Sustainable food systems are an important component of a planetary health strategy to reduce the threat of infectious disease, minimize environmental footprint and promote nutrition. Human population trends and dietary transition have led to growing demand for food and increasing production and consumption of meat, amid declining availability of arable land and water. The intensification of livestock production has serious environmental and infectious disease impacts. Land clearing for agriculture alters ecosystems, increases human-wildlife interactions and leads to disease proliferation. Context-specific interventions should be evaluated towards optimizing nutrition resilience, minimizing environmental footprint and reducing animal and human disease risk. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. INDICATORS FOR SUSTAINABILITY IN INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS CASE STUDY: PAPER MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emiliana Fortună

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a framework for promoting sustainability by using indicators for sustainable production. The concept of sustainable production is described as it is viewed by various organisms actions involved in the analysis of the sustainable industrial systems.The measure of sustainability is approached considering indicators of sustainable production, addressing both their dimensions and qualitative and quantitative features.The proposed framework refines the sustainability dimension for a case study which envisages sustainability in paper manufacturing. The analysis takes into account the life cycle analysis for the considered process since the environmental impact is seen as an essential sustainability indicator. Paper recycling and reuse is associated environmental and social costs, as a preferred alternative in waste minimization hierarchy in the manufacturing of non-trees eco-friendly paper.Proactive initiatives to improve the environmental performances of production process are considered as powerful tools for improving the paper manufacturing environmental footprint.

  11. Land system science and sustainable development of the earth system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verburg, Peter H.; Crossman, Neville; Ellis, Erle C.

    2015-01-01

    distant world regions. Land system science has moved from a focus on observation of change and understanding the drivers of these changes to a focus on using this understanding to design sustainable transformations through stakeholder engagement and through the concept of land governance. As land use can...... be seen as the largest geo-engineering project in which mankind has engaged, land system science can act as a platform for integration of insights from different disciplines and for translation of knowledge into action....

  12. Semicontinuous sophorolipid fermentation using a novel bioreactor with dual ventilation pipes and dual sieve-plates coupled with a novel separation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaguang; Jia, Dan; Sun, Wanqi; Yang, Xue; Zhang, Chuanbo; Zhao, Fanglong; Lu, Wenyu

    2017-12-13

    Sophorolipids (SLs) are biosurfactants with widespread applications. The yield and purity of SLs are two important factors to be considered during their commercial large-scale production. Notably, SL accumulation causes an increase in viscosity, decrease in dissolved oxygen and product inhibition in the fermentation medium. This inhibits the further production and purification of SLs. This describes the development of a novel integrated system for SL production using Candida albicans O-13-1. Semicontinuous fermentation was performed using a novel bioreactor with dual ventilation pipes and dual sieve-plates (DVDSB). SLs were separated and recovered using a newly designed two-stage separation system. After SL recovery, the fermentation broth containing residual glucose and oleic acid was recycled back into the bioreactor. This novel approach considerably alleviated the problem of product inhibition and accelerated the rate of substrate utilization. Production of SLs achieved was 477 g l -1 , while their productivity was 1.59 g l -1  h -1 . Purity of SLs improved by 23.3%, from 60% to 74%, using DVDSB with the separation system. The conversion rate of carbon source increased from 0.5 g g -1 (in the batch fermentation) to 0.6 g g -1 . These results indicated that the integrated system could improve the efficiency of production and purity of SLs. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

    2005-03-11

    This report summarizes work performed on this project from October 2004 through March 2005. In previous work, a surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) was shown to be an effective system for removing BTEX contaminants from produced water. Additional work on this project demonstrated that a compost-based biofilter could biodegrade the BTEX contaminants found in the SMZ regeneration waste gas stream. However, it was also determined that the BTEX concentrations in the waste gas stream varied significantly during the regeneration period and the initial BTEX concentrations were too high for the biofilter to handle effectively. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using a passive adsorption column placed upstream of the biofilter to attenuate the peak gas-phase VOC concentrations delivered to the biofilter during the SMZ regeneration process. In preparation for the field test of the SMZ/VPB treatment system in New Mexico, a pilot-scale SMZ system was also designed and constructed during this reporting period. Finally, a cost and feasibility analysis was also completed. To investigate the merits of the passive buffering system during SMZ regeneration, two adsorbents, SMZ and granular activated carbon (GAC) were investigated in flow-through laboratory-scale columns to determine their capacity to handle steady and unsteady VOC feed conditions. When subjected to a toluene-contaminated air stream, the column containing SMZ reduced the peak inlet 1000 ppmv toluene concentration to 630 ppmv at a 10 second contact time. This level of buffering was insufficient to ensure complete removal in the downstream biofilter and the contact time was longer than desired. For this reason, using SMZ as a passive buffering system for the gas phase contaminants was not pursued further. In contrast to the SMZ results, GAC was found to be an effective adsorbent to handle the peak contaminant concentrations that occur early during the SMZ regeneration process. At a one

  14. Selection of suitable fertilizer draw solute for a novel fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis-anaerobic membrane bioreactor hybrid system

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngjin

    2016-02-09

    In this study, a protocol for selecting suitable fertilizer draw solute for anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (AnFDFOMBR) was proposed. Among eleven commercial fertilizer candidates, six fertilizers were screened further for their FO performance tests and evaluated in terms of water flux and reverse salt flux. Using selected fertilizers, bio-methane potential experiments were conducted to examine the effect of fertilizers on anaerobic activity due to reverse diffusion. Mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) showed the highest biogas production while other fertilizers exhibited an inhibition effect on anaerobic activity with solute accumulation. Salt accumulation in the bioreactor was also simulated using mass balance simulation models. Results showed that ammonium sulphate and MAP were the most appropriate for AnFDFOMBR since they demonstrated less salt accumulation, relatively higher water flux, and higher dilution capacity of draw solution. Given toxicity of sulphate to anaerobic microorganisms, MAP appears to be the most suitable draw solution for AnFDFOMBR.

  15. Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Nora; Shealy, Tripp; Klotz, Leidy

    2016-01-01

    Across fields, more sustainable and resilient outcomes are being realized through a whole systems design perspective, which guides decision-makers to consider the entire system affected including interdependent physical and social networks. Although infrastructure is extremely interdependent, consisting of diverse stakeholders and networks, the infrastructure design and construction process is often fragmented. This fragmentation can result in unnecessary tradeoffs, leading to poor outcomes f...

  16. Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) as Alternative to a Conventional Activated Sludge System Followed by Ultrafiltration (CAS-UF) for the Treatment of Fischer-Tropsch Reaction Water from Gas-to-Liquids Industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurinonyte, Judita; Meulepas, Roel J.W.; Brink, van den Paula; Temmink, Hardy

    2017-01-01

    The potential of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) system to treat Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction water from gas-to-liquids (GTL) industries was investigated and compared with the current treatment system: a conventional activated sludge system followed by an ultrafiltration (CAS-UF) unit. The MBR and

  17. Evaluation of the Hanford 200 West Groundwater Treatment System: Fluidized Bed Bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brian B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jackson, Dennis G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dickson, John O. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Eddy-Dilek, Carol A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-12

    A fluidized bed reactor (FBR) in the 200W water treatment facility at Hanford is removing nitrate from groundwater as part of the overall pump-treat-reinject process. Control of the FBR bed solids has proven challenging, impacting equipment, increasing operations and maintenance (O&M), and limiting the throughput of the facility. In response to the operational challenges, the Department of Energy Richland Office (DOE-RL) commissioned a technical assistance team to facilitate a system engineering evaluation and provide focused support recommendations to the Hanford Team. The DOE Environmental Management (EM) technical assistance process is structured to identify and triage technologies and strategies that address the target problem(s). The process encourages brainstorming and dialog and allows rapid identification and prioritization of possible options. Recognizing that continuous operation of a large-scale FBR is complex, requiring careful attention to system monitoring data and changing conditions, the technical assistance process focused on explicit identification of the available control parameters (“knobs”), how these parameters interact and impact the FBR system, and how these can be adjusted under different scenarios to achieve operational goals. The technical assistance triage process was performed in collaboration with the Hanford team.

  18. SUSTAINABILITY OF TAX SYSTEM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patricia HOMORODEAN (CSATLOS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization, sustainable development is the key to the development of contemporary society and future generations. Sustainability has become a key point for the debates in the political, economic, and academic environment. Therefore, today wehave reached the point when we speak of a country or company sustainability, of environmentalor agricultural sustainability, while speaking,at the same time, of fiscal policy sustainability. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Romanian fiscal policy sustainability in terms of tax revenues. The methodology used in this research is bibliographical analysis of specialist literature and statistical analysis of data. Bibliographical analysis was used to define operating concepts: fiscal sustainability and tax revenues. Statistical analysis was used to analyze the evolution of tax revenues in Romania between2005and2013, as well as the share of tax revenues in the general consolidated budget of Romania. Statistical data were processed using Microsoft Excel and presented as evolution diagrams. The novelty and originality of the present work consist in the bibliographical study on Romanian fiscal policy sustainability, the statistical study on the evolution of tax revenues in Romania between 2005and2013, and the analysisof fiscal policy sustainability in Romania in terms of tax revenues.

  19. Development of Manufacturing Sustainability Assessment Using Systems Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia Moldavska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing body of knowledge in sustainability assessment of manufacturing indicates that although extensive research is going on, significant shortcomings remain unsolved. In this paper, the specific needs of a new sustainability assessment system are discussed. Systems thinking is suggested as an alternative to the reductionist approach which is commonly applied to sustainability assessment. Although previous research has recognized the potential of systems thinking applied to sustainability assessment, few practical examples have been demonstrated. Therefore, this article focuses on a practical application of systems thinking to the development of a sustainability assessment system of a manufacturing organization. A framework for development is proposed employing systems thinking. It is suggested that systems thinking reveals several aspects usually not addressed by the reductionist approaches. It is demonstrated that a combination of tools like analysis of multiple viewpoints, conceptagon, seven samurai, and model-based systems engineering can enhance a development of a suitable assessment systems.

  20. Practices of corporate social responsibility and sustainable systems work in Peruvian companies issuing sustainability reports

    OpenAIRE

    Prialé, María Angela; Fuchs, Rosa María; Sáenz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Through a literature review, this exploratory study seeks to determine whether the practices related to its colaborators, who report as part of its action responsible Peruvian companies issuing sustainability reports can be considered sustainable management practices of human resources. To this end, it was used the approach of sustainable work systems as a general approach. It was found that some of the practices of responsible management of human resources that implement the analyzed compani...

  1. Quantitative Validation of the Presto Blue™ Metabolic Assay for Online Monitoring of Cell Proliferation in a 3D Perfusion Bioreactor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnaert, Maarten; Papantoniou, Ioannis; Luyten, Frank P.

    2015-01-01

    As the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine mature toward clinical applications, the need for online monitoring both for quantitative and qualitative use becomes essential. Resazurin-based metabolic assays are frequently applied for determining cytotoxicity and have shown great potential for monitoring 3D bioreactor-facilitated cell culture. However, no quantitative correlation between the metabolic conversion rate of resazurin and cell number has been defined yet. In this work, we determined conversion rates of Presto Blue™, a resazurin-based metabolic assay, for human periosteal cells during 2D and 3D static and 3D perfusion cultures. Our results showed that for the evaluated culture systems there is a quantitative correlation between the Presto Blue conversion rate and the cell number during the expansion phase with no influence of the perfusion-related parameters, that is, flow rate and shear stress. The correlation between the cell number and Presto Blue conversion subsequently enabled the definition of operating windows for optimal signal readouts. In conclusion, our data showed that the conversion of the resazurin-based Presto Blue metabolic assay can be used as a quantitative readout for online monitoring of cell proliferation in a 3D perfusion bioreactor system, although a system-specific validation is required. PMID:25336207

  2. Quantitative Validation of the Presto Blue Metabolic Assay for Online Monitoring of Cell Proliferation in a 3D Perfusion Bioreactor System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnaert, Maarten; Papantoniou, Ioannis; Luyten, Frank P; Schrooten, Jan Ir

    2015-06-01

    As the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine mature toward clinical applications, the need for online monitoring both for quantitative and qualitative use becomes essential. Resazurin-based metabolic assays are frequently applied for determining cytotoxicity and have shown great potential for monitoring 3D bioreactor-facilitated cell culture. However, no quantitative correlation between the metabolic conversion rate of resazurin and cell number has been defined yet. In this work, we determined conversion rates of Presto Blue, a resazurin-based metabolic assay, for human periosteal cells during 2D and 3D static and 3D perfusion cultures. Our results showed that for the evaluated culture systems there is a quantitative correlation between the Presto Blue conversion rate and the cell number during the expansion phase with no influence of the perfusion-related parameters, that is, flow rate and shear stress. The correlation between the cell number and Presto Blue conversion subsequently enabled the definition of operating windows for optimal signal readouts. In conclusion, our data showed that the conversion of the resazurin-based Presto Blue metabolic assay can be used as a quantitative readout for online monitoring of cell proliferation in a 3D perfusion bioreactor system, although a system-specific validation is required.

  3. An Innovative Optical Sensor for the Online Monitoring and Control of Biomass Concentration in a Membrane Bioreactor System for Lactic Acid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Fan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate real-time process control is necessary to increase process efficiency, and optical sensors offer a competitive solution because they provide diverse system information in a noninvasive manner. We used an innovative scattered light sensor for the online monitoring of biomass during lactic acid production in a membrane bioreactor system because biomass determines productivity in this type of process. The upper limit of the measurement range in fermentation broth containing Bacillus coagulans was ~2.2 g·L−1. The specific cell growth rate (µ during the exponential phase was calculated using data representing the linear range (cell density ≤ 0.5 g·L−1. The results were consistently and reproducibly more accurate than offline measurements of optical density and cell dry weight, because more data were gathered in real-time over a shorter duration. Furthermore, µmax was measured under different filtration conditions (transmembrane pressure 0.3–1.2 bar, crossflow velocity 0.5–1.5 m·s−1, showing that energy input had no significant impact on cell growth. Cell density was monitored using the sensor during filtration and was maintained at a constant level by feeding with glucose according to the fermentation kinetics. Our novel sensor is therefore suitable for integration into control strategies for continuous fermentation in membrane bioreactor systems.

  4. Environmental Sustainability of Some Cropping Systems in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results from most findings reviewed in this paper had shown that there was no one size fits cropping system that can be use for sustainability of the humid environment but the best approach was the diversification of both traditional and modern cropping systems. The transition to systems which are both sustainable and ...

  5. Stimulating transitions towards sustainable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, B.; Barbier, M.; Cerf, M.; Grin, J.; Darnhofer, I.; Gibbon, D.; Dedieu, B.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will address the dynamics of the agro-food sector in the long run and focus on how transitions to sustainability could be initiated and supported, taking into account renewal intitiatives at the farm level, organised projects, heterogeneous actors and differing interests. Sustainable

  6. CONSTRUCTING A GENERAL SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability atracts enormous interest in the minds of the public and the scientific and engineering community because it holds the promise of a long-term solution to environmental problems. Sustainability, however, is mathematically loosely defined. There is no widely accepted...

  7. Online measurement of viscosity for biological systems in stirred tank bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelden, Maximilian; Lima, William; Doerr, Eric Will; Wunderlich, Martin; Rehmann, Lars; Büchs, Jochen; Regestein, Lars

    2017-05-01

    One of the most critical parameters in chemical and biochemical processes is the viscosity of the medium. Its impact on mixing, as well as on mass and energy transfer is substantial. An increase of viscosity with reaction time can be caused by the formation of biopolymers like xanthan or by filamentous growth of microorganisms. In either case the properties of fermentation broth are changing and frequently non-Newtonian behavior are observed, resulting in major challenges for the measurement and control of mixing and mass transfer. This study demonstrates a method for the online determination of the viscosity inside a stirred tank reactor. The presented method is based on online measurement of heat transfer capacity from the bulk medium to the jacket of the reactor. To prove the feasibility of the method, fermentations with the xanthan producing bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris B100 as model system were performed. Excellent correlation between offline measured apparent viscosity and online determined heat transfer capacity were found. The developed tool should be applicable to any other process with formation of biopolymers and filamentous growth. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 990-997. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Development of Novel Textile Bioreactor for Anaerobic Utilization of Flocculating Yeast for Ethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Osadolor, Osagie; Lennartsson, Patrik; Taherzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Process development, cheaper bioreactor cost, and faster fermentation rate can aid in reducing the cost of fermentation. In this article, these ideas were combined in developing a previously introduced textile bioreactor for ethanol production. The bioreactor was developed to utilize flocculating yeast for ethanol production under anaerobic conditions. A mixing system, which works without aerators, spargers, or impellers, but utilizes the liquid content in the bioreactor for suspending the fl...

  9. Bioreactor systems for tissue engineering II. Strategies for the expansion and directed differentiation of stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasper, Cornelia [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie; Griensven, Martijn van [Ludwig Boltzmann Institut fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Traumatologie, Wien (Austria); Poertner, Ralf (eds.) [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg (Germany). Inst. Biotechnologie und Verfahrenstechnik

    2010-07-01

    Alternative Sources of Adult Stem Cells: Human Amniotic Membrane, by S. Wolbank, M. van Griensven, R. Grillari-Voglauer, and A. Peterbauer-Scherb; - Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Human Umbilical Cord Tissues: Primitive Cells with Potential for Clinical and Tissue Engineering Applications, by P. Moretti, T. Hatlapatka, D. Marten, A. Lavrentieva, I. Majore, R. Hass and C. Kasper; - Isolation, Characterization, Differentiation, and Application of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells, by J. W. Kuhbier, B. Weyand, C. Radtke, P. M. Vogt, C. Kasper and K. Reimers; - Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Characteristics and Perspectives, by T. Cantz and U. Martin; - Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology in Regenerative Medicine and Biology, by D. Pei, J. Xu, Q. Zhuang, H.-F. Tse and M. A. Esteban; - Production Process for Stem Cell Based Therapeutic Implants: Expansion of the Production Cell Line and Cultivation of Encapsulated Cells, by C. Weber, S. Pohl, R. Poertner, P. Pino-Grace, D. Freimark, C. Wallrapp, P. Geigle and P. Czermak; - Cartilage Engineering from Mesenchymal Stem Cells, by C. Goepfert, A. Slobodianski, A.F. Schilling, P. Adamietz and R. Poertner; - Outgrowth Endothelial Cells: Sources, Characteristics and Potential Applications in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, by S. Fuchs, E. Dohle, M. Kolbe, C. J. Kirkpatrick; - Basic Science and Clinical Application of Stem Cells in Veterinary Medicine, by I. Ribitsch, J. Burk, U. Delling, C. Geissler, C. Gittel, H. Juelke, W. Brehm; - Bone Marrow Stem Cells in Clinical Application: Harnessing Paracrine Roles and Niche Mechanisms, by R. M. El Backly, R. Cancedda; - Clinical Application of Stem Cells in the Cardiovascular System, C. Stamm, K. Klose, Y.-H. Choi. (orig.)

  10. Practices of corporate social responsibility and sustainable systems work in Peruvian companies issuing sustainability reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angela Prialé

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Through a literature review, this exploratory study seeks to determine whether the practices related to its colaborators, who report as part of its action responsible Peruvian companies issuing sustainability reports can be considered sustainable management practices of human resources. To this end, it was used the approach of sustainable work systems as a general approach. It was found that some of the practices of responsible management of human resources that implement the analyzed companies address the human dimensions of sustainability, although not all dimensions are considered equally or similar depth.

  11. Business system: sustainable development and anticipatory systems thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Potočan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence and development of humankind depends a lot upon a co-ordinated operation of all areas and levels of human activity. However, in either theory or practice we found no model of operation, which would offer a harmonized and target oriented development. A possible solution is offered by sustainable development, which tries to define and carry out common goals of humankind with a holistic harmonization of humans’ activities at all levels of their living and behaviour. Companies belong to central institutions of the modern society and essentially co–create the sustainability of society. Companies endeavour (e.g. by simulation and planning to prepare models of their goals and ways concerning their internal and external environment. On the basis of systems approach, we can define companies as business systems, which can best survive in a log-run on the basis of sustainable development. This business system’s effort can also be supported by the application of the anticipatory systems thinking, which can improve its planning methods, if it is holistic, understood as a future oriented mental activity made of its methodological approach, techniques, and modes of work. Its characteristics have a direct impact on holism of the definition of goals, on the orientation of operation, and hence on the achievement of the business system’s results.

  12. Pharmaceutical proteins produced in plant bioreactor in recent years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant bioreactor, also called molecular farming, has enormous potential to produce recombinant proteins infinitely. Products expressed in plants have natural physico-chemical properties and bioactivities. Plant bioreactor could be a safe, economic and convenient production system, and can been widely applied in ...

  13. Academic Training: Toward Sustainable Energy Systems?

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES 28, 29, 30, 31 March from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Toward Sustainable Energy Systems? F. Tellez / CIEMAT, Madrid, E and D.Martinez / CIEMAT-PSA, Almeria, E Recent work on alternative energies go in the direction of proving the feasibility of solar energy as one of the best alternatives into the future. Europe, as everybody else, has understandably vested interests in insourcing energetic demands as far as affordable. The good news is that solar energy may be its deciding straw, because it has remarkable facilities and projects probing the possibilities of this option. Two european research centers are at the leading edge in this area: ENEA, which is leading 'Archimede', a vast solar array project in Sicily, and CIEMAT, with its Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA, www.psa.es) ,a major solar energy facility at the south of Spain. Both will become basic poles of the planned 'EURO-MED' electricity interconnection, intending to carry solar electricity f...

  14. Academic Training: Toward Sustainable Energy Systems?

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES 28, 29, 30, 31 March from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Toward Sustainable Energy Systems? F. Tellez / CIEMAT, Madrid, E and D.Martinez / CIEMAT-PSA, Almeria, E Recent work on alternative energies go in the direction of proving the feasibility of solar energy as one of the best alternatives into the future. Europe, as everybody else, has understandably vested interests in insourcing energetic demands as far as affordable. The good news is that solar energy may be its deciding straw, because it has remarkable facilities and projects probing the possibilities of this option. Two european research centers are at the leading edge in this area: ENEA, which is leading 'Archimede', a vast solar array project in Sicily, and CIEMAT, with its Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA, www.psa.es), a major solar energy facility at the south of Spain. Both will become basic poles of the planned 'EURO-MED'electricity interconnection, intending to carry solar electricity fro...

  15. Integrated Systems Mitigate Land Degradation and Improve Agricultural System Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Rain-fed agricultural production supported by exogenous inputs is not sustainable because a continuous influx of expensive inputs (fertilizer, chemicals, fossil fuel, labor, tillage, and other) is required. Alternatives to traditional management allow natural occurring dynamic soil processes to provide the necessary microbial activity that supports nutrient cycling in balance with nature. Research designed to investigate the potential for integrated systems to replace expensive inputs has shown that healthy soils rich in soil organic matter (SOM) are the foundation upon which microbial nutrient cycling can reduce and eventually replace expensive fertilizer. No-till seed placement technology effectively replaces multiple-pass cultivation conserving stored soil water in semi-arid farming systems. In multi-crop rotations, cool- and warm-season crops are grown in sequence to meet goals of the integrated farming and ranching system, and each crop in the rotation complements the subsequent crop by supplying a continuous flow of essential SOM for soil nutrient cycling. Grazing animals serve an essential role in the system's sustainability as non-mechanized animal harvesters that reduce fossil fuel consumption and labor, and animal waste contributes soil nutrients to the system. Integrated systems' complementarity has contributed to greater soil nutrient cycling and crop yields, fertilizer reduction or elimination, greater yearling steer grazing net return, reduced cow wintering costs grazing crop residues, increased wildlife sightings, and reduced environmental footprint. Therefore, integrating crop and animal systems can reverse soil quality decline and adopting non-traditional procedures has resulted in a wider array of opportunities for sustainable agriculture and profitability.

  16. Sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duić, Neven; Guzović, Zvonimir; Kafarov, Vyatcheslav

    2013-01-01

    The 6th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES Conference), attended by 418 scientists from 55 countries representing six continents. It was held in 2011 and dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies...... and technologies for increasing the sustainability of development, taking into account its economic, environmental and social pillars, as well as methods for assessing and measuring sustainability of development, regarding energy, transport, water and environment systems and their many combinations....

  17. Structural analysis of a fibrocement anaerobic bioreactor for finite elements method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardia-Puebla, Yans; Pacheco-GamboaI, Raúl; Ramos-Botello, Yoan; Palma-Ramírez, Leonardo; Rodríguez-Pérez, Suyén

    2015-01-01

    The paper consist on asses the mechanical resistant of the fibrocement tanks as a proposal of an anaerobic system of low cost for biogas production. For the design was used the finite elements method (FEM), which it is fundamental tool to carried out the structural analysis of the resistant to the traction of the anaerobic bioreactor. With this new system, a suitable option to spread, of sustainable and economic means, the biogas production on rural zones. For the design was used fibrocement tanks of 1900 L, and pipes and accessories plastics, achieving a maximum volume of cumulative biogas of 1,12 m 3 .The fibrocement tank was not accomplished with the necessary specifications to achieve the design aim; for that reason, a new dimensional design was developed to guarantee the traction resistant as anaerobic bioreactors. (author)

  18. Integration of Bioreactor and Membrane Separation Processes: A Model Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres

    test. Satisfactory results are obtained regulating the pH and managing the input constraints. The design and operability of the integrated bioreactor and REED module are investigated using the developed models and control structure. The study involves two different case studies: continuous lactic acid......This work is motivated by the need for tighter integration of industrial processes in an attempt to improve process sustainability. To this end, this work considers a interesting case study around which different systematic approaches are used or developed to achieve the above goal. The thesis...... is concerned with the understanding of an integrated bioreactor and electrically driven membrane separation processes for lactic acid fermentation. This is achieved through a model based investigation of the individual units and the integrated system. Development of system understanding is the key to reveal...

  19. Sustainable automotive energy system in China

    CERN Document Server

    CAERC, Tsinghua University

    2014-01-01

    This book identifies and addresses key issues of automotive energy in China. It covers demography, economics, technology and policy, providing a broad perspective to aid in the planning of sustainable road transport in China.

  20. SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY: ECOLOGICAL AND OTHER ASPECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    While sustainability is generally associated with the definition given by the Brundtland Commission (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987), namely development that "meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of t...

  1. Open source software to control Bioflo bioreactors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Burdge

    Full Text Available Bioreactors are designed to support highly controlled environments for growth of tissues, cell cultures or microbial cultures. A variety of bioreactors are commercially available, often including sophisticated software to enhance the functionality of the bioreactor. However, experiments that the bioreactor hardware can support, but that were not envisioned during the software design cannot be performed without developing custom software. In addition, support for third party or custom designed auxiliary hardware is often sparse or absent. This work presents flexible open source freeware for the control of bioreactors of the Bioflo product family. The functionality of the software includes setpoint control, data logging, and protocol execution. Auxiliary hardware can be easily integrated and controlled through an integrated plugin interface without altering existing software. Simple experimental protocols can be entered as a CSV scripting file, and a Python-based protocol execution model is included for more demanding conditional experimental control. The software was designed to be a more flexible and free open source alternative to the commercially available solution. The source code and various auxiliary hardware plugins are publicly available for download from https://github.com/LibourelLab/BiofloSoftware. In addition to the source code, the software was compiled and packaged as a self-installing file for 32 and 64 bit windows operating systems. The compiled software will be able to control a Bioflo system, and will not require the installation of LabVIEW.

  2. Open Source Software to Control Bioflo Bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdge, David A.; Libourel, Igor G. L.

    2014-01-01

    Bioreactors are designed to support highly controlled environments for growth of tissues, cell cultures or microbial cultures. A variety of bioreactors are commercially available, often including sophisticated software to enhance the functionality of the bioreactor. However, experiments that the bioreactor hardware can support, but that were not envisioned during the software design cannot be performed without developing custom software. In addition, support for third party or custom designed auxiliary hardware is often sparse or absent. This work presents flexible open source freeware for the control of bioreactors of the Bioflo product family. The functionality of the software includes setpoint control, data logging, and protocol execution. Auxiliary hardware can be easily integrated and controlled through an integrated plugin interface without altering existing software. Simple experimental protocols can be entered as a CSV scripting file, and a Python-based protocol execution model is included for more demanding conditional experimental control. The software was designed to be a more flexible and free open source alternative to the commercially available solution. The source code and various auxiliary hardware plugins are publicly available for download from https://github.com/LibourelLab/BiofloSoftware. In addition to the source code, the software was compiled and packaged as a self-installing file for 32 and 64 bit windows operating systems. The compiled software will be able to control a Bioflo system, and will not require the installation of LabVIEW. PMID:24667828

  3. Open source software to control Bioflo bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdge, David A; Libourel, Igor G L

    2014-01-01

    Bioreactors are designed to support highly controlled environments for growth of tissues, cell cultures or microbial cultures. A variety of bioreactors are commercially available, often including sophisticated software to enhance the functionality of the bioreactor. However, experiments that the bioreactor hardware can support, but that were not envisioned during the software design cannot be performed without developing custom software. In addition, support for third party or custom designed auxiliary hardware is often sparse or absent. This work presents flexible open source freeware for the control of bioreactors of the Bioflo product family. The functionality of the software includes setpoint control, data logging, and protocol execution. Auxiliary hardware can be easily integrated and controlled through an integrated plugin interface without altering existing software. Simple experimental protocols can be entered as a CSV scripting file, and a Python-based protocol execution model is included for more demanding conditional experimental control. The software was designed to be a more flexible and free open source alternative to the commercially available solution. The source code and various auxiliary hardware plugins are publicly available for download from https://github.com/LibourelLab/BiofloSoftware. In addition to the source code, the software was compiled and packaged as a self-installing file for 32 and 64 bit windows operating systems. The compiled software will be able to control a Bioflo system, and will not require the installation of LabVIEW.

  4. Sustainable Fishing Fleet; a Systems Engineering Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Utne, Ingrid Bouwer

    2007-01-01

    Many fisheries have significant challenges related to sustainable development, such as overexploitation and overcapacity in the fishing fleet. Overcapacity leads to increased pressure on fish resources, reduced profitability, and environmental problems such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and acidification fromfuel consumption. Sustainable management of the fish resources is an important objective in Norway, but overcapacity is a problem in several Norwegian fleet segments. Important issues...

  5. Sustainable And Earthquake Resistant Structural Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Coşkun, Erdal; Kıymaz, Güven; Seçkin, Edip

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable design, which is one of the most important considerations in any structural design project nowadays, implies many factors such as environmental friendliness, energy competence, functionality, adaptability and efficient use of world's resources. Sustainable design is not only the realization of an architect's vision, but also the notion of the structural engineering regulation. As a result of close cooperation between architects and structural engineers, many brilliant and ele...

  6. Performance versus values in sustainability transformation of food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo F.; Sautier, Marion; Legun, Katharine

    2017-01-01

    Questions have been raised on what role the knowledge provided by sustainability science actually plays in the transition to sustainability and what role it may play in the future. In this paper we investigate different approaches to sustainability transformation of food systems by analyzing...... action. In particular, we compare two different approaches to the role of research in sustainability transformation: (1) Performance-based approaches that measure performance and set up sustainability indicator targets and benchmarks to motivate the agents in the food system to change; (2) Values......-based approaches that aim at communicating and mediating sustainability values to enable coordinated and cooperative action to transform the food system. We identify their respective strengths and weaknesses based on a cross-case analysis of four cases, and propose that the two approaches, likeWeber's two types...

  7. Model of sustainable development of energy system, case of Hamedan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahabmanesh, Aref; Saboohi, Yadollah

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable economic growth and improvement of the social welfare depend upon the sufficient supply of energy resources, while the utilization of energy resources is one of the main factors of environmental degradation. This research is involved with development of a sustainable energy system model and a new method for sustainability assessment. This model represents the flow of energy from primary resources through processing, conversion, and end-use technologies in an optimization framework where the useful energy demand in various social and economic sectors is met. The impact of energy supply and consumption chain on the environment at each level of energy system is also embedded in the model structure. A multi-criteria analysis of changes is then applied and sustainable development indices of the whole system are concluded. Finally, effects of the energy subsidy policy and high economic growth rate on sustainability of the energy system in three scenarios are analyzed. Results demonstrate that energy subsidy decelerates the improvement rate of the total sustainability index. Also, when a high economic growth is accompanied with the energy subsidy this index reduces considerably. Results show that how penetration of renewable energy potentials changes the sustainability situation of energy systems. - Highlights: • Developing a new model for sustainable energy systems. • Presenting a new method for sustainability assessment of energy systems. • Optimizing the energy flow and capacity expansion of Hamedan energy system. • Utilizing an MCDA approach to obtain sustainability indices of the whole system. • Analysis of energy subsidy and high economic growth on energy sustainability.

  8. Human development and sustainability of energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This seminar on human development and sustainability was jointly organized by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and Enerdata company. This document summarises the content of the different presentations and of the minutes of the discussions that took place at the end of each topic. The different themes discussed were: 1 - Political and methodological issues related to sustainability (sustainability concept in government policy, sustainability and back-casting: lessons from EST); 2 - towards a socially viable world: thematic discussions (demography and peoples' migration; time budget and life style change - equal sex access to instruction and labour - geopolitical regional and inter-regional universal cultural acceptability; welfare, poverty and social link and economics); 3 - building up an environmentally sustainable energy world, keeping resources for future generations and preventing geopolitical ruptures (CO{sub 2} emissions; nuclear issues; land-use, noise, and other industrial risks). The memorandum on sustainability issues in view of very long term energy studies is reprinted in the appendix. The transparencies of seven presentations are attached to this document. (J.S.)

  9. For Hunger-proof Cities: Sustainable Urban Food Systems | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For Hunger-proof Cities: Sustainable Urban Food Systems. Book cover For Hunger-proof Cities: Sustainable Urban Food Systems. Editor(s): ... Luc J.A. Mougeot is Senior Program Specialist at the International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada. Dr Mougeot leads IDRC 's program in urban agriculture: Cities ...

  10. Environmental Sustainability of Some Cropping Systems in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    are capable of ensuring increased and sustained crop production with minimum degradation of the non- renewable soil resource base. Increased population has reduced the effectiveness of shifting cultivation and other Traditional systems for sustainable farming and this gave way to improved practices. Cropping systems ...

  11. A sustained-arc ignition system for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, A. G.

    1977-01-01

    A sustained-arc ignition system was developed for internal combustion engines. It produces a very-long-duration ignition pulse with an energy in the order of 100 millijoules. The ignition pulse waveform can be controlled to predetermined actual ignition requirements. The design of the sustained-arc ignition system is presented in the report.

  12. Performance of a novel baffled osmotic membrane bioreactor-microfiltration hybrid system under continuous operation for simultaneous nutrient removal and mitigation of brine discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Pathak, Nirenkumar

    2017-03-14

    The present study investigated the performance of an integrated osmotic and microfiltration membrane bioreactor system for wastewater treatment employing baffles in the reactor. Thus, this reactor design enables both aerobic and anoxic processes in an attempt to reduce the process footprint and energy costs associated with continuous aeration. The process performance was evaluated in terms of water flux, salinity build up in the bioreactor, organic and nutrient removal and microbial activity using synthetic reverse osmosis (RO) brine as draw solution (DS). The incorporation of MF membrane was effective in maintaining a reasonable salinity level (612-1434 mg/L) in the reactor which resulted in a much lower flux decline (i.e. 11.48 to 6.98 LMH) as compared to previous studies. The stable operation of the osmotic membrane bioreactor–forward osmosis (OMBR-FO) process resulted in an effective removal of both organic matter (97.84%) and nutrient (phosphate 87.36% and total nitrogen 94.28%), respectively.

  13. Investigation of sustainable development potential for Ulubey Aquifer System, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Burcu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates sustainable development potential for Ulubey aquifer system which serves as an important water supply for Usak province (Turkey. In recent years, growing population, accelerating industrial activities and decreasing rainfall, as well as contamination of the surface water resources, made groundwater indispensable to meet the freshwater demands of Usak province. Therefore, a sustainable groundwater development plan has to be set up by determining the sustainable yield of the system, which is the aim of this study. To achieve this goal, a mathematical groundwater flow model is constructed in order to test the alternative development scenarios. Results show that the system preserves equilibrium conditions under present stresses. The future effects of possible increases in stresses are also simulated and based on the dynamic responses of the system to changing stresses; sustainable yield and sustainable pumping rate of the aquifer are determined and compared with the safe yield of the system.

