WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustainability system thinkers

  1. Sustainable diets within sustainable food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybeck, Alexandre; Gitz, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Sustainable diets and sustainable food systems are increasingly explored by diverse scientific disciplines. They are also recognised by the international community and called upon to orient action towards the eradication of hunger and malnutrition and the fulfilment of sustainable development goals. The aim of the present paper is to briefly consider some of the links between these two notions in order to facilitate the operationalisation of the concept of sustainable diet. The concept of sustainable diet was defined in 2010 combining two totally different perspectives: a nutrition perspective, focused on individuals, and a global sustainability perspective, in all its dimensions: environmental, economic and social. The nutrition perspective can be easily related to health outcomes. The global sustainability perspective is more difficult to analyse directly. We propose that it be measured as the contribution of a diet to the sustainability of food systems. Such an approach, covering the three dimensions of sustainability, enables identification of interactions and interrelations between food systems and diets. It provides opportunities to find levers of change towards sustainability. Diets are both the results and the drivers of food systems. The drivers of change for those variously involved, consumers and private individuals, are different, and can be triggered by different dimensions (heath, environment, social and cultural). Combining different dimensions and reasons for change can help facilitate the transition to sustainable diets, recognising the food system's specificities. The adoption of sustainable diets can be facilitated and enabled by food systems, and by appropriate policies and incentives.

  2. System Innovation for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    System Innovation for Sustainability 2 focuses on change towards sustainable personal mobility based on implemented cases analysed from a system perspective. It examines what changes can be made to help us reduce our need for mobility, or start to make use of more sustainable mobility systems...... in order to provide sustainable solutions to our current ‘lock-in’ problems. Three major problem areas are considered (the ‘three Cs’): carbon emissions (and the growing contribution of mobility to the climate change crisis), congestion, and casualties. And each strategy proposed addresses one or more...... of these problem areas. Among the cases discussed are: Norway’s carbon compensation scheme for air travel; Madrid’s high-occupancy vehicle lanes; London’s congestion charge scheme; market-based instruments such as eco-labelling for cars; and taxation. The book identifies opportunities for actors...

  3. Modeling Sustainable Food Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Thomas; Prosperi, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    The processes underlying environmental, economic, and social unsustainability derive in part from the food system. Building sustainable food systems has become a predominating endeavor aiming to redirect our food systems and policies towards better-adjusted goals and improved societal welfare. Food systems are complex social-ecological systems involving multiple interactions between human and natural components. Policy needs to encourage public perception of humanity and nature as interdependent and interacting. The systemic nature of these interdependencies and interactions calls for systems approaches and integrated assessment tools. Identifying and modeling the intrinsic properties of the food system that will ensure its essential outcomes are maintained or enhanced over time and across generations, will help organizations and governmental institutions to track progress towards sustainability, and set policies that encourage positive transformations. This paper proposes a conceptual model that articulates crucial vulnerability and resilience factors to global environmental and socio-economic changes, postulating specific food and nutrition security issues as priority outcomes of food systems. By acknowledging the systemic nature of sustainability, this approach allows consideration of causal factor dynamics. In a stepwise approach, a logical application is schematized for three Mediterranean countries, namely Spain, France, and Italy.

  4. Sustainable Drainage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban water management has somewhat changed since the publication of The Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS Manual in 2007 [1], transforming from building traditional sewers to implementing SuDS, which are part of the best management practice techniques used in the USA and seen as contributing to water-sensitive urban design in Australia. Most SuDS, such as infiltration trenches, swales, green roofs, ponds, and wetlands, address water quality and quantity challenges, and enhance the local biodiversity while also being acceptable aesthetically to the public. Barriers to the implementation of SuDS include adoption problems, flood and diffuse pollution control challenges, negative public perception, and a lack of decision support tools addressing, particularly, the retrofitting of these systems while enhancing ecosystem services. [...

  5. Managing Sustainable Information Systems Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kautz, Karlheinz

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable information systems development (ISD) in the context of this paper is not about products that support sustainability at large with its environmental, economic and social dimensions and little about the development of sustainable products, which are both without doubt important topics....... This paper is about a prerequisite for such products, namely, a sustainable ISD process, a process which exhibits reasonable and responsible stewardship and utilisation of the existing resources for ISD—people and information in the context of scope, time/schedule, budget/cost, quality and risk....

  6. Principles of sustainable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kreith, Frank

    2013-01-01

    … ""This is an ideal book for seniors and graduate students interested in learning about the sustainable energy field and its penetration. The authors provide very strong discussion on cost-benefit analysis and ROI calculations for various alternate energy systems in current use. This is a descriptive book with detailed case-based analyses of various systems and engineering applications. The text book provides real-world case studies and related problems pertaining to sustainable energy systems.""--Dr. Kuruvilla John, University of North Texas""The new edition of ""Principles of Sustainable En

  7. Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dinçer, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications presents analyses of sustainable energy systems and their applications, providing new understandings, methodologies, models and applications along with descriptions of several illustrative examples and case studies. This textbook aims to address key pillars in the field, such as: better efficiency, cost effectiveness, use of energy resources, environment, energy security, and sustainable development. It also includes some cutting-edge topics, such as hydrogen and fuel cells, renewable, clean combustion technologies, CO2 abatement technologies, and some potential tools for design, analysis and performance improvement. The book also: Discusses producing energy by increasing systems efficiency in generation, conversion, transportation and consumption Analyzes the conversion of fossil fuels to clean fuels for limiting  pollution and creating a better environment Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications is a research-based textbook which can be used by senior u...

  8. Al-Biruni: A Muslim Critical Thinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Noviani Ardi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As an academic course, critical thinking has emerged in the last century as the one of the important subjects, especially in the second half. But as a kind of thinking and a process of the human reason, it was exist as old as mankind. What are known, nowadays, as (standards of critical thinking or (characteristic of critical thinker were used by some ancient Greek philosophers, e.g. Socrates, Aristotle, as well as great Muslim scholars, e.g. al-Biruni, al-Ghazali, etc. al-Biruni was known as a great Muslim scholar due to objectively scientific method in his works. Moreover, he also was famed in comparative religion which early in history of discipline of comparative religion. However, this study attempts to talk about al-Biruni, one of greatest Muslim scholar in history from another side of previously discussion. It is tries to analyze al-Biruni as a Muslim critical thinker based on his monumental work of Tahqiq ma li al-Hind min Maqulah Maqbulah fi al-‘Aql aw Mardhulah or it is known by Kitab al-Hind.

  9. Sustainable drainage system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available where it is discharged. This has a number of negative consequences namely:  The construction, operation and management of a significantly large storm water collection and disposal system  Risk of flash flooding if the system is blocked... or is inadequately designed  Potential for malfunctioning under extreme rainfall events  Potential downstream flooding  Potential pollution dispersal  Potential contamination of groundwater sources  Groundwater reservoirs are not replenished  Waste...

  10. Synthetic sustained gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankit; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy today is hampered by the need of a safe and efficient gene delivery system that can provide a sustained therapeutic effect without cytotoxicity or unwanted immune responses. Bolus gene delivery in solution results in the loss of delivered factors via lymphatic system and may cause undesired effects by the escape of bioactive molecules to distant sites. Controlled gene delivery systems, acting as localized depot of genes, provide an extended sustained release of genes, giving prolonged maintenance of the therapeutic level of encoded proteins. They also limit the DNA degradation in the nuclease rich extra-cellular environment. While attempts have been made to adapt existing controlled drug delivery technologies, more novel approaches are being investigated for controlled gene delivery. DNA encapsulated in nano/micro spheres of polymers have been administered systemically/orally to be taken up by the targeted tissues and provide sustained release once internalized. Alternatively, DNA entrapped in hydrogels or scaffolds have been injected/implanted in tissues/cavities as platforms for gene delivery. The present review examines these different modalities for sustained delivery of viral and non-viral gene-delivery vectors. Design parameters and release mechanisms of different systems made with synthetic or natural polymers are presented along with their prospective applications and opportunities for continuous development.

  11. Proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance: The mediating effect of sustainability control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijethilake, Chaminda

    2017-07-01

    This study examines to what extent corporations use sustainability control systems (SCS) to translate proactive sustainability strategy into corporate sustainability performance. The study investigates the mediating effect of SCS on the relationship between proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance. Survey data were collected from top managers in 175 multinational and local corporations operating in Sri Lanka and analyzed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). SCS were observed to only partially mediate the relationship between proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance. The mediating effect of SCS is further examined under three sustainability strategies; environmental and social strategies reveal a partial mediation, while the economic strategy exhibits no mediation. The study also finds that (i) a proactive sustainability strategy is positively associated with SCS and corporate sustainability performance and (ii) SCS are positively associated with corporate sustainability performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Costing systems design for sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TURTUREA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an overall image of the way Accounting responds to nowadays user’s needs in relation to the quantification of the impact companies have towards the environment. Regarding this, there have been analyzed concepts like sustainable development, environmental accounting, environmental costs and there have been presented the main progress towards environmental cost identification and measurement from the perspective of Activity Based Costing system. To provide an overall image of this concepts, there have been used as research methodology methods the documentation from literature review, analysis, synthesis and comparison.

  13. Sustainable intensification in agricultural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Jules; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez

    2014-01-01

    Background Agricultural systems are amended ecosystems with a variety of properties. Modern agroecosystems have tended towards high through-flow systems, with energy supplied by fossil fuels directed out of the system (either deliberately for harvests or accidentally through side effects). In the coming decades, resource constraints over water, soil, biodiversity and land will affect agricultural systems. Sustainable agroecosystems are those tending to have a positive impact on natural, social and human capital, while unsustainable systems feed back to deplete these assets, leaving fewer for the future. Sustainable intensification (SI) is defined as a process or system where agricultural yields are increased without adverse environmental impact and without the conversion of additional non-agricultural land. The concept does not articulate or privilege any particular vision or method of agricultural production. Rather, it emphasizes ends rather than means, and does not pre-determine technologies, species mix or particular design components. The combination of the terms ‘sustainable’ and ‘intensification’ is an attempt to indicate that desirable outcomes around both more food and improved environmental goods and services could be achieved by a variety of means. Nonetheless, it remains controversial to some. Scope and Conclusions This review analyses recent evidence of the impacts of SI in both developing and industrialized countries, and demonstrates that both yield and natural capital dividends can occur. The review begins with analysis of the emergence of combined agricultural–environmental systems, the environmental and social outcomes of recent agricultural revolutions, and analyses the challenges for food production this century as populations grow and consumption patterns change. Emergent criticisms are highlighted, and the positive impacts of SI on food outputs and renewable capital assets detailed. It concludes with observations on policies and

  14. Sustainable intensification in agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Jules; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems are amended ecosystems with a variety of properties. Modern agroecosystems have tended towards high through-flow systems, with energy supplied by fossil fuels directed out of the system (either deliberately for harvests or accidentally through side effects). In the coming decades, resource constraints over water, soil, biodiversity and land will affect agricultural systems. Sustainable agroecosystems are those tending to have a positive impact on natural, social and human capital, while unsustainable systems feed back to deplete these assets, leaving fewer for the future. Sustainable intensification (SI) is defined as a process or system where agricultural yields are increased without adverse environmental impact and without the conversion of additional non-agricultural land. The concept does not articulate or privilege any particular vision or method of agricultural production. Rather, it emphasizes ends rather than means, and does not pre-determine technologies, species mix or particular design components. The combination of the terms 'sustainable' and 'intensification' is an attempt to indicate that desirable outcomes around both more food and improved environmental goods and services could be achieved by a variety of means. Nonetheless, it remains controversial to some. This review analyses recent evidence of the impacts of SI in both developing and industrialized countries, and demonstrates that both yield and natural capital dividends can occur. The review begins with analysis of the emergence of combined agricultural-environmental systems, the environmental and social outcomes of recent agricultural revolutions, and analyses the challenges for food production this century as populations grow and consumption patterns change. Emergent criticisms are highlighted, and the positive impacts of SI on food outputs and renewable capital assets detailed. It concludes with observations on policies and incentives necessary for the wider adoption of

  15. Overview and Insights from ‘Systems Education for a Sustainable Planet’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Y. Cavana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An announcement by Bosch and Cavana, in Systems, called for new papers to provide updated perspectives about and fresh insights into developments that influence ‘systems education for a sustainable planet’. This paper’s objective is to provide an overview of the 14 papers that were published in the special issue, and present some insights and findings from their content. It does this by classifying the papers into five distinct themes, then analysing their content and the linkages between the themes. This process revealed that: (1 Specialised systems education at a tertiary level is predominantly at graduate level, using a diverse range of approaches; and (2 Delivering specialised systems education remains a challenge for programs that endeavour to provide an integrated and interdisciplinary learning experience. Barriers include current institutional structures and the need for students to be both big picture thinkers and detail-oriented technocrats; (3 Teaching systems approaches outside of specialised programs for students (both young and mature help to expose systems thinking to a wider demographic; (4 The strong links that exist between systems approaches and sustainability goals are increasingly being recognised. Systems education can help transition towards a sustainable planet, as it helps people appreciate that individual actions are not isolated events but contribute to an interconnected system that determines both the well-being of humans and the planet.

  16. Business system: Sustainable development and anticipatory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Potočan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence and development of humankind depends mainly upon the co-ordinated operation of all areas and levels of human activity. However, in theory and in practice there is no model of operation, which would provide a harmonized and target oriented development. A partial solution is offered by sustainable development, which tries to define and carry out common goals of mankind with a harmonized implementation of human activities at all levels of its living and behaviour. Companies belong to central institutions of modern society which essentially co–create the sustainability of society. The company’s endeavour by simulation to prepare models of their goals concerning their internal and external environment. On the base of systemic treatment, we can define companies as business system, which can survive in a log-run only on the basis of sustainable development. The business system can also be supported by the application of the anticipatory systems. The anticipatory systems can be, in this sense, understood as an entity of the methodological approach, techniques and modes of work. Their characteristics have, a direct impact on the determination of goals, on the orientation of operation, and hence on the achievement of the business system results.

  17. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  18. Writing a Recipe for Teaching Sustainable Food Systems: Lessons from Three University Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy Anderson Brekken

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of the food system is at the forefront of academic and policy discussions as we face the challenge of providing food security to a growing population amidst environmental uncertainty and depletion, social disruptions, and structural economic shocks and stresses. Crafting a sustainable and resilient food system requires us to go beyond disciplinary boundaries and broaden critical and creative thinking skills. Recent literature calls for examples of pedagogical transformations from food systems courses to identify successful practices and potential challenges. We offer a recipe for what to teach by framing systems thinking concepts, then discuss how to teach it with five learning activities: deductive case studies, experiential learning, reflective narrative learning, system dynamics simulations and scenarios, and inductive/open-ended case studies, implemented with collaborative group learning, inter/trans-disciplinarity, and instructor-modeled co-learning. Each learning activity is animated with concrete examples from our courses at Oregon State University, University of Minnesota, and University of Vermont, USA. We discuss opportunities and challenges implementing these strategies in light of student, instructor, and institutional expectations and constraints. But the challenge is worth the effort, because food system transformation requires active learners and systemic thinkers as engaged citizens, food system advocates, entrepreneurs, and policy makers.

  19. Sustainability and Cities as Systems of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Lehmann, Martin

    Cities often constitute relevant environments for interactive learning and innovation potentially capable of tackling sustainability problems. In this paper we ask if the concept of systems of innovation can increase our understanding of city dynamics and help promoting the sustainable development...... of cities. Through a combination of the innovation system approach and the perspective of creative cities, we argue that a slightly modified concept – sustainable city systems of innovation – may be helpful in this context. To underline this, we discuss certain ‘city-traits’ of sustainability and conclude...

  20. Stimulating transitions towards sustainable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, B.; Barbier, M.; Cerf, M.; Grin, J.

    2012-01-01

    How can the dynamics of the agro-food sector in the long run be addressed? We argue that sustainable agro-food systems cannot be developed through a simple improvement of existing systems, but will require a transition. Therefore, we focus on how transitions to sustainability could be initiated and

  1. Traditional formwork system sustainability performance: experts’ opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher Al-ashwal, Mohammed; Abdullah, Redzuan; Zakaria, Rozana

    2017-11-01

    The traditional formwork system is one of the commonly used systems in concrete construction. It is considered as one of the least observed activities in term of sustainability performance. In this paper, the sustainability performance of the traditional formwork has been assessed by using a multi-criteria assessment tool to facilitate the decision on the sustainability performance measurement. A quantitative five Likert scale survey study using judgemental sampling is employed in this study. A sample of 93 of engineering construction experts, with different fields including contractors, developers, and consultants in the Malaysian context has made the body of the collected primary data. The results show variety in the distribution of the respondents’ working experience. The sustainability performance is considered moderately sustainable by the experts with only given 40.24 % of the overall total score for the three sustainable categories namely environmental, social and economic. Despite the finding that shows that the economic pillar was rated as the most sustainable aspect in comparison to the environmental and social pillars the traditional formwork system sustainability still needs enhancement. Further incorporation of the social and environmental pillars into the concrete construction the sustainability performance of traditional formwork system could be improved.

  2. System theoretic approach to sustainable development problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batanović Vladan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that the concepts and methodology contained in the system theory and operations research are suitable for application in the planning and control of the sustainable development. The sustainable development problems can be represented using the state space concepts, such as the transition of system, from the given initial state to the final state. It is shown that sustainable development represents a specific control problem. The peculiarity of the sustainable development is that the target is to keep the system in the prescribed feasible region of the state space. The analysis of planning and control problems of sustainable development has also shown that methods developed in the operations research area, such as multicriteria optimization, dynamic processes simulation, non-conventional treatment of uncertainty etc. are adequate, exact base, suitable for resolution of these problems.

  3. Sustainable Soil Water Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Basch, G.; Kassam, A.; Friedrich, T.; Santos, F.L.; Gubiani, P.I.; Calegari, A.; Reichert, J.M.; dos Santos, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    Soil quality and its management must be considered as key elements for an effective management of water resources, given that the hydrological cycle and land management are intimately linked (Bossio et al. 2007). Soil degradation has been described by Bossio et al. (2010) as the starting point of a negative cycle of soil-water relationships, creating a positive, self-accelerating feedback loop with important negative impacts on water cycling and water productivity. Therefore, sustainable soil...

  4. Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Graham; Orr, James K.; Watson, Steve

    2007-01-01

    A mission-systems architecture, based on a highly modular infrastructure utilizing: open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is essential for affordable and sustainable space exploration programs. This mission-systems architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous system, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimal sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program and Earthbound complex engineered system are applied to define the model. Technology projections reaching out 5 years are mde to refine model details.

  5. Assessing the sustainability of small wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten

    1999-01-01

    The authors present a planning tool for comparing and assessing the sustainability of different wastewater systems. The core of the planning tool is an assessment method based on both technical and social elements. The point of departure is that no technique is inherently sustainable or ecological...... in itself, but that the sustainability of the total system of technologies for a particular settlement in a given location must be assessed in a holistic and transparent manner. A pilot case is used to demonstrate the structure and the results of the assessment method. The assessment method is still under...

  6. PSSD - Planning System for Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    PSSD - Planning System for Sustainable Development - is a part of the Baltic Sea Region's INTERREG II C program. The current report describes some theories, methods and tools developed under the PSSD project. First, the theoretical foundation of the project is described. Secondly, the role...... of indicators in sustainable development is discussed and a Web-based indicator generator is described. Thirdly, we describe a number of methods and tools, which support planning for sustainable development. Finally, some technical interface tools - especially a Web-based interface to the methods and tools...

  7. JRC Thinkers ‘N’ Tinkers Makerspace - Concept Note

    OpenAIRE

    VALENTE DE JESUS ROSA PAULO; MARTINHO GUIMARAES PIRES PEREIRA ANGELA

    2016-01-01

    In this concept note, we make the case for creating an in-house makerspace oriented towards the engagement of citizens in technoscientific innovations: the JRC Thinkers ‘N’ Tinkers Makerspace. The idea behind the makerspace is to have a space located in the premises of the JRC that promotes critical thinking and tinkering about technoscientific issues relevant for policy files focusing on their societal implications. We view it as a safe space where we can promote dialogues with civil society...

  8. Health Systems Sustainability and Rare Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrelli, Rita Maria; De Santis, Marta; Egle Gentile, Amalia; Taruscio, Domenica

    2017-01-01

    The paper is addressing aspects of health system sustainability for rare diseases in relation to the current economic crisis and equity concerns. It takes into account the results of the narrative review carried out in the framework of the Joint Action for Rare Diseases (Joint RD-Action) "Promoting Implementation of Recommendations on Policy, Information and Data for Rare Diseases", that identified networks as key factors for health systems sustainability for rare diseases. The legal framework of European Reference Networks and their added value is also presented. Networks play a relevant role for health systems sustainability, since they are based upon, pay special attention to and can intervene on health systems knowledge development, partnership, organizational structure, resources, leadership and governance. Moreover, sustainability of health systems can not be separated from the analysis of the context and the action on it, including fiscal equity. As a result of the financial crisis of 2008, cuts of public health-care budgets jeopardized health equity, since the least wealthy suffered from the greatest health effects. Moreover, austerity policies affected economic growth much more adversely than previously believed. Therefore, reducing public health expenditure not only is going to jeopardise citizens' health, but also to hamper fair and sustainable development.

  9. Advancing a sustainable highway system : highlights of FHWA sustainability activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    FHWA is undertaking a significant amount of work related to sustainability across a number of program areas throughout the Agency. The purpose of this report is to showcase some of the ways in which FHWA is incorporating and embedding sustainability ...

  10. Engineering biological systems toward a sustainable bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mateus Schreiner Garcez

    2015-06-01

    The nature of our major global risks calls for sustainable innovations to decouple economic growth from greenhouse gases emission. The development of sustainable technologies has been negatively impacted by several factors including sugar production costs, production scale, economic crises, hydraulic fracking development and the market inability to capture externality costs. However, advances in engineering of biological systems allow bridging the gap between exponential growth of knowledge about biology and the creation of sustainable value chains for a broad range of economic sectors. Additionally, industrial symbiosis of different biobased technologies can increase competitiveness and sustainability, leading to the development of eco-industrial parks. Reliable policies for carbon pricing and revenue reinvestments in disruptive technologies and in the deployment of eco-industrial parks could boost the welfare while addressing our major global risks toward the transition from a fossil to a biobased economy.

  11. Business strategies for transitions to sustainable systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A. Loorbach (Derk); J.C. Bakel (Janneke); G.M. Whiteman (Gail); J. Rotmans (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper develops a strategic perspective for business to contribute to the innovation of societal systems. Sustainability issues at the level of societal sectors cannot be addressed by single organizations but need to be thought of as systemic challenges in which business, government

  12. A Sustainable Energy System in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lotte Holmberg

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents some of the problems in the Latvian energy system, the Latvian economy and how a sustainable restructuring of the energy system with renewable energy, co-generation and the production of energy technology can help solve some of the problems....

  13. Sustaining an Effective ABC-ABM System

    OpenAIRE

    Gary COKINS; Sorinel CĂPUŞNEANU

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the Activity- Based Costing (ABC) and Activity-Based Management (ABM) system and techniques to sustain them as a permanent and repeatable production reporting system, not just for one-off analysis. A comparison is made between ABC/ABM modeling software that extracts source data and business systems that include ABC/ABM modeling features. There are presented the stages of updating, running and rerunning the ABC/ABM system. The resul...

  14. Sustainability of thermoplastic vinyl roofing membrane systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graveline, S. P. [Sika Sanarfil, Canton, (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB-RILEM) has developed a framework for sustainable roofing based on a series of tenets divided into three key areas: preservation of the environment, conservation of energy, and extended roof life. This paper investigated the sustainability of thermoplastic vinyl roof membranes using these guidelines and the relevant tenets for roof system selection. Several tenets provided alternatives for minimizing the burden on the environment using non-renewable raw materials, conserving energy with thermal insulation, and extending the lifespan of all roof components by using long lasting membranes. A life cycle assessment was carried out to provide a quantitative framework for assessing the sustainability of roofing materials. It was found that the PVC membrane systems had a lesser impact on the environment than other competing systems.

  15. Towards a sustainable industrial system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Steve; Gregory, Mike; Ryan, Chris

    Our industrial system has been responsible for raising the quality of life of peoples around the world. It is becoming increasingly clear however, that the current system is creating unintended and serious consequences for the environment at a global level. Change on a significant scale is required...... who have not yet experienced them without exceeding the limits of our planet. This paper presents cases where industry is already taking action, and argues that: • dramatic improvements can be made by deploying existing expertise at the level of individual businesses • relying on technology alone...

  16. Sustaining an Effective ABC-ABM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary COKINS

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the Activity- Based Costing (ABC and Activity-Based Management (ABM system and techniques to sustain them as a permanent and repeatable production reporting system, not just for one-off analysis. A comparison is made between ABC/ABM modeling software that extracts source data and business systems that include ABC/ABM modeling features. There are presented the stages of updating, running and rerunning the ABC/ABM system. The resulting information calculated and provided by the ABC/ABM system are analyzed and interpreted in terms of a multidimensional data analysis. The article ends with the authors' conclusions about the benefits of continued operation of sustaining the ABC/ABM system.

  17. SUSTAINABLE FARMS: INTEGRATION OF AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolo Muñoz-Espinosa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The inappropriate use of agrochemicals and technologies in farming systems can cause an accelerated deterioration of agricultural and soil pollution. Thus, agriculture and livestock are becoming an environmental problem in the world, which implies the need to assess the efficiency of agricultural production systems related to sustainability. The traditional peasant system is apparently unsustainable, while farm with an integral production approach have better opportunities for development over time as they tend to sustainability. This type of farms incorporate productive alternatives that improve as a whole, the system and the livelihood of the peasants. The trends towards sustainability of farms are mainly due to a better land use. As well as, implementing systems adapted to each soil and production type to ensure profitability and persistence, achieving the highest possible agricultural productivity. The urgency to produce food for a growing population is almost a paradigm that reinforces the imperative for maximum yield per unit area, and creates a vision of the rural world aimed at increasing profit at the expense of the attributes and core values of livelihood in rural areas. It can be concluded that the integrated farming articulate various subsystems, which working together could allow higher sustainability of agricultural production practices, environmentally friendly, safeguarding the food sovereignty of the population and improving the quality of life of farmers

  18. A sustainable energy-system in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lotte Holmberg

    2003-01-01

    but a negative trade-balance. With this in mind, it is important that Latvia is able to meet the challenge and use the economic development to develop a sustainable energy-system and a sounder trade-balance. A combination of energy planning, national economy and innovation processes in boiler companies will form...

  19. Sustainable Energy, Water and Environmental Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Duic, Neven

    2014-01-01

    This issue presents research results from the 8th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – SDEWES - held in Dubrovnik, Croatia in 2013. Topics covered here include the energy situation in the Middle East with a focus in Cyprus and Israel, energy planning me...

  20. Edible Insects in Sustainable Food Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton; Flore, Roberto; Vantomme, Paul

    This text provides an important overview of the contributions of edible insects to ecological sustainability, livelihoods, nutrition and health, food culture and food systems around the world. While insect farming for both food and feed is rapidly increasing in popularity around the world, the ro...

  1. Global drivers, sustainable manufacturing and systems ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A; Henshaw, M J deC

    2015-11-01

    This paper briefly explores the expected impact of the 'Global Drivers' (such as population demographics, food security; energy security; community security and safety), and the role of sustainability engineering in mitigating the potential effects of these Global Drivers. The message of the paper is that sustainability requires a significant input from Ergonomics/Human Factors, but the profession needs some expansion in its thinking in order to make this contribution. Creating a future sustainable world in which people experience an acceptable way of life will not happen without a large input from manufacturing industry into all the Global Drivers, both in delivering products that meet sustainability criteria (such as durability, reliability, minimised material requirement and low energy consumption), and in developing sustainable processes to deliver products for sustainability (such as minimum waste, minimum emissions and low energy consumption). Appropriate changes are already being implemented in manufacturing industry, including new business models, new jobs and new skills. Considerable high-level planning around the world is in progress and is bringing about these changes; for example, there is the US 'Advanced Manufacturing National Program' (AMNP)', the German 'Industrie 4.0' plan, the French plan 'la nouvelle France industrielle' and the UK Foresight publications on the 'Future of Manufacturing'. All of these activities recognise the central part that humans will continue to play in the new manufacturing paradigms; however, they do not discuss many of the issues that systems ergonomics professionals acknowledge. This paper discusses a number of these issues, highlighting the need for some new thinking and knowledge capture by systems ergonomics professionals. Among these are ethical issues, job content and skills issues. Towards the end, there is a summary of knowledge extensions considered necessary in order that systems ergonomists can be fully

  2. Sustainability of organic, integrated and conventional farming systems in Tuscany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacini, C.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Vazzana, C.; Wossink, G.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability. The principal purpose of this paper is to evaluate the financial and environmental aspects of sustainability of Organic,

  3. Information Systems Solutions for Environmental Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Roya; Watson, Richard T.; Hasan, Helen

    2016-01-01

    We contend that too few information systems (IS) academics engage in impactful research that offers solutions to global warming despite the fact that climate change is one of the most critical challenges facing this generation. Climate change is a major threat to global sustainability in the 21st...... themselves in creating solutions for environmental problems. Moreover, information is a perquisite for assessing the state of the environment and making appropriate decisions to ameliorate identified problems. Indeed, the IS scholarly community needs to help create a sustainable society. While...

  4. Not planning a sustainable transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnveden, Göran; Åkerman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The overall objective of the Swedish transport policy is to ensure the economically efficient and sustainable provision of transport services for people and business throughout the country. More specifically, the transport sector shall, among other things, contribute to the achievement of environmental quality objectives in which the development of the transport system plays an important role in the achievement of the objectives. The aim of this study is to analyse if current transport planning supports this policy. This is done by analysing two recent cases: the National Infrastructure Plan 2010–2021, and the planning of Bypass Stockholm, a major road investment. Our results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. Another interesting aspect of the planning processes is that the long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes, neither as a clear goal nor as factor that will influence future transport systems. In this way, the long-term sustainability aspects are not present in the planning. We conclude that the two cases do not contribute to a sustainable transport system. Thus, several changes must be made in the processes, including putting up clear targets for emissions. Also, the methodology for the environmental assessments needs to be further developed and discussed. - Highlights: • Two cases are studied to analyse if current planning supports a sustainable transport system. • Results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. • Long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes. • Current practices do not contribute to a sustainable planning processes. • Methodology and process for environmental assessments must be further developed and discussed

  5. Not planning a sustainable transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnveden, Göran, E-mail: goran.finnveden@abe.kth.se; Åkerman, Jonas

    2014-04-01

    The overall objective of the Swedish transport policy is to ensure the economically efficient and sustainable provision of transport services for people and business throughout the country. More specifically, the transport sector shall, among other things, contribute to the achievement of environmental quality objectives in which the development of the transport system plays an important role in the achievement of the objectives. The aim of this study is to analyse if current transport planning supports this policy. This is done by analysing two recent cases: the National Infrastructure Plan 2010–2021, and the planning of Bypass Stockholm, a major road investment. Our results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. Another interesting aspect of the planning processes is that the long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes, neither as a clear goal nor as factor that will influence future transport systems. In this way, the long-term sustainability aspects are not present in the planning. We conclude that the two cases do not contribute to a sustainable transport system. Thus, several changes must be made in the processes, including putting up clear targets for emissions. Also, the methodology for the environmental assessments needs to be further developed and discussed. - Highlights: • Two cases are studied to analyse if current planning supports a sustainable transport system. • Results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. • Long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes. • Current practices do not contribute to a sustainable planning processes. • Methodology and process for environmental assessments must be further developed and discussed.

  6. Systems and practices in sustainable consumption research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    The financial crisis in 2007-2008 and the subsequent economic crisis served as a wake-up call for sustainable consumption studies. The literature on consumption and environment had little focus on finance, but the crisis made it clear that financial issues are important also from an environmental...... perspective. Credit plays an important role as a driver of unsustainable consumption, and financial mechanisms contribute to the widening inequalities as well as the build-up of macroeconomic instability. Looking ahead, transformation of finance is just as important for sustainability as transformation...... of the provision systems for food, transport, housing, etc. that are the dominant focus of environmental studies. Intertwined with these systems, the economy includes various other systems that are decisive for the overall economic and environmental performance and for the distribution of goods and services...

  7. The sustainability indicators of power production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onat, Nevzat [Vocational School of Technical Studies, Marmara University, Istanbul 34722 (Turkey); Bayar, Haydar [Technical Education Faculty, Marmara University, Istanbul 34722 (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    One of the most important elements of economical and social development is to provide uninterrupted electric energy to consumers. The increasing world population and technological developments rapidly increase the demand on electric energy. In order to meet the increasing demand for sustainable development, it is necessary to use the consumable resources of the world in the most productive manner and minimum level and to keep its negative effects on human health and environment in the lowest level as much as possible. In this study, alignment of hydrogen fuel cells, hydroelectric, wind, solar and geothermal sourced electric energy systems, in addition to fossil fueled coal, natural gas and nuclear power plants, in respect to sustainability parameters such as CO{sub 2} emission, land use, energy output, fresh water consumption and environmental and social effects is researched. Consequently, it has been determined that the wind and nuclear energy power plants have the highest sustainability indicators. The fuel cells that use hydrogen obtained by using coal and natural gas are determined as the most disadvantageous transformation technologies in respect to sustainability. This study contains an alignment related to today's technologies. Using of renewable energy resources especially in production of hydrogen, output increases to be ensured with nanotechnology applications in photovoltaic systems may change this alignment. (author)

  8. The sustainable IT architecture resilient information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, P

    2009-01-01

    This book focuses on Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), the basis of sustainable and more agile IT systems that are able to adapt themselves to new trends and manage processes involving a third party. The discussion is based on the public Praxeme method and features a number of examples taken from large SOA projects which were used to rewrite the information systems of an insurance company; as such, decision-makers, creators of IT systems, programmers and computer scientists, as well as those who will use these new developments, will find this a useful resource

  9. Sustainable automotive energy system in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiliang (ed.) [Tsinghua Univ. Beijing (China). China Automotive Energy Research Center

    2013-06-01

    The latest research available on automotive energy system analysis in China. Thorough introduction on automotive energy system in China. Provides the broad perspective to aid in planning sustainable road transport in China. Sustainable Automotive Energy System in China aims at identifying and addressing the key issues of automotive energy in China in a systematic way, covering demography, economics, technology and policy, based on systematic and in-depth, multidisciplinary and comprehensive studies. Five scenarios of China's automotive energy development are created to analyze the possible contributions in the fields of automotive energy, vehicle fuel economy improvement, electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles and the 2nd generation biofuel development. Thanks to this book, readers can gain a better understanding of the nature of China's automotive energy development and be informed about: (1) the current status of automotive energy consumption, vehicle technology development, automotive energy technology development and policy; (2) the future of automotive energy development, fuel consumption, propulsion technology penetration and automotive energy technology development, and (3) the pathways of sustainable automotive energy transformation in China, in particular, the technological and the policy-related options. This book is intended for researchers, engineers and graduates students in the low-carbon transportation and environmental protection field.

  10. Sustainability assessment of a hybrid energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, Nain H.; Carvalho, Maria G.

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid energy system in the form of the Object structure is the pattern for the structure of options in the evaluation of a hybrid system. The Object structure is defined as: Hybrid Energy System {[production (solar, wind, biomass, natural gas)] [utilization(electricity, heat, hydrogen)]}. In the evaluation of hybrid energy systems only several options are selected to demonstrate the sustainability assessment method application in the promotion of the specific quality of the hybrid energy system. In this analysis the following options are taken into a consideration: 1.Solar photo-voltaic power plant (PV PP), wind turbine power plant (WTPP) biomass thermal power plant (ThSTPP) for electricity, heat and hydrogen production. 2.Solar PV PP and wind power plant (WPP) for electricity and hydrogen production. 3.Biomass thermal steam turbine power plant (BThSTPP) and WPP for heat and hydrogen production. 4.Combined cycle gas turbine power plant for electricity and hydrogen production. 5.Cogeneration of electricity and water by the hybrid system. The sustainability assessment method is used for the evaluation of quality of the selected hybrid systems. In this evaluation the following indicators are used: economic indicator, environment indicator and social indicator

  11. Visions of sustainable urban energy systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietzsch, Ursula [HFT Stuttgart (Germany). zafh.net - Centre of Applied Research - Sustainable Energy Technology; Mikosch, Milena [Steinbeis-Zentrum, Stuttgart (Germany). Europaeischer Technologietransfer; Liesner, Lisa (eds.)

    2010-09-15

    Within the polycity final conference from 15th to 17th September, 2010, in Stuttgart (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Visions of sustainable urban energy system (Ursula Eicker); (2) Words of welcome (Tanja Goenner); (3) Zero-energy Europe - We are on our way (Jean-Marie Bemtgen); (4) Polycity - Energy networks in sustainable cities An introduction (Ursula Pietzsch); (5) Energy efficient city - Successful examples in the European concerto initiative (Brigitte Bach); (6) Sustainable building and urban concepts in the Catalonian polycity project contributions to the polycity final conference 2010 (Nuria Pedrals); (7) Energy efficient buildings and renewable supply within the German polycity project (Ursula Eicker); (8) Energy efficient buildings and cities in the US (Thomas Spiegehalter); (9) Energy efficient communities - First results from an IEA collaboration project (Reinhard Jank); (10) The European energy performance of buildings directive (EPBD) - Lessons learned (Eduardo Maldonado); (11) Passive house standard in Europe - State-of-the-art and challenges (Wolfgang Feist); (12) High efficiency non-residential buildings: Concepts, implementations and experiences from the UK (Levin Lomas); (13) This is how we can save our world (Franz Alt); (14) Green buildings and renewable heating and cooling concepts in China (Yanjun Dai); (15) Sustainable urban energy solutions for Asia (Brahmanand Mohanty); (16) Description of ''Parc de l'Alba'' polygeneration system: A large-scale trigeneration system with district heating within the Spanish polycity project (Francesc Figueras Bellot); (17) Improved building automation and control systems with hardware-in-the loop solutions (Martin Becker); (18) The Italian polycity project area: Arquata (Luigi Fazari); (19) Photovoltaic system integration: In rehabilitated urban structures: Experiences and performance results from the Italian polycity project in Turin (Franco

  12. Toward Knowledge Systems for Sustainability Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaks, D. P.; Jahn, M.

    2011-12-01

    Managing ecosystems for the outcomes of agricultural productivity and resilience will require fundamentally different knowledge management systems. In the industrial paradigm of the 20th century, land was considered an open, unconstrained system managed for maximum yield. While dramatic increases in yield occurred in some crops and locations, unintended but often foreseeable consequences emerged. While productivity remains a key objective, we must develop analytic systems that can identify better management options for the full range of monetized and non-monetized inputs, outputs and outcomes that are captured in the following framing question: How much valued service (e.g. food, materials, energy) can we draw from a landscape while maintaining adequate levels of other valued or necessary services (e.g. biodiversity, water, climate regulation, cultural services) including the long-term productivity of the land? This question is placed within our contemporary framing of valued services, but structured to illuminate the shifts required to achieve long-term sufficiency and planetary resilience. This framing also highlights the need for fundamentally new knowledge systems including information management infrastructures, which effectively support decision-making on landscapes. The purpose of this initiative by authors from diverse fields across government and academic science is to call attention to the need for a vision and investment in sustainability science for landscape management. Substantially enhanced capabilities are needed to compare and integrate information from diverse sources, collected over time that link choices made to meet our needs from landscapes to both short and long term consequences. To further the goal of an information infrastructure for sustainability science, three distinct but interlocking domains are best distinguished: 1) a domain of data, information and knowledge assets; 2) a domain that houses relevant models and tools in a curated

  13. Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd as a Modern Muslim Thinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUR ZAINATUL NADRA ZAINOL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd is a thinker who has produced works in the fields of theology, philosophy, law, politics and humanities. Abu Zayd’s thought, partly on the Quran and its hermeneutics has stirred controversy in Egypt and the Muslim world. This research focuses on the controversy surrounding Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd which led to the declaration of his apostasy by the Supreme Court of Egypt in 1995, as well as his controversial thoughts on the Quran, its method of exegesis and certain fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence issues such as the hijab (veil and polygamy. This paper serves as a literature review which employs the content analysis as a methodology to elaborate on Abu Zayd’s controversial thoughts based on his books, as well as through the views of Muslim and Western scholars on those thoughts.

  14. Transport systems and policies for sustainable cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučić Vukan R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century witnessed revolutionary developments in transportation technology with major impacts on the form and character of cities. Progress in increasing mobility has brought many benefits as well as serious problems, particularly in deterioration of livability and sustainability. Increase in auto ownership led to serious problems of chronic traffic congestion. Attempts to rebuild cities to provide full accommodation of private cars have led to serious problems of auto dependency and deterioration of cities. Experiences from recent decades have shown that urban transportation is much more complex than usually realized. Livable and sustainable cities require policies that lead to creation of a transportation system consisting of coordinated public transit and private cars, and encourages pedestrian environment and efficient, sustainable development. Great need for better understanding of the complex problems in implementing incentives and disincentives aimed at achieving intermodal balance is emphasized. Brief descriptions of cities which lead in achieving such livable conditions is followed by a summary of lessons and guidelines for the future.

  15. Life Cycle Thinking, Measurement and Management for Food System Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Nathan

    2015-07-07

    Food systems critically contribute to our collective sustainability outcomes. Improving food system sustainability requires life cycle thinking, measurement and management strategies. This article reviews the status quo and future prospects for bringing life cycle approaches to food system sustainability to the fore.

  16. Glyphosate sustainability in South American cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffoleti, Pedro J; Galli, Antonio J B; Carvalho, Saul J P; Moreira, Murilo S; Nicolai, Marcelo; Foloni, Luiz L; Martins, Bianca A B; Ribeiro, Daniela N

    2008-04-01

    South America represents about 12% of the global land area, and Brazil roughly corresponds to 47% of that. The major sustainable agricultural system in South America is based on a no-tillage cropping system, which is a worldwide adopted agricultural conservation system. Societal benefits of conservation systems in agriculture include greater use of conservation tillage, which reduces soil erosion and associated loading of pesticides, nutrients and sediments into the environment. However, overreliance on glyphosate and simpler cropping systems has resulted in the selection of tolerant weed species through weed shifts (WSs) and evolution of herbicide-resistant weed (HRW) biotypes to glyphosate. It is a challenge in South America to design herbicide- and non-herbicide-based strategies that effectively delay and/or manage evolution of HRWs and WSs to weeds tolerant to glyphosate in cropping systems based on recurrent glyphosate application, such as those used with glyphosate-resistant soybeans. The objectives of this paper are (i) to provide an overview of some factors that influence WSs and HRWs to glyphosate in South America, especially in Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay soybean cropped areas; (ii) to discuss the viability of using crop rotation and/or cover crops that might be integrated with forage crops in an economically and environmentally sustainable system; and (iii) to summarize the results of a survey of the perceptions of Brazilian farmers to problems with WSs and HRWs to glyphosate, and the level of adoption of good agricultural practices in order to prevent or manage it. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Developing Sustainable Spacecraft Water Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.; Klaus, David M.

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally more robust and operationally sustainable overtime. This paper presents potential design and testing considerations for improving the reliability of water handling technologies for exploration spacecraft. Our application of interest is to devise a spacecraft wastewater management system wherein fouling can be accommodated by design attributes of the management hardware, rather than implementing some means of preventing its occurrence.

  18. System learning approach to assess sustainability and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents a methodology that combines the power of an Artificial Neural Network and Information Theory to forecast variables describing the condition of a regional system. The novelty and strength of this approach is in the application of Fisher information, a key method in Information Theory, to preserve trends in the historical data and prevent over fitting projections. The methodology was applied to demographic, environmental, food and energy consumption, and agricultural production in the San Luis Basin regional system in Colorado, U.S.A. These variables are important for tracking conditions in human and natural systems. However, available data are often so far out of date that they limit the ability to manage these systems. Results indicate that the approaches developed provide viable tools for forecasting outcomes with the aim of assisting management toward sustainable trends. This methodology is also applicable for modeling different scenarios in other dynamic systems. Indicators are indispensable for tracking conditions in human and natural systems, however, available data is sometimes far out of date and limit the ability to gauge system status. Techniques like regression and simulation are not sufficient because system characteristics have to be modeled ensuring over simplification of complex dynamics. This work presents a methodology combining the power of an Artificial Neural Network and Information Theory to capture patterns in a real dyna

  19. Designing sustainable work systems: the need for a systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Klaus J

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing discussion concerning sustainability. While this discussion was at first mainly focused on a society level--and sometimes regarding especially environmental problems, one can now see that this topic is of increasing relevance for companies worldwide and even the social dimension of this three pillar approach is gaining more and more importance. This leads to some questions: Is sustainability already a part of human factors thinking or do we have to further develop our discipline? How can we define sustainable work systems? What are the topics we have to consider? Do we need a new systems ergonomics perspective regarding whole value creation chains and a life-cycle perspective concerning products (and work systems)? How can we deal with potential contradictions about social, ecological, and economic goals? Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2004-01-01

    Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today's waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous long-term management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by external intrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the long-term success of the prescribed system. In fact

  1. An Integrated Sustainable Business and Development System: Thoughts and Opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J. C. Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Companies understand the importance of monitoring and managing their environmental impacts and aim to integrate, with consistent quality control, effective reduce-reuse-recycle programs and risk preventions. By building an integrated sustainable business and development system to meet certain environmental standards, many companies are eligible to be “green” certified. Companies may consider recognizing global visions on sustainability while implementing local best practices. An integrated sustainable business and development system includes talent management, sustainable supply chain, practicing strategies of leveraging resources effectively, implementing social responsibilities, initiating innovative programs of recycling, reducing, and reusing, advancing leaders’ perceptions towards sustainability, reducing innovation barriers, and engaging sustainable practices strategically.

  2. Controllability of complex networks for sustainable system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful implementation of sustainability ideas in ecosystem management requires a basic understanding of the often non-linear and non-intuitive relationships among different dimensions of sustainability, particularly the system-wide implications of human actions. This basic un...

  3. Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Mei, Ying; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of Sustainability. It is divided into the following sections : • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management.

  4. Supplementary physicians' fees: a sustainable system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcoen, Piet; van de Ven, Wynand P M M

    2018-01-25

    In Belgium and France, physicians can charge a supplementary fee on top of the tariff set by the mandatory basic health insurance scheme. In both countries, the supplementary fee system is under pressure because of financial sustainability concerns and a lack of added value for the patient. Expenditure on supplementary fees is increasing much faster than total health expenditure. So far, measures taken to curb this trend have not been successful. For certain categories of physicians, supplementary fees represent one-third of total income. For patients, however, the added value of supplementary fees is not that clear. Supplementary fees can buy comfort and access to physicians who refuse to treat patients who are not willing to pay supplementary fees. Perceived quality of care plays an important role in patients' willingness to pay supplementary fees. Today, there is no evidence that physicians who charge supplementary fees provide better quality of care than physicians who do not. However, linking supplementary fees to objectively proven quality of care and limiting access to top quality care to patients able and willing to pay supplementary fees might not be socially acceptable in many countries. Our conclusion is that supplementary physicians' fees are not sustainable.

  5. Environmental Management Systems and Sustainability in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Satya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sustainability in manufacturing sector has been allocated a major consideration in the international literature. Due to growing concerns over the high effect of SMEs on world manufacturing industries and their contribution to pollution; this research attempts to focus on the key parameters that interact in the application of environmental management system, taking into account the main features of SMEs and also the integral role of industrial entrepreneurs in inspiring their firms’ approaches. The paper explores the potential opportunities which enable these enterprises to move towards organizations with high level of responsibility regarding environmental protection in order to provide a healthier life for future generations. Case investigation is carried out on an adhesive manufacturing company, which covers a notable market share within the sector. The research identifies that the company requires developing both internal and external entities within an explicit plan to revolutionize the recruitment patterns. Given the lack of adequate studies in adhesive technology, more researches are recommended in the future to consider the sustainable innovations on a broader sample of adhesive manufacturing companies to perform the life-cycle analysis due to the harmful organic compounds and toxic vapours of the adhesive products.

  6. Smart energy control systems for sustainable buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Spataru, Catalina; Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2017-01-01

    There is widespread interest in the way that smart energy control systems, such as assessment and monitoring techniques for low carbon, nearly-zero energy and net positive buildings can contribute to a Sustainable future, for current and future generations. There is a turning point on the horizon for the supply of energy from finite resources such as natural gas and oil become less reliable in economic terms and extraction become more challenging, and more unacceptable socially, such as adverse public reaction to ‘fracking’. Thus, in 2016 these challenges are having a major influence on the design, optimisation, performance measurements, operation and preservation of: buildings, neighbourhoods, cities, regions, countries and continents. The source and nature of energy, the security of supply and the equity of distribution, the environmental impact of its supply and utilization, are all crucial matters to be addressed by suppliers, consumers, governments, industry, academia, and financial institutions. Thi...

  7. Sustainable food systems for optimal planetary health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, Chelsey R; Noor, Ramadhani A; Golden, Christopher D; Juma, Calestous; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2017-06-01

    Sustainable food systems are an important component of a planetary health strategy to reduce the threat of infectious disease, minimize environmental footprint and promote nutrition. Human population trends and dietary transition have led to growing demand for food and increasing production and consumption of meat, amid declining availability of arable land and water. The intensification of livestock production has serious environmental and infectious disease impacts. Land clearing for agriculture alters ecosystems, increases human-wildlife interactions and leads to disease proliferation. Context-specific interventions should be evaluated towards optimizing nutrition resilience, minimizing environmental footprint and reducing animal and human disease risk. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. INDICATORS FOR SUSTAINABILITY IN INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS CASE STUDY: PAPER MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emiliana Fortună

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a framework for promoting sustainability by using indicators for sustainable production. The concept of sustainable production is described as it is viewed by various organisms actions involved in the analysis of the sustainable industrial systems.The measure of sustainability is approached considering indicators of sustainable production, addressing both their dimensions and qualitative and quantitative features.The proposed framework refines the sustainability dimension for a case study which envisages sustainability in paper manufacturing. The analysis takes into account the life cycle analysis for the considered process since the environmental impact is seen as an essential sustainability indicator. Paper recycling and reuse is associated environmental and social costs, as a preferred alternative in waste minimization hierarchy in the manufacturing of non-trees eco-friendly paper.Proactive initiatives to improve the environmental performances of production process are considered as powerful tools for improving the paper manufacturing environmental footprint.

  9. Incentives and market development to establish sustainable biomass systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteson Gary, C.