  14. Following an Optimal Batch Bioreactor Operations Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra-Junquera, V.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Virgen-Ortíz, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    -batch reactor for biomass production is studied using a differential geometry approach. The maximization problem is solved by handling both the optimal filling policy and substrate concentration in the inlet stream. In order to follow the OBBOM, a master–slave synchronization is used. The OBBOM is considered...... as the master system which includes the optimal cultivation trajectory for the feed flow rate and the substrate concentration. The “real” bioreactor, the one with unknown dynamics and perturbations, is considered as the slave system. Finally, the controller is designed such that the real bioreactor...

  15. Multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessment of farming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Passel, Steven; Meul, Marijke

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability assessment is needed to build sustainable farming systems. A broad range of sustainability concepts, methodologies and applications already exists. They differ in level, focus, orientation, measurement, scale, presentation and intended end-users. In this paper we illustrate that a smart combination of existing methods with different levels of application can make sustainability assessment more profound, and that it can broaden the insights of different end-user groups. An overview of sustainability assessment tools on different levels and for different end-users shows the complementarities and the opportunities of using different methods. In a case-study, a combination of the sustainable value approach (SVA) and MOTIFS is used to perform a sustainability evaluation of farming systems in Flanders. SVA is used to evaluate sustainability at sector level, and is especially useful to support policy makers, while MOTIFS is used to support and guide farmers towards sustainability at farm level. The combined use of the two methods with complementary goals can widen the insights of both farmers and policy makers, without losing the particularities of the different approaches. To stimulate and support further research and applications, we propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments. - Highlights: ► We give an overview of sustainability assessment tools for agricultural systems. ► SVA and MOTIFS are used to evaluate the sustainability of dairy farming in Flanders. ► Combination of methods with different levels broadens the insights of different end-user groups. ► We propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments.

  16. Building reactor operator sustain expert system with C language integrated production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Qin; Hu Shouyin; Wang Ruipian

    2002-01-01

    The development of the reactor operator sustain expert system is introduced, the capability of building reactor operator sustain expert system is discussed with C Language Integrated Production System (Clips), and a simple antitype of expert system is illustrated. The limitation of building reactor operator sustain expert system with Clips is also discussed

  17. Sustainability concept for energy, water and environment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, N.H.

    2004-01-01

    This review is aimed to introduce historical background for the sustainability concept development for energy, water and environment systems. In the assessment of global energy and water resources attention is focussed in on the resource consumption and its relevancy to the future demand. In the review of the sustainability concept development special emphasize is devoted to the definition of sustainability and its relevancy to the historical background of the sustainability idea. In order to introduce measuring of sustainability the attention is devoted to the definition of respective criteria. There have been a number of attempts to define the criterions for the assessment of the sustainability of the market products. Having those criterions as bases, it was introduced a specific application in the energy system design

  18. Certification systems for sustainable neighbourhoods: What do they really certify?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangel, Josefin; Wallhagen, Marita; Malmqvist, Tove; Finnveden, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Certification systems for sustainable neighbourhoods started to emerge around a decade ago. This study analysed the content, structure, weighting and indicators of two established certification systems for sustainable urban development – BREEAM Communities and LEED for Neighborhood Development. Several limitations of these systems were identified: both have a bias for procedure and feature indicators over indicators that assess actual performance; performance demands are set according to a relative understanding of sustainable development; the focus is on internal sustainability, while upstream and downstream impacts of construction are disregarded; the number and distribution of mandatory issues do not cover essential sustainability aspects; and the disproportionately large number of non-mandatory issues makes benchmarking difficult and signals that sustainability aspects are exchangeable. Altogether, this means that an area can be certified without being sustainable. Moreover, the lack of continuous development of certification requirements in the systems means that they risk exerting a conservative effect on urban development, rather than pushing it forward. - Highlights: • BREEAM-C and LEED-ND were analysed in terms of content and structure. • Specific attention was given to the type of indicators used for showing compliance. • In both systems procedure and feature indicators dominate over performance indicators. • Several other limitations of these certification systems were also identified. • Altogether the limitations imply that a certificate does not warrant sustainability.

  19. NASA's Space Launch System: Affordability for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. But the SLS value is clear and codified in United States (U.S.) budget law. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability and will provide an overview of initiatives designed to fit within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat, yet evolve the 70-tonne (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through the competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface some 40 years ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on platforms such as the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. In parallel with SLS concept studies, NASA is now refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. space policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap, which reflects the mutual goals of a dozen member nations. This mission planning will converge with a flexible heavy-lift rocket that can carry international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids and Mars. In addition, the SLS capability will accommodate very large science instruments and other payloads, using a series of modular fairings and

  20. Evaluation of a New Temporary Immersion Bioreactor System for Micropropagation of Cultivars of Eucalyptus, Birch and Fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Businge

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of liquid instead of solid culture medium for the micropropagation of plants offers advantages such as better access to medium components and scalability through possible automation of the processes. The objective of this work was to compare a new temporary immersion bioreactor (TIB to solid medium culture for the micropropagation of a selection of tree species micropropagated for commercial use: Nordmann fir (Abies nordmanniana (Steven Spach, Eucalyptus (E. grandis x E. urophylla, Downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh, and Curly birch (Betula pendula var. carelica. Cultivation of explants in the TIB resulted in a significant increase of multiplication rate and fresh weight of Eucalyptus and B. pendula, but not Betula pubescens. In addition, the fresh weight of embryogenic tissue and the maturation frequency of somatic embryos increased significantly when an embryogenic cell line of A. nordmanniana was cultivated in the TIB compared to solid culture medium. These results demonstrate the potential for scaling up and automating micropropagation by shoot multiplication and somatic embryogenesis in commercial tree species using a temporary immersion bioreactor.

  1. Understanding sustainability from an exergetic frame in complex adaptive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar Hernandez, Glem Alonso

    2017-01-01

    The concept of sustainability was developed from thermodynamic properties applied to complex adaptive systems. The origins of the perception about sustainable development and limitation in its application to analyze the interaction between a system and its surroundings were described. The properties of a complex adaptive system were taken as basis to determine how a system can to be affected by the resources restriction and irreversibility of the processes. The complex adaptive system was understood using the first and second law of thermodynamics, generating a conceptual framework to define the sustainability of a system. The contributions developed by exergy were shown to analyze the sustainability of systems in an economic, social and environmental context [es

  2. Center for Efficiency in Sustainable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Martin [Youngstown State Univ., OH (United States)

    2016-01-31

    The main goal of the Center for Efficiency in Sustainable Energy Systems is to produce a methodology that evaluates a variety of energy systems. Task I. Improved Energy Efficiency for Industrial Processes: This task, completed in partnership with area manufacturers, analyzes the operation of complex manufacturing facilities to provide flexibilities that allow them to improve active-mode power efficiency, lower standby-mode power consumption, and use low cost energy resources to control energy costs in meeting their economic incentives; (2) Identify devices for the efficient transformation of instantaneous or continuous power to different devices and sections of industrial plants; and (3) use these manufacturing sites to demonstrate and validate general principles of power management. Task II. Analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell operating on landfill gas: This task consists of: (1) analysis of a typical landfill gas; (2) establishment of a comprehensive design of the fuel cell system (including the SOFC stack and BOP), including durability analysis; (3) development of suitable reforming methods and catalysts that are tailored to the specific SOFC system concept; and (4) SOFC stack fabrication with testing to demonstrate the salient operational characteristics of the stack, including an analysis of the overall energy conversion efficiency of the system. Task III. Demonstration of an urban wind turbine system: This task consists of (1) design and construction of two side-by-side wind turbine systems on the YSU campus, integrated through power control systems with grid power; (2) preliminary testing of aerodynamic control effectors (provided by a small business partner) to demonstrate improved power control, and evaluation of the system performance, including economic estimates of viability in an urban environment; and (3) computational analysis of the wind turbine system as an enabling activity for development of smart rotor blades that contain integrated sensor

  3. Operationalizing sustainability in urban coastal systems: a system dynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrommati, Georgia; Bithas, Kostas; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis

    2013-12-15

    We propose a system dynamics approach for Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD) in urban coastal systems. A systematic analysis based on theoretical considerations, policy analysis and experts' knowledge is followed in order to define the concept of ESD. The principles underlying ESD feed the development of a System Dynamics Model (SDM) that connects the pollutant loads produced by urban systems' socioeconomic activities with the ecological condition of the coastal ecosystem that it is delineated in operational terms through key biological elements defined by the EU Water Framework Directive. The receiving waters of the Athens Metropolitan area, which bears the elements of typical high population density Mediterranean coastal city but which currently has also new dynamics induced by the ongoing financial crisis, are used as an experimental system for testing a system dynamics approach to apply the concept of ESD. Systems' thinking is employed to represent the complex relationships among the components of the system. Interconnections and dependencies that determine the potentials for achieving ESD are revealed. The proposed system dynamics analysis can facilitate decision makers to define paths of development that comply with the principles of ESD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of Microbial Communities Found in Bioreactor Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowe, Candice

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine microbial communities of simulated wastewater effluent from hollow fiber membrane bioreactors collected from the Space Life Science Laboratory and Texas Technical University. Microbes were characterized using quantitative polymerase chain reaction where a total count of bacteria and fungi were determined. The primers that were used to determine the total count of bacteria and fungi were targeted for 16S rDNA genes and the internal transcribed spacer, respectively. PCR products were detected with SYBR Green I fluorescent dye and a melting curve analysis was performed to identify unique melt profiles resulting from DNA sequence variations from each species of the community. Results from both the total bacteria and total fungi count assays showed that distinct populations were present in isolates from these bioreactors. This was exhibited by variation in the number of peaks observed on the melting curve analysis graph. Further analysis of these results using species-specific primers will shed light on exactly which microbes are present in these effluents. Information gained from this study will enable the design of a system that can efficiently monitor microbes that play a role in the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen in wastewater on the International Space Station to assist in the design of a sustainable system capable of converting this nutrient.

  5. Sustainable Capture: Concepts for Managing Stream-Aquifer Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Jeffrey C; Mehl, Steffen W

    2015-01-01

    Most surface water bodies (i.e., streams, lakes, etc.) are connected to the groundwater system to some degree so that changes to surface water bodies (either diversions or importations) can change flows in aquifer systems, and pumping from an aquifer can reduce discharge to, or induce additional recharge from streams, springs, and lakes. The timescales of these interactions are often very long (decades), making sustainable management of these systems difficult if relying only on observations of system responses. Instead, management scenarios are often analyzed based on numerical modeling. In this paper we propose a framework and metrics that can be used to relate the Theis concepts of capture to sustainable measures of stream-aquifer systems. We introduce four concepts: Sustainable Capture Fractions, Sustainable Capture Thresholds, Capture Efficiency, and Sustainable Groundwater Storage that can be used as the basis for developing metrics for sustainable management of stream-aquifer systems. We demonstrate their utility on a hypothetical stream-aquifer system where pumping captures both streamflow and discharge to phreatophytes at different amounts based on pumping location. In particular, Capture Efficiency (CE) can be easily understood by both scientists and non-scientist alike, and readily identifies vulnerabilities to sustainable stream-aquifer management when its value exceeds 100%. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  6. Sustainable development indicators for urban water systems: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the light of the increasing pressures on the world's freshwater resources, changes in the present and future urban water systems are called for in order to achieve sustainable development. The transformation from unsustainable practices demands tools that measure progress and can warn of future trends. Sustainable ...

  7. Understanding and Advancing Campus Sustainability Using a Systems Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Stephen M.; Stuart, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: University campuses behave as complex systems, and sustainability in higher education is best seen as an emergent quality that arises from interactions both within an institution and between the institution and the environmental and social contexts in which it operates. A framework for strategically prioritizing campus sustainability work…

  8. Framing in innovation. Towards sustainable agro-food systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwartkruis, J.V.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability issues in the agro-food sector have become increasingly important, and in order to deal with these sustainability issues, innovations are deemed necessary. Only introducing new technologies is not enough, system innovations are needed in which changes in the whole socio-technical

  9. Actualizing sustainability: environmental policy for resilience in ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Society benefits from ecological systems in many ways. These benefits are often referred to as ecosystem services (MA 2005). Because these services matter to humans, they are critical to sustainability. Sustainability has many definitions, but for this chapter, we link our defi...

  10. The mediating effect of sustainability control system on reverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyses part of the viability of green supply chain management practices created for fisheries industry to implement sustainability control system adoption as mediating on reverse logistics innovation and customer environmental collaboration towards sustainability performance. It examines reverse logistics ...

  11. Sustaining organizational culture change in health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Cameron David; Saul, Jessie; Bevan, Helen; Scheirer, Mary Ann; Best, Allan; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Mannion, Russell; Cornelissen, Evelyn; Howland, David; Jenkins, Emily; Bitz, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The questions addressed by this review are: first, what are the guiding principles underlying efforts to stimulate sustained cultural change; second, what are the mechanisms by which these principles operate; and, finally, what are the contextual factors that influence the likelihood of these principles being effective? The paper aims to discuss these issues. The authors conducted a literature review informed by rapid realist review methodology that examined how interventions interact with contexts and mechanisms to influence the sustainability of cultural change. Reference and expert panelists assisted in refining the research questions, systematically searching published and grey literature, and helping to identify interactions between interventions, mechanisms and contexts. Six guiding principles were identified: align vision and action; make incremental changes within a comprehensive transformation strategy; foster distributed leadership; promote staff engagement; create collaborative relationships; and continuously assess and learn from change. These principles interact with contextual elements such as local power distributions, pre-existing values and beliefs and readiness to engage. Mechanisms influencing how these principles sustain cultural change include activation of a shared sense of urgency and fostering flexible levels of engagement. The principles identified in this review, along with the contexts and mechanisms that influence their effectiveness, are useful domains for policy and practice leaders to explore when grappling with cultural change. These principles are sufficiently broad to allow local flexibilities in adoption and application. This is the first study to adopt a realist approach for understanding how changes in organizational culture may be sustained. Through doing so, this review highlights the broad principles by which organizational action may be organized within enabling contextual settings.

  12. Cascades of bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooijer, de C.D.

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis a common phenomenon in bioprocess engineering is described : the execution of a certain bioprocess in more than one bioreactor. Chapter 1, a review, classifies bioprocesses by means of a number of characteristics :
    i) processes with a variable

  13. Assessing the global sustainability of different electricity generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartelle Barros, Juan José; Lara Coira, Manuel; Cruz López, María Pilar de la; Caño Gochi, Alfredo del

    2015-01-01

    A model is presented for assessing the global sustainability of power plants. It uses requirement trees, value functions and the analytic hierarchy process. The model consists of 27 parameters and makes it possible to obtain a sustainability index for each conventional or renewable energy plant, throughout its life-cycle. Here the aim is to make society aware of the sustainability level for each type of power system. As a result, decision making can be done with greater objectivity in both the public and private sectors. The model can be useful for engineers, researchers and, in general, decision makers in the energy policy field. With the exception of biomass fuels, the results obtained reinforce the idea that renewable energies make a greater contribution to sustainable development than their conventional counterparts. Renewable energies have a sustainability index that varies between 0.39 and 0.80; 0 and 1 being the lowest and highest contribution to sustainability, respectively. On the other hand, conventional power plants obtained results that fall between 0.29 and 0.57. High temperature solar-thermal plants, wind farms, photovoltaic solar plants and mini-hydroelectric power plants occupy the first four places, in this order. - Highlights: • A model for assessing the integral sustainability of power plants is proposed. • Different energy alternatives are ordered according to sustainability criteria. • Except for biomass, renewable energies contribute more to sustainable development. • The model aids the decision making process in the energy policy field

  14. Review: Animal health and sustainable global livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B D; Robinson, T P; Grace, D C

    2018-04-10

    This paper discusses the sustainability of livestock systems, emphasising bidirectional relations with animal health. We review conventional and contrarian thinking on sustainability and argue that in the most common approaches to understanding sustainability, health aspects have been under-examined. Literature review reveals deep concerns over the sustainability of livestock systems; we recognise that interventions are required to shift to more sustainable trajectories, and explore approaches to prioritising in different systems, focusing on interventions that lead to better health. A previously proposed three-tiered categorisation of 'hot spots', 'cold spots' and 'worried well' animal health trajectories provides a mental model that, by taking into consideration the different animal health status, animal health risks, service response needs and key drivers in each system, can help identify and implement interventions. Combining sustainability concepts with animal health trajectories allows for a richer analysis, and we apply this to three case studies drawn from North Africa and the Middle East; Bangladesh; and the Eastern Cape of South Africa. We conclude that the quest for sustainability of livestock production systems from the perspective of human and animal health is elusive and difficult to reconcile with the massive anticipated growth in demand for livestock products, mainly in low- and middle-income countries, as well as the aspirations of poor livestock keepers for better lives. Nevertheless, improving the health of livestock can contribute to health sustainability both through reducing negative health impacts of livestock and increasing efficiency of production. However, the choice of the most appropriate options must be under-pinned by an understanding of agro-ecology, economy and values. We argue that a new pillar of One Health should be added to the three traditional sustainability pillars of economics, society and environment when addressing

  15. Exergy and Sustainability : Insights into the Value of Exergy Analysis in Sustainability Assessment of Technological Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stougie, L.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in striving for a more sustainable society is the selection of technological systems. Given the capital intensity of industrial production plants, power generation systems and infrastructure, investment decisions create path dependencies for decades to come. It is difficult to know

  16. Sustainability and deliberate transition of socio-technical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent; Stærdahl, Jens

    or developing socio-technical systems in order to integrate the concept of sustainability as a driver for the deliberate and purposeful shaping and transition. The article discusses the requirements to effective governance networks and governing of governance networks. Research within innovation systems......The article suggests that deliberate planning for sustainability demands a focus on the transition of socio-technical systems in order to establish robust and more sustainable patterns of production and consumption. This implies the necessity of a new perspective for environmental planning...... and policy. Deliberate planning for sustainability becomes a question of addressing governance structures of socio-technical systems, calling attention to how such governance structures emerge, stabilize and become dominant, which functions governance structures have to serve to become efficient, and how...

  17. Dynamic management of sustainable development methods for large technical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krishans, Zigurds; Merkuryev, Yuri; Oleinikova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Management of Sustainable Development presents a concise summary of the authors' research in dynamic methods analysis of technical systems development. The text illustrates mathematical methods, with a focus on practical realization and applications.

  18. Advanced thermodynamics metrics for sustainability assessments of open engineering systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulić Dušan P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a verification of the following hypotheses. Advanced thermodynamics metrics based on entropy generation assessments indicate the level of sustainability of transient open systems, such as in manufacturing or process industries. The indicator of sustainability may be related to particular property uniformity during materials processing. In such a case the property uniformity would indicate systems’ distance from equilibrium i.e., from the sustainable energy utilization level. This idea is applied to a selected state-of-the-art manufacturing process. The system under consideration involves thermal processing of complex aluminum structures during controlled atmosphere brazing for a near-net-shape mass production of compact heat exchangers.

  19. Green innovation and sustainable industrial systems within sustainability and company improvement perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edi Nugroho Soebandrija, Khristian

    2017-12-01

    This paper comprises discussion of Green Innovation and Sustainable Industrial Systems within Sustainability and Company Improvement Perspective of beverage manufacturing company (BMC). The stakeholder theory is the grand theory for the company improvement perspective in this paper. The data processing in this paper is conducted through software which are SEM-PLS with SmartPLS 2.0 and SPSS 19. The specified objective of this paper has focus on sustainability as one of 6 variables, in lieu of those 6 variables as the big picture. The reason behind this focus on sustainability is the fact that there are assorted challenges in sustainability that is ranging from economic, environment and company perspectives. Those challenges in sustainability include the sustainable service supply chain management and its involvement of society. The overall objective is to analyze relationship hypothesis of 6 variables, 4 of them (leadership, organizational learning, innovation, and performance) are based on Malcolm Baldrige’s performance excellence concept to achieve sustainability and competitive advantage through company-competitor and customer questionnaire, and its relation to Total Quality Management (TQM) and Quality Management System (QMS). In conclusion, the spearheaded of company improvement in this paper is in term of consumer satisfaction through 99.997% quality standards. These can be achieved by ambidexterity through exploitation and exploration innovation. Furthermore, in this paper, TQM enables to obtain popularity brand index achievement that is greater than 45.9%. Subsequently, ISO22000 of food security standard encompasses quality standard of ISO9000 and HACCP. Through the ambidexterity of exploitation and exploration (Non Standard Product Inspection) NOSPI machine, the company improvement generates the achievement of 75% automation, 99.997% quality control standard and 80% of waste reduction.

  20. Innovation in Financial Systems. The Quest For Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Voicu-Doroban?u Roxana

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on the trials and tribulations the financial systems are facing in the current economic environment, in order to increase their economic sustainability, but also improve their social sustainability. As desperate times (characterized by an endemic crisis, reaching from the financial systems into the globalized economic network) require ‘desperate measures’, there is a certain need for improvement and innovation in instruments and behaviours exhibited by the actors in a financ...

  1. Human cell culture in a space bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    1988-01-01

    Microgravity offers new ways of handling fluids, gases, and growing mammalian cells in efficient suspension cultures. In 1976 bioreactor engineers designed a system using a cylindrical reactor vessel in which the cells and medium are slowly mixed. The reaction chamber is interchangeable and can be used for several types of cell cultures. NASA has methodically developed unique suspension type cell and recovery apparatus culture systems for bioprocess technology experiments and production of biological products in microgravity. The first Space Bioreactor was designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small Bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle Middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption and control of low shear stress on cells.

  2. Sustainability of animal production systems: an ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavra, M

    1996-06-01

    The question of sustainability of agricultural production and the use of natural resources has become a popular topic. Most scientists agree that current systems are generally non-sustainable. Current rates of resource extraction will lead us to a depleted earth in the future. Sustainability is defined in many ways. For this paper sustainability should be considered the overlap of what is wanted and what is ecologically possible. Attempts have been made to place a quantitative measure on sustainability. However, it should be considered a trajectory or goal, a direction that guides constructive change, rather than a single quantitative measure. Research and extension personnel may have to take a broader look at their efforts and expand their knowledge base in order to address the issue of sustainable production systems. Both natural events and those caused by humans bring about changes in production potential that require shifts in management. Uncertainty and change should be incorporated into adaptive management strategies. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to confront these issues. Animal scientists need to formulate management systems that are environmentally compatible or face restrictive legislation that will force change. Members of the American Society of Animal Science seem to agree: efficient and sustainable use of natural resources appears in the draft of the Strategic Plan of the Society, and a poll of members revealed that environmental concerns about animal agriculture was a primary issue facing animal scientists.

  3. Sustainable Innovation, Management Accounting and Control Systems, and International Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Lopez-Valeiras

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes how Management Accounting and Control Systems (MACS facilitate the appropriation of the benefits of sustainable innovations in organizations. In particular, this paper examines the moderating role of different types of MACS in the relationships between sustainable innovation and international performance at an organizational level. We collected survey data from 123 Spanish and Portuguese organizations. Partial Least Square was used to analyze the data. Results show that the effect of sustainable innovations on international performance is enhanced by contemporary rather than traditional types of MACS. Overall our findings show that MACS can help managers to develop and monitor organizational activities (e.g., costumer services and distribution activities, which support the appropriation of the potential benefits from sustainable innovation. This paper responds to recent calls for in-depth studies about the organizational mechanism that may enhance the success of sustainable innovation.

  4. Two sustainable energy system analysis models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Goran Krajacic, Neven Duic; da Graca Carvalho, Maria

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of two energy system analysis models both designed with the purpose of analysing electricity systems with a substantial share of fluctuating renewable energy.......This paper presents a comparative study of two energy system analysis models both designed with the purpose of analysing electricity systems with a substantial share of fluctuating renewable energy....

  5. The energy-saving anaerobic baffled reactor membrane bioreactor (EABR-MBR) system for recycling wastewater from a high-rise building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanatamskul, Chavalit; Charoenphol, Chakraphan

    2015-01-01

    A novel energy-saving anaerobic baffled reactor-membrane bioreactor (EABR-MBR) system has been developed as a compact biological treatment system for reuse of water from a high-rise building. The anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) compartment had five baffles and served as the anaerobic degradation zone, followed by the aerobic MBR compartment. The total operating hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the EABR-MBR system was 3 hours (2 hours for ABR compartment and very short HRT of 1 hour for aerobic MBR compartment). The wastewater came from the Charoen Wisawakam building. The results showed that treated effluent quality was quite good and highly promising for water reuse purposes. The average flux of the membrane was kept at 30 l/(m2h). The EABR-MBR system could remove chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus from building wastewater by more than 90%. Moreover, it was found that phosphorus concentration was rising in the ABR compartment due to the phosphorus release phenomenon, and then the concentration decreased rapidly in the aerobic MBR compartment due to the phosphorus uptake phenomenon. This implies that phosphorus-accumulating organisms inside the EABR-MBR system are responsible for biological phosphorus removal. The research suggests that the EABR-MBR system can be a promising system for water reuse and reclamation for high-rise building application in the near future.

  6. Towards self-sustainable power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Danzi, Pietro; Stefanovic, Cedomir

    2017-01-01

    We propose use of a “modemless” communication solution, termed power talk, tailored for optimization and monitoring, i.e., upper layer control in low voltage DC MicroGrids (MGs). Specifically, the exchange of the information required for the upper control among control agents is achieved by modul......We propose use of a “modemless” communication solution, termed power talk, tailored for optimization and monitoring, i.e., upper layer control in low voltage DC MicroGrids (MGs). Specifically, the exchange of the information required for the upper control among control agents is achieved...... of minimizing the cost of the generation. The simulation results prove the feasibility of power talk as enabler of fully self-sustainable DC MicroGrids....

  7. Opportunities and challenges for multicriteria assessment of food system sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Alrøe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the Special Feature on "Multicriteria assessment of food system sustainability" is on the complex challenges of making and communicating overall assessments of food systems sustainability based on multiple and varied criteria. Four papers concern the choice and development of appropriate tools for making multicriteria sustainability assessments that handle built-in methodological conflicts and trade-offs between different assessment objectives. They underscore the value of linking diverse methods and tools, or nesting and stepping their deployment, to help build resilience and sustainability. They conclude that there is no one tool, one framework, or one indicator set that is appropriate for the different purposes and contexts of sustainability assessment. The process of creating the assessment framework also emerges as important: if the key stakeholders are not given a responsible and full role in the development of any assessment tool, it is less likely to be fit for their purpose and they are unlikely to take ownership or have confidence in it. Six other papers reflect on more fundamental considerations of how assessments are based in different scientific perspectives and on the role of values, motivation, and trust in relation to assessments in the development of more sustainable food systems. They recommend a radical break with the tradition of conducting multicriteria assessment from one hegemonic perspective to considering multiple perspectives. Collectively the contributions to this Special Feature identify three main challenges for improved multicriteria assessment of food system sustainability: (i how to balance different types of knowledge to avoid that the most well-known, precise, or easiest to measure dimensions of sustainability gets the most weight; (ii how to expose the values in assessment tools and choices to allow evaluation of how they relate to the ethical principles of sustainable food systems, to societal

  8. Building knowledge systems for sustainable agriculture: Supporting private advisors to adequately address sustainable farm management in regular service contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerkx, L.W.A.; Jansen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Advisory service provisioning on sustainability issues such as the environment and food safety is considered suboptimal in privatised pluralistic agricultural extension systems. Hence policy measures have been proposed to stimulate farmer demand for such sustainable farm management advice (pull

  9. Systems approaches for the design of sustainable agro-ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kropff, M.J.; Bouma, J.; Jones, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    The complexity of agricultural systems and the need to fulfil multiple objectives in sustainable agro-ecosystems call for interdisciplinary analyzes and input from a wide variety of disciplines in order to better understand the complete agronomic production system. Systems approaches have been

  10. Assessing the sustainability of egg production systems in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, E D; van Bussel, L G J; van Horne, P; van der Voet, H; van der Heijden, G W A M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2015-08-01

    Housing systems for laying hens have changed over the years due to increased public concern regarding animal welfare. In terms of sustainability, animal welfare is just one aspect that needs to be considered. Social aspects as well as environmental and economic factors need to be included as well. In this study, we assessed the sustainability of enriched cage, barn, free-range, and organic egg production systems following a predefined protocol. Indicators were selected within the social, environmental, and economic dimensions, after which parameter values and sustainability limits were set for the core indicators in order to quantify sustainability. Uncertainty in the parameter values as well as assigned weights and compensabilities of the indicators influenced the outcome of the sustainability assessment. Using equal weights for the indicators showed that, for the Dutch situation, enriched cage egg production was most sustainable, having the highest score on the environmental dimension, whereas free-range egg production gave the highest score in the social dimension (covering food safety, animal welfare, and human welfare). In the economic dimension both enriched cage egg and organic egg production had the highest sustainability score. When weights were attributed according to stakeholder outputs, individual differences were seen, but the overall scores were comparable to the sustainability scores based on equal weights. The provided method enabled a quantification of sustainability using input from stakeholders to include societal preferences in the overall assessment. Allowing for different weights and compensabilities helps policymakers in communicating with stakeholders involved and provides a weighted decision regarding future housing systems for laying hens. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Sustainable design of complex industrial and energy systems under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng

    Depletion of natural resources, environmental pressure, economic globalization, etc., demand seriously industrial organizations to ensure that their manufacturing be sustainable. On the other hand, the efforts of pursing sustainability also give raise to potential opportunities for improvements and collaborations among various types of industries. Owing to inherent complexity and uncertainty, however, sustainability problems of industrial and energy systems are always very difficult to deal with, which has made industrial practice mostly experience based. For existing research efforts on the study of industrial sustainability, although systems approaches have been applied in dealing with the challenge of system complexity, most of them are still lack in the ability of handling inherent uncertainty. To overcome this limit, there is a research need to develop a new generation of systems approaches by integrating techniques and methods for handling various types of uncertainties. To achieve this objective, this research introduced series of holistic methodologies for sustainable design and decision-making of industrial and energy systems. The introduced methodologies are developed in a systems point of view with the functional components involved in, namely, modeling, assessment, analysis, and decision-making. For different methodologies, the interval-parameter-based, fuzzy-logic-based, and Monte Carlo based methods are selected and applied respectively for handling various types of uncertainties involved, and the optimality of solutions is guaranteed by thorough search or system optimization. The proposed methods are generally applicable for any types of industrial systems, and their efficacy had been successfully demonstrated by the given case studies. Beyond that, a computational tool was designed, which provides functions on the industrial sustainability assessment and decision-making through several convenient and interactive steps of computer operation. This

  12. Sustainable Monitoring and Surveillance Systems to Improve HIV Programs: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-Beer, Daniel; Mahy, Mary; Renaud, Francoise; Calleja, Txema

    2018-04-24

    HIV programs have provided a major impetus for investments in surveillance data, with 5-10% of HIV program budgets recommended to support data. However there are questions concerning the sustainability of these investments. The Sustainable Development Goals have consolidated health into one goal and communicable diseases into one target (Target 3.3). Sustainable Development Goals now introduce targets focused specifically on data (Targets 17.18 and 17.19). Data are seen as one of the three systemic issues (in Goal 17) for implementing Sustainable Development Goals, alongside policies and partnerships. This paper reviews the surveillance priorities in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals and highlights the shift from periodic measurement towards sustainable disaggregated, real-time, case, and patient data, which are used routinely to improve programs. Finally, the key directions in developing person-centered monitoring systems are assessed with country examples. The directions contribute to the Sustainable Development Goal focus on people-centered development applied to data. ©Daniel Low-Beer, Mary Mahy, Francoise Renaud, Txema Calleja. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 24.04.2018.

  13. Sustainable Deforestation Evaluation Model and System Dynamics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huirong Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony.

  14. Sustainability and Convergence: The Future of Corporate Governance Systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela M. Salvioni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world, a sustainable approach to corporate governance can be a source of competitive advantage and a long-term success factor for any firm. Sustainable governance requires that the board of directors considers economic, social and environmental expectations in an integrated way, no matter what ownership structure and formal rules of corporate governance apply to the company: this mitigates the traditional differences between insider and outsider systems of corporate governance. Previous studies failed to consider the contribution of sustainability in the process of corporate governance convergence. Therefore, the aim of this article is to fill the gap in the existing literature by means of a qualitative analysis, supporting the international debate about convergence of corporate governance systems. The article describes the evolution of outsider and insider systems in the light of the increasing importance of sustainability in the board’s decision-making and firm’s operation to satisfy the needs of all the company’s stakeholders. According to this, a qualitative content analysis developed with a directed approach completes the theoretical discussion, demonstrating that sustainability can bring de facto convergence between outsider and insider corporate governance systems. The article aims to be a theoretical starting point for future research, the findings of which could also have practical implications: the study encourages the policy makers to translate the sustainable business best practices into laws and recommendations, strengthening the mutual influence between formal and substantial convergence.

  15. Sustainable Deforestation Evaluation Model and System Dynamics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Huirong; Lim, C. W.; Chen, Liqun; Zhou, Xinnian; Zhou, Chengjun; Lin, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony. PMID:25254225

  16. Sustainable deforestation evaluation model and system dynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Huirong; Lim, C W; Chen, Liqun; Zhou, Xinnian; Zhou, Chengjun; Lin, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony.

  17. Revamping Grooving Process for Sustainability using Fuzzy Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqba Asif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an application of a fuzzy expert system for renovating a metal cutting process to cope with the sustainability requirements. The work seeks a sustainable balance between energy consumption, productivity and tool damage. Cylindrical grooving experiments were performed to generate data related to quantification of the effects of material hardness, cutting speed, width of cut and feed rate on the aforementioned sustainability measures. A fuzzy knowledge-base was developed that suggests the most suitable adjustments of the controlled variables that would lead to achievement of various combinations of the objectives.

  18. Assessment of the sustainability of a water resource system expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rødding; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2001-01-01

    for the water resources system, comprising all important water users within the catchment. Measures to meet the growing water demand in the catchment are discussed. Six scenarios including both supply and demand oriented solutions are identified, modelled and compared in tenus of the sustainability criteria....... Based on initial experience the method was modified leading to more credible results. A problem with assessing sustainability using risk criteria is a favouring of supply-oriented solutions, in particular when aspects not directly related to demand and availability of water are excluded.......A sustainability assessment method involving risk criteria related to reliability, resilience and vulnerability, has been applied to quantify the relative sustainability of possible expansions of a water resources system in the KwaZulu-Natal province South Africa. A river basin model has been setup...

  19. Disposable Bioreactors for Plant Micropropagation and Mass Plant Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducos, Jean-Paul; Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier

    Different types of bioreactors are used at Nestlé R&D Centre - Tours for mass propagation of selected plant varieties by somatic embryogenesis and for large scale culture of plants cells to produce metabolites or recombinant proteins. Recent studies have been directed to cut down the production costs of these two processes by developing disposable cell culture systems. Vegetative propagation of elite plant varieties is achieved through somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium. A pilot scale process has recently been set up for the industrial propagation of Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee). The current production capacity is 3.0 million embryos per year. The pre-germination of the embryos was previously conducted by temporary immersion in liquid medium in 10-L glass bioreactors. An improved process has been developed using a 10-L disposable bioreactor consisting of a bag containing a rigid plastic box ('Box-in-Bag' bioreactor), insuring, amongst other advantages, a higher light transmittance to the biomass due to its horizontal design. For large scale cell culture, two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors have been developed from 10 to 100 L working volumes, validated with several plant species ('Wave and Undertow' and 'Slug Bubble' bioreactors). The advantages and the limits of these new types of bioreactor are discussed, based mainly on our own experience on coffee somatic embryogenesis and mass cell culture of soya and tobacco.

  20. Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Energy Systems with Sustainability Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Despoina E. Keramioti; Christos A. Frangopoulos

    2010-01-01

    A multi-criteria approach is presented for the assessment of alternative means for covering the energy needs (electricity and heat) of an industrial unit, taking into consideration sustainability aspects. The procedure is first described in general terms: proper indicators are defined; next they are grouped in order to form sub-indices, which are then used to determine the composite sustainability index. The procedure is applied for the evaluation of three alternative systems. The three syste...

  1. Systems Approach to Corporate Sustainability: A General Management Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Azapagic, A.

    2003-01-01

    Corporate sustainability is not just a buzzword - for many industry leaders and corporations, it has become an invaluable tool for exploring ways to reduce costs, manage risks, create new products, and drive fundamental internal changes in culture and structure. However, integrating sustainability thinking and practice into organizational structure is not a trivial task and it requires a vision, commitment and leadership. It also requires a systems approach with an appropriate management fram...

  2. Cascades of bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Gooijer, de, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis a common phenomenon in bioprocess engineering is described : the execution of a certain bioprocess in more than one bioreactor. Chapter 1, a review, classifies bioprocesses by means of a number of characteristics :
    i) processes with a variable stoichiometry ,
    ii) processes with a constant stoichiometry using biocatalysts ,
    iii) processes with a constant stoichiometry that are &...

  3. The role of cogeneration systems in sustainability of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çakir, Uğur; Çomakli, Kemal; Yüksel, Fikret

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Energy source on the world is tending to run out day by day while the energy need of humanity is increasing simultaneously. ► There are two ways to overcome this problem; one of them is renewable energy sources like solar or wind energy systems. ► The other way is like cogeneration systems. ► Cogeneration system is one of the ways to save the energy and use the energy efficiently. ► A case study is made for a hospital to present the sustainability aspects of cogeneration systems. - Abstract: Cogeneration system (CHP) is one of the ways to save the energy and use the energy efficiently. When compared to separate fossil-fired generation of heat and electricity, CHP may result in a consistent energy conservation (usually ranging from 10% to 30%) while the avoided CO 2 emissions are, as a first approximation, similar to the amount of energy saving. In terms of sustainability, one of the primary considerations is energy efficiency. Sustainable energy is considered as a kind of energy which is renewable and continuous, meaning that the use of such energy can potentially be kept up well into the future without causing harmful repercussions for future generations. In this study, environmental benefits and sustainability aspects of cogeneration systems and importance of those systems to the use of sustainable energy are underlined. To support this idea, first we have referred some scientific studies previously made on cogeneration systems and then we have used our own case study. The case study made on gas engined cogeneration system was applied for a hospital to show the sustainability aspects of cogeneration systems.

  4. Grey water treatment by a continuous process of an electrocoagulation unit and a submerged membrane bioreactor system

    KAUST Repository

    Bani-Melhem, Khalid

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents the performance of an integrated process consisting of an electro-coagulation (EC) unit and a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) technology for grey water treatment. For comparison purposes, another SMBR process without electrocoagulation (EC) was operated in parallel with both processes operated under constant transmembrane pressure for 24. days in continuous operation mode. It was found that integrating EC process with SMBR (EC-SMBR) was not only an effective method for grey water treatment but also for improving the overall performance of the membrane filtration process. EC-SMBR process achieved up to 13% reduction in membrane fouling compared to SMBR without electrocoagulation. High average percent removals were attained by both processes for most wastewater parameters studied. The results demonstrated that EC-SMBR performance slightly exceeded that of SMBR for COD, turbidity, and colour. Both processes produced effluent free of suspended solids, and faecal coliforms were nearly (100%) removed in both processes. A substantial improvement was achieved in removal of phosphate in the EC-SMBR process. However, ammonia nitrogen was removed more effectively by the SMBR only. Accordingly, the electrolysis condition in the EC-SMBR process should be optimized so as not to impede biological treatment. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Denitrification in a low-temperature bioreactor system at two different hydraulic residence times: laboratory column studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Albin; Herbert, Roger B

    2017-06-01

    Nitrate removal rates in a mixture of pine woodchips and sewage sludge were determined in laboratory column studies at 5°C, 12°C, and 22°C, and at two different hydraulic residence times (HRTs; 58.2-64.0 hours and 18.7-20.6 hours). Baffles installed in the flow path were tested as a measure to reduce preferential flow behavior, and to increase the nitrate removal in the columns. The nitrate removal in the columns was simulated at 5°C and 12°C using a combined Arrhenius-Monod equation controlling the removal rate, and a first-order exchange model for incorporation of stagnant zones. Denitrification in the mixture of pine woodchips and sewage sludge reduced nitrate concentrations of 30 mg N L -1 at 5°C to below detection limits at a HRT of 58.2-64.0 hours. At a HRT of 18.7-20.6 hours, nitrate removal was incomplete. The Arrhenius frequency factor and activation energy retrieved from the low HRT data supported a biochemically controlled reaction rate; the same parameters, however, could not be used to simulate the nitrate removal at high HRT. The results show an inversely proportional relationship between the advection velocity and the nitrate removal rate, suggesting that bioreactor performance could be enhanced by promoting low advection velocities.

  6. Trade Services System Adaptation for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrichenkov, A.; Shaufler, V.; Bannikova, L.

    2017-11-01

    Under market conditions, the trade services system in post-Soviet Russia, being one of the most important city infrastructures, loses its systematic and hierarchic consistency hence provoking the degradation of communicating transport systems and urban planning framework. This article describes the results of the research carried out to identify objects and object parameters that influence functioning of a locally significant trade services system. Based on the revealed consumer behaviour patterns, we propose methods to determine the optimal parameters of objects inside a locally significant trade services system.

  7. Improving Sustainability through a Dual Audit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Ji Jin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of a large-scale accounting fraud, China implemented a dual audit system for listed companies issuing foreign stocks (B shares and H shares from 2001 to 2006, before adopting Chinese-IFRS in 2007. At the end of 2010, the EU proposed that listed corporations over a certain size should be required to implement a joint audit system. However, only a few countries have implemented this system, and thus, data and references are extremely limited. The dual audit system is called the “twin” of the joint audit system. We analyze whether the dual system improves a company’s earnings quality. Earnings quality is studied by means of real earnings management, and the variable of loss aversion. We find that real earnings management of dual audited enterprises is lower than that of single audited (A-share enterprises, and the inclination toward loss aversion of enterprises in the foreign share market has not increased significantly relative to the A-share enterprises after the abolition of the dual audit system. The results indicate that a dual audit system improves earnings quality. We expect that the conclusions of this research will resolve the issues and concerns about the joint audit system.

  8. Studying, Teaching and Applying Sustainability Visions Using Systems Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Iwaniec

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of articulating sustainability visions through modeling is to enhance the outcomes and process of visioning in order to successfully move the system toward a desired state. Models emphasize approaches to develop visions that are viable and resilient and are crafted to adhere to sustainability principles. This approach is largely assembled from visioning processes (resulting in descriptions of desirable future states generated from stakeholder values and preferences and participatory modeling processes (resulting in systems-based representations of future states co-produced by experts and stakeholders. Vision modeling is distinct from normative scenarios and backcasting processes in that the structure and function of the future desirable state is explicitly articulated as a systems model. Crafting, representing and evaluating the future desirable state as a systems model in participatory settings is intended to support compliance with sustainability visioning quality criteria (visionary, sustainable, systemic, coherent, plausible, tangible, relevant, nuanced, motivational and shared in order to develop rigorous and operationalizable visions. We provide two empirical examples to demonstrate the incorporation of vision modeling in research practice and education settings. In both settings, vision modeling was used to develop, represent, simulate and evaluate future desirable states. This allowed participants to better identify, explore and scrutinize sustainability solutions.

  9. Technical Design of Flexible Sustainable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems in Denmark, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid.......The paper presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems in Denmark, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid....

  10. The Potential for Microalgae as Bioreactors to Produce Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Na; Fan, Chengming; Chen, Yuhong; Hu, Zanmin

    2016-01-01

    As photosynthetic organisms, microalgae can efficiently convert solar energy into biomass. Microalgae are currently used as an important source of valuable natural biologically active molecules, such as carotenoids, chlorophyll, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, phycobiliproteins, carotenoids and enzymes. Significant advances have been achieved in microalgae biotechnology over the last decade, and the use of microalgae as bioreactors for expressing recombinant proteins is receiving increased interest. Compared with the bioreactor systems that are currently in use, microalgae may be an attractive alternative for the production of pharmaceuticals, recombinant proteins and other valuable products. Products synthesized via the genetic engineering of microalgae include vaccines, antibodies, enzymes, blood-clotting factors, immune regulators, growth factors, hormones, and other valuable products, such as the anticancer agent Taxol. In this paper, we briefly compare the currently used bioreactor systems, summarize the progress in genetic engineering of microalgae, and discuss the potential for microalgae as bioreactors to produce pharmaceuticals. PMID:27322258

  11. Sustaining the Earth's watersheds, agricultural research data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS water resources program has developed a web-based data system, STEWARDS: Sustaining the Earth’s Watersheds, Agricultural Research Data System to support research that encompasses a broad range of topics such as water quality, hydrology, conservation, land use, and soils. The data syst...

  12. Emergy-based sustainability evaluation of wind power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin; Chen, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Emergy is used to quantify the sustainability level of wind farms. • A GHG-based indicator is incorporated into emergetic accounting. • Possible pathways to achieve sustainable wind farm management are analyzed. - Abstract: With large-scale commercialization of wind technology, one must investigate economical and sustainable wind resource utilization. In this paper, emergy analysis is used to quantify the environmental pressure, renewability, economic efficiency, and sustainability of a typical wind power system, considering the lifetime stages from extraction and processing of raw materials and resources to the final product (electricity) via material transportation, construction and operation. Possible pathways to achieve sustainable management of wind energy supply chain were also analyzed based on scenario analysis. Results show that wind power is a promising means of substituting traditional fossil fuel-based power generation systems, with the lowest transformity of 4.49 × 10 4 sej/J, smaller environmental loading ratio of 5.84, and lower greenhouse gas emission intensity of 0.56 kg/kWh. To shed light on potential pathways to achieve sustainable and low-carbon wind energy supply chain management and make informed choices, a sensitivity analysis was done by establishing scenarios from the perspectives of material recycling and technical development. Results suggest that using new materials of lower energy intensity or recycled materials in upstream wind turbine manufacturing and construction materials are the most effective measures.

  13. Intelligent decision support systems for sustainable computing paradigms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Ajith; Siarry, Patrick; Sheng, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This unique book dicusses the latest research, innovative ideas, challenges and computational intelligence (CI) solutions in sustainable computing. It presents novel, in-depth fundamental research on achieving a sustainable lifestyle for society, either from a methodological or from an application perspective. Sustainable computing has expanded to become a significant research area covering the fields of computer science and engineering, electrical engineering and other engineering disciplines, and there has been an increase in the amount of literature on aspects sustainable computing such as energy efficiency and natural resources conservation that emphasizes the role of ICT (information and communications technology) in achieving system design and operation objectives. The energy impact/design of more efficient IT infrastructures is a key challenge in realizing new computing paradigms. The book explores the uses of computational intelligence (CI) techniques for intelligent decision support that can be explo...

  14. Organic versus Conventional Cropping Sustainability: A Comparative System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L. Fess

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We are at a pivotal time in human history, as the agricultural sector undergoes consolidation coupled with increasing energy costs in the context of declining resource availability. Although organic systems are often thought of as more sustainable than conventional operations, the lack of concise and widely accepted means to measure sustainability makes coming to an agreement on this issue quite challenging. However, an accurate assessment of sustainability can be reached by dissecting the scientific underpinnings of opposing production practices and crop output between cropping systems. The purpose of this review is to provide an in-depth and comprehensive evaluation of modern global production practices and economics of organic cropping systems, as well as assess the sustainability of organic production practices through the clarification of information and analysis of recent research. Additionally, this review addresses areas where improvements can be made to help meet the needs of future organic producers, including organic-focused breeding programs and necessity of coming to a unified global stance on plant breeding technologies. By identifying management strategies that utilize practices with long-term environmental and resource efficiencies, a concerted global effort could guide the adoption of organic agriculture as a sustainable food production system.

  15. Sustainable quality systems for every Health Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, Rodolfo; Pittaluga, Roberto R.

    2008-01-01

    The implementation of a Quality system is an indispensable requirement to assure the protection and the radiological safety, especially in those facilities where the potential risks are important. One of the 'general conclusions' of the Conference of Malaga (to achieve the RPP) is also the implementation of quality systems. Lamentably the great majority of the Services of Health in the world, more than 95 %, has not nowadays any formal quality system but only any elements what can be named a 'natural quality system' that includes protocols of work, records of several processes, certified of training of the personnel and diverse practices that are realized in systematic form but that not always are documented. Most health services do not have the necessary means available to adhere quickly to international standards. At the same time the health services do not have either qualified or trained personnel to lead a certification or accreditation project and most of them do not have the resources available to hire external consultants, especially the public hospitals. The scenario described represents a challenge for the Regulatory Authorities who must determine 'how to ensure that installations comply with an acceptable standard of quality without it placing an impossible strain on their budget?' Due to these circumstances a 'Basic Guide' has developed for the implementation of a quality system in every Health Service that takes the elements as a foundation of the standard ISO - 9000:2000 and the standard for systems management GSR-3 of the IAEA. The criteria and the methodologies are showed in the presentation. (author)

  16. Assessing Sustainability Transition in the US Electrical Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen McCauley

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines sustainability transition dynamics in the US electricity system, drawing on the socio-technical systems approach. We view system change as unfolding along several critical dimensions and geographical scales, including dynamics in the environment, science, civil society, discourse, and state regulatory institutions, as well as in capital and technology formations. A particular emphasis is given to the interaction of discourses, policy networks, and institutions. We trace four distinct regimes which have characterized the evolution of this discourse-network-institutional nexus over the last century. The research examines dynamics that present a challenge to the incumbent energy regime based on fossil fuels, nuclear and hydropower, and demonstrates how the actor-network supporting renewables and energy efficiency has grown stronger and more capable of moving toward a sustainability transition than at any time since the sustainable energy movement began a generation ago.

  17. Bioreactor Development for Lung Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Much recent interest in lung bioengineering by pulmonary investigators, industry and the organ transplant field has seen a rapid growth of bioreactor development ranging from the microfluidic scale to the human-sized whole lung systems. A comprehension of the findings from these models is needed to provide the basis for further bioreactor development. Objective The goal was to comprehensively review the current state of bioreactor development for the lung. Methods A search using PubMed was done for published, peer-reviewed papers using the keywords “lung” AND “bioreactor” or “bioengineering” or “tissue engineering” or “ex vivo perfusion”. Main Results Many new bioreactors ranging from the microfluidic scale to the human-sized whole lung systems have been developed by both academic and commercial entities. Microfluidic, lung-mimic and lung slice cultures have the advantages of cost-efficiency and high throughput analyses ideal for pharmaceutical and toxicity studies. Perfused/ventilated rodent whole lung systems can be adapted for mid-throughput studies of lung stem/progenitor cell development, cell behavior, understanding and treating lung injury and for preliminary work that can be translated to human lung bioengineering. Human-sized ex vivo whole lung bioreactors incorporating perfusion and ventilation are amenable to automation and have been used for whole lung decellularization and recellularization. Clinical scale ex vivo lung perfusion systems have been developed for lung preservation and reconditioning and are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Conclusions Significant advances in bioreactors for lung engineering have been made at both the microfluidic and the macro scale. The most advanced are closed systems that incorporate pressure-controlled perfusion and ventilation and are amenable to automation. Ex vivo lung perfusion systems have advanced to clinical trials for lung preservation and reconditioning. The biggest

  18. Sustainability assessment of stormwater management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Ammitsøe, Christian

    We quantify ecotoxicity impacts caused by different solutions to manage stormwater using life cycle assessment. As a novelty, we include emissions of a wide range of pollutants present in runoff. These emissions turn out to be of great importance, especially in decentralized, above surface systems....

  19. Globalisation of agrifood systems and sustainable nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaim, Matin

    2017-02-01

    The globalisation of agrifood systems is a mega-trend with potentially profound nutritional implications. This paper describes various facets of this globalisation process and reviews studies on nutritional effects with a particular focus on developing countries. Results show that global trade and technological change in agriculture have substantially improved food security in recent decades, although intensified production systems have also contributed to environmental problems in some regions. New agricultural technologies and policies need to place more emphasis on promoting dietary diversity and reducing environmental externalities. Globalising agrifood systems also involve changing supply-chain structures, with a rapid rise of modern retailing, new food safety and food quality standards, and higher levels of vertical integration. Studies show that emerging high-value supply chains can contribute to income growth in the small farm sector and improved access to food for rural and urban populations. However, there is also evidence that the retail revolution in developing countries, with its growing role of supermarkets and processed foods, can contribute to overweight and obesity among consumers. The multi-faceted linkages between changing agrifood systems and nutrition are a new field of interdisciplinary research, combining agricultural, nutritional, economics and social sciences perspectives. The number of studies on specific aspects is still limited, so the evidence is not yet conclusive. A review at this early stage can help to better understand important relationships and encourage follow-up work.

  20. Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Energy Systems with Sustainability Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina E. Keramioti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A multi-criteria approach is presented for the assessment of alternative means for covering the energy needs (electricity and heat of an industrial unit, taking into consideration sustainability aspects. The procedure is first described in general terms: proper indicators are defined; next they are grouped in order to form sub-indices, which are then used to determine the composite sustainability index. The procedure is applied for the evaluation of three alternative systems. The three systems are placed in order of preference, which depends on the criteria used. In addition to conclusions reached as a result of the particular case study, recommendations for future work are given.

  1. The contrast study of anammox-denitrifying system in two non-woven fixed-bed bioreactors (NFBR) treating different low C/N ratio sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fan; Zhang, Hanmin; Yang, Fenglin; Qiang, Hong; Zhang, Guangyi

    2012-06-01

    Two non-woven fixed-bed bioreactors (NFBR) based on different substrates (nitrite and nitrate) were constructed to study the environmental adaptability for temperature and organic matter of anammox-denitrifying system and nitrogen removal performance. The two reactors were successfully operated for 200 days. The average removal rates of nitrogen and COD of R2 were 81% and 93%, respectively. Besides, the nitrogen removal rate of R1 was 95% under not more than 105 mg/l of COD. The experimental results indicated that the R2 based on nitrate had a good nitrogen removal performance at room temperature (25 °C). Additionally, the analysis results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that the percentage compositions of anammox in R1 and R2 were 84% and 65% on day 189. Finally, the possible nitrogen removal model of anammox-denitrifying system was constructed. According to nitrogen balance and C/N ratios of denitrification, the nitrogen removal approaches of R1 and R2 were obtained. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Combined hydrolysis acidification and bio-contact oxidation system with air-lift tubes and activated carbon bioreactor for oilfield wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunmei; Chen, Yi; Chen, Jinfu; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Guangqing; Wang, Jingxiu; Cui, Wenfeng; Zhang, Zhongzhi

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigated the enhancement of the COD reduction of an oilfield wastewater treatment process by installing air-lift tubes and adding an activated carbon bioreactor (ACB) to form a combined hydrolysis acidification and bio-contact oxidation system with air-lift tubes (HA/air-lift BCO) and an ACB. Three heat-resistant bacterial strains were cultivated and subsequently applied in above pilot plant test. Installing air-lift tubes in aerobic tanks reduced the necessary air to water ratio from 20 to 5. Continuous operation of the HA/air-lift BCO system for 2 months with a hydraulic retention time of 36 h, a volumetric load of 0.14 kg COD/(m(3)d) (hydrolysis-acidification or anaerobic tank), and 0.06 kg COD/(m(3)d) (aerobic tanks) achieved an average reduction of COD by 60%, oil and grease by 62%, total suspended solids by 75%, and sulfides by 77%. With a COD load of 0.56 kg/(m(3)d), the average COD in the ACB effluent was 58 mg/L. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biomass in a sustainable energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    1998-04-01

    In this thesis, aspects of an increase in the utilization of biomass in the Swedish energy system are treated. Modern bioenergy systems should be based on high energy and land use efficiency since biomass resources and productive land are limited. The energy input, including transportation, per unit biomass produced is about 4-5% for logging residues, straw and short rotation forest (Salix). Salix has the highest net energy yield per hectare among the various energy crops cultivated in Sweden. The CO 2 emissions from the production and transportation of logging residues, straw and Salix, are equivalent to 2-3% of those from a complete fuel-cycle for coal. Substituting biomass for fossil fuels in electricity and heat production is, in general, less costly and leads to a greater CO 2 reduction per unit biomass than substituting biomass derived transportation fuels for petrol or diesel. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass provide larger and less expensive CO 2 emission reductions than transportation fuels from annual crops. Swedish CO 2 emissions could be reduced by about 50% from the present level if fossil fuels are replaced and the energy demand is unchanged. There is a good balance between potential regional production and utilization of biomass in Sweden. Future biomass transportation distances need not be longer than, on average, about 40 km. About 22 TWh electricity could be produced annually from biomass in large district heating systems by cogeneration. Cultivation of Salix and energy grass could be utilized to reduce the negative environmental impact of current agricultural practices, such as the emission of greenhouse gases, nutrient leaching, decreased soil fertility and erosion, and for the treatment of municipal waste and sludge, leading to increased recirculation of nutrients. About 20 TWh biomass could theoretically be produced per year at an average cost of less than 50% of current production cost, if the economic value of these

  4. Biomass in a sustainable energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    1998-04-01

    In this thesis, aspects of an increase in the utilization of biomass in the Swedish energy system are treated. Modern bioenergy systems should be based on high energy and land use efficiency since biomass resources and productive land are limited. The energy input, including transportation, per unit biomass produced is about 4-5% for logging residues, straw and short rotation forest (Salix). Salix has the highest net energy yield per hectare among the various energy crops cultivated in Sweden. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the production and transportation of logging residues, straw and Salix, are equivalent to 2-3% of those from a complete fuel-cycle for coal. Substituting biomass for fossil fuels in electricity and heat production is, in general, less costly and leads to a greater CO{sub 2} reduction per unit biomass than substituting biomass derived transportation fuels for petrol or diesel. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass provide larger and less expensive CO{sub 2} emission reductions than transportation fuels from annual crops. Swedish CO{sub 2} emissions could be reduced by about 50% from the present level if fossil fuels are replaced and the energy demand is unchanged. There is a good balance between potential regional production and utilization of biomass in Sweden. Future biomass transportation distances need not be longer than, on average, about 40 km. About 22 TWh electricity could be produced annually from biomass in large district heating systems by cogeneration. Cultivation of Salix and energy grass could be utilized to reduce the negative environmental impact of current agricultural practices, such as the emission of greenhouse gases, nutrient leaching, decreased soil fertility and erosion, and for the treatment of municipal waste and sludge, leading to increased recirculation of nutrients. About 20 TWh biomass could theoretically be produced per year at an average cost of less than 50% of current production cost, if the economic

  5. Thin film bioreactors in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Scheld, H. W.

    Studies from the Skylab, SL-3 and D-1 missions have demonstrated that biological organisms grown in microgravity have changes in basic cellular functions such as DNA, mRNA and protein synthesis, cytoskeleton synthesis, glucose utilization and cellular differentiation. Since microgravity could affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at a subcellular and molecular level, space offers us an opportunity to learn more about basic biological systems with one important variable removed. The thin film bioreactor will facilitate the handling of fluids in microgravity, under constant temperature and will allow multiple samples of cells to be grown with variable conditions. Studies on cell cultures grown in microgravity would enable us to identify and quantify changes in basic biological function in microgravity which are needed to develop new applications of orbital research and future biotechnology.

  6. Measuring the sustainability of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroger, W.

    2001-01-01

    Today's energy policies are characterised by a contradictory position. In theory, there is a clear will to respond to emerging threats, e.g. evidence of man-made climate change, irresponsible use of limited resources, geopolitical discrepancies with unbalanced satisfaction of vital needs. In practice, decision making is dominated by economic competitiveness and maximization of short-term profit. The use of fossil fuels is unbroken and still increasing. A recent Green Paper concluded that the EU countries have to reduce growing structural weaknesses by limiting dependence on fuel imports and to give priority to energy systems that do not emit global warming gases. (authors)

  7. Economically sustainable: market synergies in hydrogen systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.

    2000-01-01

    As interest in the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier grows, it is important to understand the advantages and disadvantages of a market-based approach to its introduction. While there will always be niche markets in which it makes sense to employ what is currently a comparatively expensive form of energy storage and delivery, this will not enable the sort of large-scale penetration that will allow for economies of mass-manufacture to bring the cost of hydrogen down. In addition, energy markets are becoming increasingly liberalised, and because of this it is important to understand the sort of market pressures that are arising where none have existed before. These pressures may actually lead to opportunities for hydrogen in energy storage and for use in power generation and transport fuel modes, and allow market penetration to occur more rapidly than might be the case in a centralised energy structure. In the liberalised energy market within the UK, for example, there are two areas of potentially major growth in hydrogen production and consumption: energy storage for renewable generators; and backup systems at weak electricity grid links. The first of these is due, in part, to potential changes in regulation governing the way that electricity is sold into the market, while the second is dependent more on an increasingly congested electricity grid and the high costs of building supplementary infrastructure. In both cases there is potential for the early use of hydrogen energy systems in an economically competitive environment. (author)

  8. Sustainable economic production quantity models for inventory systems with shortage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taleizadeh, Ata Allah; Soleymanfar, Vahid Reza; Govindan, Kannan

    2018-01-01

    (EPQ). The theoretical sustainable EOQ and EPQ models are basic models that ignore many real-life conditions such as the possibility of stock-out in inventory systems. In this paper, we develop four new sustainable economic production quantity models that consider different shortage situations. To find...... optimal values of inventory system variables, we solve four independent profit maximization problems for four different situations. These proposed models include a basic model in which shortages are not allowed, and when shortages are allowed, the lost sale, full backordering and partial backordering...... models can be selected by operations managers depending on the manufacturer's motivation to improve service levels. We have also proposed an algorithm for determining optimum values of the decision variables for these sustainable economic production quantity models. Finally, the formulated models...

  9. Design of bioreactors for SSF and SMF (Xanthan)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Design of bioreactors for SSF and SMF (Xanthan). Design of bioreactors for SSF and SMF (Xanthan). Tray Bioreactor; Packed bed bioreactor; Rotary drum bioreactor; Integrated bioreactor; CSTR with helical ribbon. Design of bioreactors for Hairy root cultures. Acoustic Mist ...

  10. Incentive Systems That Support Sustainability: A First Nations Example

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald L. Trosper

    1998-01-01

    Prior to contact with European settlers, the incentive and governance systems used by First Nations peoples of the Northwest coast of North America provided more sustainable use of the fisheries and other resources of that region than did subsequent systems. This paper explores the major reason for that success: the requirements of the potlatch system that chiefs share their income with each other. Because chiefs controlled well-defined territories and subjected each other to review, the potl...

  11. Placing ecosystem sustainability within the context of dynamic earth systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidle, R. C.

    2013-12-01

    Because the concept of ecosystem sustainability and the practice of sustainable land management both have long-term foci, it is necessary to view these from the perspective of dynamic rather than static systems. In addition to the typical static system approach for assessing ecosystem sustainability, three additional perspectives are presented. These are resilient systems, systems where tipping points occur, and systems subject to episodic geophysical resetting. Ecosystem resilience accommodates both natural and anthropogenic stressors and should be considered to properly frame many ecosystem assessments. A more complex problem emerges when stressors push systems to tipping points, causing a regime shift. Both chronic anthropogenic activities (e.g., over-grazing, forest conversion, poor irrigation practices) and natural changes (e.g., climate anomalies, geochemical weathering, tectonic uplift, vegetative succession) can exhaust ecosystem resilience leading to a rapid change in state. Anthropogenic perturbations can also lower the initiation threshold and increase the magnitude and frequency of certain natural disasters, increasing the likelihood of ecosystem change. Furthermore, when major episodic geophysical events (e.g., large earthquakes, tsunami, and floods; widespread volcanic activity and landslides) exceed thresholds of ecosystem resilience they may reset the attributes of entire systems or landscapes. Large disasters can initiate a cascade of linked events, as in the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, where tsunami, fires, landslides, artificial fillslope collapses, radioactive releases, and associated health effects occurred. Understanding the potential for natural change (both chronic and episodic) in ecosystems is essential not only to the environmental aspect of sustainability but also to economic and social aspects. Examples are presented for: (1) ecosystems vulnerable to tipping points (Yunnan, China) and (2) ecosystems reset by earthquakes and

  12. Performance of Power Systems under Sustained Random Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Verdejo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies linear systems under sustained additive random perturbations. The stable operating point of an electric power system is replaced by an attracting stationary solution if the system is subjected to (small random additive perturbations. The invariant distribution of this stationary solution gives rise to several performance indices that measure how well the system copes with the randomness. These indices are introduced, showing how they can be used for the optimal tuning of system parameters in the presence of noise. Results on a four-generator two-area system are presented and discussed.

  13. Sustainable ecological systems: Implementing an ecological approach to land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Wallace Covington; Leonard F. DeBano

    1994-01-01

    This conference brought together scientiests and managers from federal, state, and local agencies, along with private-sector interests, to examine key concepts involving sustainable ecological systems, and ways in which to apply these concepts to ecosystem management. Session topics were: ecological consequenses of land and water use changes, biology of rare and...

  14. Optimizing the Sustainment of U.S. Army Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    32 Figure 6: Myers - Brigg Type of Respondents...respondents with over 16 years of experience at their job. Question 5: What is your Meyers - Briggs type? Figure 6: Myers - Brigg Type of...Respondents (Gross, 2016) Myers - Brigg The graph in Figure 6 depicts the Myers - Brigg type of the respondents. OPTIMIZING SUSTAINMENT OF ARMY SYSTEMS

  15. Wetland harvesting systems -- developing alternatives for sustainable operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Rummer; Bryce J. Stokes; Alvin Schilling

    1997-01-01

    Wetland forests represent some of the most productive forest lands in the Southeast. They are also an environmentally sensitive ecotype which presents unique problems for forest operations. Sustaining active management in these areas will require systems which can operate on weak soil conditions without adversely affecting soil properties or stand regeneration. The...

  16. Sustainable crossbreeding systems of beef cattle in the era of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An effective way to reduce the carbon footprint from beef cattle would be to reduce the numbers and increase the production per animal, thereby improving their productivity. Sustainable crossbreeding systems can be an effective way to reduce GHG, as it has been shown to increase production. There are a wide range of ...

  17. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Aggerholm, Søren

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used in future sustainable smart energy systems. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish...

  18. SUSTAIN:Urban Modeling Systems Integrating Optimization and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to support practitioners in developing cost-effective management plans for municipal storm water programs and evaluating and selecting Best Manag...

  19. Introducing a sustainable soil fertility system for chickpea ( Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to introduce a sustainable soil fertility system for chickpea, field experiments were carried out in 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. Experiments were arranged in split-split plot arrangements with three replications. Main plots consisted of (G1): establishing a mixed vegetation of vetch and barley, (G2): without green ...

  20. Assessing the sustainability of egg production systems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van E.D.; Bussel, van L.G.J.; Horne, van P.L.M.; Voet, van der H.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Fels, van der H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Housing systems for laying hens have changed over the years due to increased public concern regarding animal welfare. In terms of sustainability, animal welfare is just one aspect that needs to be considered. Social aspects as well as environmental and economic factors need to be included as well.

  1. Understanding regional metabolism for a sustainable development of urban systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccini, P

    1996-06-01

    Cities are the most complex forms of settlements which man has built in the course of his cultural development. Their "metabolism" is connected with the world economy and is run mainly by fossil energy carriers. Up to now there are no validated models for the evaluation of a sustainable development of urban regions.The guidelines for a "sustainable development" suggest the reduction of resource consumption. The article is concerned with the problem of how the "sustainable-development concept" can be transformed from a global to a regional scale. In urban settlements the strategy of final storage should be applied. By this, the subsystem waste management can be transformed within 10 to 15 years to a "sustainable status".With regard to the system "agronomy", the article concludes that agriculture in urban systems should focus on food production instead of promoting reduction of food production in favour of energy plants, which is not a suitable strategy.The main problems are the energy carriers. Transformation to a "sustainble status" is only possible by a reconstruction of the urban system, i.e. of buildings and the transportation network. The rate determining step in achieving such a status is the change in the fabric of buildings and in the type of transportation networks. The reconstruction of an urban system needs, mainly for economical reasons, a time period of two generations.

  2. Development of Impact Aggregation Procedure for Sustainable Transport System

    OpenAIRE

    Patļins, A; Kuņicina, N

    2009-01-01

    In the investigation, the problems of utility evaluation methodology application for transport development projects evaluation are described. The main steps of development of impact aggregation procedure for sustainable transport system are described in the article. The new 3 stage environmental impact aggregation procedure is suggested.

  3. Advancing Integrated Systems Modelling Framework for Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Halog

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The need for integrated methodological framework for sustainability assessment has been widely discussed and is urgent due to increasingly complex environmental system problems. These problems have impacts on ecosystems and human well-being which represent a threat to economic performance of countries and corporations. Integrated assessment crosses issues; spans spatial and temporal scales; looks forward and backward; and incorporates multi-stakeholder inputs. This study aims to develop an integrated methodology by capitalizing the complementary strengths of different methods used by industrial ecologists and biophysical economists. The computational methodology proposed here is systems perspective, integrative, and holistic approach for sustainability assessment which attempts to link basic science and technology to policy formulation. The framework adopts life cycle thinking methods—LCA, LCC, and SLCA; stakeholders analysis supported by multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA; and dynamic system modelling. Following Pareto principle, the critical sustainability criteria, indicators and metrics (i.e., hotspots can be identified and further modelled using system dynamics or agent based modelling and improved by data envelopment analysis (DEA and sustainability network theory (SNT. The framework is being applied to development of biofuel supply chain networks. The framework can provide new ways of integrating knowledge across the divides between social and natural sciences as well as between critical and problem-solving research.

  4. Sustainable development performance indicators for transmission system operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Sustainable Development is a key issue for Transmission System Operators. The performance in such a wide activity has to be monitored and reported with relevant indicators. WG C3-02 presents in this Technical Brochure the results of its analysis of reports and guidelines and the WG selection of the most important indicators

  5. Possibilities and limitations for sustainable bioenergy production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, E.M.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311445217

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on the possibilities and limitations of sustainable bioenergy production systems. First, the potential contribution of bioenergy to the energy supply in different world regions in the year 2050 from different biomass sources (dedicated woody energy crops, residues and

  6. Sustainability of the Health Management Information System in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines how Health Management Information Systems (HMIS) can be sustained in the Tanzanian context based on the experiences of Muheza and Kinondoni districts. Data for the study was collected using interviews, questionnares and document reviews. The findings show that the capability of a health facility ...

  7. An anaerobic membrane bioreactor - membrane distillation hybrid system for energy recovery and water reuse: Removal performance of organic carbon, nutrients, and trace organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoye; Luo, Wenhai; McDonald, James; Khan, Stuart J; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D

    2018-07-01

    In this study, a direct contact membrane distillation (MD) unit was integrated with an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) to simultaneously recover energy and produce high quality water for reuse from wastewater. Results show that AnMBR could produce 0.3-0.5L/g COD added biogas with a stable methane content of approximately 65%. By integrating MD with AnMBR, bulk organic matter and phosphate were almost completely removed. The removal of the 26 selected trace organic contaminants by AnMBR was compound specific, but the MD process could complement AnMBR removal, leading to an overall efficiency from 76% to complete removal by the integrated system. The results also show that, due to complete retention, organic matter (such as humic-like and protein-like substances) and inorganic salts accumulated in the MD feed solution and therefore resulted in significant fouling of the MD unit. As a result, the water flux of the MD process decreased continuously. Nevertheless, membrane pore wetting was not observed throughout the operation. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Generating sustainable towns from Chinese villages: a system modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Richard S; Hughes, Michael T; Ryan Mather, Casey; Yanarella, Ernest J

    2008-04-01

    The great majority of China's developing towns will be extensions of already existing villages. With the prospect of hundreds of millions of Chinese farmers projected to leave their villages to become industrial workers in new and expanded towns within the next few years, new challenges will be faced. As expansion and modernization progress, this development moves from the traditional village model that operates not far from resource sustainability to increasingly unsustainable patterns of commerce, urban development, and modern life. With such an unprecedented mass migration and transformation, how can Chinese culture survive? What is to become of the existing million plus agricultural villages? How can these massively unsustainable new industrial towns survive? In the European Commission sponsored research program SUCCESS, researchers worked from the scale of the Chinese village to find viable answers to these questions. To address these issues, the Center for Sustainable Cities, one of the SUCCESS teams, studied the metabolism of several small villages. In these studies, system dynamics models of a village's metabolism were created and then modified so that inherently unsustainable means were eliminated from the model (fossil fuels, harmful agricultural chemicals, etc.) and replaced by sustainability-oriented means. Small Chinese farming villages are unlikely to survive in anything like their present form or scale, not least because they are too small to provide the range of life opportunities to which the young generation of educated Chinese aspires. As a response to this realization as well as to the many other threats to the Chinese village and its rural way of life, it was proposed that one viable path into the future would be to enlarge the villages to become full service towns with sufficient diversity of opportunity to be able to attract and keep many of the best and brightest young people who are now migrating to the larger cities. Starting with the

  9. Building Better Buildings: Sustainable Building Activities in California Higher Education Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, Arnold; Eichel, Amanda; Alevantis, Leon; Lovegreen, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    This article outlines the activities and recommendations of California's sustainable building task force, discusses sustainable building activities in California's higher education systems, and highlights key issues that California is grappling with in its implementation of sustainable building practices. (EV)

  10. World in transition 3 towards sustainable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    'The publication of World in Transition: Towards Sustainable Energy Systems is timely indeed. The World Summit on Sustainable Development gave great prominence to this challenge, but failed to agree on a quantitative, time-bound target for the introduction of renewable energy sources. The German Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU) has now produced a report with a global focus, which is essential in view of the global impacts of climate change. The report provides a convincing long-term analysis, which is also essential. Global energy policies have to take a long-term perspective, over the

  11. Approach to an Affordable and Sustainable Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Caey M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Robinson, J. W.; Henderson, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach and a general procedure for creating space transportation architectural concepts that are at once affordable and sustainable. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on a functional system breakdown structure for an architecture and definition of high-payoff design techniques with a technology integration strategy. This paper follows up by using a structured process that derives architectural solutions focused on achieving life cycle affordability and sustainability. Further, the paper includes an example concept that integrates key design techniques discussed in previous papers. !