    2009-01-01

    Business-as-usual is not acceptable when it comes to the future for biomass-to-energy/product conversion industry. Incentives and market development need to be applied to guide the owners and operators towards the sustainable practices. Sustainability for biomass is defined to be future energy fuels and bio products that are secure, renewable, and accessible locally, affordable, and pollution free. Intensives are required to convert biomass-to-energy/product conversion systems that are not sustainable into sustainable formats. (Author)

  10. SUSTAINABILITY OF TAX SYSTEM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patricia HOMORODEAN (CSATLOS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization, sustainable development is the key to the development of contemporary society and future generations. Sustainability has become a key point for the debates in the political, economic, and academic environment. Therefore, today wehave reached the point when we speak of a country or company sustainability, of environmentalor agricultural sustainability, while speaking,at the same time, of fiscal policy sustainability. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Romanian fiscal policy sustainability in terms of tax revenues. The methodology used in this research is bibliographical analysis of specialist literature and statistical analysis of data. Bibliographical analysis was used to define operating concepts: fiscal sustainability and tax revenues. Statistical analysis was used to analyze the evolution of tax revenues in Romania between2005and2013, as well as the share of tax revenues in the general consolidated budget of Romania. Statistical data were processed using Microsoft Excel and presented as evolution diagrams. The novelty and originality of the present work consist in the bibliographical study on Romanian fiscal policy sustainability, the statistical study on the evolution of tax revenues in Romania between 2005and2013, and the analysisof fiscal policy sustainability in Romania in terms of tax revenues.

  11. Practices of corporate social responsibility and sustainable systems work in Peruvian companies issuing sustainability reports

    OpenAIRE

    Prialé, María Angela; Fuchs, Rosa María; Sáenz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Through a literature review, this exploratory study seeks to determine whether the practices related to its colaborators, who report as part of its action responsible Peruvian companies issuing sustainability reports can be considered sustainable management practices of human resources. To this end, it was used the approach of sustainable work systems as a general approach. It was found that some of the practices of responsible management of human resources that implement the analyzed compani...

  12. Accelerating the transition to sustainable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The slow pace of transition to sustainable energy systems is the result of several factors running in parallel. The starting points are very low. Even 30% per annum increases in rated capacity (for wind energy or solar PV, for example) take many years to make a big impact at the global level. Policy initiatives are for the most part ineffectual in relation to the urgency and scale of what is required, and often fail to address the fundamental causes of this slow progress. This reflects a 'top-down' approach-often accompanied by unrealistic targets and simultaneously undermined by a lack of consistency across policies, which reflect a 'utopian social engineering mentality', made worse because: 'The Planner's response to failure of previous interventions (is) to do more intensive and comprehensive interventions' as William Easterly has put it. In short, there is little or no accountability. This approach has failed to harness the sympathy, imagination, self-interest, or sound options of energy users-although it may attract developers, including those not hitherto noted for renewable energy projects or environmental concern. Targets are usually too short term and clearly unrealistic, especially where fossil fuel use is rising very rapidly, and renewable energy use expands modestly. Government subsidies for traditional energy forms continue. Insufficient attention is paid to what individuals might achieve in energy efficiency and renewable energy terms if permitted to have, or retain (in industrialized countries, where the burden of taxation is often inhibiting), the wherewithal to make the necessary investments. Subsidy systems often promote renewable energy schemes that are misdirected and buoyed up by grossly exaggerated claims. One or two mature renewable energy technologies are pushed nationally with insufficient regard for their costs, contribution to electricity generation, transportation fuels' needs, or carbon emission avoidance. Investors are rewarded

  13. CONSTRUCTING A GENERAL SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability atracts enormous interest in the minds of the public and the scientific and engineering community because it holds the promise of a long-term solution to environmental problems. Sustainability, however, is mathematically loosely defined. There is no widely accepted...

  14. Environmental Sustainability of Some Cropping Systems in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results from most findings reviewed in this paper had shown that there was no one size fits cropping system that can be use for sustainability of the humid environment but the best approach was the diversification of both traditional and modern cropping systems. The transition to systems which are both sustainable and ...

  15. Practices of corporate social responsibility and sustainable systems work in Peruvian companies issuing sustainability reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angela Prialé

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Through a literature review, this exploratory study seeks to determine whether the practices related to its colaborators, who report as part of its action responsible Peruvian companies issuing sustainability reports can be considered sustainable management practices of human resources. To this end, it was used the approach of sustainable work systems as a general approach. It was found that some of the practices of responsible management of human resources that implement the analyzed companies address the human dimensions of sustainability, although not all dimensions are considered equally or similar depth.

  16. A sustainability assessment system for Chinese iron and steel firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Yunguang; Pan, Jieyi; Farooq, Sami

    2016-01-01

    from financial and sustainability reports of four leading Chinese iron and steel firms. The proposed sustainable assessment system is envisaged to help Chinese iron and steel firms to objectively investigate their sustainability performance, provide clear and effective information to decision makers......The environmental impact of the Chinese iron and steel industry is huge due to its high consumption of ore, coal and energy, and water and air pollution. It is important not only for China but also for the rest of the world that the Chinese iron and steel industry becomes more sustainable....... A sustainable assessment indicator system is an important tool to support that development. Currently, however, a sustainable assessment system, specifically designed to match the characteristics of Chinese iron and steel firms, is not available. In this paper such a system is proposed and evaluated using data...

  17. Academic Training: Toward Sustainable Energy Systems?

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES 28, 29, 30, 31 March from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Toward Sustainable Energy Systems? F. Tellez / CIEMAT, Madrid, E and D.Martinez / CIEMAT-PSA, Almeria, E Recent work on alternative energies go in the direction of proving the feasibility of solar energy as one of the best alternatives into the future. Europe, as everybody else, has understandably vested interests in insourcing energetic demands as far as affordable. The good news is that solar energy may be its deciding straw, because it has remarkable facilities and projects probing the possibilities of this option. Two european research centers are at the leading edge in this area: ENEA, which is leading 'Archimede', a vast solar array project in Sicily, and CIEMAT, with its Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA, www.psa.es), a major solar energy facility at the south of Spain. Both will become basic poles of the planned 'EURO-MED'electricity interconnection, intending to carry solar electricity fro...

  18. Academic Training: Toward Sustainable Energy Systems?

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES 28, 29, 30, 31 March from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Toward Sustainable Energy Systems? F. Tellez / CIEMAT, Madrid, E and D.Martinez / CIEMAT-PSA, Almeria, E Recent work on alternative energies go in the direction of proving the feasibility of solar energy as one of the best alternatives into the future. Europe, as everybody else, has understandably vested interests in insourcing energetic demands as far as affordable. The good news is that solar energy may be its deciding straw, because it has remarkable facilities and projects probing the possibilities of this option. Two european research centers are at the leading edge in this area: ENEA, which is leading 'Archimede', a vast solar array project in Sicily, and CIEMAT, with its Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA, www.psa.es) ,a major solar energy facility at the south of Spain. Both will become basic poles of the planned 'EURO-MED' electricity interconnection, intending to carry solar electricity f...

  19. Land system science and sustainable development of the earth system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verburg, Peter H.; Crossman, Neville; Ellis, Erle C.

    2015-01-01

    Land systems are the result of human interactions with the natural environment. Understanding the drivers, state, trends and impacts of different land systems on social and natural processes helps to reveal how changes in the land system affect the functioning of the socio-ecological system...... as a whole and the tradeoff these changes may represent. The Global Land Project has led advances by synthesizing land systems research across different scales and providing concepts to further understand the feedbacks between social-and environmental systems, between urban and rural environments and between...... distant world regions. Land system science has moved from a focus on observation of change and understanding the drivers of these changes to a focus on using this understanding to design sustainable transformations through stakeholder engagement and through the concept of land governance. As land use can...

  20. A sustainability assessment system for Chinese iron and steel firms

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Yunguang; Pan, Jieyi; Farooq, Sami; Boer, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of the Chinese iron and steel industry is huge due to its high consumption of ore, coal and energy, and water and air pollution. It is important not only for China but also for the rest of the world that the Chinese iron and steel industry becomes more sustainable. A sustainable assessment indicator system is an important tool to support that development. Currently, however, a sustainable assessment system, specifically designed to match the characteristics of Chinese...

  1. Integrated Systems Mitigate Land Degradation and Improve Agricultural System Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Rain-fed agricultural production supported by exogenous inputs is not sustainable because a continuous influx of expensive inputs (fertilizer, chemicals, fossil fuel, labor, tillage, and other) is required. Alternatives to traditional management allow natural occurring dynamic soil processes to provide the necessary microbial activity that supports nutrient cycling in balance with nature. Research designed to investigate the potential for integrated systems to replace expensive inputs has shown that healthy soils rich in soil organic matter (SOM) are the foundation upon which microbial nutrient cycling can reduce and eventually replace expensive fertilizer. No-till seed placement technology effectively replaces multiple-pass cultivation conserving stored soil water in semi-arid farming systems. In multi-crop rotations, cool- and warm-season crops are grown in sequence to meet goals of the integrated farming and ranching system, and each crop in the rotation complements the subsequent crop by supplying a continuous flow of essential SOM for soil nutrient cycling. Grazing animals serve an essential role in the system's sustainability as non-mechanized animal harvesters that reduce fossil fuel consumption and labor, and animal waste contributes soil nutrients to the system. Integrated systems' complementarity has contributed to greater soil nutrient cycling and crop yields, fertilizer reduction or elimination, greater yearling steer grazing net return, reduced cow wintering costs grazing crop residues, increased wildlife sightings, and reduced environmental footprint. Therefore, integrating crop and animal systems can reverse soil quality decline and adopting non-traditional procedures has resulted in a wider array of opportunities for sustainable agriculture and profitability.

  2. Sustainable automotive energy system in China

    CERN Document Server

    CAERC, Tsinghua University

    2014-01-01

    This book identifies and addresses key issues of automotive energy in China. It covers demography, economics, technology and policy, providing a broad perspective to aid in the planning of sustainable road transport in China.

  3. Human development and sustainability of energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This seminar on human development and sustainability was jointly organized by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and Enerdata company. This document summarises the content of the different presentations and of the minutes of the discussions that took place at the end of each topic. The different themes discussed were: 1 - Political and methodological issues related to sustainability (sustainability concept in government policy, sustainability and back-casting: lessons from EST); 2 - towards a socially viable world: thematic discussions (demography and peoples' migration; time budget and life style change - equal sex access to instruction and labour - geopolitical regional and inter-regional universal cultural acceptability; welfare, poverty and social link and economics); 3 - building up an environmentally sustainable energy world, keeping resources for future generations and preventing geopolitical ruptures (CO{sub 2} emissions; nuclear issues; land-use, noise, and other industrial risks). The memorandum on sustainability issues in view of very long term energy studies is reprinted in the appendix. The transparencies of seven presentations are attached to this document. (J.S.)

  4. Human development and sustainability of energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This seminar on human development and sustainability was jointly organized by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and Enerdata company. This document summarises the content of the different presentations and of the minutes of the discussions that took place at the end of each topic. The different themes discussed were: 1 - Political and methodological issues related to sustainability (sustainability concept in government policy, sustainability and back-casting: lessons from EST); 2 - towards a socially viable world: thematic discussions (demography and peoples' migration; time budget and life style change - equal sex access to instruction and labour - geopolitical regional and inter-regional universal cultural acceptability; welfare, poverty and social link and economics); 3 - building up an environmentally sustainable energy world, keeping resources for future generations and preventing geopolitical ruptures (CO{sub 2} emissions; nuclear issues; land-use, noise, and other industrial risks). The memorandum on sustainability issues in view of very long term energy studies is reprinted in the appendix. The transparencies of seven presentations are attached to this document. (J.S.)

  5. Model of sustainable development of energy system, case of Hamedan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahabmanesh, Aref; Saboohi, Yadollah

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable economic growth and improvement of the social welfare depend upon the sufficient supply of energy resources, while the utilization of energy resources is one of the main factors of environmental degradation. This research is involved with development of a sustainable energy system model and a new method for sustainability assessment. This model represents the flow of energy from primary resources through processing, conversion, and end-use technologies in an optimization framework where the useful energy demand in various social and economic sectors is met. The impact of energy supply and consumption chain on the environment at each level of energy system is also embedded in the model structure. A multi-criteria analysis of changes is then applied and sustainable development indices of the whole system are concluded. Finally, effects of the energy subsidy policy and high economic growth rate on sustainability of the energy system in three scenarios are analyzed. Results demonstrate that energy subsidy decelerates the improvement rate of the total sustainability index. Also, when a high economic growth is accompanied with the energy subsidy this index reduces considerably. Results show that how penetration of renewable energy potentials changes the sustainability situation of energy systems. - Highlights: • Developing a new model for sustainable energy systems. • Presenting a new method for sustainability assessment of energy systems. • Optimizing the energy flow and capacity expansion of Hamedan energy system. • Utilizing an MCDA approach to obtain sustainability indices of the whole system. • Analysis of energy subsidy and high economic growth on energy sustainability.

  6. Placing Ecosystem Sustainability Within the Context of Dynamic Earth Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because the concept of ecosystem sustainability and the practice of sustainable land management both have long-term foci, it is necessary to view these from the perspective of dynamic rather than static systems. In addition to the typical static system approach for assessing ecos...

  7. A sustained-arc ignition system for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, A. G.

    1977-01-01

    A sustained-arc ignition system was developed for internal combustion engines. It produces a very-long-duration ignition pulse with an energy in the order of 100 millijoules. The ignition pulse waveform can be controlled to predetermined actual ignition requirements. The design of the sustained-arc ignition system is presented in the report.

  8. Multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessment of farming systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Passel, Steven, E-mail: Steven.vanpassel@uhasselt.be [Hasselt University, Faculty of Business Economics, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan, Building D, 3590, Diepenbeek (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Department Bioscience Engineering, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Meul, Marijke [University College Ghent, Department of Biosciences and Landscape Architecture, Campus Schoonmeersen, Building C, Schoonmeersstraat 52, 9000, Gent (Belgium)

    2012-01-15

    Sustainability assessment is needed to build sustainable farming systems. A broad range of sustainability concepts, methodologies and applications already exists. They differ in level, focus, orientation, measurement, scale, presentation and intended end-users. In this paper we illustrate that a smart combination of existing methods with different levels of application can make sustainability assessment more profound, and that it can broaden the insights of different end-user groups. An overview of sustainability assessment tools on different levels and for different end-users shows the complementarities and the opportunities of using different methods. In a case-study, a combination of the sustainable value approach (SVA) and MOTIFS is used to perform a sustainability evaluation of farming systems in Flanders. SVA is used to evaluate sustainability at sector level, and is especially useful to support policy makers, while MOTIFS is used to support and guide farmers towards sustainability at farm level. The combined use of the two methods with complementary goals can widen the insights of both farmers and policy makers, without losing the particularities of the different approaches. To stimulate and support further research and applications, we propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We give an overview of sustainability assessment tools for agricultural systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SVA and MOTIFS are used to evaluate the sustainability of dairy farming in Flanders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of methods with different levels broadens the insights of different end-user groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments.

  9. Multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessment of farming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Passel, Steven; Meul, Marijke

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability assessment is needed to build sustainable farming systems. A broad range of sustainability concepts, methodologies and applications already exists. They differ in level, focus, orientation, measurement, scale, presentation and intended end-users. In this paper we illustrate that a smart combination of existing methods with different levels of application can make sustainability assessment more profound, and that it can broaden the insights of different end-user groups. An overview of sustainability assessment tools on different levels and for different end-users shows the complementarities and the opportunities of using different methods. In a case-study, a combination of the sustainable value approach (SVA) and MOTIFS is used to perform a sustainability evaluation of farming systems in Flanders. SVA is used to evaluate sustainability at sector level, and is especially useful to support policy makers, while MOTIFS is used to support and guide farmers towards sustainability at farm level. The combined use of the two methods with complementary goals can widen the insights of both farmers and policy makers, without losing the particularities of the different approaches. To stimulate and support further research and applications, we propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments. - Highlights: ► We give an overview of sustainability assessment tools for agricultural systems. ► SVA and MOTIFS are used to evaluate the sustainability of dairy farming in Flanders. ► Combination of methods with different levels broadens the insights of different end-user groups. ► We propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments.

  10. Sustainability concept for energy, water and environment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, N.H.

    2004-01-01

    This review is aimed to introduce historical background for the sustainability concept development for energy, water and environment systems. In the assessment of global energy and water resources attention is focussed in on the resource consumption and its relevancy to the future demand. In the review of the sustainability concept development special emphasize is devoted to the definition of sustainability and its relevancy to the historical background of the sustainability idea. In order to introduce measuring of sustainability the attention is devoted to the definition of respective criteria. There have been a number of attempts to define the criterions for the assessment of the sustainability of the market products. Having those criterions as bases, it was introduced a specific application in the energy system design

  11. Accelerating technological change. Towards a more sustainable transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vooren, A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis provides insights into the mechanisms of technological change by capturing the complexity that characterises the current technological transition of the transport system into existing evolutionary models of technological change. The transition towards a more sustainable transport system

  12. Certification systems for sustainable neighbourhoods: What do they really certify?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangel, Josefin, E-mail: josefin.wangel@abe.kth.se [Division of Environmental Strategies Analysis (fms), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Wallhagen, Marita, E-mail: marita.wallhagen@hig.se [Division of Environmental Strategies Analysis (fms), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Gävle, SE-801 76 Gävle (Sweden); Malmqvist, Tove, E-mail: tove.malmqvist@abe.kth.se [Division of Environmental Strategies Analysis (fms), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Finnveden, Göran, E-mail: goran.finnveden@abe.kth.se [Division of Environmental Strategies Analysis (fms), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-01-15

    Certification systems for sustainable neighbourhoods started to emerge around a decade ago. This study analysed the content, structure, weighting and indicators of two established certification systems for sustainable urban development – BREEAM Communities and LEED for Neighborhood Development. Several limitations of these systems were identified: both have a bias for procedure and feature indicators over indicators that assess actual performance; performance demands are set according to a relative understanding of sustainable development; the focus is on internal sustainability, while upstream and downstream impacts of construction are disregarded; the number and distribution of mandatory issues do not cover essential sustainability aspects; and the disproportionately large number of non-mandatory issues makes benchmarking difficult and signals that sustainability aspects are exchangeable. Altogether, this means that an area can be certified without being sustainable. Moreover, the lack of continuous development of certification requirements in the systems means that they risk exerting a conservative effect on urban development, rather than pushing it forward. - Highlights: • BREEAM-C and LEED-ND were analysed in terms of content and structure. • Specific attention was given to the type of indicators used for showing compliance. • In both systems procedure and feature indicators dominate over performance indicators. • Several other limitations of these certification systems were also identified. • Altogether the limitations imply that a certificate does not warrant sustainability.

  13. Certification systems for sustainable neighbourhoods: What do they really certify?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangel, Josefin; Wallhagen, Marita; Malmqvist, Tove; Finnveden, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Certification systems for sustainable neighbourhoods started to emerge around a decade ago. This study analysed the content, structure, weighting and indicators of two established certification systems for sustainable urban development – BREEAM Communities and LEED for Neighborhood Development. Several limitations of these systems were identified: both have a bias for procedure and feature indicators over indicators that assess actual performance; performance demands are set according to a relative understanding of sustainable development; the focus is on internal sustainability, while upstream and downstream impacts of construction are disregarded; the number and distribution of mandatory issues do not cover essential sustainability aspects; and the disproportionately large number of non-mandatory issues makes benchmarking difficult and signals that sustainability aspects are exchangeable. Altogether, this means that an area can be certified without being sustainable. Moreover, the lack of continuous development of certification requirements in the systems means that they risk exerting a conservative effect on urban development, rather than pushing it forward. - Highlights: • BREEAM-C and LEED-ND were analysed in terms of content and structure. • Specific attention was given to the type of indicators used for showing compliance. • In both systems procedure and feature indicators dominate over performance indicators. • Several other limitations of these certification systems were also identified. • Altogether the limitations imply that a certificate does not warrant sustainability.

  14. NASA's Space Launch System: Affordability for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. But the SLS value is clear and codified in United States (U.S.) budget law. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability and will provide an overview of initiatives designed to fit within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat, yet evolve the 70-tonne (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through the competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface some 40 years ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on platforms such as the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. In parallel with SLS concept studies, NASA is now refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. space policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap, which reflects the mutual goals of a dozen member nations. This mission planning will converge with a flexible heavy-lift rocket that can carry international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids and Mars. In addition, the SLS capability will accommodate very large science instruments and other payloads, using a series of modular fairings and

  15. Building reactor operator sustain expert system with C language integrated production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Qin; Hu Shouyin; Wang Ruipian

    2002-01-01

    The development of the reactor operator sustain expert system is introduced, the capability of building reactor operator sustain expert system is discussed with C Language Integrated Production System (Clips), and a simple antitype of expert system is illustrated. The limitation of building reactor operator sustain expert system with Clips is also discussed

  16. Revisiting System Paradigms from the Viewpoint of Manufacturing Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuming Bi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A system paradigm is an abstract representation of system; it includes system architecture used to determine the types and numbers of components and their relations in the system. The design of system paradigm relies on customers’ requirements and the characteristics of the manufacturing environment. Many system paradigms and design guidelines have been proposed for a variety of customers’ needs including functions, cost, quality, personalization, and lead time of products. However, the consideration of sustainability becomes essential to today’s manufacturing systems; a new challenge is how to evolve existing paradigms to accommodate the requirements of sustainability. In contrast to ample research activities on system paradigms in past decades, recent studies on system paradigms have been restricted, partially due to unclear research directions. Limited works can be found on conceiving new manufacturing system paradigms from the perspective of sustainability; most of the related literature concerns the new requirements of sustainability. The objectives of this work are (i to examine the requirements of manufacturing systems in a wider scope; (ii to revisit existing paradigms to clarify their limitations and bottlenecks; and eventually (iii to identify some research directions, which will lead to a solution of sustainable manufacturing. To achieve these objectives, firstly, a brief description of today’s manufacturing environment is provided. Secondly, the requirements of sustainability are discussed, and the relevant researches on system sustainability are surveyed. Thirdly, the reconfigurable system paradigm is focused, and the gaps between a reconfigurable manufacturing system and a sustainable manufacturing system are discussed. Finally, the future endeavors towards to the next-generation manufacturing system paradigms are discussed.

  17. Understanding sustainability from an exergetic frame in complex adaptive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar Hernandez, Glem Alonso

    2017-01-01

    The concept of sustainability was developed from thermodynamic properties applied to complex adaptive systems. The origins of the perception about sustainable development and limitation in its application to analyze the interaction between a system and its surroundings were described. The properties of a complex adaptive system were taken as basis to determine how a system can to be affected by the resources restriction and irreversibility of the processes. The complex adaptive system was understood using the first and second law of thermodynamics, generating a conceptual framework to define the sustainability of a system. The contributions developed by exergy were shown to analyze the sustainability of systems in an economic, social and environmental context [es

  18. Center for Efficiency in Sustainable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Martin [Youngstown State Univ., OH (United States)

    2016-01-31

    The main goal of the Center for Efficiency in Sustainable Energy Systems is to produce a methodology that evaluates a variety of energy systems. Task I. Improved Energy Efficiency for Industrial Processes: This task, completed in partnership with area manufacturers, analyzes the operation of complex manufacturing facilities to provide flexibilities that allow them to improve active-mode power efficiency, lower standby-mode power consumption, and use low cost energy resources to control energy costs in meeting their economic incentives; (2) Identify devices for the efficient transformation of instantaneous or continuous power to different devices and sections of industrial plants; and (3) use these manufacturing sites to demonstrate and validate general principles of power management. Task II. Analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell operating on landfill gas: This task consists of: (1) analysis of a typical landfill gas; (2) establishment of a comprehensive design of the fuel cell system (including the SOFC stack and BOP), including durability analysis; (3) development of suitable reforming methods and catalysts that are tailored to the specific SOFC system concept; and (4) SOFC stack fabrication with testing to demonstrate the salient operational characteristics of the stack, including an analysis of the overall energy conversion efficiency of the system. Task III. Demonstration of an urban wind turbine system: This task consists of (1) design and construction of two side-by-side wind turbine systems on the YSU campus, integrated through power control systems with grid power; (2) preliminary testing of aerodynamic control effectors (provided by a small business partner) to demonstrate improved power control, and evaluation of the system performance, including economic estimates of viability in an urban environment; and (3) computational analysis of the wind turbine system as an enabling activity for development of smart rotor blades that contain integrated sensor

  19. Socially sustainable work organizations and systems thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kira, M.; Eijnatten, van F.M.

    2010-01-01

    This Research Note seeks to add to the body of knowledge concerning social sustainability in work organizations, especially within the context of new challenges and threats in contemporary, post-industrial working life. Moreover, the intention is to explore the added value of the complexity lens in

  20. Sustainable Capture: Concepts for Managing Stream-Aquifer Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Jeffrey C; Mehl, Steffen W

    2015-01-01

    Most surface water bodies (i.e., streams, lakes, etc.) are connected to the groundwater system to some degree so that changes to surface water bodies (either diversions or importations) can change flows in aquifer systems, and pumping from an aquifer can reduce discharge to, or induce additional recharge from streams, springs, and lakes. The timescales of these interactions are often very long (decades), making sustainable management of these systems difficult if relying only on observations of system responses. Instead, management scenarios are often analyzed based on numerical modeling. In this paper we propose a framework and metrics that can be used to relate the Theis concepts of capture to sustainable measures of stream-aquifer systems. We introduce four concepts: Sustainable Capture Fractions, Sustainable Capture Thresholds, Capture Efficiency, and Sustainable Groundwater Storage that can be used as the basis for developing metrics for sustainable management of stream-aquifer systems. We demonstrate their utility on a hypothetical stream-aquifer system where pumping captures both streamflow and discharge to phreatophytes at different amounts based on pumping location. In particular, Capture Efficiency (CE) can be easily understood by both scientists and non-scientist alike, and readily identifies vulnerabilities to sustainable stream-aquifer management when its value exceeds 100%. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  1. Operationalizing sustainability in urban coastal systems: a system dynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrommati, Georgia; Bithas, Kostas; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis

    2013-12-15

    We propose a system dynamics approach for Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD) in urban coastal systems. A systematic analysis based on theoretical considerations, policy analysis and experts' knowledge is followed in order to define the concept of ESD. The principles underlying ESD feed the development of a System Dynamics Model (SDM) that connects the pollutant loads produced by urban systems' socioeconomic activities with the ecological condition of the coastal ecosystem that it is delineated in operational terms through key biological elements defined by the EU Water Framework Directive. The receiving waters of the Athens Metropolitan area, which bears the elements of typical high population density Mediterranean coastal city but which currently has also new dynamics induced by the ongoing financial crisis, are used as an experimental system for testing a system dynamics approach to apply the concept of ESD. Systems' thinking is employed to represent the complex relationships among the components of the system. Interconnections and dependencies that determine the potentials for achieving ESD are revealed. The proposed system dynamics analysis can facilitate decision makers to define paths of development that comply with the principles of ESD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Framing in innovation. Towards sustainable agro-food systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwartkruis, J.V.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability issues in the agro-food sector have become increasingly important, and in order to deal with these sustainability issues, innovations are deemed necessary. Only introducing new technologies is not enough, system innovations are needed in which changes in the whole socio-technical

  3. The mediating effect of sustainability control system on reverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyses part of the viability of green supply chain management practices created for fisheries industry to implement sustainability control system adoption as mediating on reverse logistics innovation and customer environmental collaboration towards sustainability performance. It examines reverse logistics ...

  4. Sustaining organizational culture change in health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Cameron David; Saul, Jessie; Bevan, Helen; Scheirer, Mary Ann; Best, Allan; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Mannion, Russell; Cornelissen, Evelyn; Howland, David; Jenkins, Emily; Bitz, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The questions addressed by this review are: first, what are the guiding principles underlying efforts to stimulate sustained cultural change; second, what are the mechanisms by which these principles operate; and, finally, what are the contextual factors that influence the likelihood of these principles being effective? The paper aims to discuss these issues. The authors conducted a literature review informed by rapid realist review methodology that examined how interventions interact with contexts and mechanisms to influence the sustainability of cultural change. Reference and expert panelists assisted in refining the research questions, systematically searching published and grey literature, and helping to identify interactions between interventions, mechanisms and contexts. Six guiding principles were identified: align vision and action; make incremental changes within a comprehensive transformation strategy; foster distributed leadership; promote staff engagement; create collaborative relationships; and continuously assess and learn from change. These principles interact with contextual elements such as local power distributions, pre-existing values and beliefs and readiness to engage. Mechanisms influencing how these principles sustain cultural change include activation of a shared sense of urgency and fostering flexible levels of engagement. The principles identified in this review, along with the contexts and mechanisms that influence their effectiveness, are useful domains for policy and practice leaders to explore when grappling with cultural change. These principles are sufficiently broad to allow local flexibilities in adoption and application. This is the first study to adopt a realist approach for understanding how changes in organizational culture may be sustained. Through doing so, this review highlights the broad principles by which organizational action may be organized within enabling contextual settings.

  5. Assessing the global sustainability of different electricity generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartelle Barros, Juan José; Lara Coira, Manuel; Cruz López, María Pilar de la; Caño Gochi, Alfredo del

    2015-01-01

    A model is presented for assessing the global sustainability of power plants. It uses requirement trees, value functions and the analytic hierarchy process. The model consists of 27 parameters and makes it possible to obtain a sustainability index for each conventional or renewable energy plant, throughout its life-cycle. Here the aim is to make society aware of the sustainability level for each type of power system. As a result, decision making can be done with greater objectivity in both the public and private sectors. The model can be useful for engineers, researchers and, in general, decision makers in the energy policy field. With the exception of biomass fuels, the results obtained reinforce the idea that renewable energies make a greater contribution to sustainable development than their conventional counterparts. Renewable energies have a sustainability index that varies between 0.39 and 0.80; 0 and 1 being the lowest and highest contribution to sustainability, respectively. On the other hand, conventional power plants obtained results that fall between 0.29 and 0.57. High temperature solar-thermal plants, wind farms, photovoltaic solar plants and mini-hydroelectric power plants occupy the first four places, in this order. - Highlights: • A model for assessing the integral sustainability of power plants is proposed. • Different energy alternatives are ordered according to sustainability criteria. • Except for biomass, renewable energies contribute more to sustainable development. • The model aids the decision making process in the energy policy field

  6. Exergy and Sustainability : Insights into the Value of Exergy Analysis in Sustainability Assessment of Technological Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stougie, L.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in striving for a more sustainable society is the selection of technological systems. Given the capital intensity of industrial production plants, power generation systems and infrastructure, investment decisions create path dependencies for decades to come. It is difficult to know

  7. Review: Animal health and sustainable global livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B D; Robinson, T P; Grace, D C

    2018-04-10

    This paper discusses the sustainability of livestock systems, emphasising bidirectional relations with animal health. We review conventional and contrarian thinking on sustainability and argue that in the most common approaches to understanding sustainability, health aspects have been under-examined. Literature review reveals deep concerns over the sustainability of livestock systems; we recognise that interventions are required to shift to more sustainable trajectories, and explore approaches to prioritising in different systems, focusing on interventions that lead to better health. A previously proposed three-tiered categorisation of 'hot spots', 'cold spots' and 'worried well' animal health trajectories provides a mental model that, by taking into consideration the different animal health status, animal health risks, service response needs and key drivers in each system, can help identify and implement interventions. Combining sustainability concepts with animal health trajectories allows for a richer analysis, and we apply this to three case studies drawn from North Africa and the Middle East; Bangladesh; and the Eastern Cape of South Africa. We conclude that the quest for sustainability of livestock production systems from the perspective of human and animal health is elusive and difficult to reconcile with the massive anticipated growth in demand for livestock products, mainly in low- and middle-income countries, as well as the aspirations of poor livestock keepers for better lives. Nevertheless, improving the health of livestock can contribute to health sustainability both through reducing negative health impacts of livestock and increasing efficiency of production. However, the choice of the most appropriate options must be under-pinned by an understanding of agro-ecology, economy and values. We argue that a new pillar of One Health should be added to the three traditional sustainability pillars of economics, society and environment when addressing

  8. Green innovation and sustainable industrial systems within sustainability and company improvement perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edi Nugroho Soebandrija, Khristian

    2017-12-01

    This paper comprises discussion of Green Innovation and Sustainable Industrial Systems within Sustainability and Company Improvement Perspective of beverage manufacturing company (BMC). The stakeholder theory is the grand theory for the company improvement perspective in this paper. The data processing in this paper is conducted through software which are SEM-PLS with SmartPLS 2.0 and SPSS 19. The specified objective of this paper has focus on sustainability as one of 6 variables, in lieu of those 6 variables as the big picture. The reason behind this focus on sustainability is the fact that there are assorted challenges in sustainability that is ranging from economic, environment and company perspectives. Those challenges in sustainability include the sustainable service supply chain management and its involvement of society. The overall objective is to analyze relationship hypothesis of 6 variables, 4 of them (leadership, organizational learning, innovation, and performance) are based on Malcolm Baldrige’s performance excellence concept to achieve sustainability and competitive advantage through company-competitor and customer questionnaire, and its relation to Total Quality Management (TQM) and Quality Management System (QMS). In conclusion, the spearheaded of company improvement in this paper is in term of consumer satisfaction through 99.997% quality standards. These can be achieved by ambidexterity through exploitation and exploration innovation. Furthermore, in this paper, TQM enables to obtain popularity brand index achievement that is greater than 45.9%. Subsequently, ISO22000 of food security standard encompasses quality standard of ISO9000 and HACCP. Through the ambidexterity of exploitation and exploration (Non Standard Product Inspection) NOSPI machine, the company improvement generates the achievement of 75% automation, 99.997% quality control standard and 80% of waste reduction.

  9. Sustainable waste management via incineration system: an Islamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable waste management via incineration system: an Islamic outlook for conservation of the environment. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... Abstract. This paper would firstly examine solid waste management currently ...

  10. Enhanced digital library system that supports sustainable knowledge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhanced digital library system that supports sustainable knowledge: A focus ... This research work provides a Web-Based University library, ability to access the ... and generates pins to authorize bonafide students and staff of the University.

  11. Sustainability of animal production systems: an ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavra, M

    1996-06-01

    The question of sustainability of agricultural production and the use of natural resources has become a popular topic. Most scientists agree that current systems are generally non-sustainable. Current rates of resource extraction will lead us to a depleted earth in the future. Sustainability is defined in many ways. For this paper sustainability should be considered the overlap of what is wanted and what is ecologically possible. Attempts have been made to place a quantitative measure on sustainability. However, it should be considered a trajectory or goal, a direction that guides constructive change, rather than a single quantitative measure. Research and extension personnel may have to take a broader look at their efforts and expand their knowledge base in order to address the issue of sustainable production systems. Both natural events and those caused by humans bring about changes in production potential that require shifts in management. Uncertainty and change should be incorporated into adaptive management strategies. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to confront these issues. Animal scientists need to formulate management systems that are environmentally compatible or face restrictive legislation that will force change. Members of the American Society of Animal Science seem to agree: efficient and sustainable use of natural resources appears in the draft of the Strategic Plan of the Society, and a poll of members revealed that environmental concerns about animal agriculture was a primary issue facing animal scientists.

  12. Sustainable Innovation, Management Accounting and Control Systems, and International Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Lopez-Valeiras

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes how Management Accounting and Control Systems (MACS facilitate the appropriation of the benefits of sustainable innovations in organizations. In particular, this paper examines the moderating role of different types of MACS in the relationships between sustainable innovation and international performance at an organizational level. We collected survey data from 123 Spanish and Portuguese organizations. Partial Least Square was used to analyze the data. Results show that the effect of sustainable innovations on international performance is enhanced by contemporary rather than traditional types of MACS. Overall our findings show that MACS can help managers to develop and monitor organizational activities (e.g., costumer services and distribution activities, which support the appropriation of the potential benefits from sustainable innovation. This paper responds to recent calls for in-depth studies about the organizational mechanism that may enhance the success of sustainable innovation.

  13. Sustainability of Pension Systems in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Rajevska

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the paper is to identify how the concept of sustainability is understood and ensured in the pension systems of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania; and what implications it brings to the performance of pension schemes. Research Design & Methods: Analysis of various conceptual and methodological approaches to the notion of sustainability of pension systems. Comparative analysis of present pension legislation, as well as preceding stage of pension reforms,   accompanied by a number of numerical models. Findings: The understanding of sustainability is limited by narrow ‘fiscal’ meaning in Latvia, compared to more a multifaceted concept that includes the principle of social fairness and which can be traced in the logic of Estonian and Lithuanian legislators. Implications & Recommendations: In the long-term, pure financial appreciation of sustainability is misleading, low level of credibility may cripple a financially sound but socially unfair system; the perceived unfairness of redistribution can undermine the public support to, and, therefore, sustainability of pension systems. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in studying how differences at policy formulation stage and in the very design of pension schemes influence pension system sustainability in countries with a very similar initial conditions and socio-economic environment.

  14. Towards self-sustainable power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Danzi, Pietro; Stefanovic, Cedomir

    2017-01-01

    We propose use of a “modemless” communication solution, termed power talk, tailored for optimization and monitoring, i.e., upper layer control in low voltage DC MicroGrids (MGs). Specifically, the exchange of the information required for the upper control among control agents is achieved by modul......We propose use of a “modemless” communication solution, termed power talk, tailored for optimization and monitoring, i.e., upper layer control in low voltage DC MicroGrids (MGs). Specifically, the exchange of the information required for the upper control among control agents is achieved...... of minimizing the cost of the generation. The simulation results prove the feasibility of power talk as enabler of fully self-sustainable DC MicroGrids....

  15. Opportunities and challenges for multicriteria assessment of food system sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Alrøe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the Special Feature on "Multicriteria assessment of food system sustainability" is on the complex challenges of making and communicating overall assessments of food systems sustainability based on multiple and varied criteria. Four papers concern the choice and development of appropriate tools for making multicriteria sustainability assessments that handle built-in methodological conflicts and trade-offs between different assessment objectives. They underscore the value of linking diverse methods and tools, or nesting and stepping their deployment, to help build resilience and sustainability. They conclude that there is no one tool, one framework, or one indicator set that is appropriate for the different purposes and contexts of sustainability assessment. The process of creating the assessment framework also emerges as important: if the key stakeholders are not given a responsible and full role in the development of any assessment tool, it is less likely to be fit for their purpose and they are unlikely to take ownership or have confidence in it. Six other papers reflect on more fundamental considerations of how assessments are based in different scientific perspectives and on the role of values, motivation, and trust in relation to assessments in the development of more sustainable food systems. They recommend a radical break with the tradition of conducting multicriteria assessment from one hegemonic perspective to considering multiple perspectives. Collectively the contributions to this Special Feature identify three main challenges for improved multicriteria assessment of food system sustainability: (i how to balance different types of knowledge to avoid that the most well-known, precise, or easiest to measure dimensions of sustainability gets the most weight; (ii how to expose the values in assessment tools and choices to allow evaluation of how they relate to the ethical principles of sustainable food systems, to societal

  16. Assessing the sustainability of egg production systems in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, E D; van Bussel, L G J; van Horne, P; van der Voet, H; van der Heijden, G W A M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2015-08-01

    Housing systems for laying hens have changed over the years due to increased public concern regarding animal welfare. In terms of sustainability, animal welfare is just one aspect that needs to be considered. Social aspects as well as environmental and economic factors need to be included as well. In this study, we assessed the sustainability of enriched cage, barn, free-range, and organic egg production systems following a predefined protocol. Indicators were selected within the social, environmental, and economic dimensions, after which parameter values and sustainability limits were set for the core indicators in order to quantify sustainability. Uncertainty in the parameter values as well as assigned weights and compensabilities of the indicators influenced the outcome of the sustainability assessment. Using equal weights for the indicators showed that, for the Dutch situation, enriched cage egg production was most sustainable, having the highest score on the environmental dimension, whereas free-range egg production gave the highest score in the social dimension (covering food safety, animal welfare, and human welfare). In the economic dimension both enriched cage egg and organic egg production had the highest sustainability score. When weights were attributed according to stakeholder outputs, individual differences were seen, but the overall scores were comparable to the sustainability scores based on equal weights. The provided method enabled a quantification of sustainability using input from stakeholders to include societal preferences in the overall assessment. Allowing for different weights and compensabilities helps policymakers in communicating with stakeholders involved and provides a weighted decision regarding future housing systems for laying hens. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Sustainable Monitoring and Surveillance Systems to Improve HIV Programs: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-Beer, Daniel; Mahy, Mary; Renaud, Francoise; Calleja, Txema

    2018-04-24

    HIV programs have provided a major impetus for investments in surveillance data, with 5-10% of HIV program budgets recommended to support data. However there are questions concerning the sustainability of these investments. The Sustainable Development Goals have consolidated health into one goal and communicable diseases into one target (Target 3.3). Sustainable Development Goals now introduce targets focused specifically on data (Targets 17.18 and 17.19). Data are seen as one of the three systemic issues (in Goal 17) for implementing Sustainable Development Goals, alongside policies and partnerships. This paper reviews the surveillance priorities in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals and highlights the shift from periodic measurement towards sustainable disaggregated, real-time, case, and patient data, which are used routinely to improve programs. Finally, the key directions in developing person-centered monitoring systems are assessed with country examples. The directions contribute to the Sustainable Development Goal focus on people-centered development applied to data. ©Daniel Low-Beer, Mary Mahy, Francoise Renaud, Txema Calleja. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 24.04.2018.

  18. Systems approaches for the design of sustainable agro-ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kropff, M.J.; Bouma, J.; Jones, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    The complexity of agricultural systems and the need to fulfil multiple objectives in sustainable agro-ecosystems call for interdisciplinary analyzes and input from a wide variety of disciplines in order to better understand the complete agronomic production system. Systems approaches have been

  19. Optimizing the Sustainment of U.S. Army Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Dale Carnegie , Fellowship, etc.) NA None of the above OPTIMIZING SUSTAINMENT OF ARMY SYSTEMS 36 Question 11: Army Civilian Education System...Darden, Dale Carnegie , Fellowship, etc.) None of the above 11. Army Civilian Education System (check all that apply) Action Officer Development Course

  20. Sustainability and Convergence: The Future of Corporate Governance Systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela M. Salvioni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world, a sustainable approach to corporate governance can be a source of competitive advantage and a long-term success factor for any firm. Sustainable governance requires that the board of directors considers economic, social and environmental expectations in an integrated way, no matter what ownership structure and formal rules of corporate governance apply to the company: this mitigates the traditional differences between insider and outsider systems of corporate governance. Previous studies failed to consider the contribution of sustainability in the process of corporate governance convergence. Therefore, the aim of this article is to fill the gap in the existing literature by means of a qualitative analysis, supporting the international debate about convergence of corporate governance systems. The article describes the evolution of outsider and insider systems in the light of the increasing importance of sustainability in the board’s decision-making and firm’s operation to satisfy the needs of all the company’s stakeholders. According to this, a qualitative content analysis developed with a directed approach completes the theoretical discussion, demonstrating that sustainability can bring de facto convergence between outsider and insider corporate governance systems. The article aims to be a theoretical starting point for future research, the findings of which could also have practical implications: the study encourages the policy makers to translate the sustainable business best practices into laws and recommendations, strengthening the mutual influence between formal and substantial convergence.

  1. Sustainable Deforestation Evaluation Model and System Dynamics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Huirong; Lim, C. W.; Chen, Liqun; Zhou, Xinnian; Zhou, Chengjun; Lin, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony. PMID:25254225

  2. Sustainable deforestation evaluation model and system dynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Huirong; Lim, C W; Chen, Liqun; Zhou, Xinnian; Zhou, Chengjun; Lin, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony.

  3. Sustainable Deforestation Evaluation Model and System Dynamics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huirong Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony.

  4. Two sustainable energy system analysis models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Goran Krajacic, Neven Duic; da Graca Carvalho, Maria

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of two energy system analysis models both designed with the purpose of analysing electricity systems with a substantial share of fluctuating renewable energy....

  5. Public-Private Partnerships and Sustainable Regional Innovation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Christensen, Per; Johnson, Bjørn

    -private partnerships. The role of universities if and when actively participating in ‘life outside the ivory tower’ is addressed. These partnerships are also discussed in a regional context. With point of departure in innovation theory, we combine ‘sustainable development’ with the Regional System of Innovation...... approach to propose a new concept – Sustainable Regional Innovation System – in which regional initiatives such as Public-Private(-Academic) Partnerships play an integrated role, not least in the context of ‘learning and innovation for sustainable development’. Two cases are presented to underline...... be playing in public-private partnerships for sustainable development, and the links and benefits this may provide towards universities fulfilling their first (science) and second (education) missions. In this paper, the first part is dedicated to the discussion and clarification of the concept of public...

  6. Assessment of the sustainability of a water resource system expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rødding; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2001-01-01

    A sustainability assessment method involving risk criteria related to reliability, resilience and vulnerability, has been applied to quantify the relative sustainability of possible expansions of a water resources system in the KwaZulu-Natal province South Africa. A river basin model has been setup....... Based on initial experience the method was modified leading to more credible results. A problem with assessing sustainability using risk criteria is a favouring of supply-oriented solutions, in particular when aspects not directly related to demand and availability of water are excluded....... for the water resources system, comprising all important water users within the catchment. Measures to meet the growing water demand in the catchment are discussed. Six scenarios including both supply and demand oriented solutions are identified, modelled and compared in tenus of the sustainability criteria...

  7. Performance versus values in sustainability transformation of food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo F.; Sautier, Marion; Legun, Katharine

    2017-01-01

    Questions have been raised on what role the knowledge provided by sustainability science actually plays in the transition to sustainability and what role it may play in the future. In this paper we investigate different approaches to sustainability transformation of food systems by analyzing......-based approaches that aim at communicating and mediating sustainability values to enable coordinated and cooperative action to transform the food system. We identify their respective strengths and weaknesses based on a cross-case analysis of four cases, and propose that the two approaches, likeWeber's two types...... of rationality, are complementary-because they are based on complementary observer stances-and that an optimal in-between approach therefore cannot be found. However, there are options for reflexive learning by observing one perspective-and its possible blind spots-from the vantage point of the other, so we...

  8. Sustainability and deliberate transition of socio-technical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent; Stærdahl, Jens

    or developing socio-technical systems in order to integrate the concept of sustainability as a driver for the deliberate and purposeful shaping and transition. The article discusses the requirements to effective governance networks and governing of governance networks. Research within innovation systems......The article suggests that deliberate planning for sustainability demands a focus on the transition of socio-technical systems in order to establish robust and more sustainable patterns of production and consumption. This implies the necessity of a new perspective for environmental planning......, transition management and technology systems combined with planning and experimental activities provides both a theoretical and empirical body of knowledge of such governance processes. The article discusses how this perspective can be used in relation to the process of developing bio-fuel systems...

  9. Hybrid photovoltaic system control for enhancing sustainable energy. Economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leva, Sonia; Roscia, Mariacristina; Zaninelli, Dario

    2005-01-01

    The paper introduces hybrid photovoltaic/diesel generation systems for supplying remote power plant taking into account the enhancement of sustainable energy on the economic point of view. In particular, a new monitoring and control device is presented in order to carry out the optimum energy flows and a cost evaluation is performed on a real plant showing the effect and weight of the economical sustainability and economical saving. (authors)

  10. No religion and an end to war: how thinkers see the future

    CERN Multimedia

    Jha, Alok

    2007-01-01

    "People's fascination for religion and superstition will disappear within a few decades as television and the internet make it easier to get information, and scientists get closer to discovering a final theroy of everything, leading thinkers argue today." (1,5 page)

  11. Becoming a Thinking Thinker: Metacognition, Self-Reflection, and Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desautel, Daric

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Metacognition has been a subject of study for cognitive theorists, behaviorists, educators, and others. The term metacognition has traditionally and simply been defined as "thinking about thinking," yet it describes a complex process that can result in a nuanced understanding of oneself as a thinker and a learner. Metacognition…

  12. What Is an Ideal Critical Thinker Expected to Conclude about Anthropogenic Global Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, Guilherme Brambatti; Dall'Alba, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Critical thinking involves the ability to properly assess statements and actions, and it also requires a permanent disposition to appropriately use cognitive skills in the evaluation of any claim. In the present paper, we discuss the characteristics of an ideal critical thinker, and apply them to a contemporary problem, namely anthropogenic global…

  13. The role of cogeneration systems in sustainability of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çakir, Uğur; Çomakli, Kemal; Yüksel, Fikret

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Energy source on the world is tending to run out day by day while the energy need of humanity is increasing simultaneously. ► There are two ways to overcome this problem; one of them is renewable energy sources like solar or wind energy systems. ► The other way is like cogeneration systems. ► Cogeneration system is one of the ways to save the energy and use the energy efficiently. ► A case study is made for a hospital to present the sustainability aspects of cogeneration systems. - Abstract: Cogeneration system (CHP) is one of the ways to save the energy and use the energy efficiently. When compared to separate fossil-fired generation of heat and electricity, CHP may result in a consistent energy conservation (usually ranging from 10% to 30%) while the avoided CO 2 emissions are, as a first approximation, similar to the amount of energy saving. In terms of sustainability, one of the primary considerations is energy efficiency. Sustainable energy is considered as a kind of energy which is renewable and continuous, meaning that the use of such energy can potentially be kept up well into the future without causing harmful repercussions for future generations. In this study, environmental benefits and sustainability aspects of cogeneration systems and importance of those systems to the use of sustainable energy are underlined. To support this idea, first we have referred some scientific studies previously made on cogeneration systems and then we have used our own case study. The case study made on gas engined cogeneration system was applied for a hospital to show the sustainability aspects of cogeneration systems.

  14. Trade Services System Adaptation for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrichenkov, A.; Shaufler, V.; Bannikova, L.

    2017-11-01

    Under market conditions, the trade services system in post-Soviet Russia, being one of the most important city infrastructures, loses its systematic and hierarchic consistency hence provoking the degradation of communicating transport systems and urban planning framework. This article describes the results of the research carried out to identify objects and object parameters that influence functioning of a locally significant trade services system. Based on the revealed consumer behaviour patterns, we propose methods to determine the optimal parameters of objects inside a locally significant trade services system.

  15. Improving Sustainability through a Dual Audit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Ji Jin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of a large-scale accounting fraud, China implemented a dual audit system for listed companies issuing foreign stocks (B shares and H shares from 2001 to 2006, before adopting Chinese-IFRS in 2007. At the end of 2010, the EU proposed that listed corporations over a certain size should be required to implement a joint audit system. However, only a few countries have implemented this system, and thus, data and references are extremely limited. The dual audit system is called the “twin” of the joint audit system. We analyze whether the dual system improves a company’s earnings quality. Earnings quality is studied by means of real earnings management, and the variable of loss aversion. We find that real earnings management of dual audited enterprises is lower than that of single audited (A-share enterprises, and the inclination toward loss aversion of enterprises in the foreign share market has not increased significantly relative to the A-share enterprises after the abolition of the dual audit system. The results indicate that a dual audit system improves earnings quality. We expect that the conclusions of this research will resolve the issues and concerns about the joint audit system.

  16. Sustainability Indicators for Coupled Human-Earth Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motesharrei, S.; Rivas, J. R.; Kalnay, E.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last two centuries, the Human System went from having a small impact on the Earth System (including the Climate System) to becoming dominant, because both population and per capita consumption have grown extremely fast, especially since about 1950. We therefore argue that Human System Models must be included into Earth System Models through bidirectional couplings with feedbacks. In particular, population should be modeled endogenously, rather than exogenously as done currently in most Integrated Assessment Models. The growth of the Human System threatens to overwhelm the Carrying Capacity of the Earth System, and may be leading to catastrophic climate change and collapse. We propose a set of Ecological and Economic "Sustainability Indicators" that can employ large data-sets for developing and assessing effective mitigation and adaptation policies. Using the Human and Nature Dynamical Model (HANDY) and Coupled Human-Climate-Water Model (COWA), we carry out experiments with this set of Sustainability Indicators and show that they are applicable to various coupled systems including Population, Climate, Water, Energy, Agriculture, and Economy. Impact of nonrenewable resources and fossil fuels could also be understood using these indicators. We demonstrate interconnections of Ecological and Economic Indicators. Coupled systems often include feedbacks and can thus display counterintuitive dynamics. This makes it difficult for even experts to see coming catastrophes from just the raw data for different variables. Sustainability Indicators boil down the raw data into a set of simple numbers that cross their sustainability thresholds with a large time-lag before variables enter their catastrophic regimes. Therefore, we argue that Sustainability Indicators constitute a powerful but simple set of tools that could be directly used for making policies for sustainability.

  17. Emergy-based sustainability evaluation of wind power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin; Chen, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Emergy is used to quantify the sustainability level of wind farms. • A GHG-based indicator is incorporated into emergetic accounting. • Possible pathways to achieve sustainable wind farm management are analyzed. - Abstract: With large-scale commercialization of wind technology, one must investigate economical and sustainable wind resource utilization. In this paper, emergy analysis is used to quantify the environmental pressure, renewability, economic efficiency, and sustainability of a typical wind power system, considering the lifetime stages from extraction and processing of raw materials and resources to the final product (electricity) via material transportation, construction and operation. Possible pathways to achieve sustainable management of wind energy supply chain were also analyzed based on scenario analysis. Results show that wind power is a promising means of substituting traditional fossil fuel-based power generation systems, with the lowest transformity of 4.49 × 10"4 sej/J, smaller environmental loading ratio of 5.84, and lower greenhouse gas emission intensity of 0.56 kg/kWh. To shed light on potential pathways to achieve sustainable and low-carbon wind energy supply chain management and make informed choices, a sensitivity analysis was done by establishing scenarios from the perspectives of material recycling and technical development. Results suggest that using new materials of lower energy intensity or recycled materials in upstream wind turbine manufacturing and construction materials are the most effective measures.

  18. Intelligent decision support systems for sustainable computing paradigms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Ajith; Siarry, Patrick; Sheng, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This unique book dicusses the latest research, innovative ideas, challenges and computational intelligence (CI) solutions in sustainable computing. It presents novel, in-depth fundamental research on achieving a sustainable lifestyle for society, either from a methodological or from an application perspective. Sustainable computing has expanded to become a significant research area covering the fields of computer science and engineering, electrical engineering and other engineering disciplines, and there has been an increase in the amount of literature on aspects sustainable computing such as energy efficiency and natural resources conservation that emphasizes the role of ICT (information and communications technology) in achieving system design and operation objectives. The energy impact/design of more efficient IT infrastructures is a key challenge in realizing new computing paradigms. The book explores the uses of computational intelligence (CI) techniques for intelligent decision support that can be explo...

  19. Sustained currents in coupled diffusive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larralde, Hernán; Sanders, David P

    2014-01-01

    Coupling two diffusive systems may give rise to a nonequilibrium stationary state (NESS) with a non-trivial persistent, circulating current. We study a simple example that is exactly soluble, consisting of random walkers with different biases towards a reflecting boundary, modelling, for example, Brownian particles with different charge states in an electric field. We obtain analytical expressions for the concentrations and currents in the NESS for this model, and exhibit the main features of the system by numerical simulation. (paper)

  20. Technical Design of Flexible Sustainable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems in Denmark, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid.......The paper presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems in Denmark, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid....

  1. Zijm Consortium: Engineering a Sustainable Supply Chain System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knofius, Nils; Rahimi Ghahroodi, Sajjad; van Capelleveen, Guido Cornelis; Yazdanpanah, Vahid

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we address one of the current major research areas of the Zijm consortium; engineering sustainable supply chain systems by transforming traditionally linear practices to circular systems. We illustrate this field of research with a case consisting of a network of three firms Willem

  2. Sustainable Transportation Systems Research Group: Ongoing and Past Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Gkritza, Konstantina "Nadia"; Hurtado, Davis Chacon; Gkartzonikas, Christos; Ke, Yue; Losada, Lisa L

    2017-01-01

    This presentation describes the ongoing and past activities of the Sustainable Transportation Systems Research (STSR) group at Purdue University (https://engineering.purdue.edu/STSRG). The STSR group aims to achieve green, safe, efficient, and equitable transportation systems by studying and modeling transportation externalities, using state of the art statistical, econometric, and economic analysis tools.

  3. Organic versus Conventional Cropping Sustainability: A Comparative System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L. Fess

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We are at a pivotal time in human history, as the agricultural sector undergoes consolidation coupled with increasing energy costs in the context of declining resource availability. Although organic systems are often thought of as more sustainable than conventional operations, the lack of concise and widely accepted means to measure sustainability makes coming to an agreement on this issue quite challenging. However, an accurate assessment of sustainability can be reached by dissecting the scientific underpinnings of opposing production practices and crop output between cropping systems. The purpose of this review is to provide an in-depth and comprehensive evaluation of modern global production practices and economics of organic cropping systems, as well as assess the sustainability of organic production practices through the clarification of information and analysis of recent research. Additionally, this review addresses areas where improvements can be made to help meet the needs of future organic producers, including organic-focused breeding programs and necessity of coming to a unified global stance on plant breeding technologies. By identifying management strategies that utilize practices with long-term environmental and resource efficiencies, a concerted global effort could guide the adoption of organic agriculture as a sustainable food production system.

  4. Assessing Sustainability Transition in the US Electrical Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen McCauley

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines sustainability transition dynamics in the US electricity system, drawing on the socio-technical systems approach. We view system change as unfolding along several critical dimensions and geographical scales, including dynamics in the environment, science, civil society, discourse, and state regulatory institutions, as well as in capital and technology formations. A particular emphasis is given to the interaction of discourses, policy networks, and institutions. We trace four distinct regimes which have characterized the evolution of this discourse-network-institutional nexus over the last century. The research examines dynamics that present a challenge to the incumbent energy regime based on fossil fuels, nuclear and hydropower, and demonstrates how the actor-network supporting renewables and energy efficiency has grown stronger and more capable of moving toward a sustainability transition than at any time since the sustainable energy movement began a generation ago.

  5. Sustainable quality systems for every Health Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, Rodolfo; Pittaluga, Roberto R.

    2008-01-01

    The implementation of a Quality system is an indispensable requirement to assure the protection and the radiological safety, especially in those facilities where the potential risks are important. One of the 'general conclusions' of the Conference of Malaga (to achieve the RPP) is also the implementation of quality systems. Lamentably the great majority of the Services of Health in the world, more than 95 %, has not nowadays any formal quality system but only any elements what can be named a 'natural quality system' that includes protocols of work, records of several processes, certified of training of the personnel and diverse practices that are realized in systematic form but that not always are documented. Most health services do not have the necessary means available to adhere quickly to international standards. At the same time the health services do not have either qualified or trained personnel to lead a certification or accreditation project and most of them do not have the resources available to hire external consultants, especially the public hospitals. The scenario described represents a challenge for the Regulatory Authorities who must determine 'how to ensure that installations comply with an acceptable standard of quality without it placing an impossible strain on their budget?' Due to these circumstances a 'Basic Guide' has developed for the implementation of a quality system in every Health Service that takes the elements as a foundation of the standard ISO - 9000:2000 and the standard for systems management GSR-3 of the IAEA. The criteria and the methodologies are showed in the presentation. (author)

  6. Sustainability assessment of stormwater management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Ammitsøe, Christian

    We quantify ecotoxicity impacts caused by different solutions to manage stormwater using life cycle assessment. As a novelty, we include emissions of a wide range of pollutants present in runoff. These emissions turn out to be of great importance, especially in decentralized, above surface systems....

  7. Globalisation of agrifood systems and sustainable nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaim, Matin

    2017-02-01

    The globalisation of agrifood systems is a mega-trend with potentially profound nutritional implications. This paper describes various facets of this globalisation process and reviews studies on nutritional effects with a particular focus on developing countries. Results show that global trade and technological change in agriculture have substantially improved food security in recent decades, although intensified production systems have also contributed to environmental problems in some regions. New agricultural technologies and policies need to place more emphasis on promoting dietary diversity and reducing environmental externalities. Globalising agrifood systems also involve changing supply-chain structures, with a rapid rise of modern retailing, new food safety and food quality standards, and higher levels of vertical integration. Studies show that emerging high-value supply chains can contribute to income growth in the small farm sector and improved access to food for rural and urban populations. However, there is also evidence that the retail revolution in developing countries, with its growing role of supermarkets and processed foods, can contribute to overweight and obesity among consumers. The multi-faceted linkages between changing agrifood systems and nutrition are a new field of interdisciplinary research, combining agricultural, nutritional, economics and social sciences perspectives. The number of studies on specific aspects is still limited, so the evidence is not yet conclusive. A review at this early stage can help to better understand important relationships and encourage follow-up work.

  8. Performance versus Values in Sustainability Transformation of Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Alrøe

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Questions have been raised on what role the knowledge provided by sustainability science actually plays in the transition to sustainability and what role it may play in the future. In this paper we investigate different approaches to sustainability transformation of food systems by analyzing the rationale behind transformative acts-the ground that the direct agents of change act upon- and how the type of rationale is connected to the role of research and how the agents of change are involved. To do this we employ Max Weber’s distinction between instrumental rationality and value-rationality in social action. In particular, we compare two different approaches to the role of research in sustainability transformation: (1 Performance-based approaches that measure performance and set up sustainability indicator targets and benchmarks to motivate the agents in the food system to change; (2 Values-based approaches that aim at communicating and mediating sustainability values to enable coordinated and cooperative action to transform the food system. We identify their respective strengths and weaknesses based on a cross-case analysis of four cases, and propose that the two approaches, like Weber’s two types of rationality, are complementary-because they are based on complementary observer stances—and that an optimal in-between approach therefore cannot be found. However, there are options for reflexive learning by observing one perspective-and its possible blind spots-from the vantage point of the other, so we suggest that new strategies for sustainability transformation can be found based on reflexive rationality as a third and distinct type of rationality.

  9. Sustainable economic production quantity models for inventory systems with shortage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taleizadeh, Ata Allah; Soleymanfar, Vahid Reza; Govindan, Kannan

    2018-01-01

    optimal values of inventory system variables, we solve four independent profit maximization problems for four different situations. These proposed models include a basic model in which shortages are not allowed, and when shortages are allowed, the lost sale, full backordering and partial backordering...... (EPQ). The theoretical sustainable EOQ and EPQ models are basic models that ignore many real-life conditions such as the possibility of stock-out in inventory systems. In this paper, we develop four new sustainable economic production quantity models that consider different shortage situations. To find...

  10. Biomass in a sustainable energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    1998-04-01

    In this thesis, aspects of an increase in the utilization of biomass in the Swedish energy system are treated. Modern bioenergy systems should be based on high energy and land use efficiency since biomass resources and productive land are limited. The energy input, including transportation, per unit biomass produced is about 4-5% for logging residues, straw and short rotation forest (Salix). Salix has the highest net energy yield per hectare among the various energy crops cultivated in Sweden. The CO 2 emissions from the production and transportation of logging residues, straw and Salix, are equivalent to 2-3% of those from a complete fuel-cycle for coal. Substituting biomass for fossil fuels in electricity and heat production is, in general, less costly and leads to a greater CO 2 reduction per unit biomass than substituting biomass derived transportation fuels for petrol or diesel. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass provide larger and less expensive CO 2 emission reductions than transportation fuels from annual crops. Swedish CO 2 emissions could be reduced by about 50% from the present level if fossil fuels are replaced and the energy demand is unchanged. There is a good balance between potential regional production and utilization of biomass in Sweden. Future biomass transportation distances need not be longer than, on average, about 40 km. About 22 TWh electricity could be produced annually from biomass in large district heating systems by cogeneration. Cultivation of Salix and energy grass could be utilized to reduce the negative environmental impact of current agricultural practices, such as the emission of greenhouse gases, nutrient leaching, decreased soil fertility and erosion, and for the treatment of municipal waste and sludge, leading to increased recirculation of nutrients. About 20 TWh biomass could theoretically be produced per year at an average cost of less than 50% of current production cost, if the economic value of these

  11. Biomass in a sustainable energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    1998-04-01

    In this thesis, aspects of an increase in the utilization of biomass in the Swedish energy system are treated. Modern bioenergy systems should be based on high energy and land use efficiency since biomass resources and productive land are limited. The energy input, including transportation, per unit biomass produced is about 4-5% for logging residues, straw and short rotation forest (Salix). Salix has the highest net energy yield per hectare among the various energy crops cultivated in Sweden. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the production and transportation of logging residues, straw and Salix, are equivalent to 2-3% of those from a complete fuel-cycle for coal. Substituting biomass for fossil fuels in electricity and heat production is, in general, less costly and leads to a greater CO{sub 2} reduction per unit biomass than substituting biomass derived transportation fuels for petrol or diesel. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass provide larger and less expensive CO{sub 2} emission reductions than transportation fuels from annual crops. Swedish CO{sub 2} emissions could be reduced by about 50% from the present level if fossil fuels are replaced and the energy demand is unchanged. There is a good balance between potential regional production and utilization of biomass in Sweden. Future biomass transportation distances need not be longer than, on average, about 40 km. About 22 TWh electricity could be produced annually from biomass in large district heating systems by cogeneration. Cultivation of Salix and energy grass could be utilized to reduce the negative environmental impact of current agricultural practices, such as the emission of greenhouse gases, nutrient leaching, decreased soil fertility and erosion, and for the treatment of municipal waste and sludge, leading to increased recirculation of nutrients. About 20 TWh biomass could theoretically be produced per year at an average cost of less than 50% of current production cost, if the economic

  12. Economically sustainable: market synergies in hydrogen systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.

    2000-01-01

    As interest in the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier grows, it is important to understand the advantages and disadvantages of a market-based approach to its introduction. While there will always be niche markets in which it makes sense to employ what is currently a comparatively expensive form of energy storage and delivery, this will not enable the sort of large-scale penetration that will allow for economies of mass-manufacture to bring the cost of hydrogen down. In addition, energy markets are becoming increasingly liberalised, and because of this it is important to understand the sort of market pressures that are arising where none have existed before. These pressures may actually lead to opportunities for hydrogen in energy storage and for use in power generation and transport fuel modes, and allow market penetration to occur more rapidly than might be the case in a centralised energy structure. In the liberalised energy market within the UK, for example, there are two areas of potentially major growth in hydrogen production and consumption: energy storage for renewable generators; and backup systems at weak electricity grid links. The first of these is due, in part, to potential changes in regulation governing the way that electricity is sold into the market, while the second is dependent more on an increasingly congested electricity grid and the high costs of building supplementary infrastructure. In both cases there is potential for the early use of hydrogen energy systems in an economically competitive environment. (author)

  13. Sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duić, Neven; Guzović, Zvonimir; Kafarov, Vyatcheslav; Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír; Mathiessen, Brian vad; Yan, Jinyue

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This special issue of contributions presented at the 6th SDEWES Conference. ► Buildings are becoming energy neutral. ► Process integration enables significant improvements of energy efficiency. ► The electrification of transport and measures to increase its efficiency are needed. ► Renewable energy is becoming more viable while being complicated to integrate. -- Abstract: The 6th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES Conference), attended by 418 scientists from 55 countries representing six continents. It was held in 2011 and dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies and technologies for increasing the sustainability of development, taking into account its economic, environmental and social pillars, as well as methods for assessing and measuring sustainability of development, regarding energy, transport, water and environment systems and their many combinations.

  14. Sustainability Decision Support Framework for Industrial System Prioritization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Wei, Shunan; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2016-01-01

    A multicriteria decision-making methodology for the sustainability prioritization of industrial systems is proposed. The methodology incorporates a fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process method that allows the users to assess the soft criteria using linguistic terms. A fuzzy Analytic Network Process...... method is used to calculate the weights of each criterion, which can tackle the interdependencies and interactions among the criteria. The Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation approach is used to prioritize the sustainability sequence of the alternative systems. Moreover......, a sensitivity analysis method was developed to investigate the most critical and sensitive criteria. The developed methodology was illustrated by a case study to rank the sustainability of five alternative hydrogen production technologies. The advantages of the developed methodology over the previous approaches...

  15. Placing ecosystem sustainability within the context of dynamic earth systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidle, R. C.

    2013-12-01

    Because the concept of ecosystem sustainability and the practice of sustainable land management both have long-term foci, it is necessary to view these from the perspective of dynamic rather than static systems. In addition to the typical static system approach for assessing ecosystem sustainability, three additional perspectives are presented. These are resilient systems, systems where tipping points occur, and systems subject to episodic geophysical resetting. Ecosystem resilience accommodates both natural and anthropogenic stressors and should be considered to properly frame many ecosystem assessments. A more complex problem emerges when stressors push systems to tipping points, causing a regime shift. Both chronic anthropogenic activities (e.g., over-grazing, forest conversion, poor irrigation practices) and natural changes (e.g., climate anomalies, geochemical weathering, tectonic uplift, vegetative succession) can exhaust ecosystem resilience leading to a rapid change in state. Anthropogenic perturbations can also lower the initiation threshold and increase the magnitude and frequency of certain natural disasters, increasing the likelihood of ecosystem change. Furthermore, when major episodic geophysical events (e.g., large earthquakes, tsunami, and floods; widespread volcanic activity and landslides) exceed thresholds of ecosystem resilience they may reset the attributes of entire systems or landscapes. Large disasters can initiate a cascade of linked events, as in the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, where tsunami, fires, landslides, artificial fillslope collapses, radioactive releases, and associated health effects occurred. Understanding the potential for natural change (both chronic and episodic) in ecosystems is essential not only to the environmental aspect of sustainability but also to economic and social aspects. Examples are presented for: (1) ecosystems vulnerable to tipping points (Yunnan, China) and (2) ecosystems reset by earthquakes and

  16. Performance of Power Systems under Sustained Random Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Verdejo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies linear systems under sustained additive random perturbations. The stable operating point of an electric power system is replaced by an attracting stationary solution if the system is subjected to (small random additive perturbations. The invariant distribution of this stationary solution gives rise to several performance indices that measure how well the system copes with the randomness. These indices are introduced, showing how they can be used for the optimal tuning of system parameters in the presence of noise. Results on a four-generator two-area system are presented and discussed.

  17. Biorefinery systems – potential contributors to sustainable innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellisch, M.; Jungmeier, G.; Karbowski, A.; Patel, M.K.; Rogulska, M.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable biorefineries have a critical role to play in our common future. The need to provide more goods using renewable resources, combined with advances in science and technology, has provided a receptive environment for biorefinery systems development. Biorefineries offer the promise of using

  18. Advancing Integrated Systems Modelling Framework for Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Halog

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The need for integrated methodological framework for sustainability assessment has been widely discussed and is urgent due to increasingly complex environmental system problems. These problems have impacts on ecosystems and human well-being which represent a threat to economic performance of countries and corporations. Integrated assessment crosses issues; spans spatial and temporal scales; looks forward and backward; and incorporates multi-stakeholder inputs. This study aims to develop an integrated methodology by capitalizing the complementary strengths of different methods used by industrial ecologists and biophysical economists. The computational methodology proposed here is systems perspective, integrative, and holistic approach for sustainability assessment which attempts to link basic science and technology to policy formulation. The framework adopts life cycle thinking methods—LCA, LCC, and SLCA; stakeholders analysis supported by multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA; and dynamic system modelling. Following Pareto principle, the critical sustainability criteria, indicators and metrics (i.e., hotspots can be identified and further modelled using system dynamics or agent based modelling and improved by data envelopment analysis (DEA and sustainability network theory (SNT. The framework is being applied to development of biofuel supply chain networks. The framework can provide new ways of integrating knowledge across the divides between social and natural sciences as well as between critical and problem-solving research.

  19. Wetland harvesting systems -- developing alternatives for sustainable operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Rummer; Bryce J. Stokes; Alvin Schilling

    1997-01-01

    Wetland forests represent some of the most productive forest lands in the Southeast. They are also an environmentally sensitive ecotype which presents unique problems for forest operations. Sustaining active management in these areas will require systems which can operate on weak soil conditions without adversely affecting soil properties or stand regeneration. The...

  20. Sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duić, Neven; Guzović, Zvonimir; Kafarov, Vyatcheslav

    2013-01-01

    The 6th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES Conference), attended by 418 scientists from 55 countries representing six continents. It was held in 2011 and dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies...

  1. Sustainable crossbreeding systems of beef cattle in the era of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An effective way to reduce the carbon footprint from beef cattle would be to reduce the numbers and increase the production per animal, thereby improving their productivity. Sustainable crossbreeding systems can be an effective way to reduce GHG, as it has been shown to increase production. There are a wide range of ...

  2. SUSTAIN:Urban Modeling Systems Integrating Optimization and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to support practitioners in developing cost-effective management plans for municipal storm water programs and evaluating and selecting Best Manag...

  3. On sustainable operation of warehouse order picking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriansyah, R.; Etman, L.F.P.; Rooda, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable development calls for an efficient utilization of natural and human resources. This issue also arises for warehouse systems, where typically extensive capital investment and labor intensive work are involved. It is therefore important to assess and continuously monitor the performance of

  4. Possibilities and limitations for sustainable bioenergy production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, E.M.W.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on the possibilities and limitations of sustainable bioenergy production systems. First, the potential contribution of bioenergy to the energy supply in different world regions in the year 2050 from different biomass sources (dedicated woody energy crops, residues and

  5. The Battle Command Sustainment Support System: Initial Analysis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    products including jet fuels, distillate fuels, residual fuels, automotive gasoline , specified bulk lubricating oils, aircraft engine oils, fuel...contained within this report. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mission command Software Tactical applications (TacApps) Command post ...computing environment (CPCE) Command post client Battle command sustainment support System (BCS3) Logistics

  6. Assessing the sustainability of egg production systems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van E.D.; Bussel, van L.G.J.; Horne, van P.L.M.; Voet, van der H.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Fels, van der H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Housing systems for laying hens have changed over the years due to increased public concern regarding animal welfare. In terms of sustainability, animal welfare is just one aspect that needs to be considered. Social aspects as well as environmental and economic factors need to be included as well.

  7. Sustainable Transport in Romania vs. European Union. Analysis of Road Transport System from the Sustainable Transport Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clitan Andrei - Florin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a term used more often lately, based on three factors: social, economic, and environmental. Sustainable transport systems increase social cohesion, reduce environmental problems and help create a more efficient economy. Sustainable transport consists in a complex system that is designed to ensure mobility needs of present generations without damaging the environment and health factors. By improving energy and material consumption, it must be capable to satisfy in optimum conditions the need for mobility for future generations. The current transportation system has not a character of sustainability.

  8. Building Better Buildings: Sustainable Building Activities in California Higher Education Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, Arnold; Eichel, Amanda; Alevantis, Leon; Lovegreen, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    This article outlines the activities and recommendations of California's sustainable building task force, discusses sustainable building activities in California's higher education systems, and highlights key issues that California is grappling with in its implementation of sustainable building practices. (EV)

  9. Is sustainability achievable? Exploring the limits of sustainability with model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Yogendra; Diwekar, Urmila; Cabezas, Heriberto; Williamson, James

    2008-09-01

    Successful implementation of sustainability ideas in ecosystem management requires a basic understanding of the often nonlinear and nonintuitive relationships among different dimensions of sustainability, particularly the system-wide implications of human actions. This basic understanding further includes a sense of the time scale of possible future events and the limits of what is and is not likely to be possible. With this understanding, systematic approaches can then be used to develop policy guidelines for the system. This article presents an illustration of these ideas by analyzing an integrated ecological-economic-social model, which comprises various ecological (natural) and domesticated compartments representing species along with a macroeconomic price setting model. The stable and qualitatively realistic model is used to analyze different relevant scenarios. Apart from highlighting complex relationships within the system, it identifies potentially unsustainable future developments such as increased human per capita consumption rates. Dynamic optimization is then used to develop time-dependent policy guidelines for the unsustainable scenarios using objective functions that aim to minimize fluctuations in the system's Fisher information. The results can help to identify effective policy parameters and highlight the tradeoff between natural and domesticated compartments while managing such integrated systems. The results should also qualitatively guide further investigations in the area of system level studies and policy development.

  10. Non-Reflective Thinkers Are Predisposed to Attribute Supernatural Causation to Uncanny Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Romain; Bonnefon, Jean-François

    2015-07-01

    For unknown reasons, individuals who are confident in their intuitions are more likely to hold supernatural beliefs. How does an intuitive cognitive style lead one to believe in faith healing, astrology, or extrasensory perception (ESP)? We hypothesize that cognitive style is critically important after one experiences an uncanny event that seems to invite a supernatural explanation. In three studies, we show that irrespective of their prior beliefs in the supernatural, non-reflective thinkers are more likely than reflective thinkers to accept supernatural causation after an uncanny encounter with astrology and ESP. This is the first time that controlled experiments demonstrate the negative dynamics of reflection and supernatural causality attribution. We consider the possible generalization of our findings to religious beliefs and their implications for the social vulnerability of non-reflective individuals. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  11. Sustainable nanotechnology decision support system: bridging risk management, sustainable innovation and risk governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Vrishali; Semenzin, Elena; Hristozov, Danail; Zabeo, Alex; Malsch, Ineke; McAlea, Eamonn; Murphy, Finbarr; Mullins, Martin; Harmelen, Toon van; Ligthart, Tom; Linkov, Igor; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The significant uncertainties associated with the (eco)toxicological risks of engineered nanomaterials pose challenges to the development of nano-enabled products toward greatest possible societal benefit. This paper argues for the use of risk governance approaches to manage nanotechnology risks and sustainability, and considers the links between these concepts. Further, seven risk assessment and management criteria relevant to risk governance are defined: (a) life cycle thinking, (b) triple bottom line, (c) inclusion of stakeholders, (d) risk management, (e) benefit–risk assessment, (f) consideration of uncertainty, and (g) adaptive response. These criteria are used to compare five well-developed nanotechnology frameworks: International Risk Governance Council framework, Comprehensive Environmental Assessment, Streaming Life Cycle Risk Assessment, Certifiable Nanospecific Risk Management and Monitoring System and LICARA NanoSCAN. A Sustainable Nanotechnology Decision Support System (SUNDS) is proposed to better address current nanotechnology risk assessment and management needs, and makes. Stakeholder needs were solicited for further SUNDS enhancement through a stakeholder workshop that included representatives from regulatory, industry and insurance sectors. Workshop participants expressed the need for the wider adoption of sustainability assessment methods and tools for designing greener nanomaterials.

  12. Sustainable nanotechnology decision support system: bridging risk management, sustainable innovation and risk governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Vrishali, E-mail: vrishali.subramanian@unive.it; Semenzin, Elena; Hristozov, Danail; Zabeo, Alex [University Ca’ Foscari of Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics (Italy); Malsch, Ineke [Malsch TechnoValuation (Netherlands); McAlea, Eamonn; Murphy, Finbarr; Mullins, Martin [University of Limerick, Kemmy Business School (Ireland); Harmelen, Toon van; Ligthart, Tom [TNO (Netherlands); Linkov, Igor; Marcomini, Antonio, E-mail: marcom@unive.it [University Ca’ Foscari of Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    The significant uncertainties associated with the (eco)toxicological risks of engineered nanomaterials pose challenges to the development of nano-enabled products toward greatest possible societal benefit. This paper argues for the use of risk governance approaches to manage nanotechnology risks and sustainability, and considers the links between these concepts. Further, seven risk assessment and management criteria relevant to risk governance are defined: (a) life cycle thinking, (b) triple bottom line, (c) inclusion of stakeholders, (d) risk management, (e) benefit–risk assessment, (f) consideration of uncertainty, and (g) adaptive response. These criteria are used to compare five well-developed nanotechnology frameworks: International Risk Governance Council framework, Comprehensive Environmental Assessment, Streaming Life Cycle Risk Assessment, Certifiable Nanospecific Risk Management and Monitoring System and LICARA NanoSCAN. A Sustainable Nanotechnology Decision Support System (SUNDS) is proposed to better address current nanotechnology risk assessment and management needs, and makes. Stakeholder needs were solicited for further SUNDS enhancement through a stakeholder workshop that included representatives from regulatory, industry and insurance sectors. Workshop participants expressed the need for the wider adoption of sustainability assessment methods and tools for designing greener nanomaterials.

  13. Reorienting land degradation towards sustainable land management: linking sustainable livelihoods with ecosystem services in rangeland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M S; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Perkins, J S; Atlhopheng, J R; Mulale, K; Favretto, N

    2015-03-15

    This paper identifies new ways of moving from land degradation towards sustainable land management through the development of economic mechanisms. It identifies new mechanisms to tackle land degradation based on retaining critical levels of natural capital whilst basing livelihoods on a wider range of ecosystem services. This is achieved through a case study analysis of the Kalahari rangelands in southwest Botswana. The paper first describes the socio-economic and ecological characteristics of the Kalahari rangelands and the types of land degradation taking place. It then focuses on bush encroachment as a way of exploring new economic instruments (e.g. Payments for Ecosystem Services) designed to enhance the flow of ecosystem services that support livelihoods in rangeland systems. It does this by evaluating the likely impacts of bush encroachment, one of the key forms of rangeland degradation, on a range of ecosystem services in three land tenure types (private fenced ranches, communal grazing areas and Wildlife Management Areas), before considering options for more sustainable land management in these systems. We argue that with adequate policy support, economic mechanisms could help reorient degraded rangelands towards more sustainable land management. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Sustainable energy systems: Limitations and challenges based on exergy analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Woudstra, N.

    2012-01-01

    General There is a general understanding that the so-called “developed countries” have to change their way of life including their energy supply into a more sustainable way. But even in the case of unanimity with regard to the direction, there are still many opinions about the way to follow. This thesis discusses problems and possibilities of more sustainable energy systems first of all for the energy supply of the Netherlands. The “trias energetica” is used to distinguish the steps that have...

  15. Approach to an Affordable and Sustainable Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Caey M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Robinson, J. W.; Henderson, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach and a general procedure for creating space transportation architectural concepts that are at once affordable and sustainable. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on a functional system breakdown structure for an architecture and definition of high-payoff design techniques with a technology integration strategy. This paper follows up by using a structured process that derives architectural solutions focused on achieving life cycle affordability and sustainability. Further, the paper includes an example concept that integrates key design techniques discussed in previous papers. !

  16. World in transition 3 towards sustainable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    'The publication of World in Transition: Towards Sustainable Energy Systems is timely indeed. The World Summit on Sustainable Development gave great prominence to this challenge, but failed to agree on a quantitative, time-bound target for the introduction of renewable energy sources. The German Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU) has now produced a report with a global focus, which is essential in view of the global impacts of climate change. The report provides a convincing long-term analysis, which is also essential. Global energy policies have to take a long-term perspective, over the

  17. Collaborative business modeling for systemic and sustainability innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrbeck, René; Konnertz, L.; Knab, S.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability innovations are characterized by a systemic nature, and require that multiple organizations act in an orchestrated fashion. To jointly identify opportunities and plan sustainability innovations, new methods and approaches are needed. In this article we describe a case study where 8...... firms have collaborated to envision and create new business models in the energy industry. After describing this collaborative business modelling (CBM) approach, we discuss its strengths and limitations and compare it to two alternative methods of strategy and innovation planning: scenario technique...

  18. Integrated Systems Health Management for Sustainable Habitats (Using Sustainability Base as a Testbed)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rodney A.

    2017-01-01

    Habitation systems provide a safe place for astronauts to live and work in space and on planetary surfaces. They enable crews to live and work safely in deep space, and include integrated life support systems, radiation protection, fire safety, and systems to reduce logistics and the need for resupply missions. Innovative health management technologies are needed in order to increase the safety and mission-effectiveness for future space habitats on other planets, asteroids, or lunar surfaces. For example, off-nominal or failure conditions occurring in safety-critical life support systems may need to be addressed quickly by the habitat crew without extensive technical support from Earth due to communication delays. If the crew in the habitat must manage, plan and operate much of the mission themselves, operations support must be migrated from Earth to the habitat. Enabling monitoring, tracking, and management capabilities on-board the habitat and related EVA platforms for a small crew to use will require significant automation and decision support software.Traditional caution and warning systems are typically triggered by out-of-bounds sensor values, but can be enhanced by including machine learning and data mining techniques. These methods aim to reveal latent, unknown conditions while still retaining and improving the ability to provide highly accurate alerts for known issues. A few of these techniques will briefly described, along with performance targets for known faults and failures. Specific system health management capabilities required for habitat system elements (environmental control and life support systems, etc.) may include relevant subsystems such as water recycling systems, photovoltaic systems, electrical power systems, and environmental monitoring systems. Sustainability Base, the agency's flagship LEED-platinum certified green building acts as a living laboratory for testing advanced information and sustainable technologies that provides an

  19. Inter-Religious Dialogue: The Perspective of Malaysian Contemporary Muslim Thinkers

    OpenAIRE

    AEMY ELYANI MAT ZAIN; JAFFARY AWANG; IDRIS ZAKARIA

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia is a country that is rich for the diversity of its people. This diversity can be seen from the aspect of faith, ethnicity, language, culture, and so on. In facing a society that is pluralistic in nature, several initiatives have been taken by the government and non-government bodies in ensuring understanding and unity among Malaysians. Among the initiatives taken are interreligious dialogues. In this regard, many among Malaysian thinkers have proposed some approaches and concepts of ...

  20. SUSTAINABILITY IN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS: SOCIO-ECONOMICAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Daniel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It is wide the discussion involving the importance of production adjustment activities in general, to the concept of sustainable development. Among the agricultural activities, the agroforestry systems have been considered sustainable, coming as alternatives to the intensive systems of agricultural production. To monitor the sustainability of agricultural activities, includings  AF,  the  literature  emphasizes  the  biophysical  indicators,  in  detriment  of  the  socio-economical ones. Seeking to define a list of socio-economical indicators that can be adapted to the several models recommendations of  AF a study was developed, supported by specialists and technicians and wide literature review. The conclusions were: the categories related  to the operation of the systems had the largest number of indicators in the socioeconômic component, with larger concentration in the endogenous operations of the system, followed by the endogenous and exogenous resources; the largest number of indicators suggested in the category operation of the system was in the descriptors health and nutrition, employment, habitation and sanity and economic analysis; in the category operation of exogenous systems, there were certain larger number of indicators for the descriptors commercialization and rural infrastructure; practically there was no difference among the number of indicators obtained for the agroforestry systems with and without the animal component.

  1. Inter-Religious Dialogue: The Perspective of Malaysian Contemporary Muslim Thinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AEMY ELYANI MAT ZAIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is a country that is rich for the diversity of its people. This diversity can be seen from the aspect of faith, ethnicity, language, culture, and so on. In facing a society that is pluralistic in nature, several initiatives have been taken by the government and non-government bodies in ensuring understanding and unity among Malaysians. Among the initiatives taken are interreligious dialogues. In this regard, many among Malaysian thinkers have proposed some approaches and concepts of inter-faith dialogue that should and may be implemented in the context of Malaysia. For that purpose, this paper examined the forms of inter-religious dialogues in Malaysia from the perspective of Malaysian contemporary Muslim thinkers. The methodology utilized in this study is textual analysis, particularly the writings of these thinkers on this issue. This article concludes that there are several forms of inter-religious dialogues that are easily implemented, as well as the difficult ones in the context of Malaysia due to certain obstacles.

  2. Systems Reliability Framework for Surface Water Sustainability and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J. R.; Yeghiazarian, L.

    2016-12-01

    With microbial contamination posing a serious threat to the availability of clean water across the world, it is necessary to develop a framework that evaluates the safety and sustainability of water systems in respect to non-point source fecal microbial contamination. The concept of water safety is closely related to the concept of failure in reliability theory. In water quality problems, the event of failure can be defined as the concentration of microbial contamination exceeding a certain standard for usability of water. It is pertinent in watershed management to know the likelihood of such an event of failure occurring at a particular point in space and time. Microbial fate and transport are driven by environmental processes taking place in complex, multi-component, interdependent environmental systems that are dynamic and spatially heterogeneous, which means these processes and therefore their influences upon microbial transport must be considered stochastic and variable through space and time. A physics-based stochastic model of microbial dynamics is presented that propagates uncertainty using a unique sampling method based on artificial neural networks to produce a correlation between watershed characteristics and spatial-temporal probabilistic patterns of microbial contamination. These results are used to address the question of water safety through several sustainability metrics: reliability, vulnerability, resilience and a composite sustainability index. System reliability is described uniquely though the temporal evolution of risk along watershed points or pathways. Probabilistic resilience describes how long the system is above a certain probability of failure, and the vulnerability metric describes how the temporal evolution of risk changes throughout a hierarchy of failure levels. Additionally our approach allows for the identification of contributions in microbial contamination and uncertainty from specific pathways and sources. We expect that this

  3. A SUSTAINABLE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM REQUIRES MANAGEMENT TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos Dimitros

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to be the health care system sustainable , management transformations must be based on very precise diagnostic analysis that includes complete and current information. It is necessary to implement an information system that collects information in real time, that watches the parameters that significantly influence the sustainability of the system. Such an information system should point out a radiography(a scan of the system at some time under following aspects:: 1. An overview of system; 2 An overview of the economic situation; 3 A technical presentation ;4. A legal overview; 5. A social overview ; 6. A management overview .Based on these Xrays of the health system, it outlines a series of conclusions and recommendations together with a SWOT analysis that highlights the potential internal (strengths and weaknesses and external potential (opportunities and threats. Based on this analysis and recommendations, the management is going to redesign the system in order to be adapted to the changing environmental requirements. Management transformation is recommended to be by following steps. :1. The development of a new management system that would make a positive change in the health care system 2. Implementation of the new management system 3. Assessment of the changes

  4. Ukrainian thinkers on philosophical and religious ideas of revelation and transfiguration: metodological prinsiples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. I. Timenyk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article has been based on legacy of Ukrainian thinkers of 1840s-1960s. The author has highlighted how the discussed ideas function in close proximity to analogous ideas. For instance, the idea of God has been reviewed from the viewpoint of human and world structure, with the idea of interaction between good-evil, light-darkness. While interpreting the topic of the article, the reasonable interdependence of principles, ratios and other constructs has been justified by researcher. A complex of such processes creates a so-called “cascade” in which elements of (interreligious communications and multidisciplinary space become a reality through harmonized temporhythmics from various dimensions. At the same time, essential features of the revelation of nature and God on the borderline of paganism and Christianity have been distinguished in a systemic manner. Under the above-mentioned circumstances, “religious logics” demonstrates its possibilities. It is indispensable during the analysis of given ideas. When we think about the regularity of stage-by-stage transformation of the very concepts “revelation”, “transfiguration” comes to the said borderline. Big attention has been paid by the researcher to manifestations of partiality or wholeness of these notions from the standpoint of their harmony. Real functioning of “religious logics” gave ground to the introduction of such new notions as “inter-religious consciousness”, “revelation studies”. Not only their expediency have been justified. They are also used directly to elicit philosophical and religious ideas. One of the arguments in favor of these ideas is the necessity to expand terminological lexis, which is insufficient in modern studies. The introduction of new terms with the terms which were had not been used for a long time, has been combined by the author. This is, namely, the aforementioned “religious logics” as well as “divine dialectics”. Due to this

  5. Towards sustainable energy systems: The related role of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennicke, Peter; Fischedick, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    The role of hydrogen in long run sustainable energy scenarios for the world and for the case of Germany is analysed, based on key criteria for sustainable energy systems. The possible range of hydrogen within long-term energy scenarios is broad and uncertain depending on assumptions on used primary energy, technology mix, rate of energy efficiency increase and costs degression ('learning effects'). In any case, sustainable energy strategies must give energy efficiency highest priority combined with an accelerated market introduction of renewables ('integrated strategy'). Under these conditions hydrogen will play a major role not before 2030 using natural gas as a bridge to renewable hydrogen. Against the background of an ambitious CO 2 -reduction goal which is under discussion in Germany the potentials for efficiency increase, the necessary structural change of the power plant system (corresponding to the decision to phase out nuclear energy, the transformation of the transportation sector and the market implementation order of renewable energies ('following efficiency guidelines first for electricity generation purposes, than for heat generation and than for the transportation sector')) are analysed based on latest sustainable energy scenarios

  6. Sustainable recycling technologies for Solar PV off-grid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Bhavesh; Tamboli, Adish; Wubhayavedantapuram, Nandan

    2017-11-01

    Policy makers throughout the world have accepted climate change as a repercussion of fossil fuel exploitation. This has led the governments to integrate renewable energy streams in their national energy mix. PV off-grid Systems have been at the forefront of this transition because of their permanently increasing efficiency and cost effectiveness. These systems are expected to produce large amount of different waste streams at the end of their lifetime. It is important that these waste streams should be recycled because of the lack of available resources. Our study found that separate researches have been carried out to increase the efficiencies of recycling of individual PV system components but there is a lack of a comprehensive methodical research which details efficient and sustainable recycling processes for the entire PV off-grid system. This paper reviews the current and future recycling technologies for PV off-grid systems and presents a scheme of the most sustainable recycling technologies which have the potential for adoption. Full Recovery End-of-Life Photovoltaic (FRELP) recycling technology can offer opportunities to sustainably recycle crystalline silicon PV modules. Electro-hydrometallurgical process & Vacuum technologies can be used for recovering lead from lead acid batteries with a high recovery rate. The metals in the WEEE can be recycled by using a combination of biometallurgical technology, vacuum metallurgical technology and other advanced metallurgical technologies (utrasonical, mechano-chemical technology) while the plastic components can be effectively recycled without separation by using compatibilizers. All these advanced technologies when used in combination with each other provide sustainable recycling options for growing PV off-grid systems waste. These promising technologies still need further improvement and require proper integration techniques before implementation.

  7. Sustainable recycling technologies for Solar PV off-grid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppal Bhavesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy makers throughout the world have accepted climate change as a repercussion of fossil fuel exploitation. This has led the governments to integrate renewable energy streams in their national energy mix. PV off-grid Systems have been at the forefront of this transition because of their permanently increasing efficiency and cost effectiveness. These systems are expected to produce large amount of different waste streams at the end of their lifetime. It is important that these waste streams should be recycled because of the lack of available resources. Our study found that separate researches have been carried out to increase the efficiencies of recycling of individual PV system components but there is a lack of a comprehensive methodical research which details efficient and sustainable recycling processes for the entire PV off-grid system. This paper reviews the current and future recycling technologies for PV off-grid systems and presents a scheme of the most sustainable recycling technologies which have the potential for adoption. Full Recovery End-of-Life Photovoltaic (FRELP recycling technology can offer opportunities to sustainably recycle crystalline silicon PV modules. Electro-hydrometallurgical process & Vacuum technologies can be used for recovering lead from lead acid batteries with a high recovery rate. The metals in the WEEE can be recycled by using a combination of biometallurgical technology, vacuum metallurgical technology and other advanced metallurgical technologies (utrasonical, mechano-chemical technology while the plastic components can be effectively recycled without separation by using compatibilizers. All these advanced technologies when used in combination with each other provide sustainable recycling options for growing PV off-grid systems waste. These promising technologies still need further improvement and require proper integration techniques before implementation.

  8. Sustainability Assessment of the Agricultural and Energy Systems of Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyrke Gaudreau

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To improve decision-making, sustainability-based approaches to assessment of options and undertakings demand that we move beyond narrowly defined considerations to address the full suite of requirements for progress towards sustainability. This paper reports on a sustainability assessment exercise that originally focused on burning agricultural residues, primarily peanut shells, for cooking applications in Senegal. The scope of assessment had to be expanded to address the agricultural and energy systems of Senegal, when closer examination revealed a complex set of energy and agricultural system interactions that could undermine the anticipated positive effects of initiatives centred primarily on peanut residue cookstoves. The case highlights the need to be open to expanding the scope of assessment to address underlying and/or unexpected issues that cannot be addressed appropriately at the project scale. In particular, the case illustrates how the assessment of an energy system may serve as an entry point into a deeper exploration of the context in which the energy system is embedded. The analysis also illustrates a situation in which different paths that may be followed, each with its own degree of uncertainty, path dependence, feasibility, fairness, cultural sensitivity, trade-off acceptability and possibilities for public judgement of overall desirability.

  9. Sustainable Water Management in Urban, Agricultural, and Natural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Russo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water management (SWM requires allocating between competing water sector demands, and balancing the financial and social resources required to support necessary water systems. The objective of this review is to assess SWM in three sectors: urban, agricultural, and natural systems. This review explores the following questions: (1 How is SWM defined and evaluated? (2 What are the challenges associated with sustainable development in each sector? (3 What are the areas of greatest potential improvement in urban and agricultural water management systems? And (4 What role does country development status have in SWM practices? The methods for evaluating water management practices range from relatively simple indicator methods to integration of multiple models, depending on the complexity of the problem and resources of the investigators. The two key findings and recommendations for meeting SWM objectives are: (1 all forms of water must be considered usable, and reusable, water resources; and (2 increasing agricultural crop water production represents the largest opportunity for reducing total water consumption, and will be required to meet global food security needs. The level of regional development should not dictate sustainability objectives, however local infrastructure conditions and financial capabilities should inform the details of water system design and evaluation.

  10. Evaluating sustainability of truck weight regulations: A system dynamics view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Targeting the problem of overload trucking in Highway Transportation of iron ore from Caofeidian to Tangshan (HTCT, this paper aims to assess long-term effects of alternative Truck Weight Regulation (TWR policies on sustainability of HTCT. Design/methodology/approach: A system dynamics model was established for policy evaluation. The model, composed of six interrelating modules, is able to simulate policies effects on trucking issues such as freight flow, truck traffic flow, pavement performance, highway transport capacity and trucking time, and further on the Cumulative Economic Cost (CEC including transport cost and time cost of freight owners and the Cumulative Social Cost (CSC including pavement maintenance cost, green house gas emission cost, air pollutants emission cost and traffic accidents cost, so the effects of TWR policies on sustainability of HTCT could be evaluated. Findings: According to different values of overload ratio which a TWR policy allows, alternative TWR policies are classified into three types, which are The Rigid Policy (TRP, The Moderate Policy (TMP and The Tolerant Policy (TTP. Results show that the best policy for sustainability of HTCT depends on the importance of CSC which is expected by the local government. To be specific, (1 if CSC is considered much less important than CEC, the local government should continue implementing the current TTP with the maximum overload ratio; (2 if CSC is considered much more important than CEC, then TRP is recommended; and (3 if CSC is considered slightly more important than CES, TMP with overload ratio of 80% is the best. Practical implications: Conclusions of this paper may help the local government design appropriate TWR policies to achieve sustainability of HTCT. Originality/value: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort to evaluate TWR policies on sustainability of regional freight transportation based on system dynamics modeling.

  11. Sustaining Air Force Space Systems: A Model for the Global Positioning System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Snyder, Don; Mills, Patrick; Comanor, Katherine; Roll, Jr, Charles R

    2007-01-01

    ... and sustainment affect the performance of space systems. In this monograph, we develop a pilot framework for analyzing these and related questions in the ground segment of the Global Positioning System and recommend steps for implementing this framework...

  12. Sustain ability and sustainable development indicators case study: Egypt electric power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses sustain ability criteria and the associated indicators allowing ope rationalization of the sustain ability concept in general and specially in the context of electricity supply. The criteria and indicators cover economic, environmental and social aspects. Egypt has rapidly growing population and per capita demand. As a signatory of the framework convention on climate change, Egypt is making all efforts to comply with the strategy of Egypt to meet the challenge of the increasing demand management, integrating it into national decision making and improving environmental performance continuously: for the electricity sector, this can be summarized in improvement of power system efficiency by all available means. On the other hand energy conservation and demand side management programs are ongoing, also the environmental consideration has become one of the major issues in calculating the feasibility of any new addition to the system. This paper deals with the review of the Macro Indicators based on total greenhouse emissions provide a measure of overall performance. Then propose the Primary Indicators. A set of performance indicators is developed against which implementation of the national strategy measures aimed at reducing green house gas emissions can be evaluated. Some selected results from environmental analysis are given. In the study about 20 indicators are used as a measure of the overall performance relative to targets and benchmarks for past and future projections up to year 2020. The potential performance indicators for energy sector include: fossil fuel consumption (primary energy), greenhouse gas emissions from energy sector, energy related greenhouse gas emissions per unit of energy delivered, energy related greenhouse gas emission per unit GDP, and energy related greenhouse gas emission per capita. The selected indicators are used to measure progress towards sustainable development in the country

  13. Modeling of Supersonic Combustion Systems for Sustained Hypersonic Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Neill

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Through Computational Fluid Dynamics and validation, an optimal scramjet combustor has been designed based on twin-strut Hydrogen injection to sustain flight at a desired speed of Mach 8. An investigation undertaken into the efficacy of supersonic combustion through various means of injection saw promising results for Hydrogen-based systems, whereby strut-style injectors were selected over transverse injectors based on their pressure recovery performance and combustive efficiency. The final configuration of twin-strut injectors provided robust combustion and a stable region of net thrust (1873 kN in the nozzle. Using fixed combustor inlet parameters and injection equivalence ratio, the finalized injection method advanced to the early stages of two-dimensional (2-D and three-dimensional (3-D scramjet engine integration. The overall investigation provided a feasible supersonic combustion system, such that Mach 8 sustained cruise could be achieved by the aircraft concept in a computational design domain.