  12. Sustainable energy systems: Limitations and challenges based on exergy analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Woudstra, N.

    2012-01-01

    General There is a general understanding that the so-called “developed countries” have to change their way of life including their energy supply into a more sustainable way. But even in the case of unanimity with regard to the direction, there are still many opinions about the way to follow. This thesis discusses problems and possibilities of more sustainable energy systems first of all for the energy supply of the Netherlands. The “trias energetica” is used to distinguish the steps that have...

  13. Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovska, Natasa; Duić, Neven; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2016-01-01

    The Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES) in 2015 returned to its hometown, Dubrovnik, and once again served as a significant venue for scientists and specialists in different areas of sustainable development from all over the world to initiate...... traditionally cover a range of energy issues - higher renewables penetration and various technologies and fuels assessments at energy supply side, as well as, energy efficiency in various sectors, buildings, district heating, electric vehicles and demand modelling at energy demand side. Also, a review paper...

  14. Sustainable nanotechnology decision support system: bridging risk management, sustainable innovation and risk governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Vrishali; Semenzin, Elena; Hristozov, Danail; Zabeo, Alex; Malsch, Ineke; McAlea, Eamonn; Murphy, Finbarr; Mullins, Martin; van Harmelen, Toon; Ligthart, Tom; Linkov, Igor; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The significant uncertainties associated with the (eco)toxicological risks of engineered nanomaterials pose challenges to the development of nano-enabled products toward greatest possible societal benefit. This paper argues for the use of risk governance approaches to manage nanotechnology risks and sustainability, and considers the links between these concepts. Further, seven risk assessment and management criteria relevant to risk governance are defined: (a) life cycle thinking, (b) triple bottom line, (c) inclusion of stakeholders, (d) risk management, (e) benefit-risk assessment, (f) consideration of uncertainty, and (g) adaptive response. These criteria are used to compare five well-developed nanotechnology frameworks: International Risk Governance Council framework, Comprehensive Environmental Assessment, Streaming Life Cycle Risk Assessment, Certifiable Nanospecific Risk Management and Monitoring System and LICARA NanoSCAN. A Sustainable Nanotechnology Decision Support System (SUNDS) is proposed to better address current nanotechnology risk assessment and management needs, and makes. Stakeholder needs were solicited for further SUNDS enhancement through a stakeholder workshop that included representatives from regulatory, industry and insurance sectors. Workshop participants expressed the need for the wider adoption of sustainability assessment methods and tools for designing greener nanomaterials.

  15. Sustainable nanotechnology decision support system: bridging risk management, sustainable innovation and risk governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Vrishali, E-mail: vrishali.subramanian@unive.it; Semenzin, Elena; Hristozov, Danail; Zabeo, Alex [University Ca’ Foscari of Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics (Italy); Malsch, Ineke [Malsch TechnoValuation (Netherlands); McAlea, Eamonn; Murphy, Finbarr; Mullins, Martin [University of Limerick, Kemmy Business School (Ireland); Harmelen, Toon van; Ligthart, Tom [TNO (Netherlands); Linkov, Igor; Marcomini, Antonio, E-mail: marcom@unive.it [University Ca’ Foscari of Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    The significant uncertainties associated with the (eco)toxicological risks of engineered nanomaterials pose challenges to the development of nano-enabled products toward greatest possible societal benefit. This paper argues for the use of risk governance approaches to manage nanotechnology risks and sustainability, and considers the links between these concepts. Further, seven risk assessment and management criteria relevant to risk governance are defined: (a) life cycle thinking, (b) triple bottom line, (c) inclusion of stakeholders, (d) risk management, (e) benefit–risk assessment, (f) consideration of uncertainty, and (g) adaptive response. These criteria are used to compare five well-developed nanotechnology frameworks: International Risk Governance Council framework, Comprehensive Environmental Assessment, Streaming Life Cycle Risk Assessment, Certifiable Nanospecific Risk Management and Monitoring System and LICARA NanoSCAN. A Sustainable Nanotechnology Decision Support System (SUNDS) is proposed to better address current nanotechnology risk assessment and management needs, and makes. Stakeholder needs were solicited for further SUNDS enhancement through a stakeholder workshop that included representatives from regulatory, industry and insurance sectors. Workshop participants expressed the need for the wider adoption of sustainability assessment methods and tools for designing greener nanomaterials.

  16. Sustainable nanotechnology decision support system: bridging risk management, sustainable innovation and risk governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Vrishali; Semenzin, Elena; Hristozov, Danail; Zabeo, Alex; Malsch, Ineke; McAlea, Eamonn; Murphy, Finbarr; Mullins, Martin; Harmelen, Toon van; Ligthart, Tom; Linkov, Igor; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The significant uncertainties associated with the (eco)toxicological risks of engineered nanomaterials pose challenges to the development of nano-enabled products toward greatest possible societal benefit. This paper argues for the use of risk governance approaches to manage nanotechnology risks and sustainability, and considers the links between these concepts. Further, seven risk assessment and management criteria relevant to risk governance are defined: (a) life cycle thinking, (b) triple bottom line, (c) inclusion of stakeholders, (d) risk management, (e) benefit–risk assessment, (f) consideration of uncertainty, and (g) adaptive response. These criteria are used to compare five well-developed nanotechnology frameworks: International Risk Governance Council framework, Comprehensive Environmental Assessment, Streaming Life Cycle Risk Assessment, Certifiable Nanospecific Risk Management and Monitoring System and LICARA NanoSCAN. A Sustainable Nanotechnology Decision Support System (SUNDS) is proposed to better address current nanotechnology risk assessment and management needs, and makes. Stakeholder needs were solicited for further SUNDS enhancement through a stakeholder workshop that included representatives from regulatory, industry and insurance sectors. Workshop participants expressed the need for the wider adoption of sustainability assessment methods and tools for designing greener nanomaterials.

  17. Reorienting land degradation towards sustainable land management: linking sustainable livelihoods with ecosystem services in rangeland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M S; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Perkins, J S; Atlhopheng, J R; Mulale, K; Favretto, N

    2015-03-15

    This paper identifies new ways of moving from land degradation towards sustainable land management through the development of economic mechanisms. It identifies new mechanisms to tackle land degradation based on retaining critical levels of natural capital whilst basing livelihoods on a wider range of ecosystem services. This is achieved through a case study analysis of the Kalahari rangelands in southwest Botswana. The paper first describes the socio-economic and ecological characteristics of the Kalahari rangelands and the types of land degradation taking place. It then focuses on bush encroachment as a way of exploring new economic instruments (e.g. Payments for Ecosystem Services) designed to enhance the flow of ecosystem services that support livelihoods in rangeland systems. It does this by evaluating the likely impacts of bush encroachment, one of the key forms of rangeland degradation, on a range of ecosystem services in three land tenure types (private fenced ranches, communal grazing areas and Wildlife Management Areas), before considering options for more sustainable land management in these systems. We argue that with adequate policy support, economic mechanisms could help reorient degraded rangelands towards more sustainable land management. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. SUSTAINABILITY IN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS: SOCIO-ECONOMICAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Daniel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It is wide the discussion involving the importance of production adjustment activities in general, to the concept of sustainable development. Among the agricultural activities, the agroforestry systems have been considered sustainable, coming as alternatives to the intensive systems of agricultural production. To monitor the sustainability of agricultural activities, includings  AF,  the  literature  emphasizes  the  biophysical  indicators,  in  detriment  of  the  socio-economical ones. Seeking to define a list of socio-economical indicators that can be adapted to the several models recommendations of  AF a study was developed, supported by specialists and technicians and wide literature review. The conclusions were: the categories related  to the operation of the systems had the largest number of indicators in the socioeconômic component, with larger concentration in the endogenous operations of the system, followed by the endogenous and exogenous resources; the largest number of indicators suggested in the category operation of the system was in the descriptors health and nutrition, employment, habitation and sanity and economic analysis; in the category operation of exogenous systems, there were certain larger number of indicators for the descriptors commercialization and rural infrastructure; practically there was no difference among the number of indicators obtained for the agroforestry systems with and without the animal component.

  19. Defining elements of sustainable work systems--a system-oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Klaus; Zink, Klaus J

    2012-01-01

    Based on a system-theoretic discussion of sustainability, this paper aims to develop a conceptual model of a sustainable work system which is consistent with the definition of ergonomics by the IEA in 2000 (but also with earlier definitions) as well as with the triple bottom line understanding of sustainable development - comprising the management of human, social, ecological and economic capital in a balanced manner.

  20. Weighing-in-motion wireless system for sustainable railway transport

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Bruno J. A.; Martins, Rodolfo; Santos, Magno; Felgueiras, Carlos; Calçada, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Railway transport is well known as one of the safest and most energy-efficient transport modes, thus favoring its strengthening as part of a sustainable transport system. Yet, the track service life and the quality of the ride on a railway are dependent upon different factors, which can be assessed by a diverse set of technology based systems. In this context, this paper presents the EVO4Rail project that seeks to design, develop and implement...

  1. Definition of animal breeding goals for sustainable production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, I; Groen, A F; Gjerde, B

    2000-03-01

    What we do is determined by the way we "view" a complex issue and what sample of issues or events we choose to deal with. In this paper, a model based on a communal, cultural, or people-centered worldview, informed by a subjective epistemology and a holistic ontology, is considered. Definitions and interpretations of sustainable agriculture are reviewed. Common elements in published definitions of sustainable agriculture and animal production among those who seek long-term and equitable solutions for food production are resource efficiency, profitability, productivity, environmental soundness, biodiversity, social viability, and ethical aspects. Possible characteristics of future sustainable production systems and further development are presented. The impact of these characteristics on animal breeding goals is reviewed. The need for long-term biologically, ecologically, and sociologically sound breeding goals is emphasized, because animal breeding determined only by short-term market forces leads to unwanted side effects. Hence, a procedure for defining animal breeding goals with ethical priorities and weighing of market and non-market values is suggested. Implementation of non-market as well as market economic trait values in the aggregate genotype, as suggested, may allow for breeding programs that contribute to sustainable production systems. Examples of breeding goals in salmon, cattle, and pigs are given, and the resulting genetic responses are evaluated with respect to economic profit (or costs) and other criteria of sustainability. Important prerequisites for breeding programs for sustainable production are appropriate governmental policies, awareness of our way of thinking, and a more communal worldview informed by a subjective epistemology and a holistic ontology.

  2. A SUSTAINABLE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM REQUIRES MANAGEMENT TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos Dimitros

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to be the health care system sustainable , management transformations must be based on very precise diagnostic analysis that includes complete and current information. It is necessary to implement an information system that collects information in real time, that watches the parameters that significantly influence the sustainability of the system. Such an information system should point out a radiography(a scan of the system at some time under following aspects:: 1. An overview of system; 2 An overview of the economic situation; 3 A technical presentation ;4. A legal overview; 5. A social overview ; 6. A management overview .Based on these Xrays of the health system, it outlines a series of conclusions and recommendations together with a SWOT analysis that highlights the potential internal (strengths and weaknesses and external potential (opportunities and threats. Based on this analysis and recommendations, the management is going to redesign the system in order to be adapted to the changing environmental requirements. Management transformation is recommended to be by following steps. :1. The development of a new management system that would make a positive change in the health care system 2. Implementation of the new management system 3. Assessment of the changes

  3. A two-stage microbial fuel cell and anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR) system for effective domestic wastewater treatment.

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Lijiao

    2014-03-10

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising technology for energy-efficient domestic wastewater treatment, but the effluent quality has typically not been sufficient for discharge without further treatment. A two-stage laboratory-scale combined treatment process, consisting of microbial fuel cells and an anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR), was examined here to produce high quality effluent with minimal energy demands. The combined system was operated continuously for 50 days at room temperature (∼25 °C) with domestic wastewater having a total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD) of 210 ± 11 mg/L. At a combined hydraulic retention time (HRT) for both processes of 9 h, the effluent tCOD was reduced to 16 ± 3 mg/L (92.5% removal), and there was nearly complete removal of total suspended solids (TSS; from 45 ± 10 mg/L to <1 mg/L). The AFMBR was operated at a constant high permeate flux of 16 L/m(2)/h over 50 days, without the need or use of any membrane cleaning or backwashing. Total electrical energy required for the operation of the MFC-AFMBR system was 0.0186 kWh/m(3), which was slightly less than the electrical energy produced by the MFCs (0.0197 kWh/m(3)). The energy in the methane produced in the AFMBR was comparatively negligible (0.005 kWh/m(3)). These results show that a combined MFC-AFMBR system could be used to effectively treat domestic primary effluent at ambient temperatures, producing high effluent quality with low energy requirements.

  4. Multi-indicator sustainability assessment of global food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Abhishek; Gustafson, David; Mathys, Alexander

    2018-02-27

    Food systems are at the heart of at least 12 of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The wide scope of the SDGs call for holistic approaches that integrate previously "siloed" food sustainability assessments. Here we present a first global-scale analysis quantifying the status of national food system performance of 156 countries, employing 25 sustainability indicators across 7 domains as follows: nutrition, environment, food affordability and availability, sociocultural well-being, resilience, food safety, and waste. The results show that different countries have widely varying patterns of performance with unique priorities for improvement. High-income nations score well on most indicators, but poorly on environmental, food waste, and health-sensitive nutrient-intake indicators. Transitioning from animal foods toward plant-based foods would improve indicator scores for most countries. Our nation-specific quantitative results can help policy-makers to set improvement targets on specific areas and adopt new practices, while keeping track of the other aspects of sustainability.

  5. Sustaining Engagements for Integrated Heat-Health Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trtanj, J.

    2016-12-01

    Extreme heat events are on the rise, evidenced by the record breaking heat in the summer of 2016 in the US, increased heat-related death toll in south Asia, and projections from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The impacts, responses and adaptation to extreme heat are inherently local or region in nature and require multisector engagement to manage current and future heat risks. Understanding the character of the information demand, who needs it, when and how it is needed, how it is used, and the remaining research questions, requires sustained engagement of multiple science and decision making communities. The construct of Integrated Information Systems provides the framework that sustains this dialogue, supports the production of useful information, and the translation of knowledge to action. The National Integrated Heat Health Information System (NIHHIS), a multi-agency collaboration, working at state, local and international levels, designed to facilitate an integrated approach to providing a suite of decision support services that reduce heat-related illness and death. NIHHIS sustains engagement across the public health, emergency management, disaster risk reduction, planning, housing, communication, climate, weather and other science communities. This presentation will highlight NIHHS sustained engagements in the Rio Grande Bravo region, other NIHHIS pilots, and international efforts building on the NIHHIS framework. NIHHIS, launched by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2015, now has over eight Federal partners and a burgeoning mix of pilots, projects and partners at state, local and international levels.

  6. Sustainable recycling technologies for Solar PV off-grid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppal Bhavesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy makers throughout the world have accepted climate change as a repercussion of fossil fuel exploitation. This has led the governments to integrate renewable energy streams in their national energy mix. PV off-grid Systems have been at the forefront of this transition because of their permanently increasing efficiency and cost effectiveness. These systems are expected to produce large amount of different waste streams at the end of their lifetime. It is important that these waste streams should be recycled because of the lack of available resources. Our study found that separate researches have been carried out to increase the efficiencies of recycling of individual PV system components but there is a lack of a comprehensive methodical research which details efficient and sustainable recycling processes for the entire PV off-grid system. This paper reviews the current and future recycling technologies for PV off-grid systems and presents a scheme of the most sustainable recycling technologies which have the potential for adoption. Full Recovery End-of-Life Photovoltaic (FRELP recycling technology can offer opportunities to sustainably recycle crystalline silicon PV modules. Electro-hydrometallurgical process & Vacuum technologies can be used for recovering lead from lead acid batteries with a high recovery rate. The metals in the WEEE can be recycled by using a combination of biometallurgical technology, vacuum metallurgical technology and other advanced metallurgical technologies (utrasonical, mechano-chemical technology while the plastic components can be effectively recycled without separation by using compatibilizers. All these advanced technologies when used in combination with each other provide sustainable recycling options for growing PV off-grid systems waste. These promising technologies still need further improvement and require proper integration techniques before implementation.

  7. Sustainable recycling technologies for Solar PV off-grid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Bhavesh; Tamboli, Adish; Wubhayavedantapuram, Nandan

    2017-11-01

    Policy makers throughout the world have accepted climate change as a repercussion of fossil fuel exploitation. This has led the governments to integrate renewable energy streams in their national energy mix. PV off-grid Systems have been at the forefront of this transition because of their permanently increasing efficiency and cost effectiveness. These systems are expected to produce large amount of different waste streams at the end of their lifetime. It is important that these waste streams should be recycled because of the lack of available resources. Our study found that separate researches have been carried out to increase the efficiencies of recycling of individual PV system components but there is a lack of a comprehensive methodical research which details efficient and sustainable recycling processes for the entire PV off-grid system. This paper reviews the current and future recycling technologies for PV off-grid systems and presents a scheme of the most sustainable recycling technologies which have the potential for adoption. Full Recovery End-of-Life Photovoltaic (FRELP) recycling technology can offer opportunities to sustainably recycle crystalline silicon PV modules. Electro-hydrometallurgical process & Vacuum technologies can be used for recovering lead from lead acid batteries with a high recovery rate. The metals in the WEEE can be recycled by using a combination of biometallurgical technology, vacuum metallurgical technology and other advanced metallurgical technologies (utrasonical, mechano-chemical technology) while the plastic components can be effectively recycled without separation by using compatibilizers. All these advanced technologies when used in combination with each other provide sustainable recycling options for growing PV off-grid systems waste. These promising technologies still need further improvement and require proper integration techniques before implementation.

  8. Agricultural biodiversity, social-ecological systems and sustainable diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Thomas; Prosperi, Paolo; Cogill, Bruce; Flichman, Guillermo

    2014-11-01

    The stark observation of the co-existence of undernourishment, nutrient deficiencies and overweight and obesity, the triple burden of malnutrition, is inviting us to reconsider health and nutrition as the primary goal and final endpoint of food systems. Agriculture and the food industry have made remarkable advances in the past decades. However, their development has not entirely fulfilled health and nutritional needs, and moreover, they have generated substantial collateral losses in agricultural biodiversity. Simultaneously, several regions are experiencing unprecedented weather events caused by climate change and habitat depletion, in turn putting at risk global food and nutrition security. This coincidence of food crises with increasing environmental degradation suggests an urgent need for novel analyses and new paradigms. The sustainable diets concept proposes a research and policy agenda that strives towards a sustainable use of human and natural resources for food and nutrition security, highlighting the preeminent role of consumers in defining sustainable options and the importance of biodiversity in nutrition. Food systems act as complex social-ecological systems, involving multiple interactions between human and natural components. Nutritional patterns and environment structure are interconnected in a mutual dynamic of changes. The systemic nature of these interactions calls for multidimensional approaches and integrated assessment and simulation tools to guide change. This paper proposes a review and conceptual modelling framework that articulate the synergies and tradeoffs between dietary diversity, widely recognised as key for healthy diets, and agricultural biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions, crucial resilience factors to climate and global changes.

  9. Sustainable use of glyphosate in North American cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, David I

    2008-04-01

    Roundup Ready (glyphosate-resistant) cropping systems enable the use of glyphosate, a non-selective herbicide that offers growers several benefits, including superior weed control, flexibility in weed control timing and economic advantages. The rapid adoption of such crops in North America has resulted in greater glyphosate use and concern over the potential for weed resistance to erode the sustainability of its efficacy. Computer modeling is one method that can be used to explore the sustainability of glyphosate when used in glyphosate-resistant cropping systems. Field tests should help strengthen the assumptions on which the models are based, and have been initiated for this purpose. Empirical evaluations of published data show that glyphosate-resistant weeds have an appearance rate of 0.007, defined as the number of newly resistant species per million acres treated, which ranks low among herbicides used in North America. Modeling calculations and ongoing field tests support a practical recommendation for growers occasionally to include other herbicides in glyphosate-resistant cropping systems, to lower further the potential for new resistance to occur. The presented data suggest that the sustainability of glyphosate in North America would be enhanced by prudent use of additional herbicides in glyphosate-resistant cropping systems. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Sustainable Water Management in Urban, Agricultural, and Natural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Russo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water management (SWM requires allocating between competing water sector demands, and balancing the financial and social resources required to support necessary water systems. The objective of this review is to assess SWM in three sectors: urban, agricultural, and natural systems. This review explores the following questions: (1 How is SWM defined and evaluated? (2 What are the challenges associated with sustainable development in each sector? (3 What are the areas of greatest potential improvement in urban and agricultural water management systems? And (4 What role does country development status have in SWM practices? The methods for evaluating water management practices range from relatively simple indicator methods to integration of multiple models, depending on the complexity of the problem and resources of the investigators. The two key findings and recommendations for meeting SWM objectives are: (1 all forms of water must be considered usable, and reusable, water resources; and (2 increasing agricultural crop water production represents the largest opportunity for reducing total water consumption, and will be required to meet global food security needs. The level of regional development should not dictate sustainability objectives, however local infrastructure conditions and financial capabilities should inform the details of water system design and evaluation.

  11. Sustaining Air Force Space Systems: A Model for the Global Positioning System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Snyder, Don; Mills, Patrick; Comanor, Katherine; Roll, Jr, Charles R

    2007-01-01

    ... and sustainment affect the performance of space systems. In this monograph, we develop a pilot framework for analyzing these and related questions in the ground segment of the Global Positioning System and recommend steps for implementing this framework...

  12. Waste water cleaning in high-performance bioreactors; Abwasserreinigung in Hochleistungsbioreaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holler, S.; Sternad, W.; Troesch, W. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Grenzflaechen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik (IGB), Stuttgart (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Cleaning of municipal sewage in bioreactors with biomass retention constitutes a modern and sustainable way of cleaning sewage. Contrary to conventional aerated sludge techniques, such systems achieve high productivity at high biomass concentrations. Reactor volume can be kept low, and short retention times are realized. It is shown that a loop reactor in combination with a crossflow microfiltration unit constitutes an appropriate system to meet future demands on sewage cleaning. Such a system can realize a COD turnover of 95 % at retention times of 0.5 hours. Crossflow microfiltration can set the concentration of biomass in the bioreactor to up to 30 grammes of dry substance per litre. (orig.) [German] Die Reinigung kommunaler Abwaesser in Bioreaktoren mit Biomasserueckhaltung stellt ein modernes und nachhaltiges Verfahren zur Abwasserreinigung dar. Im Gegensatz zu konventionellen Belebungsverfahren laesst sich in einem solchen System bei hohen Biomassekonzentrationen eine hohe Produktivitaet erreichen. Das Reaktorvolumen kann gering gehalten werden, und kurze Verweilzeiten koennen realisiert werden. Es wird gezeigt, dass ein Strahlschlaufenreaktor in Kombination mit einer Crossflow-Mikrofiltration ein geeignetes System dargestellt, um die Anforderungen an eine zukuenftige Abwasserreinigung zu gewaehrleisten. In einem solchen System kann ein CSB-Umsatz von 95% bei Verweilzeiten von 0,5 Stunden realisiert werden. Durch Crossflow-Mikrofiltration wird eine Biomassekonzentration bis 30 g TS/l im Bioreaktor eingestellt. (orig.)

  13. Evaluating sustainability of truck weight regulations: A system dynamics view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Targeting the problem of overload trucking in Highway Transportation of iron ore from Caofeidian to Tangshan (HTCT, this paper aims to assess long-term effects of alternative Truck Weight Regulation (TWR policies on sustainability of HTCT. Design/methodology/approach: A system dynamics model was established for policy evaluation. The model, composed of six interrelating modules, is able to simulate policies effects on trucking issues such as freight flow, truck traffic flow, pavement performance, highway transport capacity and trucking time, and further on the Cumulative Economic Cost (CEC including transport cost and time cost of freight owners and the Cumulative Social Cost (CSC including pavement maintenance cost, green house gas emission cost, air pollutants emission cost and traffic accidents cost, so the effects of TWR policies on sustainability of HTCT could be evaluated. Findings: According to different values of overload ratio which a TWR policy allows, alternative TWR policies are classified into three types, which are The Rigid Policy (TRP, The Moderate Policy (TMP and The Tolerant Policy (TTP. Results show that the best policy for sustainability of HTCT depends on the importance of CSC which is expected by the local government. To be specific, (1 if CSC is considered much less important than CEC, the local government should continue implementing the current TTP with the maximum overload ratio; (2 if CSC is considered much more important than CEC, then TRP is recommended; and (3 if CSC is considered slightly more important than CES, TMP with overload ratio of 80% is the best. Practical implications: Conclusions of this paper may help the local government design appropriate TWR policies to achieve sustainability of HTCT. Originality/value: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort to evaluate TWR policies on sustainability of regional freight transportation based on system dynamics modeling.

  14. Modeling of Supersonic Combustion Systems for Sustained Hypersonic Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Neill

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Through Computational Fluid Dynamics and validation, an optimal scramjet combustor has been designed based on twin-strut Hydrogen injection to sustain flight at a desired speed of Mach 8. An investigation undertaken into the efficacy of supersonic combustion through various means of injection saw promising results for Hydrogen-based systems, whereby strut-style injectors were selected over transverse injectors based on their pressure recovery performance and combustive efficiency. The final configuration of twin-strut injectors provided robust combustion and a stable region of net thrust (1873 kN in the nozzle. Using fixed combustor inlet parameters and injection equivalence ratio, the finalized injection method advanced to the early stages of two-dimensional (2-D and three-dimensional (3-D scramjet engine integration. The overall investigation provided a feasible supersonic combustion system, such that Mach 8 sustained cruise could be achieved by the aircraft concept in a computational design domain.

  15. Backcasting sustainable freight transport systems for Europe in 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, Tuomas; Antikainen, Riina

    2011-01-01

    European freight transport emissions and fuel consumption are projected to increase. This study focuses on long distance freight transport (LDFT) and explores possible sustainable futures through quantitative modeling. The evaluation was part of European foresight process between researchers, policy makers and freight companies (FREIGHTVISION). Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy demand of road, rail and inland waterways were estimated for an EU-27 in 2005. Development was extrapolated to 2050 based on technology and freight performance forecasts. Stakeholders found the forecasted GHG emissions and fossil fuel share unsustainable, so alternative futures were developed with backcasting. The developed emission model was run with random parameter combinations to screen a set of sustainable futures, with an 80% reduction of GHG emissions and fossil fuel share. Freight transport performance was not controlled in the backcasts, but several sustainable futures were found if significant changes in transport efficiency and energy mix are implemented. In spite of agreeing on the importance of reducing emissions, stakeholders had difficulties in choosing a preferred technological future. Simple models were found to be an effective tool for communicating the influence of various measures. Further research is recommended to screen preferable technological roadmaps from the broad range of available futures. - Research highlights: → Sustainable transport systems were explored with modeling and stakeholder workshops. → Backcasting identified technological options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80%. → Improving road vehicle efficiency, engine efficiency and fuel mix showed the greatest potential.

  16. Sustain ability and sustainable development indicators case study: Egypt electric power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses sustain ability criteria and the associated indicators allowing ope rationalization of the sustain ability concept in general and specially in the context of electricity supply. The criteria and indicators cover economic, environmental and social aspects. Egypt has rapidly growing population and per capita demand. As a signatory of the framework convention on climate change, Egypt is making all efforts to comply with the strategy of Egypt to meet the challenge of the increasing demand management, integrating it into national decision making and improving environmental performance continuously: for the electricity sector, this can be summarized in improvement of power system efficiency by all available means. On the other hand energy conservation and demand side management programs are ongoing, also the environmental consideration has become one of the major issues in calculating the feasibility of any new addition to the system. This paper deals with the review of the Macro Indicators based on total greenhouse emissions provide a measure of overall performance. Then propose the Primary Indicators. A set of performance indicators is developed against which implementation of the national strategy measures aimed at reducing green house gas emissions can be evaluated. Some selected results from environmental analysis are given. In the study about 20 indicators are used as a measure of the overall performance relative to targets and benchmarks for past and future projections up to year 2020. The potential performance indicators for energy sector include: fossil fuel consumption (primary energy), greenhouse gas emissions from energy sector, energy related greenhouse gas emissions per unit of energy delivered, energy related greenhouse gas emission per unit GDP, and energy related greenhouse gas emission per capita. The selected indicators are used to measure progress towards sustainable development in the country

  17. Development of Bioelectrochemical Systems to Promote Sustainable Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojin Li; Ibrahim M. Abu-Reesh; Zhen He

    2015-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) are a newly emerged technology for energy-efficient water and wastewater treatment. Much effort as well as significant progress has been made in advancing this technology towards practical applications treating various types of waste. However, BES application for agriculture has not been well explored. Herein, studies of BES related to agriculture are reviewed and the potential applications of BES for promoting sustainable agriculture are discussed. BES may b...

  18. Selection of indicator bacteria based on screening of 16S rDNA metagenomic library from a two-stage anoxic-oxic bioreactor system degrading azo dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafale, Nishant; Agrawal, Leena; Kapley, Atya; Meshram, Sudhir; Purohit, Hemant; Wate, Satish

    2010-01-01

    Dye degradation has gained attention of late due to indiscriminate disposal from user industries. Enhancing efficiency of biological treatment provides a cheaper alternative vis-à-vis other advanced technologies. Dye molecules are metabolized biologically via anoxic and oxic treatments. In this study, bacterial community surviving on dye effluent working in anoxic-oxic bioreactor was analyzed using 16S rDNA approach. Azo-dye decolorizing and degrading bacterial community was enriched in lab-scale two-stage anoxic-oxic bioreactor. 16S rDNA metagenomic libraries of enriched population were constructed, screened and phylogenetically analyzed separately. Removal of approximately 35% COD with complete decolorization was observed in anoxic bioreactor. Process was carried out by uncultured gamma proteobacterium constituting 48% of the total population and 12% clones having homology to Klebsiella. Aromatic amines generated during partial treatment under anoxic bioreactor were treated by aerobic population having 72% unculturable unidentified bacterium and rest of the population consisting of Thauera sp., Pseudoxanthomonas sp., Desulfomicrobium sp., Ottowia sp., Acidovorax sp., and Bacteriodetes bacterium sp.

  19. Sustainability of Rainwater Harvesting System in terms of Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is considered an everlasting free source that can be acquired naturally. Demand for processed supply water is growing higher due to an increasing population. Sustainable use of water could maintain a balance between its demand and supply. Rainwater harvesting (RWH is the most traditional and sustainable method, which could be easily used for potable and nonpotable purposes both in residential and commercial buildings. This could reduce the pressure on processed supply water which enhances the green living. This paper ensures the sustainability of this system through assessing several water-quality parameters of collected rainwater with respect to allowable limits. A number of parameters were included in the analysis: pH, fecal coliform, total coliform, total dissolved solids, turbidity, NH3–N, lead, BOD5, and so forth. The study reveals that the overall quality of water is quite satisfactory as per Bangladesh standards. RWH system offers sufficient amount of water and energy savings through lower consumption. Moreover, considering the cost for installation and maintenance expenses, the system is effective and economical.

  20. Sustainability of Rainwater Harvesting System in terms of Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. T. R.; Akib, Shatirah; Din, Nazli Bin Che; Biswas, S. K.; Shirazi, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Water is considered an everlasting free source that can be acquired naturally. Demand for processed supply water is growing higher due to an increasing population. Sustainable use of water could maintain a balance between its demand and supply. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is the most traditional and sustainable method, which could be easily used for potable and nonpotable purposes both in residential and commercial buildings. This could reduce the pressure on processed supply water which enhances the green living. This paper ensures the sustainability of this system through assessing several water-quality parameters of collected rainwater with respect to allowable limits. A number of parameters were included in the analysis: pH, fecal coliform, total coliform, total dissolved solids, turbidity, NH3–N, lead, BOD5, and so forth. The study reveals that the overall quality of water is quite satisfactory as per Bangladesh standards. RWH system offers sufficient amount of water and energy savings through lower consumption. Moreover, considering the cost for installation and maintenance expenses, the system is effective and economical. PMID:24701186

  1. An AANAT/ASMT transgenic animal model constructed with CRISPR/Cas9 system serving as the mammary gland bioreactor to produce melatonin-enriched milk in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Teng; Tao, Jingli; Yang, Minghui; He, Changjiu; Tian, Xiuzhi; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Jinlong; Deng, Shoulong; Feng, Jianzhong; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Wang, Jing; Ji, Pengyun; Song, Yukun; He, Pingli; Han, Hongbing; Fu, Juncai; Lian, Zhengxing; Liu, Guoshi

    2017-08-01

    Melatonin as a potent antioxidant exhibits important nutritional and medicinal values. To produce melatonin-enriched milk will benefit the consumers. In this study, a sheep bioreactor which generates melatonin-enriched milk has been successfully developed by the technology that combined CRISPR/Cas9 system and microinjection. The AANAT and ASMT were cloned from pineal gland of Dorper sheep (Ovis aries). The in vitro studies found that AANAT and ASMT were successfully transferred to the mammary epithelial cell lines and significantly increased melatonin production in the culture medium compared to the nontransgenic cell lines. In addition, the Cas9 mRNA, sgRNA, and the linearized vectors pBC1-AANAT and pBC1-ASMT were co-injected into the cytoplasm of pronuclear embryos which were implanted into ewes by oviducts transferring. Thirty-four transgenic sheep were generated with the transgenic positive rate being roughly 35% which were identified by Southern blot and sequencing. Seven carried transgenic AANAT, two carried ASMT, and 25 carried both of AANAT and ASMT genes. RT-PCR and Western blot demonstrated that the lambs expressed these genes in their mammary epithelial cells and these animals produced melatonin-enriched milk. This is the first report to show a functional AANAT and ASMT transgenic animal model which produce significantly high levels of melatonin milk compared to their wild-type counterparts. The advanced technologies used in the study laid a foundation for generating large transgenic livestock, for example, the cows, which can produce high level of melatonin milk. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A versatile miniature bioreactor and its application to bioelectrochemistry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloke, A; Rubenwolf, S; Bücking, C; Gescher, J; Kerzenmacher, S; Zengerle, R; von Stetten, F

    2010-08-15

    Often, reproducible investigations on bio-microsystems essentially require a flexible but well-defined experimental setup, which in its features corresponds to a bioreactor. We therefore developed a miniature bioreactor with a volume in the range of a few millilitre that is assembled by alternate stacking of individual polycarbonate elements and silicone gaskets. All the necessary supply pipes are incorporated as bore holes or cavities within the individual elements. Their combination allows for a bioreactor assembly that is easily adaptable in size and functionality to experimental demands. It allows for controlling oxygen transfer as well as the monitoring of dissolved oxygen concentration and pH-value. The system provides access for media exchange or sterile sampling. A mass transfer coefficient for oxygen (k(L)a) of 4.3x10(-3) s(-1) at a flow rate of only 15 ml min(-1) and a mixing time of 1.5s at a flow rate of 11 ml min(-1) were observed for the modular bioreactor. Single reactor chambers can be interconnected via ion-conductive membranes to form a two-chamber test setup for investigations on electrochemical systems such as fuel cells or sensors. The versatile applicability of this modular and flexible bioreactor was demonstrated by recording a growth curve of Escherichia coli (including monitoring of pH and oxygen) saturation, and also as by two bioelectrochemical experiments. In the first electrochemical experiment the use of the bioreactor enabled a direct comparison of electrode materials for a laccase-catalyzed oxygen reduction electrode. In a second experiment, the bioreactor was utilized to characterize the influence of outer membrane cytochromes on the performance of Shewanella oneidensis in a microbial fuel cell. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. INFORMATION SOCIETY AND FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY OF THE ROMANIAN HEALTH SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATIANA BOGDAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The financial sustainability of the health systems often reveals the ability of policy makers to finance healthcare in the face of growing cost pressures, with populations ageing, new technologies and increased patient expectations for healthcare coverage and quality. Thus, the healthcare systems need to reinvent themselves by using innovative financing mechanisms coupled with electronic information and communication systems, while offering greater transparency, flexibility and choice and increasing access to the services available. The paper analyses the healthcare financing models: the national health system, the social insurance or the private insurance model so that the Romanian health care reform should preserve the best elements of its existing system while selectively adapt techniques and processes that seemed to have been successful in other countries. Moreover, the application of information and communication technologies – eHealth offers new possibilities for improving almost every aspect of healthcare, from making medical systems more powerful and responsive to providing better health information to all.