  14. EMPIRICAL STUDY REGARDING SUSTAINABILITY OF ROMANIAN PENSION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprean Delia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of a broad, applied scientific research, based on popular empirical procedures (such as natural observation. Positivistic and constructive research methodology used was based on the consensual-inductive system (Locke, which is why we studied the different views of specialists on sustainability of pensions in Romania, necessary to formulate the problem of generating relevant information. Research strategies used were the comparative and longitudinal ones, as we analyzed the time evolution of qualitative indicators VUAN (unitary value of net asset specific to pension funds Pillar II and Pillar III of Romania, concomitant with the number of participants in these funds, as to determine their direct relationship with the need for sustainability in this area. The hypotheses regarding causal relationship efficiency – participants - sustainability and needed measures for pension reform were built in this paper inductively (by analyzing the sustainability issues of pensions in time, causally (by explaining the cause and effect phenomenon studied, deductively, logically and subjectively (due to the existence and perpetuation of conflict premise between generations and social inequality between employees and pensioners. The qualitative approach of the phenomenon studied by collecting information (using mediated data collection technique has allowed the relevant findings and practical solutions necessary for all those involved in this concerted action of pensions, which affects us all.

  15. Sustainability in CALL Learning Environments: A Systemic Functional Grammar Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McDonald

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to define a sustainable resource in Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL. In order for a CALL resource to be sustainable it must work within existing educational curricula. This feature is a necessary prerequisite of sustainability because, despite the potential for educational change that digitalization has offered since the nineteen nineties, curricula in traditional educational institutions have not fundamentally changed, even as we move from a pre-digital society towards a digital society. Curricula have failed to incorporate CALL resources because no agreed-upon pedagogical language enables teachers to discuss CALL classroom practices. Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG can help to provide this language and bridge the gap between the needs of the curriculum and the potentiality of CALL-based resources. This paper will outline how SFG principles can be used to create a pedagogical language for CALL and it will give practical examples of how this language can be used to create sustainable resources in classroom contexts.

  16. Backcasting sustainable freight transport systems for Europe in 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, Tuomas; Antikainen, Riina

    2011-01-01

    European freight transport emissions and fuel consumption are projected to increase. This study focuses on long distance freight transport (LDFT) and explores possible sustainable futures through quantitative modeling. The evaluation was part of European foresight process between researchers, policy makers and freight companies (FREIGHTVISION). Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy demand of road, rail and inland waterways were estimated for an EU-27 in 2005. Development was extrapolated to 2050 based on technology and freight performance forecasts. Stakeholders found the forecasted GHG emissions and fossil fuel share unsustainable, so alternative futures were developed with backcasting. The developed emission model was run with random parameter combinations to screen a set of sustainable futures, with an 80% reduction of GHG emissions and fossil fuel share. Freight transport performance was not controlled in the backcasts, but several sustainable futures were found if significant changes in transport efficiency and energy mix are implemented. In spite of agreeing on the importance of reducing emissions, stakeholders had difficulties in choosing a preferred technological future. Simple models were found to be an effective tool for communicating the influence of various measures. Further research is recommended to screen preferable technological roadmaps from the broad range of available futures. - Research highlights: → Sustainable transport systems were explored with modeling and stakeholder workshops. → Backcasting identified technological options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80%. → Improving road vehicle efficiency, engine efficiency and fuel mix showed the greatest potential.

  17. Sustainability of midwifery practice within the South African healthcare system

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Cur. The study on ‘Sustainability of midwifery practice within the South African healthcare system’ is stimulated by the lack of research that influences policy to support midwifery practice in South Africa. The poor database and health information systems for midwives result in the poor performance of maternal healthcare in the public sector (Parkhurst, Penn- Kekana, Blaauw, Balabanova, Danishevski, Rahman, Onama, & Ssengooba 2005) in spite of meeting the Safe Motherhood Initiative of t...

  18. Health care financing and the sustainability of health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaropoulos, Lycourgos; Goranitis, Ilias

    2015-09-15

    The economic crisis brought an unprecedented attention to the issue of health system sustainability in the developed world. The discussion, however, has been mainly limited to "traditional" issues of cost-effectiveness, quality of care, and, lately, patient involvement. Not enough attention has yet been paid to the issue of who pays and, more importantly, to the sustainability of financing. This fundamental concept in the economics of health policy needs to be reconsidered carefully. In a globalized economy, as the share of labor decreases relative to that of capital, wage income is increasingly insufficient to cover the rising cost of care. At the same time, as the cost of Social Health Insurance through employment contributions rises with medical costs, it imperils the competitiveness of the economy. These reasons explain why spreading health care cost to all factors of production through comprehensive National Health Insurance financed by progressive taxation of income from all sources, instead of employer-employee contributions, protects health system objectives, especially during economic recessions, and ensures health system sustainability.

  19. Sustainability of Rainwater Harvesting System in terms of Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is considered an everlasting free source that can be acquired naturally. Demand for processed supply water is growing higher due to an increasing population. Sustainable use of water could maintain a balance between its demand and supply. Rainwater harvesting (RWH is the most traditional and sustainable method, which could be easily used for potable and nonpotable purposes both in residential and commercial buildings. This could reduce the pressure on processed supply water which enhances the green living. This paper ensures the sustainability of this system through assessing several water-quality parameters of collected rainwater with respect to allowable limits. A number of parameters were included in the analysis: pH, fecal coliform, total coliform, total dissolved solids, turbidity, NH3–N, lead, BOD5, and so forth. The study reveals that the overall quality of water is quite satisfactory as per Bangladesh standards. RWH system offers sufficient amount of water and energy savings through lower consumption. Moreover, considering the cost for installation and maintenance expenses, the system is effective and economical.

  20. 'Military Thinkers and Academic Thinkers'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugegaard, Rikke

    Culture analysis seems to create friction when we try to introduce academic concepts relating to culture to military planners. This friction might be related to the fact that officers and academics do their thinking in different 'spaces'. This paper argues the interface or overlapping space between...

  1. INFORMATION SOCIETY AND FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY OF THE ROMANIAN HEALTH SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATIANA BOGDAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The financial sustainability of the health systems often reveals the ability of policy makers to finance healthcare in the face of growing cost pressures, with populations ageing, new technologies and increased patient expectations for healthcare coverage and quality. Thus, the healthcare systems need to reinvent themselves by using innovative financing mechanisms coupled with electronic information and communication systems, while offering greater transparency, flexibility and choice and increasing access to the services available. The paper analyses the healthcare financing models: the national health system, the social insurance or the private insurance model so that the Romanian health care reform should preserve the best elements of its existing system while selectively adapt techniques and processes that seemed to have been successful in other countries. Moreover, the application of information and communication technologies – eHealth offers new possibilities for improving almost every aspect of healthcare, from making medical systems more powerful and responsive to providing better health information to all.

  2. The Lebanese electricity system in the context of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fadel, R.H.; Hammond, G.P.; Harajli, H.A.; Jones, C.I.; Kabakian, V.K.; Winnett, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    The Lebanese electricity system has been evaluated in terms of its sustainability. An integrated approach was adopted to assess the life-cycle technical, environmental, energy and economic attributes of the system. The findings show that the Lebanese electricity system is characterized by a weak performance in all analysed aspects related to the sustainability of energy systems. Specifically, the system lacks adequacy and security leading to a supply-demand deficit and poor diversity. It gives rise to significant environmental emissions (including green-house gases), and produces large economic inefficiencies. The costs and benefits of optimising the performance of the centralised electricity system are presented, indicating substantial net benefits (together with considerable benefits in reduced environmental impacts across the life-cycle assessment categories, including carbon emissions) from improving the transmission and distribution networks, upgrading existing conventional plants to their design standards, and shifting towards the use of natural gas. The expected levelised cost of various energy sources in Lebanon also indicates that renewable energy sources are competitive alternatives at the present time.

  3. Thermal Storage Systems Assessment for Energy Sustainability in Housing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania I. Lagunes Vega

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve greater enhancements in energy sustainability for housing, the function and efficiency of two different passive cooling systems were studied: encapsulated water in recycled bottles of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET and polystyrene plates, in comparison with standard concrete slab systems, which are customarily used in housing. Experiments were placed over a tile surface, in which temperature changes were monitored for a period of 20 days from 08:00 to 20:00. The efficiency of passive thermal storage systems was endorsed through statistical analysis using the “SPSS” software. This resulted in a 17% energy saving, thus promoting energy sustainability in housing units, which reduces the use of electrical appliances required to stabilize conditions to achieve optimum thermal comfort for the human body inside a house, therefore, reducing electrical power consumption, CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and generating savings. Due to the complexity of a system with temperature changes, a fractal analysis was performed for each experimental system, using the “Benoit” software (V.1.3 with self-compatible tools of rescaled range (R/S and a wavelets method, showing that the thermal fluctuations on the tiles with the thermal storage system adapt to the rescaled range analysis and the regular tiles adapt to the wavelets method.

  4. SUSTAINABILITY OF TURKISH GREY CATTLE IN ORGANIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya HANOĞLU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beef consumption has significantly increased in the last fifty years as a response to the increase in population size, whereas the sustainability of production systems has begun to be questioned. Because the residues left in the animal feed additives used in conventional food production constitute major health problems in consumers. Therefore, an interest in organic farming methods based on natural grazing and feed production without the use of chemicals is increasing. One of the most important examples of organic beef production in Turkey is the project carried out in the villages of Ayvacık district in Çanakkale. This region has an ecological structure which does not allow an extensive production of culture cattle. The most important advantages of the Turkish grey cattle living in the pastures in the region covered with bushes are that they have less needs of shelter, they do not need supplementary feeding throughout the year and labor costs for their production for beef are low. Breeders in this region maintained a market price for their products by shifting to organic system and thus allowed the sustainable production of the Turkish grey cattle. In this study, Ayvacık Organic Beef Production Project which sets an example for the sustainability of Turkish grey cattle production by featuring its surplus values was evaluated.

  5. Sustainable Dry Land Management Model on Corn Agribusiness System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Pujiharti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at building model of dry land management. Dynamic System Analysis was used to build model and Powersim 2.51 version for simulating. The parameter used in model were fertilizer (urea, SP-36, ACL, productivity (corn, cassava, mungbean, soil nutrient (N, P, K, crop nutrient requirements (corn, cassava, mungbean, mucuna, price (corn, cassava, mungbeans corn flour, feed, urea, SP-36, KCl, food security credit, area planted of (maize, cassava, mungbean, area harvested of (maize, cassava, mungbean, (corn, cassava, mungbean production, wages and farmer income. Sustainable indicator for ecology aspect was soil fertility level, economic aspects were productivity and farmer income, and social aspects were job possibility and traditions. The simulation result indicated that sustainable dry land management can improve soil fertility and increase farmer revenue, became sustainable farming system and farmer society. On the other hand, conventional dry land management decreased soil fertility and yield, caused farmer earnings to decrease and a farm activity could not be continued. Fertilizer distribution did not fulfill farmer requirement, which caused fertilizer scarcity. Food security credit increased fertilizer application. Corn was processed to corn flour or feed to give value added.

  6. New Systems Thinking and Policy Means for Sustainable Energy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable energy development requires attention to both the demand and supply side. On the demand side there is an urgent need for efficient policy means promoting energy conservation. This includes changes in the institutional and economic framework to compensate for the short comings...... of the dominating neoclassical economy and the short time horizon of the present market system. On the supply side fossil fuels are becoming a central problem being the dominating global energy source while at the same time presenting serious problems in relation to global warming and limited resources (“peak oil......”). Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop alternative strategies and policy means in order to promote sustainable development. THE FULL TEXT IS IN RUSSIAN IN THE JOURNAL....

  7. New Systems Thinking and Policy Means for Sustainable Energy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable energy development requires attention to both the demand and supply side. On the demand side there is an urgent need for efficient policy means promoting energy conservation. This includes changes in the institutional and economic framework to compensate for the short comings...... of the dominating neoclassical economy and the short time horizon of the present market system. On the supply side fossil fuels are becoming a central problem being the dominating global energy source while at the same time presenting serious problems in relation to global warming and limited resources (“peak oil......”). Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop alternative strategies and policy means in order to promote sustainable development....

  8. Development of Bioelectrochemical Systems to Promote Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojin Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrochemical systems (BES are a newly emerged technology for energy-efficient water and wastewater treatment. Much effort as well as significant progress has been made in advancing this technology towards practical applications treating various types of waste. However, BES application for agriculture has not been well explored. Herein, studies of BES related to agriculture are reviewed and the potential applications of BES for promoting sustainable agriculture are discussed. BES may be applied to treat the waste/wastewater from agricultural production, minimizing contaminants, producing bioenergy, and recovering useful nutrients. BES can also be used to supply irrigation water via desalinating brackish water or producing reclaimed water from wastewater. The energy generated in BES can be used as a power source for wireless sensors monitoring the key parameters for agricultural activities. The importance of BES to sustainable agriculture should be recognized, and future development of this technology should identify proper application niches with technological advancement.

  9. Applicability and methodology of determining sustainable yield in groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalf, Frans R. P.; Woolley, Donald R.

    2005-03-01

    There is currently a need for a review of the definition and methodology of determining sustainable yield. The reasons are: (1) current definitions and concepts are ambiguous and non-physically based so cannot be used for quantitative application, (2) there is a need to eliminate varying interpretations and misinterpretations and provide a sound basis for application, (3) the notion that all groundwater systems either are or can be made to be sustainable is invalid, (4) often there are an excessive number of factors bound up in the definition that are not easily quantifiable, (5) there is often confusion between production facility optimal yield and basin sustainable yield, (6) in many semi-arid and arid environments groundwater systems cannot be sensibly developed using a sustained yield policy particularly where ecological constraints are applied. Derivation of sustainable yield using conservation of mass principles leads to expressions for basin sustainable, partial (non-sustainable) mining and total (non-sustainable) mining yields that can be readily determined using numerical modelling methods and selected on the basis of applied constraints. For some cases there has to be recognition that the groundwater resource is not renewable and its use cannot therefore be sustainable. In these cases, its destiny should be the best equitable use. sostenible. Las razones son: (1) los conceptos y definiciones actuales son ambiguos y sin base física de modo que no pueden usarse para aplicación cuantitativa, (2) existe necesidad de eliminar interpretaciones variables y mal interpretaciones y aportar bases sanas para aplicación, (3) la noción de que todos los sistemas de aguas subterráneas son o pueden ser sostenibles no esvalida, (4) frecuentemente existen un numero excesivo de factores ligados a la definición de producción sostenible los cuales no son fácil de cuantificar, (5) frecuentemente existe confusión entre la producción optima de un establecimiento y la

  10. Identifying critical thinking indicators and critical thinker attributes in nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Hsing-Yuan; Wu, Ming-Chang; Clark, Mary Jo; Tan, Jung-Ying

    2013-09-01

    Critical thinking is an essential skill in the nursing process. Although several studies have evaluated the critical thinking skills of nurses, there is limited information related to the indicators of critical thinking or evaluation of critical thinking in the context of the nursing process. This study investigated the potential indicators of critical thinking and the attributes of critical thinkers in clinical nursing practice. Knowledge of these indicators can aid the development of tools to assess nursing students' critical thinking skills. The study was conducted between September 2009 and August 2010. In phase 1, a literature review and four focus groups were conducted to identify the indicators of critical thinking in the context of nursing and the attributes of critical thinkers. In phase 2, 30 nursing professionals participated in a modified Delphi research survey to establish consensus and the appropriateness of each indicator and attribute identified in phase 1. We identified 37 indicators of critical thinking and 10 attributes of critical thinkers. The indicators were categorized into five subscales within the context of the nursing process toreflect nursing clinical practice: assessment, 16 indicators of ability to apply professional knowledge and skills to analyze and interpret patient problems; diagnosis, five indicators of ability to propose preliminary suppositions; planning, five indicators of ability to develop problem-solving strategies; implementation, five indicators of ability to implement planning; and evaluation, six indicators of ability to self-assess and reflect. The study operationalized critical thinking into a practical indicator suitable for nursing contexts in which critical thinking is required for clinical problem solving. Identified indicators and attributes can assist clinical instructors to evaluate student critical thought skills and development-related teaching strategies.

  11. Environmental sustainability assessment of urban systems applying coupled urban metabolism and life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Goldstein, Benjamin Paul

    2013-01-01

    environmental sustainability of large urban systems by relating the environmental sustainability performance of urban systems with global environmental burden boundaries quantifying pollution thresholds beyond which performance of global ecosystems services may be detrimentally affected....

  12. Supervision functions - Secure operation of sustainable power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten

    2013-01-01

    of power systems operation control. The use of PMUs allows more penetration of DG mainly, with technologies based on renewable resources with intermittent and unpredictable operation such a wind power. This paper introduces the Secure Operation of Sustainable Power Systems (SOSPO) project. The SOSPO...... project tries to respond to the question "How to ensure a secure operation of the future power system where the operating point is heavily is fluctuating?" focusing in the Supervision module architecture and in the power system operation states. The main goal of Supervision module is to determine...... the power system operation state based on new stability and security parameters derived from PMUs measurement and coordinate the use of automatic and manual control actions. The coordination of the control action is based not only in the static indicators but also in the performance evaluation of control...

  13. Potential of sustainable biomass production systems in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, M.A.; Hussey, M.A.; Wiselogel, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Biomass production for liquid fuels feedstock from systems based on warm-season perennial grasses (WSPG) offers a sustainable alternative for forage-livestock producers in Texas. Such systems also would enhance diversity and flexibility in current production systems. Research is needed to incorporate biomass production for liquid fuels, chemicals, and electrical power into current forage-livestock management systems. Our research objectives were to (i) document the potential of several WSPG in diverse Texas environments for biomass feedstock production, (ii) conduct fundamental research on morphological development of WSPG to enhance management for biomass feedstock production, (iii) examine current on-farm production systems for opportunities to incorporate biomass production, and (iv) determine feedstock quality and stability during storage

  14. Modeling sustainability in renewable energy supply chain systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fei

    This dissertation aims at modeling sustainability of renewable fuel supply chain systems against emerging challenges. In particular, the dissertation focuses on the biofuel supply chain system design, and manages to develop advanced modeling framework and corresponding solution methods in tackling challenges in sustaining biofuel supply chain systems. These challenges include: (1) to integrate "environmental thinking" into the long-term biofuel supply chain planning; (2) to adopt multimodal transportation to mitigate seasonality in biofuel supply chain operations; (3) to provide strategies in hedging against uncertainty from conversion technology; and (4) to develop methodologies in long-term sequential planning of the biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. All models are mixed integer programs, which also involves multi-objective programming method and two-stage/multistage stochastic programming methods. In particular for the long-term sequential planning under uncertainties, to reduce the computational challenges due to the exponential expansion of the scenario tree, I also developed efficient ND-Max method which is more efficient than CPLEX and Nested Decomposition method. Through result analysis of four independent studies, it is found that the proposed modeling frameworks can effectively improve the economic performance, enhance environmental benefits and reduce risks due to systems uncertainties for the biofuel supply chain systems.

  15. The Chicago Consensus on Sustainable Food Systems Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    As participants at the Ecosystem Inception Meeting convened by the Global Dairy Platform and held in Chicago in June 2016, we have identified some concepts as central to the study of food systems science. Following the definition developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization for sustainable diets, the food supply needs to provide foods that are healthy and safe, affordable, culturally acceptable, and with low impact on the environment. Therefore, the four main domains of sustainable food systems science can be described as health, economics, society, and the environment. Food systems science needs to embrace and engage with all relevant allied disciplines that may include environmental health sciences, epidemiology, geography, history, sociology, anthropology, business, and political science. Research and training in food systems science, both domestic and international, would benefit from a set of competencies, from more extensive research networks, and from more public-private engagement. This document builds on major advances in the area of food system research, training, and practice, already achieved by individuals, institutions, foundations, and local and national governments.

  16. The Chicago Consensus on Sustainable Food Systems Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Drewnowski

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As participants at the Ecosystem Inception Meeting convened by the Global Dairy Platform and held in Chicago in June 2016, we have identified some concepts as central to the study of food systems science. Following the definition developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization for sustainable diets, the food supply needs to provide foods that are healthy and safe, affordable, culturally acceptable, and with low impact on the environment. Therefore, the four main domains of sustainable food systems science can be described as health, economics, society, and the environment. Food systems science needs to embrace and engage with all relevant allied disciplines that may include environmental health sciences, epidemiology, geography, history, sociology, anthropology, business, and political science. Research and training in food systems science, both domestic and international, would benefit from a set of competencies, from more extensive research networks, and from more public–private engagement. This document builds on major advances in the area of food system research, training, and practice, already achieved by individuals, institutions, foundations, and local and national governments.

  17. Forage based animal production systems and sustainability, an invited keynote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Forages are essential for the successful operation of animal production systems. This is more relevant to ruminants which are heavily dependant upon forages for their health and production in a cost-effective and sustainable manner. While forages are an economical source of nutrients for animal production, they also help conserve the soil integrity, water supply and air quality. Although the role of these forages for animal production could vary depending upon the regional preferences for the animal and forage species, climate and resources, their importance in the success of ruminant production is acknowledged. However with the increasing global human population and urbanisation, the sustainability of forage based animal production systems is sometimes questioned due to the interrelationship between animal production and the environment. It is therefore vital to examine the suitability of these systems for their place in the future to supply quality food which is safe for human consumption and available at a competitive price to the growing human population. Grassland and forage crops are recognised for their contribution to the environment, recreation and efficiency of meat and milk production,. To maintain sustainability, it is crucial that such farming systems remain profitable and environmentally friendly while producing nutritious foods of high economical value. Thus, it is pertinent to improve the nutritive value of grasses and other forage plants in order to enhance animal production to obtain quality food. It is also vital to develop new forages which are efficiently utilised and wasted less by involving efficient animals. A combination of forage legumes, fresh or conserved grasses, crop residues and other feeds could help develop an animal production system which is economically efficient, beneficial and viable. Also, it is crucial to use efficient animals, improved forage conservation methods, better manure handling, and minimum

  18. THE MEDITERRANEAN DIET AS A SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lopes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Central theme in society these days, the diet went through several phases during the evolution of the human being. Currently human’s advanced civilizational, deplete resources, develops forms of reproduction and rapid growth of animals, genetically alter plants to make them more resilient and artificially prolongs life. All these factors lead to an overload in nature and revolve to a group of environmentalists and animal rights. Sustainability is part of everyday life of political and social discourse as the fundamental way to our relationship with the environment. Sustainable food systems are those that are able to survive over time, promoting sustainable use of resources and a balance in the economic, social and environmental aspects. Changing diet to the Mediterranean Diet would bring benefits: on the health level, with better nutrition and increased use of some processed products; economic, by encouraging the consumption of local and national production of products; social, with the creation of jobs in agriculture; and environmental, using organic production and the reduction of transportation needs. The Mediterranean Diet encourages a more balanced and healthy eating style, with great positive impact on the environment. With the globalization phenomena is was gradually lost, but is now being revived due to the awakening to health and ecological problems.

  19. Possibilities and limitations for sustainable bioenergy production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeets, Edward Martinus Wilhelmus Utrecht University

    2008-05-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to investigate the possibilities and limitations of sustainable bioenergy production. To this end, the following research questions have been formulated: (1). What is the potential of different world regions to produce biomass for energy generation in the year 2050, taking account of biological and climatological limitations, the use of biomass to produce food, materials and traditional bioenergy, as well as the need to maintain existing forests and thus protect biodiversity?; (2) What are the main bottlenecks to formulating and implementing sustainability criteria for bioenergy production?; (3) To what extent does complying with sustainability criteria have impacts on the costs and potential of bioenergy production?; (4) To what extent do fertilizer- and manure-induced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions due to energy crop production have an impact on the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when conventional transportation fuels are replaced by first-generation biofuels?; (5) In terms of economic and environmental performance, how does Europe's production, storage and transport of miscanthus and switchgrass in 2004 compare to that in 2030? Throughout this thesis, specific attention is paid to knowledge gaps and their potential impact on results, the aim being to identify priorities for future research and development. Another key element of our research is that we evaluate the possibilities and limitations of strategies that are designed to improve the performance of bioenergy production systems and that may be incorporated in bioenergy certification schemes and bioenergy promoting policies

  20. Developing a sustainability framework for the assessment of bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elghali, Lucia; Clift, Roland; Sinclair, Philip; Panoutsou, Calliope; Bauen, Ausilio

    2007-01-01

    The potential for biomass to contribute to energy supply in a low-carbon economy is well recognised. However, for the sector to contribute fully to sustainable development in the UK, specific exploitation routes must meet the three sets of criteria usually recognised as representing the tests for sustainability: economic viability in the market and fiscal framework within which the supply chain operates; environmental performance, including, but not limited to, low carbon dioxide emissions over the complete fuel cycle; and social acceptability, with the benefits of using biomass recognised as outweighing any negative social impacts. This paper describes an approach to developing a methodology to establish a sustainability framework for the assessment of bioenergy systems to provide practical advice for policy makers, planners and the bioenergy industry, and thus to support policy development and bioenergy deployment at different scales. The approach uses multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and decision-conferencing, to explore how such a process is able to integrate and reconcile the interests and concerns of diverse stakeholder groups

  1. Renewable energy for sustainable electrical energy system in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallah, Subhash; Bansal, N.K.

    2010-01-01

    Present trends of electrical energy supply and demand are not sustainable because of the huge gap between demand and supply in foreseeable future in India. The path towards sustainability is exploitation of energy conservation and aggressive use of renewable energy systems. Potential of renewable energy technologies that can be effectively harnessed would depend on future technology developments and breakthrough in cost reduction. This requires adequate policy guidelines and interventions in the Indian power sector. Detailed MARKAL simulations, for power sector in India, show that full exploitation of energy conservation potential and an aggressive implementation of renewable energy technologies lead to sustainable development. Coal and other fossil fuel (gas and oil) allocations stagnated after the year 2015 and remain constant up to 2040. After the year 2040, the requirement for coal and gas goes down and carbon emissions decrease steeply. By the year 2045, 25% electrical energy can be supplied by renewable energy and the CO 2 emissions can be reduced by 72% as compared to the base case scenario. (author)

  2. Performance and sustainability of two alternative rabbit breeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Theau.Clément

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate 2 alternative breeding systems that differ from the current system in terms of reproduction rhythm, age of females at first insemination and the age of kits at weaning and at slaughter. We measured the performance of 332 females and their offspring over 4 consecutive cycles, as well as the sustainability of the systems. We compared an intensive (group I: reproduction rhythm [RR]=35 d; first insemination [AI1]=20.6 wk of age; weaning age [WA]=32 d; slaughter age [WS]=63 d an extensive (group E: RR=49 d; AI1=16.6 wk; WA=30 d; WS=70 d and a semi-intensive system (group S: RR=42 d; AI1=19.6 wk; WA=35 d; WS=70 d considered as the control system. Sustainability was evaluated using a multicriteria assessment method that takes 14 economic, environmental and social criteria into account, for which 3 to 5 indicators were expressed as the relative score [–1; –0.5; 0; +0.5; +1] for alternative systems compared to the control system. The productivity measured at 28 d (3.5, 4.2 and 4.6 kg/AI, for groups I, S and E, respectively, at 63 d post-partum (30, 38 and 42 kg/female for 4 cycles, respectively, and the total body energy measured 3 d after the 1st and at the 4th insemination (45.4, 46.8 and 49.5 MJ, respectively, were significantly increased when the reproductive rhythm decreased (P<0.001. Before and after weaning, kit mortality decreased when the reproduction rhythm decreased (11.4, 7.3, and 1.9% and 18.3, 15.3 and 10.6% for groups I, S and E, respectively, P<0.05. Carcass quality (weight and dressing percentage was lower in I than in the S and E groups (P<0.001. On this basis, the yearly productivity per doe at weaning could be estimated at 79, 83, and 78 kg for groups I, S and E, respectively. Consequently, the productivity per reproductive cycle increases with the extensification of the breeding system. Nevertheless, compared with the current French system (S, simultaneous changes in several breeding

  3. Sustainable Optimization for Wastewater Treatment System Using PSF-HS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Woo Geem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability in a river with respect to water quality is critical because it is highly related with environmental pollution, economic expenditure, and public health. This study proposes a sustainability problem of wastewater treatment system for river ecosystem conservation which helps the healthy survival of the aquatic biota and human beings. This study optimizes the design of a wastewater treatment system using the parameter-setting-free harmony search algorithm, which does not require the existing tedious value-setting process for algorithm parameters. The real-scale system has three different options of wastewater treatment, such as filtration, nitrification, and diverted irrigation (fertilization, as well as two existing treatment processes (settling and biological oxidation. The objective of this system design is to minimize life cycle costs, including initial construction costs of those treatment options, while satisfying minimal dissolved oxygen requirements in the river, maximal nitrate-nitrogen concentration in groundwater, and a minimal nitrogen requirement for crop farming. Results show that the proposed technique could successfully find solutions without requiring a tedious setting process.

  4. Spatial Zonation Model of Local Irrigation System Sustainability (A Case of Subak System in Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Sriartha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at designing a spatial zonation model of a subak sustainability type based on the internal and external dimentions from 69 subaks in three districts in Badung regency. The internal dimention was measured based on subak capability index in implementing Tri Hita Karana (THK philosophy. The external dimention was measured by using index of four variables, namely: road density, population density, social economic facilities, and number of nonfarmer families.The data were analyzed using descriptive quantitative technique and spatial analysis using Geographical Information System (GIS software. The results found three zones of subak sustainability type, spatially follows the principle of distance decay of the growth of tourism and city center. Unsustainable - less sustainable subak zone dominates short distance zone, sustainable - less sustainable subak zone dominates transitional zone, while sustainable subak zone dominates long distance zone. To protect subak from destruction, less sustainable subaks have to be restored into sustainable ones and the sustainable subaks should be made eternal/exclusive subaks

  5. An environmentally sustainable transport system in Sweden. A scenario study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brokking, P.; Emmelin, L.; Engstroem, M-G.; Nilsson, Jan-Evert; Eriksson, Gunnar; Wikberg, O.

    1997-02-01

    This is a short version of a scenario study concerning the possibilities to reach an Environmentally Sustainable Transport system in Sweden in a perspective of 30 years. The aim of the scenario study has been to describe one of several possible paths from today`s transport system to an environmentally adopted one. However, this does not imply that the task is to predict how such a transformation can be accomplished. The aim is rather to illustrate what such transformation require in the form of political decisions. The transformation of the transport system in to an environmentally adopted one, is primarily treated as a political problem, and a political perspective has accordingly been chosen for the study. In this English version of the scenario, the carbon dioxide problem is used to illuminate the many conflicts in goals and other problem that will attend an environmental adoption of the Swedish transport system, and to highlight the analytical points of departure for the scenario study. The analysis shows that it is possible to reach the national environmental goals that characterise, with given definitions, an environmentally sustainable transport system. However, this implies many severe political decisions over a long period of time, which in turn, implies a long term national consensus about the importance to reach the overall goal. Other results the scenario points out, is the risk that a policy focused on one sector leads to `solving` a problem by moving it outside systems limitations, and the limitations on a national environmental policy: Being able to count on assistance from other countries through an environmental adoption of the transport system in the European Union or globally, would drastically facilitate the environmental adoption of the Swedish transport system, through, among other things, a more rapid technological development. This indicates the necessity of promoting issues involving transportation and the environment in international

  6. A water management decision support system contributing to sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Klaudia; van Esch, Bart; Baayen, Jorn; Pothof, Ivo; Talsma, Jan; van Heeringen, Klaas-Jan

    2017-04-01

    Deltares and Eindhoven University of Technology are developing a new decision support system (DSS) for regional water authorities. In order to maintain water levels in the Dutch polder system, water should be drained and pumped out from the polders to the sea. The time and amount of pumping depends on the current sea level, the water level in the polder, the weather forecast and the electricity price forecast and possibly local renewable power production. This is a multivariable optimisation problem, where the goal is to keep the water level in the polder within certain bounds. By optimizing the operation of the pumps the energy usage and costs can be reduced, hence the operation of the regional water authorities can be more sustainable, while also anticipating on increasing share of renewables in the energy mix in a cost-effective way. The decision support system, based on Delft-FEWS as operational data-integration platform, is running an optimization model built in RTC-Tools 2, which is performing real-time optimization in order to calculate the pumping strategy. It is taking into account the present and future circumstances. As being the core of the real time decision support system, RTC-Tools 2 fulfils the key requirements to a DSS: it is fast, robust and always finds the optimal solution. These properties are associated with convex optimization. In such problems the global optimum can always be found. The challenge in the development is to maintain the convex formulation of all the non-linear components in the system, i.e. open channels, hydraulic structures, and pumps. The system is introduced through 4 pilot projects, one of which is a pilot of the Dutch Water Authority Rivierenland. This is a typical Dutch polder system: several polders are drained to the main water system, the Linge. The water from the Linge can be released to the main rivers that are subject to tidal fluctuations. In case of low tide, water can be released via the gates. In case of high

  7. Sustainable solid waste management a systems engineering approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, N

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between human activities and the environment are complicated and often difficult to quantify. In many occasions, judging where the optimal balance should lie among environmental protection, social well-being, economic growth, and technological progress is complex. The use of a systems engineering approach will fill in the gap contributing to how we understand the intricacy by a holistic way and how we generate better sustainable solid waste management practices. This book aims to advance interdisciplinary understanding of intertwined facets between policy and technology relevant to solid waste management issues interrelated to climate change, land use, economic growth, environmental pollution, industrial ecology, and population dynamics.

  8. Introduction: Energy Systems Modelling for a Sustainable World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriet, Maryse; Giannakidis, George; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Technology Systems Analysis Program (IEA-ETSAP) to support the definition of energy and climate policies in an increasing number of countries. It also provides an overview of the 23 case studies presented in this book, all exploring the potential for feasible roadmaps at global, national or local scale......Since the first oil crisis more than forty years ago, concerns regarding energy security, economic impacts, air pollution, climate change, energy poverty, and societal well-being have been repeatedly calling for an energy revolution. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris...

  9. Sustainable Water Use System of Artesian Water in Alluvial Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, K.; Tsujimura, M.; Tase, N.

    2013-12-01

    The traditional water use system, developed with the intelligence of the local residents, usually takes advantage of local natural resources and is considered as a sustainable system, because of its energy saving(only forces of nature). For this reason, such kind of water use system is also recommended in some strategic policies for the purpose of a symbiosis between nature and human society. Therefore, it is important to clarify the relationship between human activities and water use systems. This study aims to clarify the mechanism of traditional water use processes in alluvial fan, and in addition, to investigate the important factors which help forming a sustainable water use system from the aspects of natural conditions and human activities. The study area, an alluvial fan region named Adogawa, is located in Shiga Prefecture, Japan and is in the west of Biwa Lake which is the largest lake in Japan. In this alluvial region where the land use is mainly occupied by settlements and paddy fields, a groundwater flowing well system is called "kabata" according to local tradition. During field survey, we took samples of groundwater, river water and lake water as well as measured the potential head of groundwater. The results showed that the upper boundary of flowing water was approximately 88m amsl, which is basically the same as the results reported by Kishi and Kanno (1966). In study area, a rapid increase of water pumping for domestic water use and melting snow during last 50 years, even if the irrigation area has decreased about 30% since 1970, and this fact may cause a decrease in recharge rate to groundwater. However, the groundwater level didn't decline based on the observed results, which is probably contributed by some water conservancy projects on Biwa Lake which maintained the water level of the lake. All the water samples are characterized by Ca-HCO3 type and similar stable isotopic value of δD and δ18O. Groundwater level in irrigation season is higher

  10. Dynamic Business Networks: A Headache for Sustainable Systems Interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinho, Carlos; Jardim-Goncalves, Ricardo

    Collaborative networked environments emerged with the spread of the internet, contributing to overcome past communication barriers, and identifying interoperability as an essential property. When achieved seamlessly, efficiency is increased in the entire product life cycle. Nowadays, most organizations try to attain interoperability by establishing peer-to-peer mappings with the different partners, or in optimized networks, by using international standard models as the core for information exchange. In current industrial practice, mappings are only defined once, and the morphisms that represent them, are hardcoded in the enterprise systems. This solution has been effective for static environments, where enterprise and product models are valid for decades. However, with an increasingly complex and dynamic global market, models change frequently to answer new customer requirements. This paper draws concepts from the complex systems science and proposes a framework for sustainable systems interoperability in dynamic networks, enabling different organizations to evolve at their own rate.

  11. Flexible procurement systems is key to supply chain sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Bag

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this dynamic business environment, manufacturers are focusing primarily on delivery performance and competitive pricing to win orders. It is essential that manufacturers adopt flexible procurement systems (FPSs in such an uncertain environment for business sustainability. Objectives: The purpose of the study is to identify the elements of FPSs and model the interrelationships between elements of FPSs and, finally, to understand how FPSs are linked with supply chain sustainability. Method: Besides providing a brief conceptual review of FPSs, the study largely illustrates the use of an innovative multi-criteria decision-making approach called total interpretive structural modelling (TISM. Results: The total interpretive structural modelling–based model evaluates the causality and illustrates elements with interpretation of relations and suggests that bottom-level elements are vital for sustainability in FPSs and avert risks. Secondly, strategic sourcing is positively influencing supplier integration. Thirdly, supplier integration positively influences supplier responsiveness. Fourthly, skills of flexible procurement workforce positively influence supplier integration. Fifthly, it is found that supplier integration positively influences flexible transportation. The sixth finding suggests that supplier integration positively influences eco-friendly packaging. The seventh finding highlights that supplier integration positively influences ISO 14001 certifications. The eighth finding explains that supplier responsiveness positively influences customer satisfaction. It is also observed that flexible transport reduces operational cost and environmental costs. The second last finding explains eco-friendly packaging and reduction in environmental cost by careful selection of packing material and chemicals. Lastly, it is found that ISO 14001/environmental certifications reduce environmental costs by greening suppliers and pressurises them

  12. Adoption of Geospatial Systems towards evolving Sustainable Himalayan Mountain Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, M. S. R.; Bajracharya, B.; Pradhan, S.; Shestra, B.; Bajracharya, R.; Shakya, K.; Wesselmann, S.; Ali, M.; Bajracharya, S.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-11-01

    Natural resources dependence of mountain communities, rapid social and developmental changes, disaster proneness and climate change are conceived as the critical factors regulating sustainable Himalayan mountain development. The Himalayan region posed by typical geographic settings, diverse physical and cultural diversity present a formidable challenge to collect and manage data, information and understands varied socio-ecological settings. Recent advances in earth observation, near real-time data, in-situ measurements and in combination of information and communication technology have transformed the way we collect, process, and generate information and how we use such information for societal benefits. Glacier dynamics, land cover changes, disaster risk reduction systems, food security and ecosystem conservation are a few thematic areas where geospatial information and knowledge have significantly contributed to informed decision making systems over the region. The emergence and adoption of near-real time systems, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), board-scale citizen science (crowd-sourcing), mobile services and mapping, and cloud computing have paved the way towards developing automated environmental monitoring systems, enhanced scientific understanding of geophysical and biophysical processes, coupled management of socio-ecological systems and community based adaptation models tailored to mountain specific environment. There are differentiated capacities among the ICIMOD regional member countries with regard to utilization of earth observation and geospatial technologies. The region can greatly benefit from a coordinated and collaborative approach to capture the opportunities offered by earth observation and geospatial technologies. The regional level data sharing, knowledge exchange, and Himalayan GEO supporting geospatial platforms, spatial data infrastructure, unique region specific satellite systems to address trans-boundary challenges would go a long way in

  13. Glioblastoma in the limbic system presenting as sustained central hypopnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Mashiko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old woman was transferred to our hospital after experiencing an epigastric sensation followed by unconsciousness. On arrival, the patient showed impaired consciousness without convulsive movement, cyanosis and shallow breathing, arterial O2 desaturation, and increased PCO2. Artificial respiration improved CO2 accumulation and consciousness, but interruption of artificial respiration returned the patient to her former state. Computed tomography of the head showed a mass around the left corpus callosum. The patient's hypopnea followed by unconsciousness suggested sustained nonconvulsive epilepsy manifesting in central hypopnea and subsequent unconsciousness due to CO2 narcosis. Intravenous (IV anticonvulsants promptly improved the respiratory condition, and the patient started to regain consciousness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lesion involving the bilateral limbic systems. To our knowledge, limbic seizure manifesting with hypopnea causing unconsciousness due to CO2 narcosis has not previously been reported, despite evidence of a strong relationship between the limbic and respiratory systems. The current case suggests that sustained limbic seizure can manifest as hypopnea. Since emergency EEG can be difficult to perform, IV anticonvulsant treatment is an appropriate diagnostic therapy.

  14. Selecting, adapting, and sustaining programs in health care systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zullig LL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leah L Zullig,1,2 Hayden B Bosworth1–4 1Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 3School of Nursing, 4Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Practitioners and researchers often design behavioral programs that are effective for a specific population or problem. Despite their success in a controlled setting, relatively few programs are scaled up and implemented in health care systems. Planning for scale-up is a critical, yet often overlooked, element in the process of program design. Equally as important is understanding how to select a program that has already been developed, and adapt and implement the program to meet specific organizational goals. This adaptation and implementation requires attention to organizational goals, available resources, and program cost. We assert that translational behavioral medicine necessitates expanding successful programs beyond a stand-alone research study. This paper describes key factors to consider when selecting, adapting, and sustaining programs for scale-up in large health care systems and applies the Knowledge to Action (KTA Framework to a case study, illustrating knowledge creation and an action cycle of implementation and evaluation activities. Keywords: program sustainability, diffusion of innovation, information dissemination, health services research, intervention studies 

  15. Applying Sustainable Systems Development Approach to Educational Technology Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) is an essential part of modern education. The roles and contributions of technology to education have been thoroughly documented in academic and professional literature. Despite the benefits, the use of educational technology systems (ETS) also creates a significant impact on the environment, primarily due to energy…

  16. Problems of logistic systems sustainable development in delivery chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Realization of supply chains management paradigm, covering significantly more volumes of logistic space, logically leads to complication of logistic systems, which, in its turn, arises significant number of problems of both theoretical and practical character. In our opinion, not all the aspects of logistic systems design and their sustainable functioning have received by the present time corresponding coverage in scientific literature. More detailed consideration requires specific problems of logistic systems interaction with their environment. We can talk about formation of new scientific direction (which we suggest to name logistic environics, being applied addition to classical approach to design of logistic systems. Methods: the formalized description of interaction process for logistic systems with the environment was presented and discussed  from ecological, social, economical, organizational and technological, technical, natural scientific positions. Results and conclusions: There is an interaction between logistics systems and the environment, but formalized description of logistic systems interaction process with the environment requires performance of complex interdisciplinary research from many different positions.

  17. Animal Board Invited Review: Comparing conventional and organic livestock production systems on different aspects of sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Haas, de Y.; Hogeveen, H.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2017-01-01

    To sustainably contribute to food security of a growing and richer world population, livestock production systems are challenged to increase production levels while reducing environmental impact, being economically viable, and socially responsible. Knowledge about the sustainability performance

  18. Prototyping and farm system modelling - Partners on the road towards more sustainable farm systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, B.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Leeuwis, C.; Wijnands, F.G.

    2007-01-01

    Farm system modelling and prototyping are two research methods proposed to enhance the process of developing sustainable farm systems. Farm system models provide means to formalize, expand and refine expert knowledge and to integrate this with scientific agro-ecological knowledge at the farm level.

  19. Stoked nondynamos: sustaining field in magnetically non-closed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byington, B M; Brummell, N H; Stone, J M; Gough, D O

    2014-01-01

    Much effort has gone into identifying and classifying systems that might be capable of dynamo action, i.e. capable of generating and sustaining magnetic field indefinitely against dissipative effects in a conducting fluid. However, it is difficult, if not almost technically impossible, to derive a method of determining in both an absolutely conclusive and a pragmatic manner whether a system is a dynamo or not in the nonlinear regime. This problem has generally been examined only for closed systems, despite the fact that most realistic situations of interest are not strictly closed. Here we examine the even more complex problem of whether a known nondynamo closed system can be distinguished pragmatically from a true dynamo when a small input of magnetic field to the system is allowed. We call such systems ‘stoked nondynamos’ owing to the ‘stoking’ or augmentation of the magnetic field in the system. It may seem obvious that magnetic energy can be sustained in such systems since there is an external source, but crucial questions remain regarding what level is maintained and whether such nondynamo systems can be distinguished from a true dynamo. In this paper, we perform 3D nonlinear numerical simulations with time-dependent ABC forcing possessing known dynamo properties. We find that magnetic field can indeed be maintained at a significant stationary level when stoking a system that is a nondynamo when not stoked. The maintained state results generally from an eventual rough balance of the rates of input and decay of magnetic field. We find that the relevance of this state is dictated by a parameter κ representing the correlation of the resultant field with the stoking forcing function. The interesting regime is where κ is small but non-zero, as this represents a middle ground between a state where the stoking has no effect on the pre-existing nondynamo properties and a state where the effect of stoking is easily detectable. We find that in this regime, (a

  20. Sustainable Uses of FGD Gypsum in Agricultural Systems: Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Dexter B; Dick, Warren A

    2014-01-01

    Interest in using gypsum as a management tool to improve crop yields and soil and water quality has recently increased. Abundant supply and availability of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, a by-product of scrubbing sulfur from combustion gases at coal-fired power plants, in major agricultural producing regions within the last two decades has attributed to this interest. Currently, published data on the long-term sustainability of FGD gypsum use in agricultural systems is limited. This has led to organization of the American Society of Agronomy's Community "By-product Gypsum Uses in Agriculture" and a special collection of nine technical research articles on various issues related to FGD gypsum uses in agricultural systems. A brief review of FGD gypsum, rationale for the special collection, overviews of articles, knowledge gaps, and future research directions are presented in this introductory paper. The nine articles are focused in three general areas: (i) mercury and other trace element impacts, (ii) water quality impacts, and (iii) agronomic responses and soil physical changes. While this is not an exhaustive review of the topic, results indicate that FGD gypsum use in sustainable agricultural production systems is promising. The environmental impacts of FGD gypsum are mostly positive, with only a few negative results observed, even when applied at rates representing cumulative 80-year applications. Thus, FGD gypsum, if properly managed, seems to represent an important potential input into agricultural systems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Toward cropping systems that enhance productivity and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R. James

    2006-01-01

    The defining features of any cropping system are (i) the crop rotation and (ii) the kind or intensity of tillage. The trend worldwide starting in the late 20th century has been (i) to specialize competitively in the production of two, three, a single, or closely related crops such as different market classes of wheat and barley, and (ii) to use direct seeding, also known as no-till, to cut costs and save soil, time, and fuel. The availability of glyphosate- and insect-resistant varieties of soybeans, corn, cotton, and canola has helped greatly to address weed and insect pest pressures favored by direct seeding these crops. However, little has been done through genetics and breeding to address diseases caused by residue- and soil-inhabiting pathogens that remain major obstacles to wider adoption of these potentially more productive and sustainable systems. Instead, the gains have been due largely to innovations in management, including enhancement of root defense by antibiotic-producing rhizosphere-inhabiting bacteria inhibitory to root pathogens. Historically, new varieties have facilitated wider adoption of new management, and changes in management have facilitated wider adoption of new varieties. Although actual yields may be lower in direct-seed compared with conventional cropping systems, largely due to diseases, the yield potential is higher because of more available water and increases in soil organic matter. Achieving the full production potential of these more-sustainable cropping systems must now await the development of varieties adapted to or resistant to the hazards shown to account for the yield depressions associated with direct seeding. PMID:17130454

  2. A total system approach to sustainable pest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, W. J.; van Lenteren, J. C.; Phatak, Sharad C.; Tumlinson, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    A fundamental shift to a total system approach for crop protection is urgently needed to resolve escalating economic and environmental consequences of combating agricultural pests. Pest management strategies have long been dominated by quests for “silver bullet” products to control pest outbreaks. However, managing undesired variables in ecosystems is similar to that for other systems, including the human body and social orders. Experience in these fields substantiates the fact that therapeutic interventions into any system are effective only for short term relief because these externalities are soon “neutralized” by countermoves within the system. Long term resolutions can be achieved only by restructuring and managing these systems in ways that maximize the array of “built-in” preventive strengths, with therapeutic tactics serving strictly as backups to these natural regulators. To date, we have failed to incorporate this basic principle into the mainstream of pest management science and continue to regress into a foot race with nature. In this report, we establish why a total system approach is essential as the guiding premise of pest management and provide arguments as to how earlier attempts for change and current mainstream initiatives generally fail to follow this principle. We then draw on emerging knowledge about multitrophic level interactions and other specific findings about management of ecosystems to propose a pivotal redirection of pest management strategies that would honor this principle and, thus, be sustainable. Finally, we discuss the potential immense benefits of such a central shift in pest management philosophy. PMID:9356432

  3. Sustainability in CALL Learning Environments: A Systemic Functional Grammar Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to define a sustainable resource in Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). In order for a CALL resource to be sustainable it must work within existing educational curricula. This feature is a necessary prerequisite of sustainability because, despite the potential for educational change that digitalization has offered since…

  4. Innovative Integrated Management System (IIMS for Sustainable Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suttiprasit Prasert

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is evident that the long-term survival and growth of global food industry depend on the availability and efficient use of raw materials, energy and water and other facilities under the concept of sustainable practice, i.e. in environment, society and economics. Quality and safety managements are essential to ensure that the industry can continue to support the communities in which it operates. Awarding a number of certifications to show the high standing of international quality and hygiene characteristics are currently necessary, e.g. ISO 9001: 2000, GMP/GHP, HACCP, ISO 22000, BRC and etc. To minimize the cost and maximize the efficiency, the Innovative Integration Management System (IIMS has been implemented effectively under the frameworks of sustainability in a numbers of national and international food production companies in Thailand during the past years. This will allow the organization to integrate all common processes such as management review, document control, record control, training, monitoring & measuring, data analysing, internal audits, and corrective and preventive actions whereas the critical or specific processes required by each standard are still retained harmoniously with the others.

  5. Effect of yogic education system and modern education system on sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, R; Nagendra, H R; Bhatt, Ramachandra

    2009-01-01

    Sustained attention is a vital function mediated by the right frontoparietal cortex. The Six Letter Cancellation Task (SLCT) measures sustained attention. Development of sustained attention in a yoga-based education system compared to a modern one is the theme of the present study. To compare the effectiveness of the Modern Education System (MES) and the Gurukula Education System (GES) in developing sustained attention. Forty nine boys (11-13 years) were selected from two residential schools, one MES and the other GES, providing similar ambiance and daily routines. The boys were matched for age and socioeconomic status. The GES educational program is based around integrated yoga modules while the MES provides a conventional modern education program. Sustained attention was assessed using the SLCT at the start and end of an academic year. Within groups, the pre-post test differences were significant for both groups. However, the between groups result showed improvement in the GES group compared to the MES group at a P < 0.001 significance level. The study suggests that both MES and GES improve sustained attention in school boys, but GES is more effective.