  4. Production of acetoin from hydrothermally pretreated oil mesocarp fiber using metabolically engineered Escherichia coli in a bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Yusoff, Mohd Zulkhairi; Akita, Hironaga; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Fujimoto, Shinji; Yoshida, Masaru; Nakashima, Nobutaka; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2017-12-01

    Acetoin is used in the biochemical, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Several effective methods for acetoin production from petroleum-based substrates have been developed, but they all have an environmental impact and do not meet sustainability criteria. Here we describe a simple and efficient method for acetoin production from oil palm mesocarp fiber hydrolysate using engineered Escherichia coli. An optimization of culture conditions for acetoin production was carried out using reagent-grade chemicals. The final concentration reached 29.9gL -1 with a theoretical yield of 79%. The optimal pretreatment conditions for preparing hydrolysate with higher sugar yields were then determined. When acetoin was produced using hydrolysate fortified with yeast extract, the theoretical yield reached 97% with an acetoin concentration of 15.5gL -1 . The acetoin productivity was 10-fold higher than that obtained using reagent-grade sugars. This approach makes use of a compromise strategy for effective utilization of oil palm biomass towards industrial application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Systems Approach to Assessing the Sustainability of Hybrid Community Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacatoglu, Kevork

    The goal to achieve a sustainable society that will endure over the long term is generally regarded as a positive evolutionary course. One of the challenges with this goal is developing a quantitative assessment of the sustainability of a system. Despite the different measures available in the literature, a standard and universally accepted index for assessing sustainability does not yet exist. This thesis develops a novel Integrated Sustainability Index (ISI) for energy systems that considers critical multidimensional sustainability criteria. The originality of this new index is that it incorporates fundamental thermodynamic, economic, and environmental constraints to combine indicators from multiple dimensions into a single-score evaluation of sustainability. The index is therefore unique because it can assess sustainability relative to an ideal reference state instead of being limited to ranking systems via relative assessments. The ISI of an energy system is determined by normalization, weighting, and aggregation of sustainability indicators. Indicators are normalized relative to sustainable threshold values and weighted based on time, space, and receptor (i.e., human or ecosystem impacts) criteria. Aggregation yields an ISI between zero and one, where one represents a sustainable system. The ISI is calculated for several different case studies spanning a range of fossil- and renewable-based energy systems. Each is designed as a stand-alone system to meet the energy needs of a small community in Southern Ontario. The analysis shows that of the various alternatives, a solar-photovoltaic-hydrogen system has the best ISI, which ranges from 0.65--0.90 and is a 4--25% improvement over the reference, gas-fired system. For the solar-photovoltaic-hydrogen system and many others, climate change and ozone layer depletion indicators have the strongest effect on ISI. Affordability, commercial viability, and land area indicators are also critical for other energy systems

  6. Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Using Membrane Bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Aziz Mohd Azoddein; Hazlan Haris; Faten Ahada Mohd Azli

    2015-01-01

    Malaysia is the largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) which is highly polluting effluent is becoming a major problem to environment as if it not being treated well before discharged based on standard limit imposed by The Malaysian Department of Environment (DOE) for effluent discharged. Samples from mixing ponds which act as activated sludge are collected and being analyze using water analyzer method to obtain parameters such as BOD, COD, suspended solid, turbidity and pH. Wastewater samples from facultative ponds are also being analyzed than mix with activated sludge treated in the bioreactor. Results from lab-scale bioreactor are used in membrane bioreactor pilot plant system to treat the wastewater. Results from bioreactor treatment in pilot plant scale show a decrement 61.2 % of BOD and 58.9 % of COD, suspended solid and turbidity are also reducing up with pH in range of 5-9. After the wastewater was treated in the ultrafiltration membrane system, high quality water with total of deterioration for all parameter are up to 99.9 % and pH up to 7.39. This results show that the membrane bioreactor (MBR) treatment system are highly effective in treating POME. (author)

  7. The Lebanese electricity system in the context of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fadel, R.H.; Hammond, G.P.; Harajli, H.A.; Jones, C.I.; Kabakian, V.K.; Winnett, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    The Lebanese electricity system has been evaluated in terms of its sustainability. An integrated approach was adopted to assess the life-cycle technical, environmental, energy and economic attributes of the system. The findings show that the Lebanese electricity system is characterized by a weak performance in all analysed aspects related to the sustainability of energy systems. Specifically, the system lacks adequacy and security leading to a supply-demand deficit and poor diversity. It gives rise to significant environmental emissions (including green-house gases), and produces large economic inefficiencies. The costs and benefits of optimising the performance of the centralised electricity system are presented, indicating substantial net benefits (together with considerable benefits in reduced environmental impacts across the life-cycle assessment categories, including carbon emissions) from improving the transmission and distribution networks, upgrading existing conventional plants to their design standards, and shifting towards the use of natural gas. The expected levelised cost of various energy sources in Lebanon also indicates that renewable energy sources are competitive alternatives at the present time.

  8. Application of a stir-tank bioreactor for perfusion culture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The maximum growth rate occurred on Day 18. Under the given perfusion medium feed rate, the bioreactor operated smoothly, maintaining a relatively stable concentration of 20 g l-1 through continuous cell harvest. The bioreactor we used could be an efficient cell culture system and demonstrates industrial potential.

  9. Development of Bioelectrochemical Systems to Promote Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojin Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrochemical systems (BES are a newly emerged technology for energy-efficient water and wastewater treatment. Much effort as well as significant progress has been made in advancing this technology towards practical applications treating various types of waste. However, BES application for agriculture has not been well explored. Herein, studies of BES related to agriculture are reviewed and the potential applications of BES for promoting sustainable agriculture are discussed. BES may be applied to treat the waste/wastewater from agricultural production, minimizing contaminants, producing bioenergy, and recovering useful nutrients. BES can also be used to supply irrigation water via desalinating brackish water or producing reclaimed water from wastewater. The energy generated in BES can be used as a power source for wireless sensors monitoring the key parameters for agricultural activities. The importance of BES to sustainable agriculture should be recognized, and future development of this technology should identify proper application niches with technological advancement.

  10. Potential of sustainable biomass production systems in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, M.A.; Hussey, M.A.; Wiselogel, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Biomass production for liquid fuels feedstock from systems based on warm-season perennial grasses (WSPG) offers a sustainable alternative for forage-livestock producers in Texas. Such systems also would enhance diversity and flexibility in current production systems. Research is needed to incorporate biomass production for liquid fuels, chemicals, and electrical power into current forage-livestock management systems. Our research objectives were to (i) document the potential of several WSPG in diverse Texas environments for biomass feedstock production, (ii) conduct fundamental research on morphological development of WSPG to enhance management for biomass feedstock production, (iii) examine current on-farm production systems for opportunities to incorporate biomass production, and (iv) determine feedstock quality and stability during storage

  11. Supervision functions - Secure operation of sustainable power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The globalization of use of Distributed Generation (DG) and other distributed energy resources in recent years have strongly influenced the power systems operation changes. The growing use of new technologies such as Phasor Measurements Units (PMUs) increases the possibilities and the efficiency...... of power systems operation control. The use of PMUs allows more penetration of DG mainly, with technologies based on renewable resources with intermittent and unpredictable operation such a wind power. This paper introduces the Secure Operation of Sustainable Power Systems (SOSPO) project. The SOSPO...... project tries to respond to the question "How to ensure a secure operation of the future power system where the operating point is heavily is fluctuating?" focusing in the Supervision module architecture and in the power system operation states. The main goal of Supervision module is to determine...

  12. A novel bioreactor to simulate urinary bladder mechanical properties and compliance for bladder functional tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Li, Dao-bing; Xu, Feng; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Yu-chun; Li, Hong; Wang, Kun-jie

    2011-02-01

    Bioreactors are pivotal tools for generating mechanical stimulation in functional tissue engineering study. This study aimed to create a bioreactor that can simulate urinary bladder mechanical properties, and to investigate the effects of a mechanically stimulated culture on urothelial cells and bladder smooth muscle cells. We designed a bioreactor to simulate the mechanical properties of bladder. A pressure-record system was used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the bioreactor by measuring the pressure in culture chambers. To test the biocompatibility of the bioreactor, viabilities of urothelial cells and smooth muscle cells cultured in the bioreactor under static and mechanically changed conditions were measured after 7-day culture. To evaluate the effect of mechanical stimulations on the vital cells, urethral cells and smooth muscle cells were cultured in the simulated mechanical conditions. After that, the viability and the distribution pattern of the cells were observed and compared with cells cultured in non-mechanical stimulated condition. The bioreactor system successfully generated waveforms similar to the intended programmed model while maintaining a cell-seeded elastic membrane between the chambers. There were no differences between viabilities of urothelial cells ((91.90 ± 1.22)% vs. (93.14 ± 1.78)%, P > 0.05) and bladder smooth muscle cells ((93.41 ± 1.49)% vs. (92.61 ± 1.34)%, P > 0.05). The viability of cells and tissue structure observation after cultured in simulated condition showed that mechanical stimulation was the only factor affected cells in the bioreactor and improved the arrangement of cells on silastic membrane. This bioreactor can effectively simulate the physiological and mechanical properties of the bladder. Mechanical stimulation is the only factor that affected the viability of cells cultured in the bioreactor. The bioreactor can change the growth behavior of urothelial cells and bladder smooth muscle cells, resulting in

  13. Tubular bioreactor and its application; Tubular bioreactor to sono tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, I.; Nagamune, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yuki, K. [Nikka Whisky Distilling Co. Ltd. Tokyo (Japan); Inaba, H. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-09-05

    The loop type tubular bioreactor (TBR) was developed where biocatalysts are trapped in the reactor by membrane module. A UF membrane or MF membrane and crossflow filtration were adopted for the membrane module, and the reactor loop was composed of four membrane modules. The reactor was operated at 2-4 m/s in membrane surface velocity and 300-400 kPa in filtration pressure. As the result of the high-density culture of lactic acid bacteria and yeast, a biomass concentration was more than 10 times that in batch culture, suggesting the remarkable enhancement of a production efficiency. As the result of the continuous fermentation of cider, the fast fermentation more than 60 times that in conventional ones was obtained together with the same quality as conventional ones. Such a fast fermentation was probably achieved by yeast suspended in the fermenter of TBR, by yeast hardly affected physico-chemically as compared with immobilized reactors, and by small effect of mass transfer on reaction systems. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Modeling sustainability in renewable energy supply chain systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fei

    This dissertation aims at modeling sustainability of renewable fuel supply chain systems against emerging challenges. In particular, the dissertation focuses on the biofuel supply chain system design, and manages to develop advanced modeling framework and corresponding solution methods in tackling challenges in sustaining biofuel supply chain systems. These challenges include: (1) to integrate "environmental thinking" into the long-term biofuel supply chain planning; (2) to adopt multimodal transportation to mitigate seasonality in biofuel supply chain operations; (3) to provide strategies in hedging against uncertainty from conversion technology; and (4) to develop methodologies in long-term sequential planning of the biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. All models are mixed integer programs, which also involves multi-objective programming method and two-stage/multistage stochastic programming methods. In particular for the long-term sequential planning under uncertainties, to reduce the computational challenges due to the exponential expansion of the scenario tree, I also developed efficient ND-Max method which is more efficient than CPLEX and Nested Decomposition method. Through result analysis of four independent studies, it is found that the proposed modeling frameworks can effectively improve the economic performance, enhance environmental benefits and reduce risks due to systems uncertainties for the biofuel supply chain systems.

  15. Forage based animal production systems and sustainability, an invited keynote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Forages are essential for the successful operation of animal production systems. This is more relevant to ruminants which are heavily dependant upon forages for their health and production in a cost-effective and sustainable manner. While forages are an economical source of nutrients for animal production, they also help conserve the soil integrity, water supply and air quality. Although the role of these forages for animal production could vary depending upon the regional preferences for the animal and forage species, climate and resources, their importance in the success of ruminant production is acknowledged. However with the increasing global human population and urbanisation, the sustainability of forage based animal production systems is sometimes questioned due to the interrelationship between animal production and the environment. It is therefore vital to examine the suitability of these systems for their place in the future to supply quality food which is safe for human consumption and available at a competitive price to the growing human population. Grassland and forage crops are recognised for their contribution to the environment, recreation and efficiency of meat and milk production,. To maintain sustainability, it is crucial that such farming systems remain profitable and environmentally friendly while producing nutritious foods of high economical value. Thus, it is pertinent to improve the nutritive value of grasses and other forage plants in order to enhance animal production to obtain quality food. It is also vital to develop new forages which are efficiently utilised and wasted less by involving efficient animals. A combination of forage legumes, fresh or conserved grasses, crop residues and other feeds could help develop an animal production system which is economically efficient, beneficial and viable. Also, it is crucial to use efficient animals, improved forage conservation methods, better manure handling, and minimum

  16. Performance and sustainability of two alternative rabbit breeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Theau.Clément

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate 2 alternative breeding systems that differ from the current system in terms of reproduction rhythm, age of females at first insemination and the age of kits at weaning and at slaughter. We measured the performance of 332 females and their offspring over 4 consecutive cycles, as well as the sustainability of the systems. We compared an intensive (group I: reproduction rhythm [RR]=35 d; first insemination [AI1]=20.6 wk of age; weaning age [WA]=32 d; slaughter age [WS]=63 d an extensive (group E: RR=49 d; AI1=16.6 wk; WA=30 d; WS=70 d and a semi-intensive system (group S: RR=42 d; AI1=19.6 wk; WA=35 d; WS=70 d considered as the control system. Sustainability was evaluated using a multicriteria assessment method that takes 14 economic, environmental and social criteria into account, for which 3 to 5 indicators were expressed as the relative score [–1; –0.5; 0; +0.5; +1] for alternative systems compared to the control system. The productivity measured at 28 d (3.5, 4.2 and 4.6 kg/AI, for groups I, S and E, respectively, at 63 d post-partum (30, 38 and 42 kg/female for 4 cycles, respectively, and the total body energy measured 3 d after the 1st and at the 4th insemination (45.4, 46.8 and 49.5 MJ, respectively, were significantly increased when the reproductive rhythm decreased (P<0.001. Before and after weaning, kit mortality decreased when the reproduction rhythm decreased (11.4, 7.3, and 1.9% and 18.3, 15.3 and 10.6% for groups I, S and E, respectively, P<0.05. Carcass quality (weight and dressing percentage was lower in I than in the S and E groups (P<0.001. On this basis, the yearly productivity per doe at weaning could be estimated at 79, 83, and 78 kg for groups I, S and E, respectively. Consequently, the productivity per reproductive cycle increases with the extensification of the breeding system. Nevertheless, compared with the current French system (S, simultaneous changes in several breeding

  17. Spatial Zonation Model of Local Irrigation System Sustainability (A Case of Subak System in Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Sriartha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at designing a spatial zonation model of a subak sustainability type based on the internal and external dimentions from 69 subaks in three districts in Badung regency. The internal dimention was measured based on subak capability index in implementing Tri Hita Karana (THK philosophy. The external dimention was measured by using index of four variables, namely: road density, population density, social economic facilities, and number of nonfarmer families.The data were analyzed using descriptive quantitative technique and spatial analysis using Geographical Information System (GIS software. The results found three zones of subak sustainability type, spatially follows the principle of distance decay of the growth of tourism and city center. Unsustainable - less sustainable subak zone dominates short distance zone, sustainable - less sustainable subak zone dominates transitional zone, while sustainable subak zone dominates long distance zone. To protect subak from destruction, less sustainable subaks have to be restored into sustainable ones and the sustainable subaks should be made eternal/exclusive subaks

  18. Sustainable Optimization for Wastewater Treatment System Using PSF-HS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Woo Geem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability in a river with respect to water quality is critical because it is highly related with environmental pollution, economic expenditure, and public health. This study proposes a sustainability problem of wastewater treatment system for river ecosystem conservation which helps the healthy survival of the aquatic biota and human beings. This study optimizes the design of a wastewater treatment system using the parameter-setting-free harmony search algorithm, which does not require the existing tedious value-setting process for algorithm parameters. The real-scale system has three different options of wastewater treatment, such as filtration, nitrification, and diverted irrigation (fertilization, as well as two existing treatment processes (settling and biological oxidation. The objective of this system design is to minimize life cycle costs, including initial construction costs of those treatment options, while satisfying minimal dissolved oxygen requirements in the river, maximal nitrate-nitrogen concentration in groundwater, and a minimal nitrogen requirement for crop farming. Results show that the proposed technique could successfully find solutions without requiring a tedious setting process.

  19. Towards a sustainable modular robot system for planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, S. G. M.

    This thesis investigates multiple perspectives of developing an unmanned robotic system suited for planetary terrains. In this case, the unmanned system consists of unit-modular robots. This type of robot has potential to be developed and maintained as a sustainable multi-robot system while located far from direct human intervention. Some characteristics that make this possible are: the cooperation, communication and connectivity among the robot modules, flexibility of individual robot modules, capability of self-healing in the case of a failed module and the ability to generate multiple gaits by means of reconfiguration. To demonstrate the effects of high flexibility of an individual robot module, multiple modules of a four-degree-of-freedom unit-modular robot were developed. The robot was equipped with a novel connector mechanism that made self-healing possible. Also, design strategies included the use of series elastic actuators for better robot-terrain interaction. In addition, various locomotion gaits were generated and explored using the robot modules, which is essential for a modular robot system to achieve robustness and thus successfully navigate and function in a planetary environment. To investigate multi-robot task completion, a biomimetic cooperative load transportation algorithm was developed and simulated. Also, a liquid motion-inspired theory was developed consisting of a large number of robot modules. This can be used to traverse obstacles that inevitably occur in maneuvering over rough terrains such as in a planetary exploration. Keywords: Modular robot, cooperative robots, biomimetics, planetary exploration, sustainability.

  20. Design considerations for sustainable spacecraft water management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.; Weislogel, Mark M.; Klaus, David M.

    2010-09-01

    It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally more robust and operationally sustainable over time. This paper presents design strategies and testing considerations for improving the reliability of water handling technologies. Our application of interest is to devise a spacecraft wastewater management system wherein fouling can be accommodated by design attributes of the management hardware, rather than implementing some means of preventing its occurrence. Two representative boundary applications are presented. The first is a short term application where reduced gravity flight tests demonstrated a static phase separator prototype that achieved nearly 100% separation of gas from liquids under widely varying wetting conditions correlated to anticipated ranges of wastewater fouling. The second is a design concept for a lunar outpost water recovery system where wastewater is allowed to age and form biofilms and precipitates that can be filtered through lunar regolith media as the water is reclaimed. Both applications are supported by similar underlying principles of facilitating sustainable fluid handling in the presence of fouled surfaces.

  1. Possibilities and limitations for sustainable bioenergy production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeets, Edward Martinus Wilhelmus Utrecht University

    2008-05-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to investigate the possibilities and limitations of sustainable bioenergy production. To this end, the following research questions have been formulated: (1). What is the potential of different world regions to produce biomass for energy generation in the year 2050, taking account of biological and climatological limitations, the use of biomass to produce food, materials and traditional bioenergy, as well as the need to maintain existing forests and thus protect biodiversity?; (2) What are the main bottlenecks to formulating and implementing sustainability criteria for bioenergy production?; (3) To what extent does complying with sustainability criteria have impacts on the costs and potential of bioenergy production?; (4) To what extent do fertilizer- and manure-induced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions due to energy crop production have an impact on the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when conventional transportation fuels are replaced by first-generation biofuels?; (5) In terms of economic and environmental performance, how does Europe's production, storage and transport of miscanthus and switchgrass in 2004 compare to that in 2030? Throughout this thesis, specific attention is paid to knowledge gaps and their potential impact on results, the aim being to identify priorities for future research and development. Another key element of our research is that we evaluate the possibilities and limitations of strategies that are designed to improve the performance of bioenergy production systems and that may be incorporated in bioenergy certification schemes and bioenergy promoting policies

  2. Developing a sustainability framework for the assessment of bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elghali, Lucia; Clift, Roland; Sinclair, Philip; Panoutsou, Calliope; Bauen, Ausilio

    2007-01-01

    The potential for biomass to contribute to energy supply in a low-carbon economy is well recognised. However, for the sector to contribute fully to sustainable development in the UK, specific exploitation routes must meet the three sets of criteria usually recognised as representing the tests for sustainability: economic viability in the market and fiscal framework within which the supply chain operates; environmental performance, including, but not limited to, low carbon dioxide emissions over the complete fuel cycle; and social acceptability, with the benefits of using biomass recognised as outweighing any negative social impacts. This paper describes an approach to developing a methodology to establish a sustainability framework for the assessment of bioenergy systems to provide practical advice for policy makers, planners and the bioenergy industry, and thus to support policy development and bioenergy deployment at different scales. The approach uses multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and decision-conferencing, to explore how such a process is able to integrate and reconcile the interests and concerns of diverse stakeholder groups

  3. THE MEDITERRANEAN DIET AS A SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lopes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Central theme in society these days, the diet went through several phases during the evolution of the human being. Currently human’s advanced civilizational, deplete resources, develops forms of reproduction and rapid growth of animals, genetically alter plants to make them more resilient and artificially prolongs life. All these factors lead to an overload in nature and revolve to a group of environmentalists and animal rights. Sustainability is part of everyday life of political and social discourse as the fundamental way to our relationship with the environment. Sustainable food systems are those that are able to survive over time, promoting sustainable use of resources and a balance in the economic, social and environmental aspects. Changing diet to the Mediterranean Diet would bring benefits: on the health level, with better nutrition and increased use of some processed products; economic, by encouraging the consumption of local and national production of products; social, with the creation of jobs in agriculture; and environmental, using organic production and the reduction of transportation needs. The Mediterranean Diet encourages a more balanced and healthy eating style, with great positive impact on the environment. With the globalization phenomena is was gradually lost, but is now being revived due to the awakening to health and ecological problems.

  4. Critical Review of Membrane Bioreactor Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naessens, W.; Maere, T.; Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios

    2012-01-01

    modelling. In this paper, the vast literature on hydrodynamic and integrated modelling in MBR is critically reviewed. Hydrodynamic models are used at different scales and focus mainly on fouling and only little on system design/optimisation. Integrated models also focus on fouling although the ones......Membrane bioreactor technology exists for a couple of decades, but has not yet overwhelmed the market due to some serious drawbacks of which operational cost due to fouling is the major contributor. Knowledge buildup and optimisation for such complex systems can heavily benefit from mathematical...

  5. Holistic Evaluation of Decentralized Water Reuse: Life Cycle Assessment and Cost Analysis of Membrane Bioreactor Systems in Water Reuse Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understand environmental and cost impacts of transitional decentralized MBR systems with sewer mining Assess aerobic MBRs (AeMBR) and anaerobic MBRs (AnMBR) Use LCA and life cycle cost (LCC) analysis to quantify impacts Investigate LCA and LCC performance of MBRs under various re...

  6. A water management decision support system contributing to sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Klaudia; van Esch, Bart; Baayen, Jorn; Pothof, Ivo; Talsma, Jan; van Heeringen, Klaas-Jan

    2017-04-01

    Deltares and Eindhoven University of Technology are developing a new decision support system (DSS) for regional water authorities. In order to maintain water levels in the Dutch polder system, water should be drained and pumped out from the polders to the sea. The time and amount of pumping depends on the current sea level, the water level in the polder, the weather forecast and the electricity price forecast and possibly local renewable power production. This is a multivariable optimisation problem, where the goal is to keep the water level in the polder within certain bounds. By optimizing the operation of the pumps the energy usage and costs can be reduced, hence the operation of the regional water authorities can be more sustainable, while also anticipating on increasing share of renewables in the energy mix in a cost-effective way. The decision support system, based on Delft-FEWS as operational data-integration platform, is running an optimization model built in RTC-Tools 2, which is performing real-time optimization in order to calculate the pumping strategy. It is taking into account the present and future circumstances. As being the core of the real time decision support system, RTC-Tools 2 fulfils the key requirements to a DSS: it is fast, robust and always finds the optimal solution. These properties are associated with convex optimization. In such problems the global optimum can always be found. The challenge in the development is to maintain the convex formulation of all the non-linear components in the system, i.e. open channels, hydraulic structures, and pumps. The system is introduced through 4 pilot projects, one of which is a pilot of the Dutch Water Authority Rivierenland. This is a typical Dutch polder system: several polders are drained to the main water system, the Linge. The water from the Linge can be released to the main rivers that are subject to tidal fluctuations. In case of low tide, water can be released via the gates. In case of high

  7. Ultrastructure and viral metagenome of bacteriophages from an anaerobic methane oxidizing Methylomirabilis bioreactor enrichment culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Gambelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With its capacity for anaerobic methane oxidation and denitrification, the bacterium Methylomirabilis oxyfera plays an important role in natural ecosystems. Its unique physiology can be exploited for more sustainable wastewater treatment technologies. However, operational stability of full-scale bioreactors can experience setbacks due to, for example, bacteriophage blooms. By shaping microbial communities through mortality, horizontal gene transfer and metabolic reprogramming, bacteriophages are important players in most ecosystems. Here, we analysed an infected Methylomirabilis sp. bioreactor enrichment culture using (advanced electron microscopy, viral metagenomics and bioinformatics. Electron micrographs revealed four different viral morphotypes, one of which was observed to infect Methylomirabilis cells. The infected cells contained densely packed ~55 nm icosahedral bacteriophage particles with a putative internal membrane. Various stages of virion assembly were observed. Moreover, during the bacteriophage replication, the host cytoplasmic membrane appeared extremely patchy, which suggests that the bacteriophages may use host bacterial lipids to build their own putative internal membrane. The viral metagenome contained 1.87 million base pairs of assembled viral sequences, from which five putative complete viral genomes were assembled and manually annotated. Using bioinformatics analyses, we could not identify which viral genome belonged to the Methylomirabilis- infecting bacteriophage, in part because the obtained viral genome sequences were novel and unique to this reactor system. Taken together these results show that new bacteriophages can be detected in anaerobic cultivation systems and that the effect of bacteriophages on the microbial community in these systems is a topic for further study.

  8. Long Term Field Development of a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System for Treatment of Produced Waters for Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn Katz; Kerry Kinney; Robert Bowman; Enid Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig Altare

    2007-12-31

    The main goal of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using a combined physicochemical/biological treatment system to remove the organic constituents present in saline produced water. In order to meet this objective, a physical/chemical adsorption process was developed and two separate biological treatment techniques were investigated. Two previous research projects focused on the development of the surfactant modified zeolite adsorption process (DE-AC26-99BC15221) and development of a vapor phase biofilter (VPB) to treat the regeneration off-gas from the surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorption system (DE-FC26-02NT15461). In this research, the SMZ/VPB was modified to more effectively attenuate peak loads and to maintain stable biodegradation of the BTEX constituents from the produced water. Specifically, a load equalization system was incorporated into the regeneration flow stream. In addition, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was tested for its ability to simultaneously remove the aromatic hydrocarbon and carboxylate components from produced water. The specific objectives related to these efforts included the following: (1) Optimize the performance VPBs treating the transient loading expected during SMZ regeneration: (a) Evaluate the impact of biofilter operating parameters on process performance under stable operating conditions. (b) Investigate how transient loads affect biofilter performance, and identify an appropriate technology to improve biological treatment performance during the transient regeneration period of an SMZ adsorption system. (c) Examine the merits of a load equalization technology to attenuate peak VOC loads prior to a VPB system. (d) Evaluate the capability of an SMZ/VPB to remove BTEX from produced water in a field trial. (2) Investigate the feasibility of MBR treatment of produced water: (a) Evaluate the biodegradation of carboxylates and BTEX constituents from synthetic produced water in a laboratory-scale MBR. (b

  9. Post-treatment of secondary wastewater treatment plant effluent using a two-stage fluidized bed bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Golam Hossein; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Zarrabi, Mansur

    2013-06-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a two-stage fluidized bed reactor (FBR) system for the post-treatment of secondary wastewater treatment plant effluents (Shahrak Gharb, Tehran, Iran). The proposed treatment scheme was evaluated using pilot-scale reactors (106-L of capacity) filled with PVC as the fluidized bed (first stage) and gravel for the filtration purpose (second stage). Aluminum sulfate (30 mg/L) and chlorine (1 mg/L) were used for the coagulation and disinfection of the effluent, respectively. To monitor the performance of the FBR system, variation of several parameters (biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, total phosphorous, total coliform and fecal coliform) were monitored in the effluent wastewater samples. The results showed that the proposed system could effectively reduce BOD5 and COD below 1.95 and 4.06 mg/L, respectively. Turbidity of the effluent could be achieved below 0.75 NTU, which was lower than those reported for the disinfection purpose. The total phosphorus was reduced to 0.52 mg/L, which was near the present phosphorous standard for the prevention of eutrophication process. Depending on both microorganism concentration and applied surface loading rates (5-10 m/h), about 35 to 75% and 67 to 97% of coliform were removed without and with the chlorine addition, respectively. Findings of this study clearly confirmed the efficiency of the FBR system for the post-treatment of the secondary wastewater treatment plant effluents without any solid problem during the chlorination.

  10. Post-Treatment of Secondary Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent Using A Two-Stage Fluidized Bed Bioreactor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Hossein Safari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a two-stage fluidized bed reactor (FBR system for the post-treatment of secondary wastewater treatment plant effluents (Shahrak Gharb, Tehran, Iran. The proposed treatment scheme was evaluated using pilot-scale reactors (106-L of capacity filled with PVC as the fluidized bed (first stage and gravel for the filtration purpose (second stage. Aluminum sulfate (30 mg/L and chlorine (1 mg/L were used for the coagulation and disinfection of the effluent, respectively. To monitor the performance of the FBR system, variation of several parameters (biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, chemical oxygen demand (COD, turbidity, total phosphorous, total coliform and fecal coliform were monitored in the effluent wastewater samples. The results showed that the proposed system could effectively reduce BOD5 and COD below 1.95 and 4.06 mg/L, respectively. Turbidity of the effluent could be achieved below 0.75 NTU, which was lower than those reported for the disinfection purpose. The total phosphorus was reduced to 0.52 mg/L, which was near the present phosphorous standard for the prevention of eutrophication process. Depending on both microorganism concentration and applied surface loading rates (5–10 m/h, about 35 to 75% and 67 to 97% of coliform were removed without and with the chlorine addition, respectively. Findings of this study clearly confirmed the efficiency of the FBR system for the post-treatment of the secondary wastewater treatment plant effluents without any solid problem during the chlorination.

  11. Model-based automatic tuning of a filtration control system for submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR)

    OpenAIRE

    Robles Martínez, Ángel; Ruano García, María Victoria; Ribes Bertomeu, José; SECO TORRECILLAS, AURORA; FERRER, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a model-based method to optimise filtration in submerged AnMBRs. The method is applied to an advanced knowledge-based control system and considers three statistical methods: (1) sensitivity analysis (Morris screening method) to identify an input subset for the advanced controller; (2) Monte Carlo method (trajectory-based random sampling) to find suitable initial values for the control inputs; and (3) optimisation algorithm (performing as a supervisory controller) to re-ca...

  12. Sustainable solid waste management a systems engineering approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, N

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between human activities and the environment are complicated and often difficult to quantify. In many occasions, judging where the optimal balance should lie among environmental protection, social well-being, economic growth, and technological progress is complex. The use of a systems engineering approach will fill in the gap contributing to how we understand the intricacy by a holistic way and how we generate better sustainable solid waste management practices. This book aims to advance interdisciplinary understanding of intertwined facets between policy and technology relevant to solid waste management issues interrelated to climate change, land use, economic growth, environmental pollution, industrial ecology, and population dynamics.

  13. Barriers and Opportunities for Sustainable Food Systems in Northeastern Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonda Janke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Survey responses of producers and institutional buyers in northeastern Kansas (United States were analyzed to understand barriers and opportunities for sustainable food systems in the region where their emergence has been limited. Producers and buyers identified barriers previously noted regarding mismatches of available quantities and prices. Producers’ enthusiasm to supply locally exceeded buyers’ interest to source locally. Transportation was identified as one of the major concerns by producers, and their responses to choice tasks revealed producers’ preferences to sell locally while pricing their products to secure sales revenue and to cover their logistics expenses at least partially.

  14. New Systems Thinking and Policy Means for Sustainable Energy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2010-01-01

    of the dominating neoclassical economy and the short time horizon of the present market system. On the supply side fossil fuels are becoming a central problem being the dominating global energy source while at the same time presenting serious problems in relation to global warming and limited resources (“peak oil......Sustainable energy development requires attention to both the demand and supply side. On the demand side there is an urgent need for efficient policy means promoting energy conservation. This includes changes in the institutional and economic framework to compensate for the short comings...

  15. Sustainable Water Use System of Artesian Water in Alluvial Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, K.; Tsujimura, M.; Tase, N.

    2013-12-01

    The traditional water use system, developed with the intelligence of the local residents, usually takes advantage of local natural resources and is considered as a sustainable system, because of its energy saving(only forces of nature). For this reason, such kind of water use system is also recommended in some strategic policies for the purpose of a symbiosis between nature and human society. Therefore, it is important to clarify the relationship between human activities and water use systems. This study aims to clarify the mechanism of traditional water use processes in alluvial fan, and in addition, to investigate the important factors which help forming a sustainable water use system from the aspects of natural conditions and human activities. The study area, an alluvial fan region named Adogawa, is located in Shiga Prefecture, Japan and is in the west of Biwa Lake which is the largest lake in Japan. In this alluvial region where the land use is mainly occupied by settlements and paddy fields, a groundwater flowing well system is called "kabata" according to local tradition. During field survey, we took samples of groundwater, river water and lake water as well as measured the potential head of groundwater. The results showed that the upper boundary of flowing water was approximately 88m amsl, which is basically the same as the results reported by Kishi and Kanno (1966). In study area, a rapid increase of water pumping for domestic water use and melting snow during last 50 years, even if the irrigation area has decreased about 30% since 1970, and this fact may cause a decrease in recharge rate to groundwater. However, the groundwater level didn't decline based on the observed results, which is probably contributed by some water conservancy projects on Biwa Lake which maintained the water level of the lake. All the water samples are characterized by Ca-HCO3 type and similar stable isotopic value of δD and δ18O. Groundwater level in irrigation season is higher

  16. Membrane bioreactor for waste gas treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reij, M.W.

    1997-01-01

    Summary

    This thesis describes the design and testing of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for removal of organic pollutants from air. In such a bioreactor for biological gas treatment pollutants are degraded by micro-organisms. The membrane bioreactor is an alternative to other types of

  17. Operation of a fluidized-bed bioreactor for denitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancher, C.W.; Taylor, P.A.; Napier, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Two denitrification fluidized-bed bioreactors of the same length (i.e., 5 m) but with different inside diameters (i.e., 5 and 10 cm) have been operated on feed ranging in nitrate concentration from 200 to 2000 g/m 3 ; thus far, good agreement has been obtained. Two 10-cm-ID bioreactors operating in series have also been tested; the results are in accordance with predicted results based on the performance of a 5-cm-ID bioreactor. The overall denitrification rate in the dual 10-cm-ID bioreactor system was found to be 23 kg N(NO 3 - )/day-m 3 using feed with a nitrate concentration of 1800 g/m 3 . Data obtained in operating-temperature tests indicate that the maximum denitrification rate is achieved between 22 and 30 0 C. These data will form the basis of the design of our mobile pilot plant which consists of dual 20-cm-ID by 7.3-m-long bioreactors

  18. Bioreactor design and implementation strategies for the cultivation of filamentous fungi and the production of fungal metabolites: from traditional methods to engineered systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musoni, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of fungal metabolites and conidia at an industrial scale requires an adequate yield at relatively low cost. To this end, many factors are examined and the design of the bioreactor to be used for the selected product takes a predominant place in the analysis. One approach to addressing the issue is to integrate the scaling-up procedure according to the biological characteristics of the microorganism considered, i.e. in our case filamentous fungi. Indeed, the scaling-up procedure is considered as one of the major bottlenecks in fermentation technology, mainly due to the near impossibility of reproducing the ideal conditions obtained in small reactors designed for research purposes when transposing them to a much larger production scale. The present review seeks to make the point regarding the bioreactor design and its implementation for cultivation of filamentous fungi and the production of fungal metabolites according to different developmental stages of fungi of industrial interest. Solid-state (semi-solid, submerged, fermentation and biofilm reactors are analyzed. The different bioreactor designs used for these three processes are also described at the technological level.