  6. Sustaining Inner and Outer Worlds: A Whole-Systems Approach to Developing Sustainable Business Practices in Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Hilary

    2003-01-01

    Provides a rationale for applying holistic systems thinking to sustainable development Suggests student activities for four topics: (1) exploration of external organizational environment; (2) inner-directed exploration of the natural world; (3) exploration of the individual's world; and (4) personal impact on the larger system. (Contains 29…

  7. Business travel and sustainability. Part III. In: Handbook of Sustainable Travel: People, Society, and Transportation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    AGUILERA, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Business travel has been relatively neglected in strategies to promote sustainable travel. A two-stage approach is taken beginning by showing how sustainability of business travel is relevant not only environmentally, but also from an economic and social perspective. On the one hand, this form of travel helps to generate jobs in numerous business sectors, not only in transportation. On the other hand, the social dimension cannot be ignored either, since business travel is often a source of fa...

  8. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Aggerholm, Søren

    that a least‐cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating and the rest from individual heat pumps. Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Renewable energy, Heating strategy, Heat savings, District heating, Smart energy......One of the important issues related to the implementation of future sustainable smart energy systems based on renewable energy sources is the heating of buildings. Especially, when it comes to long‐term investment in savings and heating infrastructures it is essential to identify long‐term least......‐cost strategies. With Denmark as a case, this paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish governmental long...

  9. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Aggerholm, Søren

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used in future sustainable smart energy systems. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish...... governmental 2050 fossil-free vision, this paper identifies marginal heat production costs and compares these to marginal heat savings costs for two different levels of district heating. A suitable least-cost heating strategy seems to be to invest in an approximately 50% decrease in net heat demands in new...... buildings and buildings that are being renovated anyway, while the implementation of heat savings in buildings that are not being renovated hardly pays. Moreover, the analysis points in the direction that a least-cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating...

  10. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Lund

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used in future sustainable smart energy systems. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish governmental 2050 fossil-free vision, this paper identifies marginal heat production costs and compares these to marginal heat savings costs for two different levels of district heating. A suitable least-cost heating strategy seems to be to invest in an approximately 50% decrease in net heat demands in new buildings and buildings that are being renovated anyway, while the implementation of heat savings in buildings that are not being renovated hardly pays. Moreover, the analysis points in the direction that a least-cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating and the rest from individual heat pumps.

  11. Significance of Building Maintenance Management Systems towards Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Othuman Mydin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Building maintenance management is an organized and effective system of maintenance operations which is set up to deal with problems related to the upkeep of a building. Its goal, aside from locating and remedying a building’s deficiencies, is to effectively minimize the overall costs of maintenance and is also an effort to maximize the gain and benefits from the savings. There are a few factors that influence decisions to undertake maintenance work. The principal goal of maintenance is to protect a building in the early stage of issues as they arise. Some major reasons for maintaining a building include retaining its reputation and value of investments, maintaining the building in a condition which allows it to accomplish its purpose, and presenting a good outer shell. This paper will review and discuss some of the major elements of building maintenance towards achieving sustainable buildings.

  12. Strategies for sustainable development of the Polish electric power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janiczek, R.

    1996-01-01

    The key features of sustainable development of the Polish electric power industry are discussed. Priorities and limitations for changes and power demand forecasts are described. Results of least-cost planning for existing power plants' modernization and generation expansion with environmental impacts are presented. The least-cost strategy is given by the optimal upgrades of older plants until year 2002 and by expansion of gas-fired units. The limited availability of gas after 2010 will lead to the construction of new coal-fired plants. For the next planning process, an integrated resource planning methodology is proposed, which includes dynamic optimization of supply and demand side options. Innovative mechanisms are shown to overcome barriers of development like long-terms contracts and decentralization of the power system planning process. (author)

  13. Sustainable urban systems: Co-design and framing for transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert; Bai, Xuemei; Smith, Mark Stafford; Costanza, Robert; Griggs, David; Moglia, Magnus; Neuman, Michael; Newman, Peter; Newton, Peter; Norman, Barbara; Ryan, Chris; Schandl, Heinz; Steffen, Will; Tapper, Nigel; Thomson, Giles

    2018-02-01

    Rapid urbanisation generates risks and opportunities for sustainable development. Urban policy and decision makers are challenged by the complexity of cities as social-ecological-technical systems. Consequently there is an increasing need for collaborative knowledge development that supports a whole-of-system view, and transformational change at multiple scales. Such holistic urban approaches are rare in practice. A co-design process involving researchers, practitioners and other stakeholders, has progressed such an approach in the Australian context, aiming to also contribute to international knowledge development and sharing. This process has generated three outputs: (1) a shared framework to support more systematic knowledge development and use, (2) identification of barriers that create a gap between stated urban goals and actual practice, and (3) identification of strategic focal areas to address this gap. Developing integrated strategies at broader urban scales is seen as the most pressing need. The knowledge framework adopts a systems perspective that incorporates the many urban trade-offs and synergies revealed by a systems view. Broader implications are drawn for policy and decision makers, for researchers and for a shared forward agenda.

  14. Sustainable minireactors: A framework for decentralized nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, A.A.; Sassin, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of a nuclear energy system consisting of numerous small, specialized nuclear reactors providing heat or electricity for localized/regional purposes is considered. It is envisaged that a ''parent'' nuclear facility would sustain the fuel needs of many small nuclear energy ''satellites'' and possibly provide other fuel-management services. The choice of fuel cycle and the operational features of these satellites may be determined by the form of energy required, public and social preferences, and institutional factors. Three distinct classes of distributed systems, each based on extensions of existing nuclear technology, are identified and discussed. In addition to the points emphasized concerning the types of minireactors and the fuel cycles chosen, it is important to recognize the potential for mass-production of these smaller facilities. Also, if the fuel-consuming part of the system is widely distributed geographically and if the fuel can be stored, the simultaneous failure of substantial parts of the energy supply system seems unlikely. Finally, if there were a local need for medium-power facilities, provision for the stacking of minireactors to attain a specified power level could be introduced

  15. Sustainable Urban Agriculture in Ghana: What Governance System Works?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Bogweh Nchanji

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban farming takes advantage of its proximity to market, transport and other urban infrastructure to provide food for the city and sustain the livelihoods of urban and peri-urban dwellers. It is an agricultural activity which employs more than 50% of the local urban population with positive and negative impacts on local and national development. Urban agriculture is an informal activity not supported by law but in practice is regulated to a certain extent by state institutions, traditional rulers, farmers and national and international non-governmental organisations. Tamale’s rapid population growth, exacerbated by the unplanned development system and institutional conflicts, are factors contributing to the present bottlenecks in the urban agricultural system. In this paper, these bottlenecks are conceptualised as problems of governance. These issues will be illustrated using ethnographic data from land sales, crop-livestock competition, waste-water irrigation, and markets. I will explain how conflicts which arise from these different situations are resolved through the interactions of various governance systems. Informal governance arrangements are widespread, but neither they nor formal systems are always successful in resolving governance issues. A participatory governance does not seem possible due to actors’ divergent interests. A governance solution for this sector is not yet apparent, contributing to food and nutritional insecurity.

  16. Full system decontamination (FSD) for sustainable dose reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiepani, Christoph; Sempere-Belda, Luis; Topf, Christian; Basu, Ashim

    2012-09-01

    Nuclear power plants experience an increase in dose rates during operation due to the build-up of the activity inventory. The activity build-up is influenced by the construction materials, past and present water chemistries, and the individual operating history of the plant. Depending on these factors the dose levels in an operating plant may reach a point in which concrete actions to reduce the overall radiation exposure become necessary. In the past dose reduction plans were performed, based on - Modification in coolant water chemistry - Substitution of Cobalt containing materials - Outage optimization program - Installation of permanent shielding - Decontamination The dose rate reduction took several years and today a stagnation of further dose rate reduction can be seen. Therefore AREVA has developed the Concept for Sustainable Dose Reduction in Operating BWRs and PWRs. This is a program of joint corrective measures to minimize dose levels rapidly and keep them low for continued operation. It can be applied in plants from all constructors and designs. The concept is based fully on the application of proven technologies, including: - Full System Decontamination with AREVA's decontamination process HP/CORD UV to minimize the activity inventory - The formation of new, very stable protective oxides on the system surfaces including injection of depleted zinc - Introduction of advanced water chemistry for maintaining the low dose levels achieved during ongoing operation The implementation of this program is particularly interesting for plants with a long operation history, especially when considering life extension. The latest application was performed successfully at the German PWR Grafenrheinfeld in 2010. In this paper the concept for sustainable dose reduction will be outlined and the site application detailed and the achieved results at PWR Grafenrheinfeld will be described. The recontamination after one cycle will be outlined in a second paper. (authors)

  17. Nonregenerative natural resources in a sustainable system of energy supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Alex M; Hamacher, Thomas

    2012-03-12

    Following the lead of the European Union in introducing binding measures to promote the use of regenerative energy forms, it is not unreasonable to assume that the global demand for combustible raw materials for energy generation will be reduced considerably in the second half of this century. This will not only have a favourable effect on the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere, but will also help preserve fossil fuels-important as raw materials in the chemical industry-for future generations. Nevertheless, associated with the concomitant massive shift to regenerative energy forms, there will be a strong demand for other exhaustible raw materials, in particular metals, some of which are already regarded as scarce. After reviewing the debate on mineral depletion between "cornucopians" and "pessimists", we discuss the meaning of mineral "scarcity", particularly in the geochemical sense, and mineral "exhaustion". The expected drastic increase in demand for mineral resources caused by demographic and societal pressures, that is, due to the increase in in-use stock, is emphasised. Whilst not discussing the issue of "strong" versus "weak" sustainability in detail, we conclude that regenerative energy systems-like nearly all resource-consuming systems in our society-do not necessarily satisfy generally accepted sustainability criteria. In this regard, we discuss some current examples, namely, lithium and cobalt for batteries, rare earth-based permanent magnets for wind turbines, cadmium and tellurium for solar cells and copper for electrical power distribution. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A System of Systems (SoS) Approach to Sustainable Energy Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Kaveh; Hadian, Saeed

    2015-04-01

    The general policy of mandating fossil fuel replacement with "green" energies may not be as effective and environmental-friendly as perceived, due to the secondary impacts of renewable energies on different natural resources. An integrated systems analysis framework is essential to developing sustainable energy supply systems with minimal unintended impacts on valuable natural resources such as water, climate, and ecosystem. This presentation discusses how a system of systems (SoS) framework can be developed to quantitatively evaluate the desirability of different energy supply alternatives with respect to different sustainability criteria under uncertainty. Relative Aggregate Footprint (RAF) scores of a range of renewable and nonrenewable energy alternatives are determined using their performance values under four sustainability criteria, namely carbon footprint, water footprint, land footprint, and cost of energy production. Our results suggest that despite their lower emissions, some renewable energy sources are less promising than non-renewable energy sources from a SoS perspective that considers the trade-offs between carbon footprint of energies and their effects on water, ecosystem, and economic resources. A new framework based on the Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) is also proposed for analyzing the overall sustainability of different energy mixes for different risk of return levels with respect to the trade-offs involved. It is discussed how the proposed finance-based sustainability evaluation method can help policy makers maximize the energy portfolio's expected sustainability for a given amount of portfolio risk, or equivalently minimize risk for a given level of expected sustainability level, by revising the energy mix.

  19. Workshop in a Box: Sustainable Management of Rural and Small Water and Wastewater Systems Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    A resource to help rural and small systems and communities to conduct workshops, either for an individual system or for a group of systems, based on the Rural and Small Systems Guidebook to Sustainable Utility Management.

  20. Evaluating the Sustainability of the Spanish Social Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Blanco-Encomienda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Social security has remarkable relevance in the general context of Spanish economy. This system is viable if the volume of active population increases at a higher rate than the number of pensioners does and if, in addition, active population is employed by the productive system. The reports of the National Institute of Statistics about Spanish demography demonstrate how these conditions are not met as of today, because our society has one of the highest aging rates and also a remarkable increase in the dependency rate. Through various techniques of time series analysis, this paper reveals the current economic trends in Spain to demonstrate the need for structural reforms of the system so as to make it more sustainable in the long term. To achieve this, it is necessary to change the financing model to a mixed one where the capitalization method plays a significant role, and also to implement urgent measures in order to reduce the barriers to business and employment development.

  1. Enabling nutrient security and sustainability through systems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaput, Jim; Kussmann, Martin; Mendoza, Yery; Le Coutre, Ronit; Cooper, Karen; Roulin, Anne

    2015-05-01

    Human and companion animal health depends upon nutritional quality of foods. Seed varieties, seasonal and local growing conditions, transportation, food processing, and storage, and local food customs can influence the nutrient content of food. A new and intensive area of investigation is emerging that recognizes many factors in these agri-food systems that influence the maintenance of nutrient quality which is fundamental to ensure nutrient security for world populations. Modeling how these systems function requires data from different sectors including agricultural, environmental, social, and economic, but also must incorporate basic nutrition and other biomedical sciences. Improving the agri-food system through advances in pre- and post-harvest processing methods, biofortification, or fortifying processed foods will aid in targeting nutrition for populations and individuals. The challenge to maintain and improve nutrient quality is magnified by the need to produce food locally and globally in a sustainable and consumer-acceptable manner for current and future populations. An unmet requirement for assessing how to improve nutrient quality, however, is the basic knowledge of how to define health. That is, health cannot be maintained or improved by altering nutrient quality without an adequate definition of what health means for individuals and populations. Defining and measuring health therefore becomes a critical objective for basic nutritional and other biomedical sciences.

  2. 3D scanning and printing as conversation tools: an innovative treatment of a vandalized bronze statue, The Thinker by Rodin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, T.; van der Molen, R.; Saunders, D.; Strlic, M.; Korenberg, C.; Luxford, N.; Birkhölzer, K.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution discusses the innovative treatment of a severely vandalized bronze sculpture, The Thinker by Auguste Rodin, from the Singer Museum in Laren, The Netherlands. Additional aspects of this controversial treatment such as decision making and documentation are also discussed. In 2007 the

  3. Making Sense of Math: How to Help Every Student become a Mathematical Thinker and Problem Solver (ASCD Arias)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Cathy L.

    2016-01-01

    In "Making Sense of Math," Cathy L. Seeley, former president of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, shares her insight into how to turn your students into flexible mathematical thinkers and problem solvers. This practical volume concentrates on the following areas: (1) Making sense of math by fostering habits of mind that…

  4. Towards Sustainability-driven Innovation through Product Service Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Increasing awareness of anthropogenic impacts on the planet has lead to efforts to reduce negative environmental impacts in product development for several decades. Benefits to companies who focus on sustainability initiatives have been put forth more recently, leading to many efforts to incorporate sustainability considerations in their product innovation processes. The majority of current sustainability considerations in industry constrain design space by emphasizing reduced material and en...

  5. Alternative aviation jet fuel sustainability evaluation report - task 3 : sustainability criteria and rating systems for the use in aircraft alternative fuel supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-31

    This report identifies criteria that can be used to evaluate the sustainability of biofuels introduced into the aviation fuel supply chain. It describes the inputs, criteria and outputs that can be used in a sustainability rating system. It identifie...

  6. Sustainable infrastructure system modeling under uncertainties and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongxi

    Infrastructure systems support human activities in transportation, communication, water use, and energy supply. The dissertation research focuses on critical transportation infrastructure and renewable energy infrastructure systems. The goal of the research efforts is to improve the sustainability of the infrastructure systems, with an emphasis on economic viability, system reliability and robustness, and environmental impacts. The research efforts in critical transportation infrastructure concern the development of strategic robust resource allocation strategies in an uncertain decision-making environment, considering both uncertain service availability and accessibility. The study explores the performances of different modeling approaches (i.e., deterministic, stochastic programming, and robust optimization) to reflect various risk preferences. The models are evaluated in a case study of Singapore and results demonstrate that stochastic modeling methods in general offers more robust allocation strategies compared to deterministic approaches in achieving high coverage to critical infrastructures under risks. This general modeling framework can be applied to other emergency service applications, such as, locating medical emergency services. The development of renewable energy infrastructure system development aims to answer the following key research questions: (1) is the renewable energy an economically viable solution? (2) what are the energy distribution and infrastructure system requirements to support such energy supply systems in hedging against potential risks? (3) how does the energy system adapt the dynamics from evolving technology and societal needs in the transition into a renewable energy based society? The study of Renewable Energy System Planning with Risk Management incorporates risk management into its strategic planning of the supply chains. The physical design and operational management are integrated as a whole in seeking mitigations against the

  7. Determination of Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy sustainability indicators using fuzzy inference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkeman, Y.; Rizkyanti, R. A.; Hambali, E.

    2017-05-01

    Development of Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy faces an international challenge regarding to sustainability issue, indicated by the establishment of standards on sustainable bioenergy. Currently, Indonesia has sustainability standards limited to palm-oil cultivation, while other standards are lacking appropriateness for Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy sustainability regarding to real condition in Indonesia. Thus, Indonesia requires sustainability indicators for Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy to gain recognition and easiness in marketing it. Determination of sustainability indicators was accomplished through three stages, which were preliminary analysis, indicator assessment (using fuzzy inference system), and system validation. Global Bioenergy partnership (GBEP) was used as the standard for the assessment because of its general for use, internationally accepted, and it contained balanced proportion between environment, economic, and social aspects. Result showed that the number of sustainability indicators using FIS method are 21 indicators. The system developed has an accuracy of 85%.

  8. Advanced and sustainable fuel cycles for innovative reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatz, J. P.; Malmbeck, R.; Purroy, D. S.; Soucek, P.; Inoue, T.; Uozumi, K.

    2007-01-01

    The key objective of nuclear energy systems of the future as defined by the Generation IV road map is to provide a sustainable energy generation for the future. It includes the requirement to minimize the nuclear waste produced and thereby notably reduce the long term stewardship burden in the future. It is therefore evident that the corresponding fuel cycles will play a central role in trying to achieve these goals by creating clean waste streams which contain almost exclusively the fission products. A new concept based on a grouped separation of actinides is widely discussed in this context, but it is of course a real challenge to achieve this type of separation since technologies available today have been developed to separate actinides from each other. In France, the CEA has launched extensive research programs in the ATALANTE facility in Marcoule to develop the advanced fuel cycles for new generation reactor systems. In this so called global actinide management (GAM) concept, the actinides are extracted in a sequence of chemical reactions (grouped actinide extraction (GANEX)) and immediately reintroduced in the fuel fabrication process is to use all actinides in the energy production process. The new group separation processes can be derived as in this case from aqueous techniques but also from so-called pyrochemical partitioning processes. Significant progress was made in recent years for both routes in the frame of the European research projects PARTNEW, PYROREP and EUROPART, mainly devoted to the separation of minor actinides in the frame of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) studies. The fuels used in the new generation reactors will be significantly different from the commercial fuels of today. Because of the fuel type and the very high burn-ups reached, pyrometallurgical reprocessing could be the preferred method. The limited solubility of some of the fuel materials in acidic aqueous solutions, the possibility to have an integrated irradiation and

  9. Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J.

    2011-09-01

    Transport currently represents approximately 19% of the global energy demand and accounts for about 23% of the global carbon dioxide emissions (IEA 2009). As the demand for mobility is expected to continue to increase in the coming decades, the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will require the evolution of transport, along with power generation, building design and manufacturing. The continued development of these sectors will need to include changes in energy sources, energy delivery, materials, infrastructure and human behavior. Pathways to reducing carbon from the transport sector have unique challenges and opportunities that are inherent to the human choices and behavioral patterns that mold the transportation systems and the associated energy needs. Technology, government investment, and regulatory policies have a significant impact on the formulation of transportation infrastructure; however, the role of human behavior and public acceptance on the efficiency and effectiveness of transport systems should not be underestimated. Although developed, rapidly developing, and underdeveloped nations face different challenges in the establishment of transport infrastructure that can meet transport needs while achieving sustainable carbon dioxide emissions, the constraints that establish the domain of possibilities are closely related for all nations. These constraints include capital investment, fuel supplies, power systems, and human behavior. Throughout the world, there are considerable efforts directed at advancing and optimizing the financing of sustainable infrastructures, the production of low carbon fuels, and the production of advanced power systems, but the foundational work on methods to understand human preferences and behavior within the context of transport and the valuation of reductions in carbon dioxide emissions is greatly lagging behind. These methods and the associated understanding of human behavior and the willingness to pay for

  10. Sustainable intensification: a multifaceted, systemic approach to international development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstein, Jennifer; Ares, Adrian; van Houweling, Emily

    2016-12-01

    Sustainable intensification (SI) is a term increasingly used to describe a type of approach applied to international agricultural projects. Despite its widespread use, there is still little understanding or knowledge of the various facets of this composite paradigm. A review of the literature has led to the formalization of three principles that convey the current characterization of SI, comprising a whole system, participatory, agroecological approach. Specific examples of potential bottlenecks to the SI approach are cited, in addition to various technologies and techniques that can be applied to overcome these obstacles. Models of similar, succcessful approaches to agricultural development are examined, along with higher level processes. Additionally, this review explores the desired end points of SI and argues for the inclusion of gender and nutrition throughout the process. To properly apply the SI approach, its various aspects need to be understood and adapted to different cultural and geographic situations. New modeling systems and examples of the effective execution of SI strategies can assist with the successful application of the SI paradigm within complex developing communities. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Designing Sustainable Energy for All : Sustainable Product-Service System Design Applied to Distributed Renewable Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vezzoli, C; Ceschin, F; Osanjo, L; M'Rithaa, MK; Moalosi, R; Nakazibwe, V.; Diehl, J.C.

    2018-01-01

    This open access book addresses the issue of diffusing sustainable energy access in low- and middle-income contexts.

    Access to energy is one of the greatest challenges for many people living in low-
    income and developing contexts, as around 1.4 billion people lack access to electricity.

  12. Towards a systems approach to sustainable developments | Kutua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable development” as a concept was popularised by a 1987 report of the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development. The report defined sustainable development as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own ...

  13. Smart grids - intelligence for sustainable electrical power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootweg, J.G.; Cordova, C.E.P.; Montes Portela, C.; Morren, J.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the adverse impacts of the consumption of fossil fuels on our environment, the quest for a more sustainable energy supply is increasingly intensifying. Many renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar and tidal power generate electricity. Therefore, the development towards a sustainable

  14. Environmental impacts and sustainability of egg production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, H; Gates, R S; Green, A R; Mitloehner, F M; Moore, P A; Wathes, C M

    2011-01-01

    As part of a systemic assessment toward social sustainability of egg production, we have reviewed current knowledge about the environmental impacts of egg production systems and identified topics requiring further research. Currently, we know that 1) high-rise cage houses generally have poorer air quality and emit more ammonia than manure belt (MB) cage houses; 2) manure removal frequency in MB houses greatly affects ammonia emissions; 3) emissions from manure storage are largely affected by storage conditions, including ventilation rate, manure moisture content, air temperature, and stacking profile; 4) more baseline data on air emissions from high-rise and MB houses are being collected in the United States to complement earlier measurements; 5) noncage houses generally have poorer air quality (ammonia and dust levels) than cage houses; 6) noncage houses tend to be colder during cold weather due to a lower stocking density than caged houses, leading to greater feed and fuel energy use; 7) hens in noncage houses are less efficient in resource (feed, energy, and land) utilization, leading to a greater carbon footprint; 8) excessive application of hen manure to cropland can lead to nutrient runoff to water bodies; 9) hen manure on open (free) range may be subject to runoff during rainfall, although quantitative data are lacking; 10) mitigation technologies exist to reduce generation and emission of noxious gases and dust; however, work is needed to evaluate their economic feasibility and optimize design; and 11) dietary modification shows promise for mitigating emissions. Further research is needed on 1) indoor air quality, barn emissions, thermal conditions, and energy use in alternative hen housing systems (1-story floor, aviary, and enriched cage systems), along with conventional housing systems under different production conditions; 2) environmental footprint for different US egg production systems through life cycle assessment; 3) practical means to mitigate air

  15. A Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture that Supports a System of Systems Approach to Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Steve; Orr, Jim; O'Neil, Graham

    2004-01-01

    A mission-systems architecture based on a highly modular "systems of systems" infrastructure utilizing open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is absolutely essential for an affordable and sustainable space exploration program. This architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous systems, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimum sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the space shuttle program are applied to help define and refine the model.

  16. Evaluation of sustainability of organic, integrated and conventional farming systems: a farm and field-scale analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacini, G.C.; Wossink, G.A.A.; Vazzana, C.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability. The principal purpose of this paper is to evaluate the financial and environmental aspects of sustainability of organic,

  17. A Critical Review of Environmental Management System as a Tool for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galamba, Kirsten Ramskov

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the article is to make a critical review of the environmental management system as a tool for sustainability in local authorities. Background: As a point of departure sustainability is outlined as an ambivalent term that has been interpreted in a number of ways, which...... for sustainability in a local authority FM-context. As a branding tool it might have some potential but there is a risk that the tool legitimizes non-sustainable practices as sustainable, which can lead to frustrations and resignation among employees willing to actually make a difference. Practical Implications...... to alienation and restrict innovative thinking in relation to solutions that could potentially contribute to a sustainable society, as it is very difficult for employees to think beyond the system in their everyday work life. One possible alternative arena for innovation towards sustainability is workshops...

  18. A Critical Review of Environmental Management System as a Tool for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galamba, Kirsten Ramskov

    Purpose: The aim of the article is to make a critical review of the environmental management system as a tool for sustainability in local authorities. Background: As a point of departure sustainability is outlined as an ambivalent term that has been interpreted in a number of ways, which...... for sustainability in a local authority FM-context. As a branding tool it might have some potential but there is a risk that the tool legitimizes non-sustainable practices as sustainable, which can lead to frustrations and resignation among employees willing to actually make a difference. Practical Implications...... to alienation and restrict innovative thinking in relation to solutions that could potentially contribute to a sustainable society, as it is very difficult for employees to think beyond the system in their everyday work life. One possible alternative arena for innovation towards sustainability is workshops...

  19. Towards sustainable innovation : analysing and dealing with systemic problems in innovation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieczorek, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Technological Innovation System (TIS) perspective became a popular tool to analyse and understand the diffusion of particular, mostly renewable, technologies and their contribution to sustainability transitions. The core of the current TIS studies comprise of the analyses of the emergent structural

  20. Towards systemic sustainable performance of TBI care systems: emergency leadership frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Denis H J

    2010-11-10

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) continue as a twenty-first century subterranean and almost invisible scourge internationally. TBI care systems provide a safety net for survival, recovery, and reintegration into social communities from this scourge, particularly in Canada, the European Union, and the USA. This paper examines the underlying issues of systemic performance and sustainability of TBI care systems, in the light of decreasing care resources and increasing demands for services. This paper reviews the extant literature on TBI care systems, systems reengineering, and emergency leadership literature. This paper presents a seven care layer paradigm, which forms the essence of systemic performance in the care of patients with TBIs. It also identifies five key strategic drivers that hold promise for the future systemic sustainability of TBI care systems. Transformational leadership and engagement from the international emergency medical community is the key to generating positive change. The sustainability/performance care framework is relevant and pertinent for consideration internationally and in the context of other emergency medical populations.

  1. The role of green energy systems and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa Omer, Abdeen

    2017-01-01

    People are relying upon oil for primary energy and this will continue for a few more decades. Other conventional sources may be more enduring, but are not without serious disadvantages. The renewable energy resources are particularly suited for the provision of rural power supplies and a major advantage is that equipment such as flat plate solar driers, wind machines, etc., can be constructed using local resources. Without the advantage results from the feasibility of local maintenance and the general encouragement such local manufacture gives to the buildup of small-scale rural based industry. This communication comprises a comprehensive review of energy sources, the environment and sustainable development. It includes the renewable energy technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings in greenhouses environment and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce climate change. This study gives some examples of small-scale energy converters, nevertheless it should be noted that small conventional, i.e., engines are currently the major source of power in rural areas and will continue to be so for a long time to come. There is a need for some further development to suit local conditions, to minimise spares holdings, to maximise the interchangeability of the engine parts, and of the engine applications. Emphasis should be placed on full local manufacture. It is concluded that renewable environmentally friendly energy must be encouraged, promoted, implemented and demonstrated by a full-scale plant (device) especially for use in remote rural areas. (author)

  2. Energy sources for future. Change to a sustainable energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, C.

    2005-01-01

    Can Germany give up gasoline and power from coal or nuclear energy and how much does it cost? The book does away with all common misunderstandings due to renewable energy sources and describes a compatible model for a sustainable energy mixing in future. Nevertheless fossil fuels are not denounced but seen as a platform for the advanced system. The author explains first why objections to renewable energy sources base on bad information, and pursues quite an other argumentation as such authors emphasizing the potential of these energy sources. Than he shows in detail the possibility of the optimal energy mixing for biomass, solar power, wind power, geothermal energy, hydropower and energy efficiency. The environment will reward us for this and instead buying expensive resources from foreign countries we will create work places at home. The number of big power plants - taking into account safety risks - will decrease and small units of on-site power generation feeded with this renewable sources will play more and more an important role. (GL) [de

  3. Comparing decision-support systems in adopting sustainable intensification criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouda eVosough Ahmadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable intensification (SI is a multifaceted concept incorporating the ambition to increase or maintain the current level of agricultural yields while reduce negative ecological and environmental impacts. Decision-support systems (DSS that use integrated analytical methods are often used to support decision making processes in agriculture. However, DSS often consist of set of values, objectives and assumptions that may be inconsistent or in conflict with merits and objectives of SI. These potential conflicts will have consequences for adoption and up-take of agricultural research, technologies and related policies and regulations such as genetic technology in pursuit of SI. This perspective paper aimed at comparing a number of frequently used socio-economic DSS with respect to their capacity in incorporating various dimensions of SI, and discussing their application to analyzing farm animal genetic resources (FAnGR policies. The case of FAnGR policies was chosen because of its great potential in delivering merits of SI. It was concluded that flexible DSS, with great integration capacity with various natural and social sciences, are needed to provide guidance on feasibility, practicality and policy implementation for SI.

  4. Contamination of Detained Sediment in Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonie Allen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption is a key water pollution remediation measure used to achieve stormwater quality improvement in Sustainable urban Drainage Systems (SuDS. The level of contamination of detained sediment within SuDS assets is not well documented, with published investigations limited to specific contaminant occurrence in ponds, wetlands or infiltration devices (bioretention cells and generally focused on solute or suspended sediment. Guidance on contamination threshold levels and potential deposited sediment contamination information is not included in current UK SuDS design or maintenance guidance, primarily due to a lack of evidence and understanding. There is a need to understand possible deposited sediment contamination levels in SuDS, specifically in relation to sediment removal maintenance activities and potential impact on receiving waterways of conveyed sediment. Thus, the objective of the research presented herein was to identify what major elements and trace metals were observable in (the investigated SuDS assets detained sediment, the concentration of these major elements and trace metals and whether they met/surpassed ecotoxicity or contaminated land thresholds. The research presented here provides evidence of investigated SuDS sediment major element and trace metal levels to help inform guidance and maintenance needs, and presents a new methodology to identify the general cause (anthropocentric land use and extent of detained SuDS fine urban sediment contamination through use of a contamination matrix.

  5. Implementation of a Sustainable Training System for Emergency in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sunjoo; Seo, Hyejin; Ho, Binh Duy; Nguyen, Phuong Thi Anh

    2018-01-01

    This study analyzed the project outcomes to share lessons regarding the development of an emergency medicine education system in Vietnam. Retrospective evaluation was implemented using project outcome indicators. A total of 13 training courses were administered, with the collaboration of international experts in Korea and Vietnam. A total of 23 kinds of emergency medicine education equipment were purchased, and a basic life support (BLS) and two advanced cardiac life support labs were remodeled to provide appropriate simulation training. Throughout the 2 years of the project, nine Vietnamese BLS instructors were approved by the Korea Association of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation under American Heart Association. Results of evaluation by Korean international development experts were based on five criteria, provided by the Development Assistance Committee of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, were excellent. Success factors were identified as partnership, ownership, commitment, government support, and global networking. Project indicators were all accomplished and received an excellent evaluation by external experts. For sustainable success, healthcare policy and legal regulation to promote high quality and safe service to the Vietnamese people are recommended.

  6. Implementation of a Sustainable Training System for Emergency in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunjoo Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThis study analyzed the project outcomes to share lessons regarding the development of an emergency medicine education system in Vietnam.MethodsRetrospective evaluation was implemented using project outcome indicators.ResultsA total of 13 training courses were administered, with the collaboration of international experts in Korea and Vietnam. A total of 23 kinds of emergency medicine education equipment were purchased, and a basic life support (BLS and two advanced cardiac life support labs were remodeled to provide appropriate simulation training. Throughout the 2 years of the project, nine Vietnamese BLS instructors were approved by the Korea Association of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation under American Heart Association. Results of evaluation by Korean international development experts were based on five criteria, provided by the Development Assistance Committee of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, were excellent. Success factors were identified as partnership, ownership, commitment, government support, and global networking.ConclusionProject indicators were all accomplished and received an excellent evaluation by external experts. For sustainable success, healthcare policy and legal regulation to promote high quality and safe service to the Vietnamese people are recommended.

  7. The impact of Green Information Systems on sustainable supply chain and organizational performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunyemi, T; Aktas, E

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports about a research in progress focusing on the impact of green information systems on sustainable supply chain performance. Green information systems, supply chains and their relation to sustainability and performance measurement are explained. The preliminary literature review resulted in a draft conceptual framework where sustainable supply chain measures focusing on economic, environmental and social aspects are combined with traditional supply chain performance measures o...

  8. SUNRA - a sustainability rating system framework for National Road Administrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sowerby, Chris; Langstraat, James; Harmer, Clare

    National Road Administrations (NRAs) across Europe strive to improve the performance of their road networks. This improvement has been underpinned by significant research in the optimisation of road planning, design, construction and maintenance, which has enhanced the understanding of the social......, environmental and economic aspects of managing a road network. Whilst there is common understanding in some aspects of sustainability there is not a common understanding of sustainability as a whole and thus how to benchmark and improve overall performance. The Sustainability: National Road Administrations...

  9. Sustained subconjunctival protein delivery using a thermosetting gel delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Erin R; Amaral, Juan; Becerra, S Patricia; Lutz, Robert J

    2010-02-01

    An effective treatment modality for posterior eye diseases would provide prolonged delivery of therapeutic agents, including macromolecules, to eye tissues using a safe and minimally invasive method. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of a thermosetting gel to deliver a fluorescently labeled protein, Alexa 647 ovalbumin, to the choroid and retina of rats following a single subconjunctival injection of the gel. Additional experiments were performed to compare in vitro to in vivo ovalbumin release rates from the gel. The ovalbumin content of the eye tissues was monitored by spectrophotometric assays of tissue extracts of Alexa 647 ovalbumin from dissected sclera, choroid, and retina at time points ranging from 2 h to 14 days. At the same time points, fluorescence microscopy images of tissue samples were also obtained. Measurement of intact ovalbumin was verified by LDS-PAGE analysis of the tissue extract solutions. In vitro release of Alexa 488 ovalbumin into 37 degrees C PBS solutions from ovalbumin-loaded gel pellets was also monitored over time by spectrophotometric assay. In vivo ovalbumin release rates were determined by measurement of residual ovalbumin extracted from gel pellets removed from rat eyes at various time intervals. Our results indicate that ovalbumin concentrations can be maintained at measurable levels in the sclera, choroid, and retina of rats for up to 14 days using the thermosetting gel delivery system. The concentration of ovalbumin exhibited a gradient that decreased from sclera to choroid and to retina. The in vitro release rate profiles were similar to the in vivo release profiles. Our findings suggest that the thermosetting gel system may be a feasible method for safe and convenient sustained delivery of proteins to choroidal and retinal tissue in the posterior segments of the eye.

  10. Simulation-based optimization of sustainable national energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batas Bjelić, Ilija; Rajaković, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    The goals of the EU2030 energy policy should be achieved cost-effectively by employing the optimal mix of supply and demand side technical measures, including energy efficiency, renewable energy and structural measures. In this paper, the achievement of these goals is modeled by introducing an innovative method of soft-linking of EnergyPLAN with the generic optimization program (GenOpt). This soft-link enables simulation-based optimization, guided with the chosen optimization algorithm, rather than manual adjustments of the decision vectors. In order to obtain EnergyPLAN simulations within the optimization loop of GenOpt, the decision vectors should be chosen and explained in GenOpt for scenarios created in EnergyPLAN. The result of the optimization loop is an optimal national energy master plan (as a case study, energy policy in Serbia was taken), followed with sensitivity analysis of the exogenous assumptions and with focus on the contribution of the smart electricity grid to the achievement of EU2030 goals. It is shown that the increase in the policy-induced total costs of less than 3% is not significant. This general method could be further improved and used worldwide in the optimal planning of sustainable national energy systems. - Highlights: • Innovative method of soft-linking of EnergyPLAN with GenOpt has been introduced. • Optimal national energy master plan has been developed (the case study for Serbia). • Sensitivity analysis on the exogenous world energy and emission price development outlook. • Focus on the contribution of smart energy systems to the EU2030 goals. • Innovative soft-linking methodology could be further improved and used worldwide.

  11. Strategic collective system building by firms who launch sustainability innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maryse M.H. Chappin; Julia Planko; Marko P. Hekkert; Jacqueline M. Cramer

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of innovative sustainability technologies often requires far reaching changes of the macro environment in which the innovating firms operate. Strategic management literature describes that firms who want to commercialize an innovative technology can collaborate in networks or

  12. Thinkering through Experiments: Nurturing Transdisciplinary Approaches to the Design of Testing Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn B. Francis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess and understand human behavior, traditional approaches to experimental design incorporate testing tools that are often artificial and devoid of corporeal features. Whilst these offer experimental control in situations in which, methodologically, real behaviors cannot be examined, there is increasing evidence that responses given in these contextually deprived experiments fail to trigger genuine responses. This may result from a lack of consideration regarding the material makeup and associations connected with the fabric of experimental tools. In a two-year collaboration, we began to experiment with the physicality of testing tools using the domain of moral psychology as a case study. This collaboration involved thinkering and prototyping methods that included direct contact and consideration of the materials involved in experimentation. Having explored the embodied nature of morality, we combined approaches from experimental psychology, moral philosophy, design thinking, and computer science to create a new testing tool for simulated moral behavior. Although the testing tool itself generated fruitful results, this paper considers the collaborative methodology through which it was produced as a route to highlight material questions within psychological research.

  13. AN ORTHODOX THINKER AND A ROMANIAN HEART: THE SAINT HIERARCH ANTHIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Anişoara ŞERBAN

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available 2016 is an anniversary year, dedicated to the Saint Hierarch Anthim, a multi-faced personality of Georgian origin, but with a Romanian accomplished life. He was a true Orthodox believer, a Hierarch of our Orthodox Church in Wallachia and a deep thinker, who lived through the teachings of the faith. At the same time, he was a good manager and a philanthropist, a scholar, a polyglot, a calligrapher, a typographer, a Church architect, an orator turned writer, a painter and a sculptor. His great homiletic work entitled Didahiile sends to Didache, the oldest post-Bible Christian text, famous at Constantinople, known also as The Teachings of the Twelve Apostles (The Teachings of the Lord to the Gentiles (or Nations by the Twelve Apostles. The study approaches and develops these dimensions of the personality and of the thought of the Saint Hierarch Anthim, in order to emphasize both his life and his work as an esteemed symbol of the Orthodox faith.

  14. Sustainability certification systems as guidelines for early-phase urban design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Bjerregaard; Bjerre, Lærke; Mansfelt, Lise

    2016-01-01

    The German Sustainable Building Council (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen or DGNB) has one of the most comprehensive sustainability certification systems for urban districts (UD). Their explicit aim is that the system should impact the very earliest design decisions. The Technical...

  15. New developments in recirculating aquaculture systems in Europe: a perspective on environmental sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Eding, E.H.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Schneider, O.; Blancheton, J.P.; Roque dÓrbcastel, E.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The dual objective of sustainable aquaculture, i.e., to produce food while sustaining natural resources is achieved only when production systems with a minimum ecological impact are used. Recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) provide opportunities to reduce water usage and to improve waste

  16. Challenging Students' Perceptions of Sustainability Using an Earth Systems Science Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ian F.; Zeegers, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether an Earth Systems-based course focused on raising postgraduate students' awareness of sustainability, from a systems-thinking perspective, would produce graduates with commitment to drive the sustainability agenda forward with a broad perspective. It investigated students' pre and post-course perceptions of…

  17. TECHNIQUES AND SYSTEMS OF INDICATORS USED IN THE ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina VITALIA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article exposes the summary of a research project whose purpose is measuring sustainable development in Romania at the level of rural areas. Sustainable Development (Sustainable Development in English means better quality of life now and for future generations. According to the vision of sustainable development, progress integrates immediate and long-term objectives, local actions and global economic and environmental issues, all of which are inseparable. Such a vision of society can not be imposed only by political, society as a whole must adopt certain principles (political, economic, social, thinking. Sustainable development can be defined simply as a better quality of life for everyone, both now and for future generations. Sustainable development means: balanced and equitable economic development; high levels of employment, social cohesion and inclusion; a high level of environmental protection and responsible use of natural resources; generating a coherent political system open, transparent and accountable; effective international cooperation to promote global sustainable development (Gothenburg Strategy, 2001.

  18. Evaluation of the sustainability of road drainage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Diez, Iván; Palencia, Covadonga; Fernández Raga, María

    2017-04-01

    Water is the most erosive agent that exists on the linear structures, because they are constantly subjected to outdoor condition like irregular infiltration, frosts and different rain intensities. Another variables that highly influence in the entire lifetime of a natural drainage system are the spatial and temporal variability of the rainfall, the soil, the vegetation cover and the design. All this factors are affecting the vulnerability of the clearings and embankments, by wearing away the weakest materials which surround the roads or train rails, producing erosion and very bumpy surfaces. The result is that the original pattern, developped to disminished the lost of soil, is not properly working and it cannot eliminate water, with the consequence destruction of the linear structure after several rainfall periods, and the accumulation of material down slope. The propose of this research focuses on analysing the drainage systems used in spanish roads and railways lines. For this purpose, a revision of the literature has been done, and the main drainage solutions have been recovered, carrying out an evaluation of them from an environmental point of view. This procedure has been requested by several authors in the past (Nwa, E.U. & Twocock, J.G., 1969; Goulter, I.C., 1992), together with the need of designing a more sustainable drainage system. The final objective of this complete revision is to compare objetively the designs to valuate them in order to develop a new drainage patter which minimize the erosion, increasing the durability and effectiveness of the drainage system. For this purpose, it is neccesary to assure that all the systems will be compare under similar parameters of flow rate, vegetation, substrate, lenght, slope and total section. Only the channels pattern and water distribution will change. The analysis has been done following Liu, H. & Zhu, X.B., (2012), who pointed out that the main parameters to take into account to select a road drainage

  19. Selecting Sustainability Indicators for Small to Medium Sized Urban Water Systems Using Fuzzy-ELECTRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhipi-Shrestha, Gyan; Hewage, Kasun; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-03-01

      Urban water systems (UWSs) are challenged by the sustainability perspective. Certain limitations of the sustainability of centralized UWSs and decentralized household level wastewater treatments can be overcome by managing UWSs at an intermediate scale, referred to as small to medium sized UWSs (SMUWSs). SMUWSs are different from large UWSs, mainly in terms of smaller infrastructure, data limitation, smaller service area, and institutional limitations. Moreover, sustainability assessment systems to evaluate the sustainability of an entire UWS are very limited and confined only to large UWSs. This research addressed the gap and has developed a set of 38 applied sustainability performance indicators (SPIs) by using fuzzy-Elimination and Choice Translating Reality (ELECTRE) I outranking method to assess the sustainability of SMUWSs. The developed set of SPIs can be applied to existing and new SMUWSs and also provides a flexibility to include additional SPIs in the future based on the same selection criteria.

  20. A Review of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems Considering the Climate Change and Urbanization Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Zhou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and urbanization are converging to challenge city drainage infrastructure due to their adverse impacts on precipitation extremes and the environment of urban areas. Sustainable drainage systems have gained growing public interest in recent years, as a result of its positive effects on water quality and quantity issues and additional recreational amenities perceived in the urban landscape. This paper reviews recent progress in sustainable drainage development based on literature across different disciplinary fields. After presenting the key elements and criteria of sustainable drainage design, various devices and examples of sustainable drainage systems are introduced. The state-of-the-art model approaches and decision-aid tools for assessing the sustainable alternatives are discussed and compared. The paper further explores some limitations and difficulties in the application of the innovative solutions and suggests an integrated and trans-disciplinary approach for sustainable drainage design.

  1. Measuring Sustainability within the Veterans Administration Mental Health System Redesign Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, James H.; Krahn, Dean; Wise, Meg; Oliver, Karen Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine how attributes affecting sustainability differ across VHA organizational components and by staff characteristics. Subjects Surveys of 870 change team members and 50 staff interviews within the VA’s Mental Health System Redesign initiative. Methods A one-way ANOVA with a Tukey post-hoc test examined differences in sustainability by VISN, job classification, and tenure from staff survey data of the Sustainability Index. Qualitative interviews used an iterative process to identify “a priori” and “in vivo” themes. A simple stepwise linear regression explored predictors of sustainability. Results Sustainability differed across VISN and staff tenure. Job classification differences existed for: 1) Benefits and Credibility of the change and 2) staff involvement and attitudes toward change. Sustainability barriers were: staff and institutional resistance, and non-supportive leadership. Facilitators were: commitment to veterans, strong leadership, and use of QI Tools. Sustainability predictors were outcomes tracking, regular reporting, and use of PDSA cycles. Conclusions Creating homogeneous implementation and sustainability processes across a national health system is difficult. Despite the VA’s best evidence-based implementation efforts, there was significant variance. Locally tailored interventions might better support sustainability than “one-size-fits all” approaches. Further research is needed to understand how participation in a QI collaborative affects sustainability. PMID:21971024

  2. A Framework for Supporting Organizational Transition Processes Towards Sustainable Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Rajesh

    Economic development over the last century has driven a tripling of the world's population, a twenty-fold increase in fossil fuel consumption, and a tripling of traditional biomass consumption. The associated broad income and wealth inequities are retaining over 2 billion people in poverty. Adding to this, fossil fuel combustion is impacting the environment across spatial and temporal scales and the cost of energy is outpacing all other variable costs for most industries. With 60% of world energy delivered in 2008 consumed by the commercial and industrial sector, the fragmented and disparate energy-related decision making within organizations are largely responsible for the inefficient and impacting use of energy resources. The global transition towards sustainable development will require the collective efforts of national, regional, and local governments, institutions, the private sector, and a well-informed public. The leadership role in this transition could be provided by private and public sector organizations, by way of sustainability-oriented organizations, cultures, and infrastructure. The diversity in literature exemplifies the developing nature of sustainability science, with most sustainability assessment approaches and frameworks lacking transformational characteristics, tending to focus on analytical methods. In general, some shortfalls in sustainability assessment processes include lack of: · thorough stakeholder participation in systems and stakeholder mapping, · participatory envisioning of future sustainable states, · normative aggregation of results to provide an overall measure of sustainability, and · influence within strategic decision-making processes. Specific to energy sustainability assessments, while some authors aggregate results to provide overall sustainability scores, assessments have focused solely on energy supply scenarios, while including the deficits discussed above. This paper presents a framework for supporting

  3. Sustainability Strategy and Management Control Systems in Family Firms. Evidence from a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caputo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate how the integration of new forms of sustainable control systems (SCSs and traditional management control systems (MCSs, and the use of these control systems affect the integration of sustainability within organizational strategy. A qualitative case study based on a longitudinal investigation of an Italian family firm operating in an environment-sensitive context, the intermodal transport industry, has been used to trace the company’s pathway to sustainability integration based on the Gond et al. framework. The paper enriches the Gond et al. conceptualization providing evidence of the external and internal factors relevant in affecting the organization’s pathway towards sustainability integration. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the present study is the first analysis that investigates the integration of sustainability into organizational strategy in the context of family firms, from the point of view of performance management systems (PMSs.

  4. The Future of Pork Production in the World: Towards Sustainable, Welfare-Positive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. McGlone

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Among land animals, more pork is eaten in the world than any other meat. The earth holds about one billion pigs who deliver over 100 mmt of pork to people for consumption. Systems of pork production changed from a forest-based to pasture-based to dirt lots and finally into specially-designed buildings. The world pork industry is variable and complex not just in production methods but in economics and cultural value. A systematic analysis of pork industry sustainability was performed. Sustainable production methods are considered at three levels using three examples in this paper: production system, penning system and for a production practice. A sustainability matrix was provided for each example. In a comparison of indoor vs. outdoor systems, the food safety/zoonoses concerns make current outdoor systems unsustainable. The choice of keeping pregnant sows in group pens or individual crates is complex in that the outcome of a sustainability assessment leads to the conclusion that group penning is more sustainable in the EU and certain USA states, but the individual crate is currently more sustainable in other USA states, Asia and Latin America. A comparison of conventional physical castration with immunological castration shows that the less-common immunological castration method is more sustainable (for a number of reasons. This paper provides a method to assess the sustainability of production systems and practices that take into account the best available science, human perception and culture, animal welfare, the environment, food safety, worker health and safety, and economics (including the cost of production and solving world hunger. This tool can be used in countries and regions where the table values of a sustainability matrix change based on local conditions. The sustainability matrix can be used to assess current systems and predict improved systems of the future.

  5. The Future of Pork Production in the World: Towards Sustainable, Welfare-Positive Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, John J

    2013-05-15

    Among land animals, more pork is eaten in the world than any other meat. The earth holds about one billion pigs who deliver over 100 mmt of pork to people for consumption. Systems of pork production changed from a forest-based to pasture-based to dirt lots and finally into specially-designed buildings. The world pork industry is variable and complex not just in production methods but in economics and cultural value. A systematic analysis of pork industry sustainability was performed. Sustainable production methods are considered at three levels using three examples in this paper: production system, penning system and for a production practice. A sustainability matrix was provided for each example. In a comparison of indoor vs. outdoor systems, the food safety/zoonoses concerns make current outdoor systems unsustainable. The choice of keeping pregnant sows in group pens or individual crates is complex in that the outcome of a sustainability assessment leads to the conclusion that group penning is more sustainable in the EU and certain USA states, but the individual crate is currently more sustainable in other USA states, Asia and Latin America. A comparison of conventional physical castration with immunological castration shows that the less-common immunological castration method is more sustainable (for a number of reasons). This paper provides a method to assess the sustainability of production systems and practices that take into account the best available science, human perception and culture, animal welfare, the environment, food safety, worker health and safety, and economics (including the cost of production and solving world hunger). This tool can be used in countries and regions where the table values of a sustainability matrix change based on local conditions. The sustainability matrix can be used to assess current systems and predict improved systems of the future.