  19. The Future of Pork Production in the World: Towards Sustainable, Welfare-Positive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    McGlone, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary More pork is eaten in the world than any other meat. Making production systems and practices more sustainable will benefit the animals, the planet and people. A system is presented by which production practices are evaluated using a sustainability matrix. The matrix shows why some practices are more common in some countries and regions and the impediments to more sustainable systems. This method can be used to assess the sustainability of production practices in the future wher...

  20. Dynamic Business Networks: A Headache for Sustainable Systems Interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinho, Carlos; Jardim-Goncalves, Ricardo

    Collaborative networked environments emerged with the spread of the internet, contributing to overcome past communication barriers, and identifying interoperability as an essential property. When achieved seamlessly, efficiency is increased in the entire product life cycle. Nowadays, most organizations try to attain interoperability by establishing peer-to-peer mappings with the different partners, or in optimized networks, by using international standard models as the core for information exchange. In current industrial practice, mappings are only defined once, and the morphisms that represent them, are hardcoded in the enterprise systems. This solution has been effective for static environments, where enterprise and product models are valid for decades. However, with an increasingly complex and dynamic global market, models change frequently to answer new customer requirements. This paper draws concepts from the complex systems science and proposes a framework for sustainable systems interoperability in dynamic networks, enabling different organizations to evolve at their own rate.

  1. Performance comparison of ethanol and butanol production in a continuous and closed-circulating fermentation system with membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunyan; Long, Sihua; Li, Airong; Xiao, Guoqing; Wang, Linyuan; Xiao, Zeyi

    2017-03-16

    Since both ethanol and butanol fermentations are urgently developed processes with the biofuel-demand increasing, performance comparison of aerobic ethanol fermentation and anerobic butanol fermentation in a continuous and closed-circulating fermentation (CCCF) system was necessary to achieve their fermentation characteristics and further optimize the fermentation process. Fermentation and pervaporation parameters including the average cell concentration, glucose consumption rate, cumulated production concentration, product flux, and separation factor of ethanol fermentation were 11.45 g/L, 3.70 g/L/h, 655.83 g/L, 378.5 g/m 2 /h, and 4.83, respectively, the corresponding parameters of butanol fermentation were 2.19 g/L, 0.61 g/L/h, 28.03 g/L, 58.56 g/m 2 /h, and 10.62, respectively. Profiles of fermentation and pervaporation parameters indicated that the intensity and efficiency of ethanol fermentation was higher than butanol fermentation, but the stability of butanol fermentation was superior to ethanol fermentation. Although the two fermentation processes had different features, the performance indicated the application prospect of both ethanol and butanol production by the CCCF system.

  2. Kinetic analysis of phenol, thiocyanate and ammonia-nitrogen removals in an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic moving bed bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahariah, Biju Prava; Chakraborty, Saswati

    2011-06-15

    A simulated wastewater containing phenol (2500 mg/L), thiocyanate and ammonia-nitrogen (500 mg/L) was treated in an anaerobic (R1)-anoxic (R2)-aerobic (R3) moving bed biofilm reactor system at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) intervals (total HRT 3-8 days, R1: 1.5-4 days; R2: 0.75-2 days and R3: 0.75-2 days) and feed thiocyanate (SCN(-)) concentrations (110-600 mg/L) to determine substrate removal kinetics. In R1, phenol and COD reduction and specific methanogenic activity were inhibited due to the increase of SCN(-) in feed. Bhatia et al. model having inbuilt provision of process inhibition described the kinetics of COD and phenol utilization with maximum utilization rates of 0.398 day(-1) and 0.486 day(-1), respectively. In R2 and R3 modified Stover-Kincannon model was suitable to describe substrate utilization. In R2 respective maximum SCN(-), phenol, COD and NO(3)(-)-N utilization rates were 0.23, 5.28, 37.7 and 11.82 g/L day, respectively. In aerobic reactor R3, COD, SCN(-) and NH(4)(+)-N removal rates were, respectively, 10.53, 1.89, and 2.17 g/L day. The minimum total HRT of three-stage system was recommended as 4 days. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Adoption of Geospatial Systems towards evolving Sustainable Himalayan Mountain Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, M. S. R.; Bajracharya, B.; Pradhan, S.; Shestra, B.; Bajracharya, R.; Shakya, K.; Wesselmann, S.; Ali, M.; Bajracharya, S.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-11-01

    Natural resources dependence of mountain communities, rapid social and developmental changes, disaster proneness and climate change are conceived as the critical factors regulating sustainable Himalayan mountain development. The Himalayan region posed by typical geographic settings, diverse physical and cultural diversity present a formidable challenge to collect and manage data, information and understands varied socio-ecological settings. Recent advances in earth observation, near real-time data, in-situ measurements and in combination of information and communication technology have transformed the way we collect, process, and generate information and how we use such information for societal benefits. Glacier dynamics, land cover changes, disaster risk reduction systems, food security and ecosystem conservation are a few thematic areas where geospatial information and knowledge have significantly contributed to informed decision making systems over the region. The emergence and adoption of near-real time systems, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), board-scale citizen science (crowd-sourcing), mobile services and mapping, and cloud computing have paved the way towards developing automated environmental monitoring systems, enhanced scientific understanding of geophysical and biophysical processes, coupled management of socio-ecological systems and community based adaptation models tailored to mountain specific environment. There are differentiated capacities among the ICIMOD regional member countries with regard to utilization of earth observation and geospatial technologies. The region can greatly benefit from a coordinated and collaborative approach to capture the opportunities offered by earth observation and geospatial technologies. The regional level data sharing, knowledge exchange, and Himalayan GEO supporting geospatial platforms, spatial data infrastructure, unique region specific satellite systems to address trans-boundary challenges would go a long way in

  4. Flexible procurement systems is key to supply chain sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Bag

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this dynamic business environment, manufacturers are focusing primarily on delivery performance and competitive pricing to win orders. It is essential that manufacturers adopt flexible procurement systems (FPSs in such an uncertain environment for business sustainability. Objectives: The purpose of the study is to identify the elements of FPSs and model the interrelationships between elements of FPSs and, finally, to understand how FPSs are linked with supply chain sustainability. Method: Besides providing a brief conceptual review of FPSs, the study largely illustrates the use of an innovative multi-criteria decision-making approach called total interpretive structural modelling (TISM. Results: The total interpretive structural modelling–based model evaluates the causality and illustrates elements with interpretation of relations and suggests that bottom-level elements are vital for sustainability in FPSs and avert risks. Secondly, strategic sourcing is positively influencing supplier integration. Thirdly, supplier integration positively influences supplier responsiveness. Fourthly, skills of flexible procurement workforce positively influence supplier integration. Fifthly, it is found that supplier integration positively influences flexible transportation. The sixth finding suggests that supplier integration positively influences eco-friendly packaging. The seventh finding highlights that supplier integration positively influences ISO 14001 certifications. The eighth finding explains that supplier responsiveness positively influences customer satisfaction. It is also observed that flexible transport reduces operational cost and environmental costs. The second last finding explains eco-friendly packaging and reduction in environmental cost by careful selection of packing material and chemicals. Lastly, it is found that ISO 14001/environmental certifications reduce environmental costs by greening suppliers and pressurises them

  5. Flexible procurement systems is key to supply chain sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Bag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this dynamic business environment, manufacturers are focusing primarily on delivery performance and competitive pricing to win orders. It is essential that manufacturers adopt flexible procurement systems (FPSs in such an uncertain environment for business sustainability.Objectives: The purpose of the study is to identify the elements of FPSs and model the interrelationships between elements of FPSs and, finally, to understand how FPSs are linked with supply chain sustainability.Method: Besides providing a brief conceptual review of FPSs, the study largely illustrates the use of an innovative multi-criteria decision-making approach called total interpretive structural modelling (TISM.Results: The total interpretive structural modelling–based model evaluates the causality and illustrates elements with interpretation of relations and suggests that bottom-level elements are vital for sustainability in FPSs and avert risks. Secondly, strategic sourcing is positively influencing supplier integration. Thirdly, supplier integration positively influences supplier responsiveness. Fourthly, skills of flexible procurement workforce positively influence supplier integration. Fifthly, it is found that supplier integration positively influences flexible transportation. The sixth finding suggests that supplier integration positively influences eco-friendly packaging. The seventh finding highlights that supplier integration positively influences ISO 14001 certifications. The eighth finding explains that supplier responsiveness positively influences customer satisfaction. It is also observed that flexible transport reduces operational cost and environmental costs. The second last finding explains eco-friendly packaging and reduction in environmental cost by careful selection of packing material and chemicals. Lastly, it is found that ISO 14001/environmental certifications reduce environmental costs by greening suppliers and pressurises them to

  6. Comparative performance between intermittently cyclic activated sludge-membrane bioreactor and anoxic/aerobic-membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Lan; Yu, Shui-Li; Shi, Wen-Xin; Bao, Rui-Ling; Zhao, Qing; Zuo, Xing-Tao

    2009-09-01

    A process of intermittently cyclic activated sludge-membrane bioreactor (ICAS-MBR) was developed to enhance the performance of biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), which was constructed under sequencing anoxic/anaerobic/aerobic condition. The performance between ICAS-MBR and conventional anoxic/aerobic-membrane bioreactor (A/O-MBR) in terms of phosphorus removal, nitrification performance and microbial aspects were investigated in this study. The experimental results indicated that the phosphorus removal efficiency in ICAS-MBR process increased from 65% to 83% when compared with A/O-MBR. It was also found that the COD removal efficiencies of the two processes were over 94%, and NH(4)(+)-N and TN average removal efficiencies were 96% and 69% in ICAS-MBR and 96% and 78% in A/O-MBR, respectively. Furthermore, micrographs observation obtained confirmed the succession and diversification of microorganisms in the two systems followed a similar regularity.

  7. Applying Sustainable Systems Development Approach to Educational Technology Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) is an essential part of modern education. The roles and contributions of technology to education have been thoroughly documented in academic and professional literature. Despite the benefits, the use of educational technology systems (ETS) also creates a significant impact on the environment, primarily due to energy…

  8. Glioblastoma in the limbic system presenting as sustained central hypopnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Mashiko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old woman was transferred to our hospital after experiencing an epigastric sensation followed by unconsciousness. On arrival, the patient showed impaired consciousness without convulsive movement, cyanosis and shallow breathing, arterial O2 desaturation, and increased PCO2. Artificial respiration improved CO2 accumulation and consciousness, but interruption of artificial respiration returned the patient to her former state. Computed tomography of the head showed a mass around the left corpus callosum. The patient's hypopnea followed by unconsciousness suggested sustained nonconvulsive epilepsy manifesting in central hypopnea and subsequent unconsciousness due to CO2 narcosis. Intravenous (IV anticonvulsants promptly improved the respiratory condition, and the patient started to regain consciousness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lesion involving the bilateral limbic systems. To our knowledge, limbic seizure manifesting with hypopnea causing unconsciousness due to CO2 narcosis has not previously been reported, despite evidence of a strong relationship between the limbic and respiratory systems. The current case suggests that sustained limbic seizure can manifest as hypopnea. Since emergency EEG can be difficult to perform, IV anticonvulsant treatment is an appropriate diagnostic therapy.

  9. Selecting, adapting, and sustaining programs in health care systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zullig LL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leah L Zullig,1,2 Hayden B Bosworth1–4 1Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 3School of Nursing, 4Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Practitioners and researchers often design behavioral programs that are effective for a specific population or problem. Despite their success in a controlled setting, relatively few programs are scaled up and implemented in health care systems. Planning for scale-up is a critical, yet often overlooked, element in the process of program design. Equally as important is understanding how to select a program that has already been developed, and adapt and implement the program to meet specific organizational goals. This adaptation and implementation requires attention to organizational goals, available resources, and program cost. We assert that translational behavioral medicine necessitates expanding successful programs beyond a stand-alone research study. This paper describes key factors to consider when selecting, adapting, and sustaining programs for scale-up in large health care systems and applies the Knowledge to Action (KTA Framework to a case study, illustrating knowledge creation and an action cycle of implementation and evaluation activities. Keywords: program sustainability, diffusion of innovation, information dissemination, health services research, intervention studies 

  10. Enhancing inhibited fermentations through a dynamic electro-membrane bioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Garde, Arvid; Rype, Jens-Ulrik

    produced in the bioreactor) with hydroxide ions, which maintained a pH close to optimal growing conditions. The ion-exchange was in turn regulated by a PID control unit, which adjusted the electrical current output between the REED electrodes to match the growing production speed of lactic acid, which......, it is interesting to reveal to which extend the REED module can facilitate the pH control in the fermenter. In this case, the membrane and reactor unit interactions are exploited to substantially increase the lactate productivity and substrate utilization compared to a conventional fermentation with a crude control...... of pH. Experiments using multiple stacks with asynchronical current reversal intervals for improved pH stability were carried out in a bioreactor connected to a REED system. The REED was used for control of the pH process parameter of the bioreactor through exchanging the lactate ions (from lactic acid...

  11. Problems of logistic systems sustainable development in delivery chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Realization of supply chains management paradigm, covering significantly more volumes of logistic space, logically leads to complication of logistic systems, which, in its turn, arises significant number of problems of both theoretical and practical character. In our opinion, not all the aspects of logistic systems design and their sustainable functioning have received by the present time corresponding coverage in scientific literature. More detailed consideration requires specific problems of logistic systems interaction with their environment. We can talk about formation of new scientific direction (which we suggest to name logistic environics, being applied addition to classical approach to design of logistic systems. Methods: the formalized description of interaction process for logistic systems with the environment was presented and discussed  from ecological, social, economical, organizational and technological, technical, natural scientific positions. Results and conclusions: There is an interaction between logistics systems and the environment, but formalized description of logistic systems interaction process with the environment requires performance of complex interdisciplinary research from many different positions.

  12. Prototyping and farm system modelling - Partners on the road towards more sustainable farm systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, B.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Leeuwis, C.; Wijnands, F.G.

    2007-01-01

    Farm system modelling and prototyping are two research methods proposed to enhance the process of developing sustainable farm systems. Farm system models provide means to formalize, expand and refine expert knowledge and to integrate this with scientific agro-ecological knowledge at the farm level.

  13. Stoked nondynamos: sustaining field in magnetically non-closed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byington, B M; Brummell, N H; Stone, J M; Gough, D O

    2014-01-01

    Much effort has gone into identifying and classifying systems that might be capable of dynamo action, i.e. capable of generating and sustaining magnetic field indefinitely against dissipative effects in a conducting fluid. However, it is difficult, if not almost technically impossible, to derive a method of determining in both an absolutely conclusive and a pragmatic manner whether a system is a dynamo or not in the nonlinear regime. This problem has generally been examined only for closed systems, despite the fact that most realistic situations of interest are not strictly closed. Here we examine the even more complex problem of whether a known nondynamo closed system can be distinguished pragmatically from a true dynamo when a small input of magnetic field to the system is allowed. We call such systems ‘stoked nondynamos’ owing to the ‘stoking’ or augmentation of the magnetic field in the system. It may seem obvious that magnetic energy can be sustained in such systems since there is an external source, but crucial questions remain regarding what level is maintained and whether such nondynamo systems can be distinguished from a true dynamo. In this paper, we perform 3D nonlinear numerical simulations with time-dependent ABC forcing possessing known dynamo properties. We find that magnetic field can indeed be maintained at a significant stationary level when stoking a system that is a nondynamo when not stoked. The maintained state results generally from an eventual rough balance of the rates of input and decay of magnetic field. We find that the relevance of this state is dictated by a parameter κ representing the correlation of the resultant field with the stoking forcing function. The interesting regime is where κ is small but non-zero, as this represents a middle ground between a state where the stoking has no effect on the pre-existing nondynamo properties and a state where the effect of stoking is easily detectable. We find that in this regime, (a

  14. Animal Board Invited Review: Comparing conventional and organic livestock production systems on different aspects of sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Haas, de Y.; Hogeveen, H.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2017-01-01

    To sustainably contribute to food security of a growing and richer world population, livestock production systems are challenged to increase production levels while reducing environmental impact, being economically viable, and socially responsible. Knowledge about the sustainability performance

  15. Large combined heat and power plants in sustainable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, the electricity supply and power plant operation are challenged by increasing amounts of fluctuating renewable energy sources. A smart energy system should be developed to integrate as much energy supply from fluctuating renewable sources and to utilise the scarce biomass....... It is concluded that the CCGT CHP plant is the most feasible both from a technical analysis and a market economic analysis with electricity exchange. It is found that the current economic framework for large CHP plants in Denmark generates a mismatch between socio economy and business economy as well...... as an unsustainable level of biomass consumption. Therefore, the regulatory framework should generally be considered in long-term planning of sustainable CHP systems....

  16. Selecting, adapting, and sustaining programs in health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullig, Leah L; Bosworth, Hayden B

    2015-01-01

    Practitioners and researchers often design behavioral programs that are effective for a specific population or problem. Despite their success in a controlled setting, relatively few programs are scaled up and implemented in health care systems. Planning for scale-up is a critical, yet often overlooked, element in the process of program design. Equally as important is understanding how to select a program that has already been developed, and adapt and implement the program to meet specific organizational goals. This adaptation and implementation requires attention to organizational goals, available resources, and program cost. We assert that translational behavioral medicine necessitates expanding successful programs beyond a stand-alone research study. This paper describes key factors to consider when selecting, adapting, and sustaining programs for scale-up in large health care systems and applies the Knowledge to Action (KTA) Framework to a case study, illustrating knowledge creation and an action cycle of implementation and evaluation activities.

  17. Application of semifluidized bed bioreactor as novel bioreactor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conventional bioreactors such as pond digester, anaerobic filtration, up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), up-flow anaerobic sludge fixed-film (UASFF), continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), anaerobic contact digestion and fluidized bed, used over the past decades are largely operated anaerobically. They have ...

  18. Multiscale study of hydrodynamics, mixing and gas-liquid mass transfer in a stirred-tank bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    de Lamotte, Anne

    2018-01-01

    The growth of industrial biotechnology has created a pull for advancing bioreactor design. The requirements of the culture system have led to a variety of technical issues that generally involve transfer of mass and energy. Predicting bioreactor performance has proved to be complex as it requires not only a deep knowledge of all the biological aspects, but also a proper characterization of transport and transfer phenomena within the bioreactor which are equipment design and scale dependent. I...

  19. Toward cropping systems that enhance productivity and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R. James

    2006-01-01

    The defining features of any cropping system are (i) the crop rotation and (ii) the kind or intensity of tillage. The trend worldwide starting in the late 20th century has been (i) to specialize competitively in the production of two, three, a single, or closely related crops such as different market classes of wheat and barley, and (ii) to use direct seeding, also known as no-till, to cut costs and save soil, time, and fuel. The availability of glyphosate- and insect-resistant varieties of soybeans, corn, cotton, and canola has helped greatly to address weed and insect pest pressures favored by direct seeding these crops. However, little has been done through genetics and breeding to address diseases caused by residue- and soil-inhabiting pathogens that remain major obstacles to wider adoption of these potentially more productive and sustainable systems. Instead, the gains have been due largely to innovations in management, including enhancement of root defense by antibiotic-producing rhizosphere-inhabiting bacteria inhibitory to root pathogens. Historically, new varieties have facilitated wider adoption of new management, and changes in management have facilitated wider adoption of new varieties. Although actual yields may be lower in direct-seed compared with conventional cropping systems, largely due to diseases, the yield potential is higher because of more available water and increases in soil organic matter. Achieving the full production potential of these more-sustainable cropping systems must now await the development of varieties adapted to or resistant to the hazards shown to account for the yield depressions associated with direct seeding. PMID:17130454

  20. Welfare and Generational Equity in Sustainable Unfunded Pension Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Alan J.; Lee, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Using stochastic simulations we analyze how public pension structures spread the risks arising from demographic and economic shocks across generations. We consider several actual and hypothetical sustainable PAYGO pension structures, including: (1) versions of the US Social Security system with annual adjustments of taxes or benefits to maintain fiscal balance; (2) Sweden’s Notional Defined Contribution system and several variants developed to improve fiscal stability; and (3) the German system, which also includes annual adjustments to maintain fiscal balance. For each system, we present descriptive measures of uncertainty in representative outcomes for a typical generation and across generations. We then estimate expected utility for generations based on simplifying assumptions and incorporate these expected utility calculations in an overall social welfare measure. Using a horizontal equity index, we also compare the different systems’ performance in terms of how neighboring generations are treated. While the actual Swedish system smoothes stochastic fluctuations more than any other and produces the highest degree of horizontal equity, it does so by accumulating a buffer stock of assets that alleviates the need for frequent adjustments. In terms of social welfare, this accumulation of assets leads to a lower average rate of return that more than offsets the benefits of risk reduction, leaving systems with more frequent adjustments that spread risks broadly among generations as those most preferred. PMID:21818166

  1. LTCC based bioreactors for cell cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, H.; Welker, T.; Welker, K.; Witte, H.; Müller, J.

    2016-01-01

    LTCC multilayers offer a wide range of structural options and flexibility of connections not available in standard thin film technology. Therefore they are considered as material base for cell culture reactors. The integration of microfluidic handling systems and features for optical and electrical capturing of indicators for cell culture growth offers the platform for an open system concept. The present paper assesses different approaches for the creation of microfluidic channels in LTCC multilayers. Basic functions required for the fluid management in bioreactors include temperature and flow control. Both features can be realized with integrated heaters and temperature sensors in LTCC multilayers. Technological conditions for the integration of such elements into bioreactors are analysed. The temperature regulation for the system makes use of NTC thermistor sensors which serve as real value input for the control of the heater. It allows the adjustment of the fluid temperature with an accuracy of 0.2 K. The tempered fluid flows through the cell culture chamber. Inside of this chamber a thick film electrode array monitors the impedance as an indicator for the growth process of 3-dimensional cell cultures. At the system output a flow sensor is arranged to monitor the continual flow. For this purpose a calorimetric sensor is implemented, and its crucial design parameters are discussed. Thus, the work presented gives an overview on the current status of LTCC based fluid management for cell culture reactors, which provides a promising base for the automation of cell culture processes.

  2. The application of appropriate technologies and systems for sustainable sanitation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duncker, Louiza C

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development, which encompasses sustainable sanitation, is defined as development that is appropriate, has the specific objectives of accelerated growth, targeted interventions and community mobilisation to eradicate poverty and focuses...

  3. Environmental Control in Flow Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Giusti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The realization of physiologically-relevant advanced in vitro models is not just related to the reproduction of a three-dimensional multicellular architecture, but also to the maintenance of a cell culture environment in which parameters, such as temperature, pH, and hydrostatic pressure are finely controlled. Tunable and reproducible culture conditions are crucial for the study of environment-sensitive cells, and can also be used for mimicking pathophysiological conditions related with alterations of temperature, pressure and pH. Here, we present the SUITE (Supervising Unit for In Vitro Testing system, a platform able to monitor and adjust local environmental variables in dynamic cell culture experiments. The physical core of the control system is a mixing chamber, which can be connected to different bioreactors and acts as a media reservoir equipped with a pH meter and pressure sensors. The chamber is heated by external resistive elements and the temperature is controlled using a thermistor. A purpose-built electronic control unit gathers all data from the sensors and controls the pH and hydrostatic pressure by regulating air and CO2 overpressure and flux. The system’s modularity and the possibility of imposing different pressure conditions were used to implement a model of portal hypertension with both endothelial and hepatic cells. The results show that the SUITE platform is able to control and maintain cell culture parameters at fixed values that represent either physiological or pathological conditions. Thus, it represents a fundamental tool for the design of biomimetic in vitro models, with applications in disease modelling or toxicity testing.

  4. Effect of yogic education system and modern education system on sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, R; Nagendra, H R; Bhatt, Ramachandra

    2009-01-01

    Sustained attention is a vital function mediated by the right frontoparietal cortex. The Six Letter Cancellation Task (SLCT) measures sustained attention. Development of sustained attention in a yoga-based education system compared to a modern one is the theme of the present study. To compare the effectiveness of the Modern Education System (MES) and the Gurukula Education System (GES) in developing sustained attention. Forty nine boys (11-13 years) were selected from two residential schools, one MES and the other GES, providing similar ambiance and daily routines. The boys were matched for age and socioeconomic status. The GES educational program is based around integrated yoga modules while the MES provides a conventional modern education program. Sustained attention was assessed using the SLCT at the start and end of an academic year. Within groups, the pre-post test differences were significant for both groups. However, the between groups result showed improvement in the GES group compared to the MES group at a P < 0.001 significance level. The study suggests that both MES and GES improve sustained attention in school boys, but GES is more effective.

  5. Innovative Integrated Management System (IIMS for Sustainable Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suttiprasit Prasert

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is evident that the long-term survival and growth of global food industry depend on the availability and efficient use of raw materials, energy and water and other facilities under the concept of sustainable practice, i.e. in environment, society and economics. Quality and safety managements are essential to ensure that the industry can continue to support the communities in which it operates. Awarding a number of certifications to show the high standing of international quality and hygiene characteristics are currently necessary, e.g. ISO 9001: 2000, GMP/GHP, HACCP, ISO 22000, BRC and etc. To minimize the cost and maximize the efficiency, the Innovative Integration Management System (IIMS has been implemented effectively under the frameworks of sustainability in a numbers of national and international food production companies in Thailand during the past years. This will allow the organization to integrate all common processes such as management review, document control, record control, training, monitoring & measuring, data analysing, internal audits, and corrective and preventive actions whereas the critical or specific processes required by each standard are still retained harmoniously with the others.

  6. Sustainability in CALL Learning Environments: A Systemic Functional Grammar Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to define a sustainable resource in Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). In order for a CALL resource to be sustainable it must work within existing educational curricula. This feature is a necessary prerequisite of sustainability because, despite the potential for educational change that digitalization has offered since…

  7. Applicability and methodology of determining sustainable yield in groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalf, Frans R. P.; Woolley, Donald R.

    2005-03-01

    There is currently a need for a review of the definition and methodology of determining sustainable yield. The reasons are: (1) current definitions and concepts are ambiguous and non-physically based so cannot be used for quantitative application, (2) there is a need to eliminate varying interpretations and misinterpretations and provide a sound basis for application, (3) the notion that all groundwater systems either are or can be made to be sustainable is invalid, (4) often there are an excessive number of factors bound up in the definition that are not easily quantifiable, (5) there is often confusion between production facility optimal yield and basin sustainable yield, (6) in many semi-arid and arid environments groundwater systems cannot be sensibly developed using a sustained yield policy particularly where ecological constraints are applied. Derivation of sustainable yield using conservation of mass principles leads to expressions for basin sustainable, partial (non-sustainable) mining and total (non-sustainable) mining yields that can be readily determined using numerical modelling methods and selected on the basis of applied constraints. For some cases there has to be recognition that the groundwater resource is not renewable and its use cannot therefore be sustainable. In these cases, its destiny should be the best equitable use. devenir durable est invalide (4) souvent il y a un nombre de facteurs excessif qui se rejoignent dans la définition, et qui ne sont pas toujours quantifiables (5) il y a souvent confusion entre le débit durable et optimal et le débit spécifique durable (6) dans de nombreux environnements arides et semi-arides, les systèmes d'eau souterraine ne peuvent être sensiblement développés selon une politique de développement durable particulière où les contraintes écologiques sont appliquées. La dérivation du débit spécifique en utilisant le principe de la conservation des masses mène à l'expression de d

  8. Sustaining Inner and Outer Worlds: A Whole-Systems Approach to Developing Sustainable Business Practices in Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Hilary

    2003-01-01

    Provides a rationale for applying holistic systems thinking to sustainable development Suggests student activities for four topics: (1) exploration of external organizational environment; (2) inner-directed exploration of the natural world; (3) exploration of the individual's world; and (4) personal impact on the larger system. (Contains 29…

  9. Incentive Systems That Support Sustainability: A First Nations Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L. Trosper

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior to contact with European settlers, the incentive and governance systems used by First Nations peoples of the Northwest coast of North America provided more sustainable use of the fisheries and other resources of that region than did subsequent systems. This paper explores the major reason for that success: the requirements of the potlatch system that chiefs share their income with each other. Because chiefs controlled well-defined territories and subjected each other to review, the potlatch governance system embodied the characteristics of negative feedback, coordination, resiliency, and robustness that political scientist John Dryzek identifies as means to support ecological rationality in the management of ecosystems. This ecological rationality occurs because the sharing of income made chiefs aware of the effects that their actions had on the income of other chiefs. In addition, public discussions that occurred at feasts would allow chiefs to coordinate their actions as needed. The paper concludes with proposals for application of the potlatch system to modern circumstances. Such application means changing the rules for the distribution of income from using ecosystem resources so that all entities share their surplus income with each other. The potlatch system can be applied to modern organizations by noting that chief executive officers are like chiefs, that profit is like surplus income, and that corporations can be viewed as similar to the houses of the traditional Northwest systems. One major change is that profit is no longer privately owned, and must be shared with other organizations that use an ecosystem. Although controls on behavior mandated by state power would be reduced, a modernized potlatch system would still need to operate within a context provided by governments and international agreements.

  10. Effect of temperature shocks on membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den P.; Satpradit, O.A.; Bentem, van A.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Temmink, B.G.; Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Temperature is known to influence the biological performance of conventional activated sludge systems. In membrane bioreactors (MBRs), temperature not only affects the bioconversion process but is also shown to have an effect on the membrane performance. Four phenomena are generally reported to

  11. Pharmaceutical proteins produced in plant bioreactor in recent years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant bioreactor could be a safe, economic and convenient production system, and can been widely applied in industries and agricultures, especially in the life science and pharmaceutical industry. The application of transgenic plant in the production of vaccines, antibodies and pharmaceutical proteins has become a hot ...

  12. A greenhouse-scale photosynthetic microbial bioreactor for carbon sequestration in magnesium carbonate minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Jenine; Power, Ian M; Harrison, Anna L; Dipple, Gregory M; Southam, Gordon

    2014-08-19

    A cyanobacteria dominated consortium collected from an alkaline wetland located near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada accelerated the precipitation of platy hydromagnesite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O] in a linear flow-through experimental model wetland. The concentration of magnesium decreased rapidly within 2 m of the inflow point of the 10-m-long (∼1.5 m(2)) bioreactor. The change in water chemistry was monitored over two months along the length of the channel. Carbonate mineralization was associated with extra-cellular polymeric substances in the nutrient-rich upstream portion of the bioreactor, while the lower part of the system, which lacked essential nutrients, did not exhibit any hydromagnesite precipitation. A mass balance calculation using the water chemistry data produced a carbon sequestration rate of 33.34 t of C/ha per year. Amendment of the nutrient deficiency would intuitively allow for increased carbonation activity. Optimization of this process will have application as a sustainable mining practice by mediating magnesium carbonate precipitation in ultramafic mine tailings storage facilities.

  13. Treatment of textile wastewater with membrane bioreactor: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Veeriah; Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Chen, Jingyu; Navaratna, Dimuth; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Shu, Li

    2016-03-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has been used widely for various industrial wastewater treatments due to its distinct advantages over conventional bioreactors. Treatment of textile wastewater using MBR has been investigated as a simple, reliable and cost-effective process with a significant removal of contaminants. However, a major drawback in the operation of MBR is membrane fouling, which leads to the decline in permeate flux and therefore requires membrane cleaning. This eventually decreases the lifespan of the membrane. In this paper, the application of aerobic and anaerobic MBR for textile wastewater treatment as well as fouling and control of fouling in MBR processes have been reviewed. It has been found that long sludge retention time increases the degradation of pollutants by allowing slow growing microorganisms to establish but also contributes to membrane fouling. Further research aspects of MBR for textile wastewater treatment are also considered for sustainable operations of the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. SUNRA - a sustainability rating system framework for National Road Administrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sowerby, Chris; Langstraat, James; Harmer, Clare

    , environmental and economic aspects of managing a road network. Whilst there is common understanding in some aspects of sustainability there is not a common understanding of sustainability as a whole and thus how to benchmark and improve overall performance. The Sustainability: National Road Administrations......National Road Administrations (NRAs) across Europe strive to improve the performance of their road networks. This improvement has been underpinned by significant research in the optimisation of road planning, design, construction and maintenance, which has enhanced the understanding of the social...... (SUNRA) project aims to provide a common way of defining sustainability, identify how to measure sustainable development at a strategic level and integrate sustainable decision making into key intervention points. The project has developed a series of sustainability frameworks that allow NRAs to develop...

  15. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Aggerholm, Søren

    One of the important issues related to the implementation of future sustainable smart energy systems based on renewable energy sources is the heating of buildings. Especially, when it comes to long‐term investment in savings and heating infrastructures it is essential to identify long‐term least......‐cost strategies. With Denmark as a case, this paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish governmental long...... that a least‐cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating and the rest from individual heat pumps. Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Renewable energy, Heating strategy, Heat savings, District heating, Smart energy...

  16. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Lund

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used in future sustainable smart energy systems. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish governmental 2050 fossil-free vision, this paper identifies marginal heat production costs and compares these to marginal heat savings costs for two different levels of district heating. A suitable least-cost heating strategy seems to be to invest in an approximately 50% decrease in net heat demands in new buildings and buildings that are being renovated anyway, while the implementation of heat savings in buildings that are not being renovated hardly pays. Moreover, the analysis points in the direction that a least-cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating and the rest from individual heat pumps.

  17. Strategies for sustainable development of the Polish electric power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janiczek, R.

    1996-01-01

    The key features of sustainable development of the Polish electric power industry are discussed. Priorities and limitations for changes and power demand forecasts are described. Results of least-cost planning for existing power plants' modernization and generation expansion with environmental impacts are presented. The least-cost strategy is given by the optimal upgrades of older plants until year 2002 and by expansion of gas-fired units. The limited availability of gas after 2010 will lead to the construction of new coal-fired plants. For the next planning process, an integrated resource planning methodology is proposed, which includes dynamic optimization of supply and demand side options. Innovative mechanisms are shown to overcome barriers of development like long-terms contracts and decentralization of the power system planning process. (author)

  18. Significance of Building Maintenance Management Systems towards Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Othuman Mydin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Building maintenance management is an organized and effective system of maintenance operations which is set up to deal with problems related to the upkeep of a building. Its goal, aside from locating and remedying a building’s deficiencies, is to effectively minimize the overall costs of maintenance and is also an effort to maximize the gain and benefits from the savings. There are a few factors that influence decisions to undertake maintenance work. The principal goal of maintenance is to protect a building in the early stage of issues as they arise. Some major reasons for maintaining a building include retaining its reputation and value of investments, maintaining the building in a condition which allows it to accomplish its purpose, and presenting a good outer shell. This paper will review and discuss some of the major elements of building maintenance towards achieving sustainable buildings.

  19. Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation—A Sustainable Development Systems Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom R. Burns

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the concepts of sustainability and sustainable development in relation to disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. We conceptualize sustainability from a social systemic perspective, that is, from a perspective that encompasses the multiple functionalities of a social system and their interrelationships in particular environmental contexts. The systems perspective is applied in our consideration and analysis of disaster risk reduction (DRR, climate change adaptation (CCA, and sustainable development (SD. Section “Sustainability and Sustainable Development” introduces briefly sustainability and sustainable development, followed by a brief presentation of the theory of complex social systems (Section “Social System Model”. The theory conceptualizes interdependent subsystems, their multiple functionalities, and the agential and systemic responses to internal and external stressors on a social system. Section “Case Studies of Response to Stressors” considers disaster risk reduction (DRR and climate change adaptation (CCA, emerging in response to one or more systemic stressors. It illustrates these with disaster risk reduction in the cases of food and chemical security regulation in the EU. CCA is illustrated by initiatives and developments on the island of Gotland, Sweden and in the Gothenburg Metropolitan area, which go beyond a limited CCA perspective, taking into account long-term sustainability issues. Section “Sustainable Development as a Societal Development System” discusses the limitations of DRR and CCA, not only their technical limitations but economic, socio-cultural, and political limitations, as informed from a sustainability perspective. It is argued that DRRs are only partial subsystems and must be considered and assessed in the context of a more encompassing systemic perspective. Part of the discussion is focused on the distinction between sustainable and non-sustainable DRRs and

  20. Sustainable Urban Agriculture in Ghana: What Governance System Works?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Bogweh Nchanji

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban farming takes advantage of its proximity to market, transport and other urban infrastructure to provide food for the city and sustain the livelihoods of urban and peri-urban dwellers. It is an agricultural activity which employs more than 50% of the local urban population with positive and negative impacts on local and national development. Urban agriculture is an informal activity not supported by law but in practice is regulated to a certain extent by state institutions, traditional rulers, farmers and national and international non-governmental organisations. Tamale’s rapid population growth, exacerbated by the unplanned development system and institutional conflicts, are factors contributing to the present bottlenecks in the urban agricultural system. In this paper, these bottlenecks are conceptualised as problems of governance. These issues will be illustrated using ethnographic data from land sales, crop-livestock competition, waste-water irrigation, and markets. I will explain how conflicts which arise from these different situations are resolved through the interactions of various governance systems. Informal governance arrangements are widespread, but neither they nor formal systems are always successful in resolving governance issues. A participatory governance does not seem possible due to actors’ divergent interests. A governance solution for this sector is not yet apparent, contributing to food and nutritional insecurity.

  1. Sustainable urban systems: Co-design and framing for transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert; Bai, Xuemei; Smith, Mark Stafford; Costanza, Robert; Griggs, David; Moglia, Magnus; Neuman, Michael; Newman, Peter; Newton, Peter; Norman, Barbara; Ryan, Chris; Schandl, Heinz; Steffen, Will; Tapper, Nigel; Thomson, Giles

    2018-02-01

    Rapid urbanisation generates risks and opportunities for sustainable development. Urban policy and decision makers are challenged by the complexity of cities as social-ecological-technical systems. Consequently there is an increasing need for collaborative knowledge development that supports a whole-of-system view, and transformational change at multiple scales. Such holistic urban approaches are rare in practice. A co-design process involving researchers, practitioners and other stakeholders, has progressed such an approach in the Australian context, aiming to also contribute to international knowledge development and sharing. This process has generated three outputs: (1) a shared framework to support more systematic knowledge development and use, (2) identification of barriers that create a gap between stated urban goals and actual practice, and (3) identification of strategic focal areas to address this gap. Developing integrated strategies at broader urban scales is seen as the most pressing need. The knowledge framework adopts a systems perspective that incorporates the many urban trade-offs and synergies revealed by a systems view. Broader implications are drawn for policy and decision makers, for researchers and for a shared forward agenda.

  2. Business travel and sustainability. Part III. In: Handbook of Sustainable Travel: People, Society, and Transportation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    AGUILERA, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Business travel has been relatively neglected in strategies to promote sustainable travel. A two-stage approach is taken beginning by showing how sustainability of business travel is relevant not only environmentally, but also from an economic and social perspective. On the one hand, this form of travel helps to generate jobs in numerous business sectors, not only in transportation. On the other hand, the social dimension cannot be ignored either, since business travel is often a source of fa...

  3. Nonregenerative natural resources in a sustainable system of energy supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Alex M; Hamacher, Thomas

    2012-03-12

    Following the lead of the European Union in introducing binding measures to promote the use of regenerative energy forms, it is not unreasonable to assume that the global demand for combustible raw materials for energy generation will be reduced considerably in the second half of this century. This will not only have a favourable effect on the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere, but will also help preserve fossil fuels-important as raw materials in the chemical industry-for future generations. Nevertheless, associated with the concomitant massive shift to regenerative energy forms, there will be a strong demand for other exhaustible raw materials, in particular metals, some of which are already regarded as scarce. After reviewing the debate on mineral depletion between "cornucopians" and "pessimists", we discuss the meaning of mineral "scarcity", particularly in the geochemical sense, and mineral "exhaustion". The expected drastic increase in demand for mineral resources caused by demographic and societal pressures, that is, due to the increase in in-use stock, is emphasised. Whilst not discussing the issue of "strong" versus "weak" sustainability in detail, we conclude that regenerative energy systems-like nearly all resource-consuming systems in our society-do not necessarily satisfy generally accepted sustainability criteria. In this regard, we discuss some current examples, namely, lithium and cobalt for batteries, rare earth-based permanent magnets for wind turbines, cadmium and tellurium for solar cells and copper for electrical power distribution. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Full system decontamination (FSD) for sustainable dose reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiepani, Christoph; Sempere-Belda, Luis; Topf, Christian; Basu, Ashim

    2012-09-01

    Nuclear power plants experience an increase in dose rates during operation due to the build-up of the activity inventory. The activity build-up is influenced by the construction materials, past and present water chemistries, and the individual operating history of the plant. Depending on these factors the dose levels in an operating plant may reach a point in which concrete actions to reduce the overall radiation exposure become necessary. In the past dose reduction plans were performed, based on - Modification in coolant water chemistry - Substitution of Cobalt containing materials - Outage optimization program - Installation of permanent shielding - Decontamination The dose rate reduction took several years and today a stagnation of further dose rate reduction can be seen. Therefore AREVA has developed the Concept for Sustainable Dose Reduction in Operating BWRs and PWRs. This is a program of joint corrective measures to minimize dose levels rapidly and keep them low for continued operation. It can be applied in plants from all constructors and designs. The concept is based fully on the application of proven technologies, including: - Full System Decontamination with AREVA's decontamination process HP/CORD UV to minimize the activity inventory - The formation of new, very stable protective oxides on the system surfaces including injection of depleted zinc - Introduction of advanced water chemistry for maintaining the low dose levels achieved during ongoing operation The implementation of this program is particularly interesting for plants with a long operation history, especially when considering life extension. The latest application was performed successfully at the German PWR Grafenrheinfeld in 2010. In this paper the concept for sustainable dose reduction will be outlined and the site application detailed and the achieved results at PWR Grafenrheinfeld will be described. The recontamination after one cycle will be outlined in a second paper. (authors)

  5. A System of Systems (SoS) Approach to Sustainable Energy Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Kaveh; Hadian, Saeed

    2015-04-01

    The general policy of mandating fossil fuel replacement with "green" energies may not be as effective and environmental-friendly as perceived, due to the secondary impacts of renewable energies on different natural resources. An integrated systems analysis framework is essential to developing sustainable energy supply systems with minimal unintended impacts on valuable natural resources such as water, climate, and ecosystem. This presentation discusses how a system of systems (SoS) framework can be developed to quantitatively evaluate the desirability of different energy supply alternatives with respect to different sustainability criteria under uncertainty. Relative Aggregate Footprint (RAF) scores of a range of renewable and nonrenewable energy alternatives are determined using their performance values under four sustainability criteria, namely carbon footprint, water footprint, land footprint, and cost of energy production. Our results suggest that despite their lower emissions, some renewable energy sources are less promising than non-renewable energy sources from a SoS perspective that considers the trade-offs between carbon footprint of energies and their effects on water, ecosystem, and economic resources. A new framework based on the Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) is also proposed for analyzing the overall sustainability of different energy mixes for different risk of return levels with respect to the trade-offs involved. It is discussed how the proposed finance-based sustainability evaluation method can help policy makers maximize the energy portfolio's expected sustainability for a given amount of portfolio risk, or equivalently minimize risk for a given level of expected sustainability level, by revising the energy mix.

  6. MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR FOR TREATMENT OF RECALCITRANT WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprihatin Suprihatin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The low biodegradable wastewaters remain a challenge in wastewater treatment technology. The performance of membrane bioreactor systems with submerged hollow fiber micro- and ultrafiltration membrane modules were examined for purifying recalcitrant wastewaters of leachate of a municipal solid waste open dumping site and effluent of pulp and paper mill. The use of MF and UF membrane bioreactor systems showed an efficient treatment for both types wastewaters with COD reduction of 80-90%. The membrane process achieved the desirable effects of maintaining reasonably high biomass concentration and long sludge retention time, while producing a colloid or particle free effluent. For pulp and paper mill effluent a specific sludge production of 0.11 kg MLSS/kg COD removed was achieved. A permeate flux of about 5 L/m²h could be achieved with the submerged microfiltration membrane. Experiments using ultrafiltration membrane produced relatively low permeate fluxes of 2 L/m²h. By applying periodical backwash, the flux could be improved significantly. It was indicated that the particle or colloid deposition on membrane surface was suppressed by backwash, but reformation of deposit was not effectively be prevented by shear-rate effect of aeration. Particle and colloid started to accumulate soon after backwash. Construction of membrane module and operation mode played a critical role in achieving the effectiveness of aeration in minimizing deposit formation on the membrane surface.

  7. Development and application of a multi-attribute sustainability function for Dutch dairy farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calker, van K.J.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Romero, C.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Sustainability in dairy farming is determined by using aspects (economic, social and ecological). Per aspect a number of measurable attributes is selected. Difficulty for determining the sustainability of farming systems is the combination of the different attribute measures into a sustainability

  8. Workshop in a Box: Sustainable Management of Rural and Small Water and Wastewater Systems Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    A resource to help rural and small systems and communities to conduct workshops, either for an individual system or for a group of systems, based on the Rural and Small Systems Guidebook to Sustainable Utility Management.

  9. Hydraulic Behavior in The Downflow Hanging Sponge Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izarul Machdar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Performance efficiency in a Downflow Hanging Sponge (DHS bioreactor is associated with the amount of time that a wastewater remains in the bioreactor. The bioreactor is considered as a plug flow reactor and its hydraulic residence time (HRT depends on the void volume of packing material and the flow rate. In this study, hydraulic behavior of DHS bioreactor was investigated by using tracer method. Two types of sponge module covers, cylindrical plastic frame (module-1 and plastic hair roller (module-2, were investigated and compared. A concentrated NaCl solution used as an inert tracer and input as a pulse at the inlet of DHS bioreactor. Analysis of the residence time distribution (RTD curves provided interpretation of the index distribution or holdup water (active volume, the degree of short-circuiting, number of tanks in series (the plug flow characteristic, and the dispersion number. It was found that the actual HRT was primarily shorter than theoretical HRT of each test. Holdup water of the DHS bioreactor ranged from 60% to 97% and 36% to 60% of module-1 and module-2, respectively. Eventhough module-1 has higher effective volume than module-2, result showed that the dispersion numbers of the two modules were not significant difference. Furthermore, N-values were found larger at a higher flow rate. It was concluded that a DHS bioreactor design should incorporated a combination of water distributor system, higher loading rate at startup process to generate a hydraulic behavior closer to an ideal plug flow.ABSTRAKEfisiensi unjuk kerja bioreactor Downflow Hanging Sponge (DHS berkaitan dengan lamanya waktu tinggal limbah berada di dalam bioreaktor tersebut. Bioreaktor DHS dianggap sebagai seuatu reaktor aliran sumbat (plug flow dimana waktu tinggal hidraulik (HRT tergantung pada volume pori material isian dan laju alir. Dua jenis modul digunakan dalam penelitian ini, yang diberi nama dengan module-1 dan module-2 untuk melihat pengaruh jenis modul

  10. Community, culture and sustainability in multilevel dynamic systems intervention science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schensul, Jean J

    2009-06-01

    This paper addresses intertwined issues in the conceptualization, implementation and evaluation of multilevel dynamic systems intervention science (MDSIS). Interventions are systematically planned, conducted and evaluated social science-based cultural products intercepting the lives of people and institutions in the context of multiple additional events and processes (which also may be referred to as interventions) that may speed, slow or reduce change towards a desired outcome. Multilevel interventions address change efforts at multiple social levels in the hope that effects at each level will forge synergistic links, facilitating movement toward desired change. This paper utilizes an ecological framework that identifies macro (policy and regulatory institutions), meso (organizations and agencies with resources, and power) and micro (individuals, families and friends living in communities) interacting directly and indirectly. An MDSIS approach hypothesizes that change toward a goal will occur faster and more effectively when synchronized and supported across levels in a social system. MDSIS approaches by definition involve "whole" communities and cannot be implemented without the establishments of working community partnerships This paper takes a dynamic systems approach to science as conducted in communities, and discusses four concepts that are central to MDSIS--science, community, culture, and sustainability. These concepts are important in community based participatory research and to the targeting, refinement, and adaptation of enduring interventions. Consistency in their meaning and use can promote forward movement in the field of MDSIS, and in community-based prevention science.

  11. Evaluating the Sustainability of the Spanish Social Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Blanco-Encomienda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Social security has remarkable relevance in the general context of Spanish economy. This system is viable if the volume of active population increases at a higher rate than the number of pensioners does and if, in addition, active population is employed by the productive system. The reports of the National Institute of Statistics about Spanish demography demonstrate how these conditions are not met as of today, because our society has one of the highest aging rates and also a remarkable increase in the dependency rate. Through various techniques of time series analysis, this paper reveals the current economic trends in Spain to demonstrate the need for structural reforms of the system so as to make it more sustainable in the long term. To achieve this, it is necessary to change the financing model to a mixed one where the capitalization method plays a significant role, and also to implement urgent measures in order to reduce the barriers to business and employment development.

  12. Economic sustainability of organic dairy sheep systems in Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Toro-Mujica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sheep production systems in regions with a Mediterranean climate are important in social, economic and environmental terms. Modeling these systems allows, among others, evaluation of the costs efficiencies which in turn permits assessing the expected effects of changes in production variables. This paper presents a prototype analysis of the economic sustainability of ecological dairy sheep systems of Castilla-La Mancha, Central Spain evaluated through the estimation of costs efficiencies. Costs functions were developed using data from 31 farms. Rate of supplementary feeding, labour use, and flock size were used to measure the cost efficiency. On average, cost efficiency was 61.7±15.5%, with significant differences among typological groups. High efficiency was found in only 29% of the farms. The economic analyses performed suggest that the continued existence of economically unsustainably farms is explained by the available subsidies, lack of amortization of fixed assets leading to progressive decapitalization, and subsistence incomes by family groups (gross family income.

  13. Chitosan nanoparticle based delivery systems for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Prem Lal; Xiang, Xu; Heiden, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Development of technologies that improve food productivity without any adverse impact on the ecosystem is the need of hour. In this context, development of controlled delivery systems for slow and sustained release of agrochemicals or genetic materials is crucial. Chitosan has emerged as a valuable carrier for controlled delivery of agrochemicals and genetic materials because of its proven biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, and adsorption abilities. The major advantages of encapsulating agrochemicals and genetic material in a chitosan matrix include its ability to function as a protective reservoir for the active ingredients, protecting the ingredients from the surrounding environment while they are in the chitosan domain, and then controlling their release, allowing them to serve as efficient gene delivery systems for plant transformation or controlled release of pesticides. Despite the great progress in the use of chitosan in the area of medical and pharmaceutical sciences, there is still a wide knowledge gap regarding the potential application of chitosan for encapsulation of active ingredients in agriculture. Hence, the present article describes the current status of chitosan nanoparticle-based delivery systems in agriculture, and to highlight challenges that need to be overcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Spaceflight bioreactor studies of cells and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Lisa E; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2002-01-01

    Studies of the fundamental role of gravity in the development and function of biological organisms are a central component of the human exploration of space. Microgravity affects numerous physical phenomena relevant to biological research, including the hydrostatic pressure in fluid filled vesicles, sedimentation of organelles, and buoyancy-driven convection of flow and heat. These physical phenomena can in turn directly and indirectly affect cellular morphology, metabolism, locomotion, secretion of extracellular matrix and soluble signals, and assembly into functional tissues. Studies aimed at distinguishing specific effects of gravity on biological systems require the ability to: (i) control and systematically vary gravity, e.g. by utilizing the microgravity environment of space in conjunction with an in-flight centrifuge; and (ii) maintain constant all other factors in the immediate environment, including in particular concentrations and exchange rates of biochemical species and hydrodynamic shear. The latter criteria imply the need for gravity-independent mechanisms to provide for mass transport between the cells and their environment. Available flight hardware has largely determined the experimental design and scientific objectives of spaceflight cell and tissue culture studies carried out to date. Simple culture vessels have yielded important quantitative data, and helped establish in vitro models of cell locomotion, growth and differentiation in various mammalian cell types including embryonic lung cells [6], lymphocytes [2,8], and renal cells [7,31]. Studies done using bacterial cells established the first correlations between gravity-dependent factors such as cell settling velocity and diffusional distance and the respective cell responses [12]. The development of advanced bioreactors for microgravity cell and tissue culture and for tissue engineering has benefited both research areas and provided relevant in vitro model systems for studies of astronaut

  15. Dynamics of yeast immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors systems in ethanol fermentation from lactose-hydrolyzed whey and whey permeate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardo, Sabrina; Pereira, Gabriela Feix; Klein, Manuela P; Rech, Rosane; Hertz, Plinho F; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2016-01-01

    We studied the dynamics of ethanol production on lactose-hydrolyzed whey (LHW) and lactose-hydrolyzed whey permeate (LHWP) in batch fluidized-bed bioreactors using single and co-cultures of immobilized cells of industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-industrial strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus. Although the co-culture of S. cerevisiae CAT-1 and K. marxianus CCT 4086 produced two- to fourfold the ethanol productivity of single cultures of S. cerevisiae, the single cultures of the K. marxianus CCT 4086 produced the best results in both media (Y EtOH/S = 0.47-0.49 g g(-1) and Q P = 1.39-1.68 g L(-1) h(-1), in LHW and LHWP, respectively). Ethanol production on concentrated LHWP (180 g L(-1)) reached 79.1 g L(-1), with yields of 0.46 g g(-1) for K. marxianus CCT 4086 cultures. Repeated batches of fluidized-bed bioreactor on concentrated LHWP led to increased ethanol productivity, reaching 2.8 g L(-1) h(-1).

  16. Sustainable infrastructure system modeling under uncertainties and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongxi

    Infrastructure systems support human activities in transportation, communication, water use, and energy supply. The dissertation research focuses on critical transportation infrastructure and renewable energy infrastructure systems. The goal of the research efforts is to improve the sustainability of the infrastructure systems, with an emphasis on economic viability, system reliability and robustness, and environmental impacts. The research efforts in critical transportation infrastructure concern the development of strategic robust resource allocation strategies in an uncertain decision-making environment, considering both uncertain service availability and accessibility. The study explores the performances of different modeling approaches (i.e., deterministic, stochastic programming, and robust optimization) to reflect various risk preferences. The models are evaluated in a case study of Singapore and results demonstrate that stochastic modeling methods in general offers more robust allocation strategies compared to deterministic approaches in achieving high coverage to critical infrastructures under risks. This general modeling framework can be applied to other emergency service applications, such as, locating medical emergency services. The development of renewable energy infrastructure system development aims to answer the following key research questions: (1) is the renewable energy an economically viable solution? (2) what are the energy distribution and infrastructure system requirements to support such energy supply systems in hedging against potential risks? (3) how does the energy system adapt the dynamics from evolving technology and societal needs in the transition into a renewable energy based society? The study of Renewable Energy System Planning with Risk Management incorporates risk management into its strategic planning of the supply chains. The physical design and operational management are integrated as a whole in seeking mitigations against the

  17. Alternative aviation jet fuel sustainability evaluation report - task 3 : sustainability criteria and rating systems for the use in aircraft alternative fuel supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-31

    This report identifies criteria that can be used to evaluate the sustainability of biofuels introduced into the aviation fuel supply chain. It describes the inputs, criteria and outputs that can be used in a sustainability rating system. It identifie...

  18. Advanced and sustainable fuel cycles for innovative reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatz, J. P.; Malmbeck, R.; Purroy, D. S.; Soucek, P.; Inoue, T.; Uozumi, K.

    2007-01-01

    The key objective of nuclear energy systems of the future as defined by the Generation IV road map is to provide a sustainable energy generation for the future. It includes the requirement to minimize the nuclear waste produced and thereby notably reduce the long term stewardship burden in the future. It is therefore evident that the corresponding fuel cycles will play a central role in trying to achieve these goals by creating clean waste streams which contain almost exclusively the fission products. A new concept based on a grouped separation of actinides is widely discussed in this context, but it is of course a real challenge to achieve this type of separation since technologies available today have been developed to separate actinides from each other. In France, the CEA has launched extensive research programs in the ATALANTE facility in Marcoule to develop the advanced fuel cycles for new generation reactor systems. In this so called global actinide management (GAM) concept, the actinides are extracted in a sequence of chemical reactions (grouped actinide extraction (GANEX)) and immediately reintroduced in the fuel fabrication process is to use all actinides in the energy production process. The new group separation processes can be derived as in this case from aqueous techniques but also from so-called pyrochemical partitioning processes. Significant progress was made in recent years for both routes in the frame of the European research projects PARTNEW, PYROREP and EUROPART, mainly devoted to the separation of minor actinides in the frame of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) studies. The fuels used in the new generation reactors will be significantly different from the commercial fuels of today. Because of the fuel type and the very high burn-ups reached, pyrometallurgical reprocessing could be the preferred method. The limited solubility of some of the fuel materials in acidic aqueous solutions, the possibility to have an integrated irradiation and

  19. Determination of Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy sustainability indicators using fuzzy inference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkeman, Y.; Rizkyanti, R. A.; Hambali, E.

    2017-05-01

    Development of Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy faces an international challenge regarding to sustainability issue, indicated by the establishment of standards on sustainable bioenergy. Currently, Indonesia has sustainability standards limited to palm-oil cultivation, while other standards are lacking appropriateness for Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy sustainability regarding to real condition in Indonesia. Thus, Indonesia requires sustainability indicators for Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy to gain recognition and easiness in marketing it. Determination of sustainability indicators was accomplished through three stages, which were preliminary analysis, indicator assessment (using fuzzy inference system), and system validation. Global Bioenergy partnership (GBEP) was used as the standard for the assessment because of its general for use, internationally accepted, and it contained balanced proportion between environment, economic, and social aspects. Result showed that the number of sustainability indicators using FIS method are 21 indicators. The system developed has an accuracy of 85%.

  20. Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J.

    2011-09-01

    Transport currently represents approximately 19% of the global energy demand and accounts for about 23% of the global carbon dioxide emissions (IEA 2009). As the demand for mobility is expected to continue to increase in the coming decades, the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will require the evolution of transport, along with power generation, building design and manufacturing. The continued development of these sectors will need to include changes in energy sources, energy delivery, materials, infrastructure and human behavior. Pathways to reducing carbon from the transport sector have unique challenges and opportunities that are inherent to the human choices and behavioral patterns that mold the transportation systems and the associated energy needs. Technology, government investment, and regulatory policies have a significant impact on the formulation of transportation infrastructure; however, the role of human behavior and public acceptance on the efficiency and effectiveness of transport systems should not be underestimated. Although developed, rapidly developing, and underdeveloped nations face different challenges in the establishment of transport infrastructure that can meet transport needs while achieving sustainable carbon dioxide emissions, the constraints that establish the domain of possibilities are closely related for all nations. These constraints include capital investment, fuel supplies, power systems, and human behavior. Throughout the world, there are considerable efforts directed at advancing and optimizing the financing of sustainable infrastructures, the production of low carbon fuels, and the production of advanced power systems, but the foundational work on methods to understand human preferences and behavior within the context of transport and the valuation of reductions in carbon dioxide emissions is greatly lagging behind. These methods and the associated understanding of human behavior and the willingness to pay for

  1. A Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture that Supports a System of Systems Approach to Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Steve; Orr, Jim; O'Neil, Graham

    2004-01-01

    A mission-systems architecture based on a highly modular "systems of systems" infrastructure utilizing open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is absolutely essential for an affordable and sustainable space exploration program. This architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous systems, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimum sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the space shuttle program are applied to help define and refine the model.

  2. MANAGEMENT SYSTEM SUSTAINABILITY (BASED ON QMS, EMS, H&S AND BUSINESS INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M Andre

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is one of those buzz words recently introduced in our vocabulary to explain present state of life support systems. In this respect there are number of definitions which are describing specific aspect of sustainability notion. The management system is complex system and requires adequate tool to measure sustainability as the complexity property of management system. The lecture will enlight the historical background of the sustainability development and emphasizes its importance for the management system validation. The complexity of sustainability notion is characterized by multi-dimensional structure including indicators of different scale. The application of sustainability development to the management system requires respective methodology and procedure. The complexity of management system is defined as structure of elements which comprise individual functionality within the management system. Each element is described with number of indicators. The methodology is based on multi- criteria evaluation of the system. The Sustainability Index, which introduces the quality measure for the management system, is derived by agglomeration of indicators for those systems elements. Quality of the management system is an immanent property which requires specific procedure and methodology to be measured. One of the most reliably methods is the multi-criteria Sustainability Index measurement. This evaluation method is based on the priority list formation among the options under consideration, the essential feature of the evaluation method possibility to obtain the effect of different constrain on the priority list.

  3. Building knowledge systems for sustainable agriculture: supporting private advisors to adequately address sustainable farm management in regular service contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerkx, L.W.A.; Jansen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Advisory service provisioning on sustainability issues such as environmental care and food safety is considered suboptimal in privatized extension systems, which comprise a diverse set of private advisors. Apart from funding dedicated ‘public good’ projects, government also relies on these advisors

  4. Towards a systems approach to sustainable developments | Kutua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable development” as a concept was popularised by a 1987 report of the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development. The report defined sustainable development as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own ...

  5. Towards a systems approach to sustainable developments | Kutua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The report defined sustainable development as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. However, from this definition, we cannot ascertain the central intuition of the notion of sustainable development. Failure to do this makes it difficult ...

  6. Process Design and Application of Aerobic Hybrid Bioreactor in the Treatment of Municipal Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Sushovan Sarkar; Debabrata Mazumder

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid bioreactor having both suspended-growth and attached-growth bacteria is found a novel and excellent bioreactor system for treating the municipal wastewater containing inhibitory substrates too. In this reactor a fraction of substrate is used by suspended biomass and the remaining by attached biomass resulting in the competition between the two growths for the substrate. The combination of suspended and attached growth provides the system with enhanced biomass conce...

  7. Design and Performance of an Automated Bioreactor for Cell Culture Experiments in a Microgravity Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Kyu Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the development of a bioreactor for a cell-culture experiment on the International Space Station (ISS. The bioreactor is an experimental device for culturing mouse muscle cells in a microgravity environment. The purpose of the experiment was to assess the impact of microgravity on the muscles to address the possibility of longterm human residence in space. After investigation of previously developed bioreactors, and analysis of the requirements for microgravity cell culture experiments, a bioreactor design is herein proposed that is able to automatically culture 32 samples simultaneously. This reactor design is capable of automatic control of temperature, humidity, and culture-medium injection rate; and satisfies the interface requirements of the ISS. Since bioreactors are vulnerable to cell contamination, the medium-circulation modules were designed to be a completely replaceable, in order to reuse the bioreactor after each experiment. The bioreactor control system is designed to circulate culture media to 32 culture chambers at a maximum speed of 1 ml/min, to maintain the temperature of the reactor at 36±1°C, and to keep the relative humidity of the reactor above 70%. Because bubbles in the culture media negatively affect cell culture, a de-bubbler unit was provided to eliminate such bubbles. A working model of the reactor was built according to the new design, to verify its performance, and was used to perform a cell culture experiment that confirmed the feasibility of this device.

  8. Design and Performance of an Automated Bioreactor for Cell Culture Experiments in a Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youn-Kyu; Park, Seul-Hyun; Lee, Joo-Hee; Choi, Gi-Hyuk

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of a bioreactor for a cell-culture experiment on the International Space Station (ISS). The bioreactor is an experimental device for culturing mouse muscle cells in a microgravity environment. The purpose of the experiment was to assess the impact of microgravity on the muscles to address the possibility of longterm human residence in space. After investigation of previously developed bioreactors, and analysis of the requirements for microgravity cell culture experiments, a bioreactor design is herein proposed that is able to automatically culture 32 samples simultaneously. This reactor design is capable of automatic control of temperature, humidity, and culture-medium injection rate; and satisfies the interface requirements of the ISS. Since bioreactors are vulnerable to cell contamination, the medium-circulation modules were designed to be a completely replaceable, in order to reuse the bioreactor after each experiment. The bioreactor control system is designed to circulate culture media to 32 culture chambers at a maximum speed of 1 ml/min, to maintain the temperature of the reactor at 36°C, and to keep the relative humidity of the reactor above 70%. Because bubbles in the culture media negatively affect cell culture, a de-bubbler unit was provided to eliminate such bubbles. A working model of the reactor was built according to the new design, to verify its performance, and was used to perform a cell culture experiment that confirmed the feasibility of this device.

  9. Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

  10. Lipase-supported metal-organic framework bioreactor catalyzes warfarin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Ling; Yang, Ni-Shin; Chen, Ya-Ting; Lirio, Stephen; Wu, Cheng-You; Lin, Chia-Her; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2015-01-02

    A green and sustainable strategy synthesizes clinical medicine warfarin anticoagulant by using lipase-supported metal-organic framework (MOF) bioreactors (see scheme). These findings may be beneficial for future studies in the industrial production of chemical, pharmaceutical, and agrochemical precursors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Evaluation of sustainability of organic, integrated and conventional farming systems: a farm and field-scale analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacini, G.C.; Wossink, G.A.A.; Vazzana, C.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability. The principal purpose of this paper is to evaluate the financial and environmental aspects of sustainability of organic,

  12. Instrumentation, control, and automation for submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Robles Martínez, Ángel; Durán Pinzón, Freddy; Ruano García, María Victoria; Ribes Bertomeu, José; Rosado Muñoz, Alfredo; SECO TORRECILLAS, AURORA; FERRER, J.

    2015-01-01

    A submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) demonstration plant with two commercial hollow-fibre ultrafiltration systems (PURON® , Koch Membrane Systems, PUR-PSH31) was designed and operated for urban wastewater treatment. An instrumentation, control, and automation (ICA) system was designed and implemented for proper process performance. Several single-input-single-output (SISO) feedback control loops based on conventional on off and PID algorithms were implemented to control the follo...

  13. Experimental and CFD-PBM approach coupled with a simplified dynamic analysis of mass transfer in phenol biodegradation in a three phase system of an aerated two-phase partitioning bioreactor for environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradkhani, Hamed; Anarjan Kouchehbagh, Navideh; Izadkhah, Mir-Shahabeddin

    2017-03-01

    A three-dimensional transient modeling of a two-phase partitioning bioreactor, combining system hydrodynamics, two simultaneous mass transfer and microorganism growth is modeled using computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT 6.2. The simulation is based on standard "k-ɛ" Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes model. Population balance model is implemented in order to describe gas bubble coalescence, breakage and species transport in the reaction medium and to predict oxygen volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa). Model results are verified against experimental data and show good agreement as 13 classes of bubble size is taking into account. Flow behavior in different operational conditions is studied. Almost at all impeller speeds and aeration intensities there were acceptable distributions of species caused by proper mixing. The magnitude of dissolved oxygen percentage in aqueous phase has a direct correlation with impeller speed and any increasing of the aeration magnitude leads to faster saturation in shorter periods of time.

  14. Systems of innovation, the urban order and sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Björn

    2007-06-01

    Innovative cities are essential for the economic growth and development of countries. At the same time, however, social and environmental problems related to city growth can be serious threats to the full realisation of the socio-economic contribution that cities can make. City environments thus often provide both new problems and the creative and diverse environments, which make it possible to solve them. The question of whether or not sustainable development is possible largely will be answered in cities. This is also the case for problems related to waste management. Landfills may be located in the countryside, but if a country is to reduce environmental costs, the results will rest on the innovation power of cities. In this paper it is argued that the notion of a 'system of innovation' is helpful in understanding the factors that shape the processes of innovation and that determine the extent to which environmental problems may be solved. In this context, institutional innovation and political innovation as compared to technical innovation are of special importance.

  15. Implementation of a Sustainable Training System for Emergency in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunjoo Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThis study analyzed the project outcomes to share lessons regarding the development of an emergency medicine education system in Vietnam.MethodsRetrospective evaluation was implemented using project outcome indicators.ResultsA total of 13 training courses were administered, with the collaboration of international experts in Korea and Vietnam. A total of 23 kinds of emergency medicine education equipment were purchased, and a basic life support (BLS and two advanced cardiac life support labs were remodeled to provide appropriate simulation training. Throughout the 2 years of the project, nine Vietnamese BLS instructors were approved by the Korea Association of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation under American Heart Association. Results of evaluation by Korean international development experts were based on five criteria, provided by the Development Assistance Committee of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, were excellent. Success factors were identified as partnership, ownership, commitment, government support, and global networking.ConclusionProject indicators were all accomplished and received an excellent evaluation by external experts. For sustainable success, healthcare policy and legal regulation to promote high quality and safe service to the Vietnamese people are recommended.

  16. A Critical Review of Environmental Management System as a Tool for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galamba, Kirsten Ramskov

    2012-01-01

    for sustainability in a local authority FM-context. As a branding tool it might have some potential but there is a risk that the tool legitimizes non-sustainable practices as sustainable, which can lead to frustrations and resignation among employees willing to actually make a difference. Practical Implications......: Facilities managers in local authorities must be aware that when using management technologies as e.g. the environmental management system other means than the system are needed if they aim for sustainability in a broader sense. The instrumental rationality on which the systems are based can lead...

  17. A Critical Review of Environmental Management System as a Tool for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galamba, Kirsten Ramskov

    for sustainability in a local authority FM-context. As a branding tool it might have some potential but there is a risk that the tool legitimizes non-sustainable practices as sustainable, which can lead to frustrations and resignation among employees willing to actually make a difference. Practical Implications......: Facilities managers in local authorities must be aware that when using management technologies as e.g. the environmental management system other means than the system are needed if they aim for sustainability in a broader sense. The instrumental rationality on which the systems are based can lead...

  18. Simulating Sustainment for an Unmanned Logistics System Concept of Operation in Support of Distributed Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    SUSTAINMENT FOR AN UNMANNED LOGISTICS SYSTEM CONCEPT OF OPERATION IN SUPPORT OF DISTRIBUTED OPERATIONS by Elle M. Ekman June 2017 Thesis...REPORT DATE June 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SIMULATING SUSTAINMENT FOR AN UNMANNED LOGISTICS SYSTEM... logistics always seeks to remain responsive, flexible, and sustainable to successfully support highly maneuverable units dispersed over large

  19. Assessing sustainable land-use practices using geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Amelie Y.

    Many prominent scientists have claimed that we need to develop environmentally sustainable practices otherwise societies may collapse. The use of Geographic Information Systems allows detailed studies that can cross disciplinary boundaries and lead to quantifiable statements as to the change of land use practices that took place in the past and those that may occur in the future. This dissertation focuses on two research topics. One that attempts to quantify the environmental consequences of parking lots located in the Midwest, USA. The other research topic focuses on the land area needed to support ethanol in the United States. In Tippecanoe County, Indiana, it was determined that parking lots occupied approximately 6.6% of the urban areas, that the area devoted to parking lots exceeded the area devoted to urban parks by a factor of 3, and that these parking lots contributed to increased runoff of pollutants. The parking lots of Tippecanoe County were estimated to be responsible for 46.5 thousand pounds of oil and grease released annually in runoff, as well as an increase of 240.6 thousand pounds of suspended solids, and 65.7 pounds of lead released when compared to pre-development conditions. A method that scales up the county wide study was also developed to determine the areal footprint of parking lots with the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Wisconsin. It was estimated that these four states allocate approximately 1260 square km of their land to parking lots and that this accounts for 4.97% of urban land use and over 43 million parking spaces, whereas the number of individuals in age of driving (adults over 18 years old) amounted to just over 25 million. Within the four states studied, states where urban sprawl was considered more prevalent were also states that had a higher proportion of their urban land devoted to parking lots. The second dissertation topic focused on using GIS to locate suitable sites for corn or cellulosic based ethanol

  20. Simulation-based optimization of sustainable national energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batas Bjelić, Ilija; Rajaković, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    The goals of the EU2030 energy policy should be achieved cost-effectively by employing the optimal mix of supply and demand side technical measures, including energy efficiency, renewable energy and structural measures. In this paper, the achievement of these goals is modeled by introducing an innovative method of soft-linking of EnergyPLAN with the generic optimization program (GenOpt). This soft-link enables simulation-based optimization, guided with the chosen optimization algorithm, rather than manual adjustments of the decision vectors. In order to obtain EnergyPLAN simulations within the optimization loop of GenOpt, the decision vectors should be chosen and explained in GenOpt for scenarios created in EnergyPLAN. The result of the optimization loop is an optimal national energy master plan (as a case study, energy policy in Serbia was taken), followed with sensitivity analysis of the exogenous assumptions and with focus on the contribution of the smart electricity grid to the achievement of EU2030 goals. It is shown that the increase in the policy-induced total costs of less than 3% is not significant. This general method could be further improved and used worldwide in the optimal planning of sustainable national energy systems. - Highlights: • Innovative method of soft-linking of EnergyPLAN with GenOpt has been introduced. • Optimal national energy master plan has been developed (the case study for Serbia). • Sensitivity analysis on the exogenous world energy and emission price development outlook. • Focus on the contribution of smart energy systems to the EU2030 goals. • Innovative soft-linking methodology could be further improved and used worldwide.