  6. Communicable disease control programmes and health systems: an analytical approach to sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigayeva, Altynay; Coker, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    There is renewed concern over the sustainability of disease control programmes, and re-emergence of policy recommendations to integrate programmes with general health systems. However, the conceptualization of this issue has remarkably received little critical attention. Additionally, the study of programmatic sustainability presents methodological challenges. In this article, we propose a conceptual framework to support analyses of sustainability of communicable disease programmes. Through this work, we also aim to clarify a link between notions of integration and sustainability. As a part of development of the conceptual framework, we conducted a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed literature on concepts, definitions, analytical approaches and empirical studies on sustainability in health systems. Identified conceptual proposals for analysis of sustainability in health systems lack an explicit conceptualization of what a health system is. Drawing upon theoretical concepts originating in sustainability sciences and our review here, we conceptualize a communicable disease programme as a component of a health system which is viewed as a complex adaptive system. We propose five programmatic characteristics that may explain a potential for sustainability: leadership, capacity, interactions (notions of integration), flexibility/adaptability and performance. Though integration of elements of a programme with other system components is important, its role in sustainability is context specific and difficult to predict. The proposed framework might serve as a basis for further empirical evaluations in understanding complex interplay between programmes and broader health systems in the development of sustainable responses to communicable diseases. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  7. Sustainability evaluation of different systems for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) farming based on emergy theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang

    2015-06-01

    Emergy analysis is effective for analyzing ecological economic systems. However, the accuracy of the approach is affected by the diversity of economic level, meteorological and hydrological parameters in different regions. The present study evaluated the economic benefits, environmental impact, and sustainability of indoor, semi-intensive and extensive farming systems of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) in the same region. The results showed that A. japonicus indoor farming system was high in input and output (yield) whereas pond extensive farming system was low in input and output. The output/input ratio of indoor farming system was lower than that of pond extensive farming system, and the output/input ratio of semi-intensive farming system fell in between them. The environmental loading ratio of A. japonicus extensive farming system was lower than that of indoor farming system. In addition, the emergy yield and emergy exchange ratios, and emergy sustainability and emergy indexes for sustainable development were higher in extensive farming system than those in indoor farming system. These results indicated that the current extensive farming system exerted fewer negative influences on the environment, made more efficient use of available resources, and met more sustainable development requirements than the indoor farming system. A. japonicus farming systems showed more emergy benefits than fish farming systems. The pond farming systems of A. japonicus exploited more free local environmental resources for production, caused less potential pressure on the local environment, and achieved higher sustainability than indoor farming system.

  8. Strategic collective system building to commercialize sustainability innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planko, J.; Cramer, J.M.; Chappin, M.M.H.; Hekkert, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of innovative sustainability technologies often requires far-reaching changes of the macro environment in which the innovating firms operate. Strategic management literature demonstrates that the chances of a successful diffusion and adoption of an innovative technology in society

  9. A Fatigue Management System for Sustained Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-31

    Medications in Sustained Operations – Storm et al. DRAFT anxiolytic, myorelaxant, and anticonvulsant properties, and...sedation in pediatric anesthesia (Scheepers, Montgomery, Kinahan, et al., 2000). Submucosal administration was compared to intravenous administration...Arheart KL, & Mandrell TD (2000). Comparative pharmacokinetics of submucosal vs. intravenous flumazenil (Romazicon) in an animal model. Pediatr

  10. Application of geographic information systems (gis) for sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the goals of land evaluation in Nigeria is to enhance the sustainable use and management of land resources. Unfortunately, the current methods of agricultural land evaluation in Nigeria suffer from a number of inherent deficiencies that limit their usefulness as a tool for effective land use planning. There is therefore ...

  11. Sustainable energy systems : Limitations and challenges based on exergy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudstra, N.

    2012-01-01

    General There is a general understanding that the so-called “developed countries” have to change their way of life including their energy supply into a more sustainable way. But even in the case of unanimity with regard to the direction, there are still many opinions about the way to follow. This

  12. Guidance and Counselling in the Sustainability of Educational System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Education developed from human struggle for survival and enlightenment. It is an act of acquiring skills passed on from generation to generation for the development and comfortability of mankind. Gradually education has been developing from all levels. Hence it‟s development needs to be fortified and sustained.

  13. The role of land use planning in sustainable rural systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van H.N.

    1998-01-01

    The creation of a more sustainable countryside has become a very important item across the world. Several methods, approaches and policies can be applied and agencies, interests groups etc. can become active in this regard. Land-use planning, as one of these activities, is challenged to play an

  14. Multi-criteria sustainability assessment: A tool for evaluation of new energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afgan Naim H.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of perspective methods for the evaluation of quality of energy system is the multi-criteria sustainability assessment, based on the analysis and synthesis of indicators expressing different aspects of the system. Application of this methodology in the cases of information deficiency (ASPID methodology enables evaluation of various energy systems. In the paper, the multi-criteria sustainability assessment of energy systems of various energy sources is used to evaluate the energy power system of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Eight different energy system options are taken into a consideration as the potential options for the capacity building within the energy power system of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It has included various renewable sources and fossil fuel clean technologies. Within the multi-criteria sustainability assessment method, sustainability indicators and weighting coefficients are defined and calculated, including: resource indicator, environment indicator, social indicator and economic indicator with respective weighting factors. The methodology includes the system of stochastic models of uncertainty in order to realize the assessment from various supporting systems, and to obtain respective normalization indexes by using non-numeric (ordinal, non-exact (interval, and non-complete information (NNN- information, for sources of various reliability and probability. By the analysis of multi-criteria sustainability assessment of selected options, the decision makers could be enabled to form opinion on quality of considered energy systems, and from the aspect of sustainability, make selection an optimum option of energy system. .

  15. On sustainability assessment of technical systems. Experience from systems analysis with the ORWARE and Ecoeffect tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assefa, Getachew [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-06-15

    Engineering research and development work is undergoing a reorientation from focusing on specific parts of different systems to a broader perspective of systems level, albeit at a slower pace. This reorientation should be further developed and enhanced with the aim of organizing and structuring our technical systems in meeting sustainability requirements in face of global ecological threats that have far-reaching social and economic implications, which can no longer be captured using conventional approach of research. Until a list of universally acceptable, clear, and measurable indicators of sustainable development is developed, the work with sustainability metrics should continue to evolve as a relative measure of ecological, economic, and social performance of human activities in general, and technical systems in particular. This work can be done by comparing the relative performance of alternative technologies of providing the same well-defined function or service; or by characterizing technologies that enjoy different levels of societal priorities using relevant performance indicators. In both cases, concepts and methods of industrial ecology play a vital role. This thesis is about the development and application of a systematic approach for the assessment of the performance of technical systems from the perspective of systems analysis, sustainability, sustainability assessment, and industrial ecology. The systematic approach developed and characterized in this thesis advocates for a simultaneous assessment of the ecological, economic, and social dimensions of performance of technologies in avoiding sub-optimization and problem shifting between dimensions. It gives a holistic picture by taking a life cycle perspective of all important aspects. The systematic assessment of technical systems provides an even-handed assessment resulting in a cumulative knowledge. A modular structure of the approach makes it flexible enough in terms of comparing a number of

  16. Sustainability in the Higher Education System: An Opportunity to Improve Quality and Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela M. Salvioni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increasing importance attributed to social responsibility and stakeholder relationship management, more universities have expanded their research topics and their educational programs through the years. High attention is dedicated to the dominant principles and values of internal and external relations, to the innovation processes designed to ensure an approach to sustainable development. However, less attention is dedicated to the sustainability governance orientation and to the development of a strong institutional culture of sustainability, which is a key success factor to improve the quality and the image. This article observes the sustainability governance orientation, through the analysis of the information on the websites of three fair groups of universities in the international Top 500-ARWU (Academic Ranking of World Universities 2015 ranking. The aim is to verify if there is a link between the degree of sustainability culture in the management and the positioning of the universities in the international ranking. In addition, the analysis is compared with self-assessment data carried out by the same universities in terms of performance sustainability through the STARS (Sustainability Tracking, Assessment & Rating System online platform. As principal consideration, we have noted that the best universities in the ranking have a management approach based on a shared vision of sustainability development of their university leaders, who play an essential role affirming and disseminating a sustainability culture. All this opens broader future implications intended to highlight the importance of management sustainability as a quality improvement factor of universities.

  17. Multiple criteria decision making for sustainable energy and transportation systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrgott, Matthias [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand). Dept. of Engineering Science; Naujoks, Boris [Login GmbH, Schwelm (Germany).; Stewart, Theodor J. [Cape Town Univ., Rondebosch (South Africa). Dept. of Statistical Sciences; Wallenius, Jyrki (eds.) [Helsinki School of Economics (Finland). Dept. of Business Technology

    2010-07-01

    In the twenty-first century the sustainability of energy and transportation systems is on the top of the political agenda in many countries around the world and governments are establishing policies towards a sustainable, low emissions energy future. Environmental impacts of human economic activity necessitate the consideration of conflicting goals in decision making processes to develop sustainable systems. Any sustainable development has to reconcile conflicting economic and environmental objectives and criteria. The science of multiple criteria decision making has a lot to offer in addressing this need. Decision making with multiple (conflicting) criteria is the topic of research that is at the heart of the International Society of Multiple Criteria Decision Making. This book is based on selected papers presented at the societies 19th International Conference, held at The University of Auckland, New Zealand, from 7th to 12th January 2008 under the theme ''MCDM for Sustainable Energy and Transportation Systems''. (orig.)

  18. Whole systems thinking for sustainable water treatment design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Mitchell Tyler

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology could provide a low cost alternative to conventional aerated wastewater treatment, however there has been little comparison between MFC and aeration treatment using real wastewater substrate. This study attempts to directly compare the wastewater treatment efficiency and energy consumption and generation among three reactor systems, a traditional aeration process, a simple submerged MFC configuration, and a control reactor acting similar as natural lagoons. Results showed that all three systems were able to remove >90% of COD, but the aeration used shorter time (8 days) then the MFC (10 days) and control reactor (25 days). Compared to aeration, the MFC showed lower removal efficiency in high COD concentration but much higher efficiency when the COD is low. Only the aeration system showed complete nitrification during the operation, reflected by completed ammonia removal and nitrate accumulation. Suspended solid measurements showed that MFC reduced sludge production by 52-82% as compared to aeration, and it also saved 100% of aeration energy. Furthermore, though not designed for high power generation, the MFC reactor showed a 0.3 Wh/g COD/L or 24 Wh/m3 (wastewater treated) net energy gain in electricity generation. These results demonstrate that MFC technology could be integrated into wastewater infrastructure to meet effluent quality and save operational cost. The high cost and life-cycle impact of electrode materials is one major barrier to the large scale application of microbial fuel cells (MFC). We also demonstrate that biomass-derived black carbon (biochar), could be a more cost effective and sustainable alternative to granular activated carbon (GAC) and graphite granule (GG) electrodes. In a comparison study, two biochar materials made from lodgepole pine sawdust pellets (BCp) and lodgepole pine woodchips (BCc), gassified at a highest heat temperature (HHT) of 1000°C under a heating rate of 16°C/min, showed a

  19. Sustainability of health information systems: a three-country qualitative study in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucheraud, Corrina; Schwitters, Amee; Boudreaux, Chantelle; Giles, Denise; Kilmarx, Peter H; Ntolo, Ntolo; Bangani, Zwashe; St Louis, Michael E; Bossert, Thomas J

    2017-01-10

    Health information systems are central to strong health systems. They assist with patient and program management, quality improvement, disease surveillance, and strategic use of information. Many donors have worked to improve health information systems, particularly by supporting the introduction of electronic health information systems (EHIS), which are considered more responsive and more efficient than older, paper-based systems. As many donor-driven programs are increasing their focus on country ownership, sustainability of these investments is a key concern. This analysis explores the potential sustainability of EHIS investments in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe, originally supported by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Using a framework based on sustainability theories from the health systems literature, this analysis employs a qualitative case study methodology to highlight factors that may increase the likelihood that donor-supported initiatives will continue after the original support is modified or ends. Findings highlight commonalities around possible determinants of sustainability. The study found that there is great optimism about the potential for EHIS, but the perceived risks may result in hesitancy to transition completely and parallel use of paper-based systems. Full stakeholder engagement is likely to be crucial for sustainability, as well as integration with other activities within the health system and those funded by development partners. The literature suggests that a sustainable system has clearly-defined goals around which stakeholders can rally, but this has not been achieved in the systems studied. The study also found that technical resource constraints - affecting system usage, maintenance, upgrades and repairs - may limit EHIS sustainability even if these other pillars were addressed. The sustainability of EHIS faces many challenges, which could be addressed through systems' technical design, stakeholder

  20. An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janic, Milan

    2003-01-01

    An assessment and operationalization of the concept of sustainable air transport system is recognized as an important but complex research, operational and policy task. In the scope of the academic efforts to properly address the problem, this paper aims to assess the sustainability of air transport system. It particular, the paper describes the methodology for assessment of sustainability and its potential application. The methodology consists of the indicator systems, which relate to the air transport system operational, economic, social and environmental dimension of performance. The particular indicator systems are relevant for the particular actors such users (air travellers), air transport operators, aerospace manufacturers, local communities, governmental authorities at different levels (local, national, international), international air transport associations, pressure groups and public. In the scope of application of the methodology, the specific cases are selected to estimate the particular indicators, and thus to assess the system sustainability under given conditions.

  1. Model based approach to Study the Impact of Biofuels on the Sustainability of an Ecological System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance and complexity of sustainability has been well recognized and a formal study of sustainability based on system theory approaches is imperative as many of the relationships between various components of the ecosystem could be nonlinear, intertwined and non intuitive...

  2. Sustainability Assessment of Power Generation Systems by Applying Exergy Analysis and LCA Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stougie, L.; van der Kooi, H.J.; Valero Delgado, A.

    2015-01-01

    The selection of power generation systems is important when striving for a more sustainable society. However, the results of environmental, economic and social sustainability assessments are subject to new insights into the calculation methods and to changing needs, economic conditions and societal

  3. On the Sustainability and Management of a Model System with Ecological, Macroeconomic, and Legal Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability is essentially about insuring that human existence can be indefinitely supported by the biological system of the Earth at an appropriate level of civilization. Hence, one of the most fundamental questions in sustainability is the extent to which human activities a...

  4. Developing an Indicator System for Monitoring, Analyzing, and Assessing Airport Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with developing an indicator system for monitoring, analyzing, and assessing sustainability of airports. The sustainability implies simultaneous increasing of the overall socialeconomic benefits and increasing at a slower rate, stagnating, and/or diminishing of the negative impacts

  5. Exploring profit - Sustainability trade-offs in cropping systems using evolutionary algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeVoil, P.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Hammer, G.L.

    2006-01-01

    Models that implement the bio-physical components of agro-ecosystems are ideally suited for exploring sustainability issues in cropping systems. Sustainability may be represented as a number of objectives to be maximised or minimised. However, the full decision space of these objectives is usually

  6. The Feasibility of "oscar" as AN Information System for Sustainable Rehabilitation of Built Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C.; Rouillard, C.

    2017-08-01

    This paper aims to examine the feasibility of the Online Sustainable Conservation Assistance Resource (OSCAR) as an information system and framework to help find appropriate ways to improve the sustainable performance of heritage buildings in North America. The paper reviews the need for holistic comprehensive authoritative information in the field of sustainable conservation, how OSCAR addresses this gap, the OSCAR workflow, and how it was used in two case studies. It was found that OSCAR has potential to become a practical educational tool and design aide to address the sustainable performance of heritage buildings. The paper contributes to the discourse on sustainable conservation by examining resources and tools which address the need for holistic retrofit approaches. The findings will be useful to educators and professionals in the fields of sustainable design and heritage conservation.

  7. THE FEASIBILITY OF “OSCAR” AS AN INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR SUSTAINABLE REHABILITATION OF BUILT HERITAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Farmer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the feasibility of the Online Sustainable Conservation Assistance Resource (OSCAR as an information system and framework to help find appropriate ways to improve the sustainable performance of heritage buildings in North America. The paper reviews the need for holistic comprehensive authoritative information in the field of sustainable conservation, how OSCAR addresses this gap, the OSCAR workflow, and how it was used in two case studies. It was found that OSCAR has potential to become a practical educational tool and design aide to address the sustainable performance of heritage buildings. The paper contributes to the discourse on sustainable conservation by examining resources and tools which address the need for holistic retrofit approaches. The findings will be useful to educators and professionals in the fields of sustainable design and heritage conservation.

  8. Sustainability indicators system of tourism development: a case study os the municipality of Areia – PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Cavalcanti Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at identifying and analyzing the level of sustainability of tourism in the city of Areia - PB, by applying the methodology of the Sustainability Indicators System of Tourism Development (SISDTur proposed by Hanai (2009. This work is descriptive and it presents an exploratory and quantitative research. To carry out this investigation, three stages of data analysis criteria were established: analysis of indicators, in which the collected data were processed by statistical techniques (average, standard deviation and coefficient of variation; analysis of dimensions; and analysis of global sustainability. The results indicate that the municipality presents a partly unsustainable tourism, since among the six sustainability dimensions for tourism destinations two dimensions demonstrate intermediary sustainability, two dimensions are partially unsustainable, and the other two dimensions are unsustainable. This situation demands from public administrators the design of new action plans for the implementation of investments and projects that may facilitate the sustainable development of tourism in the municipality.

  9. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: breeding programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydhmer, L; Gourdine, J L; de Greef, K; Bonneau, M

    2014-12-01

    The sustainability of breeding activities in 15 pig farming systems in five European countries was evaluated. One conventional and two differentiated systems per country were studied. The Conventional systems were the standard systems in their countries. The differentiated systems were of three categories: Adapted Conventional with focus on animal welfare, meat quality or environment (five systems); Traditional with local breeds in small-scale production (three systems) and Organic (two systems). Data were collected with a questionnaire from nine breeding organisations providing animals and semen to the studied farming systems and from, on average, five farmers per farming system. The sustainability assessment of breeding activities was performed in four dimensions. The first dimension described whether the market for the product was well defined, and whether the breeding goal reflected the farming system and the farmers' demands. The second dimension described recording and selection procedures, together with genetic change in traits that were important in the system. The third dimension described genetic variation, both within and between pig breeds. The fourth dimension described the management of the breeding organisation, including communication, transparency, and technical and human resources. The results show substantial differences in the sustainability of breeding activities, both between farming systems within the same category and between different categories of farming systems. The breeding activities are assessed to be more sustainable for conventional systems than for differentiated systems in three of the four dimensions. In most differentiated farming systems, breeding goals are not related to the system, as these systems use the same genetic material as conventional systems. The breeds used in Traditional farming systems are important for genetic biodiversity, but the small scale of these systems renders them vulnerable. It is hoped that, by

  10. Sustainability certification systems as guidelines for early-phase urban design processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Lotte Bjerregaard; Bjerre, Lærke; Mansfelt, Lise

    2016-01-01

    The German Sustainable Building Council (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen or DGNB) has one of the most comprehensive sustainability certification systems for urban districts (UD). Their explicit aim is that the system should impact the very earliest design decisions. The Technical University of Denmark has tested the DGNB-UD system in two experimental design projects for similar locations to find out how it can be used in the early-phase design process. This paper describes these ...

  11. Bio-Inspired Optimization of Sustainable Energy Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jun Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development always involves complex optimization problems of design, planning, and control, which are often computationally difficult for conventional optimization methods. Fortunately, the continuous advances in artificial intelligence have resulted in an increasing number of heuristic optimization methods for effectively handling those complicated problems. Particularly, algorithms that are inspired by the principles of natural biological evolution and/or collective behavior of social colonies have shown a promising performance and are becoming more and more popular nowadays. In this paper we summarize the recent advances in bio-inspired optimization methods, including artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence, and their hybridizations, which are applied to the field of sustainable energy development. Literature reviewed in this paper shows the current state of the art and discusses the potential future research trends.

  12. Decision aid systems for evaluating sustainability: a critical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Norbert; Starkl, Markus

    2004-01-01

    Assessing sustainability in compliance with the EU water framework directive is affected by numerous conflicting interests. As they can no longer be resolved by means of intuitive reasoning, some authors propose the integration of the major fragmented indicators into one common indicator of the overall sustainability by means of a codified multi-criteria decision support methodology (DSM). Practitioners in urban water management, however, usually object to the use of a codified DSM, as in the legal context (negotiations between the stakeholders, tendering procedure) it might jeopardize the feasibility of the decision making process (DMP). Here we show that a feasible implementation of a DSM into the DMP is possible. To this end, we design a cooperative approach, which by means of an axiomatic evaluation helps to select an appropriate DSM. We illustrate it by a hypothetical dialogue between the relevant authority and the developer. It will expose the inherent limitations of the DSM, which are due to their underlying mathematical features

  13. INTERBANK DEPOSIT MARKET RELEVANCE FOR CROATIAN BANKING SYSTEM SUSTAINABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ercegovac, Roberto; Kundid, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Existence, functionality and sustainability of the interbank deposit market signifi cantly determinate bank’s asset and liability management (ALM) potentials and thus an overall banking sector performance. Among other numerous factors in the banking business, key roles of the interbank deposit market like availability of short-term liquidity sources, ensuring investment and lending opportunities as well as allowing hedging potentials, considerably contribute to commercial bank’s risk – return...

  14. Electric Road Systems: Strategic Stepping Stone on the Way towards Sustainable Freight Transport?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesko Schulte

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrification of the transport sector has been pointed out as a key factor for tackling some of today’s main challenges, such as global warming, air pollution, and eco-system degradation. While numerous studies have investigated the potential of electrifying passenger transport, less focus has been on how road freight transport could be powered in a sustainable future. This study looks at Electric Road Systems (ERS in comparison to the current diesel system. The Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development was used to assess whether ERS could be a stepping stone on the way towards sustainability. Strategic life-cycle assessment was applied, scanning each life-cycle phase for violations against basic sustainability principles. Resulting sustainability “hot spots” were quantified with traditional life-cycle assessment. The results show that, if powered by renewable energy, ERS have a potential to decrease the environmental impact of freight transport considerably. Environmental payback times of less than five years are achievable if freight traffic volumes are sufficiently high. However, some severe violations against sustainability principles were identified. Still, ERS could prove to be a valuable part of the solution, as they drastically decrease the need for large batteries with high cost and sustainability impact, thereby catalyzing electrification and the transition towards sustainable freight transport.

  15. Framework for measuring sustainable development in catchment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Jay J

    2002-02-01

    Integrated catchment management represents an approach to managing the resources of a catchment by integrating environmental, economic, and social issues. It is aimed at deriving sustainable benefits for future generations, while protecting natural resources, particularly water, and minimizing possible adverse social, economic, and environmental consequences. Indicators of sustainable development, which summarize information for use in decision-making, are invaluable when trying to assess the diverse, interacting components of catchment processes and resource management actions. The Driving-Forces--Pressure--State--Impact--Response (DPSIR) indicator framework is useful for identifying and developing indicators of sustainable development for catchment management. Driving forces have been identified as the natural conditions occurring in a catchment and the level of development and economic activity. Pressures include the natural and anthropogenic supply of water, water demand, and water pollution. State indicators can be split into those of quantity and those of quality. Impacts include those that affect the ecosystems directly and those that impact the use value of the resource. It core indicators are identified within each of the categories given in the framework, most major catchment-based management issues can be evaluated. This framework is applied to identify key issues in catchment management in South Africa, and develop a set of indicators for evaluating catchments throughout the country.

  16. Tools for sustainability assessment in island socio-ecological systems: an application to the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Banos-González

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An integral dynamic model, in combination with other methods (indicators, policy and scenario analysis, is presented as a tool for sustainability assessment in island socio-ecological systems (SES. The Fuerteventura sustainability model (FSM, tested for the 1996-2011, allows a better understanding of the dynamic interactions between sustainability indicators and other factors of this island. The FSM was first applied to analyse the vulnerability of this island to climate change for the 2012-2025 period; results point to the need for urgent measures to mitigate its effects on some of the analysed indicators. A set of policy measures was then assessed from the behaviour of nine indicators and their sustainability thresholds. Finally, the FSM facilitated the development of a dynamic model of the island of El Hierro, extrapolating the features common to both SES. We propose this to be a useful tool for the quantitative sustainability assessment and the management of real island socio-ecological systems

  17. An intelligent traceability system: Efficient tool for a supply chain sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougdira, Abdesselam; Ahaitouf, Abdelaziz; Akharraz, Ismail

    2016-07-01

    The supply chain sustainability becomes a necessity for a smooth, a rapid and a fluid economic transaction. To reach a sustainable supply chain, we propose to focus attention on products and their lifecycle. So, we consider the traceability as a major success key to ensure the supply chain sustainability. For that, we consider a supply chain design that use an intelligent products traced by an intelligent traceability system. This system identifies, restores history and properties of a product, besides it tracks, in real-time a product. This solution can, also, bring, in the product environment, appropriate adjustments to prevent any risk of threatening qualities for the product. So, it helps supply chain contributors making the sustainable adjustments and the instant benchmark of the supply chain sustainability.

  18. A System of Systems (SoS) Approach to Sustainable Energy Planning in MENA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlooji, Maral; Ristic, Bora; Price, Katherine; Madani, Kaveh

    2016-04-01

    The global issue of climate change has put pressure on governments to de-carbonise their energy portfolios by transitioning from the dominant use of fossil fuels energy to extensive use of renewable energies. The lack of renewable energy laws and credible targets and valid roadmaps for energy policies within the MENA region has let to ambitious and unrealistic renewable targets, where countries such as Djibouti and Morocco are aiming for 100% and 42% renewables respectively, by 2020, while Kuwait and Qatar are only aiming for 5% and 6% respectively. Nevertheless, this demonstrates the commitment and desirability of the members of the MENA region on increasing their share of renewables in their energy mix to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of the region and minimise the unintended impacts of energy technologies on major natural resources through use of cost efficient technologies. The Relative Aggregate Footprint (RAF) of energy sources among the member states of the MENA region is assessed by applying the "System of Systems (SoS) Approach to Energy Sustainability Assessment" (Hadian and Madani, 2015). RAF demonstrates the efficiency of the overall resource-use of energy resources through creating a trade-off between carbon footprint, land footprint, water footprint, and economic cost. Using the resource availability of each member states, weights are assigned to the four criteria. This allows the evaluation of the desirability of energy sources with respect to regional resource availability and therefore, the efficiency of the overall resource-use of the energy portfolio of the MENA region is determined. This study has recognised the need for reform and radical changes within the MENA region's energy profile to make a significant contribution to the reduction of carbon emissions in order to use the resources in a sustainable way and increase the regional energy security of the member states across MENA. Reference: Hadian S, Madani K (2015) A System of Systems

  19. Genetic traits of relevance to sustainability of smallholder sheep farming systems in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molotsi, Annelin; Dube, Bekezela; Oosting, Simon; Marandure, Tawanda; Mapiye, Cletos; Cloete, Schalk; Dzama, Kennedy

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable livestock production is important to ensure continuous availability of resources for future generations. Most smallholder livestock farming systems in developing countries have been perceived to be environmentally, socially and economically unsustainable. Farming with livestock that is

  20. Geographic information system in marine biology: Way for sustainable utilization of living resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Sreepada, R.A.

    Sustainable utilization of aquatic living resources needs accurate assessment. This stress the need for use of Geographic Information System (GIS). In the recent past interest has been generated for use of GIS in various areas of biological...

  1. Texas Urban Triangle : pilot study to implement a spatial decision support system (SDSS) for sustainable mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This project addressed sustainable transportation in the Texas Urban Triangle (TUT) by conducting a pilot : project at the county scale. The project tested and developed the multi-attribute Spatial Decision Support : System (SDSS) developed in 2009 u...

  2. Systemic levers for change towards sustainable institutionalisation of ICT in schools

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyer, I

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available pressure on the school environment, since schools are unable to sustain the change introduced without support from their formal support systems. Although the ICT for Rural Education Development (ICT4RED) initiative was successful in integrating technology...

  3. A review of multi-energy system planning and optimization tools for sustainable urban development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuzekom, van I.; Gibescu, M.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Implementing renewable energy resources to enable sustainable development of cities, requires a more flexible and re-silient energy system than currently present. Integrating multiple energy carriers and services allow more efficient implementation of these renewables. Although most research efforts

  4. A GIS-based performance measurement system for assessing transportation sustainability and community livability : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-31

    Sustainability and livability in transportation, as the concepts referring to the capability of transportation systems to maintain the well being of our society, have been widely : accepted as the critical principles to improve quality of life and he...

  5. Towards an Agent Based Framework for Modelling Smart Self-Sustainable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Tomičić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-sustainability is a property of a system; a system is considered to be self-sustainable if it can sustain itself without external support in an observed period of time. If this property is mapped to a human settlement in context of resources (water, energy, food, etc., it would describe a human settlement which is independent of external resources (like the national electrical grid or a central water distribution system, where such external resources are either not available, or not desirable. This article contributes to presenting the state-of-the-art overview of self-sustainability-related research. While self-sustainability as in the above described form was not a direct subject of research, there are several fields which are either related to, or could be of significant value to the self-sustainability research in this context. The extensive literature overview also showed no frameworks for modeling self sustainable systems in the context of human settlements. Herein a motivation for using agent-based modeling and simulation techniques will be given.

  6. Special Issue: Enhancing Sustainable Performance in Organizational and Inter-Institutional Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Winch

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is not just for Christmas… it’s for life. Sustainable solutions, whether sought in terms of business strategies, social policies, or the exploitation of natural resources have to serve organizations and communities in the long term, sometimes very long term, as well as the short term. Static analysis is unlikely to be able to evaluate candidate solutions fully, and is more likely to focus on the short-term future to the detriment of the longer-term. Sustainable solutions are more likely to be developed from studies based on deep analysis using systems approaches, and from system dynamics (SD approaches in particular.

  7. Monitoring System of Sustainable Development in Cultural and Mountain Tourism Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurigova Zuzana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism destinations are vulnerable to negative impacts of tourism development and thus require a sustainable approach. It is significant mainly in destinations with fragile environments such as cultural destinations with their historical value and mountain destinations with specific natural conditions. The aim of this paper is to propose the monitoring system for sustainable development of cultural and mountain destinations based on the critical scientific literature review. The added value of this work resides in defining specific indicators (creating monitoring system for measurement of sustainability in cultural routes and mountain destinations.

  8. Geospatial Based Information System Development in Public Administration for Sustainable Development and Planning in Urban Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios N. Kouziokas

    2016-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the governmental authorities should actively encourage the development of an efficient framework of information and communication technology initiatives so as to advance and promote sustainable development and planning strategies. This paper presents a prototype Information System for public administration which was designed to facilitate public management and decision making for sustainable development and planning. The system was developed by using several progra...

  9. Formulation of Dipyridamole Sustained Release Tablet Using Floating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny Mauilida Valentina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dipyridamole is a drug for prevention of postoperative thromboembolic complication of heart valve replacement and long term therapy of angina pectoris will be well absorbed in stomach. To maintain therapeutic plasma concentration in long time and to increase bioavalaibility is needed a sustained release dosage form having the long residence time in the stomach. The objective of this research was to make floating sustained release tablet of dipyridamole conforming to the requirement that was set up by dipyridamol therapeutic concentration. Tablets were made by wet granulation method using aquadest as a liquid binder, HPMC K4M, Ac-di-sol, Avicel PH 102, talk, and Mg stearat. Dissolution assay was carried out using type 2 release tester at rotation speed of 50 rpm in medium 900 mL HCl 0.1 N at 37 ± 0.5 °C for 8 hours. The formulation containing of 50 mg dipirydamole, HPMC K4M (30%, Ac-di-sol (20%, Avicel PH 102 (37%, talk (2%, and Mg stearat (1% released 59.61 ± 6.73% and 89.34 ± 5.87% of dipyridamole respectively after 4 and 8 hours that conformed to the requirement.

  10. THE SUSTAINABILITY FACTOR AND THE SPANISH PUBLIC PENSION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia de las Heras Camino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability factor is a tool for which the main goal is to contribute to the solvency of Social Security. In Spain, it has been articulated by a Sustainability factor, based on a life expectancy ratio, and a Pension Revaluation Index that replaces the Consumer Price Index for revaluation. However, as outlined in this article, the alternatives chosen are not exempt from uncertainty in their practical application nor are they the only possibility of action. El factor de sostenibilidad es una herramienta cuyo objetivo prioritario es contribuir a la solvencia de la Seguridad Social. En España se ha articulado mediante un Factor de sostenibilidad basado en el cociente de esperanzas de vida y un Índice de revalorización de pensiones que sustituye en dicha revalorización al Índice de Precios al Consumo. Sin embargo, tal y como se expone en este artículo, las alternativas escogidas no están exentas de incertidumbre en su aplicación práctica ni son la única posibilidad de acción.

  11. The efficient and sustainable use of environmental resource systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlagh, R.

    1999-02-01

    The two main questions in this study are: (1) how to represent environmental resources within a dynamic, competitive economy, and (2) how to specify environmental policies that guarantee the efficient and sustainable use of these resources, and do not require day-to-day intervention. This study is organized as follows. In Chapter 2, both types of dynamic economies (dynastic and overlapping generations or OLG) are formally specified, and existence of equilibrium is proven. In particular, attention is paid to the consequences of including exhaustible resources with amenity values. It is shown that the equilibrium paths exhibit the specific features of path-dependence. This property implies that present policies have non-diminishing effects on future welfare, and points once more to the urgency of policy interventions. Chapter 3 focuses on efficiency aspects and on the capacity of environmental resources to produce an indefinite stream of valuable services. The chapter also introduces ALICE, an applied model that has a single environmental resource that possesses three specific characteristics: the resource has non-negligible amenity value and is therefore valuable, it is exhaustible, but, if no extraction takes place, the resource produces an indefinite stream of valuable services (the amenity value). An example is provided of strictly conservationist policies that create inefficiencies, and it is shown that efficiency is restored if property rights over the resource are given to the present generation, a policy known as grandfathering. However, it is also shown that, compared to the strictly conservationist policy, grandfathering improves welfare of the present generation while reducing it for future generations. Indeed, an unsustainable equilibrium path cannot be ruled out. Next, parameters are chosen such that the numerical outcomes of the stylized model become comparable with those of existing integrated assessment models that include climate change. The

  12. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: breeding programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Rydhmer, L; Gourdine, Jean-Luc; de Greef, K; Bonneau, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The sustainability of breeding activities in 15 pig farming systems in five European countries was evaluated. One conventional and two differentiated systems per country were studied. The Conventional systems were the standard systems in their countries. The differentiated systems were of three categories: Adapted Conventional with focus on animal welfare, meat quality or environment (five systems); Traditional with local breeds in small-scale production (three systems) and Organic (two syste...

  13. Sustainability indicator system and policy processes in Malaysia: a framework for utilisation and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezri, A A

    2004-12-01

    Formulation of effective sustainability indicators for national assessment demands a comprehensive understanding of the utilisation, diffusion and dissemination of information in policy processes. To illustrate the dynamic of sustainability assessment within the context of policy processes, this paper uses a case study of national sustainability indicators development in Malaysia. Subsequently, this paper ascribes the limited achievement of national sustainability assessment in Malaysia to four types of constraints: meta-policy issues; technical capacities; communication concerns; and the inherent knowledge gaps within the indicator developer community vis-a-vis their theoretical limitations. It is proposed that such constraints will be encountered in many countries. Drawing from the literature on public policy, this paper outlines a framework for investigating indicator behaviour within policy processes based on well-established concepts such as knowledge utilisation and policy learning. I conclude this paper by elaborating on the corresponding future challenges that must be addressed before effective integration of sustainability indicators within policy systems can occur.

  14. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems - Volume II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Duić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – JSDEWES is an international journal dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies and technologies for increasing the sustainability of development by de-coupling growth from natural resources and replacing them with knowledge based economy, taking into account its economic, environmental and social pillars, as well as methods for assessing and measuring sustainability of development, regarding energy, transport, water, environment and food production systems and their many combinations. In total 32 manuscripts were published in Volume II, all of them reviewed by at least two reviewers. The Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems would like to thank reviewers for their contribution to the quality of the published manuscripts.

  15. Assessing the Financial Sustainability of China’s Rural Pension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijian Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the rapid growth of China’s elderly rural population, establishing both an adequate and a financially sustainable rural pension system is a major challenge. Focusing on financial sustainability, this article defines this concept of financial sustainability before constructing sound actuarial models for China’s rural pension system. Based on these models and statistical data, the analysis finds that the rural pension funding gap should rise from 97.80 billion Yuan in 2014 to 3062.31 billion Yuan in 2049, which represents an annual growth rate of 10.34%. This implies that, as it stands, the rural pension system in China is not financially sustainable. Finally, the article explains how this problem could be fixed through policy recommendations based on recent international experiences.

  16. Towards a Sustainable Spatial Organization of the Energy System: Backcasting Experiences from Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Knoflacher

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The transition to a sustainable energy system faces more challenges than a simple replacement of fossil energy sources by renewable ones. Since current structures do not favor sustainable energy generation and use, it is indispensable to change the existing infrastructure. A fundamental change of the energy system also requires re-organizing spatial structures and their respective institutions and governance structures. Especially in Austria, urban sprawl and unsustainable settlement structures are regarded as one of the main developments leading to increased energy demand. One of the aims within the project E-Trans 2050 was to identify socio-economic constellations that are central to the further transformation of the energy system and to focus on actors and their socio-technical framework conditions. Based on a sustainable future vision for the year 2050 a backcasting workshop was conducted to identify necessary steps for the envisaged transition to a more sustainable energy system. The results shed light on the necessary changes for a transformation towards sustainability in the specific Austrian situation. Critical issues are region-specific production of energy and its use, settlement and regional structures and values and role models, which all have a determining influence on energy demand. Combining the knowledge of extensive energy use with available energy resources in spatial planning decisions is a main challenge towards a long term sustainable energy system.

  17. How the Organic Food System Supports Sustainable Diets and Translates These into Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassner, Carola; Cavoski, Ivana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lairon, Denis; Lampkin, Nicolas; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Matt, Darja; Niggli, Urs; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g., organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards, and useful metrics. By 2015, data for organic production and consumption are recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic food system puts the land (agri-cultura) back into the diet; it is the land from which the diet in toto is shaped. Therefore, the organic food system provides essential components of a sustainable diet.

  18. How the Organic Food System Supports Sustainable Diets and Translates These into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassner, Carola; Cavoski, Ivana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lairon, Denis; Lampkin, Nicolas; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Matt, Darja; Niggli, Urs; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g., organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards, and useful metrics. By 2015, data for organic production and consumption are recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic food system puts the land (agri-cultura) back into the diet; it is the land from which the diet in toto is shaped. Therefore, the organic food system provides essential components of a sustainable diet. PMID:26176912

  19. Mapping one year’s design processes at an architecture firm specialized in sustainable architecture - How do sustainability certification systems affect design processes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landgren, Mathilde; Jensen, Lotte Bjerregaard; Heller, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    The current study mapped how a Danish architecture firm integrated sustainability in their projects over a year. All the projects concerned were aimed at being sustainable within the framework of the DGNB certification system. The focus of DGNB is equally divided between environmental, economic...

  20. Ensuring sustainable grain legume-cereal cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoussac, Laurent; Journet, E-P; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    health makes them a key rotation crop in the sustainable intensification and diversification of smallholder farming. This makes grain legumes a key food security crop. However, yields in developing countries are low as a result of such factors as the need for improved varieties of seed, poor seed......Grain legumes are widely cultivated, particularly for their dry seeds (known as pulses). Grain legumes are an important crop for a number of reasons. They are a rich source of protein and fibre, minerals and vitamins. In addition, their rapid growth and ability to fix nitrogen and improve soil...... distribution, the impact of pests and diseases, as well as vulnerability to poor soils, drought and other effects of climate change. This chapter summarises data from over 50 field experiments undertaken since 2001 on cereal-grain legume intercropping in 13 sites in southern and western France as well...

  1. Some Danish experience with product-service systems and their potentials and barriers to sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2003-01-01

    This paper is one of the first attempts to scan the Danish experience with product-service systems and analyse the experiences with respect to potentials and barriers to sustainable development, i.e. reduced resource consumption and reduced environmental impact. The scan shows a variety of product-service-systems......: some have been around for many years and have not be set up for sustainability purposes, while others are rather new and are attempts to contribute to a more sustainable development. Some of the systems identified are so to say born as product-service-systems (like food catering), while others have...... been developed from being a product system into being a product-service-systems in order to support the marketing of more environmental friendly products....

  2. Geospatial Based Information System Development in Public Administration for Sustainable Development and Planning in Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouziokas, Georgios N.

    2016-09-01

    It is generally agreed that the governmental authorities should actively encourage the development of an efficient framework of information and communication technology initiatives so as to advance and promote sustainable development and planning strategies. This paper presents a prototype Information System for public administration which was designed to facilitate public management and decision making for sustainable development and planning. The system was developed by using several programming languages and programming tools and also a Database Management System (DBMS) for storing and managing urban data of many kinds. Furthermore, geographic information systems were incorporated into the system in order to make possible to the authorities to deal with issues of spatial nature such as spatial planning. The developed system provides a technology based management of geospatial information, environmental and crime data of urban environment aiming at improving public decision making and also at contributing to a more efficient sustainable development and planning.

  3. The System Dynamics Model User Sustainability Explorer (SD-MUSE): a user-friendly tool for interpreting system dynamic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    System Dynamics (SD) models are useful for holistic integration of data to evaluate indirect and cumulative effects and inform decisions. Complex SD models can provide key insights into how decisions affect the three interconnected pillars of sustainability. However, the complexi...

  4. Distributed GIS Systems, Open Specifications and Interoperability: How do They Relate to the Sustainable Management of Natural Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael Moreno-Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this is paper is to provide a conceptual framework for the session: “The role of web-based Geographic Information Systems in supporting sustainable management.” The concepts of sustainability, sustainable forest management, Web Services, Distributed Geographic Information Systems, interoperability, Open Specifications, and Open Source Software are defined...

  5. From Intuitive Programming of Robotic Systems to Business Sustainability of Manufacturing SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Mocan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth and sustainable development are issues which are becoming more and more important for nowadays companies. Sustainable development strives for moderate and responsible use within the economic and production activity the limited resources of our planet. Eco-innovations, eco-efficiency and corporate social responsibility practices define much of the current industrial sustainability agenda. While important, they are insufficient in themselves to deliver the holistic changes necessary to achieve long-term social and environmental sustainability. This paper proposed a framework for designing multimodal human-robot interfaces and a demonstrator that facilitate a sustainable use of robotic systems with positive effects on SMEs business sustainability. The proposed approach is intended to bring important contributions to the development of human robot interaction in order to facilitate intuitive programming and to enable easily adapting to changes in robot tasks and applications without the need of using skilled personnel. Our research emphasize the idea that new technologies in product and process create and enable new business strategies; and we demonstrate that changing the paradigm in programming industrial robotic systems it is possible by a “business case for sustainability” to have a sustainable development of the business, in special in case of SMEs.

  6. Towards a Multidisciplinary Approach on Creating Value: Sustainability through the Supply Chain and ERP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter De Soete

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP is a widely used approach through manufacturing environments in a variety of sectors. With a tendency to go to specialized, smaller lot sizes in several industries (e.g., the pharmaceutical sector, companies are dealing with capacity bottlenecks if the planning rhythm wheel is not well calibrated or when production lines are not flexible enough in terms of changeover (C/O and set-up times (S/U (OEE is too small. A well-established communication system including other enterprise resources or production factors (e.g., Enterprise Resource Planning, ERP is favorable to any extent. More and more questions arise from stakeholder communities and end-users on whether or not supply chains and manufacturing environments are sustainable and safe. Departments such as Environmental Health, Safety & Sustainability (EHS & S and Product Stewardship are too often at the “blind” side of the ICT interface. When it comes to product and organizational sustainability, data seems to be lacking in order to conduct sustainability assessments proficiently. Years of intensive research and experience proved that primary data to perform sustainability assessments often are measured through equipment control sensors (e.g., flow rates, temperatures, etc. and sent to PLCs and many other systems. Nevertheless, these data measurements are in many cases simply not penetrating through the Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES because these bottom-up engineering data seems to be of little value to planning, procurement, etc. This communication paper deals with how sustainability assessments can be embedded in business operational management systems. After all, who does not want a “live Carbon Footprint” for process improvements and external sustainability reporting instead of a series of expensive resource consuming studies of 4 to 6 months digging into data logs in traditional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA? This communication paper has

  7. Sustainability science: accounting for nonlinear dynamics in policy and social-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resilience is an emergent property of complex systems. Understanding resilience is critical for sustainability science, as linked social-ecological systems and the policy process that governs them are characterized by non-linear dynamics. Non-linear dynamics in these systems mean...

  8. An Emergy Systems View of Sustainability: Emergy Evaluation of the San Luis Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Systems Theory (EST) was used to provide a context for understanding and interpreting sustainability. We propose that “what is sustainable” for a system at any given level of organization is determined by the cycles of change originating in the next larger system. Furtherm...

  9. An energy systems view of sustainability: emergy analysis of the San Luis Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Systems Theory (EST) is used to provide a context for understanding and interpreting sustainability. We propose that “what is sustainable” for a system at any given level of organization is determined by the cycles of change originating in the next larger system. Further...

  10. Energy, Transport, & the Environment Addressing the Sustainable Mobility Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    King, Sir

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable mobility is a highly complex problem as it is affected by the interactions between socio-economic, environmental, technological and political issues. Energy, Transport, & the Environment: Addressing the Sustainable Mobility Paradigm brings together leading figures from business, academia and governments to address the challenges and opportunities involved in working towards sustainable mobility. Key thinkers and decision makers approach topics and debates including:   ·         energy security and resource scarcity ·         greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions ·         urban planning, transport systems and their management ·         governance and finance of transformation ·         the threats of terrorism and climate change to our transport systems.   Introduced by a preface from U.S. Secretary Steven Chu and an outline by the editors, Dr Oliver Inderwildi and Sir David King, Energy, Transport, & the Environment is divided into six secti...

  11. Sustainability Initiatives Driving Supply Chain: Climate Governance on Beef Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieda Kanashiro Makiya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two conceptual frameworks have been analytically dominant in researching innovation dynamics in sustainability transition processes, namely technological innovation systems (TIS and the multi-level perspective (MLP. The innovation systems has been principally concerned with emerging new technologies and their potential contribution to future sustainability, whereas MLP has been more strongly oriented toward reconstructing historical processes of sectorial change. In this perspective, this study aims to analyses how global climate change and environmental pressures impact on the governance of supply chain and the ripple effects on natural resource-intensive economies. Some initiatives are taken to address regulatory issues and reconcile decision-making tools on quality assurance program on value chains. This includes a multi-level perspective (MLP as Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP and technological innovation systems (TIS as Geographic Information System (GIS used as a tracking system for monitoring sustainable practices. The paper discuss the drivers of sustainable beef production system, mainly in Legal Amazon, Brazil, and requirements from a largest retailer aligned to Brazilian public policies. This study presents three distinct strategies: (1 government and public policies to control deforestation related to beef cattle production system, (2 economic approach related to transnational supermarket chain and sustainability initiatives, (3 collective action for decision-making by multiple drivers

  12. Inferring principles for sustainable development of business through analogies from ecological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sriram

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature in the field of sustainable development (SD of businesses is piecemeal and diverse. This paper identifies and integrates principles that businesses could use for transformation towards SD. This is done through analogical reasoning from the source context of ecological systems to the target contexts of business socio-economic systems and machine/technology systems. The methodologies of systems thinking and morphological analysis supplement the analogical reasoning. Based on this, twelve principles for sustainable development of business are inferred for business managers and policy makers.

  13. Sustainability Efficiency Factor: Measuring Sustainability in Advanced Energy Systems through Exergy, Exergoeconomic, Life Cycle, and Economic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldon, Lauren

    The Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems defines sustainability or industrial ecology as "the wise use of resources through critical attention to policy, social, economic, technological, and ecological management of natural and human engineered capital so as to promote innovations that assure a higher degree of human needs fulfilment, or life support, across all regions of the world, while at the same time ensuring intergenerational equity" (Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems 1998). Developing and integrating sustainable energy systems to meet growing energy demands is a daunting task. Although the technology to utilize renewable energies is well understood, there are limited locations which are ideally suited for renewable energy development. Even in areas with significant wind or solar availability, backup or redundant energy supplies are still required during periods of low renewable generation. This is precisely why it would be difficult to make the switch directly from fossil fuel to renewable energy generation. A transition period in which a base-load generation supports renewables is required, and nuclear energy suits this need well with its limited life cycle emissions and fuel price stability. Sustainability is achieved by balancing environmental, economic, and social considerations, such that energy is produced without detriment to future generations through loss of resources, harm to the environment, etcetera. In essence, the goal is to provide future generations with the same opportunities to produce energy that the current generation has. This research explores sustainability metrics as they apply to a small modular reactor (SMR)-hydrogen production plant coupled with wind energy and storage technologies to develop a new quantitative sustainability metric, the Sustainability Efficiency Factor (SEF), for comparison of energy systems. The SEF incorporates the three fundamental aspects of sustainability and provides SMR or nuclear hybrid energy system

  14. Incorporating Social System Dynamics into the Food-Energy-Water System Resilience-Sustainability Modeling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, J.; Padowski, J.; Malek, K.; Guzman, C.; Boll, J.; Adam, J. C.; Witinok-Huber, R.