  1. Start-up Strategy for Continuous Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. da Costa

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The start-up of continuous bioreactors is solved as an optimal control problem. The choice of the dilution rate as the control variable reduces the dimension of the system by making the use of the global balance equation unnecessary for the solution of the optimization problem. Therefore, for systems described by four or less mass balance equations, it is always possible to obtain an analytical expression for the singular arc as a function of only the state variables. The steady state conditions are shown to satisfy the singular arc expression and, based on this knowledge, a feeding strategy is proposed which leads the reactor from an initial state to the steady state of maximum productivity

  2. A system-of-systems approach as a broad and integrated paradigm for sustainable engineered nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolaymat, Thabet; El Badawy, Amro; Sequeira, Reynold; Genaidy, Ash

    2015-04-01

    There is an urgent need for a trans-disciplinary approach for the collective evaluation of engineered nanomaterial (ENM) benefits and risks. Currently, research studies are mostly focused on examining effects at individual endpoints with emphasis on ENM risk effects. Less research work is pursuing the integration needed to advance the science of sustainable ENMs. Therefore, the primary objective of this article is to discuss the system-of-systems (SoS) approach as a broad and integrated paradigm to examine ENM benefits and risks to society, environment, and economy (SEE) within a sustainability context. The aims are focused on: (a) current approaches in the scientific literature and the need for a broad and integrated approach, (b) documentation of ENM SoS in terms of architecture and governing rules and practices within sustainability context, and (c) implementation plan for the road ahead. In essence, the SoS architecture is a communication vehicle offering the opportunity to track benefits and risks in an integrated fashion so as to understand the implications and make decisions about advancing the science of sustainable ENMs. In support of the SoS architecture, we propose using an analytic-based decision support system consisting of a knowledge base and analytic engine along the benefit and risk informatics routes in the SEE system to build sound decisions on what constitutes sustainable and unsustainable ENMs in spite of the existing uncertainties and knowledge gaps. The work presented herein is neither a systematic review nor a critical appraisal of the scientific literature. Rather, it is a position paper that largely expresses the views of the authors based on their expert opinion drawn from industrial and academic experience. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. SUSTAINABILITY: ECOLOGICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, TECHNOLOGICAL, AND SYSTEMS ASPECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability is generally associated with a definition by the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: "? development that ?meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future' ?" However, a mathematical theo...

  4. Strategic collective system building by firms who launch sustainability innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maryse M.H. Chappin; Julia Planko; Marko P. Hekkert; Jacqueline M. Cramer

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of innovative sustainability technologies often requires far reaching changes of the macro environment in which the innovating firms operate. Strategic management literature describes that firms who want to commercialize an innovative technology can collaborate in networks or

  5. Systemic innovation in sustainable design of medical devices

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero; , S.; Pereno; , A.; Tamborrini; , P.

    2017-01-01

    The specific nature and the size of the healthcare sector make its impact on the environment very significant. Over the past years, interest in Sustainable Healthcare has grown globally, and an increasing number of companies is addressing a discipline, Sustainable Design, that is relatively new for the health sector. Design for healthcare must face significant challenges: from the technical, regulatory and ethical complexity, to the lack of a methodological history and the need for an interdi...

  6. A Systemic Tool and Process for Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Villeneuve

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessment is a growing concern worldwide with United Nations’ Agenda 2030 being implemented. As sustainability refers to the consideration of environmental, social and economic issues in light of cultural, historic—retrospective and prospective—and institutional perspectives, appropriate tools are needed to ensure the complete coverage of these aspects and allow the participation of multiple stakeholders. This article presents a scientifically robust and flexible tool, developed over the last 25 years and tested in different cultural and development contexts to build a framework for sustainability assessment of policies, strategies, programs and projects in light of Agenda 2030. A selected case study conducted on a major mining project in Québec (Canada illustrates the Sustainable Development Analytical Grid performance for sustainability assessment. This tool and process is part of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals Acceleration Toolkit; it is one of the most adaptable, addresses all 17 SDGs and is fully accessible for free. Other advantages and limitations of the tool and process are discussed.

  7. Sustainability of livestock production systems : a comparing conventional and organic livestock husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Haas, de Y.; Hogeveen, H.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable livestock production systems are needed to feed the larger, more urban, richer and older world population in 2050. Quantitative information about the sustainability performance of existing livestock production systems can aid the debate of which actions could be developed and

  8. Sustainability Initiatives Driving Supply Chain: Climate Governance on Beef Production System

    OpenAIRE

    Ieda Kanashiro Makiya; Clyde William Fraisse

    2015-01-01

    Two conceptual frameworks have been analytically dominant in researching innovation dynamics in sustainability transition processes, namely technological innovation systems (TIS) and the multi-level perspective (MLP). The innovation systems has been principally concerned with emerging new technologies and their potential contribution to future sustainability, whereas MLP has been more strongly oriented toward reconstructing historical processes of sectorial change. In this perspective, th...

  9. New developments in recirculating aquaculture systems in Europe: a perspective on environmental sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Eding, E.H.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Schneider, O.; Blancheton, J.P.; Roque dÓrbcastel, E.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The dual objective of sustainable aquaculture, i.e., to produce food while sustaining natural resources is achieved only when production systems with a minimum ecological impact are used. Recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) provide opportunities to reduce water usage and to improve waste

  10. Mechanobiologic Research in a Microgravity Environment Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, A.; Dubini, G.; Tominetti, F.; Raimondi, M.

    A current problem in tissue culturing technology is the unavailability of an effective Bioreactor for the in vitro cultivation of cells and explants. It has, in fact, proved extremely difficult to promote the high-density three-dimensional in vitro growth of human tissues that have been removed from the body and deprived of their normal in vivo vascular sources of nutrients and gas exchange. A variety of tissue explants can be maintained for a short period of time on a supportive collagen matrix surrounded by culture medium. But this system provides only limited mass transfer of nutrients and wastes through the tissue, and gravity-induced sedimentation prevents complete three- dimensional cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Several devices presently on the market have been used with only limited success since each has limitations, which restrict usefulness and versatility. Further, no Bioreactor or culture vessel is known that will allow for unimpeded growth of three dimensional cellular aggregates or tissue. Extensive research on the effect of mechanical stimuli on cell metabolism suggests that tissues may respond to mechanical stimulation via loading-induced flow of the interstitial fluids. During the culture, cells are subject to a flow of culture medium. Flow properties such as flow field, flow regime (e.g. turbulent or laminar), flow pattern (e.g. circular), entity and distribution of the shear stress acting on the cells greatly influence fundamental aspects of cell function, such as regulation and gene expression. This has been demonstrated for endothelial cells and significant research efforts are underway to elucidate these mechanisms in various other biological systems. Local fluid dynamics is also responsible of the mass transfer of nutrients and catabolites as well as oxygenation through the tissue. Most of the attempts to culture tissue-engineered constructs in vitro have utilized either stationary cultures or systems generating relatively small

  11. Evaluation of the sustainability of road drainage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Diez, Iván; Palencia, Covadonga; Fernández Raga, María

    2017-04-01

    Water is the most erosive agent that exists on the linear structures, because they are constantly subjected to outdoor condition like irregular infiltration, frosts and different rain intensities. Another variables that highly influence in the entire lifetime of a natural drainage system are the spatial and temporal variability of the rainfall, the soil, the vegetation cover and the design. All this factors are affecting the vulnerability of the clearings and embankments, by wearing away the weakest materials which surround the roads or train rails, producing erosion and very bumpy surfaces. The result is that the original pattern, developped to disminished the lost of soil, is not properly working and it cannot eliminate water, with the consequence destruction of the linear structure after several rainfall periods, and the accumulation of material down slope. The propose of this research focuses on analysing the drainage systems used in spanish roads and railways lines. For this purpose, a revision of the literature has been done, and the main drainage solutions have been recovered, carrying out an evaluation of them from an environmental point of view. This procedure has been requested by several authors in the past (Nwa, E.U. & Twocock, J.G., 1969; Goulter, I.C., 1992), together with the need of designing a more sustainable drainage system. The final objective of this complete revision is to compare objetively the designs to valuate them in order to develop a new drainage patter which minimize the erosion, increasing the durability and effectiveness of the drainage system. For this purpose, it is neccesary to assure that all the systems will be compare under similar parameters of flow rate, vegetation, substrate, lenght, slope and total section. Only the channels pattern and water distribution will change. The analysis has been done following Liu, H. & Zhu, X.B., (2012), who pointed out that the main parameters to take into account to select a road drainage

  12. Microbial Bioreactor Development in the ALS NSCORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cary; Whitaker, Dawn; Banks, M. Katherine; Heber, Albert J.; Turco, Ronald F.; Nies, Loring F.; Alleman, James E.; Sharvelle, Sybil E.; Li, Congna; Heller, Megan

    The NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advanced Life Support (the ALS NSCORT), a partnership of Alabama A & M, Howard, and Purdue Universities, was established by NASA in 2002 to develop technologies that will reduce the Equivalent System Mass (ESM) of regenerative processes within future space life-support systems. A key focus area of NSCORT research has been the development of efficient microbial bioreactors for treatment of human, crop, and food-process wastes while enabling resource recovery. The approach emphasizes optimizing the energy-saving advantages of hydrolytic enzymes for biomass degradation, with focus on treatment of solid wastes including crop residue, paper, food, and human metabolic wastes, treatment of greywater, cabin air, off-gases from other treatment systems, and habitat condensate. This summary includes important findings from those projects, status of technology development, and recommendations for next steps. The Plant-based Anaerobic-Aerobic Bioreactor-Linked Operation (PAABLO) system was developed to reduce crop residue while generating energy and/or food. Plant residues initially were added directly to the bioreactor, and recalcitrant residue was used as a substrate for growing plants or mushrooms. Subsequently, crop residue was first pretreated with fungi to hydrolyze polymers recalcitrant to bacteria, and leachate from the fungal beds was directed to the anaerobic digester. Exoenzymes from the fungi pre-soften fibrous plant materials, improving recovery of materials that are more easily biodegraded to methane that can be used for energy reclamation. An Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) system was developed for biodegradable solid wastes. Objectives were to increase water and nutrient recovery, reduce waste volume, and inactivate pathogens. Operational parameters of the reactor were optimized for degradation and resource recovery while minimizing system requirements and footprint. The start-up behavior

  13. TECHNIQUES AND SYSTEMS OF INDICATORS USED IN THE ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina VITALIA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article exposes the summary of a research project whose purpose is measuring sustainable development in Romania at the level of rural areas. Sustainable Development (Sustainable Development in English means better quality of life now and for future generations. According to the vision of sustainable development, progress integrates immediate and long-term objectives, local actions and global economic and environmental issues, all of which are inseparable. Such a vision of society can not be imposed only by political, society as a whole must adopt certain principles (political, economic, social, thinking. Sustainable development can be defined simply as a better quality of life for everyone, both now and for future generations. Sustainable development means: balanced and equitable economic development; high levels of employment, social cohesion and inclusion; a high level of environmental protection and responsible use of natural resources; generating a coherent political system open, transparent and accountable; effective international cooperation to promote global sustainable development (Gothenburg Strategy, 2001.

  14. In vitro evaluation of major in vivo drug metabolic pathways using primary human hepatocytes and HepaRG cells in suspension and a dynamic three-dimensional bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Malin; Ulvestad, Maria; Ellis, Ewa; Weidolf, Lars; Andersson, Tommy B

    2012-10-01

    Major human specific metabolites, not detected during in vivo and in vitro preclinical studies, may cause unexpected drug interactions and toxicity in human and delays in clinical programs. Thus, reliable preclinical tools for the detection of major human metabolites are of high importance. The aim of this study was to compare major drug metabolic pathways in HepaRG cells, a human hepatoma cell line, to fresh human hepatocytes, cryopreserved human hepatocytes, and human in vivo data. Furthermore, the maintenance of cytochrome P450 (P450) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activities in a dynamic three-dimensional (3D) bioreactor were evaluated over time by using HepaRG cells and human hepatocytes. (14)C-diclofenac and a candidate from AstraZeneca's drug development program, (14)C-AZD6610, which are metabolized by P450 and UGT in vivo, were used as model substrates. The proportion of relevant biotransformation pathways of the investigated drug was clearly different in the various cell systems. The hydroxylation route was favored in primary human hepatocytes, whereas the glucuronidation route was favored in HepaRG cells. The human in vivo metabolite profile of AZD6610 was best represented by human hepatocytes, whereas all major diclofenac metabolites were detected in HepaRG cells. Moreover, the metabolite profiles in cryopreserved and fresh human hepatocytes were essentially the same. The liver bioreactor using both fresh human hepatocytes and HepaRG cells retained biotransformation capacity over 1 week. Thus, the incubation time can be increased from a few hours in suspension to several days in 3D cultures, which opens up for detection of metabolites from slowly metabolized drugs.

  15. Membrane bioreactors for waste gas treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reij, M.W.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Hartmans, S.

    1998-01-01

    This review describes the recent development of membrane reactors for biological treatment of waste gases. In this type of bioreactor gaseous pollutants are transferred through a membrane to the liquid phase, where micro-organisms degrade the pollutants. The membrane bioreactor combines the

  16. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  17. Geospatial technologies for conservation planning: An approach to build more sustainable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current agricultural production systems must adapt to meet increasing demands for more economically and environmentally sustainable cropping systems. The application of precision agricultural technologies and geospatial and environmental modeling for conservation planning can aid in this transition....

  18. A Review of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems Considering the Climate Change and Urbanization Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Zhou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and urbanization are converging to challenge city drainage infrastructure due to their adverse impacts on precipitation extremes and the environment of urban areas. Sustainable drainage systems have gained growing public interest in recent years, as a result of its positive effects on water quality and quantity issues and additional recreational amenities perceived in the urban landscape. This paper reviews recent progress in sustainable drainage development based on literature across different disciplinary fields. After presenting the key elements and criteria of sustainable drainage design, various devices and examples of sustainable drainage systems are introduced. The state-of-the-art model approaches and decision-aid tools for assessing the sustainable alternatives are discussed and compared. The paper further explores some limitations and difficulties in the application of the innovative solutions and suggests an integrated and trans-disciplinary approach for sustainable drainage design.

  19. Measuring Sustainability within the Veterans Administration Mental Health System Redesign Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, James H.; Krahn, Dean; Wise, Meg; Oliver, Karen Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine how attributes affecting sustainability differ across VHA organizational components and by staff characteristics. Subjects Surveys of 870 change team members and 50 staff interviews within the VA’s Mental Health System Redesign initiative. Methods A one-way ANOVA with a Tukey post-hoc test examined differences in sustainability by VISN, job classification, and tenure from staff survey data of the Sustainability Index. Qualitative interviews used an iterative process to identify “a priori” and “in vivo” themes. A simple stepwise linear regression explored predictors of sustainability. Results Sustainability differed across VISN and staff tenure. Job classification differences existed for: 1) Benefits and Credibility of the change and 2) staff involvement and attitudes toward change. Sustainability barriers were: staff and institutional resistance, and non-supportive leadership. Facilitators were: commitment to veterans, strong leadership, and use of QI Tools. Sustainability predictors were outcomes tracking, regular reporting, and use of PDSA cycles. Conclusions Creating homogeneous implementation and sustainability processes across a national health system is difficult. Despite the VA’s best evidence-based implementation efforts, there was significant variance. Locally tailored interventions might better support sustainability than “one-size-fits all” approaches. Further research is needed to understand how participation in a QI collaborative affects sustainability. PMID:21971024

  20. Measuring sustainability within the Veterans Administration Mental Health System Redesign initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, James H; Krahn, Dean; Wise, Meg; Oliver, Karen Anderson

    2011-01-01

    To examine how attributes affecting sustainability differ across Veterans Health Administration organizational components and by staff characteristics. Surveys of 870 change team members and 50 staff interviews within the Veterans Affairs' Mental Health System Redesign initiative. A 1-way ANOVA with a Tukey post hoc test examined differences in sustainability by Veteran Integrated Service Networks, job classification, and tenure from staff survey data of the Sustainability Index. Qualitative interviews used an iterative process to identify "a priori" and "in vivo" themes. A simple stepwise linear regression explored predictors of sustainability. Sustainability differed across Veteran Integrated Service Networks and staff tenure. Job classification differences existed for the following: (1) benefits and credibility of the change and (2) staff involvement and attitudes toward change. Sustainability barriers were staff and institutional resistance and nonsupportive leadership. Facilitators were commitment to veterans, strong leadership, and use of quality improvement tools. Sustainability predictors were outcomes tracking, regular reporting, and use of Plan, Do, Study, Adjust cycles. Creating homogeneous implementation and sustainability processes across a national health system is difficult. Despite the Veterans Affairs' best evidence-based implementation efforts, there was significant variance. Locally tailored interventions might better support sustainability than "one-size-fits-all" approaches. Further research is needed to understand how participation in a quality improvement collaborative affects sustainability.

  1. A Framework for Supporting Organizational Transition Processes Towards Sustainable Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Rajesh

    Economic development over the last century has driven a tripling of the world's population, a twenty-fold increase in fossil fuel consumption, and a tripling of traditional biomass consumption. The associated broad income and wealth inequities are retaining over 2 billion people in poverty. Adding to this, fossil fuel combustion is impacting the environment across spatial and temporal scales and the cost of energy is outpacing all other variable costs for most industries. With 60% of world energy delivered in 2008 consumed by the commercial and industrial sector, the fragmented and disparate energy-related decision making within organizations are largely responsible for the inefficient and impacting use of energy resources. The global transition towards sustainable development will require the collective efforts of national, regional, and local governments, institutions, the private sector, and a well-informed public. The leadership role in this transition could be provided by private and public sector organizations, by way of sustainability-oriented organizations, cultures, and infrastructure. The diversity in literature exemplifies the developing nature of sustainability science, with most sustainability assessment approaches and frameworks lacking transformational characteristics, tending to focus on analytical methods. In general, some shortfalls in sustainability assessment processes include lack of: · thorough stakeholder participation in systems and stakeholder mapping, · participatory envisioning of future sustainable states, · normative aggregation of results to provide an overall measure of sustainability, and · influence within strategic decision-making processes. Specific to energy sustainability assessments, while some authors aggregate results to provide overall sustainability scores, assessments have focused solely on energy supply scenarios, while including the deficits discussed above. This paper presents a framework for supporting

  2. MUNICIPAL INDICATORS SYSTEM SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Saccol Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the indicators of sustainable development in the municipalities of Chapeco , Joaçaba , Port Union and Mafra, which developed the urban and territorial expansion of the West and North of the Santa Catarina region during the twentieth century . Thus, the objective of the analysis is to identify the similarities and differences of municipal sustainable development of each municipality , proposing alternative ways to improve these indexes, through the concepts Sachs (1997. The work is guided by a comparative analysis of data considering the indicators in 2012 and 2014 , through a survey of documentary approach . From this analysis , identified and demonstrated the points with disabilities, but at the same time essential to raise the indices of sustainability of municipalities in socio-cultural terms, economic, environmental and political

  3. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Hyršlová

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to map the understanding of the sustainable development concept in Czech enterprise and to discuss the EMS significance for its promotion in business practice. The paper summarizes the research carried out in 2005 by the Czech Environmental Management Centre and by the Czech Environmental Information Agency. The paper aims at the understanding of sustainable development concept in business sphere, analyzing the level of EMS implementation in Czech enterprises and discussing essential advantages of EMS (as understood by the businesses for the promotion of sustainable development concept. Attention is paid to the use of other voluntary tools contributing to the promotion of this concept in business practice (mainly environmental accounting.

  4. New Systems Thinking and Policy Means for Sustainable Energy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable energy development requires attention to both the demand and supply side. On the demand side there is an urgent need for efficient policy means promoting energy conservation. This includes changes in the institutional and economic framework to compensate for the short comings of the d......Sustainable energy development requires attention to both the demand and supply side. On the demand side there is an urgent need for efficient policy means promoting energy conservation. This includes changes in the institutional and economic framework to compensate for the short comings......”). Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop alternative strategies and policy means in order to promote sustainable development. THE FULL TEXT IS IN RUSSIAN IN THE JOURNAL....

  5. Use of G3-DHS Bioreactor for Secondary Treatment of Septic Tank Desludging Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izarul Machdar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study was done for the use of the third-generation of downflow hanging sponge (G3-DHS bioreactor for secondary treatment of septic tank desludging wastewater. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the prospective system of G3-DHS bioreactor to be applied in Indonesia. During experiment, the G3-DHS bioreactor kept a relatively high dissolved oxygen concentration under natural aeration. At a relatively short hydraulic retention (HRT of 3 h, the G3-DHS bioreactor could remove up to 21% (SD 15% of total COD, 21% (SD = 7% of filtered-COD, 58% (SD = 24% of unfiltered-BOD, and 33% (SD = 24% of ammonium removal. The final effluent had an unfiltered-BOD of only 46 mg.L-1 (SD = 20 mg.L-1 that it was below the Indonesian standard (unfiltered-BOD = 100 mg.L-1 for thresholds of domestic wastewater treatment plants effluent.

  6. Multi-criteria sustainability assessment: A tool for evaluation of new energy system

    OpenAIRE

    Afgan Naim H.; Begić Fajik; Kazagić Anes

    2007-01-01

    One of perspective methods for the evaluation of quality of energy system is the multi-criteria sustainability assessment, based on the analysis and synthesis of indicators expressing different aspects of the system. Application of this methodology in the cases of information deficiency (ASPID methodology) enables evaluation of various energy systems. In the paper, the multi-criteria sustainability assessment of energy systems of various energy sources is used to evaluate the energy power sys...

  7. Sustainability Strategy and Management Control Systems in Family Firms. Evidence from a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caputo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate how the integration of new forms of sustainable control systems (SCSs and traditional management control systems (MCSs, and the use of these control systems affect the integration of sustainability within organizational strategy. A qualitative case study based on a longitudinal investigation of an Italian family firm operating in an environment-sensitive context, the intermodal transport industry, has been used to trace the company’s pathway to sustainability integration based on the Gond et al. framework. The paper enriches the Gond et al. conceptualization providing evidence of the external and internal factors relevant in affecting the organization’s pathway towards sustainability integration. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the present study is the first analysis that investigates the integration of sustainability into organizational strategy in the context of family firms, from the point of view of performance management systems (PMSs.

  8. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – Volume IV

    OpenAIRE

    Duić, Neven

    2016-01-01

    The Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems - JSDEWES is an international journal dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies and technologies for increasing the sustainability of development by de-coupling growth from natural resources and replacing them with knowledge based economy, taking into account its economic, environmental and social pillars, as well as methods for assessing and measuring sustainability of devel...

  9. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – Volume III

    OpenAIRE

    Duić, Neven

    2015-01-01

    The Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems - JSDEWES is an international journal dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies and technologies for increasing the sustainability of development by de-coupling growth from natural resources and replacing them with knowledge based economy, taking into account its economic, environmental and social pillars, as well as methods for assessing and measuring sustainability of devel...

  10. Pilot scale harvesting, separation and drying of microalgae biomass from compact photo-bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Alberto Tadeu Martins; Luz Junior, Luiz Fernando de Lima [Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: luzjr@ufpr.br; Mariano, Andre Bellin; Ghidini, Luiz Francisco Correa; Gnoatto, Victor Eduardo; Locatelli Junior, Vilson; Mello, Thiago Carvalho de; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho [Nucleo de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Energia Autossustentavel (NPDEAS). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba (Brazil)], E-mail: jvargas@demec.ufpr.br

    2010-07-01

    Bio diesel produced from microalgae lipids is gaining a substantial ground in the search for renewable energy sources. In order to optimize the operating conditions of a continuous process, several experiments were realized, both in laboratory and pilot scale. The microalgae cultivation can be conducted in a photo-bioreactor, a closed system which allows parameters control and necessarily involves the aquatic environment. Because of that, the use of separation unit operations is required. The process starts in a proposed compact photo-bioreactor, which consist of a chain of transparent tubes with 6 cm of diameter arranged in parallel where the cultivation media circulate with the help of a pump. This arrangement offers a closed culture with less risk of contamination and maintains a minimum contact with the environment. The microalgae grow inside the pipes under incidence of ambient light. In this paper, harvesting, separation and drying were studied, as part of the processes of a sustainable energy plant under construction at UFPR, as shown in Fig. 1. To control the production in a photo-bioreactor in continuous system, it is necessary to monitor the concentration of microalgae growth in suspension. To measure the cell concentration in this equipment, an optic sensor has been developed. The microalgae biomass separation from the culture media is achieved by microalgae flocculation. Several cultivation situations have been tested with different NaOH concentrations, increasing the pH to 10. The system was kept under agitation during the addition by an air pump into the tank. Thereafter the system was maintained static. After a short time, it was observed that the microalgae coagulated and settled. The clarified part water was removed, remaining a concentrated microalgae suspension. Our results suggest that pH increase is a suitable methodology for microalgae separation from the growth suspension. The microalgae sedimentation time was recorded, which allowed the

  11. Comprehensive clone screening and evaluation of fed-batch strategies in a microbioreactor and lab scale stirred tank bioreactor system: application on Pichia pastoris producing Rhizopus oryzae lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In Pichia pastoris bioprocess engineering, classic approaches for clone selection and bioprocess optimization at small/micro scale using the promoter of the alcohol oxidase 1 gene (PAOX1), induced by methanol, present low reproducibility leading to high time and resource consumption. Results An automated microfermentation platform (RoboLector) was successfully tested to overcome the chronic problems of clone selection and optimization of fed-batch strategies. Different clones from Mut+P. pastoris phenotype strains expressing heterologous Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL), including a subset also overexpressing the transcription factor HAC1, were tested to select the most promising clones. The RoboLector showed high performance for the selection and optimization of cultivation media with minimal cost and time. Syn6 medium was better than conventional YNB medium in terms of production of heterologous protein. The RoboLector microbioreactor was also tested for different fed-batch strategies with three clones producing different lipase levels. Two mixed substrates fed-batch strategies were evaluated. The first strategy was the enzymatic release of glucose from a soluble glucose polymer by a glucosidase, and methanol addition every 24 hours. The second strategy used glycerol as co-substrate jointly with methanol at two different feeding rates. The implementation of these simple fed-batch strategies increased the levels of lipolytic activity 80-fold compared to classical batch strategies used in clone selection. Thus, these strategies minimize the risk of errors in the clone selection and increase the detection level of the desired product. Finally, the performance of two fed-batch strategies was compared for lipase production between the RoboLector microbioreactor and 5 liter stirred tank bioreactor for three selected clones. In both scales, the same clone ranking was achieved. Conclusion The RoboLector showed excellent performance in clone selection of P

  12. Biotreatment of Slaughterhouse Wastewater Accompanied with Sustainable Electricity Generation in Microbial Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Z. Ismail

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the performance of microbial fuel cell (MFC for simultaneous bioremediation of slaughterhouse wastewater and sustainable power generation. For the first time, an integrated system of tubular type microbial fuel cell (MFC was used in this study. The MFC consisted of three concentric Plexiglas tubes; the inner tube was the anaerobic anodic compartment, the mid tube was the aerobic biocathodic chamber, and the outer tube act as an aerobic bioreactor for extended nitrification process. The MFC system was connected to a complementary external anaerobic bioreactor for denitrification process. The microbial fuel cell was inoculated with freshly collected activated sludge and was continuously fueled with simulated slaughterhouse wastewater. Results revealed that the removal efficiency of the chemical oxygen demand (COD was up to 99%, and the power generation was 165 mW/m2. Also, results demonstrated that maximum removal of NO3- via the denitrification process in the final effluent was 94.7% when the initial concentration of NO3- in the effluent of the extended bioreactor was 15.2 mg/L. Approximately; complete recovery of nitrogen gas was obtained in the complementary external anaerobic bioreactor. These results indicated that MFC could be a promising approach for slaughterhouse wastewater bioremediation and renewable power generation.

  13. The Future of Pork Production in the World: Towards Sustainable, Welfare-Positive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. McGlone

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Among land animals, more pork is eaten in the world than any other meat. The earth holds about one billion pigs who deliver over 100 mmt of pork to people for consumption. Systems of pork production changed from a forest-based to pasture-based to dirt lots and finally into specially-designed buildings. The world pork industry is variable and complex not just in production methods but in economics and cultural value. A systematic analysis of pork industry sustainability was performed. Sustainable production methods are considered at three levels using three examples in this paper: production system, penning system and for a production practice. A sustainability matrix was provided for each example. In a comparison of indoor vs. outdoor systems, the food safety/zoonoses concerns make current outdoor systems unsustainable. The choice of keeping pregnant sows in group pens or individual crates is complex in that the outcome of a sustainability assessment leads to the conclusion that group penning is more sustainable in the EU and certain USA states, but the individual crate is currently more sustainable in other USA states, Asia and Latin America. A comparison of conventional physical castration with immunological castration shows that the less-common immunological castration method is more sustainable (for a number of reasons. This paper provides a method to assess the sustainability of production systems and practices that take into account the best available science, human perception and culture, animal welfare, the environment, food safety, worker health and safety, and economics (including the cost of production and solving world hunger. This tool can be used in countries and regions where the table values of a sustainability matrix change based on local conditions. The sustainability matrix can be used to assess current systems and predict improved systems of the future.

  14. The Future of Pork Production in the World: Towards Sustainable, Welfare-Positive Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, John J

    2013-05-15

    Among land animals, more pork is eaten in the world than any other meat. The earth holds about one billion pigs who deliver over 100 mmt of pork to people for consumption. Systems of pork production changed from a forest-based to pasture-based to dirt lots and finally into specially-designed buildings. The world pork industry is variable and complex not just in production methods but in economics and cultural value. A systematic analysis of pork industry sustainability was performed. Sustainable production methods are considered at three levels using three examples in this paper: production system, penning system and for a production practice. A sustainability matrix was provided for each example. In a comparison of indoor vs. outdoor systems, the food safety/zoonoses concerns make current outdoor systems unsustainable. The choice of keeping pregnant sows in group pens or individual crates is complex in that the outcome of a sustainability assessment leads to the conclusion that group penning is more sustainable in the EU and certain USA states, but the individual crate is currently more sustainable in other USA states, Asia and Latin America. A comparison of conventional physical castration with immunological castration shows that the less-common immunological castration method is more sustainable (for a number of reasons). This paper provides a method to assess the sustainability of production systems and practices that take into account the best available science, human perception and culture, animal welfare, the environment, food safety, worker health and safety, and economics (including the cost of production and solving world hunger). This tool can be used in countries and regions where the table values of a sustainability matrix change based on local conditions. The sustainability matrix can be used to assess current systems and predict improved systems of the future.

  15. Communicable disease control programmes and health systems: an analytical approach to sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigayeva, Altynay; Coker, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    There is renewed concern over the sustainability of disease control programmes, and re-emergence of policy recommendations to integrate programmes with general health systems. However, the conceptualization of this issue has remarkably received little critical attention. Additionally, the study of programmatic sustainability presents methodological challenges. In this article, we propose a conceptual framework to support analyses of sustainability of communicable disease programmes. Through this work, we also aim to clarify a link between notions of integration and sustainability. As a part of development of the conceptual framework, we conducted a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed literature on concepts, definitions, analytical approaches and empirical studies on sustainability in health systems. Identified conceptual proposals for analysis of sustainability in health systems lack an explicit conceptualization of what a health system is. Drawing upon theoretical concepts originating in sustainability sciences and our review here, we conceptualize a communicable disease programme as a component of a health system which is viewed as a complex adaptive system. We propose five programmatic characteristics that may explain a potential for sustainability: leadership, capacity, interactions (notions of integration), flexibility/adaptability and performance. Though integration of elements of a programme with other system components is important, its role in sustainability is context specific and difficult to predict. The proposed framework might serve as a basis for further empirical evaluations in understanding complex interplay between programmes and broader health systems in the development of sustainable responses to communicable diseases. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  16. Sustainability evaluation of different systems for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) farming based on emergy theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang

    2015-06-01

    Emergy analysis is effective for analyzing ecological economic systems. However, the accuracy of the approach is affected by the diversity of economic level, meteorological and hydrological parameters in different regions. The present study evaluated the economic benefits, environmental impact, and sustainability of indoor, semi-intensive and extensive farming systems of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) in the same region. The results showed that A. japonicus indoor farming system was high in input and output (yield) whereas pond extensive farming system was low in input and output. The output/input ratio of indoor farming system was lower than that of pond extensive farming system, and the output/input ratio of semi-intensive farming system fell in between them. The environmental loading ratio of A. japonicus extensive farming system was lower than that of indoor farming system. In addition, the emergy yield and emergy exchange ratios, and emergy sustainability and emergy indexes for sustainable development were higher in extensive farming system than those in indoor farming system. These results indicated that the current extensive farming system exerted fewer negative influences on the environment, made more efficient use of available resources, and met more sustainable development requirements than the indoor farming system. A. japonicus farming systems showed more emergy benefits than fish farming systems. The pond farming systems of A. japonicus exploited more free local environmental resources for production, caused less potential pressure on the local environment, and achieved higher sustainability than indoor farming system.

  17. On sustainability assessment of technical systems. Experience from systems analysis with the ORWARE and Ecoeffect tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assefa, Getachew [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-06-15

    Engineering research and development work is undergoing a reorientation from focusing on specific parts of different systems to a broader perspective of systems level, albeit at a slower pace. This reorientation should be further developed and enhanced with the aim of organizing and structuring our technical systems in meeting sustainability requirements in face of global ecological threats that have far-reaching social and economic implications, which can no longer be captured using conventional approach of research. Until a list of universally acceptable, clear, and measurable indicators of sustainable development is developed, the work with sustainability metrics should continue to evolve as a relative measure of ecological, economic, and social performance of human activities in general, and technical systems in particular. This work can be done by comparing the relative performance of alternative technologies of providing the same well-defined function or service; or by characterizing technologies that enjoy different levels of societal priorities using relevant performance indicators. In both cases, concepts and methods of industrial ecology play a vital role. This thesis is about the development and application of a systematic approach for the assessment of the performance of technical systems from the perspective of systems analysis, sustainability, sustainability assessment, and industrial ecology. The systematic approach developed and characterized in this thesis advocates for a simultaneous assessment of the ecological, economic, and social dimensions of performance of technologies in avoiding sub-optimization and problem shifting between dimensions. It gives a holistic picture by taking a life cycle perspective of all important aspects. The systematic assessment of technical systems provides an even-handed assessment resulting in a cumulative knowledge. A modular structure of the approach makes it flexible enough in terms of comparing a number of

  18. Adaptive capacity indicators to assess sustainability of urban water systems - Current application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Marc

    2016-11-01

    Sustainability is commonly assessed along environmental, societal, economic and technological dimensions. A crucial aspect of sustainability is that inter-generational equality must be ensured. This requires that sustainability is attained in the here and now as well as into the future. Therefore, what is perceived as 'sustainable' changes as a function of societal opinion and technological and scientific progress. A concept that describes the ability of systems to change is adaptive capacity. Literature suggests that the ability of systems to adapt is an integral part of sustainable development. This paper demonstrates that indicators measuring adaptive capacity are underrepresented in current urban water sustainability studies. Furthermore, it is discussed under which sustainability dimensions adaptive capacity indicators are lacking and why. Of the >90 indicators analysed, only nine are adaptive capacity indicators, of which six are socio-cultural, two technological, one economical and none environmental. This infrequent use of adaptive capacity indicators in sustainability assessments led to the conclusion that the challenge of dynamic and uncertain urban water systems is, with the exception of the socio-cultural dimension, not yet sufficiently reflected in the application of urban water sustainability indicators. This raises concerns about the progress towards urban water systems that can transform as a response variation and change. Therefore, research should focus on developing methods and indicators that can define, evaluate and quantify adaptive capacity under the economic, environmental and technical dimension of sustainability. Furthermore, it should be evaluated whether sustainability frameworks that focus on the control processes of urban water systems are more suitable for measuring adaptive capacity, than the assessments along environmental, economic, socio-cultural and technological dimensions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sustainability Decision Support Framework for Industrial System Prioritization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Wei, Shunan; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2016-01-01

    , a sensitivity analysis method was developed to investigate the most critical and sensitive criteria. The developed methodology was illustrated by a case study to rank the sustainability of five alternative hydrogen production technologies. The advantages of the developed methodology over the previous approaches...... were demonstrated by comparing the results determined by the proposed framework with those determined using the pervious approaches....

  20. Advancing Military Systems Toward Sustainability Through Innovative Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-04

    ISO 14000 series (env mgmt, LCA , impacts, GHGs, etc) – Green ammo initiatives  Looking Forward – Sustainability frameworks for bootprints – Green...Characteristics – Slippery hydro-gel sprayed on surfaces – Identified benzene and acrylamide in initial design – GIS site suitability tool  Evaluating Impacts