    2017-12-01

    In the face of climate change and multi-scalar governance objectives, achieving resilience of food-energy-water (FEW) systems requires interdisciplinary approaches. Through coordinated modeling and management efforts, we study "Innovations in the Food-Energy-Water Nexus (INFEWS)" through a case-study in the Columbia River Basin. Previous research on FEW system management and resilience includes some attention to social dynamics (e.g., economic, governance); however, more research is needed to better address social science perspectives. Decisions ultimately taken in this river basin would occur among stakeholders encompassing various institutional power structures including multiple U.S. states, tribal lands, and sovereign nations. The social science lens draws attention to the incompatibility between the engineering definition of resilience (i.e., return to equilibrium or a singular stable state) and the ecological and social system realities, more explicit in the ecological interpretation of resilience (i.e., the ability of a system to move into a different, possibly more resilient state). Social science perspectives include but are not limited to differing views on resilience as normative, system persistence versus transformation, and system boundary issues. To expand understanding of resilience and objectives for complex and dynamic systems, concepts related to inequality, heterogeneity, power, agency, trust, values, culture, history, conflict, and system feedbacks must be more tightly integrated into FEW research. We identify gaps in knowledge and data, and the value and complexity of incorporating social components and processes into systems models. We posit that socio-biophysical system resilience modeling would address important complex, dynamic social relationships, including non-linear dynamics of social interactions, to offer an improved understanding of sustainable management in FEW systems. Conceptual modeling that is presented in our study, represents

  15. Design Thinkers Can Save the World: How Understanding Their Interests, Goals, and Motivation Can Inform Engineering Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizzard, Jacqualyn

    2013-01-01

    The need for more engineers equipped with new skill sets is essential for ensuring our national security, climate sustainability, and maintaining our position as a global leader in innovation and as an economic world power. The design challenges engineers face increasingly require a human-centered, creative, practical, and systems-based approach…

  16. Greenlandic water and sanitation-a context oriented analysis of system challenges towards local sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Kåre; Hoffmann, Birgitte

    2017-08-28

    Today, as Greenland focuses on more economic and cultural autonomy, the continued development of societal infrastructure systems is vital. At the same time, pressure is put on the systems by a lack of financial resources and locally based professional competences as well as new market-based forms of organization. Against this background, the article discusses the challenges facing Greenland's self-rule in relation to further develop the existing water and wastewater systems so that they can contribute to the sustainable development of Greenland. The article reviews the historical development of the water supply and wastewater system. This leads to an analysis of the sectorisation, which in recent decades has reorganized the Greenlandic infrastructures, and of how this process is influencing local sustainable development. The article discusses the socio-economic and human impacts and points to the need for developing the water and sanitation system to support not only hygiene and health, but also local sustainable development.

  17. Steps towards the development of a certification system for sustainable Bio-energy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faaij, A.; Lewandoski, I.

    2004-07-01

    It is expected that international biomass trade will significantly increase in the coming years because of the possibly lower costs of imported biomass, the better supply security through diversification and the support by energy and climate policies of various countries. Concerns about potential negative effects of large scale biomass production and export, like deforestation or the competition between food and biomass production, have led to the demand for sustainability criteria and certification systems that can control biomass trade. Because neither such criteria and indicator sets nor certification systems for sustainable biomass trade are yet available the objective of this study is to generate information that can help to develop them. For this purposes existing certification systems, sets of sustainability criteria or guidelines on environmental or social sound management of resources are analyzed with the purpose to learn about the requirements, contents and organizational set ups of a certification system for sustainable biomass trade. First an inventory of existing systems was made; next, their structures were analyzed. Key finding from the analysis of internationally applied certification systems was that they are generally led by an international panel that represents all countries and stakeholder involved in the biomass production and trade activities. In a third and fourth step different approaches to formulate standards were described and a list of more than 100 social, economic, ecological and general criteria for sustainable biomass trade was extracted from the reviewed systems. In step five, methods to formulate indicators, that make sustainability criteria measurable, and verification tools that are used to control the performance of indicators are described. It is recommended to further develop the criteria and indicator (C and I) sets for sustainable biomass trade by involvement of the relevant stakeholder (e.g. biomass producer and consumer

  18. Steps towards the development of a certification system for sustainable bio-energy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, I.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2006-01-01

    It is expected that international biomass trade will significantly increase in the coming years because of the possibly lower costs of imported biomass, the better supply security through diversification and the support by energy and climate policies of various countries. Concerns about potential negative effects of large-scale biomass production and export, like deforestation or the competition between food and biomass production, have led to the demand for sustainability criteria and certification systems that can control biomass trade. Because neither such criteria and indicator sets nor certification systems for sustainable biomass trade are yet available, the objective of this study is to generate information that can help to develop them. For these purposes, existing certification systems, sets of sustainability criteria or guidelines on environmental or social sound management of resources are analyzed with the purpose to learn about the requirements, contents and organizational set ups of a certification system for sustainable biomass trade. First, an inventory of existing systems was made; second, their structures were analyzed. Key finding from the analysis of internationally applied certification systems was that they are generally led by an international panel that represents all countries and stakeholders involved in the biomass production and trade activities. In third and fourth steps different approaches to formulate standards were described and a list of more than 100 social, economic, ecological and general criteria for sustainable biomass trade was extracted from the reviewed systems. Fifth, methods to formulate indicators, that make sustainability criteria measurable, and verifiers that are used to control the performance of indicators are described. It is recommended to further develop the criteria and indicator (C and I) sets for sustainable biomass trade by involvement of the relevant stakeholders (e.g. biomass producer and consumer) and the

  19. Product-service system method to measure sustainability level of traditional smoked fish processing industries

    OpenAIRE

    Purwaningsih Ratna; Cahyantari Anggaina Elfandora; Ariyani Zulfaida; Susanty Aries; Arvianto Ary; Santoso Haryo

    2018-01-01

    Small Medium Enterprise’s (SME) of traditional fish processing at Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia still focus their business on gain more profits. Sustainability aspect has not received enough attention yet. This study aims to review the sustainability level of SME smoked fish Semarang using product service system (PSS) method. PSS consists of three dimensions (1) Environment, (2) Socio-cultural and (3) Economic. Each dimension consists of 6 criteria's. PSS not only assess the level of sust...

  20. Integrating Social Aspect into Sustainability Assessment of Bio-Based Industries: Towards a Systemic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rafiaani, P.; Van Passel, S.; Lebailly, Philippe; Kuppens, T.; Azadi, Hossein; Van Dael, M.

    2016-01-01

    Biobased industries require to be assessed on their positive and negative impacts on sustainable development. However, social factors are usually neglected in the majority of impact assessments of biobased industries: they are mainly focused on environmental performance and (techno)- economic assessments. This review proposes a new systemic approach for assessing and integrating the social dimension into sustainability assessments of biobased industries. First the main methodologies for as...

  1. Cascading biomethane energy systems for sustainable green gas production in a circular economy

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, David M.; McDonagh, Shane; Murphy, Jerry D.

    2017-01-01

    Biomethane is a flexible energy vector that can be used as a renewable fuel for both the heat and transport sectors. Recent EU legislation encourages the production and use of advanced, third generation biofuels with improved sustainability for future energy systems. The integration of technologies such as anaerobic digestion, gasification, and power to gas, along with advanced feedstocks such as algae will be at the forefront in meeting future sustainability criteria and achieving a green ga...

  2. Linking social and ecological systems to sustain coral reef fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinner, Joshua E; McClanahan, Timothy R; Daw, Tim M; Graham, Nicholas A J; Maina, Joseph; Wilson, Shaun K; Hughes, Terence P

    2009-02-10

    The ecosystem goods and services provided by coral reefs are critical to the social and economic welfare of hundreds of millions of people, overwhelmingly in developing countries [1]. Widespread reef degradation is severely eroding these goods and services, but the socioeconomic factors shaping the ways that societies use coral reefs are poorly understood [2]. We examine relationships between human population density, a multidimensional index of socioeconomic development, reef complexity, and the condition of coral reef fish populations in five countries across the Indian Ocean. In fished sites, fish biomass was negatively related to human population density, but it was best explained by reef complexity and a U-shaped relationship with socioeconomic development. The biomass of reef fishes was four times lower at locations with intermediate levels of economic development than at locations with both low and high development. In contrast, average biomass inside fishery closures was three times higher than in fished sites and was not associated with socioeconomic development. Sustaining coral reef fisheries requires an integrated approach that uses tools such as protected areas to quickly build reef resources while also building capacities and capital in societies over longer time frames to address the complex underlying causes of reef degradation.

  3. The use of biological systems to improve the energy sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannozzi-Sermmanik, G. [Tuscia Univ., Viterbo (Italy)

    2005-06-01

    Few considerations on the possible role of biochemical reactions to improve energy availability for the mankind activities are presented. An improvement of the sustainability, among many biological cycles, can be obtained by amplified organic matter biosynthesis and its efficient utilisation. In the plants the increase of biosynthesis of cellulose, lignins, starch and hemicelluloses, main renewable reserves of chemical bonds in the biosphere, can be meliorated by more active photosynthetic cycle due to phophoenolpyruvic carboxylase. A second aspect is related to the efficient biodegradations of the plant organic matter by cellulases, hemicellulases and polyphenol oxidases allowing the mobilisation and utilisation of huge amounts of chemical bonds.The capability of this biodegradation can be improved by an emerging technology, the solid state fermentation (SSF), with which the biodegradation is controlled and driven. An example of such integrated approach is constituted by paper pulps from agricultural and forestry materials obtainable with less chemicals use, lower specific energy, better yield of paper pulps and better properties of the papers. (au)

  4. Evaluating the Sustainability in Complex Agri-Food Systems: The SAEMETH Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Peano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years, the definition of sustainability and the translation of its general principles into practical and operative tasks have come into the foreground of scientific research and political agendas throughout the world. The understanding and the evaluation of the environmental, social and economic performances of complex agricultural food systems is probably the real challenge, and the design of more sustainable alternatives has been recognized as necessary for a correct territorial management. This study’s primary goal is the proposition of an interpretive structure “Sustainable Agri-Food Evaluation Methodology” (SAEMETH, able to guide the evaluation of the sustainability of the various organizational forms of the small-scale agri-food supply chain. As a case study, the methodology was applied to 10 small-scale agri-food systems. The application of SAEMETH, as a monitoring tool based on qualitative indicators that are user-friendly and strongly communicative, demonstrates that it is possible to carry out sustainability evaluations of the small-scale agri-food systems through a long-term approach that is participatory, interdisciplinary and multi-institutional and that integrates a solid theoretical base with an operative framework tested in the field. SAEMETH can, in this way, generate a cyclical process that increases the probability of success in the design of sustainable alternatives and the implementation of projects and initiatives at the local/regional scale.

  5. Analysis of Additive Manufacturing for Sustainment of Naval Aviation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    decline and allow manufacturers to explore alternative product designs and supply processes at lower risk. If the aerospace and defense industry...C. SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING During the design and development of new products or systems, engineers must consider the...Bradford L., and Vhance V. Valencia. 2017. “3D-Printing Design Using Systems Engineering.” In Additive Manufacturing Handbook: Product Development for the

  6. Product-service system method to measure sustainability level of traditional smoked fish processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Ratna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Medium Enterprise’s (SME of traditional fish processing at Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia still focus their business on gain more profits. Sustainability aspect has not received enough attention yet. This study aims to review the sustainability level of SME smoked fish Semarang using product service system (PSS method. PSS consists of three dimensions (1 Environment, (2 Socio-cultural and (3 Economic. Each dimension consists of 6 criteria's. PSS not only assess the level of sustainability but also formulated the recommendation to increase the industries sustainability level. Sustainability assessment and recommendations formulation is guided by a check-list form. Then, the portfolio diagram used to select these recommendations according to its feasibility to be implemented and its importance for the industries. The result of sustainability assessment for traditional fish processing is 0.44, categorized as medium level. The recommendations for the environmental dimension are (1 use of liquid smoke on fish processing and (2 use of wastewater treatment with anaerobic ponds Recommendation for the socio-cultural dimension is use personal protective tool to reduce worker risk on safety and health. Recommendation for the economic dimension is used social media for product marketing and increasing the economic value of fish lung wastes. Recommendations are then illustrated in a diagram in the form of radar sustainability.

  7. Electric grid stability and the design of sustainable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The article presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid.......The article presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid....

  8. A Teacher Education for Sustainable Development System: An Institutional Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentham, Hayley; Sinnes, Astrid; Gjøtterud, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Soft systems methodology is commonly used in organizational research and can be very useful when attempting to understand both organizational structures and dynamics. A teacher education institution is identified here as an organization. Soft systems methodology is employed to gain a picture of the current organizational structure of a Science and…

  9. Information system for strategic planning the university sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevs, Yu.G.

    2013-01-01

    Issues of designing the information system which helps the University principal's office to take decisions as concerns the strategic planning are discussed. The importance of having the University simulation model is emphasized; model representation in terms of system dynamics is given [ru

  10. Sustainable systems rating program: Marketing ``Green`` Building in Austin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    Four major resource issues for home construction were identified: water, energy, materials, and waste. A systems flow model was then developed that tracked the resource issues through interactive matrices in the areas of sourcing, processing, using, and disposing or recycling. This model served as the basis for a rating system used in an educational and marketing tool called the Eco-Home Guide.

  11. The importance of informatics systems for the sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria ANDRONIE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the fields whose importance has been surging lately is the durable development, which is impossible to achieve unless humankind gives up gradually to the fossil energy sources and switches to the exploitation of the renewable energy sources.  This shift is mainly due to the fact that the traditional energy sources are limited, pricier and pricier and have a negative and irreversible effect upon the environment. In the durable development area, particularly the renewable energies, there are informatics systems used in a wide range of activities, from investments management and energy sources to the operation itself of their exploitation systems.  Such informatics systems may be integrated at a higher level, as the national weather forecast system or other specific systems.

  12. In place of fear: aligning health care planning with system objectives to achieve financial sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Stephen; Murphy, Gail Tomblin; MacKenzie, Adrian; Cumming, Jackie

    2015-04-01

    The financial sustainability of publicly funded health care systems is a challenge to policymakers in many countries as health care absorbs an ever increasing share of both national wealth and government spending. New technology, aging populations and increasing public expectations of the health care system are often cited as reasons why health care systems need ever increasing funding as well as reasons why universal and comprehensive public systems are unsustainable. However, increases in health care spending are not usually linked to corresponding increases in need for care within populations. Attempts to promote financial sustainability of systems such as limiting the range of services is covered or the groups of population covered may compromise their political sustainability as some groups are left to seek private cover for some or all services. In this paper, an alternative view of financial sustainability is presented which identifies the failure of planning and management of health care to reflect needs for care in populations and to integrate planning and management functions for health care expenditure, health care services and the health care workforce. We present a Health Care Sustainability Framework based on disaggregating the health care expenditure into separate planning components. Unlike other approaches to planning health care expenditure, this framework explicitly incorporates population health needs as a determinant of health care requirements, and provides a diagnostic tool for understanding the sources of expenditure increase. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Model of environmental management system for environmentally sustainable universities training in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas Marin, Maria Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable campuses have become one of the main objectives of the Agendas University as a result of the impacts generated by the activities developed there and affect the environment. Given this, there are environmental management systems which are the set of practices, procedures, processes and resources needed to meet environmental regulations on business and are focused on reducing the impacts on the environment and the efficiency of processes. College- level companies still being considered, these systems do not work efficiently, it is necessary and urgent that the adequacy of a model environmental management system and that, through education and research, will help society to achieve the transition to sustainable lifestyles.

  14. A systems approach framework for the transition to sustainable development: Potential value based on coastal experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, Tom S.; Bailly, Denis; Elmgren, Ragnar

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the value of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF) as a tool for the transition to sustainable development in coastal zone systems, based on 18 study sites in Europe, where the SAF was developed and tested. The knowledge gained from these experiments concerns the practical......-dependent and system-independent problems, and the inclusion of non-market evaluations. It also develops a real partnership among research, management, and stakeholders to establish a quantitative basis for collaborative decision making. Furthermore, the article argues that the transition to sustainable development...

  15. Fuel Consumption Analysis and Optimization of a Sustainable Energy System for a 100% Renewables Smart House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Vasile Simion; Blarke, Morten; Trifa, Viorel

    2012-01-01

    and a feasibility study of a sustainable energy system for a 100% renewables smart house (SH) in Denmark is presented. Due to the continuous increasing penetration levels of wind and solar power in today’s energy system call for the development of high efficiency optimizations and Smart Grid (SG) enabling options....... In case of renewable energies, one main challenge is the discontinuity of generation which can be solved with planning and control optimization methods. The results of the economic analysis and the feasibility of the sustainable energy system for a 100% renewables SH show that this could be possible...

  16. Analysis of gas turbine systems for sustainable energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheden, Marie

    2000-02-01

    Increased energy demands and fear of global warming due to the emission of greenhouse gases call for development of new efficient power generation systems with low or no carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. In this thesis, two different gas turbine power generation systems, which are designed with these issues in mind, are theoretically investigated and analyzed. In the first gas turbine system, the fuel is combusted using a metal oxide as an oxidant instead of oxygen in the air. This process is known as Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC). CLC is claimed to decrease combustion exergy destruction and increase the power generation efficiency. Another advantage is the possibility to separate CO{sub 2} without a costly and energy demanding gas separation process. The system analysis presented includes computer-based simulations of CLC gas turbine systems with different metal oxides as oxygen carriers and different fuels. An exergy analysis comparing the exergy destruction of the gas turbine system with CLC and conventional combustion is also presented. The results show that it is theoretically possible to increase the power generation efficiency of a simple gas turbine system by introducing CLC. A combined gas/steam turbine cycle system with CLC is, however, estimated to reach a similar efficiency as the conventional combined cycle system. If the benefit of easy and energy-efficient CO{sub 2} separation is accounted for, a CLC combined cycle system has a potential to be favorable compared to a combined cycle system with CO{sub 2} separation. In the second investigation, a solid, CO{sub 2}-neutral biomass fuel is used in a small-scale externally fired gas turbine system for cogeneration of power and district heating. Both open and closed gas turbines with different working fluids are simulated and analyzed regarding thermodynamic performance, equipment size, and economics. The results show that it is possible to reach high power generation efficiency and total (power

  17. The Role of Absorption Cooling for Reaching Sustainable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindmark, Susanne

    2005-07-01

    This thesis focuses on the role and potential of absorption cooling in future energy systems. Two types of energy systems are investigated: a district energy system based on waste incineration and a distributed energy system with natural gas as fuel. In both cases, low temperature waste heat is used as driving energy for the absorption cooling. The main focus is to evaluate the absorption technology in an environmental perspective, in terms of reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. Economic evaluations are also performed. The reduced electricity when using absorption cooling instead of compression cooling is quantified and expressed as an increased net electrical yield. The results show that absorption cooling is an environmentally friendly way to produce cooling as it reduces the use of electrically driven cooling in the energy system and therefore also reduces global CO{sub 2} emissions. In the small-scale trigeneration system the electricity use is lowered with 84 % as compared to cooling production with compression chillers only. The CO{sub 2} emissions can be lowered to 45 CO{sub 2}/MWh{sub c} by using recoverable waste heat as driving heat for absorption chillers. However, the most cost effective cooling solution in a district energy system is a combination between absorption and compression cooling technologies according to the study. Absorption chillers have the potential to be suitable bottoming cycles for power production in distributed systems. Net electrical yields over 55 % may be reached in some cases with gas motors and absorption chillers. This small-scale system for cogeneration of power and cooling shows electrical efficiencies comparable to large-scale power plants and may contribute to reducing peak electricity demand associated with the cooling demand.

  18. Sustainability and profitability in ecological systems with harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaff, S.J.; Protopopescu, V.

    1992-08-01

    A simple model of economic and ecological interplay for a system of two interacting populations grown in a closed environment and harvested periodically for economic purposes was analyzed. The analysis was carried out by exploring the parameter space of the model, defined by a discrete map, a harvesting strategy, and an objective functional. Results showed nonmonotonicities of the outcome and sharp sensitivities that depend on the values of the parameters and that are caused by the discrete nature of the system. This approach may prove useful for solving problems that cannot be solved analytically and for providing some guidance in the management of complex systems

  19. Designing for sustainability - mobility systems based on electrical vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Bent; Hansen, Ole Erik

    in interaction with public authorities and transportation companies), configuring the electric car sharing system as an element in an alternative mobility service system, and designing the technical and organizational system The concluding discussion falls into two parts: an assessment of the design process......-design, concerned with design as meta-level processes of regime transformation and the constructive configuration of design spaces. The case study examines an attempt to integrate electric vehicles in the Danish mobility systems. It maps the framework conditions and contemporary (competing) strategies....../projects, but focuses on a specific car-sharing project (‘Cleardrive’), with the objective to examine the early and constitutive stages of the design-process. It is conducted as an intensive study tracing elements of interpretation, interaction and intervention, which have been part of the project formation process...

  20. The application of appropriate technologies and systems for sustainable sanitation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duncker, Louiza C

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available and environmental factors into planning, implementation and decision-making so as to ensure that development serves present and future generations. The chapter discusses the use of appropriate technologies and systems to render sanitation technologies and services...

  1. Self-sustained solitons in systems with nonlinear damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.A.

    1993-05-01

    The existence and stability of kinks in systems with nonlinear damping are investigated. We discuss the mechanism of a bifurcation after which the kink becomes a non-stationary state. (author). 9 refs

  2. Green Decision Making: Sustainable Transport and Systemic Planning (SP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    and infrastructure assessment and on the methodology and process of systemic planning (SP). SP theory development has interchanged with practical application and testing of the SP approach in a large number of cases. The word systemic in SP indicates that complex planning problems and provision of decision support...... in today’s strategic planning needs a focus on what may be addressed as systemic insights in balance with more conventional, systematically-based findings where causal linkages can be modelled and made use of. In practice this means that SP is based on a study-specific combination of hard (quantitative......) and soft (qualitative) operations research (OR) methods; especially the latter have a function as regards knowledge generation that relates to obtaining systemic insights. Furthermore, SP applies a process that drives group-based learning forward. The group should be formed with the different stakeholder...

  3. Assessing the Sustainability of Decentralized Renewable Energy Systems: A Comprehensive Framework with Analytical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Katre

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of models of Decentralized Renewable Energy (DRE systems, particularly for rural electrification, is growing globally. Most approaches to assess the sustainability of these solutions beyond simple techno-economic considerations are comparative in nature, and only allow us to evaluate performance within a set of other interventions. This leaves a gap in our understanding of the conditions for a specific model to be sustainable and whether its replication is likely to succeed. The approach suggested develops a framework to evaluate the sustainability of specific models for energy access individually and proposes analytical methods to illustrate its use. It combines the multi-dimensional analysis over five sustainability dimensions and the Multi-Tier Framework (MTF to assess technical sustainability, extending MTF’s rigorous scoring methodology to the other dimensions. The scores are based on qualitative and quantitative data collected from key stakeholders, taking into account different perspectives and aims. The framework and analytical methods are exemplified using a subset of data collected in over 40 off-grid DRE systems utilizing a common community ownership and hybrid financial structure. The proposed methodology can be used to understand the sustainability conditions of a given approach to energy access and can therefore be used by practitioners and policy makers to develop strategies and guide policies to roll out effective solutions.

  4. Modeling Indicator Systems for Evaluating Environmental Sustainable Development Based on Factor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hao; CHEN Xiaoling; HE Ying; HE Xiaorong; CAI Xiaobin; XU Keyan

    2006-01-01

    Indicator systems of environmental sustainable development in the Poyang Lake Basin are established from 51 elementary indexes by factor analysis, which is composed of four steps such as the factor model, the parameter estimation, the factor rotation and the factor score. Under the condition that the cumulative proportion is greater than 85%, 5 explicit factors of environmental sustainable development as well as its factor score by region are carried out. The result indicates some impact factors to the basin environmental in descending sort order are volume of water, volume of waste gas discharge, volume of solid wastes, the degree to comprehensive utilization of waste gas, waste water and solid wastes, the emission volume of waste gas, waste water and solid wastes. It is helpful and important to provide decision support for constituting sustainable development strategies and evaluate the sustainable development status of each city.

  5. Dimensions of sustainability in social systems: implications for energy and public policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choucri, N.

    1995-01-01

    Many fundamental dilemmas and obstacles to achieving sustainable development are being explored in both academic and policy-making circles. Central to sustainability are the provision and use of energy - for all societies and at all levels of development. This paper presents the essential foundations of an integrated view of sustainable development and illustrates their applicability to energy requirements in developing countries. The essential foundations are framed in terms of interactions among four dimensions of complexity: (i) ecology, (ii) economy, (iii) institutions, and (iv) decision. Jointly, these provide the bounds for modeling the dynamics of sustainability for social systems. Special attention is given here to the dual domains of institutions and decision, with reference to both national policy and corporate strategy at all levels of development. (author) 3 figs., tabs., 11 refs

  6. How Does Implementation of Environmental Management System Contribute to Corporate Sustainability Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Vnoučková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate sustainability management (CSM appears to be an important issue for current management. The aim of the paper is to identify what determinants of sustainability management are examined in the literature and discuss the contribution of environmental management system (EMS to CSM based on experiences of selected Czech organizations with implemented EMS according to ISO 14001. The data for the survey was gathered from 222 organizations (N = 1265 who have already implemented EMS. The results show there is a basic knowledge of sustainability concept in the surveyed Czech organizations. Perceived improvements of EMS implementation in Czech organizations are mainly in the area of environmental performance, economic performance, relationship with involved parties and social issues. Based on the implementation of EMS, the organizations take care about corporate sustainability (about the areas of environmental aspects and impacts of the organization. Improved environmental performance has been linked with process and product cost improvements and lower risk factors.

  7. Sustainable energy system. A case study from Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebremedhin, A.; Karlsson, B. [Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Bjoernfot, K. [Shell Raffinaderi AB, Torslandavaegen, Box 8889, SE-402 72 (Sweden)

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents some of the results of a power system analysis for Chile. The two major Chilean electric systems are roughly modelled and optimized using a linear programming method with the option to integrate renewable energy sources like wind power, solar power, mini-hydropower and biomass-fired power and also 'municipal waste'. A total of four different scenarios are outlined: reference system, new production units, gas and coal price variations and a policy measure to encourage power production based on renewable energy. The objective of the scenarios was to illustrate under what conditions integration of the different energy sources in the existing production system is possible. The study shows that even under current conditions, mini-hydro and waste to energy plants are economically viable. Wind power might be interesting alternatives if policy instrument measures are applied. On the other hand, it is hard for the other energy sources to enter the system even when higher price levels of gas and coal are applied. The system is more sensitive to coal price increases than to gas price increases and this mainly encourages CO{sub 2} emission reduction. (author)

  8. Integrating Sustainable Development in Chemical Engineering Education: The Application of an Environmental Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanes, M. T.; Palomares, A. E.; Sanchez-Tovar, R.

    2012-01-01

    The principles of sustainable development have been integrated in chemical engineering education by means of an environmental management system. These principles have been introduced in the teaching laboratories where students perform their practical classes. In this paper, the implementation of the environmental management system, the problems…

  9. Are Agile and Lean Manufacturing Systems Employing Sustainability, Complexity and Organizational Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flumerfelt, Shannon; Siriban-Manalang, Anna Bella; Kahlen, Franz-Josef

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to peruse theories and practices of agile and lean manufacturing systems to determine whether they employ sustainability, complexity and organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: The critical review of the comparative operational similarities and difference of the two systems was conducted while the new views…

  10. The Art of Gamification; Teaching Sustainability and System Thinking by Pervasive Game Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordby, Anders; Øygardslia, Kristine; Sverdrup, Ulrik; Sverdrup, Harald

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 Hedmark University College conducted a research project where students from a game development project/study program developed and tested a Pervasive Game for learning as part of a class in System Thinking. The overall game goal was to teach Sustainability through System Thinking, and to give the students a real world experience with their…

  11. Analysis on the Chinese Urban Sustainable Development Demands for the Management Plan of Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵历男

    2002-01-01

    This article analyzes the demands of the sustainable development and Chinese urban environmental protection for the management plan of intelligent transportation systems. The article also comments on how to work out the management plan of intelligent transportation systems with China's own characteristics.

  12. Anticipatory research for the design of a sustainable and safe road traffic system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1993-01-01

    The new policy in the Netherlands is attempting to build a traffic system, based on clear design concepts and rules about how to use it. Such a system should be sustainable and safe. The design characteristics of the roads should be relevant to their functions. It should be clear which vehicles are

  13. Technical characteristic analysis of wind energy conversion systems for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BoroumandJazi, G.; Rismanchi, B.; Saidur, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Identifying the required technical characteristics of sustainable wind power system. ► Observing Weibull probability function and artificial neural networks for reliability. ► Daily/monthly generation data are used to investigate the system’s availability. - Abstract: Wind energy as a clean, environmentally friendly and cost effective renewable energy resource, is taken into consideration by many developed and developing countries as a promising means to provide electrical energy. In feasibility study stage of the wind energy systems, the sustainability analysis is one of the main issues that can assure the investors and stockholders to invest in this renewable energy. Since a system can be truly sustainable by achieving the energetic, ecological and economic sustainability, the present study will focus on the technical characteristics and performance analysis of the wind energy systems. The relations between reliability, availability, energy and exergy efficiency, risk management and the environmental impact of the wind energy systems are investigated in the context of this study. It is concluded that the wind characteristics data and the wind speed are the main effective parameters on its reliability and availability. It is also revealed that considering the system loss, exergy efficiency results of the wind energy systems are more reliable than the energy efficiencies. Due to avoid future failure of the systems, the causes of the failure are investigated and it was concluded that the structural failures caused by storms and strong winds are known as the most prevalent failures

  14. An Information Theory-Based Approach to Assessing the Sustainability and Stability of an Island System

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well-documented that a sustainable system is based on environmental stewardship, economic viability and social equity. What is often overlooked is the need for continuity such that desirable system behavior is maintained with mechanisms in place that facilitate the ability ...

  15. Co-production of knowledge-action systems in urban sustainable governance: The KASA approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.A. Munoz-Erickson

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how knowledge-action-systems the networks of actors involved in the production, sharing and use of policy-relevant knowledge - work in the process of developing sustainable strategies for cities. I developed an interdisciplinary framework- the knowledge-action system analysis (KASA) framework ...

  16. Aquaculture innovation system analysis of transition to sustainable intensification in shrimp farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joffre, Olivier M.; Klerkx, Laurens; Khoa, Tran N.D.

    2018-01-01

    The shrimp sector has been one of the fastest growing agri-food systems in the last decades, but its growth has entailed negative social and environmental impacts. Sustainable intensification will require innovation in multiple elements of the shrimp production system and its value chain. We use

  17. A Systems Model to Make, Market, and Lead Your Way towards Sustained Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Kumar Agrawalla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Business enterprises exist in a world that is fiercely competitive, tied with huge global uncertainties. They always encounter increasing pressure on prices and margins. Hence, irrespective of their domain of operations and industry, businesses are naturally concerned about their growth, specifically sustained profitable growth, in today’s world. Marketing is a key business function to market and lead a business towards sustained profitable growth but the problem is it lacks a systems perspective in its operations, strategy, and practice. Further, given the confluence and systemic interactions of various economic, digital, and competitive forces; the challenge for different business functions—including marketing—increases tremendously. In this context, it is important for business enterprises to have a systems perspective to find their ways to growth that will be sustained. This calls for a holistic approach to assimilate and steer the business functions in any enterprise. The present conceptual paper focuses on an important business function for sustained growth in a holistic way and presents a systems model, called ‘Value Based Business Approach (VBBA-marketing’, which has potential to guide and steer companies and business enterprises to create a path for their sustained profitable growth.

  18. Parasites, ecosystems and sustainability: an ecological and complex systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Pierre; Wilcox, Bruce A

    2005-06-01

    Host-parasite relationships can be conceptualised either narrowly, where the parasite is metabolically dependent on the host, or more broadly, as suggested by an ecological-evolutionary and complex systems perspective. In this view Host-parasite relationships are part of a larger set of ecological and co-evolutionary interdependencies and a complex adaptive system. These interdependencies affect not just the hosts, vectors, parasites, the immediate agents, but also those indirectly or consequentially affected by the relationship. Host-parasite relationships also can be viewed as systems embedded within larger systems represented by ecological communities and ecosystems. So defined, it can be argued that Host-parasite relationships may often benefit their hosts and contribute significantly to the structuring of ecological communities. The broader, complex adaptive system view also contributes to understanding the phenomenon of disease emergence, the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms involved, and the role of parasitology in research and management of ecosystems in light of the apparently growing problem of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife and humans. An expanded set of principles for integrated parasite management is suggested by this perspective.

  19. Better movers and thinkers (BMT): A quasi-experimental study into the impact of physical education on children's cognition—A study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziell, Andrew; Boyle, James; Mutrie, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    This study will extend on a pilot study and will evaluate the impact of a novel approach to PE, Better Movers and Thinkers (BMT), on students' cognition, physical activity habits, and gross motor coordination (GMC). The study will involve six mainstream state schools with students aged 9–11 years. Three schools will be allocated as the intervention condition and three as the control condition. The design of the study is a 16-week intervention with pre-, post- and 6 month follow-up measurements taken using the ‘Cognitive Assessment System (CAS)’ GMC tests, and the ‘Physical Activity Habits Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C).’ Qualitative data will be gathered using student focus groups and class teacher interviews in each of the six schools. ANCOVA will be used to evaluate any effect of intervention comparing pre-test scores with post-test scores and then pre-test scores with 6 month follow-up scores. Qualitative data will be analysed through an iterative process using grounded theory. This protocol provides the details of the rationale and design of the study and details of the intervention, outcome measures, and the recruitment process. The study will address gaps within current research by evaluating if a change of approach in the delivery of PE within schools has an effect on children's cognition, PA habits, and GMC within a Scottish setting. PMID:26844172

  20. Food-Energy Interactive Tradeoff Analysis of Sustainable Urban Plant Factory Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Chun Huang; Yu-Hui Chen; Ya-Hui Chen; Chi-Fang Wang; Ming-Che Hu

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the food–energy interactive nexus of sustainable urban plant factory systems. Plant factory systems grow agricultural products within artificially controlled growing environment and multi-layer vertical growing systems. The system controls the supply of light, temperature, humidity, nutrition, water, and carbon dioxide for growing plants. Plant factories are able to produce consistent and high-quality agricultural products within less production space for urban a...

  1. Sustainability of biomass electricity systems. An estimate of costs, macro-economic and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Broek, R

    2001-01-01

    Since the 1990s there has been a renewal of interest in the possibility of sustainable generating energy from biomass, an interest driven in part by the climate issue. Other motives are the search for alternatives for parts of Western agriculture and progress in the technological feasibility of efficiently producing high-quality energy from biomass. World-wide this renewed interest has led to a clear increase in research, demonstration and commercial implementation of biomass energy systems. A recent thesis concludes that biomass can contribute to all aspects of sustainability. In the context of sustainable development (often viewed as a concept having economic, social and ecological dimensions), the central question asked by this Ph.D. research is: How do biomass electricity systems compare to fossil-fuel systems and to the land-use that they may replace, in terms of costs, macro-economic and environmental impacts. This article presents a number of conclusions

  2. The role of Carbon Capture and Storage in a future sustainable energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2012-01-01

    systems, the number of utilisation hours of power and CHP plants will have to decrease substantially due to the energy efficiency measures in combination with the inclusion of renewable energy power inputs from wind and similar resources. Consequently, no power or CHP plants exist in future sustainable......This paper presents the results of adding a CCS(Carbon Capture and Storage) plant including an underground CO2 storage to a well described and well documented vision of converting the present Danish fossil based energy system into a future sustainable energy system made by the Danish Society...... huge construction costs with the expectation of long lifetimes. Consequently, the CCS has to operate as part of large-scale power or CHP plants with high utilisation hours for the CCS investment to come even close to being feasible. However, seen in the light of transforming to sustainable energy...

  3. Ecologically sound management: aspects of modern sustainable deer farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, A J; Drew, K R

    1998-01-01

    Modern deer farming systems have become increasingly intensive allowing strategic feeding for production and genetic improvement programmes. Meeting feeding standards that account for changing nutritional demands related to seasonality and reproductive state is critical. As the industry matures there is a growing awareness of the balance between retaining natural behaviour in producing breeding stock on larger extensive holdings and intensification systems for performance in young stock. Stocking rates are critical determinants of success as land use and capability needs are matched with an increasing stratification of stock type and purpose. Food product safety and welfare considerations of farmed deer are being driven by consumer demands. Farm quality assurance and codes of practice are developing to ensure that deer farming meets and exceeds international expectations of land use and deer welfare in modern deer farming systems.

  4. Environmental and natural resource implications of sustainable urban infrastructure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergesen, Joseph D.; Suh, Sangwon; Baynes, Timothy M.; Kaviti Musango, Josephine

    2017-12-01

    As cities grow, their environmental and natural resource footprints also tend to grow to keep up with the increasing demand on essential urban services such as passenger transportation, commercial space, and thermal comfort. The urban infrastructure systems, or socio-technical systems providing these services are the major conduits through which natural resources are consumed and environmental impacts are generated. This paper aims to gauge the potential reductions in environmental and resources footprints through urban transformation, including the deployment of resource-efficient socio-technical systems and strategic densification. Using hybrid life cycle assessment approach combined with scenarios, we analyzed the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water use, metal consumption and land use of selected socio-technical systems in 84 cities from the present to 2050. The socio-technical systems analyzed are: (1) bus rapid transit with electric buses, (2) green commercial buildings, and (3) district energy. We developed a baseline model for each city considering gross domestic product, population density, and climate conditions. Then, we overlaid three scenarios on top of the baseline model: (1) decarbonization of electricity, (2) aggressive deployment of resource-efficient socio-technical systems, and (3) strategic urban densification scenarios to each city and quantified their potentials in reducing the environmental and resource impacts of cities by 2050. The results show that, under the baseline scenario, the environmental and natural resource footprints of all 84 cities combined would increase 58%-116% by 2050. The resource-efficient scenario along with strategic densification, however, has the potential to curve down GHG emissions to 17% below the 2010 level in 2050. Such transformation can also limit the increase in all resource footprints to less than 23% relative to 2010. This analysis suggests that resource-efficient urban infrastructure and decarbonization of

  5. Food system sustainability for health and well-being of Indigenous Peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnlein, Harriet V

    2015-09-01

    To describe how Indigenous Peoples understand how to enhance use of their food systems to promote sustainability, as demonstrated in several food-based interventions. Comments contributed by partners from case studies of Indigenous Peoples and their food systems attending an international meeting were implemented with public health interventions at the community level in nine countries. The Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Conference Center in Bellagio, Italy, where experiences from case studies of Indigenous Peoples were considered and then conducted in their home communities in rural areas. Leaders of the Indigenous Peoples' case studies, their communities and their academic partners. Reported strategies on how to improve use of local food systems in case study communities of Indigenous Peoples. Indigenous Peoples' reflections on their local food systems should be encouraged and acted upon to protect and promote sustainability of the cultures and ecosystems that derive their food systems. Promoting use of local traditional food biodiversity is an essential driver of food system sustainability for Indigenous Peoples, and contributes to global consciousness for protecting food biodiversity and food system sustainability more broadly. Key lessons learned, key messages and good practices for nutrition and public health practitioners and policy makers are given.

  6. Field survey of a sustainable sanitation system in a residential house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Naoko; Otaki, Masahiro; Miura, Shinji; Hamasuna, Hironobu; Ishizaki, Katsuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable sanitation is an approach for more ecological and sustainable water resources management. In this paper, we proposed one of the new integrated waste treatment systems: an "sustainable sanitation system" that includes separation of the black water from water system by a non-flushing toilet (bio-toilet), and a gray water treatment based on a biological and ecological concept. Sustainable sanitation system also converts the domestic waste to soil conditioners and fertilizers, for farmland use. As one of the case studies, Environmentally Symbiotic Housing in which people actually live using the bio-toilet for the black water treatment and the household wastewater treatment facility for the gray water was introduced. The availability of this system was investigated by analyzing the sawdust used in the bio-toilet and the quality of the effluent in the household wastewater treatment facility. As the result, the water content of the sawdust did not exceed 60% in any of the sampling points and the BOD and COD of the effluent of the household wastewater treatment facility were below 10 and 20 mg/L respectively, due to the low loading. Compared to the pollution load on the water environment created by the conventional system, it was found that the effluent of the house has a lower load than the tertiary treatment and the volume of the water consumption is 75% of the conventional system.

  7. A Systems Approach Framework for the Transition to Sustainable Development: Potential Value Based on Coastal Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom S. Hopkins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the value of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF as a tool for the transition to sustainable development in coastal zone systems, based on 18 study sites in Europe, where the SAF was developed and tested. The knowledge gained from these experiments concerns the practical aspects of (a governance in terms of policy effectiveness, (b sustainability science in terms of applying transdisciplinary science to social-ecological problems, and (c simulation analysis in terms of quantifying dysfunctions in complex systems. This new knowledge can help broaden our perspectives on how research can be changed to better serve society. The infusion of systems thinking into research and policy making leads to a preference for multi-issue instead of single-issue studies, an expansion from static to dynamic indicators, an understanding of the boundaries between system-dependent and system-independent problems, and the inclusion of non-market evaluations. It also develops a real partnership among research, management, and stakeholders to establish a quantitative basis for collaborative decision making. Furthermore, the article argues that the transition to sustainable development for coastal systems requires consideration of the scale interdependency from individual to global and recognition of the probable global reorganizational emergence of scale-free networks that could cooperate to maximize the integrated sustainability among them.

  8. Animal Board Invited Review: Comparing conventional and organic livestock production systems on different aspects of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wagenberg, C P A; de Haas, Y; Hogeveen, H; van Krimpen, M M; Meuwissen, M P M; van Middelaar, C E; Rodenburg, T B

    2017-10-01

    To sustainably contribute to food security of a growing and richer world population, livestock production systems are challenged to increase production levels while reducing environmental impact, being economically viable, and socially responsible. Knowledge about the sustainability performance of current livestock production systems may help to formulate strategies for future systems. Our study provides a systematic overview of differences between conventional and organic livestock production systems on a broad range of sustainability aspects and animal species available in peer-reviewed literature. Systems were compared on economy, productivity, environmental impact, animal welfare and public health. The review was limited to dairy cattle, beef cattle, pigs, broilers and laying hens, and to Europe, North America and New Zealand. Results per indicators are presented as in the articles without performing additional calculations. Out of 4171 initial search hits, 179 articles were analysed. Studies varied widely in indicators, research design, sample size and location and context. Quite some studies used small samples. No study analysed all aspects of sustainability simultaneously. Conventional systems had lower labour requirements per unit product, lower income risk per animal, higher production per animal per time unit, higher reproduction numbers, lower feed conversion ratio, lower land use, generally lower acidification and eutrophication potential per unit product, equal or better udder health for cows and equal or lower microbiological contamination. Organic systems had higher income per animal or full time employee, lower impact on biodiversity, lower eutrophication and acidification potential per unit land, equal or lower likelihood of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and higher beneficial fatty acid levels in cow milk. For most sustainability aspects, sometimes conventional and sometimes organic systems performed better, except for productivity, which was

  9. Joint Sustainment of Weapon Systems. Would We Be Better Off?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    .... As depots within the military begin to implement new procedures based on the Lean Six Sigma model, a proposed consolidation of efforts based on major weapon systems could lead to improved cost benefits and decreased maintenance time. Tied with the current Joint Depot Maintenance Program, Lean Six Sigma can continue to improve the Service's depot performance.

  10. Governance and sustainability of the Argentine Complementary Currency Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M. Gómez (Georgina)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Redes de Trueque (RT) thrived during the economic crisis of 2001 – 2002 in Argentina and still stand out as one of the largest Complementary Currency System in the world. These local exchange networks reach a large scale during times of severe economic distress, but as large

  11. The role of pulses in sustainable and healthy food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, John; Wyatt, Amanda J

    2017-03-01

    Improving nutrition is a development priority, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in Africa and South Asia, in which there is a persistent burden of undernutrition and increasing obesity. Healthy food systems can play a necessary role, aligned with other multisectoral actions, in addressing this challenge. Contributing to improved nutrition and health outcomes through food-based solutions is complex. In considering the role that pulses can play in addressing this challenge, there are useful conceptual frameworks and emerging lessons. National food systems in LMICs provide limited diet quality. Foods for a healthy diet may be produced locally, but they increasingly rely on improved markets and trade. What might be done to transform food systems for healthier diets, and what role can pulses play? Food systems innovations will require a convergence of technical innovation with smarter institutional arrangements and more effective policies and regulations. In many countries in Africa and South Asia, pulses can make important contributions to healthier diets. Options for supporting pulses to make a greater contribution to healthier diets include increasing the efficiency of pulse supply chains, creating more effective public-private institutional arrangements for innovation, and establishing policies, regulations, and investments that are nutrition sensitive. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. ICT enabled land administration systems for sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the current Land Administration System (LAS) in Denmark with a focus on institutional arrangements, land policies, land information infrastructure, and the four land administration functions: land tenure, land value, land-use, and land development. The analysis, this way, builds...

  13. A sustainable and affordable support system for rural healthcare delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barjis, J

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available . The proposed system is decision support driven in that it supports medical staff (nurses, doctors) to decide on the course of intervention or further treatment based on the vital signs of the patients that are tele-monitored on a regular basis. This patient...

  14. Sustainable Water Systems for the City of Tomorrow—A Conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin (Cissy Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban water systems are an example of complex, dynamic human–environment coupled systems which exhibit emergent behaviors that transcend individual scientific disciplines. While previous siloed approaches to water services (i.e., water resources, drinking water, wastewater, and stormwater have led to great improvements in public health protection, sustainable solutions for a growing global population facing increased resource constraints demand a paradigm shift based on holistic management to maximize the use and recovery of water, energy, nutrients, and materials. The objective of this review paper is to highlight the issues in traditional water systems including water demand and use, centralized configuration, sewer collection systems, characteristics of mixed wastewater, and to explore alternative solutions such as decentralized water systems, fit for purpose and water reuse, natural/green infrastructure, vacuum sewer collection systems, and nutrient/energy recovery. This review also emphasizes a system thinking approach for evaluating alternatives that should include sustainability indicators and metrics such as emergy to assess global system efficiency. An example paradigm shift design for urban water system is presented, not as the recommended solution for all environments, but to emphasize the framework of system-level analysis and the need to visualize water services as an organic whole. When water systems are designed to maximize the resources and optimum efficiency, they are more prevailing and sustainable than siloed management because a system is more than the sum of its parts.

  15. Implications of sustainability assessment for electricity system design: The case of the Ontario Power Authority's integrated power system plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, Mark; Gibson, Robert B.; Markvart, Tanya; Gaudreau, Kyrke; Taylor, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the results and implications of an illustrative application of a sustainability assessment framework in the design and evaluation of a major integrated power system plan. The paper examines the integrated power system plan developed by the Ontario Power Authority in 2007. The basic framework rests on a generic set of evaluation criteria reflecting basic requirements for progress towards sustainability that was adopted, reinterpreted and applied by the Authority in support of its proposed plan. In response to evident deficiencies in the Authority's work, the authors and colleagues undertook a re-examination using a more fully elaborated sustainability assessment framework, specified for application to power system planning. The results point to a plan and plan components substantially different from those proposed by the Authority. More generally, the results highlight three advantages of applying such a sustainability assessment framework: comprehensive coverage of key requirements for progress towards sustainability while ensuring careful attention to the context and concerns of the sector; emphasis on identifying plan options that avoid major trade-offs among the sustainability criteria and recognition of interactions among the social, ecological, economic and technological realms favouring options that offer multiple, mutually reinforcing and lasting benefits.

  16. How to consistently make your product, technology or system more environmentally-sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Molin, Christine

    Human activities are currently uns ustainable, causing many damages to ecosystems, human health and natural resources. In this setting, the development of new products and technologies has been increasingly required to relate to sustainability and ensure that such development goes hand -in-hand w...... of the system. We rely on state-of -the-art science in the food sector, the aquaculture sector and the energy sector to showcase and illustrate the potential of LCA to undertake the environmental sustainability challenge and support product/technology/system development....

  17. An Investigation of Customer Accounting Systems as a Source of Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Morten; Kumar, V.; Plenborg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study examines whether using customer accounting systems for resource allocation purposes is a source of sustainable competitive advantage. Based on a longitudinal data set comparing the performance of firms that adopt customer accounting and their industry benchmarks, we find that financial...... accounting systems is a source of temporary rather than sustainable competitive advantage. The results are robust to other strategic events around the time of adoption, different matching of peers, and the influence of other factors that could be expected to influence firm performance. We discuss...

  18. Sustainability assessment of stormwater management systems and the importance of pollutants in runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Ammitsøe, Christian

    substance groups present in runoff, metals cause the highest impacts. To integrate this method into holistic sustainability assessment, we assess the complete life cycle of a complex stormwater management. We show that runoff discharges have a high relative importance: The impacts exceed the combined......We develop a method to systematically include impacts caused by runoff discharge into the sustainability assessment of stormwater management systems. By defining priority pollutants and calculating mean concentrations, an average ecotoxicity impact per litre of runoff is calculated. Of all assessed...... impacts of implementation, maintenance and decommissioning of the stormwater management system....

  19. Dynamic vulnerability assessment and intelligent control for sustainable power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Longatt, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Identifying, assessing, and mitigating electric power grid vulnerabilities is a growing focus in short-term operational planning of power systems. Through illustrated application, this important guide surveys state-of-the-art methodologies for the assessment and enhancement of power system security in short-term operational planning and real-time operation. The methodologies employ advanced methods from probabilistic theory, data mining, artificial intelligence, and optimization, to provide knowledge-based support for monitoring, control (preventive and corrective), and decision making tasks. Key features: Introduces behavioural recognition in wide-area monitoring and security constrained optimal power flow for intelligent control and protection and optimal grid management. Provides in-depth understanding of risk-based reliability and security assessment, dynamic vulnerability as essment methods, supported by the underpinning mathematics. Develops expertise in mitigation techniques using intelligent protect...

  20. A Comparison of Electricity Generation System Sustainability among G20 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinchao Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Planning for electricity generation systems is a very important task and should take environmental and economic factors into account. This paper reviews the existing metrics and methods in evaluating energy sustainability, and we propose a sustainability assessment index system. The input indexes include generation capacity, generation cost, and land use. The output indexes include desirable and undesirable parts. The desirable outputs are total electricity generation and job creation. The undesirable outputs are external supply risk and external costs associated with the environment and health. The super-efficiency data envelopment analysis method is used to calculate the sustainability of electricity generation systems of 23 countries from 2005 to 2014. The three input indexes and three undesirable output indexes are used as the input variables. The two desirable outputs are used as the output variables. The results show that most countries’ electricity generation sustainability values have decreasing trends. In addition, nuclear and hydro generation have positive effects. Solar, wind, and fossil fuel generation have negative effects on sustainability.

  1. Entropy Analysis of the Coupled Human–Earth System: Implications for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifang Shi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Finding the basic physical foundation contributing to sustainable development is significantly useful in seeking ways to build an enduring human future. This paper introduces the dissipative structure theory to analyze the entropy budgets of the whole coupled human–Earth system and the key processes of the subsystems, and then presents the formulas to calculate these entropy budgets. The results show that the total net negative entropy of the coupled human–Earth system from exchange with space is sufficient, but only about 0.0042% of it is available for sustaining the life activities of the whole coupled system and the quantity of this portion is also not more than sufficient compared with the requirement of human life activities. In addition, the rate of negative entropy consumption by human subsystem from fossil fuels for sustaining modern civilization is too large, nearly a half of the negative entropy rate obtained by photosynthesis on the Earth, which indicates that entirely substituting biomass fuels for fossil fuels may be infeasible. The strategies for sustaining human life activities and modern civilization are proposed in the study, which would provide valuable information for humans to realize sustainable development.

  2. How the organic food system supports sustainable diets and translates these into practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola eStrassner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g. organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards and useful metrics. By 2015 data for organic production and consumption is recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic fo

  3. The Impact of Greening Tax Systems on Sustainable Energy Development in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Streimikiene

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the greening of tax systems in the European Union (EU, and reviews the achievements of the Baltic States in relation to greening their tax systems and implementing the sustainable energy development goals set by the EU’s energy policies. Environmental taxes promote sustainable energy development, as they allow internalizing the external costs of atmospheric pollution in the energy sector. Energy production and consumption are a major source classical pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Almost of the all EU member states (MS apply pollution taxes as the most important economic tool for mitigating the environmental impacts of various economic activities. Considering the importance of the energy sector in terms of its contributions to total atmospheric emissions in the EU, it is supposed that environmental taxes are important drivers of sustainable energy development. Environmental taxes, as the main tool for the integration of negative externalities that are related to atmospheric pollution, are imposed to create incentives for reducing fossil fuel consumption and switching to renewable energy sources or fuels that have a lower carbon content and thus cause less pollution. The paper presents a comparative assessment of the impact of environmental taxes on sustainable energy development indicators in three selected countries from the Baltic region (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia during the period 2005–2015, and reveals the role that the greening of tax systems has had on implementing sustainable energy development targets in the Baltic States.

  4. Curricular Reform: Systems Modeling and Sustainability in Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, D. M.; Hayden, N. J.; Dewoolkar, M.; Neumann, M.; Lathem, S.

    2009-12-01

    Researchers at the University of Vermont were awarded a NSF-sponsored Department Level Reform (DLR) grant to incorporate a systems approach to engineering problem solving within the civil and environmental engineering programs. A systems approach challenges students to consider the environmental, social, and economic aspects within engineering solutions. Likewise, sustainability requires a holistic approach to problem solving that includes economic, social and environmental factors. Our reform has taken a multi-pronged approach in two main areas that include implementing: a) a sequence of three systems courses related to environmental and transportation systems that introduce systems thinking, sustainability, and systems analysis and modeling; and b) service-learning (SL) projects as a means of practicing the systems approach. Our SL projects are good examples of inquiry-based learning that allow students to emphasize research and learning in areas of most interest to them. The SL projects address real-world open-ended problems. Activities that enhance IT and soft skills for students are incorporated throughout the curricula. Likewise, sustainability has been a central piece of the reform. We present examples of sustainability in the SL and modeling projects within the systems courses (e.g., students have used STELLA™ systems modeling software to address the impact of different carbon sequestration strategies on global climate change). Sustainability in SL projects include mentoring home schooled children in biomimicry projects, developing ECHO exhibits and the design of green roofs, bioretention ponds and porous pavement solutions. Assessment includes formative and summative methods involving student surveys and focus groups, faculty interviews and observations, and evaluation of student work.

  5. An Indicator-Based Framework to Evaluate Sustainability of Farming Systems: Review of Applications in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Vazzana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability at the farm level. Policymakers need accounting and evaluation tools to be able to assess the potential of sustainable production practices and to provide appropriate agro-environmental policy measures. Farmers are in search of sustainable management tools to cope with regulations and enhance efficiency. This study proposes an indicator-based framework to evaluate sustainability of farming systems. Main features of the indicators’ framework are the relevance given to different spatial scales (farm, site and field, production and pedo-climatic factors, and a holistic view of the agro-ecosystem. The framework has been conceived to tackle different purposes ranging from detailed scientific analyses to farm-level management systems and cross-compliance. Agro-environmental indicators can be calculated, simulated with models or directly measured with different levels of detail proportionally to the aims of the evaluation exercise. The framework is organised in a number of environmental and production systems and sub-systems. For each system environmental critical points are identified with corresponding agro-environmental indicators and processing methods. A review of applications of the framework in Tuscany, Italy, since 1991 is presented. Applications range from prototyping farming systems, to integrated farm ecological-economic modelling, comparisons between organic, integrated and conventional farming systems, farm eco-management voluntary audit schemes and cross-compliance. Strengths and weaknesses of the framework are discussed against generic requirements of information systems and operational issues.

  6. Manufacturing and sustainability of bonding systems for grinding tools

    OpenAIRE

    Linke, B

    2016-01-01

    © 2016, German Academic Society for Production Engineering (WGP). Grinding and honing processes are quality-defining operations in the production of many modern products. Process performance and product quality are contingent on selecting the correct abrasive tool for a specific application. Thus, tools with different bonding systems are used, namely resin bonded tools, vitrified bonded tools, and metallic bonded tools. Tool manufacturers have great knowledge in the choice and intricate prod...

  7. A System Dynamics Approach for Information Technology Implementation and Sustainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    mass media in nature, or (2) originating from either local or cosmopolite sources (Rogers, 1995). Mass media channels are a means of transmitting...interpersonal channels are more important at the persuasion stage in the innovation-decision process (Rogers, 1995). Cosmopolite communication channels...are those from outside the social system of study” (Rogers, 1995:196). Interpersonal channels can be either local or cosmopolite , whereas mass media

  8. Analyzing the Drivers of Advanced Sustainable Manufacturing System Using AHP Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Madan Shankar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of current manufacturing sectors are striving hard to introduce innovative long-term strategies into their operations. As a result, many scholarly studies have found it fruitful to investigate advanced manufacturing strategies such as agile, computer-integrated, and cellular manufacturing. Through the example of downstream cases, manufacturing sectors have learned that financial benefits garnered through automated technologies cannot be counted on as a sole measure to ensure their success in today’s competitive and fluctuating marketplaces. The objective of this study is to integrate those advanced techniques with sustainable operations, to promote advanced sustainable manufacturing so those manufacturing sectors can thrive even in uncertain markets. To establish this connection, this study analyzes the drivers of advanced sustainable manufacturing through a proposed framework validated through a case study in India. Common drivers are collected from the literature, calibrated with opinions from experts, and analyzed through an analytical hierarchy process (AHP, which is a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM approach. This study reveals that quality is the primary driver that pressures manufacturing sectors to adopt advanced sustainable manufacturing. Manufacturers can easily note the top ranked driver and adopt it to soundly implement advanced sustainable manufacturing. In addition, some key future scopes are explored along with possible recommendations for effective implementation of advanced sustainable manufacturing systems.

  9. An Integrated Model Based on a Hierarchical Indices System for Monitoring and Evaluating Urban Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xulin Guo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of world’s population presently resides in cities, and this number is expected to rise to ~70% by 2050. Increasing urbanization problems including population growth, urban sprawl, land use change, unemployment, and environmental degradation, have markedly impacted urban residents’ Quality of Life (QOL. Therefore, urban sustainability and its measurement have gained increasing attention from administrators, urban planners, and scientific communities throughout the world with respect to improving urban development and human well-being. The widely accepted definition of urban sustainability emphasizes the balancing development of three primary domains (urban economy, society, and environment. This article attempts to improve the aforementioned definition of urban sustainability by incorporating a human well-being dimension. Major problems identified in existing urban sustainability indicator (USI models include a weak integration of potential indicators, poor measurement and quantification, and insufficient spatial-temporal analysis. To tackle these challenges an integrated USI model based on a hierarchical indices system was established for monitoring and evaluating urban sustainability. This model can be performed by quantifying indicators using both traditional statistical approaches and advanced geomatic techniques based on satellite imagery and census data, which aims to provide a theoretical basis for a comprehensive assessment of urban sustainability from a spatial-temporal perspective.

  10. System of maintenance of sustainability of oil pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleskerov, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Development of the ecological science defining interrelation and interaction of system of an alive and lifeless matter, opens new opportunities and decisions of a problem of system maintenance of stability of oil pipelines and other engineering constructions and devices of strategic purpose. In work the methodology of system maintenance of stability of oil pipelines is resulted. It is known, that at transport of oil and gas a plenty of automatic and electronic devices, devices are applied to the control and the signal system of parameters of dangerous and harmful factors, a condition of the technological and test equipment, diagnostics and the control of pipelines. The control of parameters of safety of an oil pipeline over the operation, considering influence of heavy climatic conditions during all line, etc. (1, 2, 3) is carried out. Therefore stability of work of various parts of system of an oil pipeline depends on reliability and accuracy of work of devices and devices. However, thus influence of variations of geomagnetic fields and the geodynamic processes breaking the indications of devices and devices which lead to infringement reliability of all design of system of an oil pipeline is not considered. In turn, specified leads to failure, lost of human and natural resources. Now, according to the accepted methodology of a safety of working conditions, potential dangers of any activity, only person, with the subsequent development of measures of protection (4) are considered. Proceeding from it all surrounding material world shares on the following objects forming in aggregate working conditions: subjects of work.; means of production; products of work; the industrial environment; technology process; an environmental-climatic complex; fauna and flora; people (work of the person). Apparently from above resulted, in the accepted methodology potential dangers of any activity of the person and corresponding environmental -climatic conditions of the

  11. Sustainability of rainwater catchment systems for small island communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Ryan T.; Beikmann, Alise; Kottermair, Maria; Taboroši, Danko; Jenson, John W.

    2018-02-01

    Communities living on atolls and similar low-lying islands in the tropical Pacific rely on rainwater and shallow groundwater to meet domestic water needs. Rainwater, generally captured and stored using rooftop rainwater catchment systems, is the preferred water source due to higher quality and convenience of access. This study assesses the performance of rainwater catchment systems (RWCS) on Ifalik Atoll, located in Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia in the western Pacific. A field survey was conducted in August 2015 to evaluate RWCS features (guttered roof area, storage tank size, gutter leakage conditions), determine numbers of users, and estimate daily water use via household surveys. All 152 RWCS were surveyed. Water balance modeling was applied to the RWCS to estimate end-of-day stored rainwater volumes for each day of the 1997-1999 time period, during which an El Niño-induced drought occurred. Results indicate that the community is resilient to drought, although the majority of RWCS were depleted of rainwater and hence community sharing was required. Scenario testing indicates that increasing guttered roof area is the optimal strategy for enhancing system reliability. For example, the volume of water maintained at the peak of a drought can be tripled if the available roof areas for the RWCS are guttered. Design curves, which provide a set of roof area - tank volume combinations that achieve specified levels of reliability, were created and can be used to plan new RWCS. Besides offering insights into community-wide water storage and usage patterns and resiliency for Ifalik Atoll, this study presents methods that can be applied to other atoll island communities throughout the Indo-Pacific region.

  12. Demonstration of Three Corrosion-Resistant Sustainable Roofing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    had no interior ceilings or climate control. A white translucent color was selected for its high light transmission properties— up to 50% of outdoor...Figure 18. Rafter frame system for slope conversion retrofit. ERDC/CERL TR-13-7 15 A concrete pad was poured in-place at the frame-attachment points...one at each corner of the building. Each pad included vertical steel rods (3/8 in. diameter) embedded in the concrete and tied to the pad’s

  13. Application of mathematical modeling in sustained release delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Mario; Grassi, Gabriele

    2014-08-01

    This review, presenting as starting point the concept of the mathematical modeling, is aimed at the physical and mathematical description of the most important mechanisms regulating drug delivery from matrix systems. The precise knowledge of the delivery mechanisms allows us to set up powerful mathematical models which, in turn, are essential for the design and optimization of appropriate drug delivery systems. The fundamental mechanisms for drug delivery from matrices are represented by drug diffusion, matrix swelling, matrix erosion, drug dissolution with possible recrystallization (e.g., as in the case of amorphous and nanocrystalline drugs), initial drug distribution inside the matrix, matrix geometry, matrix size distribution (in the case of spherical matrices of different diameter) and osmotic pressure. Depending on matrix characteristics, the above-reported variables may play a different role in drug delivery; thus the mathematical model needs to be built solely on the most relevant mechanisms of the particular matrix considered. Despite the somewhat diffident behavior of the industrial world, in the light of the most recent findings, we believe that mathematical modeling may have a tremendous potential impact in the pharmaceutical field. We do believe that mathematical modeling will be more and more important in the future especially in the light of the rapid advent of personalized medicine, a novel therapeutic approach intended to treat each single patient instead of the 'average' patient.

  14. Report about the optimization of the biofuel industry sustaining system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevot, H.; Hespel, V.; Dupre, J.Y.; Baratin, F.; Gagey, D.

    2005-01-01

    At the end of 2004, the French government has fixed up the ambitious goal of developing biofuels conformably with the objectives of the 2003/30/CE European directive: the level of blending gasoline and diesel fuels with biofuels should reach 5.75% of the energetic value by 2010. In 2004 this level was only 0.8%, i.e. 7 times less. In order to reach such a goal, the government has implemented two tools: a classical tax exemption tool, already used by other European partners, and a new tool created by the 2005 finances law: the general tax on polluting activities (TGAP). This report presents the main characteristics of biofuel industries and the policies implemented in favor of biofuels. It analyzes the new system and its implementation (tax exemption and TGAP) and proposes new markets for the French agriculture. It recommends to take into considerations the constraints and needs of the fuels market, that the government establishes a new regulation for this market, reforms the existing fiscal system and takes complementary dispositions (intervention at the European Communities level, development of research..). Several appendixes illustrate this report. (J.S.)

  15. Maximum sustainable yield and species extinction in a prey-predator system: some new results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Bapan; Kar, T K

    2013-06-01

    Though the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) approach has been legally adopted for the management of world fisheries, it does not provide any guarantee against from species extinction in multispecies communities. In the present article, we describe the appropriateness of the MSY policy in a Holling-Tanner prey-predator system with different types of functional responses. It is observed that for both type I and type II functional responses, harvesting of either prey or predator species at the MSY level is a sustainable fishing policy. In the case of combined harvesting, both the species coexist at the maximum sustainable total yield (MSTY) level if the biotic potential of the prey species is greater than a threshold value. Further, increase of the biotic potential beyond the threshold value affects the persistence of the system.

  16. INPRO Methodology for Sustainability Assessment of Nuclear Energy Systems: Environmental Impact of Stressors. INPRO Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication provides guidance on assessing of sustainability of a nuclear energy system (NES) in the area of environmental impact of stressors. The INPRO methodology is a comprehensive tool for the assessment of sustainability of an NES. Basic principles, user requirements and criteria have been defined in different areas of INPRO methodology. These include economics, infrastructure, waste management, proliferation resistance, environmental impact of stressors, environmental impact from depletion of resources, and safety of nuclear reactors and fuel cycle facilities. The ultimate goal of the application of the INPRO methodology is to check whether the assessed NES fulfils all the criteria, and hence the user requirements and basic principles, and therefore presents a system for a Member State that is sustainable in the long term

  17. SUSTAINABLE GROWTH OF THE COMMERCIAL AVIATION INDUSTRY IN MALAYSIA USING A SYSTEM DYNAMICS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. TAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact of the commercial aviation industry for an emerging economy like Malaysia is under-studied. The focus on the subject has thus far concentrated either on non geographical performance of the aviation industry or technical performance of aircrafts and that leaves the sustainability of the commercial aviation industry for an economy, or more specifically, an emerging economy least understood. Hence, this paper aims to investigate the sustainability of the growth of the commercial aviation industry in Malaysia and its impact upon the environment using a system dynamics approach. VENSIM is employed to model the commercial aviation industry in Malaysia as a dynamic system to evaluate the CO2 emitted from each component within the industry in order to forecast its overall CO2 emission. Results from the analysis show that sustainable growth can be affected by adopting short and long term strategies identified in this study.

  18. How to ensure sustainable interoperability in heterogeneous distributed systems through architectural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Frank, Lars

    2011-01-01

    A major obstacle in ensuring ubiquitous information is the utilization of heterogeneous systems in eHealth. The objective in this paper is to illustrate how an architecture for distributed eHealth databases can be designed without lacking the characteristic features of traditional sustainable databases. The approach is firstly to explain traditional architecture in central and homogeneous distributed database computing, followed by a possible approach to use an architectural framework to obtain sustainability across disparate systems i.e. heterogeneous databases, concluded with a discussion. It is seen that through a method of using relaxed ACID properties on a service-oriented architecture it is possible to achieve data consistency which is essential when ensuring sustainable interoperability.

  19. A systemic approach to the discussion of sustainability of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aegerter, Irene

    2001-01-01

    In 1998 the four Swiss Scientific Academies formed a working group to study sustainability of electricity production. Having been a member of this group since the beginning I witnessed the evolution of the discussion that led to a consensus. The group found the criteria of sustainability to be special for nuclear energy. While the resource uranium is not needed for any other purpose and thus the use of uranium is sustainable, the possible harm to future generations by nuclear reactors is difficult to evaluate: the potential damage can be large but the probability of its occurrence is very small. Therefore some people judge nuclear power as an environmentally friendly source of electricity production and an important contribution towards a sustainable energy future whereas others look at the potential damage and value nuclear power as not sustainable. The discussion of alternatives then reveals that it is definitely not sustainable to replace nuclear power by fossil fuels. This was a consensus reached by the members of the working group, which consists of the pro and anti nuclear camp. Sustainable energy production is a complex topic and not easy to tackle with our everyday methods. The group decided to solve the problem with a systemic approach to get to know the hidden and indirect effects of electricity production and usage. A system approach brings a new concept into the often blocked discussion of proponents and antinuclear people. In order to assure that a holistic evaluation results which reaches a high degree of consensus, several subgroups were formed representing divergent views on the issues analysed. These groups do not communicate their findings while work on their cross impact matrices (CIMs) is under way. The results are compared and discrepancies are discussed. Usually this shows that once the wording of the variables is corrected and their interpretations are shared by the parties involved, consensus concerning evaluations is achieved

  20. Sostenibilidad de sistemas agrícolas Sustainability of farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiva Fabio R.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Las actividades agrícolas pueden tener impactos negativos sobre el ambiente, con efectos dentro y fuera de los predios. El presente artículo pretende contribuir al avance de la agricultura sostenible con énfasis en países en vías de desarrollo. Se revisan y analizan los conceptos de sostenibilidad y agricultura sostenible, incluyendo los diferentes puntos de vista en el debate sobre sostenibilidad'. El artículo examina los impactos ambientales debidos a las actividades agrícolas, destacando la importancia de fortalecer la investigación, con publicación de resultados, sobre la relación agricultura y medio ambiente. La complejidad de los factores que determinan la sostenibilidad agrícola exige una concepción de sistemas, integradora, participativa y holística. El uso de indicadores tiene un gran potencial en la evaluación de la sostenibilidad de sistemas productivos. La práctica de agricultura sostenible requiere tener en cuenta las condiciones ambientales, sociales y económicas en las cuales
    se desenvuelve la agricultura.Farming activities have the potential to affect the farming system itself and the offfarm environment. This paper attempts to contribute to the development of sustainable agriculture with emphasis in developing countries. The concepts of sustainability and sustainable agriculture are reviewed and discussed, including the different viewpoints in the sustainability debate. Environmental impacts due to farming activities are examined emphasising the need of promoting further research and publication of findings on the links between environment and agriculture. The complexity of the factors that determine farming sustainability requires
    a systematic, holistic, participative and integrated approach. Indicators are likely to contribute to the development of sustainable farming systems. Understanding environmental, social and economic circumstances is required to promote sustainability.

  1. Considering the normative, systemic and procedural dimensions in indicator-based sustainability assessments in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, Claudia R.; Feola, Giuseppe; Steinberger, Julia K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for evaluating sustainability assessment methods by separately analyzing their normative, systemic and procedural dimensions as suggested by Wiek and Binder [Wiek, A, Binder, C. Solution spaces for decision-making - a sustainability assessment tool for city-regions. Environ Impact Asses Rev 2005, 25: 589-608.]. The framework is then used to characterize indicator-based sustainability assessment methods in agriculture. For a long time, sustainability assessment in agriculture has focused mostly on environmental and technical issues, thus neglecting the economic and, above all, the social aspects of sustainability, the multi-functionality of agriculture and the applicability of the results. In response to these shortcomings, several integrative sustainability assessment methods have been developed for the agricultural sector. This paper reviews seven of these that represent the diversity of tools developed in this area. The reviewed assessment methods can be categorized into three types: (i) top-down farm assessment methods; (ii) top-down regional assessment methods with some stakeholder participation; (iii) bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods with stakeholder participation throughout the process. The results readily show the trade-offs encountered when selecting an assessment method. A clear, standardized, top-down procedure allows for potentially benchmarking and comparing results across regions and sites. However, this comes at the cost of system specificity. As the top-down methods often have low stakeholder involvement, the application and implementation of the results might be difficult. Our analysis suggests that to include the aspects mentioned above in agricultural sustainability assessment, the bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods are the most suitable ones.

  2. Integrated Metrics for Improving the Life Cycle Approach to Assessing Product System Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Ingwersen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle approaches are critical for identifying and reducing environmental burdens of products. While these methods can indicate potential environmental impacts of a product, current Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methods fail to integrate the multiple impacts of a system into unified measures of social, economic or environmental performance related to sustainability. Integrated metrics that combine multiple aspects of system performance based on a common scientific or economic principle have proven to be valuable for sustainability evaluation. In this work, we propose methods of adapting four integrated metrics for use with LCAs of product systems: ecological footprint, emergy, green net value added, and Fisher information. These metrics provide information on the full product system in land, energy, monetary equivalents, and as a unitless information index; each bundled with one or more indicators for reporting. When used together and for relative comparison, integrated metrics provide a broader coverage of sustainability aspects from multiple theoretical perspectives that is more likely to illuminate potential issues than individual impact indicators. These integrated metrics are recommended for use in combination with traditional indicators used in LCA. Future work will test and demonstrate the value of using these integrated metrics and combinations to assess product system sustainability.

  3. Epigenetics: Its Understanding Is Crucial to a Sustainable Healthcare System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Thunders

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular impact of lifestyle factors has never been so important; a period in time where there are so many adults above retirement age has been previously unknown. As a species, our life expectancy is increasing yet the period of our lives where we enjoy good health is not expanding proportionately. Over the next 50 years we will need to almost double the percentage of GDP spent on health care, largely due to the increasing incidence of obesity related chronic diseases. A greater understanding and implementation of an integrated approach to health is required. Research exploring the impact of nutritional and exercise intervention on the epigenetically flexible genome is up front in terms of addressing healthy aging. Alongside this, we need a greater understanding of the interaction with our immune and nervous systems in preserving and maintaining health and cognition.

  4. Intelligent DC Homes in Future Sustainable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    aligned with the new energy strategy. A microgrid easy the integration of renewable energy sources and energy storage systems at the consumption level, aiming to increase power quality, reliability and efficiency. On top of this, the increasing of DC-based loads has re-opened the discussion of DC vs AC......The evidences that climate change is real, and the fact that it is most likely caused by human-related activities, has made the international community to considered a new energy model. Europe has led the initiative of moving away from fossil fuels to renewable energies, where other powerful...... countries, as USA and China, are lagging behind, and still highly rely on coal, gas and oil as a source of energy. Europe has set ambitious goals for 2020 regarding the increase of renewable energy production, energy efficiency, and greenhouse gas emission reduction. The concept of a microgrid is perfectly...

  5. Leveraging design thinking to build sustainable mobile health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Molly; Gorski, Irena; Mehta, Khanjan

    Mobile health, or mHealth, technology has the potential to improve health care access in the developing world. However, the majority of mHealth projects do not expand beyond the pilot stage. A core reason why is because they do not account for the individual needs and wants of those involved. A collaborative approach is needed to integrate the perspectives of all stakeholders into the design and operation of mHealth endeavours. Design thinking is a methodology used to develop and evaluate novel concepts for systems. With roots in participatory processes and self-determined pathways, design thinking provides a compelling framework to understand and apply the needs of diverse stakeholders to mHealth project development through a highly iterative process. The methodology presented in this article provides a structured approach to apply design thinking principles to assess the feasibility of novel mHealth endeavours during early conceptualisation.

  6. The Formation of Life-sustaining Planets in Extrasolar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J. E.

    2003-01-01

    The spatial exploration is providing us a large quantity of information about the composition of the planets and satellites crusts. However, most of the experiences that are proposed in the guides of activities in Planetary Geology are based exclusively on the images utilization: photographs, maps, models or artistic reconstructions [1,2]. That things help us to recognize shapes and to deduce geological processes, but they says us little about the materials that they are implicated. In order to avoid this dicotomy between shapes and materials, we have designed an experience in the one which, employing of rocks and landscapes of our geological environment more next, the pupils be able to do an exercise of compared planetology analyzing shapes, processes and material of several planetary bodies of the Solar System.

  7. Sustained Delivery of Chondroitinase ABC from Hydrogel System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Rossi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the injured spinal cord, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs are the principal responsible of axon growth inhibition and they contribute to regenerative failure, promoting glial scar formation. Chondroitinase ABC (chABC is known for being able to digest proteoglycans, thus degrading glial scar and favoring axonal regrowth. However, its classic administration is invasive, infection-prone and clinically problematic. An agarose-carbomer (AC1 hydrogel, already used in SCI repair strategies, was here investigated as a delivery system capable of an effective chABC administration: the material ability to include chABC within its pores and the possibility to be injected into the target tissue were firstly proved. Subsequently, release kinetic and the maintenance of enzymatic activity were positively assessed: AC1 hydrogel was thus confirmed to be a feasible tool for chABC delivery and a promising device for spinal cord injury topic repair strategies.

  8. Analysis of an Improved Solar-Powered Hydrogen Generation System for Sustained Renewable Energy Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    hydrogen gas by electrolysis. In LT Aviles’ design , distilled water was collected from the ambient air using Peltier dehumidifiers, manufactured by...Figure 13 shows the shelfing along with the entire system. Figure 13. Reconfigured Hydrogen Production Facility Because the system was designed for...POWERED HYDROGEN GENERATION SYSTEM FOR SUSTAINED RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION by Sen Feng Yu December 2017 Thesis Advisor: Garth V. Hobson Co

  9. Transport system as an element of sustainable economic growth in the tourist region

    OpenAIRE

    Mrnjavac, Edna

    2001-01-01

    Transport system is a whole composed of technical, technological, organisational, economic and legislative elements with the aim to perform transfer, loading and unloading of goods and passengers. Taking in consideration that most economic activities demand participation of certain transport system elements, any economic growth is impossible without an adequate transport system development. In order to secure environmental sustainable economic growth the economic policy subjects have to pay s...

  10. Assessing the Sustainability of Different Small-Scale Livestock Production Systems in the Afar Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngufor L. Atanga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production is a key income source in eastern Africa, and 80% of the total agricultural land is used for livestock herding. Hence, ecological and socio-economically sustainable rangeland management is crucial. Our study aimed at selecting operational economic, environmental and social sustainability indicators for three main pastoral (P, agro-pastoral (AP, and landless intensive (LI small scale livestock production systems for use in sustainability assessment in Ethiopia. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through grey literature and semi-structured interviews, assessing livestock and feed resources, production technology, land tenure, financial and gender issues. Our results suggested that feed shortages (FS are directly related to grazing pressure (G and inversely related to grass recovery rates (R. According to our indicators, AP was the most sustainable while P and LI were only conditionally sustainable production systems. 93% of 82 interviewees claimed that private land ownership was the best land tenure incentive for efficient rangeland management. Farmers perceived Prosopis juliflora expansion, sporadic rainfall, and disease infestation as the most significant causes for decreasing livestock productivity. Landless intensive farmers had the highest equality in income distribution (Gini Index: GI = 0.4, followed by P and AP (each with a GI = 0.5. Neither educational background nor income seemed to determine grazing species conservation efforts. We claimed that sustainability indicators are valuable tools to highlight shortcomings and strengths of the three main livestock production systems and help with future livestock management in Ethiopia. Selecting suitable indicators, however, is crucial as data requirements and availability can vary across livestock systems.

  11. The method and index of sustainability assessment of infrastructure projects based on system dynamics in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As one of the most important overhead capital of urban economics and social development, the sustainable development of urban infrastructure is becoming a key issue of prosperous society growing. The purpose of this paper is to establish a basic model to analysis certain infrastructure project’s sustainable construction and operation. Design/methodology/approach: System dynamics is an effective stimulation method and tool to deal with such complex, dynamics, nonlinear systems, which could be used in analyzing and evaluating all aspects of infrastructure sustainability internally and externally. In this paper, the system is divided into four subsystems and 12 main impact indicators. Through setting the boundary and other basic hypothesis, this paper designs the basic causal loop diagrams and stock & flow diagrams to describe the relationship between variables and establish a quantifiable structure for the system. Findings: Adopting a sewerage treatment in China as a case to test our model, we could conclude that the model of internal sustainable subsystem is reasonable. However, this model is a basic model, and it need to be specific designed for the certain project due to the diversity of infrastructure types and the unique conditions of each projects. Originality/value: System Dynamics (SD is widely used in the study of sustainable development and has plentiful research achievements from macro perspective but few studies in the microcosmic project systems. This paper focuses on the unique characteristics of urban infrastructure in China and selects infrastructure project which is based on micro-system discussion. The model we designed has certain practical significance in policy setting, operation monitoring and adjustment of the urban projects with high rationality and accuracy.

  12. Towards sustainable mobile systems configurations: Application to a tuna purse seiner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Rellán, A; Vázquez Brea, C; Bello Bugallo, P M

    2018-08-01

    Fishing is one of the most important marine activities. It contributes to both overfishing and marine pollution, the two main threats to the ocean environment. In this context, the aim of this work is to investigate and validate methodologies for the identification of more sustainable operating configurations for a tuna purse seiner. The proposed methodology is based on a previous one applied to secondary industrial systems, taking into account the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control focus, developed for the most potentially industrial polluting sources. The idea is to apply the same type of methodologies and concepts used for secondary industrial punctual sources, to a primary industrial mobile activity. This methodology combines two tools: "Material and Energy Flow Analysis" (a tool from industrial metabolism), and "Best Available Techniques Analysis". The first provides a way to detect "Improvable Flows" into de system, and the second provides a way to define sustainable options to improve them. Five main Improvable Flows have been identified in the selected case study, the activity of a purse seiner, most of them related with energy consumption and air emission, in different stages of the fishing activity. Thirty-one Best Available Techniques candidates for the system have been inventoried, that potentially could improve the sustainability of the activity. Seven of them are not implemented yet to the case study. The potential improvements of the system proposed by this work are related to energy efficiency, waste management, prevention and control of air emissions. This methodology demonstrates to be a good tool towards sustainable punctual systems, but also towards sustainable mobile systems such as the fishing activity in oceans, as the tuna purse seiner validated here. The practical application of the identified technologies to fishing systems will contribute to prevent and reduce marine pollution, one of the greatest threats of today's oceans

  13. Sustainability of a Compartmentalized Host-Parasite Replicator System under Periodic Washout-Mixing Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Furubayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and dominance of parasitic replicators are among the major hurdles for the proliferation of primitive replicators. Compartmentalization of replicators is proposed to relieve the parasite dominance; however, it remains unclear under what conditions simple compartmentalization uncoupled with internal reaction secures the long-term survival of a population of primitive replicators against incessant parasite emergence. Here, we investigate the sustainability of a compartmentalized host-parasite replicator (CHPR system undergoing periodic washout-mixing cycles, by constructing a mathematical model and performing extensive simulations. We describe sustainable landscapes of the CHPR system in the parameter space and elucidate the mechanism of phase transitions between sustainable and extinct regions. Our findings revealed that a large population size of compartments, a high mixing intensity, and a modest amount of nutrients are important factors for the robust survival of replicators. We also found two distinctive sustainable phases with different mixing intensities. These results suggest that a population of simple host–parasite replicators assumed before the origin of life can be sustained by a simple compartmentalization with periodic washout-mixing processes.

  14. Sustainable design of fuel cell systems and components. Paper no. IGEC-1-148

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, D.

    2005-01-01

    'Full text:' Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technology are touted as the major future enabler for a renewable energy future. This is particularly true for vehicular applications were there are few competitive alternatives. However, without zero-emission production of hydrogen, this will not be a very sustainable solution. Hydrogen generation from biomass, solar, hydro or wind energy will allow this realization. In addition, we need to evaluate the whole life cycle of a fuel cell system in order to make sure that it is truly 'green'. Hydrogenics has in place corporate initiatives to ensure that sustainability is part of the corporate objectives and philosophy. A sustainable future ensures that this generation does not prevent future generations from a similar (or better) standard of living. Fuel cell recyclability and reusability will be a major factor in ensuring a renewable, sustainable future. This is accomplished using sustainable design methodology whereby fuel cell system components are analyzed for their total life cycle impact. This concept of 'cradle to grave' product design responsibility is applied to Hydrogenics fuel cell products and is discussed in this paper. (author)

  15. Innovation Systems for Transformations towards Sustainability? Taking the Normative Dimension Seriously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Schlaile

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to complement research on transformations towards sustainability by drawing upon the innovation systems (IS framework. The IS framework already serves as a suitable and influential basis for research on processes of technological innovation and economic change. We argue that improving the capacity of an IS framework for dealing with wicked problems and the normative complexity of sustainability requires a fundamental paradigm shift because in the current IS paradigm innovations are considered as per se desirable and in mostly technological terms. Therefore, we call for IS dedicated to transformations towards sustainability by opening up for systemic innovations beyond the technological dimension and by acknowledging that stakeholders have conflicting visions, interests, norms, and expectations with regard to sustainability goals. Taking the normative dimension of transformations towards sustainability seriously thus requires more explicit and integrative research on directionality, legitimacy, responsibility, and their interrelation in IS. The article concludes by proposing suggestions for future research based on IS-related approaches that can serve as building blocks for an IS framework capable of incorporating legitimate goal-orientation for transformative innovation by and for society.

  16. The faith of a physicist reflections of a bottom-up thinker : the Gifford lectures for 1993-4

    CERN Document Server

    Polkinghorne, John C

    1994-01-01

    Is it possible to think like a scientist and yet have the faith of a Christian? Although many Westerners might say no, there are also many critically minded individuals who entertain what John Polkinghorne calls a "wistful wariness" toward religion--they feel unable to accept religion on rational grounds yet cannot dismiss it completely. Polkinghorne, both a particle physicist and Anglican priest, here explores just what rational grounds there could be for Christian beliefs, maintaining that the quest for motivated understanding is a concern shared by scientists and religious thinkers alike. Anyone who assumes that religion is based on unquestioning certainties, or that it need not take into account empirical knowledge, will be challenged by Polkinghorne's bottom-up examination of Christian beliefs about events ranging from creation to the resurrection. The author organizes his inquiry around the Nicene Creed, an early statement that continues to summarize Christian beliefs. He applies to each of its tenets ...

  17. Sustainable energy systems and the EURATOM research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, S.; Van Goethem, G.; )

    2007-01-01

    We are at a turning point in European research. With the launch of the EU's 7th Framework Programme, committing some Euro 53 billion of public funds to the European research effort over the next 7 years, Europe has finally woken up to the importance of Research and Development in the realisation of the most fundamental objectives defining the Union: growth, competitiveness, and knowledge. At the same time, and with strong links to growth and competitiveness but also to environmental protection, the Union is in the throws of an intense debate on future energy policy and climate change. Part of the research budget, some would say too small a part, is earmarked for energy - in particular the technological aspects of low carbon systems such renewables. This effort, together with measures to improve the EU's security and independence of supply, are essential if Europe is to respond effectively to solve the future energy conundrum. But where does nuclear fit in all this? What will the Union be doing in the area of nuclear research? Indeed, does nuclear figure at all in the long-term plans of the Union? Through the EURATOM part of the Framework Programme, the EU is maintaining important support to up-stream research in the area of advanced reactor technologies. This effort is being coordinated at the global level through EURATOM's membership of the Generation-IV International Forum. Though EU research in this field still has its critics among the Member States, and despite the relatively small sums currently committed, the leverage effect of current actions is significant and this is set to grow in the future. The imminent setting up of a Strategic Energy Technology Plan, as part of the European Commission on-going activities in the field of energy policy, and the feedback from independent experts in the Advisory Group on Energy and the EURATOM Scientific and Technical Committee all point to following conclusions: EU support for research on advanced nuclear fission

  18. Sustainable Education Systems For The Unfortunate In South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Rasyid Pananrangi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was (1 to explain some basic issues faced by the education policy makers in South Sulawesi, including the introduction of school fees and the private provision of schools; (2 to outline the relation between planning and budgeting for the educational policy objectives on the one hand and the economic planning and management of resources on the other; (3 to discuss the influence of this policy for the unfortunate in obtaining education. This study was carried in South Sulawesi. A descriptive approach was used in this study. The data were collected through library research and observation. The obtained data were then analyzed and presented descriptively. The results show that the available approach is not adequate to accommodate and to provide the opportunity of education for the unfortunate in South Sulawesi. The full or partial replacement of annual incremental planning and budgeting systems were still less appropriate to current problems. Reforms should also take full account of the need to strengthen a potentially beneficial relationship between the state and the private sectors.

  19. Building sustainable multi-functional prospective electronic clinical data systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Gurvaneet S; Slutsky, Jean R

    2012-07-01

    A better alignment in the goals of the biomedical research enterprise and the health care delivery system can help fill the large gaps in our knowledge of the impact of clinical interventions on patient outcomes in the real world. There are several initiatives underway to align the research priorities of patients, providers, researchers, and policy makers. These include Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)-supported projects to build flexible prospective clinical electronic data infrastructure that meet the needs of these diverse users. AHRQ has previously supported the creation of 2 distributed research networks as a new approach to conduct comparative effectiveness research (CER) while protecting a patient's confidential information and the proprietary needs of a clinical organization. It has applied its experience in building these networks in directing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funds for CER to support new clinical electronic infrastructure projects that can be used for several purposes including CER, quality improvement, clinical decision support, and disease surveillance. In addition, AHRQ has funded a new Electronic Data Methods forum to advance the methods in clinical informatics, research analytics, and governance by actively engaging investigators from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-funded projects and external stakeholders.

  20. Integrated Soil, Water and Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice–Wheat Cropping Systems in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-08-01

    The rice-wheat system is a predominant cropping system in Asia providing food, employment and income, ensuring the livelihoods of about 1 billion of resource poor rural and urban people. However, the productivity of the current rice-wheat systems is seriously threatened by increasing land degradation and scarcity of water and labour, inefficient cropping practices and other emerging socio economic and environmental drivers. Responding to the need to develop alternate crop establishment methods and improved cropping practices, this publication summarizes the results from a joint FAO/IAEA coordinated research project on optimizing productivity and sustainability of rice-wheat cropping systems. It provides relevant information on how to modify existing water and nutrient management systems and improve soil management in both traditional and emerging crop establishment methods for sustainable intensification of cereal production in Asia

  1. Towards a sustainable electricity system for Ontario : interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    More changes have occurred in Ontario's electricity sector in the past 5 years than over the preceding 9 decades since the creation of Ontario Hydro Electric Power Commission in 1906. The province's nuclear generating facilities were taken out of service in 1997 for safety and maintenance overhauls. The existing nuclear facilities, which account for 28 per cent of the province's generating capacity, will reach the end of their operational lifetimes by 2018. The government of Ontario also announced the phasing out of Ontario Power Generation's coal-fired plants by 2007 due to the environmental health impacts of their operation. These changes have ignited debate over the province's future electricity needs and how they might be met. This study examined by how much electricity demand in Ontario could be reduced through the adoption of energy efficient technologies, fuel switching, cogeneration and demand response measures. It also examined how much future supply could be obtained from renewable energy sources such as wind, the upgrading of existing hydroelectric facilities, and the development of new solar, biomass and small-scale hydro facilities. It also examined how to accommodate the remaining grid demand and which public policies should be adopted to maximize efficiency and other demand side measures. The impacts of the policies were simulated using the Canadian Integrated Modelling System (CIMS) computer model developed by the Energy and Materials Research Group at Simon Fraser University. The CIMS simulations were conducted under the assumptions that barriers to cogeneration would be removed, financial incentives would be provided along with innovative financing programs. The study revealed that capital investments of $18.2 billion over the 2005-2020 period would be required to reduce peak demand of 12,300 MW relative to the business and usual forecast through efficiency, fuel switching and cogeneration. 13 refs., 8 tabs

  2. Productivity and sustainability of rainfed wheat-soybean system in the North China Plain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Wei; Wang, Daozhong; Guo, Xisheng; Yang, Taiming; Oenema, Oene

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of yield response to water and nutrients is key to improving the productivity and sustainability of rainfed cropping systems. Here, we quantified the effects of rainfall, fertilization (NPK) and soil organic amendments (with straw and manure) on yields of a rainfed

  3. Future energy communities : How community norms shape individual adoption and acceptability of sustainable energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milovanovic, Marko; Steg, Emmalina; Spears, Russell

    2013-01-01

    Most research on factors influencing the acceptability and adoption of sustainable energy systems is focused on individual-level factors such as personal norms, values, and attitudes. Some researchers have considered the effects of social factors such as descriptive and injunctive norms, but little

  4. THE ROLE OF THE BANKING SYSTEM IN THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the banking system and financial markets represents a determinant factor for sustainable development. Thus, banks are essential for any modern economy, not only because of their turnovers but also because they provide a number of important functions for the national economy, being the main financier.

  5. Energy issues affecting corn/soybean systems: Challenges for sustainable production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantifying energy issues associated with agricultural systems, even for a simple two-crop corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) rotation, is not a simple task. It becomes even more complicated if the goal is to include all aspects of sustainability (i.e., economic, environmental, ...

  6. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – Volume IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Duić

    2016-12-01

    In total 32 manuscripts were published in Volume IV, all of them reviewed by at least two reviewers. The Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems would like to thank reviewers for their contribution to the quality of the published manuscripts.

  7. The RIO approach : Design and anchoring of sustainable animal husbandry systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, Boelie; Bos, Bram

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses an approach to develop new 'integrally sustainable' animal production systems and stimulate their uptake in practice. It consists of a design approach called RIO, and a set of 'anchoring' activities to stimulate their uptake in niches and in the regime. In the period 2001-2015

  8. Agricultural marketing systems and sustainability : study of small scale Andean hillside farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaño, J.

    2001-01-01

    A better understanding of the way in which marketing systems can contribute to the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices (ASAP) on small-farms constitutes the aim of this study. In particular, the study examines the contribution of vertical

  9. Assessing the sustainability of small wastewater systems. A context-oriented planning approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten

    2000-01-01

    in itself, but that the sustainability of the total system of technologies for a particular settlement in a given location must be assessed in a holistic and transparent manner. A pilot case is used to demonstrate the structure and the results of the assessment method. The assessment method is still under...

  10. Assessing impacts of payments for watershed services on sustainability in coupled human and natural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi Asbjornsen; Alex S. Mayer; Kelly W. Jones; Theresa Selfa; Leonardo Saenz; Randall K. Kolka; Kathleen E. Halvorsen

    2015-01-01

    Payments for watershed services (PWS) as a policy tool for enhancing water quality and supply have gained momentum in recent years, but their ability to lead to sustainable watershed outcomes is uncertain. Consequently, the demand for effective monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of PWS impacts on coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) and their implications for...

  11. Assessing the sustainability of wheat-based cropping systems using APSIM: Model parameterisation and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeller, C.; Pala, M.; Manschadi, A.M.; Meinke, H.B.; Sauerborn, J.

    2007-01-01

    Assessing the sustainability of crop and soil management practices in wheat-based rotations requires a well-tested model with the demonstrated ability to sensibly predict crop productivity and changes in the soil resource. The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) suite of models was

  12. Product service systems and sustainable mobility : An electric vehicle introduction case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beella, S.K.; Silvester, S.; Brezet, J.C.; Van Timmeren, A.; Bauer, P.; Quist, J.; Van Dijk, S.

    2010-01-01

    A product service system (PSS) is a function-oriented business model aimed at providing sustainability of both consumption and production. A PSS is defined as a marketable set of products and services capable of jointly fulfilling user needs. In theory PSSs are normally shown realized with smart

  13. Evaluating the sustainability of a regional system using Fisher information in the San Luis Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes the theory, data, and methodology necessary for using Fisher information to assess the sustainability of the San Luis Basin (SLB) regional system over time. Fisher information was originally developed as a measure of the information content in data and is an ...

  14. Sustainability evaluation of automatic and conventional milking systems on organic dairy farms in Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, F.W.; Kristensen, T.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic dairy farmers in Denmark currently are implementing automatic milking systems (AMS) to save labour costs. As organic agriculture aims at sustainable production, the introduction of a new technology such as AMS should be evaluated regarding its economic viability, environmental impact, and

  15. Sustainable intensification of smallholder farming systems in Ethiopia : what roles can scattered trees play?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sida, Tesfaye Shiferaw

    2018-01-01

    Scattered trees dominate smallholder agricultural landscapes in Ethiopia, as in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). While the integration of scattered trees with crops could provide a viable pathway for sustainable intensification of these farming systems, they also lead to trade- offs.

  16. Systems, Society, Sustainability and the Geosciences: A Workshop to Create New Curricular Materials to Integrate Geosciences into the Teaching of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, D. C.; Manduca, C. A.; Oches, E. A.; MacGregor, J.; Kirk, K. B.

    2012-12-01

    Sustainability is emerging as a central theme for teaching about the environment, whether it be from the perspective of science, economics, or society. The Systems, Society, Sustainability and the Geosciences workshop provided 48 undergraduate faculty from 46 institutions a forum to discuss the challenges and possibilities for integrating geoscience concepts with a range of other disciplines to teach about the fundamentals of sustainability. Participants from community college to doctorate-granting universities had expertise that included geosciences, agriculture, biological sciences, business, chemistry, economics, ethnic studies, engineering, environmental studies, environmental education, geography, history, industrial technology, landscape design, philosophy, physics, and political science. The workshop modeled a range of teaching strategies that encouraged participants to network and collaborate, share successful strategies and materials for teaching sustainability, and identify opportunities for the development of new curricular materials that will have a major impact on the integration of geosciences into the teaching of sustainability. The workshop design provided participants an opportunity to reflect upon their teaching, learning, and curriculum. Throughout the workshop, participants recorded their individual and collective ideas in a common online workspace to which all had access. A preliminary synthesis of this information indicates that the concept of sustainability is a strong organizing principle for modern, liberal education requiring systems thinking, synthesis and contributions from all disciplines. Sustainability is inherently interdisciplinary and provides a framework for educational collaboration between and among geoscientists, natural/physical scientists, social scientists, humanists, engineers, etc.. This interdisciplinary framework is intellectually exciting and productive for educating students at all levels of higher education

  17. Choice Architecture as a Way to Encourage a Whole Systems Design Perspective for More Sustainable Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Harris

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Across fields, more sustainable and resilient outcomes are being realized through a whole systems design perspective, which guides decision-makers to consider the entire system affected including interdependent physical and social networks. Although infrastructure is extremely interdependent, consisting of diverse stakeholders and networks, the infrastructure design and construction process is often fragmented. This fragmentation can result in unnecessary tradeoffs, leading to poor outcomes for certain stakeholders and the surrounding environment. A whole systems design perspective would help connect this fragmented industry and lead to more sustainable outcomes. For example, a whole systems design approach to relieve traffic on a highway might see beyond the obvious, but often ineffective, response of adding a new vehicle lane to encourage a solution such as repurposing existing road lanes from automobiles to above-ground “subway” systems. This paper discusses influences to whole systems design and how intentional choice architecture, meaning the way decisions are posed, can nudge decision-makers to employ whole systems design and result in more sustainable infrastructure. By uncovering these influences and organizing them by the social, organizational, and individual levels of the infrastructure design process, this paper provides the needed foundation for interdisciplinary research to help harness these influences through choice architecture and whole systems design for the infrastructure industry.

  18. Eight Areas of Competency in Decision Making for Sustainability in Metro Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. WARBACH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Michigan State University (MSU held a focus group in Detroit, Michigan, USA in 2012 with members of the urban agriculture movement. The session included business persons involved in growing and selling food, members of the health system, community group members and city government. The purpose was to identify the full range of sectors of society involved in the food system, to identify the perceptions of the food system among the city population, test eight sustainability competency areas developed by MSU faculty as concepts and as they related to urban food systems, and to discover what kinds of decision support tools were needed to foster sustainable food systems in Detroit. The focus group session was video and audio recorded, the tapes transcribed and coded to identify common themes and responses to the competency area concepts. The competency areas presented were: ecological integrity, community well-being/social justice, economic vitality, aesthetic quality, civic responsibility, systems interdependence, critical thinking, and personal growth. Participants indicated that they considered sustainability a value that people in urban agriculture shared, but that people struggled with how to move forward toward sustainability. Focus group participants were able to identify some aspect of each of the eight competency areas that they perceived people in urban agriculture, and the broader city resident population already recognized, or engaged in without recognizing that they were doing something that could lead to more sustainable outcomes. However, participants perceived that a sustainable metropolitan food system remains a somewhat elusive goal to achieve for people engaged in pursuing urban agriculture in Detroit due to a negative perception they expressed that many of the city’s population holds for growing food in the city, and in general for goods produced in the city. Information gained from the focus group and subsequent focus groups

  19. Sync or anti-sync – dynamical pattern selection in coupled self-sustained oscillator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidova, Larissa; Újvári, Szeréna; Néda, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of similar, self-sustained oscillators coupled by a common platform exhibits fascinating collective behavior. Experiments performed with pendulum clocks and metronomes reported both the absence of synchronization, in-phase synchronization, antiphase synchronization, beat-death phenomenon, or even chaotic dynamics. Here we present a numerical study on two identical self-sustained oscillators placed on a common movable platform. As order parameter for synchronization we use the Pearson correlation coefficient between the oscillators coordinates. As a function of the relevant physical parameters of this system we reproduce all the experimentally reported dynamics. We provide conditions for obtaining stable and emergent in-phase or anti-phase synchronization.

  20. Towards the sustainable energy system. The future of the transition policy for energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggink, J.J.C.

    2006-11-01

    Inaugural speech at the occasion of the acceptance of the office for Energy Transition and Sustainable Development at the Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences of the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam, Netherlands, November 21, 2006. The transition policy in the Netherlands towards a sustainable energy supply system succeeded in creating a basis in the Dutch society, although at the cost of making clear choices with regard to concrete projects, new policy tools and financial means. In order to accelerate those choices the Dutch government needs to take decisive measures [nl